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1

Strong diffusion limit in the realistic magnetosphere: Dependence on geomagnetic condition and spatial location  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract<p label="1">As an essential concept of resonant wave-particle interactions, the <span class="hlt">strong</span> diffusion limit DSD is an important variable to explore the efficiency of wave-induced pitch angle scattering for particle precipitation loss to the atmosphere. Determined by the size of equatorial loss cone on a given field line and the bounce period at a given energy, the value of DSD sets a lower limit to the precipitation timescale for loss cone filling, regardless of the strength of wave-particle interactions. However, no efforts have ever been made to evaluate DSD in the realistic magnetosphere considering the impact of various geomagnetic activities. To perform a systematic exploration of the <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of DSD on geomagnetic condition, <span class="hlt">spatial</span> location, and global magnetic field model, we have numerically computed DSD using the dipolar and non-dipolar Tsyganenko magnetic field models under three representative (quiet, moderate, and active) geomagnetic conditions. Use of more realistic Tsyganenko magnetic field models introduces non-negligible or considerable differences in DSD magnitude from that obtained using a dipolar field. The difference can be over an order of magnitude at the field lines with equatorial crossings ?6 Re during geomagnetically disturbed times. We also report that in the realistic magnetosphere both DSD magnitude and its variations have a <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> location. Computed DSD shows the maximum tending to occur on the dayside (MLT = 12 and 16) and the minimum DSD more likely to occur at MLT = 00. Compared to the dipolar results, largest deviation in DSD occurs for MLT = 00, 04, and 20, while DSD variations on the dayside are relatively small. Our results demonstrate that accurate evaluation of DSD besides scattering rates in the realistic magnetosphere, especially at high <span class="hlt">spatial</span> locations and under geomagnetically disturbed conditions for which a dipolar approximation fails, can make an important contribution to quantifying the wave effect on particle resonant diffusion, which should be incorporated into future modeling efforts for comprehending the role of resonant wave-particle interactions and the dynamics of magnetospheric electrons under a variety of geomagnetic conditions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhou, Chen; Yang, Guobin; Ni, Binbin; Zhao, Zhengyu; Hu, Ze-Jun; Shi, Run</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">2</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19905399"> <span id="translatedtitle">Eigenvalue spectra of <span class="hlt">spatial-dependent</span> networks.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many real-life networks exhibit a <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span>; i.e., the probability to form an edge between two nodes in the network <span class="hlt">depends</span> on the distance between them. We investigate the influence of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on the spectral density of the network. When increasing <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> in Erdös-Rényi, scale-free, and small-world networks, it is found that the spectrum changes. Due to the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> the degree of clustering and the number of triangles increase. This results in a higher asymmetry (skewness). Our results show that the spectrum can be used to detect and quantify clustering and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> in a network. PMID:19905399</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Billen, Joris; Wilson, Mark; Baljon, Arlette; Rabinovitch, Avinoam</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-10-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">3</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21504944"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strongly</span> scale-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> non-Gaussianity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We discuss models of primordial density perturbations where the non-Gaussianity is <span class="hlt">strongly</span> scale <span class="hlt">dependent</span>. In particular, the non-Gaussianity may have a sharp cutoff and be very suppressed on large cosmological scales, but sizable on small scales. This may have an impact on probes of non-Gaussianity in the large-scale structure and in the cosmic microwave background radiation anisotropies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Riotto, Antonio [INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua (Italy); CERN, PH-TH Division, CH-1211, Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Sloth, Martin S. [CERN, PH-TH Division, CH-1211, Geneve 23 (Switzerland)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">4</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54470114"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> models with <span class="hlt">spatially</span> lagged <span class="hlt">dependent</span> variables and incomplete data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this paper is to suggest estimators for the parameters of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> models containing a <span class="hlt">spatially</span> lagged <span class="hlt">dependent</span> variable, as well as <span class="hlt">spatially</span> lagged independent variables, and an incomplete data set. The specifications allow for nonstationarity, and the disturbance process of the model is specified non-parametrically. We consider various scenarios concerning the pattern of missing data points. One</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Harry H. Kelejian; Ingmar R. Prucha</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">5</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1691890"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatially</span> explicit analyses unveil density <span class="hlt">dependence</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Density-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> processes are fundamental in the understanding of species population dynamics. Whereas the benefits of considering the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> dimension in population biology are widely acknowledged, the implications of doing so for the statistical detection of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> density <span class="hlt">dependence</span> have not been examined. The outcome of traditional tests may therefore differ from those that include ecologically relevant locational information on both the prey species and natural enemy. Here, we explicitly incorporate <span class="hlt">spatial</span> information on individual counts when testing for density <span class="hlt">dependence</span> between an insect herbivore and its parasitoids. The <span class="hlt">spatially</span> explicit approach used identified significant density <span class="hlt">dependence</span> more frequently and in different instances than traditional methods. The form of density <span class="hlt">dependence</span> detected also differed between methods. These results demonstrate that the explicit consideration of patch location in density-<span class="hlt">dependence</span> analyses is likely to significantly alter current understanding of the prevalence and form of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> density <span class="hlt">dependence</span> in natural populations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Veldtman, Ruan; McGeoch, Melodie A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">6</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/15239511"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> models with <span class="hlt">spatially</span> lagged <span class="hlt">dependent</span> variables and incomplete data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this paper is to suggest estimators for the parameters of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> models containing a <span class="hlt">spatially</span> lagged <span class="hlt">dependent</span>\\u000a variable, as well as <span class="hlt">spatially</span> lagged independent variables, and an incomplete data set. The specifications allow for nonstationarity,\\u000a and the disturbance process of the model is specified non-parametrically. We consider various scenarios concerning the pattern\\u000a of missing data points. One</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Harry H. KelejianIngmar; Ingmar R. Prucha</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">7</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.swissfinanceinstitute.ch/rp151.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">Dependence</span>, Housing Submarkets, and House Prices</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper compares the impacts of alternative models of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on the accuracy of house price predictions in a mass appraisal context. Explicit modeling of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> is characterized as a more fluid approach to defining housing submarkets. This approach allows the relevant “submarket” to vary from house to house and for transactions involving other dwellings in each submarket</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Steven C. Bourassa; Eva Cantoni; Martin Hoesli</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">8</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16682626"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stable time filtering of <span class="hlt">strongly</span> unstable <span class="hlt">spatially</span> extended systems.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many contemporary problems in science involve making predictions based on partial observation of extremely complicated <span class="hlt">spatially</span> extended systems with many degrees of freedom and with physical instabilities on both large and small scale. Various new ensemble filtering strategies have been developed recently for these applications, and new mathematical issues arise. Because ensembles are extremely expensive to generate, one such issue is whether it is possible under appropriate circumstances to take long time steps in an explicit difference scheme and violate the classical Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL)-stability condition yet obtain stable accurate filtering by using the observations. These issues are explored here both through elementary mathematical theory, which provides simple guidelines, and the detailed study of a prototype model. The prototype model involves an unstable finite difference scheme for a convection-diffusion equation, and it is demonstrated below that appropriate observations can result in stable accurate filtering of this <span class="hlt">strongly</span> unstable <span class="hlt">spatially</span> extended system. PMID:16682626</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grote, Marcus J; Majda, Andrew J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-05-08</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">9</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://129.3.20.41/econ-wp/em/papers/0207/0207002.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The European Regional Convergence Process, 1980-1995: Do <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Regimes and <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> Matter?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors show that <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> heterogeneity matter in the estimation of the &bgr;-convergence process among 138 European regions over the 1980 to 1995 period. Using <span class="hlt">spatial</span> econometrics tools, the authors detect both <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> heterogeneity in the form of structural instability across <span class="hlt">spatial</span> convergence clubs. The estimation of the appropriate <span class="hlt">spatial</span> regimes <span class="hlt">spatial</span> error model</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cem Ertur; Julie Le Gallo; Catherine Baumont</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">10</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3511364"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">Dependency</span> of Tuberculosis Incidence in Taiwan</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tuberculosis (TB) disease can be caused by either recent transmission from infectious patients or reactivation of remote latent infection. <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependency</span> (correlation between nearby geographic areas) in tuberculosis incidence is a signature for chains of recent transmission with geographic diffusion. To understand the contribution of recent transmission in the TB endemic in Taiwan, where reactivation has been assumed to be the predominant mode of pathogenesis, we used <span class="hlt">spatial</span> regression analysis to examine whether there was <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependency</span> between the TB incidence in each township and in its neighbors. A total of 90,661 TB cases from 349 townships in 2003–2008 were included in this analysis. After adjusting for the effects of confounding socioeconomic variables, including the percentages of aboriginals and average household income, the results show that the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> lag parameter remains positively significant (0.43, p<0.001), which indicates that the TB incidences of neighboring townships had an effect on the TB incidence in each township. Townships with substantial <span class="hlt">spatial</span> spillover effects were mainly located in the northern, western and eastern parts of Taiwan. <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependency</span> implies that recent transmission plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of TB in Taiwan. Therefore, in addition to the current focus on improving the cure rate under directly observed therapy programs, more resource need to be allocated to active case finding in order to break the chain of transmission.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ng, In-Chan; Wen, Tzai-Hung; Wang, Jann-Yuan; Fang, Chi-Tai</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">11</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvE..88d2119C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Frequency-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> effective hydraulic conductivity of <span class="hlt">strongly</span> heterogeneous media</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The determination of the transport properties of heterogeneous porous rocks, such as an effective hydraulic conductivity, arises in a range of geoscience problems, from groundwater flow analysis to hydrocarbon reservoir modeling. In the presence of formation-scale heterogeneities, nonstationary flows, induced by pumping tests or propagating elastic waves, entail localized pressure diffusion processes with a characteristic frequency <span class="hlt">depending</span> on the pressure diffusivity and size of the heterogeneity. Then, on a macroscale, a homogeneous equivalent medium exists, which has a frequency-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> effective conductivity. The frequency <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the conductivity can be analyzed with Biot's equations of poroelasticity. In the quasistatic frequency regime of this framework, the slow compressional wave is a proxy for pressure diffusion processes. This slow compressional wave is associated with the out-of-phase motion of the fluid and solid phase, thereby creating a relative fluid-solid displacement vector field. Decoupling of the poroelasticity equations gives a diffusion equation for the fluid-solid displacement field valid in a poroelastic medium with <span class="hlt">spatial</span> fluctuations in hydraulic conductivity. Then, an effective conductivity is found by a Green's function approach followed by a <span class="hlt">strong</span>-contrast perturbation theory suggested earlier in the context of random dielectrics. This theory leads to closed-form expressions for the frequency-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> effective conductivity as a function of the one- and two-point probability functions of the conductivity fluctuations. In one dimension, these expressions are consistent with exact solutions in both low- and high-frequency limits for arbitrary conductivity contrast. In 3D, the low-frequency limit <span class="hlt">depends</span> on the details of the microstructure. However, the derived approximation for the effective conductivity is consistent with the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Caspari, E.; Gurevich, B.; Müller, T. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">12</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3121949"> <span id="translatedtitle">Perceived time is <span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequency <span class="hlt">dependent</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigated whether changes in low-level image characteristics, in this case <span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequency, were capable of generating a well-known expansion in the perceived duration of an infrequent “oddball” stimulus relative to a repeatedly-presented “standard” stimulus. Our standard and oddball stimuli were Gabor patches that differed from each other in <span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequency by two octaves. All stimuli were equated for visibility. Rather than the expected “subjective time expansion” found in previous studies, we obtained an equal and opposite expansion or contraction of perceived time <span class="hlt">dependent</span> upon the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequency relationship of the standard and oddball stimulus. Subsequent experiments using equi-visible stimuli reveal that mid-range <span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequencies (ca. 2 c/deg) are consistently perceived as having longer durations than low (0.5 c/deg) or high (8 c/deg) <span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequencies, despite having the same physical duration. Rather than forming a fixed proportion of baseline duration, this bias is constant in additive terms and implicates systematic variations in visual persistence across <span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequency. Our results have implications for the widely cited finding that auditory stimuli are judged to be longer in duration than visual stimuli.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aaen-Stockdale, C.; Hotchkiss, J.; Heron, J.; Whitaker, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">13</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3362550"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> Neutral <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Effects Shape Tree Species Distributions across Life Stages at Multiple Scales</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Traditionally, ecologists use lattice (regional summary) count data to simulate tree species distributions to explore species coexistence. However, no previous study has explicitly compared the difference between using lattice count and basal area data and analyzed species distributions at both individual species and community levels while simultaneously considering the combined scenarios of life stage and scale. In this study, we hypothesized that basal area data are more closely related to environmental variables than are count data because of <span class="hlt">strong</span> environmental filtering effects. We also address the contribution of niche and the neutral (i.e., solely <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on distance) factors to species distributions. Specifically, we separately modeled count data and basal area data while considering life stage and scale effects at the two levels with simultaneous autoregressive models and variation partitioning. A principal coordinates of neighbor matrix (PCNM) was used to model neutral <span class="hlt">spatial</span> effects at the community level. The explained variations of species distribution data did not differ significantly between the two types of data at either the individual species level or the community level, indicating that the two types of data can be used nearly identically to model species distributions. Neutral <span class="hlt">spatial</span> effects represented by <span class="hlt">spatial</span> autoregressive parameters and the PCNM eigenfunctions drove species distributions on multiple scales, different life stages and individual species and community levels in this plot. We concluded that <span class="hlt">strong</span> neutral <span class="hlt">spatial</span> effects are the principal mechanisms underlying the species distributions and thus shape biodiversity <span class="hlt">spatial</span> patterns.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hu, Yue-Hua; Lan, Guo-Yu; Sha, Li-Qing; Cao, Min; Tang, Yong; Li, Yi-De; Xu, Da-Ping</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">14</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhRvB..84o3107M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nonmonotonic temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of thermopower in <span class="hlt">strongly</span> correlated electron systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We examine the temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of thermopower in the single-band Hubbard model using dynamical mean-field theory. The <span class="hlt">strong</span> Coulomb interaction brings about the coherent-to-incoherent crossover as temperature increases. As a result, the thermopower exhibits nonmonotonic temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span> and asymptotically approaches values given by the Mott-Heikes formula. In the light of our theoretical result, we discuss the thermopower in some transition metal oxides. The magnetic field <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the thermopower is also discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Matsuo, M.; Okamoto, S.; Koshibae, W.; Mori, M.; Maekawa, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">15</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AcPPA.114..739B"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Region of Photoionization in a <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Laser Field</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the framework of the Keldysh-Faisal-Reiss theory in the velocity gauge we investigate the magnitude of the space region, where photoionization in a <span class="hlt">strong</span> laser field takes place. We find substantial differences between the short-range and the long-range (Coulomb) potentials, and between linear and circular polarizations of incident radiation. It appears that only for the initial state in the Coulomb potential the region of space, where ionization is held, expands significantly with increasing intensity for a typical optical frequency and non-relativistic but <span class="hlt">strong</span> circularly polarized laser field. As a result of our considerations, we suggest to modify the idea of Reiss and Krainov of a certain simple Coulomb correction to the Volkov wave function. We show that photoionization rate calculated for the H(1s) atom, using our approach, is in better agreement with other theoretical results for moderately <span class="hlt">strong</span> circularly polarized laser field.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bauer, J. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">16</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7184737"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stochastic differential games with weak <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and <span class="hlt">strong</span> informational coupling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We formulate a parameterized family of linear quadratic two-person nonzero-sum stochastic differential games where the players are weakly coupled through the state equation and <span class="hlt">strongly</span> coupled through the measurements. A positive parameter {epsilon} characterizes this family, in terms of which the subsystems are coupled (weakly). With {epsilon} = 0 the problem admits a unique Nash equilibrium solution, while {epsilon} > 0, no matter how small, no general method is available to obtain the Nash equilibrium solution and even to prove existence and uniqueness. In this paper, we develop an iterative technique whereby Nash solutions of all orders (in terms of {epsilon}) are obtained by starting the iteration with the unique (<span class="hlt">strong</span> team) solution determined for {epsilon} = 0. The Nash solutions turnout to be linear, requiring only finite-dimensional controllers, in spite of the fact that a separation (of estimation and control) result does not hold.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Basar, T.; Srikant, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">17</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.real.uiuc.edu/d-paper/00/00-t-11.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> and Regional Convergence in Brazil</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The majority of the studies on regional convergence ignore the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> characteristics of the problem. In a recent paper Rey and Montouri (1999) considered the issue of income regional convergence on US under the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> econometric perspective. The present paper follows the Rey and Montouri's (1999) approach and introduces some <span class="hlt">spatial</span> econometric techniques for convergence among Brazilian states. State data</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">André Magalhães; Geoffrey J. D. Hewings; Carlos R. Azzoni</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">18</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8476E..15Z"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strongly</span> modified angular <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of emission from OLEDs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The emission pattern of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is usually close to Lambertian. This paper explores the factors controlling the angular <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the emission from OLEDs. In particular it considers the question of how far from Lambertian can the emission of an OLED be? We have examined how wavelength-scale microstructure can modify the pattern of light emission from OLEDs. We demonstrate OLEDs in which emission is <span class="hlt">strongly</span> directed towards, or away from, the forward direction. We consider the relative importance of scattering of waveguide modes, surface plasmons and microcavity effects in the <span class="hlt">strongly</span> modified emission patterns which we observe.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Shuyu; Turnbull, Graham A.; Samuel, Ifor D. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">19</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/926184"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> of Condensates in <span class="hlt">Strongly</span> Coupled Gauge Theories</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We analyze quark and gluon condensates in quantum chromodynamics. We suggest that these are localized inside hadrons, because the particles whose interactions are responsible for them are confined within these hadrons. This can explain the results of recent studies of gluon condensate contributions to vacuum correlators. We also give a general discussion of condensates in asymptotically free vectorial and chiral gauge theories.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC /SUNY, Stony Brook; Shrock, Robert; /SUNY, Stony Brook</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-03-25</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">20</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011OptCo.284.4007H"> <span id="translatedtitle">High-<span class="hlt">spatial</span>-resolution monitoring of <span class="hlt">strong</span> magnetic field using Rb vapor nanometric-thin cell</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have implemented the so-called ?-Zeeman technique (LZT) to investigate individual hyperfine transitions between Zeeman sublevels of the Rb atoms in a <span class="hlt">strong</span> external magnetic field B in the range of 2500 - 5000 G (recently it was established that LZT is very convenient for the range of 10 - 2500 G). Atoms are confined in a nanometric thin cell (NTC) with the thickness L = ?, where ? is the resonant wavelength 794 nm for Rb D1 line. Narrow velocity selective optical pumping (VSOP) resonances in the transmission spectrum of the NTC are split into several components in a magnetic field with the frequency positions and transition probabilities <span class="hlt">depending</span> on the B-field. Possible applications are described, such as magnetometers with nanometric local <span class="hlt">spatial</span> resolution and tunable atomic frequency references.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hakhumyan, G.; Leroy, C.; Pashayan-Leroy, Y.; Sarkisyan, D.; Auzinsh, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" 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href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">21</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3051274"> <span id="translatedtitle">Corresponding Delay-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Biases in <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Language and <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Memory</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The present study addresses the relationship between linguistic and non-linguistic <span class="hlt">spatial</span> representations. In three experiments we probe <span class="hlt">spatial</span> language and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> memory at the same time points in the task sequence. Experiments 1 and 2 show analogous delay-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> biases in <span class="hlt">spatial</span> language and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> memory. Experiment 3 extends this correspondence, showing that additional perceptual structure along the vertical axis reduces delay-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> effects in both tasks. These results indicate that linguistic and non-linguistic <span class="hlt">spatial</span> systems <span class="hlt">depend</span> on shared underlying representational processes. In addition, we also address how these delay-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> biases can arise within a single theoretical framework without positing differing prototypes for linguistic and non-linguistic <span class="hlt">spatial</span> systems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lipinski, John; Spencer, John P.; Samuelson, Larissa K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">22</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37449061"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> synchrony through density-independent versus density-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> dispersal</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many theoretical studies support the notion that <span class="hlt">strong</span> dispersal fosters <span class="hlt">spatial</span> synchrony. Nonetheless, the effect of conditional vs. unconditional dispersal has remained a matter of controversy. We scrutinize recent findings on a desynchronizing effect of negative density-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> dispersal based on <span class="hlt">spatially</span> explicit simulation models. Keeping net emigration rates equivalent, we compared density-independent and density-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> dispersal for different types of intraspecific</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tamara Münkemüller; Karin Johst</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">23</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7754E...4O"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> dispersion in nanostructured multilayered metal-dielectric optical metamaterials</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Periodic layered metal-dielectric nanostructures are used in subwavelength imaging, invisibility cloaking, nano-lithography and optical nanocircuitry. These optical metamaterials are usually described by local effective medium model if their periods are much smaller than a wavelength. Our studies show that even under such strict conditions the metamaterials are nonlocal and exhibit <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> dispersion effects. The uniaxial media support two or more extraordinary waves in certain directions while the local effective model predicts only one. The <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> dispersion is caused by surface plasmon polariton modes at the interfaces between metal and dielectric layers.A</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Orlov, Alexey A.; Chebykin, Alexander V.; Belov, Pavel A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">24</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21371056"> <span id="translatedtitle">Optical switching with long-range interactions between <span class="hlt">strongly</span> nonlocal <span class="hlt">spatial</span> optical solitons</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">With a (1+1)D <span class="hlt">strongly</span> nonlocal model, we present an analytical solution of the interaction of two long-range Gaussian beams with an arbitrary phase and arbitrary injected angles. As the basic optical devices, an all-optical(AO) switching with long-range interactions between <span class="hlt">strongly</span> nonlocal <span class="hlt">spatial</span> optical solitons which is independent on the wavelength is accessed. The optimal design of this optical device is discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang Xiaping [Department of Physics, Nanjing Xiaozhuang University, Nanjing 210017 (China)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-08</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">25</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22043818"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of pairing in deformed nuclei</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The solution of time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov equations by the Wignerfunction-moments method leads to the appearance of refined low-lying modes whose description requires the accurate knowledge of the anomalous density matrix. It is shown that calculations with Woods-Saxon potential satisfy this requirement, producing an anomalous density matrix of the same quality as more complicated calculations with realistic forces.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Balbutsev, E. B.; Malov, L. A., E-mail: malov@theor.jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Schuck, P. [CNRS andUniversite Paris-Sud, Institut de Physique Nucleaire (France)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">26</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JMagR.186..105A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Object <span class="hlt">dependent</span> sweep width reduction with spectral <span class="hlt">spatial</span> EPR imaging</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">For spectral <span class="hlt">spatial</span> EPR imaging, prior knowledge about the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> support of an imaged object can be exploited in two ways. We can shrink the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> field of view (FOV) to closely wrap the object in a sphere or reduce the sweep width in a projection <span class="hlt">dependent</span> fashion. Use of a smaller <span class="hlt">spatial</span> FOV with the same number of samples enhances <span class="hlt">spatial</span> resolution by reducing voxel volume at the expense of signal-to-noise and a consequent degraded line-width resolution. We have developed another approach to define sweep width that prunes away the portions of the projection sweep with no signal. This reduces data acquisition time for the continuous wave (CW) EPR image proportional to the sweep width reduction. This method also avoids voxel volume reduction. Using the reduced-sweep method, we decreased the data acquisition time by 20% maintaining <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and linewidth resolution.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ahn, Kang-Hyun; Halpern, Howard J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">27</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997APS..DNP..HE06K"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> of Structure Functions in Heavy Nuclei</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Deep inelastic scattering measurements of structure functions of heavy nuclei are insensitive to any <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the structure function, and hence, measure the structure function averaged over the nucleus. However, most attempts to explain structure function variation with nuclear type (the EMC effect) would predict that there should be <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span>. For example, if the EMC effect is due to gluon recombination from adjacent nucleons, then the strength of the EMC effect should be proportional to the nuclear density. We discuss two models of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the structure functions, and show calculations of it's effect on charm production in non-central heavy ion collisions. We show that the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> can have a significant effect on charm production; at the largest impact parameters, the expected suppression due to the (non-<span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span>) EMC effect is greatly reduced. We show that measurements of charm production in non-central collisions at RHIC probe this <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution(V. Emelýanov, et al.), nucl-th/9706085..</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Klein, Spencer; Emelýanov, Valeri; Khodinov, Alexander; Vogt, Ramona</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">28</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21304806"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the pairing gap in superfluid nuclei</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">spatial</span> structure of pairing correlations in {sup 120}Sn is investigated making use of both the bare nucleon-nucleon potential and the interaction induced by the exchange of collective vibrations, taking into account self-energy effects. The resulting pairing gap is <span class="hlt">strongly</span> peaked on the nuclear surface.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vigezzi, E.; Pastore, A.; Potel, G. [INFN, Sezione di Milano and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Barranco, F. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada III, Universidad de Sevilla, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Sevilla, 41092 Camino de los Descubrimientos s/n (Spain); Broglia, R. A. [INFN, Sezione di Milano and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, 2100 Copenhagen Oe (Denmark)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-04</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">29</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007OptCo.275..245R"> <span id="translatedtitle">(1 + 2)-Dimensional sub-<span class="hlt">strongly</span> nonlocal <span class="hlt">spatial</span> optical solitons: Perturbation method</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">By extending the (1 + 1)-dimensional [(1 + 1)-D] perturbation method suggested by Ouyang et al. [S. Ouyang, Q. Guo, W. Hu, Phys. Rev. E. 74 (2006) 036622] to the (1 + 2)-D case, we obtain a fundamental soliton solution to the (1 + 2)-D nonlocal nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NNLSE) with a Gaussian-type response function for the sub-<span class="hlt">strongly</span> nonlocal case. Numerical simulations show that the soliton solution obtained in this paper can describe the soliton states in both the sub-<span class="hlt">strongly</span> nonlocal case and the <span class="hlt">strongly</span> nonlocal case. It is found that the phase constant and the power of the (1 + 2)-D <span class="hlt">strongly</span> nonlocal <span class="hlt">spatial</span> optical soliton with a Gaussian-type response function are both in inverse proportion to the 4th power of its beam width.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ren, Hongyan; Ouyang, Shigen; Guo, Qi; Wu, Lijun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">30</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001OExpr...8...99R"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dependence</span> on frequency of <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field atomic stabilization</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is shown that <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field atomic stabilization can occur at any frequency, that analytical methods exist that can describe all essential features of stabilization, that relativistic effects enhance the stabilization phenomenon, and that a simple physical picture exists that explains these properties. A necessary prelude is to show that the frequency properties of the three methods often conjoined by the KFR (Keldysh-Faisal-Reiss) label are quite different. Applicability of the SFA (<span class="hlt">Strong</span>-Field Approximation) to stabilization at any frequency is shown, and verified by exhibiting close correspondence to numerical predictions by Popov et al. that also span both low and high frequencies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reiss, Howard R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">31</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/12247078"> <span id="translatedtitle">Graphene Oxidation: Thickness-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Etching and <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Chemical Doping</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Patterned graphene shows substantial potential for applications in future molecular-scale integrated electronics. Environmental effects are a critical issue in a single layer material where every atom is on the surface. Especially intriguing is the variety of rich chemical interactions shown by molecular oxygen with aromatic molecules. We find that O2 etching kinetics vary <span class="hlt">strongly</span> with the number of graphene layers</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li Liu; Sunmin Ryu; Michelle R. Tomasik; Elena Stolyarova; Naeyoung Jung; Mark S. Hybertsen; Michael L. Steigerwald; Louis E. Brus; George W. Flynn</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">32</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhRvA..79a5401B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tunneling limit of <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field photoionization: <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> on ellipticity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Some results from a recent work of Reiss [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 043002 (2008); 101, 159901(E) (2008)] are generalized for the case of elliptical polarization of a laser field. We also discuss the tunneling limit of <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field photoionization.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bauer, Jaros?aw H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">33</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995PhRvD..51.5331C"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> renormalization scheme <span class="hlt">dependence</span> in ?-lepton decay: Fact or fiction\\?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The question of the renormalization scheme <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the ? semileptonic decay rate is examined in response to a recent criticism. Particular attention is payed to a distinction between a consistent quantitative description of this <span class="hlt">dependence</span> and the actual selection of a subset of ``acceptable'' renormalization schemes. It is pointed out that this criticism is valid only within a particular definition of the ``strength'' of the renormalization scheme <span class="hlt">dependence</span> and should not discourage further attempts to use the semileptonic ? decay rate for quantitative tests of perturbative QCD.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chýla, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">34</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15968539"> <span id="translatedtitle">Density <span class="hlt">dependence</span>, <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale and patterning in sessile biota.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sessile biota can compete with or facilitate each other, and the interaction of facilitation and competition at different <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales is key to developing <span class="hlt">spatial</span> patchiness and patterning. We examined density and scale <span class="hlt">dependence</span> in a patterned, soft sediment mussel bed. We followed mussel growth and density at two <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales separated by four orders of magnitude. In summer, competition was important at both scales. In winter, there was net facilitation at the small scale with no evidence of density <span class="hlt">dependence</span> at the large scale. The mechanism for facilitation is probably density <span class="hlt">dependent</span> protection from wave dislodgement. Intraspecific interactions in soft sediment mussel beds thus vary both temporally and <span class="hlt">spatially</span>. Our data support the idea that pattern formation in ecological systems arises from competition at large scales and facilitation at smaller scales, so far only shown in vegetation systems. The data, and a simple, heuristic model, also suggest that facilitative interactions in sessile biota are mediated by physical stress, and that interactions change in strength and sign along a <span class="hlt">spatial</span> or temporal gradient of physical stress. PMID:15968539</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gascoigne, Joanna C; Beadman, Helen A; Saurel, Camille; Kaiser, Michel J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-09-29</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">35</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www2.lse.ac.uk/geographyandenvironment/whoswho/profiles/neumayer/pdf/spatial_specification.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Model specification in the analysis of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract The recent surge in studies analyzing <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span>,in political science has gone hand in hand with increased attention paid to the choice of estimation technique. In comparison, specification choice has been largely neglected, even though it leads to equally, if not more, important inference problems. In this article we discuss four issues. Two pitfalls can simply be avoided if</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">THOMAS PLÜMPER; ERIC NEUMAYER</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">36</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3093525"> <span id="translatedtitle">Drivers of bacterial ?-diversity <span class="hlt">depend</span> on <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The factors driving ?-diversity (variation in community composition) yield insights into the maintenance of biodiversity on the planet. Here we tested whether the mechanisms that underlie bacterial ?-diversity vary over centimeters to continental <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales by comparing the composition of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria communities in salt marsh sediments. As observed in studies of macroorganisms, the drivers of salt marsh bacterial ?-diversity <span class="hlt">depend</span> on <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale. In contrast to macroorganism studies, however, we found no evidence of evolutionary diversification of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria taxa at the continental scale, despite an overall relationship between geographic distance and community similarity. Our data are consistent with the idea that dispersal limitation at local scales can contribute to ?-diversity, even though the 16S rRNA genes of the relatively common taxa are globally distributed. These results highlight the importance of considering multiple <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales for understanding microbial biogeography.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martiny, Jennifer B. H.; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Penn, Kevin; Allison, Steven D.; Horner-Devine, M. Claire</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">37</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21408228"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of ultracold chemical rates on electric dipole moments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We use the quantum threshold laws combined with a classical capture model to provide an analytical estimate of the chemical quenching cross sections and rate coefficients of two colliding particles at ultralow temperatures. We apply this quantum threshold model (QT model) to indistinguishable fermionic polar molecules in an electric field. At ultracold temperatures and in weak electric fields, the cross sections and rate coefficients <span class="hlt">depend</span> only weakly on the electric dipole moment d induced by the electric field. In stronger electric fields, the quenching processes scale as d{sup 4(L+(1/2))} where L>0 is the orbital angular-momentum quantum number between the two colliding particles. For p-wave collisions (L=1) of indistinguishable fermionic polar molecules at ultracold temperatures, the quenching rate thus scales as d{sup 6}. We also apply this model to pure two-dimensional collisions and find that chemical rates vanish as d{sup -4} for ultracold indistinguishable fermions. This model provides a quick and intuitive way to estimate chemical rate coefficients of reactions occuring with high probability.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Quemener, Goulven; Bohn, John L. [JILA, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0440 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-02-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">38</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013MNRAS.tmp.2423M"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">strong</span> environmental <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of black hole scaling relations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigate how the scaling relations between central black hole mass and host galaxy properties (velocity dispersion, bulge stellar mass and bulge luminosity) <span class="hlt">depend</span> on the large-scale environment. For each of a sample of 69 galaxies with dynamical black hole measurements we compile four environmental measures (nearest-neighbour distance, fixed aperture number density, total halo mass and central/satellite). We find that central and satellite galaxies follow distinctly separate scalings in each of the three relations we have examined. The M•-? relation of central galaxies is significantly steeper (? = 6.38 ± 0.49) than that of satellite galaxies (? = 4.91 ± 0.49), but has a similar intercept. This behaviour remains even after restricting to a sample of only early-type galaxies or after removing the eight brightest cluster galaxies. The M•-? relation shows more modest differences when splitting the sample based on the other environmental indicators, suggesting that they are driven by the underlying satellite/central fractions. Separate relations for centrals and satellites are also seen in the power-law scaling between black hole mass and bulge stellar mass or bulge luminosity. We suggest that gas rich, low-mass galaxies undergo a period of rapid black hole growth in the process of becoming satellites. If central galaxies in the current M•-? relation are representative progenitors of the satellite population, the observations imply that a ? = 120 km s-1 galaxy must nearly triple its central black hole mass. The elevated black hole masses of massive central galaxies are then a natural consequence of the accretion of satellites.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McGee, Sean L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">39</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/34507152"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">Dependence</span>, Housing Submarkets, and House Price Prediction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper compares alternative methods of controlling for the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of house prices in a mass appraisal context.\\u000a Explicit modeling of the error structure is characterized as a relatively fluid approach to defining housing submarkets. This\\u000a approach allows the relevant submarket to vary from house to house and for transactions involving other dwellings in each\\u000a submarket to have varying</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Steven C. Bourassa; Eva Cantoni; Martin Hoesli</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">40</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/12602472"> <span id="translatedtitle">On a time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> extra <span class="hlt">spatial</span> dimension</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the usual brane-world scenario matter fields are confined to the\\u000afour-dimensional spacetime, called a 3-brane, embedded in a higher-dimensional\\u000aspace, usually referred to as the bulk spacetime. In this paper we assume that\\u000athe 3-brane is a de Sitter space; there is only one extra <span class="hlt">spatial</span> dimension,\\u000aassumed to be time <span class="hlt">dependent</span>. By using the form of the brane-world</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peter K. F. Kuhfittig</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">41</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42495745"> <span id="translatedtitle">Kaldor's Laws and <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">Dependence</span>: Evidence for the European Regions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">PONS-NOVELL J. and VILADECANS-MARSAL E. (1999) Kaldor's laws and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span>: evidence for the European regions, Reg. Studies 33, 443-451. In this paper we provide an outline of Kaldor's growth model and test its relevance to the economic experience of European regions during the period 1984-92. Kaldor's first law asserts that manufacturing is the engine of economic growth. His second</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jordi Pons-Novell; Elisabet Viladecans-Marsal</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">42</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..MARB54002R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">Spatial-Dependent</span> Utility on Social Group Domination</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The mathematical modeling of social group competition has garnered much attention. We consider a model originated by Abrams and Strogatz [Nature 424, 900 (2003)] that predicts the extinction of one of two social groups. This model assigns a utility to each social group, which is constant over the entire society. We find by allowing this utility to vary over a society, through the introduction of a network or <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span>, this model may result in the coexistence of the two social groups.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rodriguez, Nathaniel; Meyertholen, Andrew</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">43</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhRvL..94m6802G"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatially</span> <span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Inelastic Tunneling in a Single Metallofullerene</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have measured the elastic and inelastic tunneling properties of isolated Gd@C82 molecules on Ag(001) using cryogenic scanning tunneling spectroscopy. We find that the dominant inelastic channel is <span class="hlt">spatially</span> well localized to a particular region of the molecule. Ab initio pseudopotential density-functional theory calculations indicate that this channel arises from a vibrational cage mode. We further show that the observed inelastic tunneling localization is explained by <span class="hlt">strong</span> localization in the molecular electron-phonon coupling to this mode.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grobis, M.; Khoo, K. H.; Yamachika, R.; Lu, Xinghua; Nagaoka, K.; Louie, Steven G.; Crommie, M. F.; Kato, H.; Shinohara, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">44</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21504019"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> and temporal <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the cerebral endothelial cells elasticity.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The reliable determination of the mechanical properties of a living cell is one of the most important challenges of the atomic force microscopic measurements. In the present study the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and temporal <span class="hlt">dependency</span> of the force measurements on cerebral endothelial cells was investigated. Besides imaging the cells, two different sequences of force measurements were applied: Acquisition of force curves in short time at several points across the cell surface investigating <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the elasticity. Acquisition of force curves for long time at a previously determined place, over the cell nucleus, which provides the temporal stability/variation of the measured forces/values. Three different stages of endothelial cell cultures of the hCMEC/D3 cells were used: sub-confluent living, confluent living, and confluent fixed cells. The Young's modulus was calculated from the force curves using the Hertz model and the results were plotted against time or location correspondingly. The rational of using the three stage of culture was to clarify whether the observed effect belongs to the individual cell, to the ensemble of cells or just to some, not living cell component. In case of sub-confluent cells the results revealed a softer nuclear region compared to the periphery, while an attenuated oscillation like fluctuation in time, with a period of about 10-30 min, was observed. Confluent living cells showed similar tendencies to the sub-confluent cells, but the changes were larger and the temporal oscillations had longer period. The <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependency</span> of the elasticity on confluent cells was confirmed by force-volume measurement too. In case of fixed cells neither <span class="hlt">spatial</span> nor temporal differences were observed between the nuclear and peripheral region, however the Young's modulus and the error of the measurement was larger, compared to the sub-confluent living cells. PMID:21504019</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Végh, Attila G; Fazakas, Csilla; Nagy, Krisztina; Wilhelm, Imola; Krizbai, István A; Nagyoszi, Péter; Szegletes, Zsolt; Váró, György</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">45</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8014E..19D"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> frequency <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of target signature for infrared performance modeling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The standard model used to describe the performance of infrared imagers is the U.S. Army imaging system target acquisition model, based on the targeting task performance metric. The model is characterized by the resolution and sensitivity of the sensor as well as the contrast and task difficulty of the target set. The contrast of the target is defined as a <span class="hlt">spatial</span> average contrast. The model treats the contrast of the target set as <span class="hlt">spatially</span> white, or constant, over the bandlimit of the sensor. Previous experiments have shown that this assumption is valid under normal conditions and typical target sets. However, outside of these conditions, the treatment of target signature can become the limiting factor affecting model performance accuracy. This paper examines target signature more carefully. The <span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequency <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the standard U.S. Army RDECOM CERDEC Night Vision 12 and 8 tracked vehicle target sets is described. The results of human perception experiments are modeled and evaluated using both frequency <span class="hlt">dependent</span> and independent target signature definitions. Finally the function of task difficulty and its relationship to a target set is discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Du Bosq, Todd; Olson, Jeffrey</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">46</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24097054"> <span id="translatedtitle">Near-field <span class="hlt">spatial</span> mapping of <span class="hlt">strongly</span> interacting multiple plasmonic infrared antennas.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Near-field dipolar plasmon interactions of multiple infrared antenna structures in the <span class="hlt">strong</span> coupling limit are studied using scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscope (s-SNOM) and theoretical finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations. We monitor in real-space the evolution of plasmon dipolar mode of a stationary antenna structure as multiple resonantly matched dipolar plasmon particles are closely approaching it. Interparticle separation, length and polarization <span class="hlt">dependent</span> studies show that the cross geometry structure favors <span class="hlt">strong</span> interparticle charge-charge, dipole-dipole and charge-dipole Coulomb interactions in the nanometer scale gap region, which results in <span class="hlt">strong</span> field enhancement in cross-bowties and further allows these structures to be used as polarization filters. The nanoscale local field amplitude and phase maps show that due to <span class="hlt">strong</span> interparticle Coulomb coupling, cross-bowtie structures redistribute and highly enhance the out-of-plane (perpendicular to the plane of the sample) plasmon near-field component at the gap region relative to ordinary bowties. PMID:24097054</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grefe, Sarah E; Leiva, Daan; Mastel, Stefan; Dhuey, Scott D; Cabrini, Stefano; Schuck, P James; Abate, Yohannes</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">47</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.6609R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using elliptical copulas to model <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> in regional frequency analysis : pros and cons.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">At-site frequency analysis of hydrological extremes (rainfall and runoff) is affected by considerable uncertainty, due to the <span class="hlt">strong</span> natural variability of extremes and the comparatively short record length. Regional frequency analysis aims to reduce this uncertainty by conjointly analyzing several sites from a homogeneous hydrologic region. In most cases, regional frequency analysis is based on the "index flood" hypothesis: data from all sites are assumed to be realizations from an identical regional distribution, after dividing at-site data by a suitable scale factor (e.g., the at-site median). This regional distribution can then be estimated using data from all sites. However, data are in general <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span>. This intersite <span class="hlt">dependence</span> may bias the inference when ignored. In this presentation, <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> is explicitly modeled using the family of elliptical copulas, whose properties are well suited to model <span class="hlt">dependence</span> in high-dimensional <span class="hlt">spatial</span> problems. Copulas from this family are parameterized by a <span class="hlt">dependence</span> matrix, whose elements quantify pairwise <span class="hlt">dependences</span>. The strength of <span class="hlt">dependence</span> can be assumed to be a function of the intersite distance, thus leading to a natural analogy with methods used in standard geostatistics. Members of the elliptical family differ by their treatment of asymptotic <span class="hlt">dependence</span>. For instance, the Gaussian copula assumes asymptotically independent data, while the Student t-copula quantifies asymptotic <span class="hlt">dependence</span> using an additional parameter. A case study, based on annual maxima of rainfall from sites in the French Mediterranean region, is carried out to evaluate the impact of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on regional frequency analysis. In a first step, we evaluate the sensitivity of parameter estimates (e.g., location, scale and shape parameters of a regional Generalized Extreme Value distribution) to the treatment of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span>. Results show that: (i) ignoring the existence of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> significantly affects parameter estimates. In particular, it leads to an under-estimation of uncertainties. (ii) In comparison, the treatment of asymptotic <span class="hlt">dependence</span> is of second-order importance, with similar estimates being found with a Gaussian or a Student t- copula. In a second step, we evaluate the robustness of the framework to estimate the probability of rare <span class="hlt">spatial</span> events. To this aim, we estimate the probability that several sites exceed high threshold values during the same year. Results demonstrate that such estimates are far more sensitive to the treatment of asymptotic <span class="hlt">dependence</span>, with different estimates being found with a Gaussian or a Student t- copula. This implies that the choice of a copula (in particular, its treatment of asymptotic <span class="hlt">dependence</span>) is of prime importance, and has to be based on <span class="hlt">strong</span> empirical or physical evidence. In the absence of that, there is no guarantee that estimates of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> events are meaningful, especially in the extrapolation domain.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Renard, Benjamin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">48</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1564096"> <span id="translatedtitle">Density-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> dispersal and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> population dynamics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The synchronization of the dynamics of <span class="hlt">spatially</span> subdivided populations is of both fundamental and applied interest in population biology. Based on theoretical studies, dispersal movements have been inferred to be one of the most general causes of population synchrony, yet no empirical study has mapped distance-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> estimates of movement rates on the actual pattern of synchrony in species that are known to exhibit population synchrony. Northern vole and lemming species are particularly well-known for their <span class="hlt">spatially</span> synchronized population dynamics. Here, we use results from an experimental study to demonstrate that tundra vole dispersal movements did not act to synchronize population dynamics in fragmented habitats. In contrast to the constant dispersal rate assumed in earlier theoretical studies, the tundra vole, and many other species, exhibit negative density-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> dispersal. Simulations of a simple mathematical model, parametrized on the basis of our experimental data, verify the empirical results, namely that the observed negative density-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> dispersal did not have a significant synchronizing effect.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ims, Rolf A; Andreassen, Harry P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">49</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GBioC..26.3005W"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variability in trace gasdynamics following experimental drought in a humid tropical forest</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Soil moisture is a key driver of biogeochemical processes in terrestrial ecosystems, <span class="hlt">strongly</span> affecting carbon (C) and nutrient availability as well as trace gas production and consumption in soils. Models predict increasing drought frequency in tropical forest ecosystems, which could feed back on future climate change directly via effects on trace gasdynamics and indirectly through changes in nutrient availability. We used throughfall exclusion shelters to determine effects of short-term (3 month) drought on trace gas fluxes and nutrient availability in humid tropical forests in Puerto Rico. Exclusion and control plots were replicated within and across three topographic zones (ridge, slope, valley) to account for <span class="hlt">spatial</span> heterogeneity typical of these ecosystems. Throughfall exclusion reduced soil moisture in all sites and lowered exchangeable phosphorus (P) on ridges and slopes. Drought decreased soil carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by 30% in ridge sites and 28% in slope sites, and increased net methane (CH4) consumption by 480% in valley sites. Both valley and ridge sites became net nitrous oxide (N2O) sinks in response to soil drying. Emissions of CO2 and N2O, as well as CH4 consumption were positively related to exchangeable P and the nitrate:ammonium ratio. These findings suggest that drought has the potential to decrease net trace gas emissions from humid tropical forest soils. The differential response of trace gas emissions and nutrients from different topographic zones to drought underscores the complexity of biogeochemical cycling in these ecosystems and the importance of considering <span class="hlt">spatial</span> heterogeneity when estimating whole system responses.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wood, Tana E.; Silver, Whendee L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">50</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT........73K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Optofluidic intracavity spectroscopy for <span class="hlt">spatially</span>, temperature, and wavelength <span class="hlt">dependent</span> refractometry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A microfluidic refractometer was designed based on previous optofluidic intracavity spectroscopy (OFIS) chips utilized to distinguish healthy and cancerous cells. The optofluidic cavity is realized by adding high reflectivity dielectric mirrors to the top and bottom of a microfluidic channel. This creates a plane-plane Fabry-Perot optical cavity in which the resonant wavelengths are highly <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on the optical path length inside the cavity. Refractometry is a useful method to determine the nature of fluids, including the concentration of a solute in a solvent as well as the temperature of the fluid. Advantages of microfluidic systems are the easy integration with lab-on-chip devices and the need for only small volumes of fluid. The unique abilities of the microfluidic refractometer in this thesis include its <span class="hlt">spatial</span>, temperature, and wavelength <span class="hlt">dependence</span>. <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the transmission spectrum is inherent through a <span class="hlt">spatial</span> filtering process implemented with an optical fiber and microscope objective. A sequence of experimental observations guided the change from using the OFIS chip as a cell discrimination device to a complimentary refractometer. First, it was noted the electrode structure within the microfluidic channel, designed to trap and manipulate biological cells with dielectrophoretic (DEP) forces, caused the resonant wavelengths to blue-shift when the electrodes were energized. This phenomenon is consistent with the negative dn/dT property of water and water-based solutions. Next, it was necessary to develop a method to separate the optical path length into physical path length and refractive index. Air holes were placed near the microfluidic channel to exclusively measure the cavity length with the known refractive index of air. The cavity length was then interpolated across the microfluidic channel, allowing any mechanical changes to be taken into account. After the separation of physical path length and refractive index, it was of interest to characterize the temperature <span class="hlt">dependent</span> refractive index relationship, n(T), for phosphate buffered saline. Phosphate buffered saline (PBS) is a water-based solution used with our biological cells because it maintains an ion concentration similar to that found in body fluids. The n(T) characterization was performed using a custom-built isothermal apparatus in which the temperature could be controlled. To check for the accuracy of the PBS refractive index measurements, water was also measured and compared with known values in the literature. The literature source of choice has affiliations to NIST and a formulation of refractive index involving temperature and wavelength <span class="hlt">dependence</span>, two parameters which are necessary for our specialized infrared wavelength range. From the NIST formula, linear approximations were found to be dn/dT = -1.4x10-4 RIU °C-1 and dn/dlambda = -1.5x10-5 RIU nm-1 for water. A comparison with the formulated refractive indices of water indicated the measured values were off. This was attributed to the fact that light penetration into the HfO2/SiO2 dielectric mirrors had not been considered. Once accounted for, the refractive indices of water were consistent with the literature, and the values for PBS are believed to be accurate. A further discovery was the refractive index values at the discrete resonant wavelengths were monotonically decreasing, such that the dn/dlambda slope for water was considerably close to the NIST formula. Thus, n(T,lambda) was characterized for both water and PBS. A refractive index relationship for PBS with <span class="hlt">spatial</span>, temperature, and wavelength <span class="hlt">dependence</span> is particularly useful for non-uniform temperature distributions caused by DEP electrodes. First, a maximum temperature can be inferred, which is the desired measurement for cell viability concerns. In addition, a lateral refractive index distribution can be measured to help quantify the gradient index lenses that are formed by the energized electrodes. The non-uniform temperature distribution was also simulated with a finite element analysis software package. Th</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kindt, Joel D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">51</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6144..860J"> <span id="translatedtitle">A variational approach to <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> non-rigid registration</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper we propose a new method for non-rigid registration of PET/CT datasets incorporating prior knowledge about the rigidity of regions within the PET volumes into the matching process. State-of-the-art medical image registration approaches usually assume that the whole image domain is associated with a homogeneous deformation property, thus bone structure and soft tissue have the same stiffness, for instance. This assumption, however, is invalid in the majority of cases. In many applications the deformation properties can be estimated automatically by a segmentation step, beforehand. The presented non-rigid registration method integrates knowledge about the tissue directly into the deformation field computation. For this reason, no additional post-processing steps, like filtering of the deformation field, are required. To integrate the tissue constraints the regularizer is replaced by a novel <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> smoother. <span class="hlt">Dependent</span> on the location within the image, the smoother is able to explicitly adjust the rigidity. Thus, different tissue classes can be treated in the registration process. To pass the stiffness coefficients to the algorithm an additional mask image is used. The registration results are illustrated on synthetic data first to give a good intuition about the effectiveness of the proposed method. Finally, we illustrate the improvement of the registration using real clinical data. It is shown that the mono-modal registration of PET images yields more reasonable results using a <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> regularizer constraining the deformations of regions with high tracer concentration than using a normal curvature regularizer. Furthermore, the method is evaluated on multi-modal PET/CT registration problems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jäger, Florian; Han, Jingfeng; Hornegger, Joachim; Kuwert, Torsten</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">52</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3325540"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatiotemporal properties of sensory responses in vivo are <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on network context</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sensory responses in neocortex are <span class="hlt">strongly</span> modulated by changes in brain state, such as those observed between sleep stages or attentional levels. However, the specific effects of network state changes on the spatiotemporal properties of sensory responses are poorly understood. The slow oscillation, which is observed in neocortex under ketamine-xylazine anesthesia and is characterized by alternating depolarizing (up-states) and hyperpolarizing (down-states) phases, provides an opportunity to study the state-<span class="hlt">dependence</span> of primary sensory responses in large networks. Here we used voltage sensitive dye (VSD) imaging to record the spatiotemporal properties of sensory responses and local field potential (LFP) and multiunit activity (MUA) recordings to monitor the ongoing brain state in which the sensory responses occurred. Despite a rich variability of slow oscillation patterns, sensory responses showed a consistent relationship with the ongoing oscillation and triggered a new up-state only after the termination of the refractory period that followed the preceding oscillatory cycle. We show that spatiotemporal properties of whisker-evoked responses are highly <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on their timing with regard to the ongoing oscillation. In both the up- and down-states, responses spread across large portions of the barrel field, although the up-state responses were reduced in total area due to their sparseness. The depolarizing response in the up-state showed a tendency to propagate along the rows, with an amplitude and slope favoring the higher-numbered arcs. In the up-state, but not in the down-state, the depolarizing response was followed by a hyperpolarizing wave with a consistent <span class="hlt">spatial</span> structure. We measured the suppression of whisker-evoked responses by a preceding response at 100 ms, and found that suppression showed the same <span class="hlt">spatial</span> asymmetry as the depolarization. Because the resting level of cells in the up-state is likely to be closer to that in the awake animal, we suggest that the polarities in signal propagation which we observed in the up-state could be used as computational mechanisms in the behaving animal. These results demonstrate the critical importance of ongoing network activity on the dynamics of sensory responses and their integration.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Civillico, Eugene F.; Contreras, Diego</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">53</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JChPh.139f4907Y"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> relative diffusion of nanoparticles in polymer melts</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We formulate and apply a microscopic statistical-mechanical theory for the non-hydrodynamic relative diffusion coefficient of a pair of spherical nanoparticles in entangled polymer melts based on a combination of Brownian motion, mode-coupling, and polymer physics ideas. The focus is on the mesoscopic regime where particles are larger than the entanglement spacing. The <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the non-hydrodynamic friction on interparticle separation, degree of entanglement, and tube diameter is systematically studied. The overall magnitude of the relative diffusivity is controlled by the ratio of the particle to tube diameter and the number of entanglements in a manner reminiscent of single-particle self-diffusion and Stokes-Einstein violations. A rich <span class="hlt">spatial</span> separation <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of mobility enhancement relative to the hydrodynamic behavior is predicted even for very large particles, and the asymptotic <span class="hlt">dependence</span> is derived analytically in the small and large separation limits. Particle separations in excess of 100 nm are sometimes required to recover the hydrodynamic limit. The effects of local polymer-particle packing correlations are found to be weak, and the non-hydrodynamic effects are also small for unentangled melts.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yamamoto, Umi; Schweizer, Kenneth S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">54</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27744742"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> clustering of underdense regions and the environmental <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of clustering from Gaussian initial conditions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We discuss two slightly counterintuitive findings about the environmental <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of clustering in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. First, we find that the relation between clustering strength and density is not monotonic: galaxies in the densest regions are more <span class="hlt">strongly</span> clustered than are galaxies in regions of moderate overdensity; galaxies in moderate overdensities are more <span class="hlt">strongly</span> clustered than are those</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ummi Abbas; Ravi K. Sheth</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">55</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.luli.polytechnique.fr/docs/articles/04.michel-PRL92.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> Reduction of the Degree of <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Coherence of a Laser Beam Propagating through a Preformed Plasma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">strong</span> reduction of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> coherence of a laser beam after its propagation through a plasma has been measured using a Fresnel biprism interferometer. The laser beam was diffraction limited; the coherence width was reduced from 40mm in vacuum down to a few mm with the plasma. Numerical results based on a paraxial model exhibit a coherence degree close</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. Michel; C. Labaune; H. C. Bandulet; K. Lewis; S. Depierreux; S. Hulin; G. Bonnaud; V. T. Tikhonchuk; S. Weber; G. Riazuelo; H. A. Baldis; A. Michard</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">56</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3408660"> <span id="translatedtitle">TE-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> and Spectral Specificity of Functional Connectivity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Previous studies suggest that spontaneous fluctuations in the resting-state fMRI (RS-fMRI) signal may reflect fluctuations in transverse relaxation time (T2*) rather than spin density (S0). However, such S0 and T2* features have not been well characterized. In this study, <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and spectral characteristics of functional connectivity on sensorimotor, default-mode, dorsal attention, and primary visual systems were examined using a multiple gradient-echo sequence at 3T. In the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> domain, we found broad, local correlations at short echo times (TE ? 14 ms) due to dominant S0 contribution, whereas long-range connections mediated by T2* became explicit at TEs longer than 22 ms. In the frequency domain, compared with the flat spectrum of S0, spectral power of the T2*-weighted signal elevated significantly with increasing TE, particularly in the frequency ranges of 0.008-0.023 Hz and 0.037-0.043 Hz. Using the S0 spectrum as a reference, we propose two indices to measure spectral signal change (SSC) and spectral contrast-to-noise ratio (SCNR), respectively, for quantifying the RS-fMRI signal. These indices demonstrated TE <span class="hlt">dependency</span> of connectivity-related fluctuation strength, resembling functional contrasts in activation-based fMRI. These findings further confirm that large-scale functional circuit connectivity based on BOLD contrast may be constrained within specific frequency ranges in every brain network, and the spectral features of S0 and T2* could be valuable for interpreting and quantifying RS-fMRI data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wu, Changwei W.; Gu, Hong; Zou, Qihong; Lu, Hanbing; Stein, Elliot A.; Yang, Yihong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">57</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8313E.172L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Adaptive <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> weighting scheme for tomosynthesis reconstruction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Digital Tomosynthesis (DT) is an x-ray limited-angle imaging technique. An accurate image reconstruction in tomosynthesis is a challenging task due to the violation of the tomographic sufficiency conditions. A classical "shift-and-add" algorithm (or simple backprojection) suffers from blurring artifacts, produced by structures located above and below the plane of interest. The artifact problem becomes even more prominent in the presence of materials and tissues with a high x-ray attenuation, such as bones, microcalcifications or metal. The focus of the current work is on reduction of ghosting artifacts produced by bones in the musculoskeletal tomosynthesis. A novel dissimilarity concept and a modified backprojection with an adaptive <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> weighting scheme (?BP) are proposed. Simulated data of software phantom, a structured hardware phantom and a human hand raw-data acquired with a Siemens Mammomat Inspiration tomosynthesis system were reconstructed using conventional backprojection algorithm and the new ?BP-algorithm. The comparison of the results to the non-weighted case demonstrates the potential of the proposed weighted backprojection to reduce the blurring artifacts in musculoskeletal DT. The proposed weighting scheme is not limited to the tomosynthesis limitedangle geometry. It can also be adapted for Computed Tomography (CT) and included in iterative reconstruction algorithms (e.g. SART).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Levakhina, Yulia; Duschka, Robert; Vogt, Florian; Barkhausen, JOErg; Buzug, Thorsten M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">58</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22004532"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">STRONG</span> GRAVITATIONAL LENS MODELING WITH <span class="hlt">SPATIALLY</span> VARIANT POINT-SPREAD FUNCTIONS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Astronomical instruments generally possess <span class="hlt">spatially</span> variant point-spread functions, which determine the amount by which an image pixel is blurred as a function of position. Several techniques have been devised to handle this variability in the context of the standard image deconvolution problem. We have developed an iterative gravitational lens modeling code called Mirage that determines the parameters of pixelated source intensity distributions for a given lens model. We are able to include the effects of <span class="hlt">spatially</span> variant point-spread functions using the iterative procedures in this lensing code. In this paper, we discuss the methods to include <span class="hlt">spatially</span> variant blurring effects and test the results of the algorithm in the context of gravitational lens modeling problems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rogers, Adam; Fiege, Jason D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T-2N2 (Canada)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">59</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1023841"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">Dependencies</span> in High-Resolution Overhead Imagery</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Human settlement regions with different physical and socio-economic attributes exhibit unique <span class="hlt">spatial</span> characteristics that are often illustrated in high-resolution overhead imageries. For example- size, shape and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> arrangements of man-made structures are key attributes that vary with respect to the socioeconomic profile of the neighborhood. Successfully modeling these attributes is crucial in developing advanced image understanding systems for interpreting complex aerial scenes. In this paper we present three different approaches to model the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> context in the overhead imagery. First, we show that the frequency domain of the image can be used to model the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> context [1]. The shape of the spectral energy contours characterize the scene context and can be exploited as global features. Secondly, we explore a discriminative framework based on the Conditional Random Fields (CRF) [2] to model the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> context in the overhead imagery. The features derived from the edge orientation distribution calculated for a neighborhood and the associated class labels are used as input features to model the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> context. Our third approach is based on grouping <span class="hlt">spatially</span> connected pixels based on the low-level edge primitives to form support-regions [3]. The statistical parameters generated from the support-region feature distributions characterize different geospatial neighborhoods. We apply our approaches on high-resolution overhead imageries. We show that proposed approaches characterize the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> context in overhead imageries.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cheriyadat, Anil M [ORNL; Bright, Eddie A [ORNL; Vatsavai, Raju [ORNL</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">60</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/r4qg8p1h0h68g1j7.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Generalist predators and the importance of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> density <span class="hlt">dependence</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The model examples in this paper illustrate that non-random <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distributions of predation or parasitism by polyphagous natural enemies will not necessarily promote population persistence. The test of whether such responses are stabilizing requires the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of predation to be examined over a range of total prey densities. As shown in Fig. 2, a contribution to stability will occur</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Latto; M. P. Hassell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">61</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993PhLB..298...46M"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> impact parameter <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of hard photon production in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the high energy photon production on the impact parameter has been investigated in the reaction 129Xe+197Au at 44 MeV/u using the multidetector array MEDEA. A <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the high energy photon production probability on the impact parameter has been observed, while the slope parameter of the photon spectrum is almost constant. The data support the interpretation of the hard photon production in terms of first chance n-p collisions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Migneco, E.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Bellia, G.; Coniglione, R.; del Zoppo, A.; Finocchiaro, P.; Maiolino, C.; Piattelli, P.; Russo, G.; Sapienza, P.; Badalá, A.; Barbera, R.; Palmeri, A.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Riggi, F.; Russo, A. C.; Peghaire, A.; Bonasera, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">62</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57406113"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Influence on Colonization Rates in a Pioneer Zooplankton Metacommunity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The magnitude of community-wide dispersal is central to metacommunity models, yet dispersal is notoriously difficult to quantify in passive and cryptic dispersers such as many freshwater invertebrates. By overcoming the problem of quantifying dispersal rates, colonization rates into new habitats can provide a useful estimate of the magnitude of effective dispersal. Here we study the influence of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and local</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dagmar Frisch; Karl Cottenie; Anna Badosa; Andy J. Green</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">63</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21537595"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> scalar correlator in <span class="hlt">strongly</span> coupled hot N=4 Yang-Mills theory</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We use anti-de Sitter/CFT duality to compute in N=4 Yang-Mills theory the finite temperature <span class="hlt">spatial</span> correlator G(r) of the scalar operator F{sup 2}, integrated over imaginary time. The computation is carried out both at zero frequency and integrating the spectral function over frequencies. The result is compared with a perturbative computation in finite T SU(N{sub c}) Yang-Mills theory.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kajantie, K. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, Helsinki FI-00014 (Finland); Helsinki Institute of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, Helsinki FI-00014 (Finland); Vepsaelaeinen, M. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, Helsinki FI-00014 (Finland)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">64</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22792241"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> influence on colonization rates in a pioneer zooplankton metacommunity.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The magnitude of community-wide dispersal is central to metacommunity models, yet dispersal is notoriously difficult to quantify in passive and cryptic dispersers such as many freshwater invertebrates. By overcoming the problem of quantifying dispersal rates, colonization rates into new habitats can provide a useful estimate of the magnitude of effective dispersal. Here we study the influence of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and local processes on colonization rates into new ponds that indicate differential dispersal limitation of major zooplankton taxa, with important implications for metacommunity dynamics. We identify regional and local factors that affect zooplankton colonization rates and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> patterns in a large-scale experimental system. Our study differs from others in the unique setup of the experimental pond area by which we were able to test <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and environmental variables at a large <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale. We quantified colonization rates separately for the Copepoda, Cladocera and Rotifera from samples collected over a period of 21 months in 48 newly constructed temporary ponds of 0.18-2.95 ha distributed in a restored wetland area of 2,700 ha in Doñana National Park, Southern Spain. Species richness upon initial sampling of new ponds was about one third of that in reference ponds, although the rate of detection of new species from thereon were not significantly different, probably owing to high turnover in the dynamic, temporary reference ponds. Environmental heterogeneity had no detectable effect on colonization rates in new ponds. In contrast, connectivity, space (based on latitude and longitude) and surface area were key determinants of colonization rates for copepods and cladocerans. This suggests dispersal limitation in cladocerans and copepods, but not in rotifers, possibly due to differences in propagule size and abundance. PMID:22792241</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Frisch, Dagmar; Cottenie, Karl; Badosa, Anna; Green, Andy J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-06</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">65</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17227864"> <span id="translatedtitle">Explicit off-line criteria for stable accurate time filtering of <span class="hlt">strongly</span> unstable <span class="hlt">spatially</span> extended systems.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many contemporary problems in science involve making predictions based on partial observation of extremely complicated <span class="hlt">spatially</span> extended systems with many degrees of freedom and physical instabilities on both large and small scales. Various new ensemble filtering strategies have been developed recently for these applications, and new mathematical issues arise. Here, explicit off-line test criteria for stable accurate discrete filtering are developed for use in the above context and mimic the classical stability analysis for finite difference schemes. First, constant coefficient partial differential equations, which are randomly forced and damped to mimic mesh scale energy spectra in the above problems are developed as off-line filtering test problems. Then mathematical analysis is used to show that under natural suitable hypothesis the time filtering algorithms for general finite difference discrete approximations to an sxs partial differential equation system with suitable observations decompose into much simpler independent s-dimensional filtering problems for each <span class="hlt">spatial</span> wave number separately; in other test problems, such block diagonal models rigorously provide upper and lower bounds on the filtering algorithm. In this fashion, elementary off-line filtering criteria can be developed for complex <span class="hlt">spatially</span> extended systems. The theory is illustrated for time filters by using both unstable and implicit difference scheme approximations to the stochastically forced heat equation where the combined effects of filter stability and model error are analyzed through the simpler off-line criteria. PMID:17227864</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Majda, Andrew J; Grote, Marcus J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">66</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1783122"> <span id="translatedtitle">Explicit off-line criteria for stable accurate time filtering of <span class="hlt">strongly</span> unstable <span class="hlt">spatially</span> extended systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many contemporary problems in science involve making predictions based on partial observation of extremely complicated <span class="hlt">spatially</span> extended systems with many degrees of freedom and physical instabilities on both large and small scales. Various new ensemble filtering strategies have been developed recently for these applications, and new mathematical issues arise. Here, explicit off-line test criteria for stable accurate discrete filtering are developed for use in the above context and mimic the classical stability analysis for finite difference schemes. First, constant coefficient partial differential equations, which are randomly forced and damped to mimic mesh scale energy spectra in the above problems are developed as off-line filtering test problems. Then mathematical analysis is used to show that under natural suitable hypothesis the time filtering algorithms for general finite difference discrete approximations to an s × s partial differential equation system with suitable observations decompose into much simpler independent s-dimensional filtering problems for each <span class="hlt">spatial</span> wave number separately; in other test problems, such block diagonal models rigorously provide upper and lower bounds on the filtering algorithm. In this fashion, elementary off-line filtering criteria can be developed for complex <span class="hlt">spatially</span> extended systems. The theory is illustrated for time filters by using both unstable and implicit difference scheme approximations to the stochastically forced heat equation where the combined effects of filter stability and model error are analyzed through the simpler off-line criteria.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Majda, Andrew J.; Grote, Marcus J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">67</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21516682"> <span id="translatedtitle">Non-perturbative particle production mechanism in time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> <span class="hlt">strong</span> non-Abelian fields</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Non-perturbative production of quark-antiquarks is investigated in the early stage of heavy-ion collisions. The time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> study is based on a kinetic description of the fermion-pair production in <span class="hlt">strong</span> non-Abelian fields. We introduce time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> chromo-electric external field with a pulse-like time evolution to simulate the overlap of two colliding heavy ions. We have found that the small inverse duration time of the field pulse determines the efficiency of the quark-pair production. The expected suppression for heavy quark production, as follows from the Schwinger formula for a constant field, is not seen, but an enhanced heavy quark production appears at ultrarelativistic energies. We convert our pulse duration time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> results into collisional energy <span class="hlt">dependence</span> and introduce energy and flavour-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> string tensions, which can be used in string based model calculations at RHIC and LHC energies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Levai, Peter [MTA KFKI RMKI, Konkoly-Thege Miklos 29-33, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Skokov, Vladimir V. [GSI, Planckstr. 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-04-26</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">68</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20200510"> <span id="translatedtitle">Amphetamine exposure selectively enhances hippocampus-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> learning and attenuates amygdala-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> cue learning.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Behaviorally sensitizing regimen of amphetamine (AMPH) exposure has diverse effects on learning, memory, and cognition that are likely to be a consequence of long-term neural adaptations occurring in the cortico-limbic-striatal circuitry. In particular, altered dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex has been implicated to underlie AMPH-induced changes in behavior. This study sought to test the hypothesis that repeated AMPH exposure disrupts the regulation of limbic information processing and the balance of competing limbic control over appetitive behavior. Mice received seven intraperitoneal injections of D-AMPH (2.5 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg) or vehicle solution (saline) and were trained in (1) a simultaneous conditioned cue and place preference task using a six-arm radial maze, found to <span class="hlt">depend</span> on the integrity of the hippocampus (HPC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA), respectively and (2) a conditional BLA-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> cue, and HPC-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> place learning task using an elevated T-maze. In both tasks, the vehicle pretreatment group initially acquired cue learning, followed by the emergence of significant place/<span class="hlt">spatial</span> learning. In contrast, pretreatment with repeated AMPH caused marked deviations from normal acquisition patterns of place and cue conditioning, significantly facilitating HPC-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> place conditioning in the first task while attenuating BLA-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> cue conditioning in both tasks. These findings provide the first demonstration of an aberrant regulation of HPC- and BLA-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> learning as a result of AMPH exposure, highlighting the importance of the meso-coticolimbic dopamine system in maintaining the balance of limbic control over appetitive behavior. PMID:20200510</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ito, Rutsuko; Canseliet, Melissa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-03</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">69</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21437930"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multiconfiguration time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> Hartree approach for electron-nuclear correlation in <span class="hlt">strong</span> laser fields</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The multiconfiguration time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> Hartree approach is applied to study the electron-nuclear correlation in the dynamics of molecules subject to <span class="hlt">strong</span> external laser fields, using the example of a model hydrogen molecular ion. The ground state of the system is well described by as few as two single-particle functions per degree of freedom. A significantly larger but moderate number of configurations is required to predict laser-induced fragmentation probabilities and high-order harmonic generation spectra accurately, showing that the correlation between electronic and nuclear degree of freedom is <span class="hlt">strongly</span> increased by the presence of the laser field.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jhala, Chirag; Lein, Manfred [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik and Centre for Quantum Engineering and Space-Time Research (QUEST), Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Appelstrasse 2, D-30167 Hannover (Germany)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-06-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">70</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22093571"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pulse-shape-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field ionization viewed with velocity-map imaging</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We explore <span class="hlt">strong</span> field molecular ionization with velocity map imaging of fragment ions produced by dissociation following ionization. Our measurements and ab initio electronic structure calculations allow us to identify various electronic states of the molecular cation populated during ionization, with multiple pathways to individual states highlighted by the pulse shape <span class="hlt">dependence</span>. In addition, we show that relative populations can be reconstructed from our measurements. The results illustrate how <span class="hlt">strong</span> field molecular ionization can be complicated by the presence and interaction of multiple cationic states during ionization.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Geissler, Dominik; Weinacht, Thomas C. [Department of Physics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Rozgonyi, Tamas [Chemical Research Center of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Pusztaszeri u't 59-67, Budapest, HU-1025 (Hungary); Gonzalez-Vazquez, Jesus [Instituto de Quimica Fisica Rocasolano, CSIC, C/Serrano 119, ES-28006 Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez, Leticia; Marquetand, Philipp [Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 17, 1090 Vienna (Austria)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">71</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21608258"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Scale-<span class="hlt">dependency</span> of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variability of soil available nutrients].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">With the support of GIS and by using classical statistics and geostatistics methods, the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variability of soil available P (AP) and available K (AK) in cultivated lands in Yucheng City of Shandong Province was approached at county and township scales. The results showed that both the soil AP and AK followed the logarithmic normal distribution, with the coefficient of variation (CV) at the two scales being 26.5% - 36.6% and presenting a moderate variation. With the decrease of the scale, the CV of the soil AP and AK increased. Both the soil AP and AK were <span class="hlt">spatially</span> correlated with scale. At county scale, the soil AP and AK had a larger <span class="hlt">spatial</span> correlation distance, being 9.0 km and 26.5 km, respectively; while at township scale, the soil AP and AK had a smaller <span class="hlt">spatial</span> correlation distance, being 1.7 km and 2.8 km, respectively. The <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of the soil AP and AK at the two scales was obviously different, which was mainly affected by structural factors and random factors. PMID:21608258</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yang, Qi-Yong; Yang, Jing-Song; Liu, Guang-Ming</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">72</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1511953H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Insights from Modelling the <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> Structure of Hydraulic Conductivity at the MADE Site Using <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Copulas</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hydraulic conductivity (K) is a fundamental parameter that influences groundwater flow and solute transport. Measurements of K are limited and uncertain. Moreover, the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> structure of K, which impacts the groundwater velocity field and hence directly influences the advective spreading of a solute migrating in the subsurface, is commonly described by approaches using second order moments. <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> copulas have in the recent past been applied successfully to model the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> structure of heterogeneous subsurface datasets. At the MADE site, hydraulic conductivity (K) has been measured in exceptional detail. Two independently collected data-sets were used for this study: (1) ~2000 flowmeter based K measurements, and (2) ~20,000 direct-push based K measurements. These datasets exhibit a very heterogeneous (Var[ln(K)]>2) <span class="hlt">spatially</span> distributed K field. A copula analysis reveals that the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> structure of the flowmeter and direct-push datasets are essentially the same. A <span class="hlt">spatial</span> copula analysis factors out the influence of the marginal distribution of the property under investigation. This independence from the marginal distributions allows the copula analysis to reveal the underlying similarity between the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> structures of the flowmeter and direct-push datasets despite two complicating factors: 1) an overall offset between the datasets, with direct-push K values being, on average, roughly a factor of five lower than flowmeter K values, due at least in part to opposite biases between the two measurement techniques, and 2) the presence of some anomalously high K values in the direct-push dataset due to a lower limit on accurately measureable pressure responses in high-K zones. In addition, the vertical resolution of the direct-push dataset is ten times finer than that of the flowmeter dataset. Upscaling the direct-push data to compensate for this difference resulted in little change to the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> structure. The objective of the presented work is to use multidimensional <span class="hlt">spatial</span> copulas to describe and model the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> structure of K at the heterogeneous MADE site, and evaluate the effects of this multidimensional description on solute transport.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Haslauer, Claus; Bohling, Geoff</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">73</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3430370"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> summation properties of the human ocular following response (OFR): <span class="hlt">dependence</span> upon the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequency of the stimulus</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ocular following responses (OFRs) are the initial tracking eye movements that can be elicited at ultra-short latency by sudden motion of a textured pattern. The OFR magnitude <span class="hlt">depends</span> upon stimulus size, and also upon the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequency (SF) of sine-wave gratings. Here we investigate the interaction of size and SF. We recorded initial OFRs in human subjects when 1D vertical sine-wave gratings were subject to horizontal motion. Gratings were restricted to elongated horizontal apertures—“strips”—aligned with the axis of motion. In Experiment 1 the SF and the height of a single strip was manipulated. The magnitude of the OFR increased with strip height up to some optimum value, while strip heights greater than this optimum produced smaller responses. This effect was <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on SF: the optimum strip height was smaller for higher SFs. In order to explore the underlying mechanism, Experiment 2 measured OFRs to stimuli composed of two thin horizontal strips—one in the upper visual field, the other in the lower visual field—whose vertical separation varied 32-fold. Stimuli of different sizes can be reconstructed from the sum of such horizontal strips. We found that the OFRs in Experiment 1 were smaller than the sum of the responses to the component stimuli, but greater than the average of those responses. We defined an averaging coefficient that described whether a given response was closer to the sum or to the average. For any one SF, the averaging coefficients were similar over a wide range of stimulus sizes, while they varied considerably (7-fold) for stimuli of different SFs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sheliga, B. M.; Quaia, C.; Cumming, B.G.; FitzGibbon, E. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">74</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23215378"> <span id="translatedtitle">Internuclear separation <span class="hlt">dependent</span> ionization of the valence orbitals of I2 by <span class="hlt">strong</span> laser fields.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using a pump-dump-probe technique and Fourier-transform spectroscopy, we study the internuclear separation R <span class="hlt">dependence</span> and relative strength of the ionization rates of the ? and ? electrons of I2, whose valence orbitals are ?(g)(2)?(u)(4)?(g)(4)?(u)(0). We find that ionization of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)-2 (?(g)) has a <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on R while the HOMO and HOMO-1 do not. Surprisingly, the ionization rate of the HOMO-2 exceeds the combined ionization rate of the less bound orbitals and this branching ratio increases with R. Since our technique produces target molecules that are highly aligned with the laser polarization, the ? orbitals will be preferentially ionized and undergo enhanced ionization at larger R compared to the ? orbitals. Nevertheless, it is highly unusual that an inner orbital provides the dominant <span class="hlt">strong</span> field ionization pathway in a small molecule. PMID:23215378</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, H; Tagliamonti, V; Gibson, G N</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-08</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">75</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=synthesis+AND+the+AND+brain&pg=2&id=EJ767975"> <span id="translatedtitle">Retrieval Induces Hippocampal-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Reconsolidation of <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Memory</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Nonreinforced retrieval can cause extinction and/or reconsolidation, two processes that affect subsequent retrieval in opposite ways. Using the Morris water maze task we show that, in the rat, repeated nonreinforced expression of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> memory causes extinction, which is unaffected by inhibition of protein synthesis within the CA1 region of the…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rossato, Janine I.; Medina, Jorge H.; Izquierdo, Ivan; Cammarota, Martin; Bevilaqua, Lia R. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">76</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=protein+AND+synthesis&id=EJ767975"> <span id="translatedtitle">Retrieval Induces Hippocampal-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Reconsolidation of <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Memory</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nonreinforced retrieval can cause extinction and/or reconsolidation, two processes that affect subsequent retrieval in opposite ways. Using the Morris water maze task we show that, in the rat, repeated nonreinforced expression of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> memory causes extinction, which is unaffected by inhibition of protein synthesis within the CA1 region of the…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rossato, Janine I.; Medina, Jorge H.; Izquierdo, Ivan; Cammarota, Martin; Bevilaqua, Lia R. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">77</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52157932"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rotons and temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> correlations in 4He</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We compute g(r) and S(k) of liquid 4He at finite temperature with Penrose's density matrix. As the temperature increases thermal excitation of rotons produces an enhancement of the short-range <span class="hlt">spatial</span> order in the system.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. de Michelis; G. L. Masserini; L. Reatto</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">78</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/16476766"> <span id="translatedtitle">Large-Sample Properties of Parameter Estimates for <span class="hlt">Strongly</span> <span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Stationary Gaussian Time Series</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> Gaussian sequence has a spectral density $f(x, \\\\theta)$ satisfying $f(x, \\\\theta) \\\\sim |x|^{-\\\\alpha(\\\\theta)} L_\\\\theta(x)$ as $x \\\\rightarrow 0$, where $0 < \\\\alpha(\\\\theta) < 1$ and $L_\\\\theta(x)$ varies slowly at 0. Here $\\\\theta$ is a vector of unknown parameters. An estimator for $\\\\theta$ is proposed and shown to be consistent and asymptotically normal under appropriate conditions. These conditions</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robert Fox; Murad S. Taqqu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">79</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..MARW41009L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Systematic band-filling <span class="hlt">dependence</span> in the <span class="hlt">strongly</span>-correlated triangular lattice</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Strongly</span> correlated triangular lattices are of interest because of their applicability to real systems such as superconducting organic charge-transfer solids (CTS) and the hydrated sodium cobaltate. Experimental work on nonhydrated NaxCoO2 have found (a) a charge-ordered semiconductor at x=0.5, (b) Curie-Weiss metal for x>0.5, and (c) paramgnetic metal for x<0.5. The <span class="hlt">strong</span> x-<span class="hlt">dependence</span> is reminescent of the band-filling <span class="hlt">dependence</span> in CTS conductors footnotetextS. Mazumdar and A. N. Bloch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 207 (1983. We have performed numerical calculations based on the extended Hubbard Hamiltonian to understand the x-<span class="hlt">dependence</span>. We show that for finite Hubbard U, and moderate nearest neighbor interaction V, the normalized probability of double occupancy, which is a measure of the strength of the electron correlation, varies <span class="hlt">strongly</span> as a function of the density of carriers. We are able to explain (i) the different behavior of x<0.5 and x>0.5, (ii) the absence of the ?3 x?3 charge-ordering at x=1/3, and (iii) why x=0.5 is unique. Cobalt valence of 3.5 in the superconducting hydrated cobaltate is in agreement with our proposed mechanism of superconductivity in the CTS. footnotetext S. Mazumdar and R. T. Clay, Phys. Rev. B 77, 180515 (R), (2008).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, H.; Mazumdar, S.; Clay, R. T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">80</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6753E..50Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">GMM and 2SLS estimation of panel data models with <span class="hlt">spatially</span> lagged <span class="hlt">dependent</span> variables and <span class="hlt">spatially</span> correlated error components</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this article, the GMM based estimation of a typical family of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> panel models with <span class="hlt">spatially</span> lagged <span class="hlt">dependent</span> variables and error components that are both <span class="hlt">spatially</span> and time-wise correlated is addressed. We derive the best GMM (BGMM) estimator within certain class of optimal GMM estimators. We also discuss the asymptotic efficiency of BGMM estimator relative to the panel analogue of generalized <span class="hlt">spatial</span> two stage least squares (GS2SLS) estimators and maximum likelihood (ML) estimators. We show that by including GS2SLS estimators as a special case, the BGMM estimator is generally more efficient than GS2SLS estimator and able to be as efficient as ML estimator under normality.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Zhengyu; Bao, Shuming; Zhu, Pingfang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" 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showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">81</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApJ...762..122C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Inclination-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> Active Galactic Nucleus Flux Profiles from <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Lensing of the Kerr Spacetime</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent quasar microlensing observations have constrained the X-ray emission sizes of quasars to be about 10 gravitational radii, one order of magnitude smaller than the optical emission sizes. Using a new ray-tracing code for the Kerr spacetime, we find that the observed X-ray flux is <span class="hlt">strongly</span> influenced by the gravity field of the central black hole, even for observers at moderate inclination angles. We calculate inclination-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> flux profiles of active galactic nuclei in the optical and X-ray bands by combining the Kerr lensing and projection effects for future reference. We further study the <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the X-ray-to-optical flux ratio on the inclination angle caused by differential lensing distortion of the X-ray and optical emission, assuming several corona geometries. The <span class="hlt">strong</span> lensing X-ray-to-optical magnification ratio can change by a factor of ~10 for normal quasars in some cases, and a further factor of ~10 for broad absorption line (BAL) quasars and obscured quasars. Comparing our results with the observed distributions in normal and BAL quasars, we find that the inclination angle <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the magnification ratios can significantly change the X-ray-to-optical flux ratio distributions. In particular, the mean value of the spectrum slope parameter ?ox, 0.3838log F 2 keV/F 2500 Å, can differ by ~0.1-0.2 between normal and BAL quasars, <span class="hlt">depending</span> on corona geometries, suggesting larger intrinsic absorptions in BAL quasars.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, Bin; Dai, Xinyu; Baron, E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">82</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23542480"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pressures at larger <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales <span class="hlt">strongly</span> influence the ecological status of heavily modified river water bodies in Germany.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">River biota are influenced by anthropogenic pressures that operate at different <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales. Understanding which pressures at which <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales affect biota is essential to manage and restore degraded rivers. In Europe, many river reaches were designated as Heavily Modified Water Bodies (HMWB) according to the European Water Framework Directive (WFD), where the ecological potential might mainly be determined by pressures at larger <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales outside the HMWB (e.g. hydromorphological alterations at the river network and land use at the catchment scale). In Germany, hydromorphological alterations and diffuse pollution were the main pressures. Therefore, the three objectives of this study were to (i) identify the hydromorphological pressures at the site, reach, and river network scale, and land use categories at the catchment scale which significantly affect the ecological status of HMWB in Germany, (ii) quantify the relative importance of these pressures at different <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales, and (iii) analyse the differences in response between fish and macroinvertebrates. The results indicated that: (i) At the reach scale, fish were most <span class="hlt">strongly</span> influenced by channel-bank conditions whilst the naturalness of channel-planform was the best proxy for the ecological status of macroinvertebrates. At the catchment scale, urbanization was the most detrimental land use. (ii) The pressures at larger <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales (catchment land use and hydromorphological alterations in the river network) generally were more important than hydromorphological alterations at the reach scale. (iii) Fish were affected equally by both, hydromorphological alterations at the reach scale and large-scale pressures whereas the latter were far more important for the ecological status of macroinvertebrates. In conclusion, these results indicated that large-scale pressures may often limit the efficiency of reach-scale restoration, especially for macroinvertebrates, even in the absence of saprobic pollution, and have to be considered for the management and restoration of HMWB in Germany and comparable degraded river reaches. PMID:23542480</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kail, Jochem; Wolter, Christian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-26</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">83</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21251074"> <span id="translatedtitle">Casimir <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of transverse distribution of pairs produced from a <span class="hlt">strong</span> constant chromoelectric background field</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The transverse distribution of gluon and quark-antiquark pairs produced from a <span class="hlt">strong</span> constant chromoelectric field <span class="hlt">depends</span> on two gauge invariant quantities, C{sub 1}=E{sup a}E{sup a} and C{sub 2}=[d{sub abc}E{sup a}E{sup b}E{sup c}]{sup 2}, as shown earlier in [G. C. Nayak and P. van Nieuwenhuizen, Phys. Rev. D 71, 125001 (2005)] for gluons and in [G. C. Nayak, Phys. Rev. D 72, 125010 (2005)] for quarks. Here, we discuss the explicit <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the distribution on the second Casimir invariant C{sub 2} and show the <span class="hlt">dependence</span> is at most a 15% effect.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cooper, Fred [National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Blvd., Arlington, Virginia 22230 (United States); Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501 (United States); Center for Nonlinear Studies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Dawson, John F. [Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire 03824 (United States); Mihaila, Bogdan [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">84</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22007912"> <span id="translatedtitle">Capacity of bioregulators of stem and progenitor cells to <span class="hlt">strongly</span> affect liver redox-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> processes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract Effects of stem and progenitor cells or their compounds on recipient cells are investigated intensively today. In spite of this, their ability to interact with native cells and the final targets affected by them, particularly biochemical parameters that characterize cell redox-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> processes, remain little studied. We have studied how bioregulators of stem and progenitor cells affect these processes in freshly isolated liver after animal pretreatment in vivo. Cytosol of human fetal mesenchymal-mesodermal tissues (8-10 weeks gestation) was administered intravenously; the control group was treated with Hanks' solution. After 4?hr, rats were sacrificed and their livers were isolated. To evaluate liver redox-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> state, mitochondrial respiratory activity and nitroxyl radical and Alamar Blue™ reduction rates, mitochondrial and cytosolic glycerol kinase and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> malate dehydrogenase activities were studied. The results obtained demonstrate that bioregulators <span class="hlt">strongly</span> affect liver redox-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> processes, increasing mitochondrial respiration in state III and spin probe reduction rate and enhancing Alamar Blue™ reduction by glycolytic and nonglycolytic postmitochondrial enzymes. In addition, mitochondrial glycerol kinase and both isoforms of NADH-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> malate dehydrogenase were inhibited. These data bring us closer to understanding stem and progenitor cell effects via directed regulation of metabolic redox-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> processes. PMID:22007912</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cherkashina, Daria V; Tkacheva, Elena N; Somov, Alexander Y; Semenchenko, Olga A; Nardid, Oleg A; Petrenko, Alexander Y</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">85</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21448523"> <span id="translatedtitle">Implementation of the time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> configuration-interaction singles method for atomic <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field processes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present an implementation of the time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> configuration-interaction singles (TDCIS) method for treating atomic <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field processes. In order to absorb the photoelectron wave packet when it reaches the end of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> grid, we add to the exact nonrelativistic many-electron Hamiltonian a radial complex absorbing potential (CAP). We determine the orbitals for the TDCIS calculation by diagonalizing the sum of the Fock operator and the CAP using a flexible pseudospectral grid for the radial degree of freedom and spherical harmonics for the angular degrees of freedom. The CAP is chosen such that the occupied orbitals in the Hartree-Fock ground state remain unaffected. Within TDCIS, the many-electron wave packet is expanded in terms of the Hartree-Fock ground state and its single excitations. The virtual orbitals satisfy nonstandard orthogonality relations, which must be taken into consideration in the calculation of the dipole and Coulomb matrix elements required for the TDCIS equations of motion. We employ a stable propagation scheme derived by second-order finite differencing of the TDCIS equations of motion in the interaction picture and subsequent transformation to the Schroedinger picture. Using the TDCIS wave packet, we calculate the expectation value of the dipole acceleration and the reduced density matrix of the residual ion. The technique implemented will allow one to study electronic channel-coupling effects in <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field processes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Greenman, Loren; Kamarchik, Eugene; Mazziotti, David A. [Department of Chemistry and James Franck Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Ho, Phay J. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Pabst, Stefan [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Santra, Robin [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-08-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">86</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006APS..DMP.E4010K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantum Diffusion Monte Carlo Method for <span class="hlt">strong</span> field time <span class="hlt">dependent</span> problems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We formulate the Quantum Diffusion Quantum Monte Carlo (QDMC) method for the solution of the time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> Schr"odinger equation for atoms in <span class="hlt">strong</span> laser fields. Unlike for the normal diffusion Monte Carlo the wave function is represented by walkers with two kinds or colors which solve two coupled and nonlinear diffusion equations. Those diffusion equations are coupled by the potentials similar to those introduced by Shay which must be added to Schr"odingers equation to obtain classical dynamics equivalent to the quantum mechanics [1]. The potentials are calculated semi-analytically similarly to smoothing methods of smooth particle electrodynamics (SPD) with Gaussian smoothing kernels. We apply this method to <span class="hlt">strong</span> field two electron ionization of Helium. We calculate two electron double ionization rate in full six-dimensional configuration space quantum mechanically. Comparison with classical mechanics and the low dimensional grid models is also provided. 1cm [1] D. Shay, Phys. Rev A 13, 2261 (1976)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kalinski, Matt</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">87</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56495363"> <span id="translatedtitle">Study of <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Fluctuation <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> of Photoluminescence in AlGaN Wide-Bandgap Semiconductors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a straightforward method for the study of alloy <span class="hlt">spatial</span> compositional and stress distribution at the submicron scale via photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy [1]. The <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the bandgap light-emission energy of Al_xGa_1-xN alloys at composition 0<=x<=1 was studied via deep UV-photoluminescence and Raman microscopy in order to address the issue of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> alloy fluctuation. The data</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Joel Feldmeier; Xiang-Bai Chen; Adam Kessler; John Morrison; Bill Pagdon; Leah Bergman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">88</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21901473"> <span id="translatedtitle">Federal state differentials in the efficiency of health production in Germany: an artifact of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span>?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Due to regional competition and patient migration, the efficiency of healthcare provision at the regional level is subject to <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span>. We address this issue by applying a <span class="hlt">spatial</span> autoregressive model to longitudinal data from Germany at the district ('Kreis') level. The empirical model is specified to explain efficiency scores, which we derive through non-parametric order-m efficiency analysis of regional health production. The focus is on the role of health policy of federal states ('Bundesländer') for district efficiency. Regression results reveal significant <span class="hlt">spatial</span> spillover effects. Notably, accounting for <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> does not decrease but increases the estimated effect of federal states on district efficiency. It appears that genuinely more efficient states are less affected by positive efficiency spillovers, so that taking into account <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> clarifies the importance of health policy at the state level. PMID:21901473</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Felder, Stefan; Tauchmann, Harald</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-08</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">89</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20782790"> <span id="translatedtitle">Flavor <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of CP asymmetries and thermal leptogenesis with <span class="hlt">strong</span> right-handed neutrino mass hierarchy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We prove that taking correctly into account the lepton flavour <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the CP asymmetries and washout processes, it is possible to obtain successful thermal leptogenesis from the decays of the second right-handed neutrino. The asymmetries in the muon and tau-flavour channels are then not erased by the inverse decays of the lightest right-handed neutrino N{sub 1}. In this way, we reopen the possibility of ''thermal leptogenesis'' in models with a <span class="hlt">strong</span> hierarchy in the right-handed Majorana masses that is typically the case in models with up-quark neutrino-Yukawa unification.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vives, O. [Theory Division, CERN, CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">90</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/956379"> <span id="translatedtitle">Intensity <span class="hlt">dependent</span> waiting time for <span class="hlt">strong</span> electron trapping events in speckle stimulated raman scatter</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The onset of Stimulated Raman scatter from an intense laser speckle is the simplest experimentally realizable laser-plasma-interaction environment. Despite this data and recent 3D particle simulations, the controlling mechanism at the onset of backscatter in the kinetic regime when <span class="hlt">strong</span> electron trapping in the daughter Langmuir wave is a dominant nonlinearity is not understood. This paper explores the consequences of assuming that onset is controlled by large thermal fluctuations. A super exponential <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of mean reflectivity on speckle intensity in the onset regime is predicted.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rose, Harvey [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daughton, W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yin, L [Los Alamos National Laboratory</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">91</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www4.fe.uc.pt/30years/papers/68.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">How Do Criminals Locate? Crime and <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> in Minas Gerais</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of this paper is to investigate the existence of a <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of crime rates at a local level in the case of municipalities of Minas Gerais, one of the 26 Brazilian states. Results suggest the existence of a positive <span class="hlt">spatial</span> autocorrelation of municipal violent crime rates. However, it also appears that violent crime against property and against</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Frédéric PUECH</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">92</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..MAR.P6004D"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strongly</span> Correlated Quantum Gases Trapped in 3D Spin-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Optical Lattices</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Optical lattices have emerged as ideal systems for exploring Hubbard model physics, since the equivalent of material parameters such as the ratio of tunneling to interaction energy are easily and widely tunable. In this talk I will discuss our recent measurements using novel lattice potentials to realize more complex Hubbard models for bosonic ^87Rb atoms. In these experiments, we adjust the polarization of the lattice laser beams to realize fully three-dimensional, spin-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> cubic optical lattices. We demonstrate that atoms can be trapped in combinations of spin states for which superfluid and Mott-insulator phases exist simultaneously in the lattice. We also co-trap states that experience a <span class="hlt">strong</span> lattice potential and no lattice potential whatsoever. I will discuss recent measurements revealing a mechanism similar to Kapitza resistance that leads to thermal decoupling in this latter combination. The implications for sympathetic cooling and thermometry using species-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> lattices will be outlined.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Demarco, Brian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">93</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPSJ...82a3701P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Momentum <span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Local-Ansatz Wavefunction from Weak to <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Electron Correlations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Momentum <span class="hlt">dependent</span> local-ansatz (MLA) wavefunction describes accurately electron correlations from the weak to intermediate Coulomb interaction regimes. We point out that the MLA can describe the correlations from the weak to <span class="hlt">strong</span> Coulomb interaction regimes by modifying the starting wavefunction from the Hartree--Fock (HF) type to an alloy-analogy (AA) type wavefunction. Numerical results based on the half-filled band Hubbard model on the hypercubic lattice in infinite dimensions show up that the new wavefunction yields the ground-state energy lower than the Gutzwiller wavefunction (GW) in the whole Coulomb interaction regime. Calculated double occupation number is smaller than the result of the GW in the metallic regime, and is finite in the insulator regime. Furthermore, the momentum distribution shows a distinct momentum-<span class="hlt">dependence</span> in both the metallic and insulator regions, which are qualitatively different from those of the GW.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Patoary, M. Atiqur R.; Chandra, Sumal; Kakehashi, Yoshiro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">94</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMSH23B1840L"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> heating and ionization: From CME to ICME</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The January 21st 2005 Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection (ICME) observed by multiple spacecraft at L1 was also observed further out in the heliosphere at Ulysses (~3.25 AU). Previous multi-spacecraft studies of this ICME found evidence suggesting that the flanks of a magnetic cloud like structure associated with this ICME were observed at L1 while a more central cut through the associated magnetic cloud was observed at Ulysses. This event presents a unique opportunity to study the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variation of the ionic composition contained within a single ICME and relate it to the eruption at the Sun. Using SWICS, we compare and contrast the heavy ion composition across the two different observations cuts through the ICME. We will compare the results from ACE and Ulysses with predictions from ionization models in the corona and with remote observations of phenomena indicative of electron heating in the inner corona.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lepri, S. T.; Laming, J.; Rakowski, C. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">95</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA150598"> <span id="translatedtitle">Combat Models with <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">Dependence</span>, an Analysis of the Military Factors Governing the Equations.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A combat model governed by a system of partial differential equations involving both <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and time <span class="hlt">dependence</span> is analyzed from the perspective of a military operational planner. Recent Soviet military literature alludes to such a model, which appears t...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. A. Lutz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">96</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22400512"> <span id="translatedtitle">Single-layer metal-on-metal islands driven by <span class="hlt">strong</span> time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> forces.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nonlinear transport properties of single-layer metal-on-metal islands driven with <span class="hlt">strong</span> static and time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> forces are studied. We apply a semiempirical lattice model and use master-equation and kinetic Monte Carlo simulation methods to compute observables such as the velocity and the diffusion coefficient. Two types of time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> driving are considered: a pulsed rotated field and an alternating field with a zero net force (electrophoretic ratchet). Small islands up to 12 atoms were studied in detail with the master-equation method and larger ones with simulations. Results are presented mainly for a parametrization of Cu on Cu(001) surface, which has been the main system of interest in several previous studies. The main results are that the pulsed field can increase the current in both diagonal and axis direction when compared to static field, and there exists a current inversion in the electrophoretic ratchet. Both of these phenomena are a consequence of the coupling of the internal dynamics of the island with its transport. In addition to the previously discovered "magic size"effect for islands in equilibrium, a <span class="hlt">strong</span> odd-even effect was found for islands driven far out of equilibrium. Master-equation computations revealed nonmonotonous behavior for the leading relaxation constant and effective Arrhenius parameters. Using cycle optimization methods, typical island transport mechanisms are identified for small islands. PMID:22400512</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kauttonen, Janne; Merikoski, Juha</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-03</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">97</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/147857"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temporal and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of hydrodynamic correlations: Simulation and experiment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> hydrodynamic interactions in a colloidal suspension of hard spheres are studied, both experimentally and through computer simulation. The focus is on the behavior at small wave vectors, which directly probes the temporal evolution of hydrodynamic interactions between nearby particles. The computer simulations show that the time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> diffusion coefficient has the same functional form for all wave vectors, with a single characteristic scaling time for each length scale and for each volume fraction. Wave-vector-averaged effective diffusion coefficients, measured experimentally using diffusing wave spectroscopy, also scale to the same functional form. In this case, the scaling time is <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on both volume fraction and particle size; it decreases sharply with decreasing particle radius, reflecting the greater contribution from smaller wave vectors that is contained in the scattering from the smaller particles. For a direct comparison of simulation and experiment, we simulate the experimentally observed correlation functions, by averaging the wave-vector-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> computer-simulation data with the weighting appropriate to the experimental technique. Although the overall scaling is similar, there are quantitative differences in the simulated and measured relaxation times. We suggest these differences are due to the compressibility of the suspension, and that the resultant pressure waves make an unexpectedly significant contribution to the hydrodynamic interactions. (c) 1995 The American Physical Society</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ladd, A.J.C. [Department of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Gang, H. [Exxon Research and Engineering Company, Route 22 East, Annandale, New Jersey 08801 (United States); Zhu, J.X. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 07954 (United States); Weitz, D.A. [Exxon Research and Engineering Company, Route 22 East, Annandale, New Jersey 08801 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">98</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhRvE..77d1917L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Exact probabilistic solution of <span class="hlt">spatial-dependent</span> stochastics and associated <span class="hlt">spatial</span> potential landscape for the bicoid protein</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigated the <span class="hlt">spatial-dependent</span> stochastic effects originating from the finite number of bicoid proteins in Drosophila melanogaster, which are crucial to cell development. We obtained an exact solution to the <span class="hlt">spatial-dependent</span> stochastic chemical master equation and recovered the usual reaction-diffusion solution for the average of the bicoid concentration, valid in the bulk. We also used the steady state probability to get the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> potential landscape. The stochastic effects are captured by the Poisson distribution; so, as the average of the bicoid concentration decreases from the anterior (A) to the posterior (P) of the embryo, the statistical fluctuations also decrease. An alternative way of interpreting this is that the shape of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> potential landscape shrinks from A to P. While the mathematical result is known, we offer a simple approach to understanding why it is what it is and give associated physical intuitions. The approach can be generalized and applied to any problem with a particle that diffuses, decays, and has a stochastic source.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lepzelter, David; Wang, Jin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">99</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14..358B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Runoff source or sink? Biocrust hydrological function <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">depends</span> on the relative abundance of mosses</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The redistribution of water in semi-arid environments is critical for overall ecosystem productivity. To a large degree, ecosystem engineers may determine the redistribution of water. Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are one such group of ecosystem engineers. Their effects on infiltration have been somewhat controversial, varying from place to place and ranging from <span class="hlt">strongly</span> positive to <span class="hlt">strongly</span> negative. In addition, they coexist with and are modified by additional ecosystem engineers. We used a systems approach to examine the interactive effects of multiple engineers on infiltration processes across two analogous sets of interactors. First in Spain, we examined interactions among Stipa tenacissima, biocrusts, and the European rabbit; and in Australia, the interaction between biocrusts and the bilby (a rabbit-like marsupial). We focused on the effects of particular community properties of biocrusts such as species richness, total cover, species composition, and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> patterning to characterize their variable effects on infiltration. We measured the early (sorptivity) and later (steady-state infiltration) stages of infiltration at two supply potentials using disk permeameters, which allowed us to determine the relative effects of different engineers and soil micropores on water flow through large macropores. In the Spanish case, structural equation modeling showed that both Stipa and biocrust cover exerted substantial and equal positive effects on infiltration under ponding, whereas indirectly, rabbit disturbance negatively affected infiltration by reducing crust cover; rabbits had negligible direct effects. The biocrust influence could be partitioned roughly equally between total cover and composition. All lichen species were negatively related to infiltration and almost all mosses were positively related to infiltration. In the Australian study, bilby forage pits had a direct and <span class="hlt">strong</span> positive influence on steady state infiltration under ponding and most infiltration variables, and moderate effects on biocrust properties. Biocrust total cover and composition were again the most influential of biocrust community properties on infiltration, especially in the case of the composition effect on steady state infiltration under ponding. The key difference was that the Australian biocrusts primarily decreased infiltration. On dune runoff zones, later successional biocrusts (lichens, mosses, dark cyanobacterial crusts) of any type decreased infiltration rates compared to early successional crusts. On swale run-on zones, lichens impeded infiltration and mosses did not. These results highlight the importance of biocrusts as key players in the redistribution of water, and demonstrate the modulating role played by animal ecosystem engineers through their localized surface disturbances. Our studies highlight the central role of the relative abundance of mosses compared to other biocrust organisms as an underappreciated, and perhaps a key, determinant of biocrust hydrology.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bowker, M. A.; Eldridge, D. J.; Maestre, F. T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">100</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21552666"> <span id="translatedtitle">Visualisation of structural inhomogeneities in <span class="hlt">strongly</span> scattering media using the method of <span class="hlt">spatially</span>-resolved reflectometry: Monte Carlo simulation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two-dimensional <span class="hlt">spatial</span> intensity distributions of diffuse scattering of near-infrared laser radiation from a <span class="hlt">strongly</span> scattering medium, whose optical properties are close to those of skin, are obtained using Monte Carlo simulation. The medium contains a cylindrical inhomogeneity with the optical properties, close to those of blood. It is shown that stronger absorption and scattering of light by blood compared to the surrounding medium leads to the fact that the intensity of radiation diffusely reflected from the surface of the medium under study and registered at its surface has a local minimum directly above the cylindrical inhomogeneity. This specific feature makes the method of <span class="hlt">spatially</span>-resolved reflectometry potentially applicable for imaging blood vessels and determining their sizes. It is also shown that blurring of the vessel image increases almost linearly with increasing vessel embedment depth. This relation may be used to determine the depth of embedment provided that the optical properties of the scattering media are known. The optimal position of the sources and detectors of radiation, providing the best imaging of the vessel under study, is determined. (biophotonics)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bykov, A V; Priezzhev, A V; Myllylae, Risto A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-06-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> 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onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">101</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17536410"> <span id="translatedtitle">The scale and cause of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> heterogeneity in strength of temporal density <span class="hlt">dependence</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The importance of density <span class="hlt">dependence</span> in natural communities continues to spark much debate because it is fundamental to population regulation. We used temporal manipulations of density to explore potentially stabilizing density <span class="hlt">dependence</span> in early survivorship among six local populations of a tropical damselfish (Dascyllus flavicaudus). Specifically, we tested the premise that <span class="hlt">spatial</span> heterogeneity in the strength of temporal density <span class="hlt">dependence</span> would reflect variation in density of predators, the agent of mortality. Our field manipulations revealed that mortality among successive cohorts of young fishes was density <span class="hlt">dependent</span> at each reef, but that its strength varied by approximately 1.5 orders of magnitude. This <span class="hlt">spatial</span> heterogeneity was well predicted by variation among the six reefs in the density of predatory fishes that consume juvenile damselfishes. Because density <span class="hlt">dependence</span> arose from competition for enemy-free space within a shelter coral, the mortality consequence of the competition <span class="hlt">depended</span> on the neighborhood density of predators. Thus, the scale of heterogeneity in the density <span class="hlt">dependence</span> largely reflected attributes of the environment that shaped the local abundance of predators. These results have important implications for how ecologists explore regulatory processes in nature. Failure to account for <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variation could frequently yield misleading conclusions regarding density <span class="hlt">dependence</span> as a stabilizing process, obscure underlying mechanisms influencing its strength, and provide no insight into the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale of the heterogeneity. Further, models of population dynamics will be improved when experimental approaches better estimate the magnitude and causes of variation in strength of stabilizing density <span class="hlt">dependence</span>. PMID:17536410</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schmitt, Russell J; Holbrook, Sally J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">102</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22550068"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ca(2+)-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> desensitization of insulin secretion by <span class="hlt">strong</span> potassium depolarization.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Depolarization by a high K(+) concentration is a widely used experimental tool to stimulate insulin secretion. The effects occurring after the initial rise in secretion were investigated here. After the initial peak a fast decline occurred, which was followed by a slowly progressive decrease in secretion when a <span class="hlt">strong</span> K(+) depolarization was used. At 40 mM KCl, but not at lower concentrations, the decrease continued when the glucose concentration was raised from 5 to 10 mM, suggesting an inhibitory effect of the K(+) depolarization. When tolbutamide was added instead of the glucose concentration being raised, a complete inhibition down to prestimulatory values was observed. Equimolar reduction of the NaCl concentration to preserve isoosmolarity enabled an increase in secretion in response to glucose. Unexpectedly, the same was true when the Na(+)-reduced media were made hyperosmolar by choline chloride or mannitol. The insulinotropic effect of tolbutamide was not rescued by the compensatory reduction of NaCl, suggesting a requirement for activated energy metabolism. These inhibitory effects could not be explained by a lack of depolarizing strength or by a diminished free cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)). Rather, the complexation of extracellular Ca(2+) concomitant with the K(+) depolarization markedly diminished [Ca(2+)](i) and attenuated the inhibitory action of 40 mM KCl. This suggests that a <span class="hlt">strong</span> but not a moderate depolarization by K(+) induces a [Ca(2+)](i)-<span class="hlt">dependent</span>, slowly progressive desensitization of the secretory machinery. In contrast, the decline immediately following the initial peak of secretion may result from the inactivation of voltage-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> Ca(2+) channels. PMID:22550068</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Willenborg, M; Belz, M; Schumacher, K; Paufler, A; Hatlapatka, K; Rustenbeck, I</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">103</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..118.3650N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hourly global irradiance from satellite data in Badajoz, Spain: <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> and temporal <span class="hlt">dependence</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Satellite estimates of solar radiation at the hourly scale <span class="hlt">depend</span> on the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and temporal variability of solar radiation within a region. To examine this effect, a field program was established near Badajoz, Spain (38.88°N, 7.01°W) consisting in deployment of seven pyranometers at or adjoining the Meteosat pixel for the area. A simple semiempirical retrieval approach based on the satellite reflectance was developed using data from one pyranometer station at the University campus and subsequently tested with an independent data set for the same station. The accuracy of the satellite estimate is a <span class="hlt">strong</span> function of the averaging period and the frequency of satellite scans used. At the hourly scale, best estimates of solar irradiance are obtained with satellite data taken every 5 min, giving a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.883. Within-pixel <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variability of measured irradiance is substantial but only for averaging periods less than 1 h. Comparison of surface point measurements with the satellite retrieval algorithm at the 5 min scale are associated with a relative RMS difference of 20.2% out of which 19.5% is due to model-induced uncertainties and 5.2% is due to instrumentation uncertainties involved in the retrieval process. Within-pixel point sampling will lower both the instrument uncertainty and the uncertainty in the retrieval algorithm for averaging periods lower than 1 h. Beyond this time, a single pyranometer is well representative of the overhead cloud structure, reaching root mean square difference values of 14% at the hourly scale.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nunez, M.; Serrano, A.; Cancillo, M. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">104</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21192112"> <span id="translatedtitle">Microscopic calculation and local approximation of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the pairing field with bare and induced interactions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The bare nucleon-nucleon interaction is essential for the production of pair correlations in nuclei, but an important contribution also arises from the induced interaction resulting from the exchange of collective vibrations between nucleons moving in time reversal states close to the Fermi energy. The pairing field resulting from the summed interaction is <span class="hlt">strongly</span> peaked at the nuclear surface. It is possible to reproduce the detailed <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of this field by using either a local approximation, which fully takes into account finite size effects, or a contact interaction, with parameters that are quite different from those commonly used in more phenomenological approaches.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pastore, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Barranco, F. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada III, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Camino de los Descubrimientos s/n, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Broglia, R. A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Vigezzi, E. [INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-08-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">105</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3058051"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ascaroside Expression in Caenorhabditis elegans Is <span class="hlt">Strongly</span> <span class="hlt">Dependent</span> on Diet and Developmental Stage</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background The ascarosides form a family of small molecules that have been isolated from cultures of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. They are often referred to as “dauer pheromones” because most of them induce formation of long-lived and highly stress resistant dauer larvae. More recent studies have shown that ascarosides serve additional functions as social signals and mating pheromones. Thus, ascarosides have multiple functions. Until now, it has been generally assumed that ascarosides are constitutively expressed during nematode development. Methodology/Principal Findings Cultures of C. elegans were developmentally synchronized on controlled diets. Ascarosides released into the media, as well as stored internally, were quantified by LC/MS. We found that ascaroside biosynthesis and release were <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on developmental stage and diet. The male attracting pheromone was verified to be a blend of at least four ascarosides, and peak production of the two most potent mating pheromone components, ascr#3 and asc#8 immediately preceded or coincided with the temporal window for mating. The concentration of ascr#2 increased under starvation conditions and peaked during dauer formation, <span class="hlt">strongly</span> supporting ascr#2 as the main population density signal (dauer pheromone). After dauer formation, ascaroside production largely ceased and dauer larvae did not release any ascarosides. These findings show that both total ascaroside production and the relative proportions of individual ascarosides <span class="hlt">strongly</span> correlate with these compounds' stage-specific biological functions. Conclusions/Significance Ascaroside expression changes with development and environmental conditions. This is consistent with multiple functions of these signaling molecules. Knowledge of such differential regulation will make it possible to associate ascaroside production to gene expression profiles (transcript, protein or enzyme activity) and help to determine genetic pathways that control ascaroside biosynthesis. In conjunction with findings from previous studies, our results show that the pheromone system of C. elegans mimics that of insects in many ways, suggesting that pheromone signaling in C. elegans may exhibit functional homology also at the sensory level. In addition, our results provide a <span class="hlt">strong</span> foundation for future behavioral modeling studies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kaplan, Fatma; Srinivasan, Jagan; Mahanti, Parag; Ajredini, Ramadan; Durak, Omer; Nimalendran, Rathika; Sternberg, Paul W.; Teal, Peter E. A.; Schroeder, Frank C.; Edison, Arthur S.; Alborn, Hans T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">106</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012BGD.....914639L"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> scale <span class="hlt">dependency</span> of the modelled climatic response to deforestation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Deforestation is associated with increased atmospheric CO2 and alterations to the surface energy and mass balances that can lead to local and global climate changes. Previous modelling studies show that the global surface air temperature (SAT) response to deforestation <span class="hlt">depends</span> on latitude, with most simulations showing that high latitude deforestation results in cooling, low latitude deforestation causes warming and that the mid latitude response is mixed. These earlier conclusions are based on simulated large scale land cover change, with complete removal of trees from whole latitude bands. Using a global climate model we determine effects of removing fractions of 5% to 100% of forested areas in the high, mid and low latitudes. All high latitude deforestation scenarios reduce mean global SAT, the opposite occurring for low latitude deforestation, although a decrease in SAT is registered over low latitude deforested areas. Mid latitude SAT response is mixed. For all simulations deforested areas tend to become drier and have lower surface air temperature, although soil temperatures increase over deforested mid and low latitude grid cells. For high latitude deforestation fractions of 45% and above, larger net primary productivity, in conjunction with colder and drier conditions after deforestation, cause an increase in soil carbon large enough to generate a previously not reported net drawdown of CO2 from the atmosphere. Our results support previous indications of the importance of changes in cloud cover in the modelled temperature response to deforestation at low latitudes. They also show the complex interaction between soil carbon dynamics and climate and the role this plays on the climatic response to land cover change.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Longobardi, P.; Montenegro, A.; Beltrami, H.; Eby, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">107</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/12990261"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chemical formation of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> patterns induced by nonlinearity in a concentration-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> diffusion coefficient</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">1. Background The study of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> pattern formation driven by the coupling of reaction with diffusion has been confined, by and large, to <span class="hlt">strong</span> nonlinearities in the chemical kinetics terms.' The aim of this report is to demonstrate that if nonlinearity is introduced into the diffusion term, patterns evolve through coupling with even simple chemical reactions (which otherwise show no</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michael L. Kagan; Ronnie Kosloff; Ofra Citri; David Avnir</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">108</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApPhB.112..279W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pump power <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> gating properties of femtosecond optical Kerr effect measurements</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The pump power <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> gating properties of femtosecond optical Kerr gate (OKG) was investigated using coaxial two-color optical Kerr measurements in CS2. As the pump power increased, the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> pattern of the optical Kerr signals changed from a Gaussian spot to a ring form, and then a spot surrounded by a concentric ring, successively. By comparing the experimental data with the calculation results and measuring the pump power <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the OKG signal intensity, we demonstrated that the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variation of OKG transmittance could be attributed to the non-uniform <span class="hlt">spatially</span> distributed phase change of the probe beam, due to the transient birefringence effect induced by pump beam with transverse mode of a Gaussian distribution.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Xiaofang; He, Pengchao; Yan, Lihe; Si, Jinhai; Chen, Feng; Hou, Xun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">109</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19717206"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> and temporal features of density-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> contaminant transport: experimental investigation and numerical modeling.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigate the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and temporal features of variable-density contaminant plumes migration in porous materials. Our analysis is supported by novel experimental results concerning concentration profiles inside a vertical column setup that has been conceived at CEA to this aim. The experimental method relies on X-ray spectrometry, which allows determining solute profiles as a function of time at several positions along the column. The salient outcomes of the measurements are elucidated, with focus on miscible fluids in homogeneous saturated media. The role of the injected solution molarity is evidenced. As molarity increases, the solutes plume transport progressively deviates from the usual Fickian behavior, and pollutants distribution becomes skewed in the direction dictated by gravity. By resorting to a finite elements approach, we numerically solve the nonlinear equations that rule the pollutants migration: a good agreement is found between the simulated profiles and the experimental data. At high molarity, a <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on initial conditions is found. Finally, we qualitatively explore the (unstable) interfacial dynamics between the dense contaminant plume and the lighter resident fluid that saturates the column, and detail its evolution for finite-duration contaminant injections. PMID:19717206</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zoia, Andrea; Latrille, Christelle; Beccantini, Alberto; Cartadale, Alain</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-07-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">110</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.psychology.uiowa.edu/faculty/lee/SNU.Leehome/LEE%20KESNER%20JN%20HIPP%20PFC%202003.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Time-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Relationship between the Dorsal Hippocampus and the Prefrontal Cortex in <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Memory</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The prefrontal cortex and the dorsal hippocampus have been studied extensively for their significant roles in <span class="hlt">spatial</span> working memory. A possible time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> functional relationship between the prefrontal cortex and the dorsal hippocampus in <span class="hlt">spatial</span> working memory was tested. A combined lesion and pharmacological inactivation technique targeting both the dorsal hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex was used (i.e., axon-sparing lesions</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Inah Lee; Raymond P. Kesner</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">111</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.4054M"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> nonlinear <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the spectral amplification factors of deep Vrancea earthquakes magnitude</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nonlinear effects in ground motion during large earthquakes have long been a controversial issue between seismologists and geotechnical engineers. Aki wrote in 1993:"Nonlinear amplification at sediments sites appears to be more pervasive than seismologists used to think…Any attempt at seismic zonation must take into account the local site condition and this nonlinear amplification( Local site effects on weak and <span class="hlt">strong</span> ground motion, Tectonophysics,218,93-111). In other words, the seismological detection of the nonlinear site effects requires a simultaneous understanding of the effects of earthquake source, propagation path and local geological site conditions. The difficulty for seismologists in demonstrating the nonlinear site effects has been due to the effect being overshadowed by the overall patterns of shock generation and path propagation. The researchers from National Institute for Earth Physics ,in order to make quantitative evidence of large nonlinear effects, introduced the spectral amplification factor (SAF) as ratio between maximum spectral absolute acceleration (Sa), relative velocity (Sv) , relative displacement (Sd) from response spectra for a fraction of critical damping at fundamental period and peak values of acceleration(a-max),velocity (v-max) and displacement (d-max),respectively, from processed <span class="hlt">strong</span> motion record and pointed out that there is a <span class="hlt">strong</span> nonlinear <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on earthquake magnitude and site conditions.The spectral amplification factors(SAF) are finally computed for absolute accelerations at 5% fraction of critical damping (?=5%) in five seismic stations: Bucharest-INCERC(soft soils, quaternary layers with a total thickness of 800 m);Bucharest-Magurele (dense sand and loess on 350m); Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant site (marl, loess, limestone on 270 m) Bacau(gravel and loess on 20m) and Iassy (loess, sand, clay, gravel on 60 m) for last <span class="hlt">strong</span> and deep Vrancea earthquakes: March 4,1977 (MGR =7.2 and h=95 km);August 30,1986(MGR =7.0 and h=130 km);May 30,1990 (MGR =6.7 and h=90 km) and May 31,1990 (MGR =6.1 and h=87 km). With a view to understand the characteristics of nonlinear soil behavior and the nonlinearity in the seismology and the influence to hazard and risk assessment ,this study examined the ways that nonlinearity would expected to appear on <span class="hlt">strong</span> motion records made on Romania territory during to last Vrancea earthquake. The effect on nonlinearity is very large. For example, if we maintain the same amplification factor (SAF=5.8942) as for relatively <span class="hlt">strong</span> earthquake on May 31,1990 with magnitude Ms =6,1 then at Bacau seismic station for earthquake on May 30,1990 (MGR =6.7) the peak acceleration has to be a*max =0.154g( +14.16%) and the actual recorded was only, a max =0.135g. Also, for Vrancea earthquake on August 30,1986, the peak acceleration has to be a*max=0.107g (+45,57%), instead of real value of 0.0736 g recorded at Bacau seismic station. More, the spectral amplification factors(SAF) are function of earthquake magnitude and there is a <span class="hlt">strong</span> nonlinear <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the SAF of earthquake magnitude. The median values of SAF of the last <span class="hlt">strong</span> Vrancea earthquakes for damping 5% are: 4.16; 3.63 and 3.26 corresponding to May 31,1990 Vrancea earthquake (Ms=6.1),May 30,1990 Vrancea earthquake(Ms=6.7),respectively, August 30,1986 Vrancea one(Ms=7.0). At the same seismic station, for example at Bacau, for 5% damping, SAF for accelerations is 5.22 for May 31,1990 earthquake (Ms =6.1);4.32 for May 30,1990 earthquake (Ms =6.7) and 3,94 for August 30,1986 one (Ms=7.0) etc. Finally, it will be made a comment in connection to U.S. Atomic Energy Commission-Regulatory Guide 1.60 on "Design Response Spectra for seismic design of nuclear power plants " to see spectral amplification factors for deep Vrancea earthquakes are larger and different.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marmureanu, Gheorghe; Ortanza Cioflan, Carmen; Marmureanu, Alexandru</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">112</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMMR21A1989W"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strongly</span> Composition-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Partial Molar Compressibility of Water in Silicate Glasses</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Water and other volatiles have long been known to play a fundamental role in igneous processes, yet their influence on the physical properties of melts are still not well enough understood. Of particular interest is the density contrast between liquid and solid phases, which facilitates melt extraction and migration. Owing to its low molecular weight, dissolved water must decrease magma density, but the way it does so as a function of pressure remains largely to be determined. Studies on quenched melts (glasses) provide useful information because the glass has the same structure as the melt. We measured compressional and shear wave velocities of seven series of hydrous aluminosilicate glasses by Brillouin scattering at room temperature and pressure. The glasses were quenched from high temperature and 2 or 3 kbar pressure. The dry end-members range from highly polymerized albitic and granitic compositions, to depolymerized synthetic analogues of mantle-derived melts. For each set of glasses, the adiabatic shear and bulk moduli have been calculated from the measured sound velocities and densities. These moduli are linear functions of water content up to 5 wt % H2O, the highest concentration investigated, indicating that both are independent of water speciation in all series. For water-free glasses, the bulk modulus decreases from about 65 to 35 GPa with increasing degree of polymerization. Sympathetically, the partial molar bulk modulus of the water component decreases from 114 to 8 GPa, such that dissolved water amplifies the differences in rigidity between the anhydrous glasses. This <span class="hlt">strong</span> variation indicates that the solubility mechanisms of water <span class="hlt">depend</span> <span class="hlt">strongly</span> on silicate composition. Depolymerized liquids are also much less compressible than their polymerized counterparts, suggesting that the partial molar compressibility of dissolved water approaches zero in depolymerized liquids. If this is correct, hydrous mantle melts formed beneath volcanic arcs would be more buoyant at depth than previously thought, facilitating their extraction and rapid ascent.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Whittington, A. G.; Richet, P.; Polian, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">113</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10686164"> <span id="translatedtitle">Population Dynamic and Genetic Consequences of <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Density-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Dispersal in Patchy Populations.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Predictions about sex-specific, <span class="hlt">spatial</span> density-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> dispersal and their demographic and genetic consequences were tested in experimental populations of root voles (Microtus oeconomus). Each population consisted of two demes inhabiting equal-sized habitat patches imbedded in a barren matrix area. We used a neutral two-allele allozyme marker to monitor gene flow. Initially, the two demes were genetically distinct and had different densities so that the size of a high-density deme (genotype bb) was four times larger than that of a low-density deme (genotype aa). The sex-specific dispersal pattern was in accordance with our prediction. Male dispersal was unconditional on deme-specific densities, and the majority of the first-generation males became dispersed from both demes, whereas female dispersal was <span class="hlt">strongly</span> density <span class="hlt">dependent</span>, so that dispersal took place exclusively from the high-density to the low-density deme. The demographic implication of this dispersal pattern was that the initial density difference between the demes was quickly canceled out. We built a mathematical model that predicted that the initially rare allele (a) would increase in frequency given the dispersal pattern, and this was supported by our experimental data. This result relies mostly on the density-independent male-dispersal strategy, which presumably stems from inbreeding avoidance. Our study highlights the importance of incorporating sex-specific dispersal strategies in population genetic models. Sex-biased dispersal may act as a deterministic force counteracting the tendency for stochastic loss of alleles in small and fragmented populations. PMID:10686164</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aars; Ims</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">114</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5111705"> <span id="translatedtitle">Configurational <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the optical properties of. pi. -conjugated polymers. I. <span class="hlt">Strong</span> disorder limit</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the optical properties (..pi pi..* energy gap, polarizability, oscillator strength) of polyenes on chain length, degree of bond alternation, and backbone configuration are studied theoretically. For all-trans polyenes a modified form of Hueckel theory is proposed which is analytically simple and well behaved in the high polymer limit. Comparison with exact valence bond calculations for short polyene chains and the infinite chain limit reveals that the method is quantitatively accurate for the polarizability and qualitatively reliable for other properties and degrees of bond alternation. Modification of the optical properties by the presence of conjugation-disrupting defects along the polymer backbone is addressed by combining molecular orbital and statistical mechanical techniques. The specific case when the rotational defects severely localize the ..pi.. electrons (<span class="hlt">strong</span> disorder) is treated in detail. The disordered polymer configurations are classified by the defect density or mean conjugation length as the primary order parameter. The effects of conjugation length fluctuations and both long and short range defect interactions on the optical properties are determined. Experimental implications for ..pi..-conjugated polymers in condensed phases are briefly discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schweizer, K.S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">115</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JHEP...07..024A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Coupling <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of jet quenching in hot <span class="hlt">strongly</span>-coupled gauge theories</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Previous top-down studies of jet stopping in <span class="hlt">strongly</span>-coupled QCD-like plasmas with gravity duals have been in the infinite 't Hooft coupling limit ? ? ?. They have found that, though a wide range of jet stopping distances are possible <span class="hlt">depending</span> on initial conditions, the maximum jet stopping distance ?max scales with energy as E 1/3 at large energy. But it has always been unclear whether the large-coupling and high-energy limits commute. In this paper, we use the string ? ' expansion in AdS-CFT to study the corrections to the ? = ? result in powers of 1/ ?. For the particular type of "jets" that we study, we find that (i) the naive expansion in 1/ ? breaks down for certain initial conditions but (ii) the relative corrections to the maximum stopping distance are small when 1/ ? is small. More specifically, we find that the expansion in 1/ ? is well behaved for jets whose stopping distance ?stop is in the range ? -1/6?max ? ?stop ? ?max, but the expansion breaks down (and the fate of ? = ? results is uncertain) for jets created in such a way that ?stop ? ? -1/6?max. The analysis requires assessing the effects of all higher-derivative corrections to the supergravity action for the gravity dual.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arnold, Peter; Szepietowski, Phillip; Vaman, Diana</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">116</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2602691"> <span id="translatedtitle">Restricted dispersal reduces the strength of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> density <span class="hlt">dependence</span> in a tropical bird population</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> processes could play an important role in density-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> population regulation because the disproportionate use of poor quality habitats as population size increases is widespread in animal populations—the so-called buffer effect. While the buffer effect patterns and their demographic consequences have been described in a number of wild populations, much less is known about how dispersal affects distribution patterns and ultimately density <span class="hlt">dependence</span>. Here, we investigated the role of dispersal in <span class="hlt">spatial</span> density <span class="hlt">dependence</span> using an extraordinarily detailed dataset from a reintroduced Mauritius kestrel (Falco punctatus) population with a territorial (despotic) breeding system. We show that recruitment rates varied significantly between territories, and that territory occupancy was related to its recruitment rate, both of which are consistent with the buffer effect theory. However, we also show that restricted dispersal affects the patterns of territory occupancy with the territories close to release sites being occupied sooner and for longer as the population has grown than the territories further away. As a result of these dispersal patterns, the strength of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> density <span class="hlt">dependence</span> is significantly reduced. We conclude that restricted dispersal can modify <span class="hlt">spatial</span> density <span class="hlt">dependence</span> in the wild, which has implications for the way population dynamics are likely to be impacted by environmental change.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Burgess, Malcolm D; Nicoll, Malcolm A.C; Jones, Carl G; Norris, Ken</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">117</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22047373"> <span id="translatedtitle">CONCERNING THE CLASSICAL CEPHEID VI{sub C} WESENHEIT FUNCTION'S <span class="hlt">STRONG</span> METALLICITY <span class="hlt">DEPENDENCE</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Evidence is presented which supports findings that the classical Cepheid VI{sub C} period Wesenheit function is relatively insensitive to metallicity. The viability of a recently advocated <span class="hlt">strong</span> metallicity <span class="hlt">dependence</span> was evaluated by applying the proposed correction ({gamma} = -0.8 mag dex{sup -1}) to distances established for the Magellanic Clouds via a Galactic VI{sub C} Wesenheit calibration, which is anchored to 10 nearby classical Cepheids with measured Hubble Space Telescope (HST) parallaxes. The resulting {gamma}-corrected distances for the Magellanic Clouds (e.g., Small Magellanic Cloud, {mu}{sub 0,{gamma}} {approx} 18.3) are in significant disagreement with that established from a mean of >300 published estimates (NED-D), and a universal Wesenheit template featuring 11 {delta} Scuti, SX Phe, RR Lyrae, and Type II Cepheid variables with HST/Hipparcos parallaxes. Conversely, adopting a null correction (i.e., {gamma} = 0 mag dex{sup -1}) consolidates the estimates. In tandem with existing evidence, the results imply that variations in chemical composition among Cepheids are a comparatively negligible source of uncertainty for W{sub VIc}-based extragalactic distances and determinations of H{sub 0}. A new approach is described which aims to provide additional Galactic Cepheid calibrators to facilitate subsequent assessments of the VI{sub C} Wesenheit function's relative (in) sensitivity to abundance changes. VVV/UKIDSS/Two Micron All Sky Survey JHK{sub s} photometry for clusters in spiral arms shall be employed to establish a precise galactic longitude-distance relation, which can be applied in certain cases to determine the absolute Wesenheit magnitudes for younger Cepheids.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Majaess, D.; Turner, D. [Department of Astronomy and Physics, Saint Mary's University, Halifax, NS (Canada); Gieren, W., E-mail: dmajaess@cygnus.smu.ca [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">118</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/16290877"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> consistency of density estimation by orthogonal series methods for <span class="hlt">dependent</span> variables with applications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Among several widely use methods of nonparametric density estimation is the technique of orthogonal series advocated by several\\u000a authors. For such estimate when the observations are assumed to have been taken from <span class="hlt">strong</span> mixing sequence in the sense of\\u000a Rosenblatt [7] we study <span class="hlt">strong</span> consistency by developing probability inequality for bounded <span class="hlt">strongly</span> mixing random variables.\\u000a The results obtained are then</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ibrahim A. Ahmad</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">119</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/15028980"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thermal maps of Jupiter - <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> organization and time <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of stratospheric temperatures, 1980 to 1990</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">spatial</span> organization and time <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of Jupiter's stratospheric temperatures have been measured by observing thermal emission from the 7.8-micrometer CH4 band. These temperatures, observed through the greater part of a Jovian year, exhibit the influence of seasonal radiative forcing. Distinct bands of high temperature are located at the poles and midlatitudes, while the equator alternates between warm and cold</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. S. Orton; A. J. Friedson; J. Caldwell; H. B. Hammel; K. H. Baines; J. T. Bergstralh; T. Z. Martin; M. E. Malcom; R. A. West; W. F. Golisch; D. M. Griep; C. D. Kaminski; A. T. Tokunaga; R. Baron; M. Shure</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">120</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/r10713t0794j1l40.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Large time behavior in a nonlinear age-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> population dynamics problem with <span class="hlt">spatial</span> diffusion</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this work we analyze the large time behavior in a nonlinear model of population dynamics with age-<span class="hlt">dependence</span> and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> diffusion. We show that when t?+8 either the solution of our problem goes to 0 or it stabilizes to a nontrivial stationary solution. We give two typical examples where the stationary solutions can be evaluated upon solving very simple partial</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michel Langlais</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' 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showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">121</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/20028006"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Inhomogeneity of Tissue Thermal Parameter of Ebbini's Model and Its <span class="hlt">Dependency</span> on Temperature</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The thermal parameter k of Ebbini's model (i.e., expressed by the temperature coefficients of ultrasound speed and volume change) for temperature measurement is experimentally investigated using a fresh calf liver specimen in vitro. It is found that k is <span class="hlt">spatially</span> inhomogeneous and <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on temperature and thermal exposure time. It is also clarified that it is difficult to accurately measure</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chikayoshi Sumi; Hiroyuki Yanagimura</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">122</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/4126867"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dopamine-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> facilitation of LTP induction in hippocampal CA1 by exposure to <span class="hlt">spatial</span> novelty</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In addition to its role in memory formation, the hippocampus may act as a novelty detector. Here we investigated whether attention to novel events can promote the associative synaptic plasticity mechanisms believed to be necessary for storing those events in memory. We therefore examined whether exposure to a novel <span class="hlt">spatial</span> environment promoted the induction of activity-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> persistent increases in glutamatergic</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shaomin Li; William K. Cullen; Roger Anwyl; Michael J. Rowan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">123</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37090880"> <span id="translatedtitle">Force and kinesin-8-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> effects in the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> regulation of fission yeast microtubule dynamics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Microtubules (MTs) are central to the organisation of the eukaryotic intracellular space and are involved in the control of cell morphology. For these purposes, MT polymerisation dynamics are tightly regulated. Using automated image analysis software, we investigate the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of MT dynamics in interphase fission yeast cells with unprecedented statistical accuracy. We find that MT catastrophe frequencies (switches from</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Damian Brunner; Marileen Dogterom; Christian Tischer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">124</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/36520416"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effect of educational test scores on house prices in a model with <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The hedonic modeling literature is rich with analyses of the importance of public school quality on real estate markets. In this paper, <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependency</span> is incorporated in a hedonic model based on housing, neighborhood, demographic, and school quality attributes readily available on the Internet for home sales in Howard County, Maryland. The importance of using readily available measures is that</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Norman H. Sedgley; Nancy A. Williams; Frederick W. Derrick</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">125</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2873902"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of Low-Level Stimulus Features, Task <span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Factors, and <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Biases on Overt Visual Attention</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Visual attention is thought to be driven by the interplay between low-level visual features and task <span class="hlt">dependent</span> information content of local image regions, as well as by <span class="hlt">spatial</span> viewing biases. Though <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on experimental paradigms and model assumptions, this idea has given rise to varying claims that either bottom-up or top-down mechanisms dominate visual attention. To contribute toward a resolution of this discussion, here we quantify the influence of these factors and their relative importance in a set of classification tasks. Our stimuli consist of individual image patches (bubbles). For each bubble we derive three measures: a measure of salience based on low-level stimulus features, a measure of salience based on the task <span class="hlt">dependent</span> information content derived from our subjects' classification responses and a measure of salience based on <span class="hlt">spatial</span> viewing biases. Furthermore, we measure the empirical salience of each bubble based on our subjects' measured eye gazes thus characterizing the overt visual attention each bubble receives. A multivariate linear model relates the three salience measures to overt visual attention. It reveals that all three salience measures contribute significantly. The effect of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> viewing biases is highest and rather constant in different tasks. The contribution of task <span class="hlt">dependent</span> information is a close runner-up. Specifically, in a standardized task of judging facial expressions it scores highly. The contribution of low-level features is, on average, somewhat lower. However, in a prototypical search task, without an available template, it makes a <span class="hlt">strong</span> contribution on par with the two other measures. Finally, the contributions of the three factors are only slightly redundant, and the semi-partial correlation coefficients are only slightly lower than the coefficients for full correlations. These data provide evidence that all three measures make significant and independent contributions and that none can be neglected in a model of human overt visual attention.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Konig, Peter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">126</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/12405555"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sedimentation of <span class="hlt">Strongly</span> and Weakly Charged Colloidal Particles: Prediction of Fractional Density <span class="hlt">Dependence</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report on calculations of the reduced sedimentation velocity U\\/U0 in homogenous suspensions of <span class="hlt">strongly</span> and weakly charged colloidal spheres as a function of particle volume fraction ?. For dilute suspensions of <span class="hlt">strongly</span> charged spheres at low salinity, U\\/U0 is well represented by the parametric form 1 ? p?? with a fractional exponent ? = 13 and a parameter p</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martin Watzlawek; Gerhard Nägele</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">127</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23293591"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hippocampus-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> place learning enables <span class="hlt">spatial</span> flexibility in C57BL6/N mice.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> navigation is a fundamental capability necessary in everyday life to locate food, social partners, and shelter. It results from two very different strategies: (1) place learning which enables for flexible way finding and (2) response learning that leads to a more rigid "route following." Despite the importance of knockout techniques that are only available in mice, little is known about mice' flexibility in <span class="hlt">spatial</span> navigation tasks. Here we demonstrate for C57BL6/N mice in a water-cross maze (WCM) that only place learning enables <span class="hlt">spatial</span> flexibility and relearning of a platform position, whereas response learning does not. This capability <span class="hlt">depends</span> on an intact hippocampal formation, since hippocampus lesions by ibotenic acid (IA) disrupted relearning. In vivo manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging revealed a volume loss of ?60% of the hippocampus as a critical threshold for relearning impairments. In particular the changes in the left ventral hippocampus were indicative of relearning deficits. In summary, our findings establish the importance of hippocampus-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> place learning for <span class="hlt">spatial</span> flexibility and provide a first systematic analysis on <span class="hlt">spatial</span> flexibility in mice. PMID:23293591</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kleinknecht, Karl R; Bedenk, Benedikt T; Kaltwasser, Sebastian F; Grünecker, Barbara; Yen, Yi-Chun; Czisch, Michael; Wotjak, Carsten T</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">128</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.U11B..07A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multi-scale Convection in a Mantle with <span class="hlt">Strongly</span> Temperature-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> Rheology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Owing to the heterogeneity and complex rheology of mantle material, several scales of convection coexist in the Earth's mantle, producing cold linear slabs, mid-ocean ridges, 3D superswells and hot spots. However, if those features have individually been generated and studied in numerical and laboratory experiments, the exact conditions for their coexistence in a self-consistent convective model have remained elusive. We studied the characteristics of thermal instabilities developping when a layer of sugar syrup, a fluid with a <span class="hlt">strongly</span> temperature-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> viscosity and high Prandtl number (> 7000), is heated from below and cooled from above. A new visualization technique allowed to determine both the temperature and velocity fields inside the experimental tank. We focuss on high Rayleigh numbers (1.7x106 to 3.3x107) and intermediate viscosity ratios (7 to 4100). For this parameter range, "sluggish lid" convection occurs, in which three different scales of convection develop. Owing to the viscosity increase with decreasing temperature, the tank thermal structure becomes asymmetric: thermal boundary layer (TBL) instabilities, typical of high Rayleigh number convection, develop under the coldest, therefore most viscous, part of the upper thermal boundary layer which cannot move as fast as the less viscous fluid. The largest convective scale is therefore cellular, with cold downwelling sheets of viscous fluid encasing hotter parts of the tank. Within each of those cells develop several (typically 3 to 7) hot 3D upwelling plumes. Upon impinging under the cold TBL, each plume in turn generates locally a small ring of cold material which does not reach the bottom of the tank. The introduction of a denser layer at the bottom of the tank can vary the morphology of the hot instabilities but has no influence on the existence of the large-scale cold circulation. Hence high Rayleigh thermal convection in the sluggish lid regim can produce large-scale cells delimited by cold subducting slabs, within which several 3D plumes develop. On Earth, two of such cells exist, the Pacific and the Indo-Atlantic boxes. Our experiments further suggest that what has been named the two "hot superplumes", i.e. the two seismically slow regions encased within the subduction rings, are in fact each constitued of several hot instabilities.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Androvandi, S.; Davaille, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">129</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3157431"> <span id="translatedtitle">Systematic <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Bias in DNA Microarray Hybridization Is Caused by Probe Spot Position-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Variability in Lateral Diffusion</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background The hybridization of nucleic acid targets with surface-immobilized probes is a widely used assay for the parallel detection of multiple targets in medical and biological research. Despite its widespread application, DNA microarray technology still suffers from several biases and lack of reproducibility, stemming in part from an incomplete understanding of the processes governing surface hybridization. In particular, non-random <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variations within individual microarray hybridizations are often observed, but the mechanisms underpinning this positional bias remain incompletely explained. Methodology/Principal Findings This study identifies and rationalizes a systematic <span class="hlt">spatial</span> bias in the intensity of surface hybridization, characterized by markedly increased signal intensity of spots located at the boundaries of the spotted areas of the microarray slide. Combining observations from a simplified single-probe block array format with predictions from a mathematical model, the mechanism responsible for this bias is found to be a position-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> variation in lateral diffusion of target molecules. Numerical simulations reveal a <span class="hlt">strong</span> influence of microarray well geometry on the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> bias. Conclusions Reciprocal adjustment of the size of the microarray hybridization chamber to the area of surface-bound probes is a simple and effective measure to minimize or eliminate the diffusion-based bias, resulting in increased uniformity and accuracy of quantitative DNA microarray hybridization.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Haider, Susanne; Horn, Matthias; Wagner, Michael; Stocker, Roman; Loy, Alexander</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">130</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012OptEn..51k1712U"> <span id="translatedtitle">Maximum likelihood estimation of <span class="hlt">spatially</span> correlated signal-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> noise in hyperspectral images</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new algorithm is described for estimating the noise model parameters in hyperspectral data when neither noise components variance nor noise <span class="hlt">spatial</span>/spectral correlation priors are available. A maximum likelihood (ML) technique is introduced for checking the noise <span class="hlt">spatial</span> correlation hypothesis and estimating the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> correlation function width alongside with estimating signal-independent and signal-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> noise components variance. The hyperspectral image is assumed to match a limited set of assumptions. A three-dimensional (3-D) fractional Brownian motion (fBm) model is introduced for describing locally the texture of the 3-D image noisy textural fragment. Nonstationarity of the useful image signal is taken into account by performing the estimation locally on a 3-D block-by-block basis. The accuracy of the proposed algorithm is first illustrated for synthetic images obtained from either pure fBm or almost noise-free AVIRIS hyperspectral images artificially degraded with <span class="hlt">spatially</span> correlated noise. The results obtained for synthetic images demonstrate appropriate accuracy and robustness of the proposed method. Then results obtained for real life AVIRIS hyperspectral data sets confirm the noise <span class="hlt">spatial</span> uncorrelation hypothesis for images acquired by the AVIRIS sensor. Conclusions and open problems are outlined.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Uss, Mykhail L.; Vozel, Benoit; Lukin, Vladimir V.; Chehdi, Kacem</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">131</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.geocomputation.org/2005/Miller.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Comparison of Methods for Incorporating <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> in Predictive Vegetation Models: A Mojave Desert Case Study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, presence\\/absence models of eleven vegetation alliances in a portion of the Mojave Desert (California, USA) were developed using generalized linear models (GLM) and classification tree (CT) models, and two different methods for explicitly incorporating <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span>. In the first method, <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> was included as a model term, along with environmental variables, and predictions were generated. In</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jennifer Miller</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">132</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20991146"> <span id="translatedtitle">Relativistic scattering with a <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> effective mass in the Dirac equation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We formulate a relativistic algebraic method of scattering for systems with <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> mass based on the J-matrix method. The reference Hamiltonian is the three-dimensional Dirac Hamiltonian but with a mass that is position-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> with a constant asymptotic limit. Additionally, this effective mass distribution is locally represented in a finite dimensional function subspace. The spinor couples to spherically symmetric vector and pseudo scalar potentials that are short-range such that they are accurately represented by their matrix elements in the same finite dimensional subspace. We calculate the relativistic phase shift as a function of energy for a given configuration and study the effect of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variation of the mass on the energy resonance structure.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alhaidari, A. D. [Shura Council, Riyadh 11212 (Saudi Arabia); Bahlouli, H.; Abdelmonem, M. S. [Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Hasan, A. [Samba Financial Group, Riyadh 11421 (Saudi Arabia)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-06-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">133</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvB..88o5423M"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> spin-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> negative differential resistance in composite graphene superlattices</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We find clear signatures of spin-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> negative differential resistance in compound systems comprising a graphene nanoribbon and a set of ferromagnetic insulator strips deposited on top of it. The periodic array of ferromagnetic strips induces a proximity exchange splitting of the electronic states in graphene, resulting in the appearance of a superlattice with a spin-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> energy spectrum. The electric current through the device can be highly polarized and both the current and its polarization manifest nonmonotonic <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on the bias voltage. The device operates therefore as an Esaki spin diode, which opens possibilities to design new spintronic circuits.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Munárriz, J.; Gaul, C.; Malyshev, A. V.; Orellana, P. A.; Müller, C. A.; Domínguez-Adame, F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">134</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/44799"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> renormalization scheme <span class="hlt">dependence</span> in {tau}-lepton decay: Fact or fiction?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The question of the renormalization scheme <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the {tau} semileptonic decay rate is examined in response to a recent criticism. Particular attention is payed to a distinction between a consistent quantitative description of this <span class="hlt">dependence</span> and the actual selection of a subset of ``acceptable`` renormalization schemes. It is pointed out that this criticism is valid only within a particular definition of the ``strength`` of the renormalization scheme <span class="hlt">dependence</span> and should not discourage further attempts to use the semileptonic {tau} decay rate for quantitative tests of perturbative QCD.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chyla, J. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">135</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7857247"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hypobaric hypoxia impairs <span class="hlt">spatial</span> memory in an elevation-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> fashion.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effects of various levels of hypobaric hypoxia, exposure to reduced atmospheric pressure, on <span class="hlt">spatial</span> memory in rats were examined. Hypobaric hypoxia simulates high altitude conditions where substantial deficits in human cognitive performance occur. However, few studies have measured cognitive changes in animals during exposure to this type of hypoxia. Male Fischer 344 rats were tested in the learning set version of the Morris water maze, a test known to assess <span class="hlt">spatial</span> memory. Rats were tested at 2 and 6 hours while exposed to a range of simulated altitudes: sea level, 5500 m, 5950 m, and 6400 m. Altitude exposures at 5950 or 6400 m decreased both reference and working memory performance, as demonstrated by latency, distance, and speed measures, in an elevation-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> fashion. During sea level testing on the day following hypobaric exposure, decrements in reference memory were still observed on all <span class="hlt">dependent</span> measures, but only speed was impaired on the working memory task. These results agree with human studies that demonstrate elevation-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> impairments in <span class="hlt">spatial</span> memory performance during exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. The deficits may be attributable to changes in hippocampal cholinergic function. PMID:7857247</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shukitt-Hale, B; Stillman, M J; Welch, D I; Levy, A; Devine, J A; Lieberman, H R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">136</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3441186"> <span id="translatedtitle">On <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Processes and Asymptotic Inference under Near-Epoch <span class="hlt">Dependence</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The development of a general inferential theory for nonlinear models with cross-sectionally or <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> data has been hampered by a lack of appropriate limit theorems. To facilitate a general asymptotic inference theory relevant to economic applications, this paper first extends the notion of near-epoch <span class="hlt">dependent</span> (NED) processes used in the time series literature to random fields. The class of processes that is NED on, say, an ?-mixing process, is shown to be closed under infinite transformations, and thus accommodates models with <span class="hlt">spatial</span> dynamics. This would generally not be the case for the smaller class of ?-mixing processes. The paper then derives a central limit theorem and law of large numbers for NED random fields. These limit theorems allow for fairly general forms of heterogeneity including asymptotically unbounded moments, and accommodate arrays of random fields on unevenly spaced lattices. The limit theorems are employed to establish consistency and asymptotic normality of GMM estimators. These results provide a basis for inference in a wide range of models with <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jenish, Nazgul; Prucha, Ingmar R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">137</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3544717"> <span id="translatedtitle">Native Birds and Alien Insects: <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Density <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> in Songbird Predation of Invading Oak Gallwasps</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Revealing the interactions between alien species and native communities is central to understanding the ecological consequences of range expansion. Much has been learned through study of the communities developing around invading herbivorous insects. Much less, however, is known about the significance of such aliens for native vertebrate predators for which invaders may represent a novel food source. We quantified <span class="hlt">spatial</span> patterns in native bird predation of invading gall-inducing Andricus wasps associated with introduced Turkey oak (Quercus cerris) at eight sites across the UK. These gallwasps are available at high density before the emergence of caterpillars that are the principle spring food of native insectivorous birds. Native birds showed positive <span class="hlt">spatial</span> density <span class="hlt">dependence</span> in gall attack rates at two sites in southern England, foraging most extensively on trees with highest gall densities. In a subsequent study at one of these sites, positive <span class="hlt">spatial</span> density <span class="hlt">dependence</span> persisted through four of five sequential week-long periods of data collection. Both patterns imply that invading galls are a significant resource for at least some native bird populations. Density <span class="hlt">dependence</span> was strongest in southern UK bird populations that have had longest exposure to the invading gallwasps. We hypothesise that this pattern results from the time taken for native bird populations to learn how to exploit this novel resource.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schonrogge, Karsten; Begg, Tracey; Stone, Graham N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">138</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23342048"> <span id="translatedtitle">Native birds and alien insects: <span class="hlt">spatial</span> density <span class="hlt">dependence</span> in songbird predation of invading oak gallwasps.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Revealing the interactions between alien species and native communities is central to understanding the ecological consequences of range expansion. Much has been learned through study of the communities developing around invading herbivorous insects. Much less, however, is known about the significance of such aliens for native vertebrate predators for which invaders may represent a novel food source. We quantified <span class="hlt">spatial</span> patterns in native bird predation of invading gall-inducing Andricus wasps associated with introduced Turkey oak (Quercus cerris) at eight sites across the UK. These gallwasps are available at high density before the emergence of caterpillars that are the principle spring food of native insectivorous birds. Native birds showed positive <span class="hlt">spatial</span> density <span class="hlt">dependence</span> in gall attack rates at two sites in southern England, foraging most extensively on trees with highest gall densities. In a subsequent study at one of these sites, positive <span class="hlt">spatial</span> density <span class="hlt">dependence</span> persisted through four of five sequential week-long periods of data collection. Both patterns imply that invading galls are a significant resource for at least some native bird populations. Density <span class="hlt">dependence</span> was strongest in southern UK bird populations that have had longest exposure to the invading gallwasps. We hypothesise that this pattern results from the time taken for native bird populations to learn how to exploit this novel resource. PMID:23342048</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schönrogge, Karsten; Begg, Tracey; Stone, Graham N</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">139</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23583868"> <span id="translatedtitle">Environmental drivers and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependency</span> in wildfire ignition patterns of northwestern Patagonia.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fire management requires an understanding of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> characteristics of fire ignition patterns and how anthropogenic and natural factors influence ignition patterns across space. In this study we take advantage of a recent fire ignition database (855 points) to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> pattern of fire ignitions in the western area of Neuquén province (57,649 km(2)), Argentina, for the 1992-2008 period. The objectives of our study were to better understand the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> pattern and the environmental drivers of the fire ignitions, with the ultimate aim of supporting fire management. We conducted our analyses on three different levels: statistical "habitat" modelling of fire ignition (natural, anthropogenic, and all causes) based on an information theoretic approach to test several competing hypotheses on environmental drivers (i.e. topographic, climatic, anthropogenic, land cover, and their combinations); <span class="hlt">spatial</span> point pattern analysis to quantify additional <span class="hlt">spatial</span> autocorrelation in the ignition patterns; and quantification of potential <span class="hlt">spatial</span> associations between fires of different causes relative to towns using a novel implementation of the independence null model. Anthropogenic fire ignitions were best predicted by the most complex habitat model including all groups of variables, whereas natural ignitions were best predicted by topographic, climatic and land-cover variables. The <span class="hlt">spatial</span> pattern of all ignitions showed considerable clustering at intermediate distances (<40 km) not captured by the probability of fire ignitions predicted by the habitat model. There was a <span class="hlt">strong</span> (linear) and highly significant increase in the density of fire ignitions with decreasing distance to towns (<5 km), but fire ignitions of natural and anthropogenic causes were statistically independent. A two-dimensional habitat model that quantifies differences between ignition probabilities of natural and anthropogenic causes allows fire managers to delineate target areas for consideration of major preventive treatments, strategic placement of fuel treatments, and forecasting of fire ignition. The techniques presented here can be widely applied to situations where a <span class="hlt">spatial</span> point pattern is jointly influenced by extrinsic environmental factors and intrinsic point interactions. PMID:23583868</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mundo, Ignacio A; Wiegand, Thorsten; Kanagaraj, Rajapandian; Kitzberger, Thomas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">140</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/19025497"> <span id="translatedtitle">Itinerant-electron metamagnetism and <span class="hlt">strong</span> pressure <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the Curie temperature</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the Landau coefficients for an itinerant-electron metamagnet is discussed on the spin fluctuation model, by taking the magnetovolume effect into account. Both of the first- and second-order transitions at the Curie temperature TC are possible to take place for an itinerant-electron ferromagnet with a negative mode-mode coupling among spin fluctuations. It is shown that TC <span class="hlt">depends</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. Yamada; K. Fukamichi; T. Goto</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">141</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/wr/wr1009/2009WR008606/2009WR008606.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">strong</span> heterogeneity on the onset of convection in a porous medium: Importance of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> dimensionality and geologic controls</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of <span class="hlt">strong</span> heterogeneity on the onset of convection induced by a vertical density gradient in a saturated heterogeneous porous medium governed by Darcy's law is investigated. A computer package has been developed to study the applicability of an average Rayleigh number as a criterion for the onset of convection in <span class="hlt">strongly</span> heterogeneous geologic media. The heterogeneous geologic media</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Craig T. Simmons; A. V. Kuznetsov; D. A. Nield</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">142</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=544831"> <span id="translatedtitle">Transport lattice models of heat transport in skin with <span class="hlt">spatially</span> heterogeneous, temperature-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> perfusion</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Investigation of bioheat transfer problems requires the evaluation of temporal and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distributions of temperature. This class of problems has been traditionally addressed using the Pennes bioheat equation. Transport of heat by conduction, and by temperature-<span class="hlt">dependent</span>, <span class="hlt">spatially</span> heterogeneous blood perfusion is modeled here using a transport lattice approach. Methods We represent heat transport processes by using a lattice that represents the Pennes bioheat equation in perfused tissues, and diffusion in nonperfused regions. The three layer skin model has a nonperfused viable epidermis, and deeper regions of dermis and subcutaneous tissue with perfusion that is constant or temperature-<span class="hlt">dependent</span>. Two cases are considered: (1) surface contact heating and (2) <span class="hlt">spatially</span> distributed heating. The model is relevant to the prediction of the transient and steady state temperature rise for different methods of power deposition within the skin. Accumulated thermal damage is estimated by using an Arrhenius type rate equation at locations where viable tissue temperature exceeds 42°C. Prediction of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> temperature distributions is also illustrated with a two-dimensional model of skin created from a histological image. Results The transport lattice approach was validated by comparison with an analytical solution for a slab with homogeneous thermal properties and <span class="hlt">spatially</span> distributed uniform sink held at constant temperatures at the ends. For typical transcutaneous blood gas sensing conditions the estimated damage is small, even with prolonged skin contact to a 45°C surface. <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> heterogeneity in skin thermal properties leads to a non-uniform temperature distribution during a 10 GHz electromagnetic field exposure. A realistic two-dimensional model of the skin shows that tissue heterogeneity does not lead to a significant local temperature increase when heated by a hot wire tip. Conclusions The heat transport system model of the skin was solved by exploiting the mathematical analogy between local thermal models and local electrical (charge transport) models, thereby allowing robust, circuit simulation software to obtain solutions to Kirchhoff's laws for the system model. Transport lattices allow systematic introduction of realistic geometry and <span class="hlt">spatially</span> heterogeneous heat transport mechanisms. Local representations for both simple, passive functions and more complex local models can be easily and intuitively included into the system model of a tissue.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gowrishankar, TR; Stewart, Donald A; Martin, Gregory T; Weaver, James C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">143</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21170666"> <span id="translatedtitle">Colour cues or <span class="hlt">spatial</span> cues? Context-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> preferences in the European greenfinch (Carduelis chloris).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using featural cues such as colour to identify ephemeral food can increase foraging efficiency. Featural cues may change over time however; therefore, animals should use <span class="hlt">spatial</span> cues to relocate food that occurs in a temporally stable position. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the cue preferences of captive greenfinches Carduelis chloris when relocating food hidden in a foraging tray. In these standardised associative learning trials, greenfinches favoured colour cues when returning to a foraging context that they had encountered before only once ("one-trial test") but switched to <span class="hlt">spatial</span> cues when they had encountered that scenario on ten previous occasions ("repeated-trial test"). We suggest that repeated encounters generated a context in which individuals had a prior expectation of temporal stability, and hence context-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> cue selection. Next, we trained birds to find food in the absence of colour cues but tested them in the presence of visual distracters. Birds were able to learn <span class="hlt">spatial</span> cues after one encounter, but only when visual distracters were identical in colouration. When a colourful distracter was present in the test phase, cue selection was random. Unlike the first one-trial test, birds were not biased towards this colourful visual distracter. Together, these results suggest that greenfinches are able to learn both cue types, colour cue biases represent learning, not simply distraction, and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> cues are favoured over colour cues only in temporally stable contexts. PMID:21170666</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Herborn, Katherine; Alexander, Lucille; Arnold, Kathryn E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">144</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/5797826"> <span id="translatedtitle">Beam-width-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> filtering properties of <span class="hlt">strong</span> volume holographic gratings</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The finite dimension of the incident beam used to read out volume holographic gratings has interesting effects on their filtering properties. As the readout beam gets narrower, there is more deviation from the ideal response predicted for monochromatic plane waves. In this paper we experimentally explore beam-width-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> phenomena such as wavelength selectivities, angular selectivities, and diffracted beam profiles. Volume gratings</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hung-Te Hsieh; Wenhai Liu; Frank Havermeyer; Christophe Moser; Demetri Psaltis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">145</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53913671"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> structure of an acoustic field on Bragg's acoustooptic diffraction under <span class="hlt">strong</span> acoustic anisotropy conditions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bragg's acoustooptic diffraction in an acoustically anisotropic medium is considered taking into account the two-dimensional <span class="hlt">spatial</span> diffraction structure of the acoustic beam. The conditions are determined under which reverse transfer of optical power from the diffracted to the transmitted beam in the regime of 100% efficiency of diffraction is considerably suppressed. It is shown that this effect is due to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. N. Antonov; A. V. Vainer; V. V. Proklov; Yu. G. Rezvov</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">146</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21537554"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ideal gas in a <span class="hlt">strong</span> gravitational field: Area <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of entropy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study the thermodynamic parameters like entropy, energy etc. of a box of gas made up of indistinguishable particles when the box is kept in various static background spacetimes having a horizon. We compute the thermodynamic variables using both statistical mechanics as well as by solving the hydrodynamical equations for the system. When the box is far away from the horizon, the entropy of the gas <span class="hlt">depends</span> on the volume of the box except for small corrections due to background geometry. As the box is moved closer to the horizon with one (leading) edge of the box at about Planck length (L{sub p}) away from the horizon, the entropy shows an area <span class="hlt">dependence</span> rather than a volume <span class="hlt">dependence</span>. More precisely, it <span class="hlt">depends</span> on a small volume A{sub perpendicular}L{sub p}/2 of the box, up to an order O(L{sub p}/K){sup 2} where A{sub perpendicular} is the transverse area of the box and K is the (proper) longitudinal size of the box related to the distance between leading and trailing edge in the vertical direction (i.e. in the direction of the gravitational field). Thus the contribution to the entropy comes from only a fraction O(L{sub p}/K) of the matter degrees of freedom and the rest are suppressed when the box approaches the horizon. Near the horizon all the thermodynamical quantities behave as though the box of gas has a volume A{sub perpendicular}L{sub p}/2 and is kept in a Minkowski spacetime. These effects are: (i) purely kinematic in their origin and are independent of the spacetime curvature (in the sense that the Rindler approximation of the metric near the horizon can reproduce the results) and (ii) observer <span class="hlt">dependent</span>. When the equilibrium temperature of the gas is taken to be equal to the horizon temperature, we get the familiar A{sub perpendicular}/L{sub p}{sup 2} <span class="hlt">dependence</span> in the expression for entropy. All these results hold in a D+1 dimensional spherically symmetric spacetime. The analysis based on methods of statistical mechanics and the one based on thermodynamics applied to the gas treated as a fluid in static geometry, lead to the same results showing the consistency. The implications are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kolekar, Sanved; Padmanabhan, T. [IUCAA, Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">147</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvL.109l3202R"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> Molecular Alignment <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> of H2 Electron Impact Ionization Dynamics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Low-energy (E0=54eV) electron impact single ionization of molecular hydrogen (H2) has been investigated as a function of molecular alignment in order to benchmark recent theoretical predictions [Colgan , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-9007 101, 233201 (2008)10.1103/PhysRevLett.101.233201 and Al-Hagan , Nature Phys.NPAHAX1745-2473 5, 59 (2009)10.1038/nphys1135]. In contrast to any previous work, we observe distinct alignment <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the (e,2e) cross sections in the perpendicular plane in good overall agreement with results from time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> close-coupling calculations. The cross section behavior can be consistently explained by a rescattering of the ejected electron in the molecular potential resulting in an effective focusing along the molecular axis.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ren, X.; Pflüger, T.; Xu, S.; Colgan, J.; Pindzola, M. S.; Senftleben, A.; Ullrich, J.; Dorn, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">148</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23005945"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> molecular alignment <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of H2 electron impact ionization dynamics.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Low-energy (E(0) = 54 eV) electron impact single ionization of molecular hydrogen (H(2)) has been investigated as a function of molecular alignment in order to benchmark recent theoretical predictions [Colgan et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 233201 (2008) and Al-Hagan et al., Nature Phys. 5, 59 (2009)]. In contrast to any previous work, we observe distinct alignment <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the (e,2e) cross sections in the perpendicular plane in good overall agreement with results from time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> close-coupling calculations. The cross section behavior can be consistently explained by a rescattering of the ejected electron in the molecular potential resulting in an effective focusing along the molecular axis. PMID:23005945</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ren, X; Pflüger, T; Xu, S; Colgan, J; Pindzola, M S; Senftleben, A; Ullrich, J; Dorn, A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-19</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">149</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23003287"> <span id="translatedtitle">Magnon-mediated interactions between fermions <span class="hlt">depend</span> <span class="hlt">strongly</span> on the lattice structure.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We propose two new methods to calculate exactly the spectrum of two spin-1/2 charge carriers moving in a ferromagnetic background, at zero temperature. We find that if the spins are located on a different sublattice than that on which the fermions move, magnon-mediated effective interactions are very <span class="hlt">strong</span> and can bind the fermions into low-energy bipolarons with triplet character. This never happens in models where spins and charge carriers share the same lattice, whether they are in the same band or in different bands. This proves that effective one-lattice models do not describe correctly the low-energy part of the two-carrier spectrum of a two-sublattice model, even though they may describe the low-energy single-carrier spectrum appropriately. PMID:23003287</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Möller, Mirko; Sawatzky, George A; Berciu, Mona</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">150</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21118770"> <span id="translatedtitle">Novel scatter compensation of list-mode PET data using <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and energy <span class="hlt">dependent</span> corrections.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">With the widespread use of positron emission tomography (PET) crystals with greatly improved energy resolution (e.g., 11.5% with LYSO as compared to 20% with BGO) and of list-mode acquisitions, the use of the energy of individual events in scatter correction schemes becomes feasible. We propose a novel scatter approach that incorporates the energy of individual photons in the scatter correction and reconstruction of list-mode PET data in addition to the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> information presently used in clinical scanners. First, we rewrite the Poisson likelihood function of list-mode PET data including the energy distributions of primary and scatter coincidences and show that this expression yields an MLEM reconstruction algorithm containing both energy and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> corrections. To estimate the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of scatter coincidences we use the single scatter simulation (SSS). Next, we derive two new formulae which allow estimation of the 2-D (coincidences) energy probability density functions (E-PDF) of primary and scatter coincidences from the 1-D (photons) E-PDFs associated with each photon. We also describe an accurate and robust object-specific method for estimating these 1-D E-PDFs based on a decomposition of the total energy spectra detected across the scanner into primary and scattered components. Finally, we show that the energy information can be used to accurately normalize the scatter sinogram to the data. We compared the performance of this novel scatter correction incorporating both the position and energy of detected coincidences to that of the traditional approach modeling only the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of scatter coincidences in 3-D Monte Carlo simulations of a medium cylindrical phantom and a large, nonuniform NCAT phantom. Incorporating the energy information in the scatter correction decreased bias in the activity distribution estimation by ~20% and ~40% in the cold regions of the large NCAT phantom at energy resolutions 11.5% and 20% at 511 keV, respectively, compared to when using the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> information alone. PMID:21118770</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Guérin, Bastien; El Fakhri, Georges</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-11-29</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">151</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JPCM...20B5205R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Problem of temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span> in the dynamic spin-fluctuation theory for <span class="hlt">strong</span> ferromagnets</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the magnetic characteristics of Fe and Fe-Ni Invar is considered in the dynamic nonlocal approximation of the spin-fluctuation theory. Calculations by several numerical methods show that the magnetic characteristics can have a discontinuous jump at high temperatures, well below the Curie temperature. Using the methods of catastrophe theory, we investigate the effect of small changes in the initial data on the results of the calculation. It is demonstrated that the discontinuous jump can only be smoothed but cannot be eliminated entirely without a significant change in the system of equations of the spin-fluctuation theory. Possible variants of such changes are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reser, B. I.; Melnikov, N. B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">152</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20217746"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nonlinear evolution of the momentum <span class="hlt">dependent</span> condensates in <span class="hlt">strong</span> interaction: The ''pseudoscalar laser''</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We discuss the relaxation of the scalar and pseudoscalar condensates after a rapid quench from an initial state with fluctuations. If we include not only the zero mode but also higher modes of the condensates in the classical evolution, we observe parametric amplification of those ''hard'' modes. Thus, they couple nonlinearly to the ''soft'' modes. As a consequence, domains of a coherent {pi} field emerge long after the initial spinodal decomposition. The momentum-space distribution of pions emerging from the decay of that momentum-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> condensate is discussed. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dumitru, Adrian [Physics Department, Columbia University, 538W 120th Street, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Scavenius, Ove [The Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen Oe, (Denmark)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">153</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20718828"> <span id="translatedtitle">Laser intensity <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of ion momentum distribution in <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field double ionization</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We provide the first uniform explanation basis for the laser intensity <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the momentum distributions that have been reported in atomic nonsequential double-ionization experiments. Our theoretical work covers laser irradiation at 780 nm and intensities in the range I=(1-6.5)x10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}, which are relevant to experiments. We use a completely classical method introduced previously [Phay J. Ho, R. Panfili, S. L. Haan, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093002 (2005)]. Our calculated results suggest that just two distinct categories of electron trajectories are relevant.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ho, Phay J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-10-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">154</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/b106484v826k4215.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> structure of an acoustic field on Bragg’s acoustooptic diffraction under <span class="hlt">strong</span> acoustic anisotropy conditions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bragg’s acoustooptic diffraction in an acoustically anisotropic medium is considered taking into account the two-dimensional\\u000a <span class="hlt">spatial</span> diffraction structure of the acoustic beam. The conditions are determined under which reverse transfer of optical\\u000a power from the diffracted to the transmitted beam in the regime of 100% efficiency of diffraction is considerably suppressed.\\u000a It is shown that this effect is due to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. N. Antonov; A. V. Vainer; V. V. Proklov; Yu. G. Rezvov</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">155</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/394357"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sensitive polarization <span class="hlt">dependence</span> for helium Rydberg atoms driven by <span class="hlt">strong</span> microwave fields</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors prepare n{sup 3}S He Rydberg atoms with selected values n {ge} 25 in a fast beam using CO{sub 2} lasers and double-resonance excitation. They then fly through a TE{sub 121} mode cavity, exposing them to a half-sine pulse (about 350 field osc.) of 9.904 GHz electric field whose polarization can be varied; linear (LP), elliptical (EP), and circular (CP). Making EP close to LP can lead to substantial changes in microwave-power-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> transitions to nearby bound states. In at least one case, a sharp dip in the LP signal is transformed by EP into a pattern reminiscent of Stueckelberg oscillations, previously observed with LP at higher frequencies. Calculations suggest that pulse-shape-induced dynamics at Floquet avoided-crossing(s) explain the LP behavior. Changing the field to EP clearly must modify this behavior. The authors will discuss this kind of data as well as the polarization <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of microwave ionization of n{sup 3}S He Rydberg atoms.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zelazny, S.A.; Bellermann, M.R.W.; Smith, L.L.; Koch, P.M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">156</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009cosc.conf..960Z"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> of Infection Profiles on Grouping Dynamics during Epidemiological Spreading</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The spreading of an epidemic <span class="hlt">depends</span> on the connectivity of the underlying host population. Because of the inherent difficulties in addressing such a problem, research to date on epidemics in networks has focused either on static networks, or networks with relatively few rewirings per timestep. Here we employ a simple, yet highly non-trivial, model of dynamical grouping to investigate the extent to which the underlying dynamics of tightly-knit communities can affect the resulting infection profile. Individual realizations of the spreading tend to be dominated by large peaks corresponding to infection resurgence, and a generally slow decay of the outbreak. In addition to our simulation results, we provide an analytical analysis of the run-averaged behaviour in the regime of fast grouping dynamics. We show that the true run-averaged infection profile can be closely mimicked by employing a suitably weighted static network, thereby dramatically simplifying the level of difficulty.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhao, Zhenyuan; Zhao, Guannan; Xu, Chen; Hui, Pak Ming; Johnson, Neil F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">157</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1299657"> <span id="translatedtitle">Secondary pair charge recombination in photosystem I under <span class="hlt">strongly</span> reducing conditions: temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span> and suggested mechanism.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Photoinduced electron transfer in photosystem I (PS I) proceeds from the excited primary electron donor P700 (a chlorophyll a dimer) via the primary acceptor A0 (chlorophyll a) and the secondary acceptor A1 (phylloquinone) to three [4Fe-4S] clusters, Fx, FA, and FB. Prereduction of the iron-sulfur clusters blocks electron transfer beyond A1. It has been shown previously that, under such conditions, the secondary pair P700+A1- decays by charge recombination with t1/2 approximately 250 ns at room temperature, forming the P700 triplet state (3P700) with a yield exceeding 85%. This reaction is unusual, as the secondary pair in other photosynthetic reaction centers recombines much slower and forms directly the singlet ground state rather than the triplet state of the primary donor. Here we studied the temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of secondary pair recombination in PS I from the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC6803, which had been illuminated in the presence of dithionite at pH 10 to reduce all three iron-sulfur clusters. The reaction P700+A1- --> 3P700 was monitored by flash absorption spectroscopy. With decreasing temperature, the recombination slowed down and the yield of 3P700 decreased. In the range between 303 K and 240 K, the recombination rates could be described by the Arrhenius law with an activation energy of approximately 170 meV. Below 240 K, the temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span> became much weaker, and recombination to the singlet ground state became the dominating process. To explain the fast activated recombination to the P700 triplet state, we suggest a mechanism involving efficient singlet to triplet spin evolution in the secondary pair, thermally activated repopulation of the more closely spaced primary pair P700+A0- in a triplet spin configuration, and subsequent fast recombination (intrinsic rate on the order of 10(9) s(-1)) forming 3P700.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Polm, M; Brettel, K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">158</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/35613584"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> externalities in China regional economic growth</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using <span class="hlt">spatial</span> econometric techniques, this paper presents an empirical analysis of the growth performances of Chinese prefectures over 1991 to 2007 period. Based on the Solow growth theory with technology spillovers, a <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Durbin growth model recently developed is employed to capture the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> externalities. We find <span class="hlt">strong</span> evidence of positive <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> between Chinese prefectures after 1991. Apart from</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lei Tian; H. Holly Wang; Yongjun Chen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">159</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/5558286"> <span id="translatedtitle">Density-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> mortality versus <span class="hlt">spatial</span> segregation in early life stages of Abies densa and Rhododendron hodgsonii in Central Bhutan</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In order to improve the understanding on the coexistence of rhododendron species and canopy trees in old growth forests with less anthropogenic influence, we studied the role of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> segregation versus density-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> mortality of regeneration of Abies densa and Rhododendron hodgsonii in Central Bhutan. The <span class="hlt">spatial</span> patterns and the microsite preferences of A. densa and R. hodgsonii were studied on</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Georg Gratzer; Prem Bahadur Rai</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">160</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26973833"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> and time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> reliability modelling of corrosion damage, safety and maintenance for reinforced concrete structures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The article reviews how <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> modelling of deterioration process can be used to provide a more realistic assessment of the reliability, safety and maintenance options for reinforced concrete structures. The present article will assess (i) the effect of <span class="hlt">spatially</span> variable pitting corrosion and concrete strength on safety and structural reliability of RC columns and (ii) the effect of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mark G. Stewart</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">161</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5745..407B"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> frequency-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> signal-to-noise ratio as a generalized measure of image quality</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A generalized, objective image quality measure can be defined for X-ray based medical projection imaging: the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequency-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> signal-to-noise ratio SNR = SNR(u,v). This function includes the three main image quality parameters, i.e. <span class="hlt">spatial</span> resolution, object contrast, and noise. The quantity is intimately related to the DQE concept, however its focus is not to characterize the detector, but rather the detectability of a certain object embedded into a defined background. So also effects from focus size and radiation scatter can be quantified by this method. The SNR(u,v) is independent of basic linear post-processing steps such as appropriate windowing or <span class="hlt">spatial</span> filtering. The consideration of the human visual system is beyond the scope of this concept. By means of this quantity, different X-ray systems and setups can be compared with each other and with theoretical calculations. Moreover, X-ray systems (i.e. detector, beam quality, geometry, anti-scatter grid, basic linear post-processing steps etc.) can be optimized to deliver the best object detectability for a given patient dose. In this paper SNR(u,v) is defined using analytical formulas. Furthermore, we demonstrate how it can be applied with a test phantom to a typical flat panel detector system by a combination of analytical calculations and Monte Carlo simulations. Finally the way this function can be used to optimize an X-ray imaging device is demonstrated.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bernhardt, Philipp; Batz, Lothar; Ruhrnschopf, Ernst-Peter; Hoheisel, Martin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">162</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22275478"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fractionating the neural substrates of transitive reasoning: task-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> contributions of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and verbal representations.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It has long been suggested that transitive reasoning relies on <span class="hlt">spatial</span> representations in the posterior parietal cortex (PPC). Previous neuroimaging studies, however, have always focused on linear arguments, such as "John is taller than Tom, Tom is taller than Chris, therefore John is taller than Chris." Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we demonstrate here that verbal representations contribute to transitive reasoning when it involves set-inclusion relations (e.g., "All Tulips are Flowers, All Flowers are Plants, therefore All Tulips are Plants"). In the present study, such arguments were found to engage verbal processing regions of the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and left PPC that were identified in an independent localizer task. Specifically, activity in these verbal regions increased as the number of relations increased in set-inclusion arguments. Importantly, this effect was specific to set-inclusion arguments because left IFG and left PPC were not differentially engaged when the number of relations increased in linear arguments. Instead, such an increase was linked to decreased activity in a <span class="hlt">spatial</span> processing region of the right PPC that was identified in an independent localizer task. Therefore, both verbal and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> representations can underlie transitive reasoning, but their engagement <span class="hlt">depends</span> upon the structure of the argument. PMID:22275478</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Prado, Jérôme; Mutreja, Rachna; Booth, James R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">163</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGS...tmp....5G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Constrained variants of the gravity model and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span>: model specification and estimation issues</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, we distinguish three constrained variants of the gravity model of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> interaction: doubly constrained, production constrained and attraction constrained exponential gravity models. These model variants include origin- and/or destination-specific balancing factors that act as constraints to ensure that the estimated rows and columns of the flow data matrix sum to the observed row and column totals. Because flows are typically counts, the Poisson rather than the normal probability model specification furnishes the appropriate statistical distribution, and parameter estimation can be achieved via Poisson regression. This probability model specification motivates the use of origin and/or destination fixed effects or—under certain conditions—the use of origin- and/or destination-specific random effects for model estimation. The paper establishes theoretical connections between balancing factors, fixed effects represented by binary indicator variables and random effects. The results pertaining to both the doubly and singly constrained cases of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> interaction are illustrated with an empirical example while accounting for <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> between flows from locations neighbouring both the origins and destinations during estimation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Griffith, Daniel A.; Fischer, Manfred M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">164</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGS....15..291G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Constrained variants of the gravity model and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span>: model specification and estimation issues</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, we distinguish three constrained variants of the gravity model of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> interaction: doubly constrained, production constrained and attraction constrained exponential gravity models. These model variants include origin- and/or destination-specific balancing factors that act as constraints to ensure that the estimated rows and columns of the flow data matrix sum to the observed row and column totals. Because flows are typically counts, the Poisson rather than the normal probability model specification furnishes the appropriate statistical distribution, and parameter estimation can be achieved via Poisson regression. This probability model specification motivates the use of origin and/or destination fixed effects or—under certain conditions—the use of origin- and/or destination-specific random effects for model estimation. The paper establishes theoretical connections between balancing factors, fixed effects represented by binary indicator variables and random effects. The results pertaining to both the doubly and singly constrained cases of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> interaction are illustrated with an empirical example while accounting for <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> between flows from locations neighbouring both the origins and destinations during estimation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Griffith, Daniel A.; Fischer, Manfred M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">165</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2714761"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span>, <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale, and tree species diversity in eastern Asia and North America</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The increase of biodiversity from poles to equator is one of the most pervasive features of nature. For 2 centuries since von Humboldt, Wallace, and Darwin, biogeographers and ecologists have investigated the environmental and historical factors that determine the latitudinal gradient of species diversity, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The recently proposed metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) aims to explain ecological patterns and processes, including geographical patterns of species richness, in terms of the effects of temperature and body size on the metabolism of organisms. Here we use 2 comparable databases of tree distributions in eastern Asia and North America to investigate the roles of environmental temperature and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale in shaping geographical patterns of species diversity. We find that number of species increases exponentially with environmental temperature as predicted by the MTE, and so does the rate of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> turnover in species composition (slope of the species-area relationship). The magnitude of temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of species richness increases with <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale. Moreover, the relationship between species richness and temperature is much steeper in eastern Asia than in North America: in cold climates at high latitudes there are more tree species in North America, but the reverse is true in warmer climates at lower latitudes. These patterns provide evidence that the kinetics of ecological and evolutionary processes play a major role in the latitudinal pattern of biodiversity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Zhiheng; Brown, James H.; Tang, Zhiyao; Fang, Jingyun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">166</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19519022"> <span id="translatedtitle">Angular <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of jet quenching indicates its <span class="hlt">strong</span> enhancement near the QCD phase transition.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of jet quenching on matter density, using "tomography" of the fireball provided by RHIC data on azimuthal anisotropy v_{2} of high p_{t} hadron yield at different centralities. Slicing the fireball into shells with constant (entropy) density, we derive a "layer-wise geometrical limit" v_{2};{max} which is indeed above the data v_{2} < v_{2};{max}. Interestingly, the limit is reached only if quenching is dominated by shells with the entropy density exactly in the near-T_{c} region. We show two models that simultaneously describe the high p_{t} v_{2} and R_{A-A} data and conclude that such a description can be achieved only if the jet quenching is few times stronger in the near-T_{c} region relative to QGP at T > T_{c}. One possible reason for such enhancement may be recent indications that the near-T_{c} region is a magnetic plasma of relatively light color-magnetic monopoles. PMID:19519022</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liao, Jinfeng; Shuryak, Edward</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">167</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18853797"> <span id="translatedtitle">Abiotic methyl bromide formation from vegetation, and its <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on temperature.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Methyl bromide (CH3Br) is the most abundant brominated organic compound in the atmosphere. It is known to originate from natural and anthropogenic sources, although many uncertainties remain regarding strengths of both sources and sinks and the processes leading to its formation. In this study a potential new CH3Br source from vegetation has been examined, analogous to the recently discovered abiotic formation of methyl chloride from plant pectin. Several plant samples with known bromine content, including ash (Fraxinus excelsior), saltwort (Batis maritima), tomato reference material (NIST-1573a), hay reference material (IAEA V-10), and also bromine enriched pectin, were incubated in the temperature range of 25-50 degrees C and analyzed for CH3Br emission using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. All plant samples inspected showed an exponential increase in CH3Br emission as a function of temperature increase, i.e., emissions were observed to approximately double with every 5 degrees C rise in temperature. Next to temperature, it was found that emissions of CH3Br were also <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on the bromine content of the plants. The highest CH3Br release rates were found for the saltwort which contained the highest bromine concentration. Arrhenius plots confirmed that the observed emissions were from an abiotic origin. The contribution of abiotic CH3Br formation from vegetation to the global budget will vary geographically as a result of regional differences in both temperature and bromide content of terrestrial plants. PMID:18853797</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wishkerman, Asher; Gebhardt, Sarah; McRoberts, Colin W; Hamilton, John T G; Williams, Jonathan; Keppler, Frank</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-09-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">168</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ASAJ..112.2392O"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seismo-acoustic propagation in environments that <span class="hlt">depend</span> <span class="hlt">strongly</span> on both range and depth</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The parabolic equation method provides an excellent combination of accuracy and efficiency for range-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> ocean acoustics and seismology problems. This approach is highly developed for problems in which the ocean bottom can be modeled as a fluid. For the elastic case, there remain some accuracy limitations for problems involving sloping interfaces. Progress on this problem has been made by combining a new formulation of the elastic parabolic equation that handles layering more effectively [W. Jerzak, ''Parabolic Equations for Layered Elastic Media,'' doctoral dissertation, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (2001)] and a mapping approach that handles sloping interfaces accurately [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 107, 1937-1942 (2000)]. This approach makes it possible to handle problems involving complex layering and steep slopes, but the rate of change of the slope must be small. The method and its application to data will be described. Our immediate goal is to model propagation of seismic surface waves propagating across a transition between dry and marshy terrain. We have suitable data applicable to vehicle-tracking problems from Marine Corps Base Camp, Pendleton, CA. [Work supported by ONR.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Outing, Donald A.; Siegmann, William L.; Dorman, LeRoy M.; Collins, Michael D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">169</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..DPPNO5004R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Phenomenological Quantum Model for Ionization in <span class="hlt">Strong</span>, Time <span class="hlt">Dependent</span>, Electric Fields</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Laser pulse propagation simulations typically involve simplified ionization models where plasma generation is treated via rate laws following each ionization state. These models neglect the fact that the bound electronic response of the atom, ionization, and ionization damping are all part of one continuous process. In particular, the phase of an electron's dipole oscillation with respect to the electric field varies continuously from zero to pi <span class="hlt">depending</span> on whether the electron is bound or free respectively. The rate law treatment neglects this transitional phase of the electron, treating the electron as either bound to its parent ion or free. For ultrashort laser pulses this transitional phase may play an important role in propagation. Here we present a phenomenological 3D quantum model of ionization. Based on the Schrodinger equation, this model uses a non-local binding potential in place of the Coulomb potential. By reducing the 3+1D Schrodinger equation into a set of 0+1D integral equations, the model promises to offer computational savings eventually leading to implementation in propagation simulations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rensink, T. C.; Antonsen, T. M., Jr.; Palastro, J. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">170</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21322815"> <span id="translatedtitle">Angular <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> of Jet Quenching Indicates Its <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Enhancement near the QCD Phase Transition</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of jet quenching on matter density, using 'tomography' of the fireball provided by RHIC data on azimuthal anisotropy v{sub 2} of high p{sub t} hadron yield at different centralities. Slicing the fireball into shells with constant (entropy) density, we derive a 'layer-wise geometrical limit' v{sub 2}{sup max} which is indeed above the data v{sub 2}<v{sub 2}{sup max}. Interestingly, the limit is reached only if quenching is dominated by shells with the entropy density exactly in the near-T{sub c} region. We show two models that simultaneously describe the high p{sub t} v{sub 2} and R{sub A-A} data and conclude that such a description can be achieved only if the jet quenching is few times stronger in the near-T{sub c} region relative to QGP at T>T{sub c}. One possible reason for such enhancement may be recent indications that the near-T{sub c} region is a magnetic plasma of relatively light color-magnetic monopoles.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liao Jinfeng [Department of Physics and Astronomy, State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Shuryak, Edward [Department of Physics and Astronomy, State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">171</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013FBS....54.2067R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spin-1/2 Particle in Scalar-Vector-Pseudoscalar <span class="hlt">Spatially</span> <span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Mass Coulomb Fields: 1 + 1 Dimensions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this letter, we present exact solutions of the Dirac equation with the mixed scalar-vector-pseudoscalar <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> mass Coulomb potential under spin and pseudospin (p-spin) symmetry limits in 1+1 dimensions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rajabi, A. A.; Hamzavi, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">172</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010IJAEO..12..331O"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependency</span> of cholera prevalence on potential cholera reservoirs in an urban area, Kumasi, Ghana</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cholera has been a public health burden in Ghana since the early 1970s. Between 1999 and 2005, a total of 25,636 cases and 620 deaths were officially reported to the WHO. In one of the worst affected urban cities, fecal contamination of surface water is extremely high, and the disease is reported to be prevalent among inhabitants living in close proximity to surface water bodies. Surface runoff from dump sites is a major source of fecal and bacterial contamination of rivers and streams in the study area. This study aims to determine (a) the impacts of surface water contamination on cholera infection and (b) detect and map arbitrary shaped clusters of cholera. A Geographic Information System (GIS) based <span class="hlt">spatial</span> analysis is used to delineate potential reservoirs of the cholera vibrios; possibly contaminated by surface runoff from open space refuse dumps. Statistical modeling using OLS model reveals a significant negative association between (a) cholera prevalence and proximity to all the potential cholera reservoirs ( R2 = 0.18, p < 0.001) and (b) cholera prevalence and proximity to upstream potential cholera reservoirs ( R2 = 0.25, p < 0.001). The inclusion of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> autoregressive coefficients in the OLS model reveals the <span class="hlt">dependency</span> of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of cholera prevalence on the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> neighbors of the communities. A flexible scan statistic identifies a most likely cluster with a higher relative risk (RR = 2.04, p < 0.01) compared with the cluster detected by circular scan statistic (RR = 1.60, p < 0.01). We conclude that surface water pollution through runoff from waste dump sites play a significant role in cholera infection.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Osei, Frank B.; Duker, Alfred A.; Augustijn, Ellen-Wien; Stein, Alfred</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">173</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22086257"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">SPATIALLY</span> <span class="hlt">DEPENDENT</span> HEATING AND IONIZATION IN AN ICME OBSERVED BY BOTH ACE AND ULYSSES</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The 2005 January 21 interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) observed by multiple spacecraft at L1 was also observed from January 21-February 4 at Ulysses (5.3 AU). Previous studies of this ICME have found evidence suggesting that the flanks of a magnetic cloud like structure associated with this ICME were observed at L1 while a more central cut through the associated magnetic cloud was observed at Ulysses. This event allows us to study <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variation across the ICME and relate it to the eruption at the Sun. In order to examine the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the heating in this ICME, we present an analysis and comparison of the heavy ion composition observed during the passage of the ICME at L1 and at Ulysses. Using SWICS, we compare the heavy ion composition across the two different observation cuts through the ICME and compare it with predictions for heating during the eruption based on models of the time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> ionization balance throughout the event.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lepri, Susan T. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143 (United States); Laming, J. Martin; Rakowski, Cara E. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7674L, Washington, DC 20375-5321 (United States); Von Steiger, Rudolf [International Space Science Institute, Bern CH-3012 (Switzerland)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">174</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ApJ...760..105L"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatially</span> <span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Heating and Ionization in an ICME Observed by Both ACE and Ulysses</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The 2005 January 21 interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) observed by multiple spacecraft at L1 was also observed from January 21-February 4 at Ulysses (5.3 AU). Previous studies of this ICME have found evidence suggesting that the flanks of a magnetic cloud like structure associated with this ICME were observed at L1 while a more central cut through the associated magnetic cloud was observed at Ulysses. This event allows us to study <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variation across the ICME and relate it to the eruption at the Sun. In order to examine the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the heating in this ICME, we present an analysis and comparison of the heavy ion composition observed during the passage of the ICME at L1 and at Ulysses. Using SWICS, we compare the heavy ion composition across the two different observation cuts through the ICME and compare it with predictions for heating during the eruption based on models of the time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> ionization balance throughout the event.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lepri, Susan T.; Laming, J. Martin; Rakowski, Cara E.; von Steiger, Rudolf</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">175</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhCS.461a2045S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Evolution of a <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Field of Few-cycle Light Beam in Dielectric Media with Induced Plasma Nonlinearity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The paper reports results of computer simulation of <span class="hlt">strong</span> light beam propagation in dielectric media in case of plasma generation. We investigate an extra-broadening of radiation spectrum to a 'violet' wing of visible range. We show that the resulting pulse spectrum is represented by sequence of well-separated maximums, broadening as propagation distance increases. Experimental data are compared with simulation results, showing a good mutual correspondence of spectral representations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stumpf, S. A.; Korolev, A. A.; Kozlov, S. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">176</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JChPh.139l1920W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Potential and flux field landscape theory. I. Global stability and dynamics of <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> non-equilibrium systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We established a potential and flux field landscape theory to quantify the global stability and dynamics of general <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> non-equilibrium deterministic and stochastic systems. We extended our potential and flux landscape theory for <span class="hlt">spatially</span> independent non-equilibrium stochastic systems described by Fokker-Planck equations to <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> stochastic systems governed by general functional Fokker-Planck equations as well as functional Kramers-Moyal equations derived from master equations. Our general theory is applied to reaction-diffusion systems. For equilibrium <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> systems with detailed balance, the potential field landscape alone, defined in terms of the steady state probability distribution functional, determines the global stability and dynamics of the system. The global stability of the system is closely related to the topography of the potential field landscape in terms of the basins of attraction and barrier heights in the field configuration state space. The effective driving force of the system is generated by the functional gradient of the potential field alone. For non-equilibrium <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> systems, the curl probability flux field is indispensable in breaking detailed balance and creating non-equilibrium condition for the system. A complete characterization of the non-equilibrium dynamics of the <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> system requires both the potential field and the curl probability flux field. While the non-equilibrium potential field landscape attracts the system down along the functional gradient similar to an electron moving in an electric field, the non-equilibrium flux field drives the system in a curly way similar to an electron moving in a magnetic field. In the small fluctuation limit, the intrinsic potential field as the small fluctuation limit of the potential field for <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> non-equilibrium systems, which is closely related to the steady state probability distribution functional, is found to be a Lyapunov functional of the deterministic <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> system. Therefore, the intrinsic potential landscape can characterize the global stability of the deterministic system. The relative entropy functional of the stochastic <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> non-equilibrium system is found to be the Lyapunov functional of the stochastic dynamics of the system. Therefore, the relative entropy functional quantifies the global stability of the stochastic system with finite fluctuations. Our theory offers an alternative general approach to other field-theoretic techniques, to study the global stability and dynamics of <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> non-equilibrium field systems. It can be applied to many physical, chemical, and biological <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> non-equilibrium systems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wu, Wei; Wang, Jin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">177</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22865385"> <span id="translatedtitle">Enhanced Ca2+ binding of cardiac troponin reduces sarcomere length <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of contractile activation independently of <span class="hlt">strong</span> crossbridges.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Calcium sensitivity of the force-pCa relationship <span class="hlt">depends</span> <span class="hlt">strongly</span> on sarcomere length (SL) in cardiac muscle and is considered to be the cellular basis of the Frank-Starling law of the heart. SL <span class="hlt">dependence</span> may involve changes in myofilament lattice spacing and/or myosin crossbridge orientation to increase probability of binding to actin at longer SLs. We used the L48Q cardiac troponin C (cTnC) variant, which has enhanced Ca(2+) binding affinity, to test the hypotheses that the intrinsic properties of cTnC are important in determining 1) thin filament binding site availability and responsiveness to crossbridge activation and 2) SL <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of force in cardiac muscle. Trabeculae containing L48Q cTnC-cTn lost SL <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the Ca(2+) sensitivity of force. This occurred despite maintaining the typical SL-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> changes in maximal force (F(max)). Osmotic compression of preparations at SL 2.0 ?m with 3% dextran increased F(max) but not pCa(50) in L48Q cTnC-cTn exchanged trabeculae, whereas wild-type (WT)-cTnC-cTn exchanged trabeculae exhibited increases in both F(max) and pCa(50). Furthermore, crossbridge inhibition with 2,3-butanedione monoxime at SL 2.3 ?m decreased F(max) and pCa(50) in WT cTnC-cTn trabeculae to levels measured at SL 2.0 ?m, whereas only F(max) was decreased with L48Q cTnC-cTn. Overall, these results suggest that L48Q cTnC confers reduced crossbridge <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of thin filament activation in cardiac muscle and that changes in the Ca(2+) sensitivity of force in response to changes in SL are at least partially <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on properties of thin filament troponin. PMID:22865385</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Korte, F Steven; Feest, Erik R; Razumova, Maria V; Tu, An-Yue; Regnier, Michael</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-03</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">178</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JPhB...45a5101H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Orientation-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> ionization yields from <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field ionization of fixed-in-space linear and asymmetric top molecules</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The yield of <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field ionization, by a linearly polarized probe pulse, is studied experimentally and theoretically as a function of the relative orientation between the laser field and the molecule. Experimentally, carbonyl sulphide (OCS), benzonitrile and naphthalene molecules are aligned in one or three dimensions before being singly ionized by a 30 fs laser pulse centred at 800 nm. Theoretically, we address the behaviour of these three molecules. We consider the degree of alignment and orientation and model the angular <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the total ionization yield by molecular tunnelling theory accounting for the Stark shift of the energy level of the ionizing orbital. For naphthalene and benzonitrile, the orientational <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the ionization yield agrees well with the calculated results, in particular, we observe that ionization is maximized when the probe laser is polarized along the most polarizable axis. For OCS the observation of the maximum ionization yield when the probe is perpendicular to the internuclear axis contrasts the theoretical results.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hansen, Jonas L.; Holmegaard, Lotte; Nielsen, Jens H.; Stapelfeldt, Henrik; Dimitrovski, Darko; Bojer Madsen, Lars</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">179</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9153570"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experience-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> facilitating effect of corticosterone on <span class="hlt">spatial</span> memory formation in the water maze.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Stress-related adrenal steroid hormones modulate brain and cognitive function. Electrophysiological studies, including primed burst potentiation and long-term potentiation, have indicated concentration-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> inverted U-shape effects of corticosterone in hippocampal function and plasticity. Here, we explored the role of corticosterone in the consolidation and long-term retrieval of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> learning in the Morris water maze task in rats. We postulated that corticosterone actions might be experience-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> with regard to stimulus intensity, such as differential water temperatures. Indeed, rats trained at 19 degrees C showed a quicker rate of acquisition and better long-term retention than rats trained at 25 degrees C water. In addition, post-training corticosterone levels, on the first training day, were significantly higher in rats in the 19 degrees C group than in the 25 degrees C group. Performance of rats trained at 25 degrees C, but not at 19 degrees C, water was improved by injecting them i.p. with corticosterone immediately after each training session. Thus, the effect of exogenously administered corticosterone appears to be experience-<span class="hlt">dependent</span>, with the experience-induced corticosterone concentrations as a critical factor determining the cognitive consequences of steroid treatment. Therefore, this work indicates a facilitating corticosterone action, during the post-training period, on the neural mechanisms determining the strength of information storage under acute, physiological conditions. PMID:9153570</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sandi, C; Loscertales, M; Guaza, C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">180</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvL.111h8101L"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Organization of the Cell Cytoplasm by Position-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Phase Separation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">During asymmetric cell division, cytoplasmic components are segregated to opposite sides of the cell. We discuss how the observed segregation can be achieved by a position-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> phase separation mechanism controlled by a protein concentration gradient. We show that effects of even a weak gradient can be amplified by the phase transition to achieve <span class="hlt">strong</span> segregation. We compare our theory to the segregation of germ granules observed during the divisions in the C. elegans embryo. Our study demonstrates how liquid-liquid phase separation can play a key role in the organization of the cytoplasm.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lee, Chiu Fan; Brangwynne, Clifford P.; Gharakhani, Jöbin; Hyman, Anthony A.; Jülicher, Frank</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span 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</span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">181</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988JCli....1.1047Y"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> of the Relationship between Rainfall and Outgoing Longwave Radiation in the Tropical Atlantic.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We develop a <span class="hlt">Spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> formula to estimate rainfall from satellite-derived outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) data and the height of the base of the trade-wind inversion. This formula has been constructed by comparing rainfall records from twelve islands in the tropical Atlantic with 11 years of OLR data. Zonal asymmetries due to the differing cloud types in the eastern and western Atlantic and the presence of Saharan sand in the cast are included.The climatological winter and summer rainfall derived from the above formula concurs with ship observations described by Dorman and Bourke. However, during the spring and fall, OLR-derived rainfall is higher than observations by 2-4 mm day1 in the intertropical convergence zone. The largest discrepancy occurs during the fall in the region west of 28°W. Interannual anomalies of rainfall computed using this technique are large enough to cause potentially important changes in ocean surface salinity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yoo, Jung-Moon; Carton, James A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">182</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3018062"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spectral and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of?diffuse optical signals in response to?peripheral nerve stimulation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using non-invasive, near-infrared spectroscopy we have previously reported optical signals measured at or around peripheral nerves in response to their stimulation. Such optical signals featured amplitudes on the order of 0.1% and peaked about 100 ms after peripheral nerve stimulation in human subjects. Here, we report a study of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and spectral <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the optical signals induced by stimulation of the human median and sural nerves, and observe that these optical signals are: (1) unlikely due to either dilation or constriction of blood vessels, (2) not associated with capillary bed hemoglobin, (3) likely due to blood vessel(s) displacement, and (4) unlikely due to fiber-skin optical coupling effects. We conclude that the most probable origin of the optical response to peripheral nerve stimulation is from displacement of blood vessels within the optically probed volume, as a result of muscle twitch in adjacent areas.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, Debbie K.; Erb, M. Kelley; Tong, Yunjie; Yu, Yang; Sassaroli, Angelo; Bergethon, Peter R.; Fantini, Sergio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">183</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22826108"> <span id="translatedtitle">Age-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> effects of hippocampal neurogenesis suppression on <span class="hlt">spatial</span> learning.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Reducing hippocampal neurogenesis sometimes, but not always, disrupts hippocampus-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> learning and memory. Here, we tested whether animal age, which regulates rate of hippocampal neurogenesis, is a factor that influences whether deficits in <span class="hlt">spatial</span> learning are observed after reduction of neurogenesis. We found that suppressing the generation of new hippocampal neurons via treatment with temozolomide, an antiproliferation agent, impaired learning the location of a hidden platform in the water maze in juvenile mice (1-2 months old) but not in adult mice (2-3 months old) or middle-aged mice (11-12 months old). These findings suggest that during juvenility, suppression of neurogenesis may alter hippocampal development, whereas during adulthood and aging, pre-existing neurons may compensate for the lack of new hippocampal neurons. PMID:22826108</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martinez-Canabal, Alonso; Akers, Katherine G; Josselyn, Sheena A; Frankland, Paul W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">184</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12725773"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the nonlinear BOLD response at short stimulus duration.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Most functional magnetic resonance imaging studies use linear models to predict the measured response by convolution of an impulse response with the stimulus profile. Using very short visual presentation times (<2 s), deviation from the linear model in the measured BOLD data from the human brain was found for the response integral, amplitude, and width. In this study, high temporal and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> resolution were used to quantify nonlinear effects and investigate the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span>. Data at 4 Tesla showed at short stimulus duration a nonlinearity, i.e., deviation from a linear model, with an index up to 400%, whereas data at 7 Tesla exhibited a nonlinearity index up to 40%. The effect was more pronounced for response amplitude than for response area. A reduced width and sharpening of responses at shorter stimulus duration was also found. A voxel-based analysis of 7 Tesla data with 1.2 x 1.2 x 2 mm(3) resolution revealed a correlation between response onset and nonlinearity index. This suggests that the nonlinearity effects are a tissue-specific phenomenon and are likely to be more localized to the site of neuronal activity. The observed magnetic field <span class="hlt">dependence</span> and the demonstrated nonlinearity in the response width support the hypothesis that the source of the nonlinearity at short stimulus duration has a considerable hemodynamic contribution. The nonlinearity was modeled as a "switch"-type initial hemodynamic response onset. Understanding these nonlinearities in the BOLD response is important for design and the analysis of rapid event-related fMRI experiments with brief stimulus presentations. PMID:12725773</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pfeuffer, Josef; McCullough, Jeffrey C; Van de Moortele, Pierre Francois; Ugurbil, Kamil; Hu, Xiaoping</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">185</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/n7661204hl101v71.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A central limit theorem for quadratic forms in <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> linear variables and its application to asymptotical normality of Whittle's estimate</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary A central limit theorem for quadratic forms in <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> linear (or moving average) variables is proved, generalizing the results of Avram [1] and Fox and Taqqu [3] for Gaussian variables. The theorem is applied to prove asymptotical normality of Whittle's estimate of the parameter of <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> linear sequences.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. Giraitis; D. Surgailis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">186</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhPl...19b2306G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Three-dimensional electromagnetic <span class="hlt">strong</span> turbulence: <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> of the statistics and dynamics of <span class="hlt">strong</span> turbulence on the electron to ion temperature ratio</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The temperature ratio Ti/Te of ions to electrons affects both the ion-damping rate and the ion-acoustic speed in plasmas. The effects of changing the ion-damping rate and ion-acoustic speed are investigated for electrostatic <span class="hlt">strong</span> turbulence and electromagnetic <span class="hlt">strong</span> turbulence in three dimensions. When ion damping is <span class="hlt">strong</span>, density wells relax in place and act as nucleation sites for the formation of new wave packets. In this case, the density perturbations are primarily density wells supported by the ponderomotive force. For weak ion damping, corresponding to low Ti/Te, ion-acoustic waves are launched radially outwards when wave packets dissipate at burnout, thereby increasing the level of density perturbations in the system and thus raising the level of scattering of Langmuir waves off density perturbations. Density wells no longer relax in place so renucleation at recent collapse sites no longer occurs, instead wave packets form in background low density regions, such as superpositions of troughs of propagating ion-acoustic waves. This transition is found to occur at Ti/Te ~ 0.1. The change in behavior with Ti/Te is shown to change the bulk statistical properties, scaling behavior, spectra, and field statistics of <span class="hlt">strong</span> turbulence. For Ti/Te>rsim0.1, the electrostatic results approach the predictions of the two-component model of Robinson and Newman, and good agreement is found for Ti/Te>rsim0.15.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Graham, D. B.; Cairns, Iver H.; Skjaeraasen, O.; Robinson, P. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">187</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPCM...25j5501P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> electron transport through a <span class="hlt">strongly</span> correlated quantum dot: multiple-probe open-boundary conditions approach</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> study of electron transport through a <span class="hlt">strongly</span> correlated quantum dot, which combines adiabatic lattice density functional theory in the Bethe ansatz local-density approximation (BALDA) to the Hubbard model, with the multiple-probe battery method for open-boundary simulations in the time domain. In agreement with the recently proposed dynamical picture of Coulomb blockade, a characteristic driven regime, defined by regular current oscillations, is demonstrated for a certain range of bias voltages. We further investigate the effects of systematically improving the approximation for the electron-electron interaction at the dot site (going from non-interacting, through Hartree-only to adiabatic BALDA) on the transmission spectrum and the I-V characteristics. In particular, a negative differential conductance is obtained at large bias voltages and large Coulomb interaction strengths. This is attributed to the combined effect of the electron-electron interaction at the dot and the finite bandwidth of the electrodes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pertsova, A.; Stamenova, M.; Sanvito, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">188</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21598275"> <span id="translatedtitle">He?2++ molecular ion in a <span class="hlt">strong</span> time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> magnetic field: a current-density functional study.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The He?2++ molecular ion exposed to a <span class="hlt">strong</span> ultrashort time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> (TD) magnetic field of the order of 10(9) G is investigated through a quantum fluid dynamics (QFD) and current-density functional theory (CDFT) based approach using vector exchange-correlation (XC) potential and energy density functional that <span class="hlt">depend</span> not only on the electronic charge-density but also on the current density. The TD-QFD-CDFT computations are performed in a parallel internuclear-axis and magnetic field-axis configuration at the field-free equilibrium internuclear separation R = 1.3 au with the field-strength varying between 0 and 10(11) G. The TD behavior of the exchange- and correlation energy of the He?2++ is analyzed and compared with that obtained using a [B-TD-QFD-density functional theory (DFT)] approach based on the conventional TD-DFT under similar computational constraints but using only scalar XC potential and energy density functional <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on the electronic charge-density alone. The CDFT based approach yields TD exchange- and correlation energy and TD electronic charge-density significantly different from that obtained using the conventional TD-DFT based approach, particularly, at typical magnetic field strengths and during a typical time period of the TD field. This peculiar behavior of the CDFT-based approach is traced to the TD current-density <span class="hlt">dependent</span> vector XC potential, which can induce nonadiabatic effects causing retardation of the oscillating electronic charge density. Such dissipative electron dynamics of the He?2++ molecular ion is elucidated by treating electronic charge density as an electron-"fluid" in the terminology of QFD. PMID:21598275</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vikas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-05-19</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">189</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..DMP.M1053U"> <span id="translatedtitle">Orientation-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> phenomena in photoelectron angular distributions due to <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field ionization of laser-irradiated diatomic molecules</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report about orientation-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> effects arising in molecular photoelectron angular distributions (PAD) due to well pronounced contribution from ionization of inner molecular valence shell(s) to <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field above-threshold ionization of laser-irradiated homonuclear diatomic molecules (N2, O2 and F2). In particular, our calculation results, obtained within the Density-Functional-Theory based <span class="hlt">Strong</span>-Field-Approximation [V. I. Usachenko, P. E. Pyak and V. V. Kim Phys. Rev. A 79 116901 (2009)], suggest that within the high-intensity field domain (I >=3.10^14 W/cm^2) the molecular ionization dynamics for internuclear axis orientation angles ?/3 <=?<=2?/3 (with respect to the incident laser field polarization) does become very pronounced and manifested by the well predominant contribution rather from the 1?u inner shell than from the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) (3?g in N2 or 1?g in O2 and F2, normally predominantly contributing under standard cases).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Usachenko, Vladimir; Pyak, Pavel; Kim, Vyacheslav; Chu, Shih-I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">190</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991PhDT.......117P"> <span id="translatedtitle">High-Resolution <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> and Temporal <span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Luminescence Studies of Solids</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">By employing a pico-second pulsed dye laser system, we have performed <span class="hlt">spatially</span> and temporally resolved luminescence experiments on various size crystals of sodium cryptand sodide (Na^+C222Na^ -) to directly observe the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> propagation of optically excited states as well as the <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the luminescence spectra on crystal size. The so called single photon counting method was used for the measurements of the time evolution of the photoluminescence. For the purpose of microluminescence experiment, we have constructed a vibration free sample mounting system in conjunction with a closed cycle helium cryostat and an optical microscope. Small crystals (<=q50 ?m) of Na^+C222Na ^- exhibit an emission lineshape at higher energy than that from larger crystals. An exciton -polariton dynamics model is used to obtain the rate equations which establish the polariton populations. These rate equations, which involve the Fokker-Planck equation, are shown to explain the time and energy <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the emission spectrum and the <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the luminescence on crystal size. The crystal size effect is explained by the fact that when the crystal size decreases, the non -uniform response of the radiative decay rate leads to a decrease of the lower polariton branch (LPB) population and hence of the fluorescence intensity at energies relative to that at higher energies. It is also shown that the scattering of polaritons with acoustic phonons gradually alters the polariton population distribution and manifests itself as a constantly redshifting lineshape. This behavior leads to fast time decay of the fluorescence at high energies and slow decay at low energies. It is also shown that the time decay of the fluorescence can be approximated by a double exponential function that conforms to the experimental observations. The temperature <span class="hlt">dependent</span> photoluminescence from Na^+C222Na^- is presented. A red shift of the lineshape and a faster decay at a higher temperature is well explained by the above polariton model. As an experimental confirmation of this mechanism, we demonstrate that the time evolution of the lineshape maxima is nearly independent of temperature. We also report an emission spectrum from defect sites of Na^+C222Na^ - as well as emission from other alkalides including Rb^+(15C5)_2Na ^-, K^+(15C5) _2Na^-, and K^+(15C5)_2K ^-. Also it is found that the emission from Na^+C222Na^ - shows interesting behavior in a high excitation power range: namely redshift of the lineshape, faster time decay, and an intensity decrease. Photoluminescence from intercalated Cr(en) _sp{3}{3+} ions in fluorohectorite clay was also measured by the time resolving technique. Upon intercalation, they show a redshift and a composition <span class="hlt">dependent</span> lifetime change.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Park, Ta-Ryeong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">191</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..DMP.Q1174H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Orientation-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> ionization yields from <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field ionization of fixed-in-space linear and asymmetric top molecules</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The ionization step leading to single ionization in the multiphoton or tunnel ionization regime is a fundamental process which is thought to be well understood for atoms; however, for larger molecules much less is known. Of particular importance is the understanding of the <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the initial ionization step on the molecular orientation with respect to the external field. To fully test existing theories and to guide the way for new theory development, we here extend these experiments to larger and more complex molecular systems: Carbonyl sulphide (OCS), benzonitrile and naphthalene. In particular we investigate the yield of <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field ionization, by a linearly polarized probe pulse, as a function of the relative orientation between the laser field and the molecule. This is achieved using standard laser alignment techniques to produce 1D or 3D aligned molecular ensembles before a femtosecond laser probe pulse singly ionizes the target molecules. For naphthalene and benzonitrile, the orientational <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the ionization yield agrees well with the calculated results, in particular, we observe that ionization is maximized when the probe laser is polarized along the most polarizable axis. For OCS the observation of the maximum ionization yield when the probe is perpendicular to the internuclear axis contrasts the theoretical results.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hansen, J. L.; Dimitrovski, D.; Madsen, L. B.; Stapelfeldt, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">192</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24006364"> <span id="translatedtitle">Binding constants of membrane-anchored receptors and ligands <span class="hlt">depend</span> <span class="hlt">strongly</span> on the nanoscale roughness of membranes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cell adhesion and the adhesion of vesicles to the membranes of cells or organelles are pivotal for immune responses, tissue formation, and cell signaling. The adhesion processes <span class="hlt">depend</span> sensitively on the binding constant of the membrane-anchored receptor and ligand proteins that mediate adhesion, but this constant is difficult to measure in experiments. We have investigated the binding of membrane-anchored receptor and ligand proteins with molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the binding constant of the anchored proteins <span class="hlt">strongly</span> decreases with the membrane roughness caused by thermally excited membrane shape fluctuations on nanoscales. We present a theory that explains the roughness <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the binding constant for the anchored proteins from membrane confinement and that relates this constant to the binding constant of soluble proteins without membrane anchors. Because the binding constant of soluble proteins is readily accessible in experiments, our results provide a useful route to compute the binding constant of membrane-anchored receptor and ligand proteins. PMID:24006364</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hu, Jinglei; Lipowsky, Reinhard; Weikl, Thomas R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-04</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">193</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007MeScT..18.1137W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Determination of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> TDR-sensor characteristics in <span class="hlt">strong</span> dispersive subsoil using 3D-FEM frequency domain simulations in combination with microwave dielectric spectroscopy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">spatial</span> sensor characteristics of a 6 cm TDR flat band cable sensor section was simulated with finite element modelling (high frequency structure simulator—HFSS) under certain conditions: (i) in direct contact with the surrounding material (air, water of different salinities, different synthetic and natural soils (sand-silt-clay mixtures)), (ii) with consideration of a defined gap of different size filled with air or water and (iii) the cable sensor pressed at a borehole-wall. The complex dielectric permittivity ?sstarf(?, ?i) or complex electrical conductivity ?sstarf(?, ?i) = i??sstarf(?, ?i) of the investigated saturated and unsaturated soils was examined in the frequency range 50 MHz-20 GHz at room temperature and atmospheric pressure with a HP8720D-network analyser. Three soil-specific relaxation processes are assumed to act in the investigated frequency-temperature-pressure range: one primary ?-process (main water relaxation) and two secondary (?', ?)-processes due to clay-water-ion interactions (bound water relaxation and the Maxwell-Wagner effect). The dielectric relaxation behaviour of every process is described with the use of a simple fractional relaxation model. 3D finite element simulation is performed with a ?/3 based adaptive mesh refinement at a solution frequency of 1 MHz, 10 MHz, 0.1 GHz, 1 GHz and 12.5 GHz. The electromagnetic field distribution, S-parameter and step responses were examined. The simulation adequately reproduces the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and temporal electrical and magnetic field distribution. High-lossy soils cause, as a function of increasing gravimetric water content and bulk density, an increase in TDR signal rise time as well as a <span class="hlt">strong</span> absorption of multiple reflections. An air or water gap works as a quasi-waveguide, i.e. the influence of the surrounding medium is <span class="hlt">strongly</span> reduced. Appropriate TDR-travel-time distortions can be quantified.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wagner, Norman; Trinks, Eberhard; Kupfer, Klaus</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">194</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AnPhy.333...47H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Propagation of sound waves through a <span class="hlt">spatially</span> homogeneous but smoothly time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> medium</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The propagation of sound through a <span class="hlt">spatially</span> homogeneous but non-stationary medium is investigated within the framework of fluid dynamics. For a non-vortical fluid, especially, a generalized wave equation is derived for the (scalar) potential of the fluid velocity distribution in <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the equilibrium mass density of the fluid and the sound wave velocity. A solution of this equation for a finite transition period ? is determined in terms of the hypergeometric function for a phenomenologically realistic, sigmoidal change of the mass density and sound wave velocity. Using this solution, it is shown that the energy flux of the sound wave is not conserved but increases always for the propagation through a non-stationary medium, independent of whether the equilibrium mass density is increased or decreased. It is found, moreover, that this amplification of the transmitted wave arises from an energy exchange with the medium and that its flux is equal to the (total) flux of the incident and the reflected wave. An interpretation of the reflected wave as a propagation of sound backward in time is given in close analogy to Feynman and Stueckelberg for the propagation of anti-particles. The reflection and transmission coefficients of sound propagating through a non-stationary medium is analyzed in more detail for hypersonic waves with transition periods ? between 15 and 200 ps as well as the transformation of infrasound waves in non-stationary oceans.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hayrapetyan, A. G.; Grigoryan, K. K.; Petrosyan, R. G.; Fritzsche, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">195</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011OptEn..50e7202W"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> matrix feature and redundancy elimination algorithm using AdaBoost for object detection</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper describes a novel feature representation and selection approach for classification problems, especially for visual object detection within the framework of AdaBoost. This work is distinguished by two contributions. The first contribution is the introduction of a new feature generation and representation method called the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> matrix feature, which not only provides information related to the first-order statistics distribution of the object, but also gives some information about the relative positions within the object, more importantly, it can provide different degrees of importance for different discriminative parts within the object. It is flexible, extendable, and compatible with Haar-like features. The second contribution is an improved feature selection algorithm, which introduces a novel weighted features redundancy elimination rule that eliminates the irrelevant and redundant features from the candidate feature pool at every boosting stage when gradually training detector, and thus two advantages can be obtained: leading to selecting features with more discrimination and the final detector having a higher accuracy, and also increasing the learning convergence and achieving high training rates. Extensive experiments with synthetic and real scene data sets show that our works outperform conventional AdaBoost and are better than or at least equivalent to previously published results.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wen, Jia; Li, Chao; Xiong, Zhang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">196</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/956603"> <span id="translatedtitle">Casimir <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of transverse distribution of pairs produced from a <span class="hlt">strong</span> constant chromo-electric background field</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recently the transverse distribution of particle production from <span class="hlt">strong</span> constant chromo-electric fields has been explicitly calculated in Ref. 1 for soft-gluon production and in Ref. 2 for quark (antiquark) production. This particle production method, originally discussed by Heisenberg and Euler, Schwinger and Weisskopf, has a long history as a model of the production of the quark gluon plasma following a relativistic heavy ion collision. The physical picture considered here is that of two relativistic heavy nuclei colliding and leaving behind a semi-classical gluon field which then non-perturbatively produces gluon and quark-antiquark pairs via the Schwinger mechanism. At high energy large hadron colliders, such as RHIC (Au-Au collisions at {radical}{ovr s} = 200 GeV) and LHC (Pb-Pb collisions at {radical}{ovr s} = 5.5 TeV), about half the total center-of-mass energy, E{sub cm}, goes into the production of a semi-classical gluon field, which can be thought to be initially in a Lorentz contracted disc. The gluon field in SU(3) is described by two Casimir invariants, the first one, C{sub 1} = E{sup a}E{sup a}, being related to the energy density of the initial field, where the second one, C{sub 2} = [d{sub abc}E{sup a}E{sup b}E{sup c}]{sup 2}, is related to the SU(3) color hypercharge left behind by the leading particles. So the question we want to study in this short note is how sensitive the transverse distribution is to this second Casimir invariant C{sub 2}. We have considered the <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the pair production rate of quarks and gluons from a <span class="hlt">strong</span> chromo-electric field and have discovered that the effect of the second Casimir invariant of SU(3), which was not present in the electric field problem, effects the distribution by less than 15%. This event by event <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the transverse momentum distribution of jets on C{sub 2} may be something of interest at heavy ion colliders.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cooper, Fred M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mihaila, Bogdan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dawson, John F [UNIV OF NH</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">197</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/36057135"> <span id="translatedtitle">Enriched environment, nitric oxide production and synaptic plasticity prevent the aging-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> impairment of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> cognition</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In rodents, neuronal plasticity decreases and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> learning and working memory deficits increase upon aging. Several authors have shown that rats reared in enriched environments have better cognitive performance in association with increased neuronal plasticity than animals reared in standard environments. We hypothesized that enriched environment could preserve animals from the age-associated neurological impairments, mainly through NO-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> mechanisms of induction</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Silvia Lores Arnaiz; Gabriela D'Amico; Nora Paglia; Mariana Arismendi; Nidia Basso; Mar??a del Rosario Lores Arnaiz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">198</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/p94813244532043h.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Frequency distributions and <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> variability of ammonium and nitrate concentrations in soil under grazed and ungrazed grassland</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The frequency distributions of soil NO3- and NH4+ concentrations under grazed and ungrazed grassland were found to be lognormal, irrespective of time of year or soil depth. The variance and skewness of the sample values increased with stocking density and use of N fertilizer. An analysis of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the variability using the semivariogram showed a high ‘nugget’</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">RE White; Rosalyn A Haigh; Jh Macduff</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">199</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://invasivespecies.gsfc.nasa.gov/pub/STM4/Pt_Process_Model_Reich.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Predicting the location of northern goshawk nests: modeling the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependency</span> between nest locations and forest structure</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Northern goshawks interact with each other and their environment in a <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> manner. However, finding the location of active goshawk nests (e.g. where eggs are laid) in a given year is difficult due to the secretive nature of the hawks in their forest environment, their annually variable attempts at nesting, and the extent of the area within a home</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robin M. Reich; Suzanne M. Joy; Richard T. Reynolds</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">200</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JChPh.136d4301W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experimental verification of <span class="hlt">strong</span> rotational <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of fluorescence and predissociation yield in the b 1?u(v = 1) level of 14N2</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">New, rotationally resolved fluorescence-excitation spectra confirm coupled-channel Schrödinger-equation predictions of <span class="hlt">strong</span> rotational <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the fluorescence and predissociation yields in the b(v = 1) level of 14N2.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wu, C. Y. Robert; Judge, D. L.; Tsai, M.-H.; Lin, Y.-C.; Yih, T.-S.; Lo, J.-I.; Fung, H.-S.; Lee, Y.-Y.; Lewis, B. R.; Heays, A. N.; Gibson, S. T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">201</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3694015"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fitness Effects of Chlorpyrifos in the Damselfly Enallagma cyathigerum <span class="hlt">Strongly</span> <span class="hlt">Depend</span> upon Temperature and Food Level and Can Bridge Metamorphosis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Interactions between pollutants and suboptimal environmental conditions can have severe consequences for the toxicity of pollutants, yet are still poorly understood. To identify patterns across environmental conditions and across fitness-related variables we exposed Enallagma cyathigerum damselfly larvae to the pesticide chlorpyrifos at two food levels or at two temperatures and quantified four fitness-related variables (larval survival, development time, mass at emergence and adult cold resistance). Food level and temperature did not affect survival in the absence of the pesticide, yet the pesticide reduced survival only at the high temperature. Animals reacted to the pesticide by accelerating their development but only at the high food level and at the low temperature; at the low food level, however, pesticide exposure resulted in a slower development. Chlorpyrifos exposure resulted in smaller adults except in animals reared at the high food level. Animals reared at the low food level and at the low temperature had a higher cold resistance which was not affected by the pesticide. In summary our study highlight that combined effects of exposure to chlorpyrifos and the two environmental conditions (i) were mostly interactive and sometimes even reversed in comparison with the effect of the environmental condition in isolation, (ii) <span class="hlt">strongly</span> differed <span class="hlt">depending</span> on the fitness-related variable under study, (iii) were not always predictable based on the effect of the environmental condition in isolation, and (iv) bridged metamorphosis <span class="hlt">depending</span> on which environmental condition was combined with the pesticide thereby potentially carrying over from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems. These findings are relevant when extrapolating results of laboratory tests done under ideal environmental conditions to natural communities.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Janssens, Lizanne; Stoks, Robby</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">202</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.6113T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Consequences on lower-mantle plume dynamics with the post-perovskite phase change and <span class="hlt">strongly</span> depth <span class="hlt">dependent</span> thermodynamic and transport properties</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have carried out numerical simulations of 2-D mantle convection specifically with the deep phase change from perovskite (pv) to post-perovskite (ppv). Using the extended Boussinesq approximation for a fluid with both temperature and pressure <span class="hlt">dependent</span> viscosity, we have performed an extensive sensitivity analysis of the post-perovskite phase parameters and investigated their effects on the convective planform, heat transport and mean temperature profiles. Since the rheology of ppv is expected to be relatively weak with respect to pv (Ohta et al., 2008; Hunt et al., 2009) and to have a large thermal conductivity (Hofmeister, 2007), we assume that the transition from pv to this ppv phase is accompanied by both a reduction in viscosity by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude and by an increase in thermal conductivity by a factor of 2. Furthermore, we investigate the combined effects of decreasing pressure-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> thermal expansivity, by considering the most recent findings by Katsura et al. (2009), and steeply increasing thermal conductivity (Hofmeister, 2008, Tang and Dong, 2010). As long as the thermal expansivity and conductivity are constant, ppv exerts a small but measurable effect on mantle convection: it destabilizes the D" layer and causes focusing of the heat-flux peaks and an increase of the average mantle temperature and also of the temporal and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequency of upwellings. When depth <span class="hlt">dependent</span> thermal expansivity and the latest thermal conductivity models are introduced, the effects of ppv are dramatic. On the one hand, without ppv, we obtain a very sluggish convective regime characterized by a relatively cool mantle dominated by large downwellings that tend to stagnate beneath the transition zone. With ppv, on the other hand, we observe an extremely significant increase of the average mantle temperature due to the formation of large sized and vigorous upwellings that in some cases tend to cluster, thus forming superplumes. If a very large thermal conductivity at the core-mantle boundary is assumed (k ~ 20 W/Km) we obtain a quasi-steady state regime characterized by large and very stable plumes with long lifetimes. The combination of <span class="hlt">strongly</span> depth <span class="hlt">dependent</span> expansivity and conductivity is a viable mechanism for the formation of long-wavelength, long-lived structures in the deep mantle (Torsvik et al., 2008;Dziewonski et al., 2010).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tosi, Nicola; Yuen, David; Cadek, Ondrej</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">203</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54986295"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Correlation of Solar Wind Fluctuations and Their Solar Cycle <span class="hlt">Dependence</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigate the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> correlation properties of the solar wind in the ecliptic at 1 AU using simultaneous in situ observations by the Advanced Composition Explorer and Wind spacecraft. We present the first direct study of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> correlation length scale lambda of fluctuations in the solar wind ion density rho, and find it to be smaller than that of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. T. Wicks; S. C. Chapman; R. O. Dendy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">204</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2181426"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> stochastic modelling of the phosphoenolpyruvate-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> phosphotransferase (PTS) pathway in Escherichia coli</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Motivation: Many biochemical networks involve reactions localized on the cell membrane. This can give rise to <span class="hlt">spatial</span> gradients of the concentrationofcytosolicspecies.Moreover,thenumberofmembrane molecules can be small and stochastic effects can become relevant. Pathways usually consist of a complex interaction network and are characterized by a large set of parameters. The inclusion of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and stochastic effects is a major challenge in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jordi Vidal Rodríguez; Jaap A. Kaandorp; Maciej Dobrzynski; Joke G. Blom</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">205</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57415258"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Learning <span class="hlt">Depends</span> on Both the Addition and Removal of New Hippocampal Neurons</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in <span class="hlt">spatial</span> learning remains a matter of debate. Here, we show that <span class="hlt">spatial</span> learning modifies neurogenesis by inducing a cascade of events that resembles the selective stabilization process characterizing development. Learning promotes survival of relatively mature neurons, apoptosis of more immature cells, and finally, proliferation of neural precursors. These are three interrelated events mediating</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David Dupret; Annabelle Fabre; Màtè Dàniel Döbrössy; Aude Panatier; José Julio Rodríguez; Stéphanie Lamarque; Valerie Lemaire; Stephane H. R Oliet; Pier-Vincenzo Piazza; Djoher Nora Abrous</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">206</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/14182764"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> and Temporal Regulation of Ca 2 \\/Calmodulin-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Protein Kinase II Activity in Developing Neurons</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have studied Ca 2 \\/calmodulin-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> protein kinase II (CaMKII) isoform distribution and activity in embryonic hip- pocampal neurons developing in culture. We have found a <span class="hlt">strong</span> correlation between the expression of the subunit of the enzyme and the ability to undergo depolarization- <span class="hlt">dependent</span> phosphorylation, which in young neurons is limited to the somatodendritic pool of the kinase. The lack</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Andrea Menegon; Claudia Verderio; Chiara Leoni; Fabio Benfenati; Andrew J. Czernik; Paul Greengard; Michela Matteoli; Flavia Valtorta</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">207</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16771991"> <span id="translatedtitle">Respiration of the external mycelium in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis shows <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on recent photosynthates and acclimation to temperature.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">* Although arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are a major pathway in the global carbon cycle, their basic biology and, in particular, their respiratory response to temperature remain obscure. * A pulse label of the stable isotope (13)C was applied to Plantago lanceolata, either uninoculated or inoculated with the AM fungus Glomus mosseae. The extra-radical mycelium (ERM) of the fungus was allowed to grow into a separate hyphal compartment excluding roots. We determined the carbon costs of the ERM and tested for a direct temperature effect on its respiration by measuring total carbon and the (13)C:(12)C ratio of respired CO(2). With a second pulse we tested for acclimation of ERM respiration after 2 wk of soil warming. * Root colonization remained unchanged between the two pulses but warming the hyphal compartment increased ERM length. delta(13)C signals peaked within the first 10 h and were higher in mycorrhizal treatments. The concentration of CO(2) in the gas samples fluctuated diurnally and was highest in the mycorrhizal treatments but was unaffected by temperature. Heating increased ERM respiration only after the first pulse and reduced specific ERM respiration rates after the second pulse; however, both pulses <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">depended</span> on radiation flux. * The results indicate a fast ERM acclimation to temperature, and that light is the key factor controlling carbon allocation to the fungus. PMID:16771991</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Heinemeyer, A; Ineson, P; Ostle, N; Fitter, A H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">208</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23380702"> <span id="translatedtitle">Time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> electron transport through a <span class="hlt">strongly</span> correlated quantum dot: multiple-probe open-boundary conditions approach.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> study of electron transport through a <span class="hlt">strongly</span> correlated quantum dot, which combines adiabatic lattice density functional theory in the Bethe ansatz local-density approximation (BALDA) to the Hubbard model, with the multiple-probe battery method for open-boundary simulations in the time domain. In agreement with the recently proposed dynamical picture of Coulomb blockade, a characteristic driven regime, defined by regular current oscillations, is demonstrated for a certain range of bias voltages. We further investigate the effects of systematically improving the approximation for the electron-electron interaction at the dot site (going from non-interacting, through Hartree-only to adiabatic BALDA) on the transmission spectrum and the I-V characteristics. In particular, a negative differential conductance is obtained at large bias voltages and large Coulomb interaction strengths. This is attributed to the combined effect of the electron-electron interaction at the dot and the finite bandwidth of the electrodes. PMID:23380702</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pertsova, A; Stamenova, M; Sanvito, S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-04</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">209</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3223649"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> heterogeneity in the effects of climate and density-<span class="hlt">dependence</span> on dispersal in a house sparrow metapopulation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Dispersal plays a key role in the response of populations to climate change and habitat fragmentation. Here, we use data from a long-term metapopulation study of a non-migratory bird, the house sparrow (Passer domesticus), to examine the influence of increasing spring temperature and density-<span class="hlt">dependence</span> on natal dispersal rates and how these relationships <span class="hlt">depend</span> on <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variation in habitat quality. The effects of spring temperature and population size on dispersal rate <span class="hlt">depended</span> on the habitat quality. Dispersal rate increased with temperature and population size on poor-quality islands without farms, where house sparrows were more exposed to temporal fluctuations in weather conditions and food availability. By contrast, dispersal rate was independent of spring temperature and population size on high-quality islands with farms, where house sparrows had access to food and shelter all the year around. This illustrates large <span class="hlt">spatial</span> heterogeneity within the metapopulation in how population density and environmental fluctuations affect the dispersal process.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Parn, Henrik; Ringsby, Thor Harald; Jensen, Henrik; Saether, Bernt-Erik</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">210</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21388720"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> Rabi oscillations: An approach to sub-diffraction-limited coherent anti-Stokes Raman-scattering microscopy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a theoretical investigation of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) that is modulated by periodically depleting the ground-state population through Rabi oscillations driven by an additional control laser. We find that such a process generates optical sidebands in the CARS spectrum and that the frequency of the sidebands <span class="hlt">depends</span> on the intensity of the control laser light field. We show that analyzing the sideband frequency upon scanning the beams across the sample allows one to <span class="hlt">spatially</span> resolve emitter positions where a <span class="hlt">spatial</span> resolution of 65 nm, which is well below the diffraction limit, can be obtained.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Beeker, Willem P.; Lee, Chris J.; Boller, Klaus-Jochen; Gross, Petra; Cleff, Carsten; Fallnich, Carsten; Offerhaus, Herman L.; Herek, Jennifer L. [Laser Physics and Nonlinear Optics Group, MESA Research Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, Enschede NL-7500 AE (Netherlands); Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Optical Sciences Group, MESA Research Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, Enschede NL-7500 AE (Netherlands)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">211</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=N8322693"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Variation of Corn Canopy Temperature as <span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Upon Soil Texture and Crop Rooting Characteristics.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A soil plant atmosphere model for corn (Zea mays L.) together with the scaling theory for soil hydraulic heterogeneity are used to study the sensitivity of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variation of canopy temperature to field averaged soil texture and crop rooting characteris...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. J. Choudhury</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">212</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=80229"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">SPATIAL</span> AGGREGATION IN A FOREST FLOOR INSECT <span class="hlt">DEPENDS</span> ON SEASONAL CONGREGATION AND SCATTERING EFFECTS OF PREDATORS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> aggregations arising from gregarious behavior are common in nature and have important implications for population dynamics, community stability, and conservation. However, the translation of aggregation behaviors into emergent properties of populations and communities de...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">213</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGS....12...51M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Brazilian <span class="hlt">spatial</span> dynamics in the long term (1872-2000): ``path <span class="hlt">dependency</span>'' or ``reversal of fortune''?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper analyzes the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> dynamics of Brazilian regional inequalities between 1872 and 2000 using contemporary tools. The first part of the paper provides new estimates of income per capita in 1872 by municipality using census and electoral information on income by occupation. The level of analysis is the Minimum Comparable Areas 1872-2000 developed by Reis et al. (Áreas mínimas comparáveis para os períodos intercensitários de 1872 a 2000, 2007). These areas are the least aggregation of adjacent municipalities required to allow consistent geographic area comparisons between census years. In the second section of the paper, Exploratory <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Data Analysis, Markov chains and stochastic kernel techniques (<span class="hlt">spatially</span> conditioned) are applied to the dataset. The results suggest that, in broad terms, the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> pattern of income distribution in Brazil during that period of time has remained stable.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Monasterio, Leonardo Monteiro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">214</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60771371"> <span id="translatedtitle">Variant 22: <span class="hlt">Spatially-Dependent</span>: Transient Processes in MOX Fueled Core</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This work is a part of Joint U.S.\\/Russian Project with Weapons-Grade Plutonium Disposition in VVER Reactors and presents the results of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> kinetics calculational benchmarks. The examinations were carried out with the following purposes: to verify one of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> neutronic kinetics model elaborated in KI, to understand sensibility of the model to neutronics difference of UOX and MOX cores, and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pavlovichev</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">215</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41112777"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reconstructing land use drivers and their <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale <span class="hlt">dependence</span> for Costa Rica (1973 and 1984)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Costa Rican land use and cover (in 1973 and 1984) were investigated using a nested scale analysis. <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> distributions of potential biophysical and human land use\\/cover drivers were statistically related to the distribution of pastures, arable lands, permanent crops, natural and secondary vegetation, for 0.1° grid units and five artificially aggregated <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales. Multiple regression models describing land use\\/cover variability</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Veldkamp; L. O. Fresco</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">216</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/58255557"> <span id="translatedtitle">House Prices and <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> : Towards an Integrated Procedure to Model Neighborhood</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper deals with applying GIS and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> statistics to hedonic modeling. More precisely, it looks at <span class="hlt">spatial</span> autocorrelation and trend surface analysis (TSA) as devices that can be used to improve model performances. Empirical analysis is performed on the Charlesbourg 1986-87 bungalow (one-story, single-family detached unit) residential market segment. Charlesbourg is the third largest municipality in the Quebec Urban</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F. Des Rosier; M. Theriault</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">217</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/58255566"> <span id="translatedtitle">House Prices and <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">Dependence</span>: Towards an Integrated Procedure to Model Neighborhood Dynamics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper deals with applying GIS and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> statistics to hedonic modeling. More precisely, it looks at <span class="hlt">spatial</span> autocorrelation and trend surface analysis (TSA) as devices that can be used to improve model performances. Empirical analysis is performed on the Charlesbourg 1986-87 bungalow (one-story, single-family detached unit) residential market segment. Charlesbourg is the third largest municipality in the Quebec Urban</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F. Des Rosiers; M. Theriault</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">218</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3765222"> <span id="translatedtitle">Is strain by Speckle Tracking Echocardiography <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on user controlled <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and temporal smoothing? An experimental porcine study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Speckle Tracking Echocardiography (STE) strain analysis relies on both <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and temporal smoothing. The user is often allowed to adjust these smoothing parameters during analysis. This experimental study investigates how different degrees of user controllable <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and temporal smoothing affect global and regional STE strain values in recordings obtained from normal and ischemic myocardium. Methods In seven anesthetized pigs, left ventricular short- and long-axis B-mode cineloops were recorded before and after left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion. Peak- and postsystolic global STE strain in the radial, circumferential and longitudinal direction as well as corresponding regional strain in the anterior and posterior walls were measured. During post-processing, strain values were obtained with three different degrees of both <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and temporal smoothing (minimum, factory default and maximum), resulting in nine different combinations. Results All parameters for global and regional longitudinal strain were unaffected by adjustments of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and temporal smoothing in both normal and ischemic myocardium. Radial and circumferential strain <span class="hlt">depended</span> on smoothing to a variable extent, radial strain being most affected. However, in both directions the different combinations of smoothing did only result in relatively small changes in the strain values. Overall, the maximal strain difference was found in normal myocardium for peak systolic radial strain of the posterior wall where strain was 22.0 ± 2.2% with minimal <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and maximal temporal smoothing and 30.9 ± 2.6% with maximal <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and minimal temporal smoothing (P?<?0.05). Conclusions Longitudinal strain was unaffected by different degrees of user controlled smoothing. Radial and circumferential strain <span class="hlt">depended</span> on the degree of smoothing. However, in most cases these changes were small and would not lead to altered conclusions in a clinical setting. Furthermore, smoothing did not affect strain variance. For all strain parameters, variance remained within the corresponding interobserver variance.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">219</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=media+AND+good&id=EJ762339"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> Libraries, <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Scores</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|This article talks about the first-ever Texas Conference on School Libraries on April 6, 2005 that was attended by one hundred thirty-five school administrators and trustees. The miniconference, entitled <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Libraries, <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Scores, was held at the Austin Hilton, Austin, Texas during the Texas Library Association's Annual Conference and was…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gray, Carlyn</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">220</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NJPh...15i5019P"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of exciton transport efficiency on <span class="hlt">spatial</span> patterns of correlation within the spectral bath</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> correlations in spectral bath motions have been proposed to explain long-lived coherence in exciton transport. Systems of interest, ranging from photosynthetic complexes to organic photovoltaics, contain inhomogeneous environments. We consider the possibility that the degree of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> correlation varies throughout an exciton transport system. We model exciton transport in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex (FMO), a photosynthetic light-harvesting complex. Although it remains unclear whether significant <span class="hlt">spatial</span> correlations exist in FMO, its very high exciton transport efficiency makes it an interesting case for studies of exciton transport. We also simulate a highly symmetric ten-site model system. We use an extension of the environment-assisted quantum transport model to simulate transport, allowing the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> correlation function to vary throughout the system. We demonstrate both via analysis and via simulation that exciton transport efficiency is most sensitive to changes in correlation between the site coupled to the trap and its neighboring sites. This asymmetry in sensitivity is highly robust and appears irrespective of changes in parameters such as transition dipole orientations and initial conditions. Our results suggest that in the design of exciton transport systems, efforts to increase efficiency by controlling <span class="hlt">spatial</span> correlation should be focused on the region near the site of exciton trapping.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pelzer, Kenley M.; Fidler, Andrew F.; Griffin, Graham B.; Gray, Stephen K.; Engel, Gregory S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" 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showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">221</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24089937"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> parameter estimation and nonlinear data assimilation by autosynchronization of a system of partial differential equations.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Given multiple images that describe chaotic reaction-diffusion dynamics, parameters of a partial differential equation (PDE) model are estimated using autosynchronization, where parameters are controlled by synchronization of the model to the observed data. A two-component system of predator-prey reaction-diffusion PDEs is used with <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> parameters to benchmark the methods described. Applications to modeling the ecological habitat of marine plankton blooms by nonlinear data assimilation through remote sensing are discussed. PMID:24089937</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kramer, Sean; Bollt, Erik M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">222</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Chaos..23c3101K"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> parameter estimation and nonlinear data assimilation by autosynchronization of a system of partial differential equations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Given multiple images that describe chaotic reaction-diffusion dynamics, parameters of a partial differential equation (PDE) model are estimated using autosynchronization, where parameters are controlled by synchronization of the model to the observed data. A two-component system of predator-prey reaction-diffusion PDEs is used with <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> parameters to benchmark the methods described. Applications to modeling the ecological habitat of marine plankton blooms by nonlinear data assimilation through remote sensing are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kramer, Sean; Bollt, Erik M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">223</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40248626"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characterizing scale-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> relationships between soil properties using multifractal techniques</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Measurement of soil hydraulic properties under field conditions is expensive and time consuming. Indirect methods that include estimating soil water properties from readily available soil physical data (known generally as pedotransfer functions) are preferred options. However, since environmental factors and processes operate at multiple <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales, the accuracy and reliability of these indirect techniques is often below expectations. The objective</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Takele B. Zeleke; Bing C. Si</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">224</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cebc.cnrs.fr/publipdf/2009/GPRSB276_2009.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sex-biased dispersal patterns <span class="hlt">depend</span> on the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale in a social rodent</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Dispersal is a fundamental process in ecology because it influences the dynamics, genetic structure and persistence of populations. Furthermore, understanding the evolutionary causes of dispersal pattern, par- ticularly when they differ between genders, is still a major question in evolutionary ecology. Using a panel of 10 microsatellite loci, we investigated at different <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales the genetic structure and the sex-specific</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. Gauffre; E. Petit; S. Brodier; V. Bretagnolle; J. F. Cosson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">225</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ilab.usc.edu/publications/doc/Peters_Itti07cvpr.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Beyond bottom-up: Incorporating task-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> influences into a computational model of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> attention</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A critical function in both machine vision and biologi- cal vision systems is attentional selection of scene regions worthy of further analysis by higher-level processes such as object recognition. Here we present the first model of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> attention that (1) can be applied to arbitrary static and dynamic image sequences with interactive tasks and (2) combines a general computational implementation</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robert J. Peters; Laurent Itti</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">226</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.umt.edu/MCWRU/files.pdf/Tom's%20PDF/AppliedEcology_Chalfoun_Martin07.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessments of habitat preferences and quality <span class="hlt">depend</span> on <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale and metrics of fitness</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary 1. Identifying the habitat features that influence habitat selection and enhance fitness is critical for effective management. Ecological theory predicts that habitat choices should be adaptive, such that fitness is enhanced in preferred habitats. However, studies often report mismatches between habitat preferences and fitness consequences across a wide variety of taxa based on a single <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale and\\/or a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">ANNA D. CHALFOUN; THOMAS E. MARTIN</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">227</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22218091"> <span id="translatedtitle">Delay- and dose-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> effects of ??-tetrahydrocannabinol administration on <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and object working memory tasks in adolescent rhesus monkeys.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Among adolescents, the perception that cannabis can cause harm has decreased and use has increased. However, in rodents, cannabinoid administration during adolescence induces working memory (WM) deficits that are more severe than if the same exposure occurs during adulthood. As both object and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> WM mature in a protracted manner, although apparently along different trajectories, adolescent cannabis users may be more susceptible to impairments in one type of WM. Here, we evaluate the acute effects of a range of doses (30-240 ?g/kg) of intravenous ??-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration on the performance of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and object WM tasks in adolescent rhesus monkeys. Accuracy on the object WM task was not significantly affected by any dose of THC. In contrast, THC administration impaired accuracy on the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> WM task in a delay- and dose-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> manner. Importantly, the THC-induced <span class="hlt">spatial</span> WM deficits were not because of motor or motivational impairments. These data support the idea that immature cognitive functions are more sensitive to the acute effects of THC. PMID:22218091</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Verrico, Christopher D; Liu, Shijing; Bitler, Elizabeth J; Gu, Hong; Sampson, Allan R; Bradberry, Charles W; Lewis, David A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-04</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">228</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3097883"> <span id="translatedtitle">Patterns of variability in early-life traits of fishes <span class="hlt">depend</span> on <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale of analysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Estimates of early-life traits of fishes (e.g. pelagic larval duration (PLD) and spawning date) are essential for investigating and assessing patterns of population connectivity. Such estimates are available for a large number of both tropical and temperate fish species, but few studies have assessed their variability in space, especially across multiple scales. The present study, where a Mediterranean fish (i.e. the white seabream Diplodus sargus sargus) was used as a model, shows that spawning date and PLD are <span class="hlt">spatially</span> more variable at a scale of kilometres than at a scale of tens to hundreds of kilometres. This study indicates the importance of considering <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variability of early-life traits of fishes in order to properly delineate connectivity patterns at larval stages (e.g. by means of Lagrangian simulations), thus providing strategically useful information on connectivity and relevant management goals (e.g. the creation of networks of marine reserves).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Di Franco, Antonio; Guidetti, Paolo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">229</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRF..116.2014L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cumulative versus transient shoreline change: <span class="hlt">Dependencies</span> on temporal and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using shoreline change measurements of two oceanside reaches of the North Carolina Outer Banks, USA, we explore an existing premise that shoreline change on a sandy coast is a self-affine signal, wherein patterns of change are scale invariant. Wavelet analysis confirms that the mean variance (spectral power) of shoreline change can be approximated by a power law at alongshore scales from tens of meters up to ˜4-8 km. However, the possibility of a power law relationship does not necessarily reveal a unifying, scale-free, dominant process, and deviations from power law scaling at scales of kilometers to tens of kilometers may suggest further insights into shoreline change processes. Specifically, the maximum of the variance in shoreline change and the scale at which that maximum occurs both increase when shoreline change is measured over longer time scales. This suggests a temporal control on the magnitude of change possible at a given <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale and, by extension, that aggregation of shoreline change over time is an important component of large-scale shifts in shoreline position. We also find a consistent difference in variance magnitude between the two survey reaches at large <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales, which may be related to differences in oceanographic forcing conditions or may involve hydrodynamic interactions with nearshore geologic bathymetric structures. Overall, the findings suggest that shoreline change at small <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales (less than kilometers) does not represent a peak in the shoreline change signal and that change at larger <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales dominates the signal, emphasizing the need for studies that target long-term, large-scale shoreline change.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lazarus, Eli; Ashton, Andrew; Murray, A. Brad; Tebbens, Sarah; Burroughs, Stephen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">230</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://personal-homepages.mis.mpg.de/tuckwell/tuckwell%202007%20biosystems%20toubiana.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dynamical modeling of viral spread in <span class="hlt">spatially</span> distributed populations: stochastic origins of oscillations and density <span class="hlt">dependence</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In order to understand the spatio-temporal structure of epidemics beyond that permitted with classical SIR (susceptible-infective- recovered)-type models, a new mathematical model for the spread of a viral disease in a population of <span class="hlt">spatially</span> distributed hosts is described. The positions of the hosts are randomly generated in a rectangular habitat. Encounters between any pair of individuals are according to a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Henry C. Tuckwell; Laurent Toubiana</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">231</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/34743160"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> summation of thermal sensations <span class="hlt">depends</span> on skin type and skin sensitivity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of the present study was to examine the extent to which <span class="hlt">spatial</span> summation (SS) of thermal senses is affected\\u000a by skin type and skin thermal sensitivity. A total of 19 healthy subjects underwent measurements of warm- and cold-sensation\\u000a threshold (WST and CST) with a large (9 cm2) and small (2.25 cm2) stimulation area, within the glabrous (palm) and hairy skin</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ruth Defrin; Laura Petrini; Lars Arendt-Nielsen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">232</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SuMi...63..197X"> <span id="translatedtitle">2D probe absorption via <span class="hlt">spatial-dependent</span> quantum interference in a triple semiconductor quantum well</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigate the two-dimensional (2D) probe absorption spectrum in a triple semiconductor quantum well system driven by two orthogonal standing-wave lasers. It is found that, due to the quantum interference effect of interacting dark resonances, the 2D <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of probe absorption spectrum can be easily controlled via adjusting the system parameters. Thus, our scheme shows the underlying probability for the formation of the 2D localization effect in a solid.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xu, Hai-feng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">233</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/13007080"> <span id="translatedtitle">Survivorship of juvenile barnacles and mussels: <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> and the origin of alternative communities</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mussels, barnacles, and rockweeds often form a distinct mosaic of patches on rocky intertidal shores, and it has been suggested that these communities may represent alternative community states. One way that alternative community states can arise is if early successional events are scale-<span class="hlt">dependent</span>, but it is not known if juvenile survivorships of mussels and barnacles are, in fact, scale-<span class="hlt">dependent</span>. Scale-<span class="hlt">dependence</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peter S. Petraitis; Erika Carlson Rhile; Steve Dudgeon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">234</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996PhyC..262..187Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Anomalous band-filling <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the quasiparticle density of states and the gap ratio 2?0/kBTc in <span class="hlt">strong</span>-coupling superconductors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Within the framework of the Eliashberg theory including the energy-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> Lorentzian electronic density of states (EDOS), the behavior of the quasiparticle density of states (QDOS) is studied for <span class="hlt">strong</span>-coupling superconductors. Our numerical calculation shows that when the EDOS has structure it can give an additional structure to the QDOS besides the usual fine structures due to the <span class="hlt">strong</span> electron-phonon coupling when the carrier concentration has appropriate values. It is also found that the inclusion of the energy-varying EDOS leads to unusual band-filling <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the gap ratio 2?0/kBTc: The calculation with the band-filling n being varied, reveals that the gap ratio does not necessarily take its maximum value at half-filling, but at a value of n far away from half-filling. This may occur as the electron-phonon coupling becomes very <span class="hlt">strong</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yokoya, Y.; Nakamura, Y. O.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">235</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012RAA....12.1280B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Calculation of the structural properties of a strange quark star in the presence of a <span class="hlt">strong</span> magnetic field using a density <span class="hlt">dependent</span> bag constant</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have calculated the structural properties of a strange quark star with a static model in the presence of a <span class="hlt">strong</span> magnetic field. To this end, we use the MIT bag model with a density <span class="hlt">dependent</span> bag constant. To parameterize the density <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the bag constant, we have used our results for the lowest order constrained variational calculation of the asymmetric nuclear matter. By calculating the equation of state of strange quark matter, we have shown that the pressure of this system increases by increasing both density and magnetic field. Finally, we have investigated the effect of density <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the bag constant on the structural properties of a strange quark star.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bordbar, Gholam Hossein; Bahri, Hajar; Kayanikhoo, Fatemeh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">236</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21607966"> <span id="translatedtitle">Frequency and wave number <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the shear correlator in <span class="hlt">strongly</span> coupled hot Yang-Mills theory</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We use AdS/QCD duality to compute the finite temperature Green's function G({omega},k;T) of the shear operator T{sub 12} for all {omega}, k in hot Yang-Mills theory in the <span class="hlt">strongly</span> coupled domain. The goal is to assess how the existence of scales like the transition temperature and glueball masses affect the correlator computed in the scalefree conformal N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. We observe sizeable effects for T close to T{sub c} which rapidly disappear with increasing T. Quantitative agreement of these predictions with future lattice Monte Carlo data would suggest that QCD matter in this temperature range is <span class="hlt">strongly</span> interacting.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kajantie, K. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Krssak, Martin; Vuorinen, Aleksi [Faculty of Physics, University of Bielefeld, D-33501 Bielefeld (Germany); Vepsaelaeinen, M. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">237</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvA..86d3409T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> analytical R-matrix approach for <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field dynamics. II. Many-electron systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ionization of atoms and molecules in intense low-frequency fields is a multielectron process which may leave the ion in different excited states. Within the adiabatic perspective on <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field ionization, usually referred to as optical tunneling, electrons remaining in the molecular ion are assumed to be frozen during the ionization process. In this case, the only way to excite the molecular ion during ionization is to remove an electron from a lower-lying molecular orbital. The higher ionization potential corresponding to such processes implies that such channels are exponentially suppressed during tunneling. Here we show that correlation-induced coupling between the departing electron and the core electrons removes the exponential penalty for ionic excitations, resulting in complex attosecond dynamics of core rearrangement during <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field ionization. We develop a multichannel theory of <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field ionization and demonstrate the importance of correlation-induced excitations in the multiphoton and tunneling regimes for N2 and CO2 molecules.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Torlina, Lisa; Ivanov, Misha; Walters, Zachary B.; Smirnova, Olga</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">238</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9618M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temporal and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of tropospheric NO2 over arid areas of Central Asia by OMI Satellite observations: Evidence for a <span class="hlt">strong</span> contribution of soil biogenic nitric oxide</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present results observations of tropospheric NO2 carried out by Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) over the Central Asian arid areas from 2005 to 2011. We selected 8 oases (Ruoqiang, Milan, Waxxari, Qiemo, Minfeng, Shache, Awati and Kuche) in Taklimakan desert (part of the great Central Asian deserts). For these, <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distributions, seasonal variations, and trends of tropospheric NO2 Vertical Column Densities (VCDs) retrieved are discussed. In the Taklimakan desert, oases are the centers of all human activities and the economy of the selected oases are dominated by oasis agriculture. Irrigation and fertilization favor the microbial production of nitric oxide in soils, which after emission is converted to NO2 by ozone. Consequently, tropospheric NO2-VCDs are a good proxy for biogenic NO emissions from soils. For contrast, we examined also the NO2-VCDs in the area of the growing megacity Urumqi (43.85°N, 87.62°E), which is known as an anthropogenic highly polluted city in the Central Asian deserts. For 2005-2011, all selected oases are hot spots of NO/NO2 in the Taklimakan desert. Higher NO2-VCDs were observed during growing seasons over all 8 oases. NO2-VCDs observed in summer generally increased from 2005 to 2011. NO2-VCDs over Urumqi were generally at least 1 order of magnitude higher than those over the oases. In contrast to the oases, wintertime NO2-VCDs over Urumqi are higher than in summer. We evaluated governmental statistical agricultural data of the 8 oasis, and compared the trends with corresponding summertime NO2-VCDs. Inter-annual trends of NO2-VCDs over the oases show similar patterns to those of N-fertilizer application and sown (and irrigated) areas. Highest NO2-VCDs observed in summer for agriculturally dominated oases are a <span class="hlt">strong</span> indication that soil biogenic NO emission is the main contributor to the tropospheric NO2 over all 8 oases, while in Urumqi fossil fuel combustion, particularly during winter, is the main source for NO/NO2. With regard to recent/future agriculture development in the Taklimakan oases (80% of the current Chinese cotton production originates from there), biogenic NO emission from soils will provide an increasing contribution to tropospheric NO2 over Central Asia.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mamtimin, Buhalqem; Qi, Yue; Beirle, Steffen; Wagner, Thomas; Meixner, Franz X.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">239</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2966971"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experience <span class="hlt">dependent</span> development of coordinated hippocampal <span class="hlt">spatial</span> activity representing the similarity of related locations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To learn we must identify and remember experiences uniquely but also generalize across experiences to extract common features. Hippocampal place cells can show similar firing patterns across locations, but the functional significance of this repetitive activity and the role of experience and learning in generating it are not understood. We therefore examined rat hippocampal place cell activity in the context of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> tasks with multiple similar <span class="hlt">spatial</span> trajectories. We found that, in environments with repeating elements, about half of the recorded place cells showed path equivalent firing where individual neurons are active in multiple similar locations. In contrast, place cells from animals performing a similar task in an environment with fewer similar elements were less likely to fire in a path equivalent manner. Moreover, in the environment with multiple repeating elements, path equivalence developed with experience in the task and increased path equivalence was associated with increased moment-by-moment correlations between pairs of path equivalent neurons. As a result, correlated firing among path equivalent neurons increased with experience. These findings suggest that coordinated hippocampal ensembles can encode generalizations across locations. Thus, path equivalent ensembles are well suited to encode similarities among repeating elements, providing a framework for associating specific behaviors with multiple locations, while neurons without this repetitive structure maintain a distinct population code.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Singer, Annabelle C.; Karlsson, Mattias P.; Nathe, Ana R.; Carr, Margaret F.; Frank, Loren M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">240</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21183544"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chromosome aberration induction is <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of energy deposition through a cell nucleus.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The importance of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of energy deposition through the nucleus in determining the resultant chromosome rearrangements was investigated using fluorescent in situ hybridisation technique following either uniform or partial irradiation of HF19 human fibroblast cells with low-LET 1.5 keV ultrasoft X-rays. Irradiations were performed with and without a copper irradiation mask with a Poisson distribution of micron-sized holes immediately below the irradiation dish and the results are compared with previous results obtained following exposure to a Poisson distribution of alpha particles. For the same radiation quality, the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of energy deposition within the nucleus was found to be important in determining the ultimate biological response, with an increased ratio of complex-to-simple aberrations observed for partial compared to uniform irradiation. Comparisons between low-LET ultrasoft X-rays and high-LET alpha particles indicate that the sub-micron clustering of damage along the alpha particle track is more important than just the total number of double-strand breaks produced. PMID:21183544</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hill, M A; Griffin, C S; Pyke, E L; Stevens, D L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">241</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7006871"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of spin and charge correlations in a one-dimensional, single impurity, Anderson model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summarized are the results of a series of quantum Monte Carlo calculations of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of spin and charge correlations in a one-dimensional, single impurity, symmetric Anderson model. We corroborated several features of the model of Gubernatis, Hirsch, and Scalapino, and because we achieved lower temperatures, we were able to identify several additional unusual features in the behavior of the correlations as functions of U and ..beta... We also showed the existence of a charge compensation sum role and found a power law decay of the correlations at low temperatures.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gubernatis, J.E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">242</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3616959"> <span id="translatedtitle">Delay-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> impairment of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> working memory with inhibition of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in hippocampal CA1 region of rats</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hippocampal N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is required for <span class="hlt">spatial</span> working memory. Although evidence from genetic manipulation mice suggests an important role of hippocampal NMDAR NR2B subunits (NR2B-NMDARs) in <span class="hlt">spatial</span> working memory, it remains unclear whether or not the requirement of hippocampal NR2B-NMDARs for <span class="hlt">spatial</span> working memory <span class="hlt">depends</span> on the time of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> information maintained. Here, we investigate the contribution of hippocampal NR2B-NMDARs to <span class="hlt">spatial</span> working memory on delayed alternation task in T-maze (DAT task) and delayed matched-to-place task in water maze (DMP task). Our data show that infusions of the NR2B-NMDAR selective antagonists, Ro25-6981 or ifenprodil, directly into the CA1 region, impair <span class="hlt">spatial</span> working memory in DAT task with 30-s delay (not 5-s delay), but severely impair error-correction capability in both 5-s and 30-s delay task. Furthermore, intra-CA1 inhibition of NR2B-NMDARs impairs <span class="hlt">spatial</span> working memory in DMP task with 10-min delay (not 30-s delay). Our results suggest that hippocampal NR2B-NMDARs are required for <span class="hlt">spatial</span> working memory in long-delay task, whereas spare for <span class="hlt">spatial</span> working memory in short-delay task. We conclude that the requirement of NR2B-NMDARs for <span class="hlt">spatial</span> working memory is delay-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> in the CA1 region.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">243</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/4380293"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">strong</span> consistent least-squares estimator in a linear fuzzy regression model with fuzzy parameters and fuzzy <span class="hlt">dependent</span> variables</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper a linear fuzzy regression model with fuzzy independent variables and fuzzy parameters is discussed. This is an extension of the ordinary linear regressions models by integrating physical and\\/or epistemical vaqueness to the <span class="hlt">dependent</span> variables and as a consequence to the parameters. Within this paper the least-squares method is used to obtain an estimate for the fuzzy parameters</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Christoph Stahl</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">244</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3131281"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatiotopic Coding of BOLD Signal in Human Visual Cortex <span class="hlt">Depends</span> on <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Attention</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The neural substrate of the phenomenological experience of a stable visual world remains obscure. One possible mechanism would be to construct spatiotopic neural maps where the response is selective to the position of the stimulus in external space, rather than to retinal eccentricities, but evidence for these maps has been inconsistent. Here we show, with fMRI, that when human subjects perform concomitantly a demanding attentive task on stimuli displayed at the fovea, BOLD responses evoked by moving stimuli irrelevant to the task were mostly tuned in retinotopic coordinates. However, under more unconstrained conditions, where subjects could attend easily to the motion stimuli, BOLD responses were tuned not in retinal but in external coordinates (spatiotopic selectivity) in many visual areas, including MT, MST, LO and V6, agreeing with our previous fMRI study. These results indicate that <span class="hlt">spatial</span> attention may play an important role in mediating spatiotopic selectivity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Crespi, Sofia; Biagi, Laura; d'Avossa, Giovanni; Burr, David C.; Tosetti, Michela; Morrone, Maria Concetta</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">245</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23221166"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of optimal fractionation schemes on the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> dose distribution.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We consider the fractionation problem in radiation therapy. Tumor sites in which the dose-limiting organ at risk (OAR) receives a substantially lower dose than the tumor, bear potential for hypofractionation even if the ?/?-ratio of the tumor is larger than the ?/?-ratio of the OAR. In this work, we analyze the interdependence of the optimal fractionation scheme and the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> dose distribution in the OAR. In particular, we derive a criterion under which a hypofractionation regimen is indicated for both a parallel and a serial OAR. The approach is based on the concept of the biologically effective dose (BED). For a hypothetical homogeneously irradiated OAR, it has been shown that hypofractionation is suggested by the BED model if the ?/?-ratio of the OAR is larger than ?/?-ratio of the tumor times the sparing factor, i.e. the ratio of the dose received by the tumor and the OAR. In this work, we generalize this result to inhomogeneous dose distributions in the OAR. For a parallel OAR, we determine the optimal fractionation scheme by minimizing the integral BED in the OAR for a fixed BED in the tumor. For a serial structure, we minimize the maximum BED in the OAR. This leads to analytical expressions for an effective sparing factor for the OAR, which provides a criterion for hypofractionation. The implications of the model are discussed for lung tumor treatments. It is shown that the model supports hypofractionation for small tumors treated with rotation therapy, i.e. highly conformal techniques where a large volume of lung tissue is exposed to low but nonzero dose. For larger tumors, the model suggests hyperfractionation. We further discuss several non-intuitive interdependencies between optimal fractionation and the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> dose distribution. For instance, lowering the dose in the lung via proton therapy does not necessarily provide a biological rationale for hypofractionation. PMID:23221166</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Unkelbach, Jan; Craft, David; Salari, Ehsan; Ramakrishnan, Jagdish; Bortfeld, Thomas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">246</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PMB....58..159U"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of optimal fractionation schemes on the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> dose distribution</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We consider the fractionation problem in radiation therapy. Tumor sites in which the dose-limiting organ at risk (OAR) receives a substantially lower dose than the tumor, bear potential for hypofractionation even if the ?/?-ratio of the tumor is larger than the ?/?-ratio of the OAR. In this work, we analyze the interdependence of the optimal fractionation scheme and the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> dose distribution in the OAR. In particular, we derive a criterion under which a hypofractionation regimen is indicated for both a parallel and a serial OAR. The approach is based on the concept of the biologically effective dose (BED). For a hypothetical homogeneously irradiated OAR, it has been shown that hypofractionation is suggested by the BED model if the ?/?-ratio of the OAR is larger than ?/?-ratio of the tumor times the sparing factor, i.e. the ratio of the dose received by the tumor and the OAR. In this work, we generalize this result to inhomogeneous dose distributions in the OAR. For a parallel OAR, we determine the optimal fractionation scheme by minimizing the integral BED in the OAR for a fixed BED in the tumor. For a serial structure, we minimize the maximum BED in the OAR. This leads to analytical expressions for an effective sparing factor for the OAR, which provides a criterion for hypofractionation. The implications of the model are discussed for lung tumor treatments. It is shown that the model supports hypofractionation for small tumors treated with rotation therapy, i.e. highly conformal techniques where a large volume of lung tissue is exposed to low but nonzero dose. For larger tumors, the model suggests hyperfractionation. We further discuss several non-intuitive interdependencies between optimal fractionation and the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> dose distribution. For instance, lowering the dose in the lung via proton therapy does not necessarily provide a biological rationale for hypofractionation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Unkelbach, Jan; Craft, David; Salari, Ehsan; Ramakrishnan, Jagdish; Bortfeld, Thomas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012LPI....43.2371L"> <span id="translatedtitle">AMES Stereo Pipeline Derived DEM Accuracy Experiment Using LROC-NAC Stereopairs and Weighted <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> Simulation for Lunar Site Selection</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An accuracy assessment of AMES Stereo Pipeline derived DEMs for lunar site selection using weighted <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> simulation and a call for outside AMES derived DEMs to facilitate a statistical precision analysis.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Laura, J. R.; Miller, D.; Paul, M. V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20634001"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fragmentation of H{sub 2}{sup +} in <span class="hlt">strong</span> 800-nm laser pulses: Initial-vibrational-state <span class="hlt">dependence</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The fragmentation of the H{sub 2}{sup +} molecular ion in 25-fs, 800-nm laser pulses in the intensity range 0.05-0.5 P W/cm2 is investigated by means of wave-packet propagation calculations. We use a collinear reduced-dimensionality model that represents both the nuclear and electronic motion by one degree of freedom including non-Born-Oppenheimer couplings. In order to reproduce accurately the properties of the 'real' three-dimensional molecule, we introduce a modified 'soft-core' Coulomb potential with a softening function that <span class="hlt">depends</span> on the internuclear distance. The analysis of the calculated flux of the outgoing wave packets allows us to obtain fragmentation probabilities and kinetic-energy spectra. Our results show that the relative probabilities for dissociation and Coulomb explosion <span class="hlt">depend</span> critically on the initial vibrational state of the molecular ion.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Feuerstein, Bernold; Thumm, Uwe [Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18613486"> <span id="translatedtitle">Population change and farm <span class="hlt">dependence</span>: temporal and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variation in the U.S. Great Plains, 1900-2000.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">I investigate the relationship between county population change and farm <span class="hlt">dependence</span> in the Great Plains region during the twentieth century, using <span class="hlt">spatial</span> data analysis techniques. This research is rooted in a long-standing sociological and demographic interest in population responses to economic transitions and informs the theoretical understanding of urbanization processes. Using census and environmental data, the analysis challenges earlier assertions of a simple transition in the relationship between farm <span class="hlt">dependence</span> and population change that accompanied modern technological advancements, namely tractors (the mechanization thesis). Rather than observing the proposed positive-to-negative shift, study results show a negative association throughout the pre- and post-mechanization periods. Partial support is found if the thesis is revised to consider the relationship between population change and the change in farm <span class="hlt">dependence</span> rather than the level of farm <span class="hlt">dependence</span>. Findings show mixed support for an alternative argument that nonfarm industries moderate the influence of farm <span class="hlt">dependence</span> (the industry complex thesis). In contrast to earlier applications of the thesis, industrial relations in the Great Plains context are characterized by specialization rather than cooperation. PMID:18613486</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">White, Katherine J Curtis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48444819"> <span id="translatedtitle">? 9 -Tetrahydrocannabinol-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> mice undergoing withdrawal display impaired <span class="hlt">spatial</span> memory</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Rationale  Cannabis users display a constellation of withdrawal symptoms upon drug discontinuation, including sleep disturbances, irritability,\\u000a and possibly memory deficits. In cannabinoid-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> rodents, the CB1 antagonist rimonabant precipitates somatic withdrawal and enhances forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity in cerebellum,\\u000a an effect opposite that of acutely administered ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary constituent in cannabis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  Here, we tested whether THC-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> mice undergoing rimonabant-precipitated withdrawal</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Laura E. Wise; Stephen A. Varvel; Dana E. Selley; Jason M. Wiebelhaus; Kelly A. Long; Lisa S. Middleton; Laura J. Sim-Selley; Aron H. Lichtman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23102342"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spin-flip transitions induced by time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> electric fields in surfaces with <span class="hlt">strong</span> spin-orbit interaction.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a comprehensive theoretical investigation of the light absorption rate at a Pb/Ge(111)-??3 × ?3R30° surface with <span class="hlt">strong</span> spin-orbit coupling. Our calculations show that electron spin-flip transitions cause as much as 6% of the total light absorption, representing 1 order of magnitude enhancement over Rashba-like systems. Thus, we demonstrate that a substantial part of the light irradiating this nominally nonmagnetic surface is attenuated in spin-flip processes. Remarkably, the spin-flip transition probability is structured in well-defined hot spots within the Brillouin zone, where the electron spin experiences a sudden 90° rotation. This mechanism offers the possibility of an experimental approach to the spin-orbit phenomena by optical means. PMID:23102342</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ibañez-Azpiroz, Julen; Eiguren, Asier; Sherman, E Ya; Bergara, Aitor</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-09</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39317457"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigating <span class="hlt">spatial</span> non-stationary and scale-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> relationships between urban surface temperature and environmental factors using geographically weighted regression</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Despite growing concerns for the variation of urban thermal environments and driving factors, relatively little attention has been paid to issues of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> non-stationarity and scale-<span class="hlt">dependence</span>, which are intrinsic properties of the urban ecosystem. In this paper, using Shenzhen City in China as a case study, a geographically weighted regression (GWR) model is used to explore the scale-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> and <span class="hlt">spatial</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shuangcheng Li; Zhiqiang Zhao; Xie Miaomiao; Yanglin Wang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3056245"> <span id="translatedtitle">Strain-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Variations in <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Learning and in Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity in the Dentate Gyrus Of Freely Behaving Rats</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hippocampal synaptic plasticity is believed to comprise the cellular basis for <span class="hlt">spatial</span> learning. Strain-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> differences in synaptic plasticity in the CA1 region have been reported. However, it is not known whether these differences extend to other synapses within the trisynaptic circuit, although there is evidence for morphological variations within that path. We investigated whether Wistar and Hooded Lister (HL) rat strains express differences in synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus in vivo. We also explored whether they exhibit differences in the ability to engage in <span class="hlt">spatial</span> learning in an eight-arm radial maze. Basal synaptic transmission was stable over a 24-h period in both rat strains, and the input–output relationship of both strains was not significantly different. Paired-pulse analysis revealed significantly less paired-pulse facilitation in the HL strain when pulses were given 40–100?ms apart. Low frequency stimulation at 1?Hz evoked long-term depression (>24?h) in Wistar and short-term depression (<2?h) in HL rats; 200?Hz stimulation induced long-term potentiation (>24?h) in Wistar, and a transient, significantly smaller potentiation (<1?h) in HL rats, suggesting that HL rats have higher thresholds for expression of persistent synaptic plasticity. Training for 10 days in an eight-arm radial maze revealed that HL rats master the working memory task faster than Wistar rats, although both strains show an equivalent performance by the end of the trial period. HL rats also perform more efficiently in a double working and reference memory task. On the other hand, Wistar rats show better reference memory performance on the final (8–10) days of training. Wistar rats were less active and more anxious than HL rats. These data suggest that strain-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> variations in hippocampal synaptic plasticity occur in different hippocampal synapses. A clear correlation with differences in <span class="hlt">spatial</span> learning is not evident however.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Manahan-Vaughan, Denise; Schwegler, Herbert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23938576"> <span id="translatedtitle">Focusing polychromatic light through <span class="hlt">strongly</span> scattering media.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We demonstrate feedback-optimized focusing of <span class="hlt">spatially</span> coherent polychromatic light after transmission through <span class="hlt">strongly</span> scattering media, and describe the relationship between optimized focus intensity and initial far-field speckle contrast. Optimization is performed using a MEMS <span class="hlt">spatial</span> light modulator with camera-based or spectrometer-based feedback. We observe that the spectral bandwidth of the optimized focus <span class="hlt">depends</span> on characteristics of the feedback signal. We interpret this <span class="hlt">dependence</span> as a modification in the number of independent frequency components, or spectral correlations, transmitted by the sample, and introduce a simple model for polychromatic focus enhancement that is corroborated by experiment with calibrated samples. PMID:23938576</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paudel, Hari P; Stockbridge, Chris; Mertz, Jerome; Bifano, Thomas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..DMP.K6002O"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simulations of the <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> of Populations in High Field Optical Pumping</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Optical pumping of alkali atoms forms the basis for many modern experiments including atomic clocks, magnetometers, and hyperpolarization of noble gases and solids. The alkali atoms in these experiments interact with other alkali atoms, the optical pumping laser, buffer gas or noble gas targets, and the glass cell walls or a coating. Recent experimental results at high magnetic fields have shown that ground-state sublevel populations in a cesium vapor exhibit <span class="hlt">spatial</span> diffusion, each with a different effective diffusion length. At high magnetic fields, each ground-state sublevel can be individually probed with a weak D1 (S1/2->P1/2) laser while a stronger D2 (S1/2->P3/2) laser depopulates a single sublevel. The probe beam is physically translated to measure the populations at different positions in the vapor cell. To try and understand some unexpected features observed in the sublevel populations undergoing optical pumping, we present a numerical model of the density matrix of alkali atoms as a function of position within the vapor cell. Steady-state sublevel populations are shown for atoms undergoing optical pumping, alkali-alkali collisions, alkali-buffer gas collisions, and depolarization at the cell walls, and these results are compared to experimental observations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Olsen, Ben; Happer, Will</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002HMR....56..159D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temporal, <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and substrate-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> variations of Danish hard-bottom macrofauna</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Detailed knowledge of the Danish hard-bottom fauna is at present limited because of sampling problems. In this study, two different sampling units were used to yield quantitative results of the fauna on two stone reefs in Kattegat: natural holdfasts of Laminaria digitata and plastic pan-scourers imitating the holdfasts. On the two reefs a total of 135 taxa (102 species) were identified, representing 12 phyla. One species, the bryozoan Cribrilina cryptooecium, has not previously been recorded in Denmark. The fauna was characterized by a mixture of a large number of rare species, yielding high values on the Shannon-Wiener diversity index, and it showed a high degree of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and temporal variation. ANOSIM analyses showed a significant difference in species compositions between both sampling location, time and substrate type. The plastic pan-scourers proved to be a valuable substrate for quantitative investigations of the fauna. In contrast, the Laminaria holdfasts were too small and variable to be suitable for such studies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dahl, Louise; Dahl, Karsten</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..MARP54007N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Magnetic-field <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of energy levels of superconducting nano-scale mettalic grains with <span class="hlt">strong</span> spin-orbit scattering</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study the Zeeman splitting of discrete energy levels of superconducting nano-scale metallic grains whose single-electron dynamics is chaotic [1]. In the absence of spin-orbit scattering the Zeeman splitting of a single-electron level is trivial; it is the same for all levels and linear in magnetic field. Spin-orbit coupling suppresses this splitting, induces level-to-level fluctuations and non-linear corrections to the energies. We investigate the combined effect of pairing correlations, which lead to superconductivity in the bulk limit, and spin-orbit scattering on the many-electron energy levels in a weak magnetic field. In particular, we focus our studies on the linear (g-factor) and quadratic (zero-field level curvature) corrections and their mesoscopic fluctuations. The single-electron part of the Hamiltonian follows the statistics of the Gaussian symplectic ensemble of random matrix theory, which is applicable in the limit of <span class="hlt">strong</span> spin-orbit scattering and a large dimensionless Thouless conductance. The interaction is given by a BCS-like pairing term and the magnetic field coupling is described by a Zeeman term. [1] K. Nesterov and Y. Alhassid, to be published.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nesterov, Konstantin; Alhassid, Yoram</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.lana.lt/journal/26/Chamkha.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Numerical Modeling of Contaminant Transport with <span class="hlt">Spatially-Dependent</span> Dispersion and Non-Linear Chemical Reaction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A one-dimensional advective-dispersive contaminant transport model with scale-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> dispersion coefficient in the presence of a nonlinea r chemical reaction of arbitrary order is considered. Two types of variations of the dispersion coefficient with the downstream distance are considered. The first type assumes that the d ispersivity increases as a polynomial function with distance while the other assumes an exponentially- increasing</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. J. Chamkha</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/15010143"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oculoparalytic Illusion: Visual-Field <span class="hlt">Dependent</span> <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Mislocalizations by Humans Partially Paralyzed with Curare</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In darkness, observers partially paralyzed with curare make large (> 20 degrees) gaze- and dosage-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> errors in visually localizing eye-level-horizontal and median planes, in matching the location of a sound to a light, and in pointing at a light. In illuminated, structured visual fields visual localization and pointing are accurate but errors in auditory-to-visual matches remain. Defects in extraretinal eye</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leonard Matin; Evan Picoult; John K. Stevens; Mciver W. Edwards; David Young; Rodger MacArthur</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16452976"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatially</span> resolved observation of crystal-face-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> catalysis by single turnover counting.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Catalytic processes on surfaces have long been studied by probing model reactions on single-crystal metal surfaces under high vacuum conditions. Yet the vast majority of industrial heterogeneous catalysis occurs at ambient or elevated pressures using complex materials with crystal faces, edges and defects differing in their catalytic activity. Clearly, if new or improved catalysts are to be rationally designed, we require quantitative correlations between surface features and catalytic activity--ideally obtained under realistic reaction conditions. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning tunnelling microscopy have allowed in situ characterization of catalyst surfaces with atomic resolution, but are limited by the need for low-pressure conditions and conductive surfaces, respectively. Sum frequency generation spectroscopy can identify vibrations of adsorbed reactants and products in both gaseous and condensed phases, but so far lacks sensitivity down to the single molecule level. Here we adapt real-time monitoring of the chemical transformation of individual organic molecules by fluorescence microscopy to monitor reactions catalysed by crystals of a layered double hydroxide immersed in reagent solution. By using a wide field microscope, we are able to map the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of catalytic activity over the entire crystal by counting single turnover events. We find that ester hydrolysis proceeds on the lateral {1010} crystal faces, while transesterification occurs on the entire outer crystal surface. Because the method operates at ambient temperature and pressure and in a condensed phase, it can be applied to the growing number of liquid-phase industrial organic transformations to localize catalytic activity on and in inorganic solids. An exciting opportunity is the use of probe molecules with different size and functionality, which should provide insight into shape-selective or structure-sensitive catalysis and thus help with the rational design of new or more productive heterogeneous catalysts. PMID:16452976</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roeffaers, Maarten B J; Sels, Bert F; Uji-I, Hiroshi; De Schryver, Frans C; Jacobs, Pierre A; De Vos, Dirk E; Hofkens, Johan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return 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showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006Natur.439..572R"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatially</span> resolved observation of crystal-face-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> catalysis by single turnover counting</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Catalytic processes on surfaces have long been studied by probing model reactions on single-crystal metal surfaces under high vacuum conditions. Yet the vast majority of industrial heterogeneous catalysis occurs at ambient or elevated pressures using complex materials with crystal faces, edges and defects differing in their catalytic activity. Clearly, if new or improved catalysts are to be rationally designed, we require quantitative correlations between surface features and catalytic activity-ideally obtained under realistic reaction conditions. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning tunnelling microscopy have allowed in situ characterization of catalyst surfaces with atomic resolution, but are limited by the need for low-pressure conditions and conductive surfaces, respectively. Sum frequency generation spectroscopy can identify vibrations of adsorbed reactants and products in both gaseous and condensed phases, but so far lacks sensitivity down to the single molecule level. Here we adapt real-time monitoring of the chemical transformation of individual organic molecules by fluorescence microscopy to monitor reactions catalysed by crystals of a layered double hydroxide immersed in reagent solution. By using a wide field microscope, we are able to map the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of catalytic activity over the entire crystal by counting single turnover events. We find that ester hydrolysis proceeds on the lateral {1010} crystal faces, while transesterification occurs on the entire outer crystal surface. Because the method operates at ambient temperature and pressure and in a condensed phase, it can be applied to the growing number of liquid-phase industrial organic transformations to localize catalytic activity on and in inorganic solids. An exciting opportunity is the use of probe molecules with different size and functionality, which should provide insight into shape-selective or structure-sensitive catalysis and thus help with the rational design of new or more productive heterogeneous catalysts.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roeffaers, Maarten B. J.; Sels, Bert F.; Uji-I, Hiroshi; de Schryver, Frans C.; Jacobs, Pierre A.; de Vos, Dirk E.; Hofkens, Johan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21969134"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of alveolar angiogenesis in post-pneumonectomy lung growth.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Growth of the remaining lung after pneumonectomy has been observed in many mammalian species; nonetheless, the pattern and morphology of alveolar angiogenesis during compensatory growth is unknown. Here, we investigated alveolar angiogenesis in a murine model of post-pneumonectomy lung growth. As expected, the volume and weight of the remaining lung returned to near-baseline levels within 21 days of pneumonectomy. The percentage increase in lobar weight was greatest in the cardiac lobe (P < 0.001). Cell cycle flow cytometry demonstrated a peak of lung cell proliferation (12.02 ± 1.48%) 6 days after pneumonectomy. <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> autocorrelation analysis of the cardiac lobe demonstrated clustering of similar vascular densities (positive autocorrelation) that consistently mapped to subpleural regions of the cardiac lobe. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated increased cell density and enhanced expression of angiogenesis-related factors VEGFA, and GLUT1 in these subpleural regions. Corrosion casting and scanning electron microscopy 3-6 days after pneumonectomy demonstrated subpleural vessels with angiogenic sprouts. The monopodial sprouts appeared to be randomly oriented along the vessel axis with interbranch distances of 11.4 ± 4.8 ?m in the regions of active angiogenesis. Also present within the regions of increased vascular density were frequent "holes" or "pillars" consistent with active intussusceptive angiogenesis. The mean pillar diameter was 4.2 ± 3.8 ?m, and the pillars were observed in all regions of active angiogenesis. These findings indicate that the process of alveolar construction involves discrete regions of regenerative growth, particularly in the subpleural regions of the cardiac lobe, characterized by both sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis. PMID:21969134</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Konerding, Moritz A; Gibney, Barry C; Houdek, Jan P; Chamoto, Kenji; Ackermann, Maximilian; Lee, Grace S; Lin, Miao; Tsuda, Akira; Mentzer, Steven J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-04</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3700044"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Effect of Opium <span class="hlt">Dependency</span> of Parent (s) on Offspring's <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Learning & Memory in Adult Male Rats</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective(s): As far as we know, there has been no report regarding the effects of opium addiction or <span class="hlt">dependency</span> of both parents on the learning and memory process in offspring. The aim of this study was to examine the learning and memory changes of adult male offspring whose mothers, fathers and/or both parents had <span class="hlt">dependency</span> to opium before and during pregnancy. Materials and Methods : All experiments were carried out on Wistar rats. Opium <span class="hlt">dependency</span> was induced by daily injections of opium (10 mg/kg/SC, bid/10 d) before mating. The presence of a vaginal plug was designated as gestation day. Treatment with opium continued through breeding and gestation until parturition. <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> memory was tested in male offspring of control, saline and prenatal opium treated groups by a training trial and the probe test in the Morris water maze. Swimming escape latency in the maze and the ability to find the platform in the training trial were recorded. The time spent in the trigger zone and number of times the rats crossed the platform during the probe phase and swimming speed were measured. Results: The data revealed increased escape latency and a greater distance traveled to find the hidden platform in the offspring’s whose mother, father and /or both parents were exposed to opium. Crossings to target quadrant at probe trials was significantly reduced in all of the prenatal opium exposed offsprings. The swimming speed showed a significant increase in father and parent’s opium exposed offspring. Conclusion: Prenatal opium exposure of either parent may cause deficits in <span class="hlt">spatial</span> learning, but the precise mechanism(s) remain largely unknown.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Saberi Moghadam, Arezoo; Sepehri, Gholamreza; Sheibani, Vahid; Haghpanah, Tahereh; Divsalar, Kouros; Hajzadeh, Mousa-Al-Reza; Afarineshkhaki, Mohammadreza</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23826491"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Effect of Opium <span class="hlt">Dependency</span> of Parent (s) on Offspring's <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Learning & Memory in Adult Male Rats.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective(s): As far as we know, there has been no report regarding the effects of opium addiction or <span class="hlt">dependency</span> of both parents on the learning and memory process in offspring. The aim of this study was to examine the learning and memory changes of adult male offspring whose mothers, fathers and/or both parents had <span class="hlt">dependency</span> to opium before and during pregnancy. Materials and Methods : All experiments were carried out on Wistar rats. Opium <span class="hlt">dependency</span> was induced by daily injections of opium (10 mg/kg/SC, bid/10 d) before mating. The presence of a vaginal plug was designated as gestation day. Treatment with opium continued through breeding and gestation until parturition. <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> memory was tested in male offspring of control, saline and prenatal opium treated groups by a training trial and the probe test in the Morris water maze. Swimming escape latency in the maze and the ability to find the platform in the training trial were recorded. The time spent in the trigger zone and number of times the rats crossed the platform during the probe phase and swimming speed were measured. Results: The data revealed increased escape latency and a greater distance traveled to find the hidden platform in the offspring's whose mother, father and /or both parents were exposed to opium. Crossings to target quadrant at probe trials was significantly reduced in all of the prenatal opium exposed offsprings. The swimming speed showed a significant increase in father and parent's opium exposed offspring. Conclusion: Prenatal opium exposure of either parent may cause deficits in <span class="hlt">spatial</span> learning, but the precise mechanism(s) remain largely unknown. PMID:23826491</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Saberi Moghadam, Arezoo; Sepehri, Gholamreza; Sheibani, Vahid; Haghpanah, Tahereh; Divsalar, Kouros; Hajzadeh, Mousa-Al-Reza; Afarineshkhaki, Mohammadreza</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ApPhL..98t1116O"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of output pulse delay in a niobium nitride nanowire superconducting single-photon detector</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report on the position-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> variation in output pulse timing across a superconducting single-photon detector. Our device consists of a single niobium nitride nanowire meander (100 nm width, 4 nm film thickness, 2 mm length). We use a confocal microscope configuration (full width at half maximum-spot size 1.3 ?m at 1550 nm wavelength) and a femtosecond laser to study local variations in detection efficiency and output pulse timing. Pulse delays of up to 50 ps across the device correlate to local detection efficiency and resistance variations. This study indicates an underlying mechanism for timing jitter in superconducting nanowire devices.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">O'Connor, J. A.; Tanner, M. G.; Natarajan, C. M.; Buller, G. S.; Warburton, R. J.; Miki, S.; Wang, Z.; Nam, S. W.; Hadfield, R. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1044749"> <span id="translatedtitle">Determination of Earths transient and equilibrium climate sensitivities from observations over the twentieth century: <span class="hlt">Strong</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on assumed forcing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Relations among observed changes in global mean surface temperature, ocean heat content, ocean heating rate, and calculated radiative forcing, all as a function of time over the twentieth century, that are based on a two-compartment energy balance model, are used to determine key properties of Earth's climate system. The increase in heat content of the world ocean, obtained as the average of several recent compilations, is found to be linearly related to the increase in global temperature over the period 1965-2009; the slope, augmented to account for additional heat sinks, which is an effective heat capacity of the climate system, is 21.8 {+-} 2.1 W year m{sup -2} K{sup -1} (one sigma), equivalent to the heat capacity of 170 m of seawater (for the entire planet) or 240 m for the world ocean. The rate of planetary heat uptake, determined from the time derivative of ocean heat content, is found to be proportional to the increase in global temperature relative to the beginning of the twentieth century with proportionality coefficient 1.05 {+-} 0.06 W m{sup -2} K{sup -1}. Transient and equilibrium climate sensitivities were evaluated for six published data sets of forcing mainly by incremental greenhouse gases and aerosols over the twentieth century as calculated by radiation transfer models; these forcings ranged from 1.1 to 2.1 W m{sup -2}, spanning much of the range encompassed by the 2007 assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). For five of the six forcing data sets, a rather robust linear proportionality obtains between the observed increase in global temperature and the forcing, allowing transient sensitivity to be determined as the slope. Equilibrium sensitivities determined by two methods that account for the rate of planetary heat uptake range from 0.31 {+-} 0.02 to 1.32 {+-} 0.31 K (W m{sup -2}){sup -1} (CO{sub 2} doubling temperature 1.16 {+-} 0.09-4.9 {+-} 1.2 K), more than spanning the IPCC estimated 'likely' uncertainty range, and <span class="hlt">strongly</span> anticorrelated with the forcing used to determine the sensitivities. Transient sensitivities, relevant to climate change on the multidecadal time scale, are considerably lower, 0.23 {+-} 0.01 to 0.51 {+-} 0.04 K (W m{sup -2}){sup -1}. The time constant characterizing the response of the upper ocean compartment of the climate system to perturbations is estimated as about 5 years, in broad agreement with other recent estimates, and much shorter than the time constant for thermal equilibration of the deep ocean, about 500 years.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schwartz S. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-04</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JHEP...09..003P"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> volume <span class="hlt">dependence</span> for 2+1 dimensional SU(N) Yang-Mills theory</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study the 2+1 dimensional SU(N) Yang-Mills theory on a finite two-torus with twisted boundary conditions. Our goal is to study the interplay between the rank of the group N , the length of the torus L and the Z N magnetic flux. After presenting the classical and quantum formalism, we analyze the spectrum of the theory using perturbation theory to one-loop and using Monte Carlo techniques on the lattice. In perturbation theory, results to all orders <span class="hlt">depend</span> on the combination x = ? N L and an angle defined in terms of the magnetic flux (? is `t Hooft coupling). Thus, fixing the angle, the system exhibits a form of volume independence ( N L <span class="hlt">dependence</span>). The numerical results interpolate between our perturbative calculations and the confinement regime. They are consistent with x-scaling and provide interesting information about the k-string spectrum and effective string theories. The occurrence of tachyonic instabilities is also analysed. They seem to be avoidable in the large N limit with a suitable scaling of the magnetic flux.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pérez, Margarita García; González-Arroyo, Antonio; Okawa, Masanori</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23536197"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantitative determination of valproic acid in postmortem blood samples-evidence of <span class="hlt">strong</span> matrix <span class="hlt">dependency</span> and instability.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Most of the daily work of forensic toxicologists deals with fatal cases resulting from overdoses of licit and illicit drugs. However, another reason for fatalities in patients suffering from epilepsy can be undetectable or subtherapeutic levels of antiepileptic drugs. Some studies have shown a correlation between "sudden unexpected death in epilepsy" (SUDEP) and the ineffective treatment of epilepsy. Low levels of antiepileptic drugs may be a risk factor for SUDEP. The death of a psychiatric patient also suffering from epilepsy inspired the investigation. Subsequent to the death of the patient, the doctor was accused of providing inadequate therapy for epilepsy. The patient was to be treated with valproic acid. We developed and validated a simple method of determining valproic acid levels by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for serum, but a transfer of the method from serum to postmortem whole blood failed. The method had to be modified and revalidated for postmortem whole blood specimens. A stability study of valproic acid in postmortem blood was conducted, showing a decline of valproic acid levels by 85 % after storage at room temperature for 28 days. During the storage time, the blood samples showed changes in consistency. <span class="hlt">Depending</span> on the stage of decomposition, it is necessary to perform a determination by standard addition with an equilibration time of 4 h before extraction to achieve reliable results. For a proper interpretation of quantitative results, it is necessary to keep the postmortem decline of valproic acid concentrations in mind. PMID:23536197</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kiencke, Verena; Andresen-Streichert, Hilke; Müller, Alexander; Iwersen-Bergmann, Stefanie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23348756"> <span id="translatedtitle">Response to desmopressin is <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on F8 gene mutation type in mild and moderate haemophilia A.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Desmopressin causes two- to six-fold increase of factor VIII (FVIII) in mild or moderate haemophilia A patients. However, responses are variable and little is known whether this is associated with F8 gene mutation. The study objective was to assess the relationship between F8 gene mutation and desmopressin response in haemophilia A patients. Desmopressin response (absolute and relative) was determined in 97 hemophilia A patients. Four amino acid changes (Arg2169His, Pro149Arg, Asn637Ser, and Arg612Cys) and a number of other mutations leading to an aberrant FVIII protein or FVIII deficiency were analysed. Patients with Arg2169His showed significantly lower FVIII levels before and after desmopressin compared to all other mutations (p<0.001). Pro149Arg amino acid change showed significantly lower FVIII levels 1 hour after desmopressin compared to all other mutations (p<0.005). An absolute response with FVIII?0.50 IU/ml after 1 hour was observed in 41% (9 of 22) of patients with Arg2169His; however, this was not sustainable after 6 hours in any of these subjects. No patients with Pro149Arg mutation (n=6) showed an absolute response with FVIII?0.50 I U/ml. Patients with other mutations showed significantly more complete and partial responses. Relative responses did not differ between mutations. Our study shows that haemophilia A patients with amino acid change Arg2169His or Pro149Arg have a decreased desmopressin response with regard to FVIII levels as compared to other mutations. Our results indicate that response to desmopressin is <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on the F8 gene mutation type, despite the fact that multiple factors influence the desmopressin response, even within families. PMID:23348756</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stoof, Sara C M; Sanders, Yvonne V; Petrij, Fred; Cnossen, Marjon H; de Maat, Moniek P M; Leebeek, Frank W G; Kruip, Marieke J H A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-24</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JOSAA..24.1830Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of surround articulation on lightness <span class="hlt">depend</span> on the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> arrangement of the articulated region</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigated the effect of surround articulation on the perceived lightness of a target disk. Surround articulation was manipulated by varying either the number of wedges in a surround consisting of wedges of alternating luminance or the number of checks in a surround consisting of a radial checkerboard pattern. In most conditions, increased articulation caused incremental targets to appear lighter and decremental targets to appear darker. But increasing the surround articulation in a way that did not increase the number of target-coaligned edges in the display did not affect the target lightness. We propose that the effects of surround articulation <span class="hlt">depend</span> on the relationship between the orientations and contrast polarities of the target edges and those of edges present within the surround.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zemach, Iris K.; Rudd, Michael E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24015534"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Scale-<span class="hlt">dependency</span> of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variability of surface soil moisture under different land use types in Heihe Oasis, China].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To study the surface soil moisture <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variability and its scale effect is of significance to understand the real variability of soil moisture and to objectively provide a reference for constructing a logical sampling scheme. By using "re-sampling" method, this paper studied the scale-<span class="hlt">dependency</span> of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variability of soil surface moisture in the woodland and farmland in the oasis ecological system in the middle reaches of Heihe River. The results showed that the variation degree of the surface soil moisture in the test woodland and farmland increased with increasing soil moisture content, and the coefficient of variation (CV) became closer to the true value when the sampling scale increased. Under both dry and moist conditions, and when the sampling amplitude increased within a definite range, the CV, Moran's I index, nugget, and sill of soil moisture in the woodland and farmland as well as the variation range in the woodland all increased, while the variation range in the farmland under arid condition did not show a stable regular pattern. When the sampling density increased within a definite range, the nugget and variation range increased, but the CV, Moran's I index, and sill showed less change. PMID:24015534</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Guo, De-Liang; Fan, Jun; Mi, Mei-Xia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SuScT..22b5011H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessing the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and field <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the critical current density in YBCO bulk superconductors by scanning Hall probes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although the flux density map of a bulk superconductor provides in principle sufficient information for calculating the magnitude and the direction of the supercurrent flow, the inversion of the Biot-Savart law is ill conditioned for thick samples, thus rendering this method unsuitable for state of the art bulk superconductors. If a thin (<1 mm) slab is cut from the bulk, the inversion is reasonably well conditioned and the variation of the critical current density in the sample can be calculated with adequate <span class="hlt">spatial</span> resolution. Therefore a novel procedure is employed, which exploits the symmetry of the problem and solves the equations non-iteratively, assuming a planar thickness-independent current density. The calculated current density at a certain position is found to <span class="hlt">depend</span> on the magnetic induction. In this way the average field <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the critical current density Jc(B) is also obtained at low fields, which is not accessible to magnetization measurements due to the self-field of the sample. It is further shown that an evaluation of magnetization loops, taking the self-field into account, results in a similar <span class="hlt">dependence</span> in the field range accessible to this experiment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hengstberger, F.; Eisterer, M.; Zehetmayer, M.; Weber, H. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/12555144"> <span id="translatedtitle">Determination of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> TDR-sensor characteristics in <span class="hlt">strong</span> dispersive subsoil using 3D-FEM frequency domain simulations in combination with microwave dielectric spectroscopy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">spatial</span> sensor characteristics of a 6 cm TDR flat band cable sensor section was simulated with finite element modelling (high frequency structure simulator---HFSS) under certain conditions: (i) in direct contact with the surrounding material (air, water of different salinities, different synthetic and natural soils (sand-silt-clay mixtures)), (ii) with consideration of a defined gap of different size filled with air</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Norman Wagner; Eberhard Trinks; Klaus Kupfer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996JPCM....8.2089R"> <span id="translatedtitle">The thickness <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the hopping time-of-flight current profiles in <span class="hlt">spatially</span> non-uniform thin dielectric layers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the previous paper by Rybicki et al in 1995 we presented the Monte Carlo calculations of the time-of-flight (TOF) hopping-transport current profiles in non-uniformly defected crystalline layers, and a marked influence of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> non-uniformity of the total hopping centre distribution has been shown in the case of extremely thin layers. In the present paper we report using a Monte Carlo simulation the <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the TOF transient currents on the layer thickness L, in the wide range 0953-8984/8/12/021/img7. The characteristic current maxima occurring in layers with hopping centre density which increases with increasing x (x is the distance from the injecting contact) just before the effective TOF, reported previously for very thin layers, persist in much thicker samples (L = 10 000a). The relative height of the current peaks initially increases with increasing layer thickness and tends to a saturated value for thicker layers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rybicki, J.; Rybicka, A.; Feliziani, S.; Chybicki, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21529099"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of the <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field ionization of N{sub 2} and F{sub 2}: A time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> density-functional-theory study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We compare <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field ionization probabilities of N{sub 2} and F{sub 2} molecules using time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> density functional theory calculations. Accurate nuclear potentials and ground vibrational wave functions are incorporated into our study. For both molecules, the effect of molecular vibration is small, while that of the molecular orientation is significant. When compared to the ionization probability of a molecule at the equilibrium geometry, we estimate the effect of the ground state vibration to be within 3% for N{sub 2} and within 6% for F{sub 2} in the intensity range from 1 to 5x10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}. The molecular-orientation-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> ionization probabilities for both molecules at various intensities are presented. They are <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on the laser intensity, and the anisotropy diminishes when the laser intensity is high. For laser intensities of 1.6 and 2.2x10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} we find ionization probability ratios of 5.9 and 4.3, respectively, for the parallel versus perpendicular orientation of N{sub 2}. This is reasonably consistent with experimental measurements. For randomly oriented molecules, the ratio of the probabilities for N{sub 2} and F{sub 2} increases from about 1 at 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} to 2 at 4x10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}, which agrees well with experimental results.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chu Xi; McIntyre, Melissa [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Montana, Missoula, Montana 59812 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20863940"> <span id="translatedtitle">Configuration-interaction-based time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> orbital approach for ab initio treatment of electronic dynamics in a <span class="hlt">strong</span> optical laser field</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> configuration interaction singles (TDCIS) method - an ab initio electronic-structure technique with predictive character - is reformulated in terms of an effective one-electron theory with coupled channels. In this form, the TDCIS equations of motion may be evaluated using standard wave-packet propagation techniques in real space. The time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> orbital formulation of TDCIS has computational and conceptual advantages for studying <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field phenomena in many-electron systems. A simplified version of this theory, referred to as the determinantal single-active-electron (d-SAE) method, is derived. TDCIS and d-SAE are tested by their application to a one-dimensional two-electron model in a <span class="hlt">strong</span> laser field. The numerically exact time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> dipole moment of the interacting system is found to be very well reproduced with TDCIS. The d-SAE method is less accurate, but still provides superior performance in comparison to the standard single-active-electron approach.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rohringer, Nina; Santra, Robin [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Gordon, Ariel [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-10-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1006271"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> and mitigation of radiation damage by a line-focus mini-beam.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recently, strategies to reduce primary radiation damage have been proposed which <span class="hlt">depend</span> on focusing X-rays to dimensions smaller than the penetration depth of excited photoelectrons. For a line focus as used here the penetration depth is the maximum distance from the irradiated region along the X-ray polarization direction that the photoelectrons penetrate. Reported here are measurements of the penetration depth and distribution of photoelectron damage excited by 18.6 keV photons in a lysozyme crystal. The experimental results showed that the penetration depth of {approx}17.35 keV photoelectrons is 1.5 {+-} 0.2 {micro}m, which is well below previous theoretical estimates of 2.8 {micro}m. Such a small penetration depth raises challenging technical issues in mitigating damage by line-focus mini-beams. The optimum requirements to reduce damage in large crystals by a factor of 2.0-2.5 are Gaussian line-focus mini-beams with a root-mean-square width of 0.2 {micro}m and a distance between lines of 2.0 {micro}m. The use of higher energy X-rays (>26 keV) would help to alleviate some of these requirements by more than doubling the penetration depth. It was found that the X-ray dose has a significant contribution from the crystal's solvent, which initially contained 9.0%(w/v) NaCl. The 15.8 keV photoelectrons of the Cl atoms and their accompanying 2.8 keV local dose from the decay of the resulting excited atoms more than doubles the dose deposited in the X-ray-irradiated region because of the much greater cross-section and higher energy of the excited atom, degrading the mitigation of radiation damage from 2.5 to 2.0. Eliminating heavier atoms from the solvent and data collection far from heavy-atom absorption edges will significantly improve the mitigation of damage by line-focus mini-beams.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Finfrock, Y.; Stern, E.; Yacoby, Y.; Alkire, R.; Evans-Lutterodt, K.; Stein, A.; Isakovic, A. F.; Kas, J.; Joachimiak, A.; Biosciences Division; Univ. of Washington; Hebrew Univ.; BNL</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1004988"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> and Mitigation of Radiation Damage by a Line Focus Mini Beam</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recently, strategies to reduce primary radiation damage have been proposed which <span class="hlt">depend</span> on focusing X-rays to dimensions smaller than the penetration depth of excited photoelectrons. For a line focus as used here the penetration depth is the maximum distance from the irradiated region along the X-ray polarization direction that the photoelectrons penetrate. Reported here are measurements of the penetration depth and distribution of photoelectron damage excited by 18.6 keV photons in a lysozyme crystal. The experimental results showed that the penetration depth of {approx}17.35 keV photoelectrons is 1.5 {+-} 0.2 {micro}m, which is well below previous theoretical estimates of 2.8 {micro}m. Such a small penetration depth raises challenging technical issues in mitigating damage by line-focus mini-beams. The optimum requirements to reduce damage in large crystals by a factor of 2.0-2.5 are Gaussian line-focus mini-beams with a root-mean-square width of 0.2 {micro}m and a distance between lines of 2.0 {micro}m. The use of higher energy X-rays (>26 keV) would help to alleviate some of these requirements by more than doubling the penetration depth. It was found that the X-ray dose has a significant contribution from the crystal's solvent, which initially contained 9.0%(w/v) NaCl. The 15.8 keV photoelectrons of the Cl atoms and their accompanying 2.8 keV local dose from the decay of the resulting excited atoms more than doubles the dose deposited in the X-ray-irradiated region because of the much greater cross-section and higher energy of the excited atom, degrading the mitigation of radiation damage from 2.5 to 2.0. Eliminating heavier atoms from the solvent and data collection far from heavy-atom absorption edges will significantly improve the mitigation of damage by line-focus mini-beams.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Finfrock, Y.Z.; Evans-Lutterodt, K.; Stern, E.A.; Yacoby, Y.; Alkire, R.W.; Stein, A.; Isakovic, A.F.; Kas, J. J.; Joachimiak, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-09-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21470614"> <span id="translatedtitle">Calculation of SHG in periodically poled crystals by specifying a <span class="hlt">spatially</span> periodic <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the quadratic nonlinearity in a single-domain crystal</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A method is developed for calculating SHG in linearly homogeneous periodically poled nonlinear crystals (PPNC) by specifying a <span class="hlt">spatially</span> inhomogeneous periodic distribution of the quadratic-nonlinearity parameter in the form of a 'small-scale' elliptic sine, whose half-period forms one domain with the characteristic 'microplateau' of the nonlinearity parameter and interdomain walls. It is found that, because the domain length should be equal to the coherence length when the quasi-phase-matching condition is fulfilled, and if the coherence length is calculated in the fixed-field approximation, the <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the harmonic amplitude on the longitudinal coordinate has the form of a 'large-scale' elliptic sine with a broad 'macroplateau' corresponding to a certain (in the case of quasi-phase matching, to virtually 100%) transformation; however, the mismatch in a domain is never completely compensated by the reciprocal lattice vector. In this case, the phase trajectories inside one domain have the form of a sequence: an unstable focus, a limit cycle ('macroplateau'), a stable focus. This picture repeats in the next domain. It is shown that the width of the SHG phase-matching curve in a PPNC in the regime of <span class="hlt">strong</span> energy exchange, taking secondary maxima into account, can be considerably (by several times) larger than the width calculated in the fixed-field approximation. (nonlinear optical phenomena)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dmitriev, Valentin G [M.F. Stel'makh Polyus Research and Development Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Singh, Ranjit [Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-10-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56727139"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> screening on the binding energy of shallow impurities in spherical GaAs(Ga,Al)As quantum dots</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Within the effective-mass approximation and using a variational method the binding energies of hydrogenic impurities in spherical GaAs-(Ga,Al)As quantum dots are calculated considering the effect of a <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> screening through an r-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> dielectric response. It is found that the r-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> dielectric response increases the binding energies when compared with those found using constant screening. The effect is more important</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. Paredes-Gutie´rrez; J. C. Cuero-Ye´pez; N. Porras-Montenegro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return 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href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23482170"> <span id="translatedtitle">Efficient three-photon luminescence with <span class="hlt">strong</span> polarization <span class="hlt">dependence</span> from a scintillating silicate glass co-doped with Gd3+ and Tb3+.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Efficient three-photon luminescence (3PL) from a scintillating silicate glass co-doped with Gd(3+) and Tb(3+) was generated by using a focused femtosecond laser beam at 800 nm. Four emission bands centered at 496, 541, 583, and 620 nm were identified as the electronic transitions between the energy levels of Tb(3+) followed by three-photon absorption (3PA) in Gd(3+) and Tb(3+) and the resonant energy transfer from Gd(3+) to Tb(3+). More interestingly, a <span class="hlt">strong</span> polarization <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the 3PL was observed and it is ascribed to the polarization <span class="hlt">dependent</span> 3PA in Gd(3+) and Tb(3+) and/or the angular distribution of photogenerated electrons in the glass. PMID:23482170</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Guang-Can; Zhang, Cheng-Yun; Deng, Hai-Dong; Liu, Guang-Yin; Lan, Sheng; Qian, Qi-; Yang, Zhong-Min; Gopal, Achanta Venu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/n10278462352u413.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> and the relationship of soil organic carbon and soil moisture in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We used geo-<span class="hlt">spatial</span> statistical techniques to examine the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variation and relationship of soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil moisture (SM) in the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF), Puerto Rico, in order to test the hypothesis that mountainous terrain introduces <span class="hlt">spatial</span> autocorrelation and crosscorrelation in ecosystem and soil properties. Soil samples (n = 100) were collected from the LEF in the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hongqing Wang; Charles A. S. Hall; Joseph D. Cornell; Myrna H. P. Hall</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3183851"> <span id="translatedtitle">Low levels of realized seed and pollen gene flow and <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> genetic structure in a small, isolated and fragmented population of the tropical tree Copaifera langsdorffii Desf</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Over the past century, the Brazilian Atlantic forest has been reduced to small, isolated fragments of forest. Reproductive isolation theories predict a loss of genetic diversity and increases in inbreeding and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> genetic structure (SGS) in such populations. We analysed eight microsatellite loci to investigate the pollen and seed dispersal patterns, genetic diversity, inbreeding and SGS of the tropical tree Copaifera langsdorffii in a small (4.8?ha), isolated population. All 112 adult trees and 128 seedlings found in the stand were sampled, mapped and genotyped. Seedlings had significantly lower levels of genetic diversity (A=16.5±0.45, mean±95% s.e.; He=0.838±0.006) than did adult trees (A=23.2±0.81; He=0.893±0.030). Parentage analysis did not indicate any seed immigration (mseeds=0) and the pollen immigration rate was very low (mpollen=0.047). The average distance of realized pollen dispersal within the stand was 94?m, with 81% of the pollen travelling <150?m. A significant negative correlation was found between the frequency and distance of pollen dispersal (r=?0.79, P<0.01), indicating that short-distance pollinations were more frequent. A significant SGS for both adults (?50?m) and seedlings (?20?m) was also found, indicating that most of the seeds were dispersed over short distances. The results suggested that the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> isolation of populations by habitat fragmentation can restrict seed and pollen gene flow, increase SGS and affect the genetic diversity of future generations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sebbenn, A M; Carvalho, A C M; Freitas, M L M; Moraes, S M B; Gaino, A P S C; da Silva, J M; Jolivet, C; Moraes, M L T</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23453435"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> variability of nitrous oxide and methane emissions from an MBT landfill in operation: <span class="hlt">strong</span> N2O hotspots at the working face.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mechanical biological treatment (MBT) is an effective technique, which removes organic carbon from municipal solid waste (MSW) prior to deposition. Thereby, methane (CH4) production in the landfill is <span class="hlt">strongly</span> mitigated. However, direct measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from full-scale MBT landfills have not been conducted so far. Thus, CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from a German MBT landfill in operation as well as their concentrations in the landfill gas (LFG) were measured. High N2O emissions of 20-200gCO2eq.m(-2)h(-1) magnitude (up to 428mgNm(-2)h(-1)) were observed within 20m of the working face. CH4 emissions were highest at the landfill zone located at a distance of 30-40m from the working face, where they reached about 10gCO2eq.m(-2)h(-1). The MBT material in this area has been deposited several weeks earlier. Maximum LFG concentration for N2O was 24.000ppmv in material below the emission hotspot. At a depth of 50cm from the landfill surface a <span class="hlt">strong</span> negative correlation between N2O and CH4 concentrations was observed. From this and from the distribution pattern of extractable ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate it has been concluded that <span class="hlt">strong</span> N2O production is associated with nitrification activity and the occurrence of nitrite and nitrate, which is initiated by oxygen input during waste deposition. Therefore, CH4 mitigation measures, which often employ aeration, could result in a net increase of GHG emissions due to increased N2O emissions, especially at MBT landfills. PMID:23453435</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Harborth, Peter; Fuss, Roland; Münnich, Kai; Flessa, Heinz; Fricke, Klaus</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1023307"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thickness <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> of Magnetic Relaxation and E-J Characteristics in Superconducting (Gd-Y)-Ba-Cu-O Films with <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Vortex Pinning</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the critical current density Jc on temperature, magnetic field, and film thickness has been investigated in (Gd-Y)BaCu-oxide materials of 0.7, 1.4, and 2.8 m thickness. Generally, the Jc decreases with film thickness at investigated temperatures and magnetic fields. The nature and strength of the pinning centers for vortices have been identified through angular and temperature measurements, respectively. These films do not exhibit c-axis correlated vortex pinning, but do have correlated defects oriented near the ab-planes. For all film thicknesses studied, <span class="hlt">strong</span> pinning dominates at most temperatures. The vortex dynamics were investigated through magnetic relaxation studies in the temperature range of 5 77 K in 1 T and 3 T applied magnetic fields, H || surface-normal. The creep rate S is thickness <span class="hlt">dependent</span> at high temperatures, implying that the pinning energy is also thickness <span class="hlt">dependent</span>. Maley analyses of the relaxation data show an inverse power law variation for the effective pinning energy Ueff ~ (J0/J) . Finally, the electric field-current density (E-J) characteristics were determined over a wide range of dissipation by combining experimental results from transport, swept field magnetometry (VSM), and Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometry. We develop a self-consistent model of the combined experimental results, leading to an estimation of the critical current density Jc0(T) in the absence of flux creep.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Polat, Ozgur [ORNL; Sinclair IV, John W [ORNL; Zuev, Yuri L [ORNL; Thompson, James R [ORNL; Christen, David K [ORNL; Cook, Sylvester W [ORNL; Kumar, Dhananjay [ORNL; Chen, Y [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York; Selvamanickam, V. [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1021792"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Min Oscillator Uses MinD-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Conformational Changes in MinE to <span class="hlt">Spatially</span> Regulate Cytokinesis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In E. coli, MinD recruits MinE to the membrane, leading to a coupled oscillation required for <span class="hlt">spatial</span> regulation of the cytokinetic Z ring. How these proteins interact, however, is not clear because the MinD-binding regions of MinE are sequestered within a six-stranded {beta} sheet and masked by N-terminal helices. minE mutations that restore interaction between some MinD and MinE mutants were isolated. These mutations alter the MinE structure leading to release of the MinD-binding regions and the N-terminal helices that bind the membrane. Crystallization of MinD-MinE complexes revealed a four-stranded {beta} sheet MinE dimer with the released {beta} strands (MinD-binding regions) converted to {alpha} helices bound to MinD dimers. These results identify the MinD-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> conformational changes in MinE that convert it from a latent to an active form and lead to a model of how MinE persists at the MinD-membrane surface.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Park, Kyung-Tase; Wu, Wei; Battaile, Kevin P.; Lovell, Scott; Holyoak, Todd; Lutkenhaus, Joe (Kansas); (HWMRI)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19205300"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dosimetric characteristics of an unshielded p-type Si diode: linearity, photon energy <span class="hlt">dependence</span> and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> resolution.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The unshielded Si diode PTW 60012, used for accurate measurements of the transversal dose profiles of narrow photon beams, has been investigated with regard to its linearity, photon energy <span class="hlt">dependence</span> and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> resolution. The diode shows a slight supralinearity, i.e., increase of the response with pulse dose, by 3% over the pulse dose range 0.1 to 0.8 mGy. In p-type silicon, supralinearity results from the increased chance for radiation-induced electrons to escape recombination when the pulse dose increases. Over the energy range from 6 to 15 MV, the response decreases by about 4%. This small variation of the response results from partial compensation between the influences of the secondary electron energy on the mass stopping power ratio silicon/water and on electron backscattering from the silicon chip. The lateral response function of the examined diode has a full half width of 1.3 mm. Dose profiles of 5 mm half-width can still be recorded with negligible error. PMID:19205300</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Djouguela, Armand; Griessbach, Irmgard; Harder, Dietrich; Kollhoff, Ralf; Chofor, Ndimofor; Rühmann, Antje; Willborn, Kay; Poppe, Bjoern</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12177199"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> and temporal regulation of Ca2+/calmodulin-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> protein kinase II activity in developing neurons.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have studied Ca2+/calmodulin-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> protein kinase II (CaMKII) isoform distribution and activity in embryonic hippocampal neurons developing in culture. We have found a <span class="hlt">strong</span> correlation between the expression of the alpha subunit of the enzyme and the ability to undergo depolarization-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> phosphorylation, which in young neurons is limited to the somatodendritic pool of the kinase. The lack of responsiveness of the axons of young alphaCaMKII-positive neurons is not caused by a lower Ca2+ influx but rather by a differential balance between kinase and phosphatase activities in this compartment. After the establishment of synaptic contacts, the presynaptic pool of the kinase displays an increasing level of activity and acquires the parallel ability to phosphorylate synapsin I, which represents one of the major CaMKII presynaptic targets in mature nerve terminals. In contrast, the activity of the postsynaptic pool of the kinase remains constant throughout synaptogenesis. In the presence of a nearly homogeneous subcellular distribution, this highly regionalized regulation of activity may reflect the multifunctional roles of CaMKII in both developing and mature neurons. PMID:12177199</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Menegon, Andrea; Verderio, Claudia; Leoni, Chiara; Benfenati, Fabio; Czernik, Andrew J; Greengard, Paul; Matteoli, Michela; Valtorta, Flavia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-08-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23658711"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantitative PCR reveals <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and temporal variation of the wasting disease pathogen, Labyrinthula zosterae in northern European eelgrass (Zostera marina) beds.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Seagrass beds are the foundation species of functionally important coastal ecosystems worldwide. The world's largest losses of the widespread seagrass Zostera marina (eelgrass) have been reported as a consequence of wasting disease, an infection with the endophytic protist Labyrinthula zosterae. During one of the most extended epidemics in the marine realm, ?90% of East and Western Atlantic eelgrass beds died-off between 1932 and 1934. Today, small outbreaks continue to be reported, but the current extent of L. zosterae in European meadows is completely unknown. In this study we quantify the abundance and prevalence of the wasting disease pathogen among 19 Z. marina populations in northern European coastal waters, using quantitative PCR (QPCR) with primers targeting a species specific portion of the internally transcribed spacer (ITS1) of L. zosterae. <span class="hlt">Spatially</span>, we found marked variation among sites with abundances varying between 0 and 126 cells mg(-1) Z. marina dry weight (mean: 5.7 L. zosterae cells mg(-1) Z. marina dry weight ±1.9 SE) and prevalences ranged from 0-88.9%. Temporarily, abundances varied between 0 and 271 cells mg(-1) Z. marina dry weight (mean: 8.5±2.6 SE), while prevalences ranged from zero in winter and early spring to 96% in summer. Field concentrations accessed via bulk DNA extraction and subsequent QPCR correlated well with prevalence data estimated via isolation and cultivation from live plant tissue. L. zosterae was not only detectable in black lesions, a sign of Labyrinthula-induced necrosis, but also occurred in green, apparently healthy tissue. We conclude that L. zosterae infection is common (84% infected populations) in (northern) European eelgrass populations with highest abundances during the summer months. In the light of global climate change and increasing rate of marine diseases our data provide a baseline for further studies on the causes of pathogenic outbreaks of L. zosterae. PMID:23658711</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bockelmann, Anna-Christina; Tams, Verena; Ploog, Jana; Schubert, Philipp R; Reusch, Thorsten B H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-02</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3138012"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Pattern Analysis of Heavy Metals in Beijing Agricultural Soils Based on <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Autocorrelation Statistics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study explored the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> pattern of heavy metals in Beijing agricultural soils using Moran’s I statistic of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> autocorrelation. The global Moran’s I result showed that the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of Cr, Ni, Zn, and Hg changed with different <span class="hlt">spatial</span> weight matrixes, and they had significant and positive global <span class="hlt">spatial</span> correlations based on distance weight. The <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the four metals was scale-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> on distance, but these scale effects existed within a threshold distance of 13 km, 32 km, 50 km, and 29 km, respectively for Cr, Ni, Zn, and Hg. The maximal <span class="hlt">spatial</span> positive correlation range was 57 km, 70 km, 57 km, and 55 km for Cr, Ni, Zn, and Hg, respectively and these were not affected by sampling density. Local <span class="hlt">spatial</span> autocorrelation analysis detected the locations of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> clusters and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> outliers and revealed that the pollution of these four metals occurred in significant High-high <span class="hlt">spatial</span> clusters, Low-high, or even High-low <span class="hlt">spatial</span> outliers. Thus, three major areas were identified and should be receiving more attention: the first was the northeast region of Beijing, where Cr, Zn, Ni, and Hg had significant increases. The second was the southeast region of Beijing where wastewater irrigation had <span class="hlt">strongly</span> changed the content of metals, particularly of Cr and Zn, in soils. The third area was the urban fringe around city, where Hg showed a significant increase.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huo, Xiao-Ni; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Sun, Dan-Feng; Li, Hong; Zhou, Lian-Di; Li, Bao-Guo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/887251"> <span id="translatedtitle">Verification test problems for the calculation of probability of loss of assured safety in temperature-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> systems with multiple weak and <span class="hlt">strong</span> links.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Four verification test problems are presented for checking the conceptual development and computational implementation of calculations to determine the probability of loss of assured safety (PLOAS) in temperature-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> systems with multiple weak links (WLs) and <span class="hlt">strong</span> links (SLs). The problems are designed to test results obtained with the following definitions of loss of assured safety: (1) Failure of all SLs before failure of any WL, (2) Failure of any SL before failure of any WL, (3) Failure of all SLs before failure of all WLs, and (4) Failure of any SL before failure of all WLs. The test problems are based on assuming the same failure properties for all links, which results in problems that have the desirable properties of fully exercising the numerical integration procedures required in the evaluation of PLOAS and also possessing simple algebraic representations for PLOAS that can be used for verification of the analysis.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Johnson, Jay Dean (ProStat, Mesa, AZ); Oberkampf, William Louis; Helton, Jon Craig (Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFMIP42A0691E"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> and temporal variability of Arctic summer sea-ice albedo and its <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on meltwater hydraulics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Next to ice extent and thickness, the area-averaged albedo of the summer sea-ice cover is a key parameter in determining the large-scale heat exchange over the Arctic Ocean. Various remote sensing applications have yielded a substantial data base for the former two parameters, not least due to the efforts of the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) over the past 25 years. In contrast, the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and temporal variability of Arctic summer sea-ice albedo is much less well described. Despite its importance (incl. for ice-albedo feedback processes), few if any large-scale sea-ice and global circulation models actually predict summer ice based on the underlying physical processes. Most models employ simple parameterization schemes instead. Remote sensing of surface ice albedo also faces substantial challenges, some of which still need to be addressed in more detail. Here, we report on albedo measurements completed over first- and multi-year sea ice in the summers of 1998, 2000 and 2001 in the North American at the SHEBA drifting ice camp and in fast ice near Barrow, Alaska. As has been established in a number of studies, <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and temporal variability in summer sea-ice albedo is mostly determined by the areal extent of meltwater ponding at the ice surface. Given the importance of this process, a comprehensive ice hydrological program (meltwater distribution, surface topography, meltwater flow and discharge, ice permeability) has been carried out in conjunction with the optical measurements. Measurements demonstrate that Arctic summer sea-ice albedo is critically <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on the hydrology of surface melt ponds, as controlled by meltwater production rate, ice permeability and topography. Both, remarkable short-term variability (a reduction of albedo by 43% within two days) as well as the seasonal evolution of the pond fraction and hence area-averaged albedo are forced by changes in pond water level on the order of a few centimeters. While some of these forcing functions may be difficult or impossible to represent in large-scale models, simulations with a simple hydrological model capture the essential features and variability in pond fractions and depth, identifying a promising alternative path towards predicting rather than prescribing ice albedo in numerical simulations. This work also underscores the importance of interannual variability in ice albedo for the large-scale energy exchange over the Arctic Ocean.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eicken, H.; Perovich, D. K.; Grenfell, T. C.; Richter-Menge, J. A.; Frey, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhRvD..71c2005A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Time-integrated and time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> angular analyses of B?J/?K?: A measurement of cos(2? with no sign ambiguity from <span class="hlt">strong</span> phases</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present results on B?J/?K? decays using e+e-annihilation data collected with the BABAR detector at the ?(4S) resonance. The detector is located at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy storage ring facility at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Using approximately 88×106 BB¯ pairs, we measure the decay amplitudes for the flavor eigenmodes and observe <span class="hlt">strong</span>-phase differences indicative of final-state interactions with a significance of 7.6 standard deviations. We use the interference between the K? S-wave and P-wave amplitudes in the region of the K*(892) to resolve the ambiguity in the determination of these <span class="hlt">strong</span> phases. We then perform an ambiguity-free measurement of cos(2? using the angular and time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> asymmetry in B?J/?K*0(K0S?0) decays. With sin(2? fixed at its measured value and cos(2? treated as an independent parameter, we find cos(2?=2.72+0.50-0.79(stat)±0.27(syst), determining the sign of cos(2? to be positive at 86% C.L.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Palano, A.; Pompili, A.; Chen, J. C.; Qi, N. D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y. S.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B.; Abrams, G. S.; Borgland, A. W.; Breon, A. B.; Brown, D. N.; Button-Shafer, J.; Cahn, R. N.; Charles, E.; Day, C. T.; Gill, M. S.; Gritsan, A. V.; Groysman, Y.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Kadel, R. W.; Kadyk, J.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kukartsev, G.; Lynch, G.; Mir, L. M.; Oddone, P. J.; Orimoto, T. J.; Pripstein, M.; Roe, N. A.; Ronan, M. T.; Shelkov, V. G.; Wenzel, W. A.; Barrett, M.; Ford, K. E.; Harrison, T. J.; Hart, A. J.; Hawkes, C. M.; Morgan, S. E.; Watson, A. T.; Fritsch, M.; Goetzen, K.; Held, T.; Koch, H.; Lewandowski, B.; Pelizaeus, M.; Steinke, M.; Boyd, J. T.; Chevalier, N.; Cottingham, W. N.; Kelly, M. P.; Latham, T. E.; Wilson, F. F.; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T.; Hearty, C.; Knecht, N. S.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Thiessen, D.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Blinov, A. E.; Blinov, V. E.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Ivanchenko, V. N.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Yushkov, A. N.; Best, D.; Bruinsma, M.; Chao, M.; Eschrich, I.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Mandelkern, M.; Mommsen, R. K.; Roethel, W.; Stoker, D. P.; Buchanan, C.; Hartfiel, B. L.; Foulkes, S. D.; Gary, J. W.; Shen, B. C.; Wang, K.; del Re, D.; Hadavand, H. K.; Hill, E. J.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Paar, H. P.; Rahatlou, Sh.; Sharma, V.; Cunha, J. Adam; Berryhill, J. W.; Campagnari, C.; Dahmes, B.; Hong, T. M.; Long, O.; Lu, A.; Mazur, M. A.; Richman, J. D.; Verkerke, W.; Beck, T. W.; Eisner, A. M.; Heusch, C. A.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W. S.; Nesom, G.; Schalk, T.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Spradlin, P.; Williams, D. C.; Wilson, M. G.; Albert, J.; Chen, E.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dvoretskii, A.; Hitlin, D. G.; Narsky, I.; Piatenko, T.; Porter, F. C.; Ryd, A.; Samuel, A.; Yang, S.; Jayatilleke, S.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Blanc, F.; Bloom, P.; Chen, S.; Ford, W. T.; Nauenberg, U.; Olivas, A.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J. G.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Chen, A.; Harton, J. L.; Soffer, A.; Toki, W. H.; Wilson, R. J.; Zeng, Q.; Altenburg, D.; Brandt, T.; Brose, J.; Dickopp, M.; Feltresi, E.; Hauke, A.; Lacker, H. M.; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R.; Nogowski, R.; Otto, S.; Petzold, A.; Schubert, J.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Spaan, B.; Sundermann, J. E.; Bernard, D.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Brochard, F.; Grenier, P.; Schrenk, S.; Thiebaux, Ch.; Vasileiadis, G.; Verderi, M.; Bard, D. J.; Clark, P. J.; Lavin, D.; Muheim, F.; Playfer, S.; Xie, Y.; Andreotti, M.; Azzolini, V.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Luppi, E.; Negrini, M.; Piemontese, L.; Sarti, A.; Treadwell, E.; Anulli, F.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Zallo, A.; Buzzo, A.; Capra, R.; Contri, R.; Crosetti, G.; Vetere, M. Lo; Macri, M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Santroni, A.; Tosi, S.; Bailey, S.; Brandenburg, G.; Chaisanguanthum, K. S.; Morii, M.; Won, E.; Dubitzky, R. S.; Langenegger, U.; Marks, J.; Uwer, U.; Bhimji, W.; Bowerman, D. A.; Dauncey, P. D.; Egede, U.; Gaillard, J. R.; Morton, G. W.; Nash, J. A.; Nikolich, M. B.; Taylor, G. P.; Charles, M. J.; Grenier, G. J.; Mallik, U.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Lamsa, J.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rubin, A. E.; Yi, J.; Biasini, M.; Covarelli, R.; Pioppi, M.; Davier, M.; Giroux, X.; Grosdidier, G.; Höcker, A.; Laplace, S.; Diberder, F. Le; Lepeltier, V.; Lutz, A. M.; Petersen, T. C.; Plaszczynski, S.; Schune, M. H.; Tantot, L.; Wormser, G.; Cheng, C. H.; Lange, D. J.; Simani, M. C.; Wright, D. M.; Bevan, A. J.; Chavez, C. A.; Coleman, J. P.; Forster, I. J.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Parry, R. J.; Payne, D. J.; Sloane, R. J.; Touramanis, C.; Cormack, C. M.; Lodovico, F. Di; Brown, C. L.; Cowan, G.; Flack, R. L.; Flaecher, H. U.; Green, M. G.; Jackson, P. S.; McMahon, T. R.; Ricciardi, S.; Salvatore, F.; Winter, M. A.; Brown, D.; Davis, C. L.; Allison, J.; Barlow, N. R.; Barlow, R. J.; Hodgkinson, M. C.; Lafferty, G. D.; Lyon, A. J.; Williams, J. C.; Farbin, A.; Hulsbergen, W. D.; Jawahery, A.; Kovalskyi, D.; Lae, C. K.; Lillard, V.; Roberts, D. A.; Blaylock, G.; Dallapiccola, C.; Hertzbach, S. S.; Kofler, R.; Koptchev, V. B.; Moore, T. B.; Saremi, S.; Staengle, H.; Willocq, S.; Cowan, R.; Sciolla, G.; Sekula, S. J.; Taylor, F.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Mangeol, D. J.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Lazzaro, A.; Lombardo, V.; Palombo, F.; Bauer, J. M.; Cremaldi, L.; Eschenburg, V.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54667390"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solar Cycle <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> of <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Correlation Lengthscales in the Solar Wind in situ Turbulence and Coronal Signatures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">spatial</span> correlation lengthscale is a key observable for quantitative modelling of fluctuations in the solar wind, in the context of either MHD turbulence or of propagating coherent structures. We present direct measurements of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> correlation lengthscale of solar wind magnetic field and ion density, obtained from simultaneous in-situ observations by multiple spacecraft. We focus on comparisons between different</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. T. Wicks; S. C. Chapman; R. O. Dendy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1004134"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> Interaction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We will give here an overview of our theory of the <span class="hlt">strong</span> interactions, Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD) and its properties. We will also briefly review the history of the study of the <span class="hlt">strong</span> interactions, and the discoveries that ultimately led to the formulation of QCD. The <span class="hlt">strong</span> force is one of the four known fundamental forces in nature, the others being the electromagnetic, the weak and the gravitational force. The <span class="hlt">strong</span> force, usually referred to by scientists as the '<span class="hlt">strong</span> interaction', is relevant at the subatomic level, where it is responsible for the binding of protons and neutrons to atomic nuclei. To do this, it must overcome the electric repulsion between the protons in an atomic nucleus and be the most powerful force over distances of a few fm (1fm=1 femtometer=1 fermi=10{sup -15}m), the typical size of a nucleus. This property gave the <span class="hlt">strong</span> force its name.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Karsch, F.; Vogelsang, V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-09-29</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/10160918"> <span id="translatedtitle">Regional convergence in the European Union (1985-1999). A <span class="hlt">spatial</span> dynamic panel analysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We estimate the speed of income convergence for a sample of 196 European NUTS 2 regions over the period 1985-1999. So far there is no direct estimator available for dynamic panels with <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependencies</span>. We propose a two-step procedure, which involves first <span class="hlt">spatial</span> filtering of the variables to remove the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> correlation, and application of standard GMM estimators for</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gabriele Tondl; Werner Müller</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3306874"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dopamine-Glutamate Interplay in the Ventral Striatum Modulates <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Learning in a Receptor Subtype-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Manner</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The ventral striatum (VS) is characterized by a distinctive neural architecture in which multiple corticolimbic glutamatergic (GLUergic) and mesolimbic dopaminergic (DAergic) afferents converge on the same output cell type (the medium-sized spiny neuron, MSN). However, despite the gateway function attributed to VS and its involvement in action selection and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> navigation, as well as the evidence of physical and functional receptor–receptor interaction between different members of ionotropic GLUergic and DAergic receptors, there is no available knowledge that such reciprocal interaction may be critical in shaping the ability to learn novel <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and non-<span class="hlt">spatial</span> arrangement of stimuli. In this study, it was evaluated whether intra-VS bilateral infusion of either N-methyl--aspartate (NMDA) or ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor-selective antagonists may suppress the ability to detect <span class="hlt">spatial</span> or non-<span class="hlt">spatial</span> novelty in a non-associative behavioral task. In a second set of experiments, we further examined the hypothesis that VS-mediated <span class="hlt">spatial</span> information processing may be subserved by some preferential receptor–receptor interactions among specific GLUergic and DAergic receptor subtypes. This was assessed by concomitant intra-VS infusion of the combination between subthreshold doses of either NMDA or AMPA receptor antagonists with individual D1 or D2 receptor blockade. The results of this study highlighted the fact that NMDA or AMPA receptors are differentially involved in processing of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and non-<span class="hlt">spatial</span> novelty, and showed for the first time that preferential NMDA/D1 and AMPA/D2 receptor–receptor functional communication, but not NMDA/D2 and AMPA/D1, is required for enabling learning of novel <span class="hlt">spatial</span> information in the VS.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Coccurello, Roberto; Oliverio, Alberto; Mele, Andrea</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002A%26A...381..668S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spectropolarimetry in a sunspot penumbra. <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of Stokes asymmetries in Fe I 1564.8 nm</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Stokes profiles of sunspot penumbrae show distinct asymmetries, which point to gradients in the velocity field and in the magnetic field. We present spectropolarimetric measurements of the Stokes vector in the neutral iron triplet at 1564.8 nm taken with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter (TIP) at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) in Tenerife. We report on the peculiarities of the profiles of circularly and linearly polarized light for spots at different heliocentric angles. We elaborate on the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of Stokes asymmetries within the penumbra and find for profiles of circularly polarized light: (1) In the center-side penumbra the amplitude difference of Stokes-V exhibits a sign reversal on a radial cut, i.e., in the inner (outer) penumbra the red (blue) lobe is broader and shows a smaller amplitude than the blue (red) lobe. (2) In the outer limb-side penumbra (beyond the magnetic neutral line) the red lobe is broader and of less amplitude than the blue lobe. (3) Along the magnetic neutral line we find abnormal Stokes-V profiles, which consist of more than 2 lobes. This indicates the presence of two polarities. For small heliocentric angles abnormal profiles are also seen beyond the magnetic neutral line in the outer penumbra. (4) Maps of the net circular polarization have the tendency to be antisymmetric with respect to the axis that connects disk center with spot center. This finding is striking, because corresponding maps for Fe I 630.25 are symmetric. For linearly polarized profiles we extract the following features: (5) On the center-side penumbra at a heliocentric angle of 56o a Doppler-shift as high as 5 km s-1 can be directly measured by the splitting of the pi -component of the linearly polarized component. (6) In limb-side penumbrae, the profiles of the pi -component show the typical asymmetry properties of the Evershed flow as observed in Stokes-I of magnetically insensitive lines. (7) In the outer center- and limb-side penumbrae the center of the pi -component is blue-shifted relative to the zero-crossing of the V-profile. Motivated by the moving tube model of Schlichenmaier et al. (\\cite{schlichenmaier+jahn+schmidt1998b}), we construct simple model atmospheres featuring hot upflows and cool outflows and calculate corresponding synthetic V-profiles. These profiles are compared with our measured ones and with observed V-profiles in Fe I 630.25 from other authors. We find that the synthetic V-profiles can reproduce all essential characteristics of observed V-profiles for both lines.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schlichenmaier, R.; Collados, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16236157"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hormonal regulation of gluconeogenesis in cereal aleurone is <span class="hlt">strongly</span> cultivar-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> and gibberellin action involves SLENDER1 but not GAMYB.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Storage oil is a major constituent in the cereal aleurone layer. The aim of this study was to investigate how gibberellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) regulate conversion of oil to sugar in barley aleurone. The activity of the glyoxylate cycle enzyme isocitrate lyase (ICL) was surveyed in eight barley cultivars. Surprisingly, some cultivars do not require GA for the induction of ICL (e.g. Himalaya), whereas some do (e.g. Golden Promise). Furthermore, in Golden Promise, GA also stimulates triacylglycerol breakdown and enhances the net flux of carbon from acetate to sugar. In contrast, ABA <span class="hlt">strongly</span> represses ICL activity and the flux of carbon from oil to sugar in both Golden Promise and Himalaya. Biolistics using a promoter reporter showed that GA and ABA regulate ICL at the level of transcription. Studies using barley and rice mutants and pharmacological agents show that GA-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> induction of ICL activity is mediated by SLENDER1 and requires cGMP, but does not involve the transcription factor GAMYB. Gibberellin and ABA therefore act antagonistically to regulate gluconeogenesis in the aleurone layer as well as controlling the production and secretion of hydrolases into the starchy endosperm. We suggest that the variation between different barley cultivars might be a result of selective breeding to alter seed dormancy. PMID:16236157</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eastmond, Peter J; Jones, Russell L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23224003"> <span id="translatedtitle">Low-frequency oscillations measured in the periphery with near-infrared spectroscopy are <span class="hlt">strongly</span> correlated with blood oxygen level-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> functional magnetic resonance imaging signals.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Low-frequency oscillations (LFOs) in the range of 0.01-0.15 Hz are commonly observed in functional imaging studies, such as blood oxygen level-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Some of these LFOs are nonneuronal and are closely related to autonomic physiological processes. In the current study, we conducted a concurrent resting-state fMRI and NIRS experiment with healthy volunteers. LFO data was collected simultaneously at peripheral sites (middle fingertip and big toes) by NIRS, and centrally in the brain by BOLD fMRI. The cross-correlations of the LFOs collected from the finger, toes, and brain were calculated. Our data show that the LFOs measured in the periphery (NIRS signals) and in the brain (BOLD fMRI) were <span class="hlt">strongly</span> correlated with varying time delays. This demonstrates that some portion of the LFOs actually reflect systemic physiological circulatory effects. Furthermore, we demonstrated that NIRS is effective for measuring the peripheral LFOs, and that these LFOs and the temporal shifts between them are consistent in healthy participants and may serve as useful biomarkers for detecting and monitoring circulatory dysfunction. PMID:23224003</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tong, Yunjie; Hocke, Lia Maria; Licata, Stephanie C; Frederick, Blaise deB</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return 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class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/910200"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of delayed link failure on probability of loss of assured safety in temperature-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> systems with multiple weak and <span class="hlt">strong</span> links.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Weak link (WL)/<span class="hlt">strong</span> link (SL) systems constitute important parts of the overall operational design of high consequence systems, with the SL system designed to permit operation of the system only under intended conditions and the WL system designed to prevent the unintended operation of the system under accident conditions. Degradation of the system under accident conditions into a state in which the WLs have not deactivated the system and the SLs have failed in the sense that they are in a configuration that could permit operation of the system is referred to as loss of assured safety. The probability of such degradation conditional on a specific set of accident conditions is referred to as probability of loss of assured safety (PLOAS). Previous work has developed computational procedures for the calculation of PLOAS under fire conditions for a system involving multiple WLs and SLs and with the assumption that a link fails instantly when it reaches its failure temperature. Extensions of these procedures are obtained for systems in which there is a temperature-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> delay between the time at which a link reaches its failure temperature and the time at which that link actually fails.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Johnson, J. D. (ProStat, Mesa, AZ); Oberkampf, William Louis; Helton, Jon Craig (Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3461094"> <span id="translatedtitle">Low-frequency oscillations measured in the periphery with near-infrared spectroscopy are <span class="hlt">strongly</span> correlated with blood oxygen level-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> functional magnetic resonance imaging signals</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract. Low-frequency oscillations (LFOs) in the range of 0.01–0.15 Hz are commonly observed in functional imaging studies, such as blood oxygen level-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Some of these LFOs are nonneuronal and are closely related to autonomic physiological processes. In the current study, we conducted a concurrent resting-state fMRI and NIRS experiment with healthy volunteers. LFO data was collected simultaneously at peripheral sites (middle fingertip and big toes) by NIRS, and centrally in the brain by BOLD fMRI. The cross-correlations of the LFOs collected from the finger, toes, and brain were calculated. Our data show that the LFOs measured in the periphery (NIRS signals) and in the brain (BOLD fMRI) were <span class="hlt">strongly</span> correlated with varying time delays. This demonstrates that some portion of the LFOs actually reflect systemic physiological circulatory effects. Furthermore, we demonstrated that NIRS is effective for measuring the peripheral LFOs, and that these LFOs and the temporal shifts between them are consistent in healthy participants and may serve as useful biomarkers for detecting and monitoring circulatory dysfunction.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tong, Yunjie; Hocke, Lia Maria; Licata, Stephanie C.; deB. Frederick, Blaise</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21909378"> <span id="translatedtitle">Speech cues contribute to audiovisual <span class="hlt">spatial</span> integration.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Speech is the most important form of human communication but ambient sounds and competing talkers often degrade its acoustics. Fortunately the brain can use visual information, especially its highly precise <span class="hlt">spatial</span> information, to improve speech comprehension in noisy environments. Previous studies have demonstrated that audiovisual integration <span class="hlt">depends</span> <span class="hlt">strongly</span> on spatiotemporal factors. However, some integrative phenomena such as McGurk interference persist even with gross <span class="hlt">spatial</span> disparities, suggesting that <span class="hlt">spatial</span> alignment is not necessary for robust integration of audiovisual place-of-articulation cues. It is therefore unclear how speech-cues interact with audiovisual <span class="hlt">spatial</span> integration mechanisms. Here, we combine two well established psychophysical phenomena, the McGurk effect and the ventriloquist's illusion, to explore this <span class="hlt">dependency</span>. Our results demonstrate that conflicting <span class="hlt">spatial</span> cues may not interfere with audiovisual integration of speech, but conflicting speech-cues can impede integration in space. This suggests a direct but asymmetrical influence between ventral 'what' and dorsal 'where' pathways. PMID:21909378</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bishop, Christopher W; Miller, Lee M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23562388"> <span id="translatedtitle">Visual <span class="hlt">spatial</span> attention enhances the amplitude of positive and negative fMRI responses to visual stimulation in an eccentricity-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> manner.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Endogenous visual <span class="hlt">spatial</span> attention improves perception and enhances neural responses to visual stimuli at attended locations. Although many aspects of visual processing differ significantly between central and peripheral vision, little is known regarding the neural substrates of the eccentricity <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> attention effects. We measured amplitudes of positive and negative fMRI responses to visual stimuli as a function of eccentricity in a large number of topographically-organized cortical areas. Responses to each stimulus were obtained when the stimulus was attended and when <span class="hlt">spatial</span> attention was directed to a stimulus in the opposite visual hemifield. Attending to the stimulus increased both positive and negative response amplitudes in all cortical areas we studied: V1, V2, V3, hV4, VO1, LO1, LO2, V3A/B, IPS0, TO1, and TO2. However, the eccentricity <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of these effects differed considerably across cortical areas. In early visual, ventral, and lateral occipital cortex, attentional enhancement of positive responses was greater for central compared to peripheral eccentricities. The opposite pattern was observed in dorsal stream areas IPS0 and putative MT homolog TO1, where attentional enhancement of positive responses was greater in the periphery. Both the magnitude and the eccentricity <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of attentional modulation of negative fMRI responses closely mirrored that of positive responses across cortical areas. PMID:23562388</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bressler, David W; Fortenbaugh, Francesca C; Robertson, Lynn C; Silver, Michael A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-03</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=177916"> <span id="translatedtitle">Foraging behavior of field populations of Diadegma spp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae): testing for density-<span class="hlt">dependence</span> at two <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The foraging behavior of populations of Diadegma sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) attacking the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was studied in the field. The effect of host density on percentage parasitism was investigated at two <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales: that of the individu...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=infrared&pg=4&id=EJ916447"> <span id="translatedtitle">Asymmetrical Brain Activity Induced by Voluntary <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Attention <span class="hlt">Depends</span> on the Visual Hemifield: A Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|The effect of the visual hemifield to which <span class="hlt">spatial</span> attention was oriented on the activities of the posterior parietal and occipital visual cortices was examined using functional near-infrared spectroscopy in order to investigate the neural substrates of voluntary visuospatial attention. Our brain imaging data support the theory put forth in a…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Harasawa, Masamitsu; Shioiri, Satoshi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20154089"> <span id="translatedtitle">Endogenous proteolytic cleavage of disease-associated prion protein to produce C2 fragments is <span class="hlt">strongly</span> cell- and tissue-<span class="hlt">dependent</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The abnormally folded form of the prion protein (PrP(Sc)) accumulating in nervous and lymphoid tissues of prion-infected individuals can be naturally cleaved to generate a N-terminal-truncated fragment called C2. Information about the identity of the cellular proteases involved in this process and its possible role in prion biology has remained limited and controversial. We investigated PrP(Sc) N-terminal trimming in different cell lines and primary cultured nerve cells, and in the brain and spleen tissue from transgenic mice infected by ovine and mouse prions. We found the following: (i) the full-length to C2 ratio varies considerably <span class="hlt">depending</span> on the infected cell or tissue. Thus, in primary neurons and brain tissue, PrP(Sc) accumulated predominantly as untrimmed species, whereas efficient trimming occurred in Rov and MovS cells, and in spleen tissue. (ii) Although C2 is generally considered to be the counterpart of the PrP(Sc) proteinase K-resistant core, the N termini of the fragments cleaved in vivo and in vitro can actually differ, as evidenced by a different reactivity toward the Pc248 anti-octarepeat antibody. (iii) In lysosome-impaired cells, the ratio of full-length versus C2 species dramatically increased, yet efficient prion propagation could occur. Moreover, cathepsin but not calpain inhibitors markedly inhibited C2 formation, and in vitro cleavage by cathepsins B and L produced PrP(Sc) fragments lacking the Pc248 epitope, <span class="hlt">strongly</span> arguing for the primary involvement of acidic hydrolases of the endolysosomal compartment. These findings have implications on the molecular analysis of PrP(Sc) and cell pathogenesis of prion infection. PMID:20154089</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dron, Michel; Moudjou, Mohammed; Chapuis, Jérôme; Salamat, Muhammad Khalid Farooq; Bernard, Julie; Cronier, Sabrina; Langevin, Christelle; Laude, Hubert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-02-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57399149"> <span id="translatedtitle">Speech Cues Contribute to Audiovisual <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Integration</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Speech is the most important form of human communication but ambient sounds and competing talkers often degrade its acoustics. Fortunately the brain can use visual information, especially its highly precise <span class="hlt">spatial</span> information, to improve speech comprehension in noisy environments. Previous studies have demonstrated that audiovisual integration <span class="hlt">depends</span> <span class="hlt">strongly</span> on spatiotemporal factors. However, some integrative phenomena such as McGurk interference persist</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Christopher W. Bishop; Lee M. Miller</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8208217"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">spatial</span>-frequency <span class="hlt">dependent</span> quantum accounting diagram and detective quantum efficiency model of signal and noise propagation in cascaded imaging systems.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The detective quantum efficiency (DQE) is a system parameter that can be used to accurately describe image noise transfer characteristics through many imaging systems. A simpler approach used by some investigators, particularly when evaluating new ideas and system designs, is to describe the system as a series of cascaded stages. Each stage may correspond to either an increase in the number of quanta (e.g., conversion from x-ray to optical quanta in a radiographic screen), or a loss (a detection or coupling probability). The number of secondary quanta at each stage per incident primary quantum is given by the product of all preceding gains, and can be displayed graphically for convenient interpretation. The stage with the fewest quanta is called the "quantum sink," limiting the pixel signal-to-noise ratio to less than the square root of the number of quanta per pixel. This conventional zero-<span class="hlt">spatial</span>-frequency "quantum accounting diagram" (QAD), however, neglects the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> spreading of secondary quanta and can seriously underestimate image noise. It is shown that this problem is avoided with the introduction of a <span class="hlt">spatial</span>-frequency <span class="hlt">dependent</span> QAD, expressed as the product of the gains and squared modulation-transfer functions (MTF) of each stage. A generalized expression is developed for the DQE of a cascaded imaging system that is <span class="hlt">dependent</span> only on the gain, gain Poisson excess (related to the variance), and MTF, of each stage. A direct relationship is then shown to exist between the DQE and values in the QAD. The QAD of a hypothetical system consisting of a charge-coupled device camera and a scintillating screen is evaluated as an illustrative example. The conventional zero-frequency analysis suggests two quantum sinks occur with approximately equal importance: one in the number of x rays, and one in the number of optical quanta. The <span class="hlt">spatial</span>-frequency <span class="hlt">dependent</span> analysis, however, shows the optical quantum sink becomes severe and dominates at nonzero frequencies. The necessary increase in gain or optical numerical aperture required to prevent the optical quantum sink for <span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequencies of interest is determined from the QAD analysis. The visual impact of this nonzero <span class="hlt">spatial</span>-frequency quantum sink is shown in images generated using a Monte Carlo simulation of the cascading process. PMID:8208217</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cunningham, I A; Westmore, M S; Fenster, A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/34583856"> <span id="translatedtitle">Part II: <span class="hlt">spatial</span> differentiation in life-cycle assessment via the site-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> characterisation of environmental impact from emissions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Due to a lack of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and temporal differentiation in lifecycle assessment (LCA), no environmental concentrations can be\\u000a predicted. As a consequence, it does not seem possible to evaluate whether a no-effect level is exceeded. Therefore, some\\u000a LCA studies show a poor relationship between the predicted environmental impact and the expected occurrence of actual environmental\\u000a impact for impacts of a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Josfi Potting; Michael Hauschild</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19958784"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hand processing <span class="hlt">depends</span> on the implicit access to a <span class="hlt">spatially</span> and bio-mechanically organized structural description of the body.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent evidence using a modified Simon task suggests that hand processing involves implicit coding of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> position of the hand relative to the side of the body to which it is attached from the viewer's reference point. This effect, called the Sidedness effect, has been found to emerge only when at least the forearm is present (the forearm thus providing the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> reference for representing the rest of body) and it has been interpreted within the framework of the structural representation of the body. In this study we use the same modified Simon task to investigate whether hand processing involves the implicit access to a <span class="hlt">spatially</span> and bio-mechanically organized structural body representation. In a first experiment the hand stimuli were attached to a body inappropriately without respecting the bio-mechanical constraints and no Sidedness effect was found. In Experiment 2 where the hand stimuli were presented attached to a non-bodily shape the Sidedness effect was observed only when they were attached appropriately. Whilst previous research has involved explicit representational processes, our results suggest that we can implicit access to a 'structural description of the body' and elaborate the anatomical and bio-mechanical plausibility. PMID:19958784</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tessari, Alessia; Ottoboni, Giovanni; Symes, Ed; Cubelli, Roberto</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3583387"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bayesian <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Quantile Regression</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tropospheric ozone is one of the six criteria pollutants regulated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency under the Clean Air Act and has been linked with several adverse health effects, including mortality. Due to the <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on weather conditions, ozone may be sensitive to climate change and there is great interest in studying the potential effect of climate change on ozone, and how this change may affect public health. In this paper we develop a Bayesian <span class="hlt">spatial</span> model to predict ozone under different meteorological conditions, and use this model to study <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and temporal trends and to forecast ozone concentrations under different climate scenarios. We develop a <span class="hlt">spatial</span> quantile regression model that does not assume normality and allows the covariates to affect the entire conditional distribution, rather than just the mean. The conditional distribution is allowed to vary from site-to-site and is smoothed with a <span class="hlt">spatial</span> prior. For extremely large datasets our model is computationally infeasible, and we develop an approximate method. We apply the approximate version of our model to summer ozone from 1997–2005 in the Eastern U.S., and use deterministic climate models to project ozone under future climate conditions. Our analysis suggests that holding all other factors fixed, an increase in daily average temperature will lead to the largest increase in ozone in the Industrial Midwest and Northeast.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reich, Brian J.; Fuentes, Montserrat; Dunson, David B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23459794"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bayesian <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Quantile Regression.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tropospheric ozone is one of the six criteria pollutants regulated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency under the Clean Air Act and has been linked with several adverse health effects, including mortality. Due to the <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on weather conditions, ozone may be sensitive to climate change and there is great interest in studying the potential effect of climate change on ozone, and how this change may affect public health. In this paper we develop a Bayesian <span class="hlt">spatial</span> model to predict ozone under different meteorological conditions, and use this model to study <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and temporal trends and to forecast ozone concentrations under different climate scenarios. We develop a <span class="hlt">spatial</span> quantile regression model that does not assume normality and allows the covariates to affect the entire conditional distribution, rather than just the mean. The conditional distribution is allowed to vary from site-to-site and is smoothed with a <span class="hlt">spatial</span> prior. For extremely large datasets our model is computationally infeasible, and we develop an approximate method. We apply the approximate version of our model to summer ozone from 1997-2005 in the Eastern U.S., and use deterministic climate models to project ozone under future climate conditions. Our analysis suggests that holding all other factors fixed, an increase in daily average temperature will lead to the largest increase in ozone in the Industrial Midwest and Northeast. PMID:23459794</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reich, Brian J; Fuentes, Montserrat; Dunson, David B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA533056"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bayesian Seismo-Acoustic Inversion to Investigate <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Variability and Uncertainty of Shallow Water Sediments.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Propagation and reverberation of acoustic fields in shallow waters <span class="hlt">depend</span> <span class="hlt">strongly</span> on the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variability of seabed geoacoustic parameters, and lack of knowledge of seabed variability is often a limiting factor in acoustic modeling applications. Howev...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. W. Holland J. Dettmer S. E. Dosso</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19120320"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tumor necrosis factor alpha inducing <span class="hlt">spatial</span> interactions between calcium-sensing receptor and L-type voltage-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> calcium channel.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The temporal and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> regulation of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) is very crucial for maintaining calcium ion homeostasis within cells, and consequently in the regulation of cellular functions such as beta cell replication and differentiation, insulin secretion, and apoptosis. Calcium ion regulatory proteins playing major roles in these processes include L-type voltage-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> calcium channels (L-type VDCCs) and calcium-sensing receptors (CaRs). Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), a cytokine, is widely known to activate nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) transcription in beta cells. Confocal fluorescence imaging data suggest increased co-localization of CaRs with L-type VDCCs upon treatment of beta cells with TNF-alpha, thereby indicating increased membrane-delimited <span class="hlt">spatial</span> interactions between these two membrane proteins. PMID:19120320</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Parkash, Jai</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10193901"> <span id="translatedtitle">Amino-alkyl-cyclohexanes are novel uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists with <span class="hlt">strong</span> voltage-<span class="hlt">dependency</span> and fast blocking kinetics: in vitro and in vivo characterization.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The present study characterized the in vitro NMDA receptor antagonistic properties of novel amino-alkyl-cyclohexane derivatives and compared these effects with their ability to block excitotoxicity in vitro and MES-induced convulsions in vivo. The 36 amino-alkyl-cyclohexanes tested displaced [3H]-(+)-MK-801 binding to rat cortical membranes with K(i)s between 1.5 and 143 microM. Current responses of cultured hippocampal neurones to NMDA were antagonized by the same compounds with a wide range of potencies (IC50s of 1.3-245 microM, at -70 mV) in a use- and <span class="hlt">strongly</span> voltage-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> manner (delta 0.55-0.87). The offset kinetics of NMDA receptor blockade was correlated with equilibrium affinity (Corr Coeff. 0.87 P < 0.0001). As an example, MRZ 2/579 (1-amino-1,3,3,5,5-pentamethyl-cyclohexane HCl) had similar blocking kinetics to those previously reported for memantine (K(on) 10.67 +/- 0.09 x 10(4) M(-1) s(-1), K(off) 0.199 +/- 0.02 s(-1), K(d) = K(off)/K(on) = 1.87 microM c.f. IC50 of 1.29 microM). Most amino-alkyl-cyclohexanes were protective against glutamate toxicity in cultured cortical neurones (e.g. MRZ 2/579 IC50 2.16 +/- 0.03 microM). Potencies in the three in vitro assays showed a relatively <span class="hlt">strong</span> cross correlation (all corr. coeffs. > 0.72, P < 0.0001). MRZ 2/579 was also effective in protecting hippocampal slices against 7 min. hypoxia/hypoglycaemia-induced reduction of fEPSP amplitude in CA1 with an EC50 of 7.01 +/- 0.24 microM. MRZ 2/579 showed no selectivity between NMDA receptor subtypes expressed in Xenopus oocytes but was somewhat more potent than in patch clamp experiments-IC50s of 0.49 +/- 0.11, 0.56 +/- 0.01 microM, 0.42 +/- 0.04 and 0.49 +/- 0.06 microM on NR1a/2A /2B, /2C and 2/D, respectively. In contrast, memantine and amantadine were both 3-fold more potent at NR1a/2C and NR1a/2D than NR1a/2A receptors. All Merz amino-alkyl-cyclohexane derivatives inhibited MES-induced convulsions in mice with ED50s ranging from 3.6 to 130 mg/kg i.p. The in vivo and in vitro potencies correlated indicating similar access of most compounds to the CNS. MRZ 2/579 administered at 10 mg/kg resulted in peak plasma concentrations of 5.3 and 1.4 microM following i.v. and p.o. administration respectively, which then declined with a half life of around 170-210 min. Analysis of A.U.C. concentrations indicates a p.o./i.v. bioavailability ratio for MRZ 2/579 of 60%. MRZ 2/579 injected i.p. at a dose of 5 mg/kg resulted in peak brain extracellular fluid (ECF) concentrations of 0.78 microM (brain microdialysates). Of the compounds tested MRZ 2/579, 2/615, 2/632, 2/633, 2/639 and 2/640 had affinities, kinetics and voltage-<span class="hlt">dependency</span> most similar to those of memantine and had good therapeutic indices against MES-induced convulsions. We predict that these amino-alkyl-cyclohexanes, which all had methyl substitutions at R1, R2, and R5, at least one methyl or ethyl at R3 or R4 and a charged amino-containing substitution at R6, could be useful therapeutics in a wide range of CNS disorders proposed to involve disturbances of glutamatergic transmission. PMID:10193901</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Parsons, C G; Danysz, W; Bartmann, A; Spielmanns, P; Frankiewicz, T; Hesselink, M; Eilbacher, B; Quack, G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.B51G0424F"> <span id="translatedtitle">New Constraints on Archean Sulfur Cycling from the <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Variability of Mass-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> and Mass-Independent Isotopic Signatures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sulfur isotope data have been used to provide significant insights into Archean biogeochemical cycling. Small fractionations in ?34S have been used to argue for low sulfate concentrations in the Archean ocean and large, mass-independent (?33S, ?36S) signatures in Archean age strata are one of the most robust indicators for anoxic atmospheric (and oceanic) conditions at this time. These interpretations often rest on data collected from bulk samples (cm- to m-scale) and here we investigate the additional information that can be gained about the operation of the Archean sulfur cycle by analyzing isotopic compositions on much finer <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales. In the present study, we make use of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) on a Cameca 7F/GEO to generate relatively non-destructive sulfur isotope ratio data at high <span class="hlt">spatial</span> resolution (~1-10µm) using a primary ion beam (Cs+). While SIMS analysis of ?34S variability is not, in itself, new, here we conduct numerous (50 - 500) analyses in a regularly spaced framework over a length scale of just a few mm. This allows for the identification of significant isotopic trends that are not possible to observe using conventional techniques or even by relatively cursory surveys at higher <span class="hlt">spatial</span> resolution. Specifically, by analyzing samples in a regular grid framework, we can meaningfully link the data from successive measurements, allowing for the identification of ‘long-range’ (e.g., mm-scale) trends. Organizing measurements into a regular grid also provides an additional control on instrument drift (beyond sample-standard bracketing). We demonstrate the power of our approach by examining <span class="hlt">spatially</span>-coherent sulfide isotope variability in pyritic Archean black shales, which are characterized by multiple successive episodes of sulfidization, each of which possess their own ?34S and ?33S/?36S values. The isotopic variability within given generations of sulfide records information about the physical/biological processes associated with their formation, whereas the isotopic differences between success generations of sulfide precipitation record a picture of environmental change during deposition, early (soft-sedimentary) diagenesis, and late-stage (post-lithification) diagenesis.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fike, D. A.; Fischer, W. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NJPh...14g3021F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simple parameterization for the ground-state energy of the infinite Hubbard chain incorporating Mott physics, spin-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> phenomena and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> inhomogeneity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Simple analytical parameterizations for the ground-state energy of the one-dimensional repulsive Hubbard model are developed. The charge <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of energy is parameterized using exact results extracted from the Bethe-ansatz (BA). The resulting parameterization is shown to be in better agreement with highly precise data obtained from a fully numerical solution to the BA equations than previous expressions (Lima et al 2003 Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 146402). Unlike these earlier proposals, the present parameterization correctly predicts a positive Mott gap at half filling for any U > 0. The construction is extended to spin-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> phenomena by parameterizing the magnetization <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the ground-state energy using further exact results and numerical benchmarking. Lastly, the parameterizations developed for the <span class="hlt">spatially</span> uniform model are extended by means of a simple local-density-type approximation to <span class="hlt">spatially</span> inhomogeneous models, e.g. in the presence of impurities, external fields or trapping potentials. The results are shown to be in excellent agreement with independent many-body calculations, at a fraction of the computational cost.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">França, Vivian V.; Vieira, Daniel; Capelle, Klaus</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48910655"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seismicity on a fault controlled by rate- and state-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> friction with <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variations of the critical slip distance</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We perform systematic simulations of slip using a quasi-dynamic continuum model of a two-dimensional (2-D) strike-slip fault governed by rate- and state-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> friction. The depth <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the a ? b and L frictional parameters are treated in an innovative way that is consistent with available laboratory data and multidisciplinary field observations. Various realizations of heterogeneous L distributions are used</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. Hillers; Y. Ben-Zion; P. M. Mai</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/18656278"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of large vibration amplitudes on the mode shapes and natural frequencies of thin elastic structures, Part 3: Fully clamped rectangular isotropic plates - measurements of the mode shape amplitude <span class="hlt">dependence</span> and the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of harmonic distortion</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this work, the amplitude <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the resonance frequency and the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of the first and second harmonic components of the dynamic response of a fully clamped rectangular homogeneous plate have been investigated experimentally. By using electrodynamic point excitation at the center of the plate and a non-contacting optical vibration transducer for response measurement, the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. Benamar; M. M. K. Bennouna; R. G. White</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19137037"> <span id="translatedtitle">Angle-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> encoding of multiple asymmetric symbols in a binary phase hologram with a <span class="hlt">spatial</span> segmentation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A method of encoding multiple asymmetric symbols into a single thin binary Fourier hologram is presented. It assumes a combination of a <span class="hlt">spatial</span> segmentation and carrier frequencies in order to achieve multiple reconstructed images selectable by the angle of the incident laser beam. The proper segmentation function with an optimized period allows us to encode a number of different objects with little loss of reconstruction quality. A special sequence of phase encoding steps and a binarization enable recording of asymmetric symbols into a binary hologram. The description of the design procedure is given, followed by the experimental results confirming the conclusions conceived from numerical simulations. The method can be used practically for the design of simple translucent holographic head-up displays. PMID:19137037</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Suszek, Jaroslaw; Makowski, Michal; Sypek, Maciej; Siemion, Andrzej; Kolodziejczyk, Andrzej</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2804422"> <span id="translatedtitle">Laminar and Orientation-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Characteristics of <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Nonlinearities: Implications for the Computational Architecture of Visual Cortex</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A full understanding of the computations performed in primary visual cortex is an important yet elusive goal. Receptive field models consisting of cascades of linear filters and static nonlinearities may be adequate to account for responses to simple stimuli such as gratings and random checkerboards, but their predictions of responses to complex stimuli such as natural scenes are only approximately correct. It is unclear whether these discrepancies are limited to quantitative inaccuracies that reflect well-recognized mechanisms such as response normalization, gain controls, and cross-orientation suppression or, alternatively, imply additional qualitative features of the underlying computations. To address this question, we examined responses of V1 and V2 neurons in the monkey and area 17 neurons in the cat to two-dimensional Hermite functions (TDHs). TDHs are intermediate in complexity between traditional analytic stimuli and natural scenes and have mathematical properties that facilitate their use to test candidate models. By exploiting these properties, along with the laminar organization of V1, we identify qualitative aspects of neural computations beyond those anticipated from the above-cited model framework. Specifically, we find that V1 neurons receive signals from orientation-selective mechanisms that are highly nonlinear: they are sensitive to phase correlations, not just <span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequency content. That is, the behavior of V1 neurons departs from that of linear–nonlinear cascades with standard modulatory mechanisms in a qualitative manner: even relatively simple stimuli evoke responses that imply complex <span class="hlt">spatial</span> nonlinearities. The presence of these findings in the input layers suggests that these nonlinearities act in a feedback fashion.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mechler, Ferenc; Ohiorhenuan, Ifije; Schmid, Anita M.; Purpura, Keith P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22928408"> <span id="translatedtitle">Prey-predator dynamics in rotifers: density-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> consequences of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> heterogeneity due to surface attachment.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Classical models of prey-predator interactions assume that per capita prey consumption is <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on prey density alone and that prey consumption (functional response) and consumer proliferation (numerical response) operate on the same timescales and without time lags. Several modifications have been proposed for resolving this timescale discrepancy, including variants where the functional response <span class="hlt">depends</span> on both prey and predator densities. A microcosm system with the rotifer Brachionus 'Nevada' feeding on the prasinophyte Tetraselmis sp. showed significant (P < 0.0005) increases in steady-state biomasses of both prey and predators with increasing carrying capacity (represented by total phosphorus of the growth medium), which is inconsistent with predictions based on the traditional prey-only-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> functional response. We provide data indicating that surfaces where the predator can attach provide a high-quality habitat for rotifers, which can result in a predator-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> functional response. We also show that partitioning between the attached and free-swimming habitats was fast compared to the timescale of the numerical response. When attached to surfaces, rotifers maximized net energy gain by avoiding the high cost of swimming and by increased food capture due to reduced viscous drag. A mathematical model with prey-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> functional response and wall-attached and free-swimming fractions of the population describes our data adequately. We discuss the implications of this finding for extrapolating microcosm experiments to systems with other surface-to-volume ratios, and to what extent our findings may apply to other popular model organisms for prey-predator interaction. PMID:22928408</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vadstein, Olav; Olsen, Lasse M; Andersen, Tom</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/18930736"> <span id="translatedtitle">Time-integrated and time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> angular analyses of B>J\\/psiKpi: A measurement of cos(2beta with no sign ambiguity from <span class="hlt">strong</span> phases</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present results on B-->J\\/psiKpi decays using e+e-annihilation data collected with the BABAR detector at the Upsilon(4S) resonance. The detector is located at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy storage ring facility at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Using approximately 88×106 BB¯ pairs, we measure the decay amplitudes for the flavor eigenmodes and observe <span class="hlt">strong</span>-phase differences indicative of final-state interactions with a significance</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. Aubert; R. Barate; D. Boutigny; F. Couderc; J.-M. Gaillard; Y. Karyotakis; J. P. Lees; V. Poireau; V. Tisserand; A. Zghiche; A. Palano; A. Pompili; J. C. Chen; N. D. Qi; G. Rong; P. Wang; Y. S. Zhu; G. Eigen; I. Ofte; B. Stugu; G. S. Abrams; A. W. Borgland; A. B. Breon; D. N. Brown; J. Button-Shafer; R. N. Cahn; E. Charles; C. T. Day; M. S. Gill; A. V. Gritsan; Y. Groysman; R. G. Jacobsen; R. W. Kadel; J. Kadyk; L. T. Kerth; Yu. G. Kolomensky; G. Kukartsev; G. Lynch; L. M. Mir; P. J. Oddone; T. J. Orimoto; M. Pripstein; N. A. Roe; M. T. Ronan; V. G. Shelkov; W. A. Wenzel; M. Barrett; K. E. Ford; T. J. Harrison; A. J. Hart; C. M. Hawkes; S. E. Morgan; A. T. Watson; M. Fritsch; K. Goetzen; T. Held; H. Koch; B. Lewandowski; M. Pelizaeus; M. Steinke; J. T. Boyd; N. Chevalier; W. N. Cottingham; M. P. Kelly; T. E. Latham; F. F. Wilson; T. Cuhadar-Donszelmann; C. Hearty; N. S. Knecht; T. S. Mattison; J. A. McKenna; D. Thiessen; A. Khan; P. Kyberd; L. Teodorescu; A. E. Blinov; V. E. Blinov; V. P. Druzhinin; V. B. Golubev; V. N. Ivanchenko; E. A. Kravchenko; A. P. Onuchin; S. I. Serednyakov; Yu. I. Skovpen; E. P. Solodov; A. N. Yushkov; D. Best; M. Bruinsma; M. Chao; I. Eschrich; D. Kirkby; A. J. Lankford; M. Mandelkern; R. K. Mommsen; W. Roethel; D. P. Stoker; C. Buchanan; B. L. Hartfiel; S. D. Foulkes; J. W. Gary; B. C. Shen; K. Wang; D. del Re; H. K. Hadavand; E. J. Hill; D. B. Macfarlane; H. P. Paar; Sh. Rahatlou; V. Sharma; J. Adam Cunha; J. W. Berryhill; C. Campagnari; B. Dahmes; T. M. Hong; O. Long; A. Lu; M. A. Mazur; J. D. Richman; W. Verkerke; T. W. Beck; A. M. Eisner; C. A. Heusch; J. Kroseberg; W. S. Lockman; G. Nesom; T. Schalk; B. A. Schumm; A. Seiden; P. Spradlin; D. C. Williams; M. G. Wilson; J. Albert; E. Chen; G. P. Dubois-Felsmann; A. Dvoretskii; D. G. Hitlin; I. Narsky; T. Piatenko; F. C. Porter; A. Ryd; A. Samuel; S. Yang; S. Jayatilleke; G. Mancinelli; B. T. Meadows; M. D. Sokoloff; F. Blanc; P. Bloom; S. Chen; W. T. Ford; U. Nauenberg; A. Olivas; P. Rankin; J. G. Smith; J. Zhang; L. Zhang; A. Chen; J. L. Harton; A. Soffer; W. H. Toki; R. J. Wilson; Q. Zeng; D. Altenburg; T. Brandt; J. Brose; M. Dickopp; E. Feltresi; A. Hauke; H. M. Lacker; R. Müller-Pfefferkorn; R. Nogowski; S. Otto; A. Petzold; J. Schubert; K. R. Schubert; R. Schwierz; B. Spaan; J. E. Sundermann; D. Bernard; G. R. Bonneaud; F. Brochard; P. Grenier; S. Schrenk; Ch. Thiebaux; G. Vasileiadis; M. Verderi; D. J. Bard; P. J. Clark; D. Lavin; F. Muheim; S. Playfer; Y. Xie; M. Andreotti; V. Azzolini; D. Bettoni; C. Bozzi; R. Calabrese; G. Cibinetto; E. Luppi; M. Negrini; L. Piemontese; A. Sarti; E. Treadwell; F. Anulli; R. Baldini-Ferroli; A. Calcaterra; R. de Sangro; G. Finocchiaro; P. Patteri; I. M. Peruzzi; M. Piccolo; A. Zallo; A. Buzzo; R. Capra; R. Contri; G. Crosetti; M. Lo Vetere; M. Macri; M. R. Monge; S. Passaggio; C. Patrignani; E. Robutti; A. Santroni; S. Tosi; S. Bailey; G. Brandenburg; K. S. Chaisanguanthum; M. Morii; E. Won; R. S. Dubitzky; U. Langenegger; J. Marks; U. Uwer; W. Bhimji; D. A. Bowerman; P. D. Dauncey; U. Egede; J. R. Gaillard; G. W. Morton; J. A. Nash; M. B. Nikolich; G. P. Taylor; M. J. Charles; G. J. Grenier; U. Mallik; J. Cochran; H. B. Crawley; J. Lamsa; W. T. Meyer; S. Prell; E. I. Rosenberg; A. E. Rubin; J. Yi; M. Biasini; R. Covarelli; M. Pioppi; M. Davier; X. Giroux; G. Grosdidier; A. Höcker; S. Laplace; F. Le Diberder; V. Lepeltier; A. M. Lutz; T. C. Petersen; S. Plaszczynski; M. H. Schune; L. Tantot; G. Wormser; C. H. Cheng; D. J. Lange; M. C. Simani; D. M. Wright; A. J. Bevan; C. A. Chavez; J. P. Coleman; I. J. Forster; J. R. Fry; E. Gabathuler; R. Gamet; D. E. Hutchcroft; R. J. Parry; D. J. Payne; R. J. Sloane; C. Touramanis; C. M. Cormack; F. Di Lodovico; C. L. Brown; G. Cowan; R. L. Flack; H. U. Flaecher; M. G. Green; P. D. Jackson; T. R. McMahon; S. Ricciardi; F. Salvatore; M. A. Winter; C. L. Davis; J. Allison; N. R. Barlow; R. J. Barlow; M. C. Hodgkinson; G. D. Lafferty; A. J. Lyon; J. C. Williams; A. Farbin; W. D. Hulsbergen; A. Jawahery; D. Kovalskyi; C. K. Lae; V. Lillard; D. A. Roberts; G. Blaylock; C. Dallapiccola; S. S. Hertzbach; R. Kofler; V. B. Koptchev; T. B. Moore; S. Saremi; H. Staengle; S. Willocq; R. Cowan; G. Sciolla; S. J. Sekula; F. Taylor; R. K. Yamamoto; D. J. Mangeol; P. M. Patel; S. H. Robertson; A. Lazzaro; V. Lombardo; F. Palombo; J. M. Bauer; L. Cremaldi; V. Eschenburg; R. Godang; R. Kroeger; J. Reidy; D. A. Sanders; D. J. Summers; H. W. Zhao; S. Brunet; D. Côté; P. Taras; H. Nicholson; N. Cavallo; F. Fabozzi; C. Gatto; L. Lista; D. Monorchio; P. Paolucci; D. Piccolo; C. Sciacca; M. Baak; H. Bulten; G. Raven; H. L. Snoek; L. Wilden; C. P. Jessop; J. M. Losecco; T. Allmendinger; K. K. Gan; K. Honscheid; D. Hufnagel; H. Kagan; R. Kass; T. Pulliam; A. M. Rahimi; R. Ter-Antonyan; Q. K. Wong; J. Brau</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19081080"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cell-cycle-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> sequestration of the DnaA replication initiator protein in Bacillus subtilis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Initiation of DNA replication must be restricted to occur only once per cell cycle. In most bacteria, DnaA protein binds replication origins and promotes the initiation of DNA replication. We have found that in Bacillus subtilis, DnaA only colocalizes with origin regions at early or late stages of the cell cycle, when the replication machinery is assembling or disassembling, respectively. In contrast, DnaA colocalizes with the DNA replication machinery during most of the cell cycle. Indeed, we present evidence that a primary function of YabA, a negative regulator of replication initiation, is to tether DnaA to the polymerase-clamp protein DnaN. Thus, YabA ensures that once the origin is duplicated, it moves away from the replisome and from DnaA. We propose that DnaA colocalization with origins is specific to the time of initiation, and that replisome/YabA-mediated <span class="hlt">spatial</span> sequestration of DnaA prevents inappropriate reinitiation of DNA replication. PMID:19081080</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Soufo, Clarisse Defeu; Soufo, Hervé Joël Defeu; Noirot-Gros, Marie-Françoise; Steindorf, Astrid; Noirot, Philippe; Graumann, Peter L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14...14C"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Novel Analytical Solution for Coupled Multi-Species Contaminant Transport in Finite <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Domain Subject to Arbitrary Time-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Inlet Boundary Condition</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Several analytical solutions for single-species reactive solute transport problems have been reported in literature for predicting the transport of various contaminants. Analytical solutions for coupled multi-species reactive solute transport problem are much more difficult and relatively rare in subsurface hydrology. Problem of coupled multi-species reactive transport plays an important role in understanding the transport and fate of a variety of decay chain contaminants such as radionuclide, chlorinated solvents, and nitrogen. Analytical solutions are efficient tools for testing and validating more comprehensively numerical models, performing sensitivity analyses to investigate how various transport processes affect contaminant transport, or serving as screening models. Decomposition strategy such as linear transform format or matrix diagnalization method which decomposes the set of coupled advective-dispersive transport equations into a system of independent differential equations have been widely used to derive the analytical solution for coupled multi-species solute transport problem. These decomposition approaches are mostly performed on the partial differential equations or ordinary differential equations. Generally, the processes of applying decomposition technique on differential equations are much more difficult, thus these solution methods are mostly limited to derive the analytical solution for either a semi-infinite <span class="hlt">spatial</span> domain or steady-state boundary condition. In this study we present a novel analytical solution to multi-species advective-dispersive transport equations sequentially coupled by first-order decay reactions in a finite <span class="hlt">spatial</span> domain subject to arbitrary time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> inlet boundary condition. The novel solution is derived by consecutive applications of Laplace transform and the generalized integral transform to remove the temporal and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> derivatives in a set of coupled advection-dispersion equations, thus converting the coupled partial differential equation system into a set of algebraic equations. Subsequently, simple mathematical manipulation is applied to solve the set of algebraic equations in transform domain and the analytical solution in the transformed domain for each species is independently obtained. Finally, the solutions for all species in transformed domain are transformed back into the original domain by successively executing Laplace and the generalized integral transform inversions. The developed analytical solutions for a finite <span class="hlt">spatial</span> domain are compared with the analytical solution for a semi-finite <span class="hlt">spatial</span> domain to investigate the impact of the exit boundary on coupled multi-species transport. The proposed solution method in this study has the greater flexibility in dealing with analytical model for more complicated problems, thus will be especially useful for expanding the number and type of analytical models for sequentially coupled multi-species reactive transport problem.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, J.-S.; Liu, C.-W.; Lai, K.-H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EL.....8840001Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantum hydrodynamics and expansion of a <span class="hlt">strongly</span> interacting Fermi gas</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We generalize the quantum hydrodynamical equations and study the dynamics of a <span class="hlt">strongly</span> interacting Fermi gas trapped in an anisotropic harmonic trap. By using this simple theory to simulate the expansion of the Fermi gas observed experimentally by O'Hara et al., Science, 298 (2002) 2179, we find that the density profiles of the system are well described by the Fetter-like form in the dynamical process in all <span class="hlt">spatial</span> directions. We also discuss the anisotropic <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on the expansion.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, W. Y.; Zhou, L.; Ma, Y. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/12247583"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span> investigation of dissipation processes in <span class="hlt">strongly</span> anisotropic high-temperature superconductors of Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O system synthesized using solar energy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The investigation of temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of damping and period of vibrations of HTSC superconductive cylinder of Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O system suspended by a thin elastic thread and performing axial-torsional vibrations in a magnetic field at temperatures above the critical one for the main phase Tc=107 K were carried out. It was observed some \\</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. G. Chigvinadze; J. V. Acrivos; S. M. Ashimov; D. D. Gulamova; T. V. Machaidze; D. Uskenbaev</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.fhpv.unipo.sk/kagerr/pracovnici/hofierka/projekty/Hofierka_Cebecauer_Folia12.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatially</span> distributed assessment of solar resources for energy applications in Slovakia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> and temporal distribution of available solar energy <span class="hlt">depends</span> on several factors. Besides latitude and astronomical factors it is <span class="hlt">strongly</span> influenced by climate factors (e.g. cloudiness, turbidity) and topography. This paper presents a solar database of Slovakia containing <span class="hlt">spatially</span>-distributed solar energy resource data necessary for planning, sitting and forecasting of solar device installations. The database consists of several data sets</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jaroslav HOFIERKA</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/10167661"> <span id="translatedtitle">Isolation by distance in a continuous population: reconciliation between <span class="hlt">spatial</span> autocorrelation analysis and population genetics models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Analysis of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> genetic structure within continuous populations in their natural habitat can reveal acting evolutionary processes. <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> autocorrelation statistics are often used for this purpose, but their relationships with population genetics models have not been thoroughly established. Moreover, it has been argued that the <span class="hlt">dependency</span> of these statistics on variation in mutation rates among loci <span class="hlt">strongly</span> limits their</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">OLIVIER J. HARDY; XAVIER VEKEMANS</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JTePh..54..758K"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dependence</span> of the macroscopic elastic properties of porous media on the parameters of a stochastic <span class="hlt">spatial</span> pore distribution</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The mechanical behavior of porous ceramic materials with a stochastic structure of their pore space is numerically studied during shear loading. The calculations are performed by the mobile cellular automaton method. A procedure is proposed for a numerical description of the internal structure of such materials using the dispersion of the pore distribution in layers that are parallel to the loading direction in a sample. The <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the macroscopic elastic properties of porous media on their internal structure is analyzed. Samples with spherical pores and pores extended along the loading direction exhibit a correlation between their average shear modulus and the dispersion of a pore distribution. Thus, the results obtained indicate that the shear modulus of such media is a structure-sensitive property. The proposed approach can be applied to compare the elastic properties of samples using data on their pore structure.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Konovalenko, Ig. S.; Smolin, A. Yu.; Korostelev, S. Yu.; Psakh'e, S. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37042539"> <span id="translatedtitle">Polymorphism of the 5HT1B Receptor Gene (HTR1B): <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Within-Locus Linkage Disequilibrium without Association to Antisocial Substance <span class="hlt">Dependence</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Serotonergic abnormalities may be present in individuals with either substance <span class="hlt">dependence</span> (SD) or antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), disorders that occur together commonly. Consequently, genes encoding serotonin (5-HT) receptors are candidates for genetic studies of both disorders. Lappalainen et al. (1998) found evidence for linkage of antisocial alcoholism to HTR1B (the locus encoding the 5-HT1B receptor) in both Finns and Southwestern</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Henry R Kranzler; Carlos A Hernandez-Avila; Joel Gelernter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24133440"> <span id="translatedtitle">Vestibular modulation of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> perception.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Vestibular inputs make a key contribution to the sense of one's own <span class="hlt">spatial</span> location. While the effects of vestibular stimulation on visuo-<span class="hlt">spatial</span> processing in neurological patients have been extensively described, the normal contribution of vestibular inputs to <span class="hlt">spatial</span> perception remains unclear. To address this issue, we used a line bisection task to investigate the effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) on <span class="hlt">spatial</span> perception, and on the transition between near and far space. Brief left-anodal and right-cathodal GVS or right-anodal and left-cathodal GVS were delivered. A sham stimulation condition was also included. Participants bisected lines of different lengths at six distances from the body using a laser pointer. Consistent with previous results, our data showed an overall shift in the bisection bias from left to right as viewing distance increased. This pattern suggests leftward bias in near space, and rightward bias in far space. GVS induced <span class="hlt">strong</span> polarity <span class="hlt">dependent</span> effects in <span class="hlt">spatial</span> perception, broadly consistent with those previously reported in patients: left-anodal and right-cathodal GVS induced a leftward bisection bias, while right-anodal and left-cathodal GVS reversed this effect, and produced bisection bias toward the right side of the space. Interestingly, the effects of GVS were comparable in near and far space. We speculate that vestibular-induced biases in space perception may optimize gathering of information from different parts of the environment. PMID:24133440</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ferrè, Elisa R; Longo, Matthew R; Fiori, Federico; Haggard, Patrick</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3794195"> <span id="translatedtitle">Vestibular modulation of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> perception</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Vestibular inputs make a key contribution to the sense of one’s own <span class="hlt">spatial</span> location. While the effects of vestibular stimulation on visuo-<span class="hlt">spatial</span> processing in neurological patients have been extensively described, the normal contribution of vestibular inputs to <span class="hlt">spatial</span> perception remains unclear. To address this issue, we used a line bisection task to investigate the effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) on <span class="hlt">spatial</span> perception, and on the transition between near and far space. Brief left-anodal and right-cathodal GVS or right-anodal and left-cathodal GVS were delivered. A sham stimulation condition was also included. Participants bisected lines of different lengths at six distances from the body using a laser pointer. Consistent with previous results, our data showed an overall shift in the bisection bias from left to right as viewing distance increased. This pattern suggests leftward bias in near space, and rightward bias in far space. GVS induced <span class="hlt">strong</span> polarity <span class="hlt">dependent</span> effects in <span class="hlt">spatial</span> perception, broadly consistent with those previously reported in patients: left-anodal and right-cathodal GVS induced a leftward bisection bias, while right-anodal and left-cathodal GVS reversed this effect, and produced bisection bias toward the right side of the space. Interestingly, the effects of GVS were comparable in near and far space. We speculate that vestibular-induced biases in space perception may optimize gathering of information from different parts of the environment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ferre, Elisa R.; Longo, Matthew R.; Fiori, Federico; Haggard, Patrick</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3425199"> <span id="translatedtitle">Silencing Nicotiana attenuata Calcium-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Protein Kinases, CDPK4 and CDPK5, <span class="hlt">Strongly</span> Up-Regulates Wound- and Herbivory-Induced Jasmonic Acid Accumulations1[W</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) plays a pivotal role in plant-insect interactions. Herbivore attack usually elicits dramatic increases in JA concentrations, which in turn activate the accumulation of metabolites that function as defenses against herbivores. Although almost all enzymes involved in the biosynthesis pathway of JA have been identified and characterized, the mechanism by which plants regulate JA biosynthesis remains unclear. Calcium-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> protein kinases (CDPKs) are plant-specific proteins that sense changes in [Ca2+] to activate downstream responses. We created transgenic Nicotiana attenuata plants, in which two CDPKs, NaCDPK4 and NaCDPK5, were simultaneously silenced (IRcdpk4/5 plants). IRcdpk4/5 plants were stunted and aborted most of their flower primordia. Importantly, after wounding or simulated herbivory, IRcdpk4/5 plants accumulated exceptionally high JA levels. When NaCDPK4 and NaCDPK5 were silenced individually, neither stunted growth nor high JA levels were observed, suggesting that NaCDPK4 and NaCDPK5 have redundant roles. Attack from Manduca sexta larvae on IRcdpk4/5 plants induced high levels of defense metabolites that slowed M. sexta growth. We found that NaCDPK4 and NaCDPK5 affect plant resistance against insects in a JA- and JA-signaling-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> manner. Furthermore, IRcdpk4/5 plants showed overactivation of salicylic-acid-induced protein kinase, a mitogen-activated protein kinase involved in various stress responses, and genetic analysis indicated that the increased salicylic-acid-induced protein kinase activity in IRcdpk4/5 plants was a consequence of the exceptionally high JA levels and was <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1. This work reveals the critical roles of CDPKs in modulating JA homeostasis and highlights the complex duet between JA and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yang, Da-Hai; Hettenhausen, Christian; Baldwin, Ian T.; Wu, Jianqiang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMSA53A..03W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> and Climatological <span class="hlt">Dependencies</span> of the Hydrogen Geocorona Inferred From TIMED/GUVI Measurements of Lyman ? Radiance</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Space-based measurements of geocoronal Lyman-? (Ly-?) emission at 121.6 nm, created through multiple scattering of solar Ly-? photons by atomic hydrogen, offer a valuable means of inferring the hydrogen abundance, [H], in the terrestrial thermosphere and exosphere on a global, long-term basis. We present initial results from an analysis of Ly-? radiance measurements acquired along the earth's limb from 2002-2007 by the Global UltraViolet Imager (GUVI) onboard the TIMED spacecraft. Based on statistical data analysis, we derive simple climatological models of the emission <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on line-of-sight position (altitude, geographic, and geomagnetic coordinates), sun-earth geometry (zenith angle and season), and solar activity. These results are compared to forward model predictions of Ly-? radiance in order to improve understanding of geocoronal physics as well as Ly-? radiation transport. Model sensitivities to input parameters are assessed in terms of their implications for [H] estimation from the GUVI limb-scan data, and several case-by-case data/model comparisons of single scans will be used as examples.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Waldrop, L. S.; Paxton, L. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/19157242"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solving the m-mixing problem for the three-dimensional time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> Schrödinger equation by rotations: Application to <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field ionization of H_{2}^{+}</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a very efficient technique for solving the three-dimensional\\u000atime-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> Schrodinger equation. Our method is applicable to a wide range\\u000aof problems where a fullly three-dimensional solution is required, i.e., to\\u000acases where no symmetries exist that reduce the dimensionally of the problem.\\u000aExamples include arbitrarily oriented molecules in external fields and atoms\\u000ainteracting with elliptically polarized light. We</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. K. Kjeldsen; L. A. A. Nikolopoulos; L. B. Madsen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22137783"> <span id="translatedtitle">How <span class="hlt">strong</span> is the evidence for accelerated expansion?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We test the present expansion of the universe using supernova type Ia data without making any assumptions about the matter and energy content of the universe or about the parametrization of the deceleration parameter. We assume the cosmological principle to apply in a strict sense. The result <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">depends</span> on the data set, the light curve fitting method and the calibration of the absolute magnitude used for the test, indicating <span class="hlt">strong</span> systematic errors. Nevertheless, in a <span class="hlt">spatially</span> flat universe there is at least 5{sigma} evidence for acceleration which drops to 1.8{sigma} in an open universe.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Seikel, Marina; Schwarz, Dominik J, E-mail: mseikel@physik.uni-bielefeld.de, E-mail: dschwarz@physik.uni-bielefeld.de [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Bielefeld, Postfach 100131, 33501 Bielefeld (Germany)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-02-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21560220"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> growth orientation <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of strain relaxation in epitaxial (Ba,Sr)TiO{sub 3} films and the resulting dielectric properties</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The growth orientation <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of strain relaxation and the dielectric properties were investigated for (001)- and (111)-epitaxial (Ba,Sr)TiO{sub 3} films. The films were deposited on SrRuO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} and SrTiO{sub 3} substrates using rf magnetron sputtering. The residual strain was found to be remarkably different between the two orientations, although these lattice mismatches are identical; the strain relaxation of the (001)-epitaxial films is significantly slower than that of the (111)-epitaxial films and is promoted only when the growth rate is very low ({<=}5 nm/h). The observed orientation <span class="hlt">dependence</span> is discussed with the surface energy for both growth orientations, which influences the growth mode of the films. Due to the large contrast of the strain in the (001)- and (111)-epitaxial films, the paraelectric to ferroelectric phase transition temperature of the (001)-epitaxial films is much higher than that of unstrained bulks, while the (111)-epitaxial films show a phase transition temperature corresponding to that of unstrained bulks regardless of the growth rates.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yamada, Tomoaki; Kamo, Takafumi; Funakubo, Hiroshi [Department of Innovative and Engineered Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Su Dong [Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Iijima, Takashi [Research Center for Hydrogen Industrial Use and Storage, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba 305-8565 (Japan)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21614489"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solute-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> activation of cell motility in <span class="hlt">strongly</span> hypertonic solutions in Dictyostelium discoideum, human melanoma HTB-140 cells and walker 256 carcinosarcoma cells.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Published data concerning the effects of hypertonicity on cell motility have often been controversial. The interpretation of results often rests on the premise that cell responses result from cell dehydration, i.e. osmotic effects. The results of induced hypertonicity on cell movement of Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae and human melanoma HTB-140 cells reported here show that: i) hypertonic solutions of identical osmolarity will either inhibit or stimulate cell movement <span class="hlt">depending</span> on specific solutes (Na(+) or K(+), sorbitol or saccharose); ii) inhibition of cell motility by hypertonic solutions containing Na(+) ions or carbohydrates can be reversed by the addition of calcium ions; iii) various cell types react differently to the same solutions, and iv) cells can adapt to hypertonic solutions. Various hypertonic solutions are now broadly used in medicine and to study modulation of gene expression. The observations reported suggest the need to examine whether the other responses of cells to hypertonicity can also be based on the solute-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> cell responses besides cell dehydration due to the osmotic effects. PMID:21614489</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Korohoda, W?odzimierz; Kucia, Magdalena; Wybieralska, Ewa; Wianecka-Skocze?, Magdalena; Waligórska, Agnieszka; Druka?a, Justyna; Madeja, Zbigniew</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-05-25</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a 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showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011CEJPh...9..956Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> wave packet theoretical study of femtosecond photoelectron spectra and coupling between the A2?+ and B2? states of the NO molecule in a <span class="hlt">strong</span> laser field</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this work, the femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectra and the coupling between the A2?+ and B2? states of the NO molecule in a <span class="hlt">strong</span> laser field have been investigated by the time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> wave packet method. We demonstrate that the weak coupling between the A2?+ and B2? states of NO plays a key role on the peak centered at 0.37 eV of the photoelectron spectra in the 2+1' channel.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhu, Yonghua; Song, Peng; Yang, Huan; Ma, Fengcai</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000Icar..148..464C"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> of the Circumnuclear Coma Structure on the Properties of the Nucleus. IV. Structure of the Night-Side Gas Coma of a <span class="hlt">Strongly</span> Sublimating Nucleus</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The structure of the nightside coma in the vicinity of a <span class="hlt">strongly</span> active comet nucleus of pure ice is investigated by solving gasdynamic equations for the flow of water vapour sublimated from—or condensed onto—the nucleus surface. To guarantee the physical validity of the solution, both Euler and Navier-Stokes Equations are solved, and the solutions are compared. A spherical nucleus is considered first and then a triaxial ellipsoidal nucleus. The results show that (1) a fluid coma of significant extent and very complicated physical structure is formed; (2) for low heat conduction transfer across the nucleus from the dayside to the nightside surface, a narrow conical weak shock appears near to the antisolar axis; the whole nightside surface acts as a cold trap for the vapor, part of which recondenses onto it; (3) for intermediate heat conduction, part of the nightside surface becomes weakly sublimating, and a different weak shock pattern is formed; and (4) at high heat conduction, the whole nightside surface is weakly sublimating, and the resulting flow pattern becomes similar to that existing in a coma formed by diffusion from the nucleus interior (see Crifo, Rodionov and Bockelée-Morvan, 1999, Icarus138, 83-106). The results are compared to related model results by other authors, and a discussion is made of their relevance to the 1996 observation of the near-nucleus nightside coma of Comet C/1996 B2 Hyakutake.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Crifo, J. F.; Rodionov, A. V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/35661111"> <span id="translatedtitle">Non-<span class="hlt">spatial</span> government</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article explores the evolution of government. Facilitated by advances in telecommunications and information technology, governments of the future may become specialized by function. One type of government will be non-<span class="hlt">spatial</span> in essence and will be populated by people who share a <span class="hlt">strong</span> affinity with each other, but not necessarily common <span class="hlt">spatial</span> boundaries. A second type of government will necessarily</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bruce E Tonn; David Feldman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17066710"> <span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Spatial</span> variability of farmland heavy metals contents in Qianan City].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">By the methods of geostatistics and GIS, this paper studied the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variability of Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr As, Hg, Cd and Pb contents in the farmland topsoil (0 -20 cm) of Qianan City, Hebei Province. The results showed that the average contents of test metals were under the secondary standard of environmental quality standard for soil (GB 15618-1995), and belonged to moderate variability. The theoretical models of semi-variance of Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr and As contents fitted exponential models, and their <span class="hlt">spatial</span> correlations were <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span>; while the theoretical models of Hg and Cd contents fitted spherical models, and their <span class="hlt">spatial</span> correlations were moderately <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span>. The Pb content had pure nugget effect, and was weakly <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span>. In whole research scale, Pb content had lasting variability, while the other seven heavy metals contents had the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variability mainly caused by their <span class="hlt">spatial</span> correlation parts. The ranges of heavy metals <span class="hlt">spatial</span> correlations were about 11 km to 20 km. The Kriging' s interpolation of Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Hg, As and Cd contents showed that their contents were higher in northern mountainous area, but lower in mid basin. PMID:17066710</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Bo; Wang, Yuanzhong; Li, Dongmei; Gao, Yunfeng; Mao, Renzhao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/12756050"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> Cosmic Censorship in Vacuum Space-Times with Compact, Locally Homogeneous Cauchy Surfaces</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We consider the question of <span class="hlt">strong</span> cosmic censorship in <span class="hlt">spatially</span> compact, <span class="hlt">spatially</span> locally homogeneous vacuum models. We show in particular that <span class="hlt">strong</span> cosmic censorship holds in Bianchi IX vacuum space-times with spherical <span class="hlt">spatial</span> topology.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Piotr T. Chrusciel; Alan D. Rendall</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21528814"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantum dynamics of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> decoherence of two atoms in a ring cavity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> decoherence dynamics for the relative position of two atoms in a single-mode ring cavity. We find that the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> decoherence of the two atoms <span class="hlt">depends</span> <span class="hlt">strongly</span> on their relative position. Taking into account the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> degrees of freedom, we investigate the entanglement dynamics of the internal states of the two atoms. It is shown that the entanglement decays to almost zero in a finite time, and the disentanglement time <span class="hlt">depends</span> on the width of the wave packets describing the atomic <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zheng Li [Information Science and Engineering College, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034 (China); Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Yang Chuiping [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Department of Physics, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310036 (China); Nori, Franco [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2879522"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> between functional domains in a dual-function snoRNA infers coupling of rRNA processing and modification events</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Most small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) guide rRNA nucleotide modifications, some participate in pre-rRNA cleavages, and a few have both functions. These activities involve direct base-pairing of the snoRNA with pre-rRNA using different domains. It is not known if the modification and processing functions occur independently or in a coordinated manner. We address this question by mutational analysis of a yeast box H/ACA snoRNA that mediates both processing and modification. This snoRNA (snR10) contains canonical 5?- and 3?-hairpin structures with a guide domain for pseudouridylation in the 3? hairpin. Our functional mapping results show that: (i) processing requires the 5? hairpin exclusively, in particular a 7-nt element; (ii) loss of the 3? hairpin or pseudouridine does not affect rRNA processing; (iii) a single nucleotide insertion in the guide domain shifts modification to an adjacent uridine in rRNA, and severely impairs both processing and cell growth; and (iv) the deleterious effects of the insertion mutation <span class="hlt">depend</span> on the presence of the processing element in the 5? hairpin, but not modification of the novel site. Together, the results suggest that the snoRNA hairpins function in a coordinated manner and that their interactions with pre-rRNA could be coupled.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liang, Xue-hai; Liu, Qing; Liu, Quansheng; King, Thomas H.; Fournier, Maurille J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23644512"> <span id="translatedtitle">From repulsion to attraction: species- and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> context-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> threat sensitive response of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae to predatory mite cues.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Prey perceiving predation risk commonly change their behavior to avoid predation. However, antipredator strategies are costly. Therefore, according to the threat-sensitive predator avoidance hypothesis, prey should match the intensity of their antipredator behaviors to the degree of threat, which may <span class="hlt">depend</span> on the predator species and the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> context. We assessed threat sensitivity of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, to the cues of three predatory mites, Phytoseiulus persimilis, Neoseiulus californicus, and Amblyseius andersoni, posing different degrees of risk in two <span class="hlt">spatial</span> contexts. We first conducted a no-choice test measuring oviposition and activity of T. urticae exposed to chemical traces of predators or traces plus predator eggs. Then, we tested the site preference of T. urticae in choice tests, using artificial cages and leaves. In the no-choice test, T. urticae deposited their first egg later in the presence of cues of P. persimilis than of the other two predators and cue absence, indicating interspecific threat-sensitivity. T. urticae laid also fewer eggs in the presence of cues of P. persimilis and A. andersoni than of N. californicus and cue absence. In the artificial cage test, the spider mites preferred the site with predator traces, whereas in the leaf test, they preferentially resided on leaves without traces. We argue that in a nonplant environment, chemical predator traces do not indicate a risk for T. urticae, and instead, these traces function as indirect habitat cues. The spider mites were attracted to these cues because they associated them with the existence of a nearby host plant. PMID:23644512</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fernández Ferrari, M Celeste; Schausberger, Peter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-04</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NW....tmp...52F"> <span id="translatedtitle">From repulsion to attraction: species- and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> context-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> threat sensitive response of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae to predatory mite cues</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Prey perceiving predation risk commonly change their behavior to avoid predation. However, antipredator strategies are costly. Therefore, according to the threat-sensitive predator avoidance hypothesis, prey should match the intensity of their antipredator behaviors to the degree of threat, which may <span class="hlt">depend</span> on the predator species and the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> context. We assessed threat sensitivity of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, to the cues of three predatory mites, Phytoseiulus persimilis, Neoseiulus californicus, and Amblyseius andersoni, posing different degrees of risk in two <span class="hlt">spatial</span> contexts. We first conducted a no-choice test measuring oviposition and activity of T. urticae exposed to chemical traces of predators or traces plus predator eggs. Then, we tested the site preference of T. urticae in choice tests, using artificial cages and leaves. In the no-choice test, T. urticae deposited their first egg later in the presence of cues of P. persimilis than of the other two predators and cue absence, indicating interspecific threat-sensitivity. T. urticae laid also fewer eggs in the presence of cues of P. persimilis and A. andersoni than of N. californicus and cue absence. In the artificial cage test, the spider mites preferred the site with predator traces, whereas in the leaf test, they preferentially resided on leaves without traces. We argue that in a nonplant environment, chemical predator traces do not indicate a risk for T. urticae, and instead, these traces function as indirect habitat cues. The spider mites were attracted to these cues because they associated them with the existence of a nearby host plant.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fernández Ferrari, M. Celeste; Schausberger, Peter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NW....100..541F"> <span id="translatedtitle">From repulsion to attraction: species- and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> context-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> threat sensitive response of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae to predatory mite cues</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Prey perceiving predation risk commonly change their behavior to avoid predation. However, antipredator strategies are costly. Therefore, according to the threat-sensitive predator avoidance hypothesis, prey should match the intensity of their antipredator behaviors to the degree of threat, which may <span class="hlt">depend</span> on the predator species and the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> context. We assessed threat sensitivity of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, to the cues of three predatory mites, Phytoseiulus persimilis, Neoseiulus californicus, and Amblyseius andersoni, posing different degrees of risk in two <span class="hlt">spatial</span> contexts. We first conducted a no-choice test measuring oviposition and activity of T. urticae exposed to chemical traces of predators or traces plus predator eggs. Then, we tested the site preference of T. urticae in choice tests, using artificial cages and leaves. In the no-choice test, T. urticae deposited their first egg later in the presence of cues of P. persimilis than of the other two predators and cue absence, indicating interspecific threat-sensitivity. T. urticae laid also fewer eggs in the presence of cues of P. persimilis and A. andersoni than of N. californicus and cue absence. In the artificial cage test, the spider mites preferred the site with predator traces, whereas in the leaf test, they preferentially resided on leaves without traces. We argue that in a nonplant environment, chemical predator traces do not indicate a risk for T. urticae, and instead, these traces function as indirect habitat cues. The spider mites were attracted to these cues because they associated them with the existence of a nearby host plant.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fernández Ferrari, M. Celeste; Schausberger, Peter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvB..88o5104Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Unconventional diffusion of light in <span class="hlt">strongly</span> localized open absorbing media</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Very recent experiments have discovered that localized light in <span class="hlt">strongly</span> absorbing media displays intriguing diffusive phenomena. Here we develop a first-principles theory of light propagation in open media with arbitrary absorption strength and sample length. We show analytically that waves in localized open absorbing media exhibit highly unconventional diffusion. Specifically, wave energy transport follows the diffusion equation with the diffusion coefficient exhibiting <span class="hlt">spatial</span> resolution. Most strikingly, despite that the system is controlled by two parameters—the ratio of the localization (absorption) length to the sample length—the <span class="hlt">spatially</span> resolved diffusion coefficient displays novel single parameter scaling: It <span class="hlt">depends</span> on the position in the sample via the returning probability. Our analytic predictions for this diffusion coefficient are confirmed by numerical simulations. In the <span class="hlt">strong</span> absorption limit they agree well with the experimental results.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhao, Li-Yi; Tian, Chu-Shun; Zhang, Zhao-Qing; Zhang, Xiang-Dong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19746946"> <span id="translatedtitle">Molecular rotational excitation by <span class="hlt">strong</span> femtosecond laser pulses.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study the rotational wave packet created by nonadiabatic rotational excitation of molecules with <span class="hlt">strong</span> femtosecond laser pulses. The applicable condition of the Delta-Kick method is obtained by comparing the laser intensity and pulse duration <span class="hlt">dependences</span> of the wave packet calculated with different methods. The wave packet evolution is traced analytically with the Delta-Kick method. The calculations demonstrate that the rotational populations can be controlled for the rotational wave packet created by two femtosecond laser pulses. The evolution of the rotational wave packet with controlled populations produces interference patterns with exotic <span class="hlt">spatial</span> symmetries. These calculations are validated by comparing the theoretical calculations with our experimental measurements for the rotational wave packet created by thermal ensemble CO(2) and two <span class="hlt">strong</span> femtosecond laser pulses. Potential applications in molecular science are also discussed for the rotational wave packet with controlled populations and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> symmetries. PMID:19746946</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wu, Chengyin; Zeng, Guiping; Jiang, Hongyan; Gao, Yunan; Xu, Nan; Gong, Qihuang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JPCA..11310610W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Molecular Rotational Excitation by <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Femtosecond Laser Pulses</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study the rotational wave packet created by nonadiabatic rotational excitation of molecules with <span class="hlt">strong</span> femtosecond laser pulses. The applicable condition of the Delta-Kick method is obtained by comparing the laser intensity and pulse duration <span class="hlt">dependences</span> of the wave packet calculated with different methods. The wave packet evolution is traced analytically with the Delta-Kick method. The calculations demonstrate that the rotational populations can be controlled for the rotational wave packet created by two femtosecond laser pulses. The evolution of the rotational wave packet with controlled populations produces interference patterns with exotic <span class="hlt">spatial</span> symmetries. These calculations are validated by comparing the theoretical calculations with our experimental measurements for the rotational wave packet created by thermal ensemble CO2 and two <span class="hlt">strong</span> femtosecond laser pulses. Potential applications in molecular science are also discussed for the rotational wave packet with controlled populations and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> symmetries.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wu, Chengyin; Zeng, Guiping; Jiang, Hongyan; Gao, Yunan; Xu, Nan; Gong, Qihuang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/15207738"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modulation equations for <span class="hlt">spatially</span> periodic systems: derivation and solutions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study a class of partial differential equations in one <span class="hlt">spatial</span> dimension, which can be seen as model equations for the analysis of pattern formation in physical systems defined on unbounded, weakly oscillating domains. We perform a linear and weakly nonlinear stability analysis for solutions that bifurcate from a basic state. The analysis <span class="hlt">depends</span> <span class="hlt">strongly</span> on the wavenumber p of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. Schielen; A. Doelman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22remaking%22&pg=3&id=EJ972516"> <span id="translatedtitle">Remaking Memories: Reconsolidation Updates Positively Motivated <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Memory in Rats</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|There is <span class="hlt">strong</span> evidence that reactivation of a memory returns it to a labile state, initiating a restabilization process termed reconsolidation, which allows for updating of the memory. In this study we investigated reactivation-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> updating using a new positively motivated <span class="hlt">spatial</span> task in rodents that was designed specifically to model a…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jones, Bethany; Bukoski, Elizabeth; Nadel, Lynn; Fellous, Jean-Marc</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22rodent%22&pg=3&id=EJ972516"> <span id="translatedtitle">Remaking Memories: Reconsolidation Updates Positively Motivated <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Memory in Rats</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">There is <span class="hlt">strong</span> evidence that reactivation of a memory returns it to a labile state, initiating a restabilization process termed reconsolidation, which allows for updating of the memory. In this study we investigated reactivation-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> updating using a new positively motivated <span class="hlt">spatial</span> task in rodents that was designed specifically to model a…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jones, Bethany; Bukoski, Elizabeth; Nadel, Lynn; Fellous, Jean-Marc</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/5997438"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessing <span class="hlt">spatial</span> patterns of forest fuel using AVIRIS data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Montane coniferous forests and woodlands in the Front Range of the Colorado Rocky Mountains have been subject to increased wildfire in recent years. The area and intensity of these fires is <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> upon the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variability and type of fuels as they are arrayed across the landscape. Considering the size of the patches and the mosaic of fuel materials,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gensuo J. Jia; Ingrid C. Burke; Alexander F. H. Goetz; Merrill R. Kaufmann; Bruce C. Kindel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.prres.net/Papers/Pace_Spatial_Distribution_of_Retail_Sales.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Distribution of Retail Sales</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We examine the distribution of sales for a retail chain in the Houston market using a <span class="hlt">spatial</span> gravity model. Unlike previous empirical studies, our approach models <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependencies</span> among both consumers and retailers. The results show that both forms of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> exert statistically and economically significant impacts on the estimates of parameters in retail gravity models. Contrary to the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ming-Long Lee; R. Kelley Pace</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SuScT..19..968K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mechanisms of weak thickness <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the critical current density in <span class="hlt">strong</span>-pinning ex situ metal organic-deposition-route YBa2Cu3O7-x coated conductors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report on the thickness <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the superconducting characteristics including critical current Ic, critical current density Jc, transition temperature Tc, irreversibility field Hirr, bulk pinning force plot Fp(H), and normal state resistivity curve ?(T) measured after successive ion milling of ~1 µm thick high-Ic YBa2Cu3O7-x films made by an ex situ metal-organic deposition process on Ni-W rolling-assisted biaxially textured substrates (RABiTSTM). In contrast to many recent data, mostly on in situ pulsed laser deposition (PLD) films, which show <span class="hlt">strong</span> depression of Jc with increasing film thickness t, our films exhibit only a weak <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of Jc on t. The two better textured samples had full cross-section average Jc,avg (77 K, 0 T) ~4 MA cm-2 near the buffer layer interface and ~3 MA cm-2 at full thickness, despite significant current blocking due to ~30% porosity in the film. Taking account of the thickness <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the porosity, we estimate that the local, vortex-pinning current density is essentially independent of thickness, while accounting for the additional current-blocking effects of grain boundaries leads to local, vortex-pinning Jc values well above 5 MA cm-2. Such high local Jc values are produced by <span class="hlt">strong</span> three-dimensional vortex pinning which subdivides vortex lines into weakly coupled segments much shorter than the film thickness.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kim, S. I.; Gurevich, A.; Song, X.; Li, X.; Zhang, W.; Kodenkandath, T.; Rupich, M. W.; Holesinger, T. G.; Larbalestier, D. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=N8719073"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dynamics of <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Langmuir Turbulence: Computer Simulations.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Results of several computational runs modeling the free-evolving <span class="hlt">strong</span> turbulence of Langmuir waves (LW) with group velocities exceeding those of the ion sound are presented. The dimensionless <span class="hlt">spatially</span> one-dimensional set of Zakharov equations is solved...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Z. Sedlacek K. Jungwirth P. Stavincha B. N. Breizman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.P51B0927Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Low-degree mantle convection in terrestrial planets: The style of numerically modeled mantle convection with <span class="hlt">strongly</span> temperature- and depth-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> viscosity in a three-dimensional spherical shell</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A series of numerical simulations of thermal convection of Boussinesq fluid with infinite Prandtl number, with realistic Rayleigh number 107, and with the <span class="hlt">strongly</span> temperature- and depth- <span class="hlt">dependent</span> viscosity in a three-dimensional spherical shell is carried out to study the mantle convection of single-plate terrestrial planets like Venus or Mars without an Earth-like plate tectonics. Basic equations governing the mantle convection are solved by a second-order finite difference discretization. A kind of the overset, or Chimera grid system, "Yin-Yang grid" (Kageyama and Sato, 2004), is used. The Yin-Yang grid is suitable to solve the mantle convection problems because it automatically avoids the pole problems, i.e., the coordinate singularity and grid convergence that are inevitable in the usual latitude-longitude grid (Yoshida and Kageyama, 2004). The constant viscosity convection with the rigid boundary condition, assuming that it is the base of an immobile lithosphere of terrestrial planets, on the top surface shows that the convection has long-wavelength structures; the spherical harmonic degree-one becomes dominant throughout the convecting layer. In contrast, the models only with <span class="hlt">strongly</span> temperature-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> viscosity (the viscosity contrast across the shell is 105 or over) and the stress-free condition on the top surface show that the convection under spontaneously generated stagnant-lid has short-wavelength structures; the degree 6--10 is dominant throughout the depth. Numerous, cylindrical upwelling plumes are developed because of the secondary downwelling plumes arising from the bottom of lid. This convection pattern is inconsistent with that inferred from the geoid observation of the Venus or Mars. The effects of the stratified viscosity at the upper/lower mantle (the viscosity contrast is varied from 30 to 300) are considered. It is found that the combination of the <span class="hlt">strongly</span> temperature- and depth-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> viscosity causes long-wavelength structures of convection in which the degree is dominant at 2--4 or lower. The geoid anomaly calculated by the simulated convections shows a long-wavelength structure, which is compared with observations. The degree-one convection like the Martian mantle is realized in the wide range of viscosity contrast from 30 to 100. Our results suggest that the viscosity stratification is indispensable to understand the mantle convection of the terrestrial planets when <span class="hlt">strongly</span> temperature <span class="hlt">dependent</span> viscosity is taking into account.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yoshida, M.; Kageyama, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1040310"> <span id="translatedtitle">Inelastic X-ray Scattering Study of SmFeAs(O1?xFy) Single Crystals: Evidence for <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Momentum-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Doping-Induced Renormalizations of Optical Phonons</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report inelastic x-ray scattering experiments on the lattice dynamics in SmFeAsO and superconducting SmFeAsO{sub 0.60}F{sub 0.35} single crystals. Particular attention was paid to the dispersions along the [100] direction of three optical modes close to 23 meV, polarized out of the FeAs planes. Remarkably, two of these modes are <span class="hlt">strongly</span> renormalized upon fluorine doping. These results provide significant insight into the energy and momentum <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the coupling of the lattice to the electron system and underline the importance of spin-phonon coupling in the superconducting iron pnictides.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hill, J.P.; Le Tacon, M.; Forrest, T.R.; Ruegg, Ch.; Bosak, A.; Walters, A.C.; Mittal, R.; Rønnow, H.M.; Zhigadlo, N.D.; Katrych, S.; Karpinski, J.; Krisch, M.; McMorrow, D.F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19847662"> <span id="translatedtitle">Age, sex and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> variations in heavy metals levels in the Glaucous Gulls (Larus hyperboreus) from the Bjørnøya and Jan Mayen, Arctic.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) concentrations were determined in different tissues (muscle, kidney, liver, brain, gonads, heart and feathers) of Glaucous Gulls (Larus hyperboreus) from Bjørnøya and Jan Mayen. The age and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> variations in heavy metals were quantified and interpreted in view of the three chemometric techniques, i.e. non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test, redundancy gradient analysis and detrended correspondence analysis. The Glaucous Gulls from Bjørnøya contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) levels of Cd, Cu and Zn than those inhabited Jan Mayen. Adult birds were characterized by greater (p < 0.01) concentration of muscle, hepatic and renal heavy metals in comparison to chicks. Insignificantly higher slope constant Zn/Cd for the liver than for the kidney may reflect insignificant Cd exposure. Estimate of transfer factor (TF) allows us to assess variations in heavy metal concentrations during the individual development of Glaucous Gulls. It may be stated that there is a distinct increase of bioaccumulation of all the studied metals during subsequent stages of the bird life. PMID:19847662</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Malinga, Micha?; Szefer, Piotr; Gabrielsen, Geir W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-10-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3583667"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rab11-family interacting proteins define <span class="hlt">spatially</span> and temporally distinct regions within the dynamic Rab11a-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> recycling system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Rab11-family interacting proteins (Rab11-FIPs) facilitate Rab11-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> vesicle recycling. We hypothesized that Rab11-FIPs define discrete subdomains and carry out temporally distinct roles within the recycling system. We used live-cell deconvolution microscopy of HeLa cells expressing chimeric fluorescent Rab11-FIPs to examine Rab11-FIP localization, transferrin passage through Rab11-FIP–containing compartments, and overlap among Rab11-FIPs within the recycling system. FIP1A, FIP2, and FIP5 occupy widely distributed mobile tubules and vesicles, whereas FIP1B, FIP1C, and FIP3 localize to perinuclear tubules. Internalized transferrin entered Rab11-FIP–containing compartments within 5 min, reaching maximum colocalization with FIP1B and FIP2 early in the time course, whereas localization with FIP1A, FIP1C, FIP3, and FIP5 was delayed until 10 min or later. Whereas direct interactions with FIP1A were only observed for FIP1B and FIP1C, FIP1A also associated with membranes containing FIP3. Live-cell dual-expression studies of Rab11-FIPs revealed the tubular dynamics of Rab11-FIP–containing compartments and demonstrated a series of selective associations among Rab11-FIPs in real time. These findings suggest that Rab11-FIP1 proteins participate in <span class="hlt">spatially</span> and temporally distinct steps of the recycling process along a complex and dynamic tubular network in which Rab11-FIPs occupy discrete domains.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Baetz, Nicholas W.; Goldenring, James R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB84209162"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Resolution in Industrial Tomography.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Results are presented of research undertaken to investigate the parametric <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> resolution attainable in a tomographic examination. Research was performed on a specially fabricated object, a <span class="hlt">spatial</span> resolution phantom. Parameters such as ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21316432"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of multiple electronic shells on <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field multiphoton ionization and high-order harmonic generation of diatomic molecules with arbitrary orientation: An all-electron time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> density-functional approach</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> density-functional theory approach with proper long-range potential for an ab initio study of the effect of correlated multielectron responses on the multiphoton ionization (MPI) and high-order harmonic generation (HHG) of diatomic molecules N{sub 2} and F{sub 2} in intense short laser pulse fields with arbitrary molecular orientation. We show that the contributions of inner molecular orbitals to the total MPI probability can be sufficiently large or even dominant over the highest-occupied molecular orbital, <span class="hlt">depending</span> on detailed electronic structure and symmetry, laser field intensity, and orientation angle. The multielectron effects in HHG are also very important. They are responsible for enhanced HHG at some orientations of the molecular axis. Even <span class="hlt">strongly</span> bound electrons may have a significant influence on the HHG process.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Telnov, Dmitry A. [Department of Physics, St. Petersburg State University, 198504 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Department of Chemistry, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 (United States); Chu, S.-I [Department of Chemistry, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-10-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3479901"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modelling the spread of Wolbachia in <span class="hlt">spatially</span> heterogeneous environments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The endosymbiont Wolbachia infects a large number of insect species and is capable of rapid spread when introduced into a novel host population. The bacteria spread by manipulating their hosts' reproduction, and their dynamics are influenced by the demographic structure of the host population and patterns of contact between individuals. Reaction–diffusion models of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> spread of Wolbachia provide a simple analytical description of their <span class="hlt">spatial</span> dynamics but do not account for significant details of host population dynamics. We develop a metapopulation model describing the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> dynamics of Wolbachia in an age-structured host insect population regulated by juvenile density-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> competition. The model produces similar dynamics to the reaction–diffusion model in the limiting case where the host's habitat quality is <span class="hlt">spatially</span> homogeneous and Wolbachia has a small effect on host fitness. When habitat quality varies <span class="hlt">spatially</span>, Wolbachia spread is usually much slower, and the conditions necessary for local invasion are <span class="hlt">strongly</span> affected by immigration of insects from surrounding regions. Spread is most difficult when variation in habitat quality is <span class="hlt">spatially</span> correlated. The results show that <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variation in the density-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> competition experienced by juvenile host insects can <span class="hlt">strongly</span> affect the spread of Wolbachia infections, which is important to the use of Wolbachia to control insect vectors of human disease and other pests.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hancock, Penelope A.; Godfray, H. Charles J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ecostudies.org/reprints/Uriarte_et_al_2005_J_Ecol_PR_seedling_establishment.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seedling recruitment in a hurricane-driven tropical forest: light limitation, density-<span class="hlt">dependence</span> and the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of parent trees</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary 1 We used inverse modelling to parameterize <span class="hlt">spatially</span>-explicit seedling recruitment functions for nine canopy tree species in the Luquillo Forest Dynamics Plot (LFDP), Puerto Rico. We modelled the observed <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variation in seedling recruitment fol- lowing Hurricane Georges as a function of the potential number of seedlings at a given location (based on local source trees and the potential</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">MARIA URIARTE; CHARLES D. CANHAM; JILL THOMPSON; JESS K. ZIMMERMAN; NICHOLAS BROKAW</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53976235"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of Moisture-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Anisotropy in Effective Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity and Moisture-Retention Curve Using <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Moments of Moisture Plumes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have developed a new approach that uses <span class="hlt">spatial</span> moments of three-dimensional snapshots of a moisture plume under transient flow conditions to estimate the three-dimensional effective unsaturated hydraulic conductivity tensor. The evolution of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> first moment in the vertical (z) direction of a moisture plume is used to determine the vertical velocity (Vz) of the center of the plume.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. J. Yeh; M. Ye; R. Khaleel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/jx250x4153775u30.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Explaining foreign diplomatic presence in the U.S. with <span class="hlt">spatial</span> models: a liberal <span class="hlt">spatial</span> perspective</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper examines the effect of economic interdependence, intergovernmental organizations, political freedom, and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> relationship on foreign diplomatic presence in the U.S. from 1980 to 2000. <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> perspective is largely missing in the mainstream international theories. <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> relationship has three measures: <span class="hlt">spatial</span> proximity measured as distance, <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependency</span> measured as neighborhood effect, and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> heterogeneity measured as regional effect. We</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Imam M. Xierali; Lin Liu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2662143"> <span id="translatedtitle">Apolipoprotein(a), through Its <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Lysine-binding Site in KIV10, Mediates Increased Endothelial Cell Contraction and Permeability via a Rho/Rho Kinase/MYPT1-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> Pathway*</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Substantial evidence indicates that endothelial dysfunction plays a critical role in atherogenesis. We previously demonstrated that apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a); the distinguishing protein component of the atherothrombotic risk factor lipoprotein(a)) elicits rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, characterized by increased myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation via a Rho/Rho kinase-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> signaling pathway. Apo(a) contains kringle (K)IV and KV domains similar to those in plasminogen: apo(a) contains 10 types of plasminogen KIV-like sequences, followed by sequences homologous to the plasminogen KV and protease domains. Several of the apo(a) kringles contain lysine-binding sites (LBS) that have been proposed to contribute to the pathogenicity of Lp(a). Here we demonstrate that apo(a)-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction is mediated via a Rho/Rho kinase-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> signaling pathway that results in increased MYPT1 phosphorylation and hence decreased MLC phosphatase activity, thus leading to an increase in MLC phosphorylation, stress fiber formation, cell contraction, and permeability. In addition, studies using recombinant apo(a) variants indicated that these effects of apo(a) are <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on sequences within the C-terminal half of the apo(a) molecule, specifically, the <span class="hlt">strong</span> LBS in KIV10. In parallel experiments, the apo(a)-induced effects were completely abolished by treatment of the cells with the lysine analogue ?-aminocaproic acid and the Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632. Taken together, our findings indicate that the <span class="hlt">strong</span> LBS in apo(a) KIV10 mediates all of our observed effects of apo(a) on human umbilical vein endothelial cell barrier dysfunction. Studies are ongoing to further dissect the molecular basis of these findings.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cho, Taewoo; Jung, Yoojin; Koschinsky, Marlys L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.S53A2251C"> <span id="translatedtitle">CISN ShakeAlert: Accounting for site amplification effects and quantifying time and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of uncertainty estimates in the Virtual Seismologist earthquake early warning algorithm</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Virtual Seismologist (VS) earthquake early warning (EEW) algorithm is one of 3 EEW approaches being incorporated into the California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) ShakeAlert system, a prototype EEW system being tested in real-time in California. The VS algorithm, implemented by the Swiss Seismological Service at ETH Zurich, is a Bayesian approach to EEW, wherein the most probable source estimate at any given time is a combination of contributions from a likehihood function that evolves in response to incoming data from the on-going earthquake, and selected prior information, which can include factors such as network topology, the Gutenberg-Richter relationship or previously observed seismicity. The VS codes have been running in real-time at the Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN) since July 2008, and at the Northern California Seismic Network (NCSN) since February 2009. With the aim of improving the convergence of real-time VS magnitude estimates to network magnitudes, we evaluate various empirical and Vs30-based approaches to accounting for site amplification. Empirical station corrections for SCSN stations are derived from M>3.0 events from 2005 through 2009. We evaluate the performance of the various approaches using an independent 2010 dataset. In addition, we analyze real-time VS performance from 2008 to the present to quantify the time and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of VS uncertainty estimates. We also summarize real-time VS performance for significant 2011 events in California. Improved magnitude and uncertainty estimates potentially increase the utility of EEW information for end-users, particularly those intending to automate damage-mitigating actions based on real-time information.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Caprio, M.; Cua, G. B.; Wiemer, S.; Fischer, M.; Heaton, T. H.; CISN EEW Team</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ERL.....8a4046F"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> decoupling of agricultural production and consumption: quantifying <span class="hlt">dependences</span> of countries on food imports due to domestic land and water constraints</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In our globalizing world, the geographical locations of food production and consumption are becoming increasingly disconnected, which increases reliance on external resources and their trade. We quantified to what extent water and land constraints limit countries’ capacities, at present and by 2050, to produce on their own territory the crop products that they currently import from other countries. Scenarios of increased crop productivity and water use, cropland expansion (excluding areas prioritized for other uses) and population change are accounted for. We found that currently 16% of the world population use the opportunities of international trade to cover their demand for agricultural products. Population change may <span class="hlt">strongly</span> increase the number of people <span class="hlt">depending</span> on ex situ land and water resources up to about 5.2 billion (51% of world population) in the SRES A2r scenario. International trade will thus have to intensify if population growth is not accompanied by dietary change towards less resource-intensive products, by cropland expansion, or by productivity improvements, mainly in Africa and the Middle East. Up to 1.3 billion people may be at risk of food insecurity in 2050 in present low-income economies (mainly in Africa), if their economic development does not allow them to afford productivity increases, cropland expansion and/or imports from other countries.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fader, Marianela; Gerten, Dieter; Krause, Michael; Lucht, Wolfgang; Cramer, Wolfgang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18669494"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> and temporal deficits are regionally dissociable in patients with pulvinar lesions.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The pulvinar is an important structure for visual attention function. <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> and temporal attention was examined in three patients with varying pulvinar lesions. <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> and temporal deficits were dissociable. The patient with anterior damage showed <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> but not temporal attention deficits, while the patient with posterior damage showed clear temporal attention deficits, but much reduced <span class="hlt">spatial</span> problems. A third patient with intermediate damage showed intermediate behaviours. These findings are discussed within the scope of models of visual attention in which the pulvinar facilitates communication between different brain areas: <span class="hlt">depending</span> upon the specifics of pulvinar damage, communication with different cortical areas may be degraded, thereby producing distinct patterns of deficit. PMID:18669494</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arend, Isabel; Rafal, Robert; Ward, Robert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-07-25</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8783E..0RM"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling for <span class="hlt">spatial</span> multilevel structural data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The traditional multilevel model assumed independence between groups. However, the datasets grouped by geographical units often has <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span>. The individual is influenced not only by its region but also by the adjacent regions, and level-2 residual distribution assumption of traditional multilevel model is violated. In order to deal with such <span class="hlt">spatial</span> multilevel data, we introduce <span class="hlt">spatial</span> statistics and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> econometric models into multilevel model, and apply <span class="hlt">spatial</span> parameters and adjacency matrix in traditional level-2 model to reflect the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> autocorrelation. <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> lag model express <span class="hlt">spatial</span> effects. We build <span class="hlt">spatial</span> multilevel model which consider both multilevel thinking and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> correlation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Min, Suqin; He, Xiaoqun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/44288894"> <span id="translatedtitle">Abortion: <span class="hlt">Strong’s</span> counterexamples fail</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by <span class="hlt">Strong</span> in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis’s argument against abortion fail. <span class="hlt">Strong’s</span> basic idea is that there are cases—for example, terminally ill patients—where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally wrong even though that human being is not being deprived of a “valuable future”. So</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E Di Nucci</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20991189"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solving the m-mixing problem for the three-dimensional time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> Schroedinger equation by rotations: Application to <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field ionization of H{sub 2}{sup +}</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a very efficient technique for solving the three-dimensional time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> Schroedinger equation. Our method is applicable to a wide range of problems where a fully three-dimensional solution is required, i.e., to cases where no symmetries exist that reduce the dimensionality of the problem. Examples include arbitrarily oriented molecules in external fields and atoms interacting with elliptically polarized light. We demonstrate that, even in such cases, the three-dimensional problem can be decomposed exactly into two two-dimensional problems at the cost of introducing a trivial rotation transformation. We supplement the theoretical framework with numerical results on <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field ionization of arbitrarily oriented H{sub 2}{sup +} molecules.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kjeldsen, T. K.; Nikolopoulos, L. A. A.; Madsen, L. B. [Lundbeck Foundation Theoretical Center for Quantum System Research, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-06-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/952751"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strongly</span> Driven Crystallization Processes in a Metallic Glass</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The crystallization of amorphous NiTi thin films was studied in situ using pulsed laser heating in a dynamic transmission electron microscope. A single pulse can crystallize small areas of the film within 2 {micro}s. The crystallized volume fraction and morphology <span class="hlt">depend</span> <span class="hlt">strongly</span> on the laser energy, the laser <span class="hlt">spatial</span> profile, and the heat transport in the film. As compared to slower furnace and continuous wave laser annealing, pulsed laser heating produces a dramatically different microstructure. Higher than expected crystallization rates were observed under pulsed irradiation that do not correlate with kinetic data obtained from the slow-heating crystallization experiments.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">LaGrange, T; Grummon, D S; Reed, B W; Browning, N D; King, W E; Campbell, G H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-02-09</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/13999433"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cokriging for <span class="hlt">spatial</span> functional data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This work proposes to generalize the method of kriging when data are <span class="hlt">spatially</span> sampled curves. A <span class="hlt">spatial</span> functional linear model is constructed including <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependencies</span> between curves. Under some regularity conditions of the curves, an ordinary kriging system is established in the infinite dimensional case. From a practical point-of-view, the decomposition of the curves into a functional basis boils down</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David Nerini; Pascal Monestiez; Claude Manté</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/386505"> <span id="translatedtitle">Discovery of <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Association Rules in Geographic Information Databases</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">. <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> data mining, i.e., discovery of interesting, implicitknowledge in <span class="hlt">spatial</span> databases, is an important task for understandingand use of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> data- and knowledge-bases. In this paper, an efficientmethod for mining <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> association rules in geographic informationdatabases is proposed and studied. A <span class="hlt">spatial</span> association rule is arule indicating certain association relationship among a set of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> andpossibly some nonspatial</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Krzysztof Koperski; Jiawei Han</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> 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</span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14995270"> <span id="translatedtitle">Weak to <span class="hlt">strong</span> pinning crossover.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Material defects in hard type II superconductors pin the flux lines and thus establish the dissipation-free current transport in the presence of a finite magnetic field. <span class="hlt">Depending</span> on the density and pinning force of the defects and the vortex density, pinning is either weak collective or <span class="hlt">strong</span>. We analyze the weak to <span class="hlt">strong</span> pinning crossover of vortex matter in disordered superconductors and discuss the peak effect appearing naturally in this context. PMID:14995270</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Blatter, G; Geshkenbein, V B; Koopmann, J A G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-02-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3307831"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dissecting the age-related decline on <span class="hlt">spatial</span> learning and memory tasks in rodent models: N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and voltage-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> Ca2+ channels in senescent synaptic plasticity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In humans, heterogeneity in the decline of hippocampal-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> episodic memory is observed during aging. Rodents have been employed as models of age-related cognitive decline and the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> water maze has been used to show variability in the emergence and extent of impaired hippocampal-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> memory. Impairment in the consolidation of intermediate-term memory for rapidly acquired and flexible <span class="hlt">spatial</span> information emerges early, in middle-age. As aging proceeds, deficits may broaden to include impaired incremental learning of a <span class="hlt">spatial</span> reference memory. The extent and time course of impairment has been be linked to senescence of calcium (Ca2+) regulation and Ca2+-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> synaptic plasticity mechanisms in region CA1. Specifically, aging is associated with altered function of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), voltage-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> Ca2+ channels (VDCCs), and ryanodine receptors (RyRs) linked to intracellular Ca2+ stores (ICS). In young animals, NMDAR activation induces long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission (NMDAR-LTP), which is thought to mediate the rapid consolidation of intermediate-term memory. Oxidative stress, starting in middle-age, reduces NMDAR function. In addition, VDCCs and ICS can actively inhibit NMDAR-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> LTP and oxidative stress enhances the role of VDCC and RyR-ICS in regulating synaptic plasticity. Blockade of L-type VDCCs promotes NMDAR-LTP and memory in older animals. Interestingly, pharmacological or genetic manipulations to reduce hippocampal NMDAR function readily impair memory consolidation or rapid learning, generally leaving incremental learning intact. Finally, evidence is mounting to indicate a role for VDCC-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> synaptic plasticity in associative learning and the consolidation of remote memories. Thus, VDCC-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> synaptic plasticity and extrahippocampal systems may contribute to incremental learning deficits observed with advanced aging.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Foster, Thomas C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2938223"> <span id="translatedtitle">TOR-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> reduction in the expression level of Rrn3p lowers the activity of the yeast RNA Pol I machinery, but does not account for the <span class="hlt">strong</span> inhibition of rRNA production</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ribosome biogenesis is tightly linked to cellular growth. A crucial step in the regulation of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene transcription is the formation of the complex between RNA polymerase I (Pol I) and the Pol I-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> transcription factor Rrn3p. We found that TOR inactivation leads to proteasome-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> degradation of Rrn3p and a <span class="hlt">strong</span> reduction in initiation competent Pol I–Rrn3p complexes affecting yeast rRNA gene transcription. Using a mutant expressing non-degradable Rrn3p or a strain in which defined endogenous Rrn3p levels can be adjusted by the Tet-off system, we can demonstrate that Rrn3p levels influence the number of Pol I–Rrn3p complexes and consequently rRNA gene transcription. However, our analysis reveals that the dramatic reduction of rRNA synthesis in the immediate cellular response to impaired TOR signalling cannot be explained by the simple down-regulation of Rrn3p and Pol I–Rrn3p levels.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Philippi, Anja; Steinbauer, Robert; Reiter, Alarich; Fath, Stephan; Leger-Silvestre, Isabelle; Milkereit, Philipp; Griesenbeck, Joachim; Tschochner, Herbert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/44679346"> <span id="translatedtitle">Translocal <span class="hlt">spatiality</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">•Instead of exploring the global\\/local logic of glocalization, this case study specifically concentrates on a form of local-to-local <span class="hlt">spatial</span> dynamics. The <span class="hlt">spatial</span> history of Hong Kong underground bandrooms is exploited to illustrate the translocal reproduction of <span class="hlt">spatiality</span>. While the construction of this space was translocally inspired by music subculture from abroad, local <span class="hlt">spatiality</span> absorbs transborder subcultural energies and re-channels them</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eric Kit-wai Ma</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRF..116.2018L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Time-<span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> pattern of accumulation rate in East Antarctica deduced from isochronic radar layers using a 3-D numerical ice flow model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In East Antarctica surface mass balance data can only be obtained from the sparsely distributed ice cores when considering time periods greater than a few decades. Observations of internal layers measured by airborne ice penetrating radar, in principle, permit extrapolation of mass balance information from these ice cores. We use radar survey lines gathered in the 1970s, and a three-dimensional numerical model, to investigate the feasibility of such extrapolation, seeking to match the calculations of englacial layer geometry with observations. First, we justify the use of a three-dimensional model by showing that simple vertical flow models cannot explain all the observations and that horizontal advection is a significant glacial process. Then we examine processes that affect calculations of layer geometry, finding that <span class="hlt">spatial</span> accumulation-rate patterns are extremely important while geothermal heat flux and flow mode (sliding or internal deformation) are of substantially less importance. Where the layer is from the Last Glacial Maximum (17.5 ka), we find a very good match between the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> pattern of accumulation rates inferred from this layer and the modern <span class="hlt">spatial</span> pattern of accumulation rates. When considering deeper layers from beyond the current interglacial, we find that a different <span class="hlt">spatial</span> accumulation-rate pattern must have existed, in addition to the known change in accumulation rate from ice cores. The glacial <span class="hlt">spatial</span> accumulation-rate pattern would have had proportionally greater accumulation at the South Pole than now, compared with the Vostok and Dome C ice cores.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leysinger Vieli, Gwendolyn J.-M. C.; Hindmarsh, Richard C. A.; Siegert, Martin J.; Bo, Sun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22270326"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stimulus- and state-<span class="hlt">dependence</span> of systematic bias in <span class="hlt">spatial</span> attention: additive effects of stimulus-size and time-on-task.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Systematic biases in <span class="hlt">spatial</span> attention are a common finding. In the general population, a systematic leftward bias is typically observed (pseudoneglect), possibly as a consequence of right hemisphere dominance for visuospatial attention. However, this leftward bias can cross-over to a systematic rightward bias with changes in stimulus and state factors (such as line length and arousal). The processes governing these changes are still unknown. Here we tested models of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> attention as to their ability to account for these effects. To this end, we experimentally manipulated both stimulus and state factors, while healthy participants performed a computerized version of a landmark task. State was manipulated by time-on-task (>1 h) leading to increased fatigue and a reliable left- to rightward shift in <span class="hlt">spatial</span> bias. Stimulus was manipulated by presenting either long or short lines which was associated with a shift of subjective midpoint from a reliable leftward bias for long to a more rightward bias for short lines. Importantly, we found time-on-task and line length effects to be additive suggesting a common denominator for line bisection across all conditions, which is in disagreement with models that assume that bisection decisions in long and short lines are governed by distinct processes (Magnitude estimation vs Global/local distinction). Our findings emphasize the dynamic rather than static nature of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> biases in midline judgement. They are best captured by theories of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> attention positing that <span class="hlt">spatial</span> bias is flexibly modulated, and subject to inter-hemispheric balance which can change over time or conditions to accommodate task demands or reflect fatigue. PMID:22270326</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Benwell, Christopher S Y; Harvey, Monika; Gardner, Stephanie; Thut, Gregor</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-03</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56650738"> <span id="translatedtitle">Delay and Dose-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Effects of ?9Tetrahydrocannabinol Administration on <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> and Object Working Memory Tasks in Adolescent Rhesus Monkeys</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Among adolescents, the perception that cannabis can cause harm has decreased and use has increased. However, in rodents, cannabinoid administration during adolescence induces working memory (WM) deficits that are more severe than if the same exposure occurs during adulthood. As both object and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> WM mature in a protracted manner, although apparently along different trajectories, adolescent cannabis users may be</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Christopher D Verrico; Shijing Liu; Elizabeth J Bitler; Hong Gu; Allan R Sampson; Charles W Bradberry; David A Lewis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40916404"> <span id="translatedtitle">The impact of fire and density-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> mortality on the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> patterns of a pine forest in the Hulun Buir sandland, Inner Mongolia, China</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Wildland fire, especially surface fire, is one of the major disturbances in forest ecosystems such as the Mongolian pine forest of the Hulun Buir sandland. However, little is known about the impact of fire on the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> patterns at the stand level and its consequences for successional dynamics. To fill this gap we mapped three plots of Mongolian pine forest</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hong Yu; Thorsten Wiegand; Xiaohui Yang; Longjun Ci</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22048001"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">SPATIALLY</span> RESOLVED H{alpha} MAPS AND SIZES OF 57 <span class="hlt">STRONGLY</span> STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT z {approx} 1 FROM 3D-HST: EVIDENCE FOR RAPID INSIDE-OUT ASSEMBLY OF DISK GALAXIES</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigate the buildup of galaxies at z {approx} 1 using maps of H{alpha} and stellar continuum emission for a sample of 57 galaxies with rest-frame H{alpha} equivalent widths >100 A in the 3D-HST grism survey. We find that the H{alpha} emission broadly follows the rest-frame R-band light but that it is typically somewhat more extended and clumpy. We quantify the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution with the half-light radius. The median H{alpha} effective radius r{sub e} (H{alpha}) is 4.2 {+-} 0.1 kpc but the sizes span a large range, from compact objects with r{sub e} (H{alpha}) {approx} 1.0 kpc to extended disks with r{sub e} (H{alpha}) {approx} 15 kpc. Comparing H{alpha} sizes to continuum sizes, we find <r{sub e} (H{alpha})/r{sub e} (R) > =1.3 {+-} 0.1 for the full sample. That is, star formation, as traced by H{alpha}, typically occurs out to larger radii than the rest-frame R-band stellar continuum; galaxies are growing their radii and building up from the inside out. This effect appears to be somewhat more pronounced for the largest galaxies. Using the measured H{alpha} sizes, we derive star formation rate surface densities, {Sigma}{sub SFR}. We find that {Sigma}{sub SFR} ranges from {approx}0.05 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2} for the largest galaxies to {approx}5 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2} for the smallest galaxies, implying a large range in physical conditions in rapidly star-forming z {approx} 1 galaxies. Finally, we infer that all galaxies in the sample have very high gas mass fractions and stellar mass doubling times <500 Myr. Although other explanations are also possible, a straightforward interpretation is that we are simultaneously witnessing the rapid formation of compact bulges and large disks at z {approx} 1.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nelson, Erica June; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Bezanson, Rachel; Lundgren, Britt [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Brammer, Gabriel [European Southern Observatory, Alonson de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Foerster Schreiber, Natascha [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Patel, Shannon; Labbe, Ivo [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Leiden (Netherlands); Rix, Hans-Walter; Da Cunha, Elisabete; Schmidt, Kasper B. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy (MPIA), Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Kriek, Mariska [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Quadri, Ryan [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://netfiles.uiuc.edu/pgoldsmi/www/articles_journals/2009-spatial_jereonline.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Hedonic Approach to Assess the Impact of Swine Production on Residential Property Values</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">spatial</span> hedonic model is developed to assess monetary harm of confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) on property values, taking explicitly into account <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> in property values. <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> autocorrelation was found in the form of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> lag <span class="hlt">dependence</span>, not <span class="hlt">spatial</span> error <span class="hlt">dependence</span>. When <span class="hlt">spatial</span> lag <span class="hlt">dependence</span> is explicitly taken into account, on average the impact coefficient estimate of a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jungik Kim; Peter Goldsmith</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/821763"> <span id="translatedtitle">Parallel <span class="hlt">strong-strong/strong</span>-weak simulations of beam-beam interaction in hadron accelerators</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, we present a parallel computational tool, BeamBeam3D, developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, for <span class="hlt">strong-strong/strong</span>-weak beam-beam modeling. This tool calculates self-consistently the electromagnetic beam-beam forces for arbitrary distributions during each collision when a <span class="hlt">strong-strong</span> beam-beam interaction model is used. When a <span class="hlt">strong</span>-weak model is used, the code has the option of using a Gaussian approximation for the <span class="hlt">strong</span> beam. BeamBeam3D uses a multiple-slice model, so finite bunch length effects can be studied. The code also includes a Lorentz boost and rotation to treat collisions with finite collision crossing angle. It handles arbitrary closed-orbit separation (static or time <span class="hlt">dependent</span>) and models long-range beam-beam interactions using a newly developed shifted Green function approach. It can also handle multiple interaction points using externally supplied linear maps between interaction points in the <span class="hlt">strong</span>-weak model. The code has been used to study beam-beam effects in the RHIC, Tevatron, and LHC. In this paper we will describe the BeamBeam3D code, present example simulations, and describe the code performance.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Qiang, Ji; Furman, Miguel; Ryne, Robert D.; Fischer, Wolfram; Sen, Tanaji; Xiao, Meiqin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-09-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19569363"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> arrangement affects population dynamics and competition independent of community composition.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Theory suggests that the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> context within which species interactions occur will have major implications for the outcome of competition and ultimately, coexistence, but empirical tests are rare. This is surprising given that individuals of species in real communities are typically distributed nonrandomly in space. Nonrandom <span class="hlt">spatial</span> arrangement has the potential to modify the relative strength of intra- and interspecific competition by changing the ratio of conspecific to heterospecific competitive encounters, particularly among sessile species where interactions among individuals occur on local scales. Here we test the influence of aggregated and random <span class="hlt">spatial</span> arrangements on population trajectories of competing species in benthic, marine, sessile-invertebrate assemblages. We show that the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> arrangement of competing species in simple assemblages has a <span class="hlt">strong</span> effect on species performance: when conspecifics are aggregated, <span class="hlt">strong</span> competitors perform poorly and weaker competitors perform better. The effect of specific <span class="hlt">spatial</span> arrangements <span class="hlt">depends</span> on species identity but is also <span class="hlt">strongly</span> context <span class="hlt">dependent</span>. When there are large differences in species competitive ability, aggregated <span class="hlt">spatial</span> arrangements can slow competitive exclusion, and so nonrandom <span class="hlt">spatial</span> arrangement can work synergistically with other trade-off based mechanisms to facilitate coexistence. PMID:19569363</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hart, Simon P; Marshall, Dustin J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21421191"> <span id="translatedtitle">Higgs-induced spectroscopic shifts near <span class="hlt">strong</span> gravity sources</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We explore the consequences of the mass generation due to the Higgs field in <span class="hlt">strong</span> gravity astrophysical environments. The vacuum expectation value of the Higgs field is predicted to <span class="hlt">depend</span> on the curvature of spacetime, potentially giving rise to peculiar spectroscopic shifts, named hereafter 'Higgs shifts'. Higgs shifts could be searched through dedicated multiwavelength and multispecies surveys with high <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and spectral resolution near <span class="hlt">strong</span> gravity sources such as Sagittarius A* or broad searches for signals due to primordial black holes. The possible absence of Higgs shifts in these surveys should provide limits to the coupling between the Higgs particle and the curvature of spacetime, a topic of interest for a recently proposed Higgs-driven inflationary model. We discuss some conceptual issues regarding the coexistence between the Higgs mechanism and gravity, especially for their different handling of fundamental and composite particles.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Onofrio, Roberto [Dipartimento di Fisica 'Galileo Galilei', Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, Padova 35131 (Italy) and ITAMP, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-09-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22027884"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of tilted anisotropy on spin states of <span class="hlt">strongly</span> anisotropic 2D film</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The spin states of a 2D film with a <span class="hlt">strong</span> easy-plane anisotropy and single-ion tilted anisotropy, the axis of which forms a certain angle with the normal to the film plane are investigated. In this system, an angular ferromagnetic phase, a <span class="hlt">spatially</span> inhomogeneous state, and a quadrupole phase can be formed; the realization of these states noticeably <span class="hlt">depends</span> on the degree of tilted anisotropy.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fridman, Yu. A., E-mail: frid@tnu.crimea.ua; Klevets, F. N.; Gorelikov, G. A. [Vernadskii Tavria National University (Ukraine)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22069229"> <span id="translatedtitle">Phase states of a 2D easy-plane ferromagnet with <span class="hlt">strong</span> inclined anisotropy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigate the spin states of a 2D film exhibiting easy-axis anisotropy and a <span class="hlt">strong</span> single-ion inclined anisotropy whose axis forms a certain angle with the normal to the film surface. Such a system may have an angular ferromagnetic phase, a <span class="hlt">spatially</span> inhomogeneous state, and a quadrupole phase, whose realization <span class="hlt">depends</span> substantially on the inclined anisotropy and the orientation of the wavevector in the film plane.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fridman, Yu. A., E-mail: frid@tnu.crimea.ua; Klevets, F. N.; Gorelikov, G. A.; Meleshko, A. G. [Vernadskii Tavria National University (Ukraine)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18718913"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sequence differences in the IQ motifs of CaV1.1 and CaV1.2 <span class="hlt">strongly</span> impact calmodulin binding and calcium-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> inactivation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The proximal C terminus of the cardiac L-type calcium channel (Ca(V)1.2) contains structural elements important for the binding of calmodulin (CaM) and calcium-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> inactivation, and exhibits extensive sequence conservation with the corresponding region of the skeletal L-type channel (Ca(V)1.1). However, there are several Ca(V)1.1 residues that are both identical in six species and are non-conservatively changed from the corresponding Ca(V)1.2 residues, including three of the "IQ motif." To investigate the functional significance of these residue differences, we used native gel electrophoresis and expression in intact myotubes to compare the binding of CaM to extended regions (up to 300 residues) of the C termini of Ca(V)1.1 and Ca(V)1.2. We found that in the presence of Ca(2+) (either millimolar or that in resting myotubes), CaM bound <span class="hlt">strongly</span> to C termini of Ca(V)1.2 but not of Ca(V)1.1. Furthermore, replacement of two residues (Tyr(1657) and Lys(1662)) within the IQ motif of a C-terminal Ca(V)1.2 construct with the divergent residues of Ca(V)1.1 (His(1532) and Met(1537)) led to a weakening of CaM binding (native gels), whereas the reciprocal substitution in Ca(V)1.1 caused a gain of CaM binding. In full-length Ca(V)1.2, substitution of these same two divergent residues with those of Ca(V)1.1 (Y1657H, K1662M) eliminated calcium-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> inactivation of the heterologously expressed channel. Thus, our results reveal that a conserved difference between the IQ motifs of Ca(V)1.2 and Ca(V)1.1 has a profound effect on both CaM binding and calcium-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> inactivation. PMID:18718913</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ohrtman, Joshua; Ritter, Barbara; Polster, Alexander; Beam, Kurt G; Papadopoulos, Symeon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-08-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JBO....15f8003T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interaction dynamics of <span class="hlt">spatially</span> separated cavitation bubbles in water</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a high-speed photographic analysis of the interaction of cavitation bubbles generated in two <span class="hlt">spatially</span> separated regions by femtosecond laser-induced optical breakdown in water. <span class="hlt">Depending</span> on the relative energies of the femtosecond laser pulses and their <span class="hlt">spatial</span> separation, different kinds of interactions, such as a flattening and deformation of the bubbles, asymmetric water flows, and jet formation were observed. The results presented have a <span class="hlt">strong</span> impact on understanding and optimizing the cutting effect of modern femtosecond lasers with high repetition rates (>1 MHz).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tinne, Nadine; Schumacher, Silvia; Nuzzo, Valeria; Arnold, Cord L.; Lubatschowski, Holger; Ripken, Tammo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JApSc...8.1642Y"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Variability of Soil Fertility Properties for Precision Agriculture in Southern Iran</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of this study was to determine the degree of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variability of soil chemical properties, soil texture and variance structure. <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> distributions for 13 soil chemical properties and soil texture were examined in a fallow land in Bajgah, Fars province, Iran. Soil samples were collected at approximately 60 m2 at 0-30 cm depth and coordinates of each of the 100 points were recorded with GPS. The <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> level varied within location. The range of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> was found to vary within soil parameters. Phosphorous had the shortest range of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> (49.50 m) and percentage of calcium carbonate equivalent had the longest (181.94 m). All parameters exhibited <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span>. The results demonstrate that within the same field, <span class="hlt">spatial</span> patterns vary among several soil parameters. Soil nutrients were found to be affected by farmer management. Variography and kriging can be useful tools for designing effective soil sampling strategies and variable rate application of inputs for use in site-specific farming.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yasrebi, Jafar; Saffari, Mahboub; Fathi, Hamed; Karimian, Najafali; Emadi, Mostafa; Baghernejad, Majid</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/19254751"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Fast Parallelized Computational Approach Based on Sparse LU Factorization for Predictions of <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> and Time-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Currents and Voltages in Full-Body Biomodels</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Realistic and accurate numerical simulations of electrostimulation of tissues and full-body biomodels have been developed and implemented. Typically, whole-body systems are very complex and consist of a multitude of tissues, organs, and subcomponents with diverse properties. From an electrical standpoint, these can be characterized in terms of separate conductivities and permittivities. Accuracy demands good <span class="hlt">spatial</span> resolution; thus, the overall tissue\\/animal</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ashutosh Mishra; Ravindra P. Joshi; Karl H. Schoenbach; C. D. Clark</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/r350h0u8854758v1.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gender-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Frequency–<span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Organization of the Brain Cortex Activity during Convergent and Divergent Thinking: I. Analysis of the EEG Power</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The frequency–<span class="hlt">spatial</span> organization of the brain cortex activity of men and women was studied during convergent (CTh) and divergent (DTh) thinking by means of EEG power mapping in a broad frequency band. Right-handed 17- to 23-year-old students (36 men and 30 women) participated in the study. Mental arithmetic was used as a model of CTh. Functional changes in the EEG</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">O. M. Razoumnikova</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_20 div --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='ret