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Strong diffusion limit in the realistic magnetosphere: Dependence on geomagnetic condition and spatial location  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract<p label="1">As an essential concept of resonant wave-particle interactions, the <span class="hlt">strong</span> diffusion limit DSD is an important variable to explore the efficiency of wave-induced pitch angle scattering for particle precipitation loss to the atmosphere. Determined by the size of equatorial loss cone on a given field line and the bounce period at a given energy, the value of DSD sets a lower limit to the precipitation timescale for loss cone filling, regardless of the strength of wave-particle interactions. However, no efforts have ever been made to evaluate DSD in the realistic magnetosphere considering the impact of various geomagnetic activities. To perform a systematic exploration of the <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of DSD on geomagnetic condition, <span class="hlt">spatial</span> location, and global magnetic field model, we have numerically computed DSD using the dipolar and non-dipolar Tsyganenko magnetic field models under three representative (quiet, moderate, and active) geomagnetic conditions. Use of more realistic Tsyganenko magnetic field models introduces non-negligible or considerable differences in DSD magnitude from that obtained using a dipolar field. The difference can be over an order of magnitude at the field lines with equatorial crossings ?6 Re during geomagnetically disturbed times. We also report that in the realistic magnetosphere both DSD magnitude and its variations have a <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> location. Computed DSD shows the maximum tending to occur on the dayside (MLT = 12 and 16) and the minimum DSD more likely to occur at MLT = 00. Compared to the dipolar results, largest deviation in DSD occurs for MLT = 00, 04, and 20, while DSD variations on the dayside are relatively small. Our results demonstrate that accurate evaluation of DSD besides scattering rates in the realistic magnetosphere, especially at high <span class="hlt">spatial</span> locations and under geomagnetically disturbed conditions for which a dipolar approximation fails, can make an important contribution to quantifying the wave effect on particle resonant diffusion, which should be incorporated into future modeling efforts for comprehending the role of resonant wave-particle interactions and the dynamics of magnetospheric electrons under a variety of geomagnetic conditions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhou, Chen; Yang, Guobin; Ni, Binbin; Zhao, Zhengyu; Hu, Ze-Jun; Shi, Run</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">2</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3909009"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Structure of Seagrass Suggests That Size-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Plant Traits Have a <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Influence on the Distribution and Maintenance of Tropical Multispecies Meadows</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Seagrass species in the tropics occur in multispecies meadows. How these meadows are maintained through species co-existence and what their ecological drivers may be has been an overarching question in seagrass biogeography. In this study, we quantify the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> structure of four co-existing species and infer potential ecological processes from these structures. Methods and Results Species presence/absence data were collected using underwater towed and dropped video cameras in Pulau Tinggi, Malaysia. The geostatistical method, utilizing semivariograms, was used to describe the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> structure of Halophila spp, Halodule uninervis, Syringodium isoetifolium and Cymodocea serrulata. Species had <span class="hlt">spatial</span> patterns that were oriented in the along-shore and across-shore directions, nested with larger species in meadow interiors, and consisted of multiple structures that indicate the influence of 2–3 underlying processes. The Linear Model of Coregionalization (LMC) was used to estimate the amount of variance contributing to the presence of a species at specific <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales. These distances were <2.5 m (micro-scale), 2.5–50 m (fine-scale) and >50 m (broad-scale) in the along-shore; and <2.5 m (micro-scale), 2.5–140 m (fine-scale) and >140 m (broad-scale) in the across-shore. The LMC suggests that smaller species (Halophila spp and H. uninervis) were most influenced by broad-scale processes such as hydrodynamics and water depth whereas large, localised species (S. isoetifolium and C. serrulata) were more influenced by finer-scale processes such as sediment burial, seagrass colonization and growth, and physical disturbance. Conclusion In this study, we provide evidence that <span class="hlt">spatial</span> structure is distinct even when species occur in well-mixed multispecies meadows, and we suggest that size-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> plant traits have a <span class="hlt">strong</span> influence on the distribution and maintenance of tropical marine plant communities. This study offers a contrast from previous <span class="hlt">spatial</span> models of seagrasses which have largely focused on monospecific temperate meadows. PMID:24497978</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ooi, Jillian L. S.; Van Niel, Kimberly P.; Kendrick, Gary A.; Holmes, Karen W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">3</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9803915"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> gradients for <span class="hlt">spatially</span> resolved diffusion measurements.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new multilayer approach to gradient coil design, which allows the production of very <span class="hlt">strong</span> gradient coils with reasonable resistance and consequent power dissipation, has been developed. Using this approach we have designed and built a <span class="hlt">strong</span> z-gradient coil that will accommodate vertically mounted samples contained in 5-mm nuclear magnetic resonance tubes. The coil has an efficiency of 1.73 Tm-1A-1, an inductance of 49 microH, and a resistance of 1.8 omega, with a homogeneous volume consisting of a central cylinder of 4.5-mm length and diameter. This coil has been used to monitor the diffusion of water in Nylon 6.6 at room temperature, during desorption. This system is difficult to monitor via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), because the diffusion coefficients are typically less than 10(-13) m2s-1, while the T2 relaxation time is less than 1 ms even when the sample is fully saturated. The resulting measurements show a <span class="hlt">strong</span> concentration <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the T2 relaxation time and self-diffusion coefficient of the absorbed water. The measured concentration profiles are consistent with a Fickian diffusion process with a concentration-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> diffusion coefficient. The measured self-diffusion values are in reasonable agreement with those inferred from the variation of the concentration profiles as a function of time, using the one-dimensional Fickian diffusion equation. PMID:9803915</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Snaar, J E; Robyr, P; Bowtell, R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">4</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4328148"> <span id="translatedtitle">Incorporating <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> in regional frequency analysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The efficiency of regional frequency analysis (RFA) is undermined by intersite <span class="hlt">dependence</span>, which is usually ignored in parameter estimation. We propose a <span class="hlt">spatial</span> index flood model where marginal generalized extreme value distributions are joined by an extreme-value copula characterized by a max-stable process for the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span>. The parameters are estimated with a pairwise likelihood constructed from bivariate marginal generalized extreme value distributions. The estimators of model parameters and return levels can be more efficient than those from the traditional index flood model when the max-stable process fits the intersite <span class="hlt">dependence</span> well. Through simulation, we compared the pairwise likelihood method with an L-moment method and an independence likelihood method under various <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> models and <span class="hlt">dependence</span> levels. The pairwise likelihood method was found to be the most efficient in mean squared error if the <span class="hlt">dependence</span> model was correctly specified. When the <span class="hlt">dependence</span> model was misspecified within the max-stable models, the pairwise likelihood method was still competitive relative to the other two methods. When the <span class="hlt">dependence</span> model was not a max-stable model, the pairwise likelihood method led to serious bias in estimating the shape parameter and return levels, especially when the <span class="hlt">dependence</span> was <span class="hlt">strong</span>. In an illustration with annual maximum precipitation data from Switzerland, the pairwise likelihood method yielded remarkable reduction in the standard errors of return level estimates in comparison to the L-moment method.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Zhuo; Yan, Jun; Zhang, Xuebin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">5</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014WRR....50.9570W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Incorporating <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> in regional frequency analysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The efficiency of regional frequency analysis (RFA) is undermined by intersite <span class="hlt">dependence</span>, which is usually ignored in parameter estimation. We propose a <span class="hlt">spatial</span> index flood model where marginal generalized extreme value distributions are joined by an extreme-value copula characterized by a max-stable process for the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span>. The parameters are estimated with a pairwise likelihood constructed from bivariate marginal generalized extreme value distributions. The estimators of model parameters and return levels can be more efficient than those from the traditional index flood model when the max-stable process fits the intersite <span class="hlt">dependence</span> well. Through simulation, we compared the pairwise likelihood method with an L-moment method and an independence likelihood method under various <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> models and <span class="hlt">dependence</span> levels. The pairwise likelihood method was found to be the most efficient in mean squared error if the <span class="hlt">dependence</span> model was correctly specified. When the <span class="hlt">dependence</span> model was misspecified within the max-stable models, the pairwise likelihood method was still competitive relative to the other two methods. When the <span class="hlt">dependence</span> model was not a max-stable model, the pairwise likelihood method led to serious bias in estimating the shape parameter and return levels, especially when the <span class="hlt">dependence</span> was <span class="hlt">strong</span>. In an illustration with annual maximum precipitation data from Switzerland, the pairwise likelihood method yielded remarkable reduction in the standard errors of return level estimates in comparison to the L-moment method.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Zhuo; Yan, Jun; Zhang, Xuebin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">6</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4092009"> <span id="translatedtitle">NON-PARAMETRIC ESTIMATION UNDER <span class="hlt">STRONG</span> <span class="hlt">DEPENDENCE</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study non-parametric regression function estimation for models with <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span>. Compared with short-range <span class="hlt">dependent</span> models, long-range <span class="hlt">dependent</span> models often result in slower convergence rates. We propose a simple differencing-sequence based non-parametric estimator that achieves the same convergence rate as if the data were independent. Simulation studies show that the proposed method has good finite sample performance. PMID:25018572</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhao, Zhibiao; Zhang, Yiyun; Li, Runze</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">7</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21504944"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strongly</span> scale-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> non-Gaussianity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We discuss models of primordial density perturbations where the non-Gaussianity is <span class="hlt">strongly</span> scale <span class="hlt">dependent</span>. In particular, the non-Gaussianity may have a sharp cutoff and be very suppressed on large cosmological scales, but sizable on small scales. This may have an impact on probes of non-Gaussianity in the large-scale structure and in the cosmic microwave background radiation anisotropies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Riotto, Antonio [INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua (Italy); CERN, PH-TH Division, CH-1211, Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Sloth, Martin S. [CERN, PH-TH Division, CH-1211, Geneve 23 (Switzerland)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">8</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25860744"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> electromagnetically induced transparency.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent years have seen vast progress in the generation and detection of structured light, with potential applications in high capacity optical data storage and continuous variable quantum technologies. Here we measure the transmission of structured light through cold rubidium atoms and observe regions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), using the phase profile as control parameter for the atomic opacity. With q plates we generate a probe beam with azimuthally varying phase and polarization structure, and its right and left circular polarization components provide the probe and control of an EIT transition. We observe an azimuthal modulation of the absorption profile that is dictated by the phase and polarization structure of the probe laser. Conventional EIT systems do not exhibit phase sensitivity. We show, however, that a weak transverse magnetic field closes the EIT transitions, thereby generating phase-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> dark states which in turn lead to phase-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> transparency, in agreement with our measurements. PMID:25860744</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Radwell, N; Clark, T W; Piccirillo, B; Barnett, S M; Franke-Arnold, S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-03-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">9</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23226371"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependency</span> of tuberculosis incidence in Taiwan.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tuberculosis (TB) disease can be caused by either recent transmission from infectious patients or reactivation of remote latent infection. <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependency</span> (correlation between nearby geographic areas) in tuberculosis incidence is a signature for chains of recent transmission with geographic diffusion. To understand the contribution of recent transmission in the TB endemic in Taiwan, where reactivation has been assumed to be the predominant mode of pathogenesis, we used <span class="hlt">spatial</span> regression analysis to examine whether there was <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependency</span> between the TB incidence in each township and in its neighbors. A total of 90,661 TB cases from 349 townships in 2003-2008 were included in this analysis. After adjusting for the effects of confounding socioeconomic variables, including the percentages of aboriginals and average household income, the results show that the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> lag parameter remains positively significant (0.43, p<0.001), which indicates that the TB incidences of neighboring townships had an effect on the TB incidence in each township. Townships with substantial <span class="hlt">spatial</span> spillover effects were mainly located in the northern, western and eastern parts of Taiwan. <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependency</span> implies that recent transmission plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of TB in Taiwan. Therefore, in addition to the current focus on improving the cure rate under directly observed therapy programs, more resource need to be allocated to active case finding in order to break the chain of transmission. PMID:23226371</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ng, In-Chan; Wen, Tzai-Hung; Wang, Jann-Yuan; Fang, Chi-Tai</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">10</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24887067"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependencies</span> between large-scale brain networks.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Functional neuroimaging reveals both increases (task-positive) and decreases (task-negative) in neural activation with many tasks. Many studies show a temporal relationship between task positive and task negative networks that is important for efficient cognitive functioning. Here we provide evidence for a <span class="hlt">spatial</span> relationship between task positive and negative networks. There are <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> similarities between many reported task negative brain networks, termed the default mode network, which is typically assumed to be a <span class="hlt">spatially</span> fixed network. However, this is not the case. The <span class="hlt">spatial</span> structure of the DMN varies <span class="hlt">depending</span> on what specific task is being performed. We test whether there is a fundamental <span class="hlt">spatial</span> relationship between task positive and negative networks. Specifically, we hypothesize that the distance between task positive and negative voxels is consistent despite different <span class="hlt">spatial</span> patterns of activation and deactivation evoked by different cognitive tasks. We show significantly reduced variability in the distance between within-condition task positive and task negative voxels than across-condition distances for four different sensory, motor and cognitive tasks--implying that deactivation patterns are <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on activation patterns (and vice versa), and that both are modulated by specific task demands. We also show a similar relationship between positively and negatively correlated networks from a third 'rest' dataset, in the absence of a specific task. We propose that this <span class="hlt">spatial</span> relationship may be the macroscopic analogue of microscopic neuronal organization reported in sensory cortical systems, and that this organization may reflect homeostatic plasticity necessary for efficient brain function. PMID:24887067</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leech, Robert; Scott, Gregory; Carhart-Harris, Robin; Turkheimer, Federico; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D; Sharp, David J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">11</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21443046"> <span id="translatedtitle">Atomic <span class="hlt">spatial</span> coherence with spontaneous emission in a <span class="hlt">strong</span>-coupling cavity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The role of spontaneous emission in the interaction between a two-level atom and a pumped microcavity in the <span class="hlt">strong</span>-coupling regime is discussed. In particular, using a quantum Monte Carlo simulation, we investigate atomic <span class="hlt">spatial</span> coherence. It is found that atomic spontaneous emission destroys the coherence between neighboring lattice sites, while cavity decay does not. Furthermore, our computation of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> coherence function shows that the in-site locality is little affected by the cavity decay but greatly <span class="hlt">depends</span> on the cavity pump amplitude.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fang Zhen; Guo Rui; Zhou Xiaoji; Chen Xuzong [School of Electronics Engineering and Computer Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">12</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMEP23C0836K"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> Predictability Of <span class="hlt">Spatially</span> Distributed Physical Habitat Preferences For O. Mykiss Spawning Across Three <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Scales</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Currently accepted perception assumes Oncorhynchus mykiss prefer different ranges of similar physical habitat elements for spawning than Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), taking into account their difference in size. While there is increasing research interest regarding O. mykiss habitat use and migratory behavior, research conducted to date distinguishing the physical habitat conditions utilized for O. mykiss spawning has not provided quantified understanding of their spawning habitat preferences. The purpose of this study was to use electivity indices and other measures to assess the physical habitat characteristics preferred for O. mykiss spawning in terms of both 1-m scale microhabitat attributes, and landforms at different <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales from 0.1-100 times channel width. The testbed for this study was the 37.5-km regulated gravel-cobble Lower Yuba River (LYR). Using <span class="hlt">spatially</span> distributed 2D hydrodynamic model results, substrate mapping, and a census of O. mykiss redds from two years of observation, micro- and meso-scale representations of physical habitat were tested for their ability to predict spawning habitat preference and avoidance. Overall there was <span class="hlt">strong</span> stratification of O. mykiss redd occurrence for all representation types of physical habitat. A <span class="hlt">strong</span> preference of hydraulic conditions was shown for mean water column velocities of 1.18-2.25 ft/s, and water depths of 1.25-2.76 ft. There was a marked preference for the two most upstream alluvial reaches of the LYR (out of 8 total reaches), accounting for 92% of all redds observed. The preferred morphological units (MUs) for O. mykiss spawning were more variable than for Chinook salmon and changed with increasing discharge, demonstrating that O. mykiss shift spawning to different MUs in order to utilize their preferred hydraulic conditions. The substrate range preferred for O. mykiss spawning was within 32-90 mm. Overall, O. mykiss spawning behavior was highly predictable and required a holistic blend of hydraulic and geomorphic representations to explain.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kammel, L.; Pasternack, G. B.; Wyrick, J. R.; Massa, D.; Bratovich, P.; Johnson, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">13</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39835063"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependencies</span> in wind-related housing damage</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article examines the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> among housing losses due to tornadoes using data from the May 1999 Oklahoma City\\u000a tornado. In order to examine the existence of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> and its impacts on the damage analysis, we compare an estimation\\u000a based on a traditional ordinary least square model with the general <span class="hlt">spatial</span> model. The results show that housing damage</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dakshina G. De Silva; Jamie B. Kruse; Yongsheng Wang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">14</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.maths.sussex.ac.uk/Staff/OL/Pickup/110613-Lakkis-ACMAC.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> Lp error estimates in computing the</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Field following Chen [1994] Phase transition in solidification process u - u + (u3 - u)/ = w. Phase-field models of phase separation and geometric motions Rubinstein et al. [1989], Evans et al-life dendrite lab picture: A phase-field simulation: Omar Lakkis (Sussex) <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Lp estimates in computing</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lakkis, Omar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">15</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21371486"> <span id="translatedtitle">Verifying the <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> of Fractal Coefficients on Different <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Distributions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A fractal distribution requires that the number of objects larger than a specific size r has a power-law <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on the size N(r) = C/r{sup D}propor tor{sup -D} where D is the fractal dimension. Usually the correlation integral is calculated to estimate the correlation fractal dimension of epicentres. A 'box-counting' procedure could also be applied giving the 'capacity' fractal dimension. The fractal dimension can be an integer and then it is equivalent to a Euclidean dimension (it is zero of a point, one of a segment, of a square is two and of a cube is three). In general the fractal dimension is not an integer but a fractional dimension and there comes the origin of the term 'fractal'. The use of a power-law to statistically describe a set of events or phenomena reveals the lack of a characteristic length scale, that is fractal objects are scale invariant. Scaling invariance and chaotic behavior constitute the base of a lot of natural hazards phenomena. Many studies of earthquakes reveal that their occurrence exhibits scale-invariant properties, so the fractal dimension can characterize them. It has first been confirmed that both aftershock rate decay in time and earthquake size distribution follow a power law. Recently many other earthquake distributions have been found to be scale-invariant. The <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of both regional seismicity and aftershocks show some fractal features. Earthquake <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distributions are considered fractal, but indirectly. There are two possible models, which result in fractal earthquake distributions. The first model considers that a fractal distribution of faults leads to a fractal distribution of earthquakes, because each earthquake is characteristic of the fault on which it occurs. The second assumes that each fault has a fractal distribution of earthquakes. Observations <span class="hlt">strongly</span> favour the first hypothesis.The fractal coefficients analysis provides some important advantages in examining earthquake <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution, which are: - Simple way to quantify scale-invariant distributions of complex objects or phenomena by a small number of parameters. - It is becoming evident that the applicability of fractal distributions to geological problems could have a more fundamental basis. Chaotic behaviour could underlay the geotectonic processes and the applicable statistics could often be fractal.The application of fractal distribution analysis has, however, some specific aspects. It is usually difficult to present an adequate interpretation of the obtained values of fractal coefficients for earthquake epicenter or hypocenter distributions. That is why in this paper we aimed at other goals - to verify how a fractal coefficient <span class="hlt">depends</span> on different <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distributions. We simulated earthquake <span class="hlt">spatial</span> data by generating randomly points first in a 3D space - cube, then in a parallelepiped, diminishing one of its sides. We then continued this procedure in 2D and 1D space. For each simulated data set we calculated the points' fractal coefficient (correlation fractal dimension of epicentres) and then checked for correlation between the coefficients values and the type of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution.In that way one can obtain a set of standard fractal coefficients' values for varying <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distributions. These then can be used when real earthquake data is analyzed by comparing the real data coefficients values to the standard fractal coefficients. Such an approach can help in interpreting the fractal analysis results through different types of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distributions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gospodinov, Dragomir [Plovdiv University 'Paisii Hilendarski', 24, Tsar Asen Str., Plovdiv (Bulgaria); Geophysical Institute of Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Akad. G. Bonchev Str., bl.3, Sofia (Bulgaria); Marekova, Elisaveta; Marinov, Alexander [Plovdiv University 'Paisii Hilendarski', 24, Tsar Asen Str., Plovdiv (Bulgaria)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">16</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.7285E..40J"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependencies</span> mining based on fuzzy neural networks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependency</span> describes the relationship between one <span class="hlt">dependent</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variable and other related <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variables. This paper constructs two kinds of Fuzzy Neural Networks for <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependency</span> mining, the modified fuzzy neural network model and the fuzzy comprehensive assessment network model. The first model is built from general fuzzy neural network model. It has four layers, input layer, fuzzy membership function layer, fuzzy reasoning layer and output layer. The second model is built based on a fuzzy comprehensive assessment algorithm. It has five layers. The first three layers are same as the first model, the fourth and the fifth layer are used to find the maximum membership degree and give the output. We develop the training algorithm for these two models based BP algorithm and genetic algorithm, respectively. This paper adopts a thematic <span class="hlt">spatial</span> database of land evaluation to test these models. We use experiential knowledge as original rules to build initial FNN models. We can see that original rules (<span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependencies</span>) are corrected after training. It can be seen that these two models get almost the same revised <span class="hlt">dependencies</span>, and this indicates that these two models both correct the original ones and get the more objective <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependencies</span>. Experiments also indicate these two models are efficient.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jiao, L. M.; Liu, Y. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">17</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSM53A2208M"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Transport of Magnetic Flux Surfaces in <span class="hlt">Strongly</span> Anisotropic Turbulence</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Magnetic flux surfaces afford familiar descriptions of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> structure, dynamics, and connectivity of magnetic fields, with particular relevance in contexts such as solar coronal flux tubes, magnetic field connectivity in the interplanetary and interstellar medium, as well as in laboratory plasmas and dynamo problems [1-4]. Typical models assume that field-lines are orderly, and flux tubes remain identifiable over macroscopic distances; however, a previous study has shown that flux tubes shred in the presence of fluctuations, typically losing identity after several correlation scales [5]. Here, the structure of magnetic flux surfaces is numerically investigated in a reduced magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) model of homogeneous turbulence. Short and long-wavelength behavior is studied statistically by propagating magnetic surfaces along the mean field. At small scales magnetic surfaces become complex, experiencing an exponential thinning. At large scales, instead, the magnetic flux undergoes a diffusive behavior. The link between the diffusion of the coarse-grained flux and field-line random walk is established by means of a multiple scale analysis. Both large and small scales limits are controlled by the Kubo number. These results have consequences for understanding and interpreting processes such as magnetic reconnection and field-line diffusion in plasmas [6]. [1] E. N. Parker, Cosmical Magnetic Fields (Oxford Univ. Press, New York, 1979). [2] J. R. Jokipii and E. N. Parker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 44 (1968). [3] R. Bruno et al., Planet. Space Sci. 49, 1201 (2001). [4] M. N. Rosenbluth et al., Nuclear Fusion 6, 297 (1966). [5] W. H. Matthaeus et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2136 (1995). [6] S. Servidio et al., submitted (2013).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Matthaeus, W. H.; Servidio, S.; Wan, M.; Ruffolo, D. J.; Rappazzo, A. F.; Oughton, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">18</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995DSRI...42.1273M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temporal and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variability of copper complexation by <span class="hlt">strong</span> chelators in the Sargasso Sea</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Copper(II) complexation in the upper water column was studied at the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series Station (BATS) from January 1992 to March 1993, and in the southern Sargasso Sea in April 1992, using adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (ACSV). Copper titration data, analysed using a one ligand model, indicated that speciation was dominated by a <span class="hlt">strong</span> ligand or ligand class, with a conditional stability constant of 10 13.2. Total concentrations of copper and ligand were very similar, ranging from 0.9 nM to 2 nM. Concentrations of free cupric ion (Cu f2+) varied widely in the upper water column <span class="hlt">depending</span> on whether Cu exceeded the ligand concentration or vice versa. Temporal and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variability in these parameters showed trends with hydrographic and biological parameters consistent with biological production and near-surface photochemical decomposition of the <span class="hlt">strong</span> ligand. Under well stratified oligotrophic conditions, such as those prevailing year round at the southern Sargasso station and in the summer and autumn at BATS, the ligand showed a subsurface maxima coinciding roughly with the chlorophyll maximum. Ligand concentrations decreased below total Cu concentrations in the mixed layer, leading to pronounced increases in Cu f2+ concentrations. However, samples collected at BATS during or following periods of intense vertical mixing and biological activity showed excess ligand concentration throughout the upper water column and extremely low cupric ion concentrations. The <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and temporal variability of the <span class="hlt">strong</span> ligand at BATS is similar to that observed by Coale and Bruland (1990) in the NE Pacific, suggesting that Cu speciation in both regions is controlled by common processes. However, in that study, copper concentrations were always below the ligand concentration, so cupric ion concentrations did not display the great variability observed in the Sargasso Sea in this study.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Moffett, James W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">19</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvB..90o5411W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Parity-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> localization in N <span class="hlt">strongly</span> coupled chains</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Anderson localization of wave functions at zero energy in quasi-one-dimensional (1D) systems of N disordered chains with interchain coupling t is examined. Localization becomes weaker than for the 1D disordered chain (t =0) when t is smaller than the longitudinal hopping t'=1, and localization becomes usually much stronger when t ?t'. This is not so for all N. We find "immunity" to <span class="hlt">strong</span> localization for open (periodic) lateral boundary conditions when N is odd (a multiple of 4), with localization that is weaker than for t =0 and rather insensitive to t when t ?t'. The peculiar N <span class="hlt">dependence</span> and a critical scaling with N are explained by a perturbative treatment in t'/t, and the correspondence to a weakly disordered effective chain is shown. Our results could be relevant for experimental studies of localization in photonic waveguide arrays.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Weinmann, Dietmar; Evangelou, S. N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">20</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JMagR.186..105A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Object <span class="hlt">dependent</span> sweep width reduction with spectral <span class="hlt">spatial</span> EPR imaging</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">For spectral-<span class="hlt">spatial</span> EPR imaging, prior knowledge about the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> support of an imaged object can be exploited in two ways. We can shrink the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> field of view (FOV) to closely wrap the object in a sphere or reduce the sweep width in a projection <span class="hlt">dependent</span> fashion. Use of a smaller <span class="hlt">spatial</span> FOV with the same number of samples enhances <span class="hlt">spatial</span> resolution by reducing voxel volume at the expense of signal-to-noise and a consequent degraded line-width resolution. We have developed another approach to define sweep width that prunes away the portions of the projection sweep with no signal. This reduces data acquisition time for the continuous wave (CW) EPR image proportional to the sweep width reduction. This method also avoids voxel volume reduction. Using the reduced-sweep method, we decreased the data acquisition time by 20% maintaining <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and linewidth resolution.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ahn, Kang-Hyun; Halpern, Howard J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" 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id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">21</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1050941"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">Dependencies</span> and Semantic Concepts in Data Mining</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Data mining is the process of discovering new patterns and relationships in large datasets. However, several studies have shown that general data mining techniques often fail to extract meaningful patterns and relationships from the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> data owing to the violation of fundamental geospatial principles. In this tutorial, we introduce basic principles behind explicit modeling of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and semantic concepts in data mining. In particular, we focus on modeling these concepts in the widely used classification, clustering, and prediction algorithms. Classification is the process of learning a structure or model (from user given inputs) and applying the known model to the new data. Clustering is the process of discovering groups and structures in the data that are ``similar,'' without applying any known structures in the data. Prediction is the process of finding a function that models (explains) the data with least error. One common assumption among all these methods is that the data is independent and identically distributed. Such assumptions do not hold well in <span class="hlt">spatial</span> data, where <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependency</span> and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> heterogeneity are a norm. In addition, <span class="hlt">spatial</span> semantics are often ignored by the data mining algorithms. In this tutorial we cover recent advances in explicitly modeling of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependencies</span> and semantic concepts in data mining.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vatsavai, Raju [ORNL] [ORNL</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">22</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6666060"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> frequency <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of accommodative responses in amblyopic eyes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Monocular, steady-state accommodative responses were measured as a function of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequency of simple sinusoidal gratings presented at high contrast and target vergence levels in amblyopes, as well as in strabismics without amblyopia and in visually-normal control subjects. In general, <span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequency <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the accommodative response was the rule. However, the amblyopic eyes exhibited markedly reduced accommodative responses over most of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequency range tested, and this was attributed to reduced accommodative controller gain in the sensory pathways involved in the control of accommodation in the amblyopic eye. Due to the diversity of accommodative response <span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequency profiles found across all groups, the results suggest that reflex, voluntary, and higher-level perceptual aspects of accommodation may interplay in a complex manner in the act of accommodation on a simple sinusoidal grating. PMID:6666060</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ciuffreda, K J; Hokoda, S C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">23</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvX...4b1039R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Balanced Networks of Spiking Neurons with <span class="hlt">Spatially</span> <span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Recurrent Connections</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Networks of model neurons with balanced recurrent excitation and inhibition capture the irregular and asynchronous spiking activity reported in cortex. While mean-field theories of <span class="hlt">spatially</span> homogeneous balanced networks are well understood, a mean-field analysis of <span class="hlt">spatially</span> heterogeneous balanced networks has not been fully developed. We extend the analysis of balanced networks to include a connection probability that <span class="hlt">depends</span> on the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> separation between neurons. In the continuum limit, we derive that stable, balanced firing rate solutions require that the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> spread of external inputs be broader than that of recurrent excitation, which in turn must be broader than or equal to that of recurrent inhibition. Notably, this implies that network models with broad recurrent inhibition are inconsistent with the balanced state. For finite size networks, we investigate the pattern-forming dynamics arising when balanced conditions are not satisfied. Our study highlights the new challenges that balanced networks pose for the spatiotemporal dynamics of complex systems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rosenbaum, Robert; Doiron, Brent</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">24</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3424089"> <span id="translatedtitle">Level <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> processing in the primate auditory cortex</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sound localization in both humans and monkeys is tolerant to changes in sound levels. The underlying neural mechanism, however, is not well understood. This study reports the level <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of individual neurons' <span class="hlt">spatial</span> receptive fields (SRFs) in the primary auditory cortex (A1) and the adjacent caudal field in awake marmoset monkeys. We found that most neurons' excitatory SRF components were <span class="hlt">spatially</span> confined in response to broadband noise stimuli delivered from the upper frontal sound field. Approximately half the recorded neurons exhibited little change in <span class="hlt">spatial</span> tuning width over a ?20-dB change in sound level, whereas the remaining neurons showed either expansion or contraction in their tuning widths. Increased sound levels did not alter the percent distribution of tuning width for neurons collected in either cortical field. The population-averaged responses remained tuned between 30- and 80-dB sound pressure levels for neuronal groups preferring contralateral, midline, and ipsilateral locations. We further investigated the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> extent and level <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the suppressive component of SRFs using a pair of sequentially presented stimuli. Forward suppression was observed when the stimuli were delivered from “far” locations, distant to the excitatory center of an SRF. In contrast to <span class="hlt">spatially</span> confined excitation, the strength of suppression typically increased with stimulus level at both the excitatory center and far regions of an SRF. These findings indicate that although the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> tuning of individual neurons varied with stimulus levels, their ensemble responses were level tolerant. Widespread <span class="hlt">spatial</span> suppression may play an important role in limiting the sizes of SRFs at high sound levels in the auditory cortex. PMID:22592309</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Xiaoqin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">25</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3669068"> <span id="translatedtitle">Overnight Sleep Enhances Hippocampus-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Aspects of <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Memory</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Study Objectives: Several studies have now demonstrated that <span class="hlt">spatial</span> information is processed during sleep, and that posttraining sleep is beneficial for human navigation. However, it remains unclear whether the effects of sleep are primarily due to consolidation of cognitive maps, or alternatively, whether sleep might also affect nonhippocampal aspects of navigation (e.g., speed of motion) involved in moving through a virtual environment. Design: Participants were trained on a virtual maze navigation task (VMT) and then given a memory test following either a day of wakefulness or a night of sleep. Subjects reported to the laboratory for training at either 10:00am or 10:00pm, <span class="hlt">depending</span> on randomly assigned condition, and were tested 11 h later. Overnight subjects slept in the laboratory with polysomnography. Setting: A hospital-based academic sleep laboratory. Patients or Participants: Thirty healthy college student volunteers. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Point-by-point position data were collected from the VMT. Analysis of the movement data revealed a sleep-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> improvement in maze completion time (P < 0.001) due to improved <span class="hlt">spatial</span> understanding of the maze layout, which led to a shortening of path from start to finish (P = 0.01) rather than faster exploration speed through the maze (P = 0.7). Conclusions: We found that overnight sleep benefitted performance, not because subjects moved faster through the maze, but because they were more accurate in navigating to the goal. These findings suggest that sleep enhances participants' knowledge of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> layout of the maze, contributing to the consolidation of hippocampus-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> information. Citation: Nguyen ND; Tucker MA; Stickgold R; Wamsley EJ. Overnight sleep enhances hippocampus-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> aspects of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> memory. SLEEP 2013;36(7):1051-1057. PMID:23814342</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nguyen, Nam D.; Tucker, Matthew A.; Stickgold, Robert; Wamsley, Erin J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">26</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...5E8934B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Localized attacks on <span class="hlt">spatially</span> embedded networks with <span class="hlt">dependencies</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many real world complex systems such as critical infrastructure networks are embedded in space and their components may <span class="hlt">depend</span> on one another to function. They are also susceptible to geographically localized damage caused by malicious attacks or natural disasters. Here, we study a general model of <span class="hlt">spatially</span> embedded networks with <span class="hlt">dependencies</span> under localized attacks. We develop a theoretical and numerical approach to describe and predict the effects of localized attacks on <span class="hlt">spatially</span> embedded systems with <span class="hlt">dependencies</span>. Surprisingly, we find that a localized attack can cause substantially more damage than an equivalent random attack. Furthermore, we find that for a broad range of parameters, systems which appear stable are in fact metastable. Though robust to random failures--even of finite fraction--if subjected to a localized attack larger than a critical size which is independent of the system size (i.e., a zero fraction), a cascading failure emerges which leads to complete system collapse. Our results demonstrate the potential high risk of localized attacks on <span class="hlt">spatially</span> embedded network systems with <span class="hlt">dependencies</span> and may be useful for designing more resilient systems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Berezin, Yehiel; Bashan, Amir; Danziger, Michael M.; Li, Daqing; Havlin, Shlomo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">27</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25757572"> <span id="translatedtitle">Localized attacks on <span class="hlt">spatially</span> embedded networks with <span class="hlt">dependencies</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many real world complex systems such as critical infrastructure networks are embedded in space and their components may <span class="hlt">depend</span> on one another to function. They are also susceptible to geographically localized damage caused by malicious attacks or natural disasters. Here, we study a general model of <span class="hlt">spatially</span> embedded networks with <span class="hlt">dependencies</span> under localized attacks. We develop a theoretical and numerical approach to describe and predict the effects of localized attacks on <span class="hlt">spatially</span> embedded systems with <span class="hlt">dependencies</span>. Surprisingly, we find that a localized attack can cause substantially more damage than an equivalent random attack. Furthermore, we find that for a broad range of parameters, systems which appear stable are in fact metastable. Though robust to random failures-even of finite fraction-if subjected to a localized attack larger than a critical size which is independent of the system size (i.e., a zero fraction), a cascading failure emerges which leads to complete system collapse. Our results demonstrate the potential high risk of localized attacks on <span class="hlt">spatially</span> embedded network systems with <span class="hlt">dependencies</span> and may be useful for designing more resilient systems. PMID:25757572</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Berezin, Yehiel; Bashan, Amir; Danziger, Michael M; Li, Daqing; Havlin, Shlomo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">28</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4355725"> <span id="translatedtitle">Localized attacks on <span class="hlt">spatially</span> embedded networks with <span class="hlt">dependencies</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many real world complex systems such as critical infrastructure networks are embedded in space and their components may <span class="hlt">depend</span> on one another to function. They are also susceptible to geographically localized damage caused by malicious attacks or natural disasters. Here, we study a general model of <span class="hlt">spatially</span> embedded networks with <span class="hlt">dependencies</span> under localized attacks. We develop a theoretical and numerical approach to describe and predict the effects of localized attacks on <span class="hlt">spatially</span> embedded systems with <span class="hlt">dependencies</span>. Surprisingly, we find that a localized attack can cause substantially more damage than an equivalent random attack. Furthermore, we find that for a broad range of parameters, systems which appear stable are in fact metastable. Though robust to random failures—even of finite fraction—if subjected to a localized attack larger than a critical size which is independent of the system size (i.e., a zero fraction), a cascading failure emerges which leads to complete system collapse. Our results demonstrate the potential high risk of localized attacks on <span class="hlt">spatially</span> embedded network systems with <span class="hlt">dependencies</span> and may be useful for designing more resilient systems. PMID:25757572</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Berezin, Yehiel; Bashan, Amir; Danziger, Michael M.; Li, Daqing; Havlin, Shlomo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">29</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3093525"> <span id="translatedtitle">Drivers of bacterial ?-diversity <span class="hlt">depend</span> on <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The factors driving ?-diversity (variation in community composition) yield insights into the maintenance of biodiversity on the planet. Here we tested whether the mechanisms that underlie bacterial ?-diversity vary over centimeters to continental <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales by comparing the composition of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria communities in salt marsh sediments. As observed in studies of macroorganisms, the drivers of salt marsh bacterial ?-diversity <span class="hlt">depend</span> on <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale. In contrast to macroorganism studies, however, we found no evidence of evolutionary diversification of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria taxa at the continental scale, despite an overall relationship between geographic distance and community similarity. Our data are consistent with the idea that dispersal limitation at local scales can contribute to ?-diversity, even though the 16S rRNA genes of the relatively common taxa are globally distributed. These results highlight the importance of considering multiple <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales for understanding microbial biogeography. PMID:21518859</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martiny, Jennifer B. H.; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Penn, Kevin; Allison, Steven D.; Horner-Devine, M. Claire</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">30</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1134640"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temperature <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> of Thermopower in <span class="hlt">Strongly</span> Correlated Multiorbital Systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of thermopower in the multiorbital Hubbard model is studied by using the dynamical mean-field theory with the non-crossing approximation impurity solver. It is found that the Coulomb interaction, the Hund coupling, and the crystal filed splitting bring about nonmonotonic temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the hermopower, including its sign reversal. The implication of our theoretical results to some materials is discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sekino, M [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA)] [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA); Okamoto, Satoshi [ORNL] [ORNL; Koshibae, W [RIKEN, Japan] [RIKEN, Japan; Mori, Michiyasu [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA)] [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA); Maekawa, Sadamichi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA)] [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">31</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9301E..1AT"> <span id="translatedtitle">Improved <span class="hlt">dependent</span> component analysis for hyperspectral unmixing with <span class="hlt">spatial</span> correlations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In highly mixed hyerspectral datasets, <span class="hlt">dependent</span> component analysis (DECA) has shown its superiority over other traditional geometric based algorithms. This paper proposes a new algorithm that incorporates DECA with the infinite hidden Markov random field (iHMRF) model, which can efficiently exploit <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependencies</span> between image pixels and automatically determine the number of classes. Expectation Maximization algorithm is derived to infer the model parameters, including the endmembers, the abundances, the dirichlet distribution parameters of each class and the classification map. Experimental results based on synthetic and real hyperspectral data show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tang, Yi; Wan, Jianwei; Huang, Bingchao; Lan, Tian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">32</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0505327v1"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spin-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Cyclotron Decay Rates in <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Magnetic Fields</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cyclotron decay and absorption rates have been well studied in the literature, focusing primarily on spectral, angular and polarization <span class="hlt">dependence</span>. Astrophysical applications usually do not require retention of information on the electron spin state, and these are normally averaged in obtaining the requisite rates. In magnetic fields, higher order quantum processes such as Compton scattering become resonant at the cyclotron frequency and its harmonics, with the resonances being formally divergent. Such divergences are usually eliminated by accounting for the finite lifetimes of excited Landau states. This practice requires the use of spin-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> cyclotron rates in order to obtain accurate determinations of process rates very near cyclotronic resonances, the phase space domain most relevant for certain applications to pulsar models. This paper develops previous results in the literature to obtain compact analytic expressions for cyclotron decay rates/widths in terms of a series of Legendre functions of the second kind; these expressions can be expediently used in astrophysical models. The rates are derived using two popular eigenstate formalisms, namely that due to Sokolov and Ternov, and that due to Johnson and Lippmann. These constitute two sets of eigenfunctions of the Dirac equation that diagonalize different operators, and accordingly yield different spin-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> cyclotron rates. This paper illustrates the attractive Lorentz transformation characteristics of the Sokolov and Ternov formulation, which is another reason why it is preferable when electron spin information must be explicitly retained.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Matthew G. Baring; Peter L. Gonthier; Alice K. Harding</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-05-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">33</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhCS.594a2055B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pair production from space- and time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> <span class="hlt">strong</span> fields</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The recent development of laser technology and the large number of extreme laser experiments under construction renewed the research related to pair production in <span class="hlt">strong</span> fields. If the predicted threshold of nonlinear QED is reached, pair production may be observed and the measurements must be compared with appropriate theoretical predictions. However the theoretical side still lacks the understanding of the relevant quantum processes including the effect of laser field parameters on the number and spectrum of created particles. We use the Dirac-Heisenberg-Wigner formalism to investigate the role of the pure electric inhomogeneity on the spectra of created pairs. This simplified model may also be relevant in high energy physics for the description of string fragmentation in the early stages of heavy ion collisions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Berényi, Dániel; Varró, Sándor; Lévai, Péter; Skokov, Vladimir V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">34</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4158797"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reference frames in virtual <span class="hlt">spatial</span> navigation are viewpoint <span class="hlt">dependent</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> navigation in the mammalian brain relies on a cognitive map of the environment. Such cognitive maps enable us, for example, to take the optimal route from a given location to a known target. The formation of these maps is naturally influenced by our perception of the environment, meaning it is <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on factors such as our viewpoint and choice of reference frame. Yet, it is unknown how these factors influence the construction of cognitive maps. Here, we evaluated how various combinations of viewpoints and reference frames affect subjects' performance when they navigated in a bounded virtual environment without landmarks. We measured both their path length and time efficiency and found that (1) ground perspective was associated with egocentric frame of reference, (2) aerial perspective was associated with allocentric frame of reference, (3) there was no appreciable performance difference between first and third person egocentric viewing positions and (4) while none of these effects were <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on gender, males tended to perform better in general. Our study provides evidence that there are inherent associations between visual perspectives and cognitive reference frames. This result has implications about the mechanisms of path integration in the human brain and may also inspire designs of virtual reality applications. Lastly, we demonstrated the effective use of a tablet PC and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> navigation tasks for studying <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and cognitive aspects of human memory. PMID:25249956</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Török, Ágoston; Nguyen, T. Peter; Kolozsvári, Orsolya; Buchanan, Robert J.; Nadasdy, Zoltan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">35</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21408228"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of ultracold chemical rates on electric dipole moments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We use the quantum threshold laws combined with a classical capture model to provide an analytical estimate of the chemical quenching cross sections and rate coefficients of two colliding particles at ultralow temperatures. We apply this quantum threshold model (QT model) to indistinguishable fermionic polar molecules in an electric field. At ultracold temperatures and in weak electric fields, the cross sections and rate coefficients <span class="hlt">depend</span> only weakly on the electric dipole moment d induced by the electric field. In stronger electric fields, the quenching processes scale as d{sup 4(L+(1/2))} where L>0 is the orbital angular-momentum quantum number between the two colliding particles. For p-wave collisions (L=1) of indistinguishable fermionic polar molecules at ultracold temperatures, the quenching rate thus scales as d{sup 6}. We also apply this model to pure two-dimensional collisions and find that chemical rates vanish as d{sup -4} for ultracold indistinguishable fermions. This model provides a quick and intuitive way to estimate chemical rate coefficients of reactions occuring with high probability.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Quemener, Goulven; Bohn, John L. [JILA, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0440 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-02-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">36</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/h884v3474350734t.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Statistical analysis on temporal-<span class="hlt">spatial</span> correlativity within temporal doublets of <span class="hlt">strong</span> earthquakes in North China and its vicinity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In order to unify the time and the space attributes into temporal-<span class="hlt">spatial</span> distance, the temporal-<span class="hlt">spatial</span> proportional coefficient\\u000a f\\u000a TS is proposed in this paper. In accordance with the new distance concept, the temporal-<span class="hlt">spatial</span> correlativity within temporal\\u000a doublets of <span class="hlt">strong</span> earthquakes in North China and its vicinity since AD 1500 has been analyzed. The computation results indicate\\u000a that doublets of <span class="hlt">strong</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tao Pei; Cheng-Hu Zhou; Quan-Lin Li; Jin-Biao Chen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">37</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ZaMP..tmp....9C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Periodic solutions to nonlinear wave equations with <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> coefficients</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper investigates the existence and uniqueness of weak solutions to a periodic boundary value problem for a system of nonlinear wave equations with <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> coefficients. Priori estimates of weak solutions are also established for the periodic boundary value problem. The arguments rely on spectral properties of the corresponding wave operator and a global inverse function theorem. The results presented in this paper extend the ones known in the literature in that eigenvalues of nonlinear perturbing terms appeared in the system of nonlinear wave equations can be chosen from the spectrum of the underlying wave operator.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, Jinhai</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">38</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0702142v1"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span>-field <span class="hlt">spatial</span> intensity-intensity correlations of light scattered from regular structures of atoms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Photon correlations and cross-correlations of light scattered by a regular structure of <span class="hlt">strongly</span> driven atoms are investigated. At <span class="hlt">strong</span> driving, the scattered light separates into distinct spectral bands, such that each band can be treated as independent, thus extending the set of observables. We focus on second-order intensity-intensity correlation functions in two- and multi-atom systems. We demonstrate that for a single two-photon detector as, e.g., in lithography, increasing the driving field intensity leads to an increased <span class="hlt">spatial</span> resolution of the second-order two-atom interference pattern. We show that the cross-correlations between photons emitted in the spectral sidebands violate Cauchy-Schwartz inequalities, and that their emission ordering cannot be predicted. Finally, the results are generalized for multi-particle structures, where we find results different from those in a Dicke-type sample.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Macovei; J. Evers; C. H. Keitel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-02-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">39</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CNSNS..22..605A"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> dynamics of a population with stage-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> diffusion</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We explore the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> dynamics of a population whose individuals go through life stages with very different dispersal capacities. We model it through a system of partial differential equations of the reaction-diffusion kind, with nonlinear diffusion terms that may <span class="hlt">depend</span> on population density and on the stage. This model includes a few key biological ingredients: growth and saturation, life stage structure, small population effects, and diffusion <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on the stage. In particular, we consider that adults exhibit two distinct classes: one highly mobile and the other less mobile but with higher fecundity rate, and the development of juveniles into one or the other <span class="hlt">depends</span> on population density. We parametrize the model with estimated parameters of an insect species, the brown planthopper. We focus on a situation akin to an invasion of the species in a new habitat and find that the front of invasion is led by the most mobile adult class. We also show that the trade-off between dispersal and fecundity leads to invasion speed attaining its maximum at an intermediate value of the diffusion coefficient of the most mobile class.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Azevedo, F.; Coutinho, R. M.; Kraenkel, R. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">40</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49082702"> <span id="translatedtitle">The functional central limit theorem for linear processes with <span class="hlt">strong</span> near-epoch <span class="hlt">dependent</span> innovations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper discusses linear processes with innovations exhibiting asymptotic weak <span class="hlt">dependence</span> by being <span class="hlt">strong</span> near-epoch <span class="hlt">dependent</span> functions of mixing processes. The functional central limit theorem for the normalized partial sum process is established. The conditions given essentially improve on existing results in the literature in terms of the “size” requirement for the amount of <span class="hlt">dependence</span>. It is also shown that</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jin Qiu; Zhengyan Lin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">2</a> <a onClick='return 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onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">41</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20650241"> <span id="translatedtitle">Correlated multielectron systems in <span class="hlt">strong</span> laser fields: A multiconfiguration time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> Hartree-Fock approach</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The multiconfiguration time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> Hartree-Fock approach for the description of correlated few-electron dynamics in the presence of <span class="hlt">strong</span> laser fields is introduced and a comprehensive description of the method is given. Total ionization and electron spectra for the ground and first excited ionic channels are calculated for one-dimensional model systems with up to six active electrons. <span class="hlt">Strong</span> correlation effects are found in the shape of photoelectron peaks and the <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of ionization on molecule size.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Caillat, J.; Scrinzi, A. [Photonics Institute, Vienna University of Technology Gusshausstrasse 27/387, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Zanghellini, J.; Kitzler, M. [Photonics Institute, Vienna University of Technology Gusshausstrasse 27/387, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Center of Photonics Research, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur Street, Ottawa, ON, KIN 6N5 (Canada); Koch, O.; Kreuzer, W. [Institute for Analysis and Scientific Computing, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">42</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3408660"> <span id="translatedtitle">TE-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> and Spectral Specificity of Functional Connectivity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Previous studies suggest that spontaneous fluctuations in the resting-state fMRI (RS-fMRI) signal may reflect fluctuations in transverse relaxation time (T2*) rather than spin density (S0). However, such S0 and T2* features have not been well characterized. In this study, <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and spectral characteristics of functional connectivity on sensorimotor, default-mode, dorsal attention, and primary visual systems were examined using a multiple gradient-echo sequence at 3T. In the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> domain, we found broad, local correlations at short echo times (TE ? 14 ms) due to dominant S0 contribution, whereas long-range connections mediated by T2* became explicit at TEs longer than 22 ms. In the frequency domain, compared with the flat spectrum of S0, spectral power of the T2*-weighted signal elevated significantly with increasing TE, particularly in the frequency ranges of 0.008-0.023 Hz and 0.037-0.043 Hz. Using the S0 spectrum as a reference, we propose two indices to measure spectral signal change (SSC) and spectral contrast-to-noise ratio (SCNR), respectively, for quantifying the RS-fMRI signal. These indices demonstrated TE <span class="hlt">dependency</span> of connectivity-related fluctuation strength, resembling functional contrasts in activation-based fMRI. These findings further confirm that large-scale functional circuit connectivity based on BOLD contrast may be constrained within specific frequency ranges in every brain network, and the spectral features of S0 and T2* could be valuable for interpreting and quantifying RS-fMRI data. PMID:22119650</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wu, Changwei W.; Gu, Hong; Zou, Qihong; Lu, Hanbing; Stein, Elliot A.; Yang, Yihong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">43</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.dabi.temple.edu/~zoran/papers/IGARSS_Paper.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">SPATIALLY</span> PENALIZED REGRESSION FOR <span class="hlt">DEPENDENCE</span> ANALYSIS OF RARE EVENTS: A STUDY IN PRECIPITATION EXTREMES</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">SPATIALLY</span> PENALIZED REGRESSION FOR <span class="hlt">DEPENDENCE</span> ANALYSIS OF RARE EVENTS: A STUDY IN PRECIPITATION, USA ABSTRACT Discovery of <span class="hlt">dependence</span> structure between precipitation extremes and other climate can be different for different locations. Secondly, the <span class="hlt">dependence</span> structure between the precipitation</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Obradovic, Zoran</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">44</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=mean+AND+field&id=EJ1039231"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Visualization Abilities of Field <span class="hlt">Dependent</span>/Independent Preservice Teachers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Introduction: <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> skills have been a significant area of research in educational psychology for more years and it has two major dimensions as <span class="hlt">spatial</span> visualization and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> orientation. Mathematics educators acknowledge the influence of cognitive styles in the learning of mathematics. There are various recognized cognitive styles in the…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yazici, Ersen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">45</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1028744"> <span id="translatedtitle">Non-monotonic temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of thermopower in <span class="hlt">strongly</span> correlated electron systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We examine the temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of thermopower in the single-band Hubbard model using dynamical mean-field theory. The <span class="hlt">strong</span> Coulomb interaction brings about the coherent-to-incoherent crossover as temperature increases. As a result, the thermopower exhibits nonmonotonic temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span> and asymptotically approaches values given by the Mott-Heikes formula. In the light of our theoretical result, we discuss the thermopower in some transition metal oxides. The magnetic field <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the thermopower is also discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Matsuo, M [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA); Okamoto, Satoshi [ORNL; Koshibae, W [RIKEN, Japan; Mori, Michiyasu [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA); Maekawa, Sadamichi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">46</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4123889"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">spatially</span> filtered multilevel model to account for <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependency</span>: application to self-rated health status in South Korea</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background This study aims to suggest an approach that integrates multilevel models and eigenvector <span class="hlt">spatial</span> filtering methods and apply it to a case study of self-rated health status in South Korea. In many previous health-related studies, multilevel models and single-level <span class="hlt">spatial</span> regression are used separately. However, the two methods should be used in conjunction because the objectives of both approaches are important in health-related analyses. The multilevel model enables the simultaneous analysis of both individual and neighborhood factors influencing health outcomes. However, the results of conventional multilevel models are potentially misleading when <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependency</span> across neighborhoods exists. <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependency</span> in health-related data indicates that health outcomes in nearby neighborhoods are more similar to each other than those in distant neighborhoods. <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> regression models can address this problem by modeling <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependency</span>. This study explores the possibility of integrating a multilevel model and eigenvector <span class="hlt">spatial</span> filtering, an advanced <span class="hlt">spatial</span> regression for addressing <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependency</span> in datasets. Methods In this <span class="hlt">spatially</span> filtered multilevel model, eigenvectors function as additional explanatory variables accounting for unexplained <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependency</span> within the neighborhood-level error. The specification addresses the inability of conventional multilevel models to account for <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependency</span>, and thereby, generates more robust outputs. Results The findings show that sex, employment status, monthly household income, and perceived levels of stress are significantly associated with self-rated health status. Residents living in neighborhoods with low deprivation and a high doctor-to-resident ratio tend to report higher health status. The <span class="hlt">spatially</span> filtered multilevel model provides unbiased estimations and improves the explanatory power of the model compared to conventional multilevel models although there are no changes in the signs of parameters and the significance levels between the two models in this case study. Conclusions The integrated approach proposed in this paper is a useful tool for understanding the geographical distribution of self-rated health status within a multilevel framework. In future research, it would be useful to apply the <span class="hlt">spatially</span> filtered multilevel model to other datasets in order to clarify the differences between the two models. It is anticipated that this integrated method will also out-perform conventional models when it is used in other contexts. PMID:24571639</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">47</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39669259"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> and the representation of space in empirical models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A well-formed <span class="hlt">spatial</span> model should most likely not produce <span class="hlt">spatial</span> autocorrelation at all. From this perspective <span class="hlt">spatial</span> autocorrelation\\u000a is not (pure) statistical nuisance but a sign of that a model lacks a representation of an important economic phenomenon.\\u000a In a Knowledge Production Function (KPF) context, this paper shows that a representation of space reflecting the potential\\u000a of physical interaction between</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martin Andersson; Urban Gråsjö</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">48</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006APS..MARN13003R"> <span id="translatedtitle">A new type of wavelength <span class="hlt">dependence</span> in <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field ionization</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is commonly assumed that in mid-IR region the <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field ionization approaches quasistatic limit (tunneling, or ADK regime) and ceases to <span class="hlt">depend</span> on the laser wavelength. Contrary to this notion, ionization yields for the noble gas Xe at intensities from 10^13-10^15 W cm-2 for wavelengths spanning from 800 to 1500nm reveal <span class="hlt">strong</span> and counterintuitive wavelength <span class="hlt">dependence</span>. There is an increasing ionization probability in the <span class="hlt">strong</span> field regime as the excitation wavelength increases from 800nm to 1500 nm at fixed field intensity. The measured thresholds for the ionization event scale approximately as ?-2. We developed a simple quantitative model that extends through-the-barrier tunneling with single photon ionization from a Rydberg intermediate state and captures the observed wavelength <span class="hlt">dependence</span>. This wavelength <span class="hlt">dependence</span> will be reduced to some degree if the ionization occurs in a <span class="hlt">strong</span> DC electric field that is capable to independently ionize the Rydberg states. The wavelength <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of ionization rate in the quasitstatic regime is of considerable importance for ascertaining the correct physics for various <span class="hlt">strong</span> field processes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Romanov, Dmitri; Moore, Katharine; Compton, Ryan; Levis, Robert J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">49</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://forest.wisc.edu/files/pdfs/samuel/2007_conner_et_al_cwd_spatial_epik.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Scale-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> approaches to modeling <span class="hlt">spatial</span> epidemiology of chronic wasting disease</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">. We chose <span class="hlt">spatial</span> methods that are popular or common in the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> epidemiology literature as inappropriate; rather, we included methods that are commonly used for disease epidemiology and then discussed#12;Scale-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> approaches to modeling <span class="hlt">spatial</span> epidemiology of chronic wasting disease Special</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mladenoff, David</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">50</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54511979"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dynamics of molecules in <span class="hlt">strong</span> oscillating electric fields using time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> Hartree-Fock theory</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Restricted and unrestricted forms of time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> Hartree-Fock theory have been implemented and used to study the electronic dynamics of ethene, benzene, and the formaldehyde cation subjected to both weak and <span class="hlt">strong</span> oscillating electric fields. Absorption spectra and frequency-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> polarizabilities are calculated via the instantaneous dipole moment and its derivative. In the weak field limit the computed excitation energies agree very</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Henk Eshuis; Gabriel G. Balint-Kurti; Frederick R. Manby</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">51</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvA..90c3414K"> <span id="translatedtitle">History-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> effects in subcycle-waveform <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field ionization</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent developments in laser sources allow one to shape the precise electric-field waveform oscillation at the subcycle level. These waveforms may then be used to drive and control ultrafast nonlinear phenomena at the attosecond timescale. By utilizing numerical solutions of time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> Schrödinger equations and exact solutions of a simple quantum-mechanical system, we show that an atom driven by such sources exhibit coherent history-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> effects. These manifest themselves in "macroscopic" quantities such as the yield in multicolor, <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field ionization. We argue that weakly bound, metastable electronic states may enable the <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on the system history even in long-duration, relatively weak driving waveforms.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kolesik, M.; Brown, J. M.; Moloney, J. V.; Faccio, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">52</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Ap%26SS.345..239Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temporal and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of GPS-TEC anomalies prior to the <span class="hlt">strong</span> earthquakes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Earthquakes are one of the most destructive and harmful natural disasters, especially in recent years, the 2008/5/12 Wenchuan M7.9 earthquake, the 2011/3/11 Tohoku M9.0 earthquake and the 2012/4/11 Sumatra M8.6 earthquake have caused a significant impact to the human life. In this paper, we make a study of the temporal and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of the Global Positioning System Total Electron Content (GPS TEC) anomalies prior to the three <span class="hlt">strong</span> earthquakes by the method of statistical analysis. Our results show that the pre-earthquake ionospheric anomalies are mainly positive anomalies and take the shape of a double-crest structure with a trough near the epicenter. The ionospheric anomalies do not coincide with the vertical projection of the epicenter of the subsequent earthquake, but mainly localize in the near-epicenter region and corresponding ionospheric anomalies are also simultaneously observed in the magnetic conjugate region prior to the three earthquakes. In addition, the amplitude and scale-size of the ionospheric ?TEC are different with the magnitude of the earthquake, and the horizontal scale-size of the greatest anomalies before the Tohoku M9.0 earthquake is ˜30? in longitude and ˜10? in latitude, with the maximum amplitude of TEC disturbances reaching ˜20 TECu relative to the background. The peak of anomaly enhancement usually occurs in the afternoon to sunset (i.e. between 14:00 and 18:00 local time) which lasts for approximate 2 hours. Possible causes of these anomalies are discussed, and after eliminating the effect of solar activities and magnetic storms it can be concluded that the detected obvious and regular anomalous behavior in TEC within just a few days before the earthquakes is related with the forthcoming earthquakes with high probability.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhu, Fuying; Wu, Yun; Zhou, Yiyan; Gao, Yang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">53</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22INHIBITION+OF%22&pg=5&id=EJ767975"> <span id="translatedtitle">Retrieval Induces Hippocampal-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Reconsolidation of <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Memory</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nonreinforced retrieval can cause extinction and/or reconsolidation, two processes that affect subsequent retrieval in opposite ways. Using the Morris water maze task we show that, in the rat, repeated nonreinforced expression of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> memory causes extinction, which is unaffected by inhibition of protein synthesis within the CA1 region of the…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rossato, Janine I.; Medina, Jorge H.; Izquierdo, Ivan; Cammarota, Martin; Bevilaqua, Lia R. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">54</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.anc.upmc.fr/biblioNca/pdf/Sheynikhovich2012b.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Exploratory behaviour <span class="hlt">depends</span> on multisensory integration during <span class="hlt">spatial</span> learning</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">: Computational neuroscience, evolutionary robotics, artifi- cial neural network, <span class="hlt">spatial</span> cognition, multisensory in unknown environ- ments is only partially understood. Early theories argued that exploring the environment]. According to the cognitive map theory [32], pyra- midal cells in the hippocampal formation (termed place</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arleo, Angelo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">55</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000GApFD..92..151Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">A matrix-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> transfer multigrid method for <span class="hlt">strongly</span> variable viscosity infinite Prandtl number thermal convection</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We apply a two-dimensional Cartesian finite element treatment to investigate infinite Prandtl number thermal convection with temperature, strain rate and yield stress <span class="hlt">dependent</span> rheology using parameters in the range estimated for the mantles of the terrestrial planets. To handle the <span class="hlt">strong</span> viscosity variations that arise from such nonlinear rheology in solving the momentum equation, we exploit a multigrid method based on matrix-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> intergrid transfer and the Galerkin coarse grid approximation. We observe that the matrix-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> transfer algorithm provides an exceptionally robust and efficient means for solving convection problems with extreme viscosity gradients. Our algorithm displays a convergence rate per multigrid cycle about five times better than what other published methods (e.g., CITCOM of Moresi and Solomatov, 1995) offer for cases with similar extreme viscosity variation. The algorithm is explained in detail in this paper. When this method is applied to problems with temperature and strain rate <span class="hlt">dependent</span> rheologies, we obtain <span class="hlt">strongly</span> time <span class="hlt">dependent</span> solutions characterized by episodic avalanching of cold material from the upper boundary layer to the bottom of the convecting domain for a significantly broad range of parameter values. In particular, we observe this behavior for the relatively simple case of temperature <span class="hlt">dependent</span> Newtonian rheology with a plastic yield stress. The intensity and temporal character of the episodic behavior <span class="hlt">depends</span> sensitively on the yield stress value. The regions most <span class="hlt">strongly</span> affected by the yield stress are thickened portions of the cold upper boundary layer which can suddenly become unstable and form downgoing diapirs. These computational results suggest that the finite yield properties of silicate rocks must play a vitally important role in planetary mantle dynamics. Although our example calculations were selected mainly to illustrate the power of our multigrid method, they suggest that many possible exotic behaviors in planetary mantles have yet to be discovered.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yang, Woo-Sun; Baumgardner, John R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">56</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22093571"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pulse-shape-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field ionization viewed with velocity-map imaging</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We explore <span class="hlt">strong</span> field molecular ionization with velocity map imaging of fragment ions produced by dissociation following ionization. Our measurements and ab initio electronic structure calculations allow us to identify various electronic states of the molecular cation populated during ionization, with multiple pathways to individual states highlighted by the pulse shape <span class="hlt">dependence</span>. In addition, we show that relative populations can be reconstructed from our measurements. The results illustrate how <span class="hlt">strong</span> field molecular ionization can be complicated by the presence and interaction of multiple cationic states during ionization.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Geissler, Dominik; Weinacht, Thomas C. [Department of Physics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Rozgonyi, Tamas [Chemical Research Center of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Pusztaszeri u't 59-67, Budapest, HU-1025 (Hungary); Gonzalez-Vazquez, Jesus [Instituto de Quimica Fisica Rocasolano, CSIC, C/Serrano 119, ES-28006 Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez, Leticia; Marquetand, Philipp [Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 17, 1090 Vienna (Austria)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">57</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/0810.2036v1"> <span id="translatedtitle">Parity <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> in <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Lens Systems as a Probe of Dark Matter Substructure</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The amount of mass in small, dark matter clumps within galaxies (substructure) is an important test of cold dark matter. One approach to measuring the substructure mass fraction is to analyze the fluxes of images that have been <span class="hlt">strongly</span> lensed by a galaxy. Flux ratios between images that are anomalous with respect to smooth (no substructure) models have previously suggested that there is a greater amount of substructure than found in dark matter simulations. One measure of anomalous flux ratios is parity <span class="hlt">dependence</span> -- that the fluxes of different images of a source are perturbed differently. In this paper, we discuss parity <span class="hlt">dependence</span> as a probe of dark matter substructure. We find that reproducing the observed parity <span class="hlt">dependence</span> requires a significant alignment between concentrated dark matter clumps and images. The results may imply a larger fraction of mass in substructures than suggested by some dark matter simulations and that the observed parity <span class="hlt">dependence</span> is unlikely to be reproduced by luminous satellites of lens galaxies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jacqueline Chen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-10-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">58</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/12511949"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pair production in a <span class="hlt">strong</span> time-<span class="hlt">depending</span> magnetic field: The effect of a <span class="hlt">strong</span> gravitational field</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present the calculation of the probability production of an electron–positron pair in the presence of a <span class="hlt">strong</span> magnetic field with time-varying strength. The calculation takes into account the presence of a <span class="hlt">strong</span>, constant and uniform gravitational field in the same direction of the magnetic field. The results show that the presence of the gravitational field in general enhances very</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Antonino Di Piazza; Giorgio Calucci</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">59</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvA..89c3418R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Model for atomic dielectric response in <span class="hlt">strong</span>, time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> laser fields</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A nonlocal quantum-mechanical model is presented for calculating the atomic dielectric response to a <span class="hlt">strong</span> laser electric field. By replacing the Coulomb potential with a nonlocal potential in the Schrödinger equation, a 3 + 1-dimensional calculation of the time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> electric dipole moment can be reformulated as a 0 + 1-dimensional integral equation that retains the three-dimensional dynamics, while offering significant computational savings. The model is benchmarked against an established ionization model and ab initio simulation of the time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> Schrödinger equation. The reduced computational overhead makes the model a promising candidate to incorporate full quantum-mechanical time dynamics in laser pulse propagation simulations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rensink, T. C.; Antonsen, T. M.; Palastro, J. P.; Gordon, D. F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">60</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1132230"> <span id="translatedtitle">Atmospheric Moisture Budget and <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Resolution <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> of Precipitation Extremes in Aquaplanet Simulations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study investigates the resolution <span class="hlt">dependency</span> of precipitation extremes in an aqua-planet framework. <span class="hlt">Strong</span> resolution <span class="hlt">dependency</span> of precipitation extremes is seen over both tropics and extra-tropics, and the magnitude of this <span class="hlt">dependency</span> also varies with dynamical cores. Moisture budget analyses based on aqua-planet simulations with the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) using the Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS) and High Order Method Modeling Environment (HOMME) dynamical cores but the same physics parameterizations suggest that during precipitation extremes moisture supply for surface precipitation is mainly derived from advective moisture convergence. The resolution <span class="hlt">dependency</span> of precipitation extremes mainly originates from advective moisture transport in the vertical direction. At most vertical levels over the tropics and in the lower atmosphere over the subtropics, the vertical eddy transport of mean moisture field dominates the contribution to precipitation extremes and its resolution <span class="hlt">dependency</span>. Over the subtropics, the source of moisture, its associated energy, and the resolution <span class="hlt">dependency</span> during extremes are dominated by eddy transport of eddies moisture at the mid- and upper-troposphere. With both MPAS and HOMME dynamical cores, the resolution <span class="hlt">dependency</span> of the vertical advective moisture convergence is mainly explained by dynamical changes (related to vertical velocity or omega), although the vertical gradients of moisture act like averaging kernels to determine the sensitivity of the overall resolution <span class="hlt">dependency</span> to the changes in omega at different vertical levels. The natural reduction of variability with coarser resolution, represented by areal data averaging (aggregation) effect, largely explains the resolution <span class="hlt">dependency</span> in omega. The thermodynamic changes, which likely result from non-linear feedback in response to the large dynamical changes, are small compared to the overall changes in dynamics (omega). However, after excluding the data aggregation effect in omega, thermodynamic changes become relatively significant in offsetting the effect of dynamics leading to reduce differences between the simulated and aggregated results. Compared to MPAS, the simulated stronger vertical motion with HOMME also results in larger resolution <span class="hlt">dependency</span>. Compared to the simulation at fine resolution, the vertical motion during extremes is insufficiently resolved/parameterized at the coarser resolution even after accounting for the natural reduction in variability with coarser resolution, and this is more distinct in the simulation with HOMME. To reduce uncertainties in simulated precipitation extremes, future development in cloud parameterizations must address their sensitivity to <span class="hlt">spatial</span> resolution as well as dynamical cores.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yang, Qing; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Rauscher, Sara; Ringler, Todd; Taylor, Mark</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">61</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/16476766"> <span id="translatedtitle">Large-Sample Properties of Parameter Estimates for <span class="hlt">Strongly</span> <span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Stationary Gaussian Time Series</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> Gaussian sequence has a spectral density $f(x, \\\\theta)$ satisfying $f(x, \\\\theta) \\\\sim |x|^{-\\\\alpha(\\\\theta)} L_\\\\theta(x)$ as $x \\\\rightarrow 0$, where $0 < \\\\alpha(\\\\theta) < 1$ and $L_\\\\theta(x)$ varies slowly at 0. Here $\\\\theta$ is a vector of unknown parameters. An estimator for $\\\\theta$ is proposed and shown to be consistent and asymptotically normal under appropriate conditions. These conditions</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robert Fox; Murad S. Taqqu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">62</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4364994"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span>, Temporal, and Density-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Components of Habitat Quality for a Desert Owl</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> variation in resources is a fundamental driver of habitat quality but the realized value of resources at any point in space may <span class="hlt">depend</span> on the effects of conspecifics and stochastic factors, such as weather, which vary through time. We evaluated the relative and combined effects of habitat resources, weather, and conspecifics on habitat quality for ferruginous pygmy-owls (Glaucidium brasilianum) in the Sonoran Desert of northwest Mexico by monitoring reproductive output and conspecific abundance over 10 years in and around 107 territory patches. Variation in reproductive output was much greater across space than time, and although habitat resources explained a much greater proportion of that variation (0.70) than weather (0.17) or conspecifics (0.13), evidence for interactions among each of these components of the environment was <span class="hlt">strong</span>. Relative to habitat that was persistently low in quality, high-quality habitat buffered the negative effects of conspecifics and amplified the benefits of favorable weather, but did not buffer the disadvantages of harsh weather. Moreover, the positive effects of favorable weather at low conspecific densities were offset by intraspecific competition at high densities. Although realized habitat quality declined with increasing conspecific density suggesting interference mechanisms associated with an Ideal Free Distribution, broad <span class="hlt">spatial</span> heterogeneity in habitat quality persisted. Factors linked to food resources had positive effects on reproductive output but only where nest cavities were sufficiently abundant to mitigate the negative effects of heterospecific enemies. Annual precipitation and brooding-season temperature had <span class="hlt">strong</span> multiplicative effects on reproductive output, which declined at increasing rates as drought and temperature increased, reflecting conditions predicted to become more frequent with climate change. Because the collective environment influences habitat quality in complex ways, integrated approaches that consider habitat resources, stochastic factors, and conspecifics are necessary to accurately assess habitat quality. PMID:25786257</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Flesch, Aaron D.; Hutto, Richard L.; van Leeuwen, Willem J. D.; Hartfield, Kyle; Jacobs, Sky</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">63</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25786257"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span>, temporal, and density-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> components of habitat quality for a desert owl.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> variation in resources is a fundamental driver of habitat quality but the realized value of resources at any point in space may <span class="hlt">depend</span> on the effects of conspecifics and stochastic factors, such as weather, which vary through time. We evaluated the relative and combined effects of habitat resources, weather, and conspecifics on habitat quality for ferruginous pygmy-owls (Glaucidium brasilianum) in the Sonoran Desert of northwest Mexico by monitoring reproductive output and conspecific abundance over 10 years in and around 107 territory patches. Variation in reproductive output was much greater across space than time, and although habitat resources explained a much greater proportion of that variation (0.70) than weather (0.17) or conspecifics (0.13), evidence for interactions among each of these components of the environment was <span class="hlt">strong</span>. Relative to habitat that was persistently low in quality, high-quality habitat buffered the negative effects of conspecifics and amplified the benefits of favorable weather, but did not buffer the disadvantages of harsh weather. Moreover, the positive effects of favorable weather at low conspecific densities were offset by intraspecific competition at high densities. Although realized habitat quality declined with increasing conspecific density suggesting interference mechanisms associated with an Ideal Free Distribution, broad <span class="hlt">spatial</span> heterogeneity in habitat quality persisted. Factors linked to food resources had positive effects on reproductive output but only where nest cavities were sufficiently abundant to mitigate the negative effects of heterospecific enemies. Annual precipitation and brooding-season temperature had <span class="hlt">strong</span> multiplicative effects on reproductive output, which declined at increasing rates as drought and temperature increased, reflecting conditions predicted to become more frequent with climate change. Because the collective environment influences habitat quality in complex ways, integrated approaches that consider habitat resources, stochastic factors, and conspecifics are necessary to accurately assess habitat quality. PMID:25786257</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Flesch, Aaron D; Hutto, Richard L; van Leeuwen, Willem J D; Hartfield, Kyle; Jacobs, Sky</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">64</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21901473"> <span id="translatedtitle">Federal state differentials in the efficiency of health production in Germany: an artifact of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span>?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Due to regional competition and patient migration, the efficiency of healthcare provision at the regional level is subject to <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span>. We address this issue by applying a <span class="hlt">spatial</span> autoregressive model to longitudinal data from Germany at the district ('Kreis') level. The empirical model is specified to explain efficiency scores, which we derive through non-parametric order-m efficiency analysis of regional health production. The focus is on the role of health policy of federal states ('Bundesländer') for district efficiency. Regression results reveal significant <span class="hlt">spatial</span> spillover effects. Notably, accounting for <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> does not decrease but increases the estimated effect of federal states on district efficiency. It appears that genuinely more efficient states are less affected by positive efficiency spillovers, so that taking into account <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> clarifies the importance of health policy at the state level. PMID:21901473</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Felder, Stefan; Tauchmann, Harald</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">65</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41063106"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tests for <span class="hlt">spatial</span> lag <span class="hlt">dependence</span> based on method of moments estimation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, we formulate GMM versions of the Wald, the Likelihood ratio and the Lagrange multiplier test statistics for <span class="hlt">spatial</span> lag <span class="hlt">dependence</span> in the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> lag model with autocorrelated errors. The tests are based on the GMM estimator suggested by Kelejian and Robinson [Papers in Regional Science: J. RSAI 72 (1993) 297] and on the work of Newey and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Luz A. Saavedra</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">66</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://biology.unm.edu/jhbrown/Documents/Publications/2000s/2009-12%20Temperature%20dependence.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span>, <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale, and tree species diversity in eastern Asia and North America</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span>, <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale, and tree species diversity in eastern Asia and North America in eastern Asia and North America to investigate the roles of environmental temperature and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale and temperature is much steeper in eastern Asia than in North America: in cold climates at high latitudes</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brown, James H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">67</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMSH23B1840L"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> heating and ionization: From CME to ICME</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The January 21st 2005 Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection (ICME) observed by multiple spacecraft at L1 was also observed further out in the heliosphere at Ulysses (~3.25 AU). Previous multi-spacecraft studies of this ICME found evidence suggesting that the flanks of a magnetic cloud like structure associated with this ICME were observed at L1 while a more central cut through the associated magnetic cloud was observed at Ulysses. This event presents a unique opportunity to study the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variation of the ionic composition contained within a single ICME and relate it to the eruption at the Sun. Using SWICS, we compare and contrast the heavy ion composition across the two different observations cuts through the ICME. We will compare the results from ACE and Ulysses with predictions from ionization models in the corona and with remote observations of phenomena indicative of electron heating in the inner corona.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lepri, S. T.; Laming, J.; Rakowski, C. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">68</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NucFu..55a3014F"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> cluster dynamics model of He plasma surface interaction in tungsten for fusion relevant conditions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In fusion reactors, plasma facing components (PFC) and, in particular, the divertor will be irradiated with high fluxes of low-energy (˜100 eV) helium and hydrogen ions. Tungsten is one of the leading candidate divertor materials for ITER and DEMO fusion reactors. However, the behaviour of tungsten under high dose, coupled helium/hydrogen exposure remains to be fully understood. The PFC response and performance changes are intimately related to microstructural changes, such as the formation of point defect clusters, helium and hydrogen bubbles or dislocation loops. Computational materials' modelling results are described here that investigate the mechanisms controlling microstructural evolution in tungsten. The aim of this study is to understand and predict sub-surface helium bubble growth under high flux helium ion implantation (˜1022 m?2 s?1) at high temperatures (>1000 K). We report results from a <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> cluster dynamics model based on reaction–diffusion rate theory to describe the evolution of the microstructure under these conditions. The key input parameters to the model (diffusion coefficients, migration and binding energies, initial defect production) are determined from a combination of atomistic modelling and available experimental data. The results are in good agreement with results of an analytical model that is presented in a separate paper. In particular, it is found that the sub-surface evolution with respect to bubble size and concentration of the helium bubbles <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">depends</span> on the flux and temperature.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Faney, T.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Wirth, B. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">69</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ChPhB..24c3302Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ellipticity-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> ionization/dissociation of carbon dioxide in <span class="hlt">strong</span> laser fields</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ionization and dissociation of linear triatomic molecules, carbon dioxide, are studied in 50-fs 800-nm <span class="hlt">strong</span> laser fields using time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The yields of double charged ions and various fragment ions (CO+, On+, and Cn+ (n = 1, 2)) are measured as a function of ellipticity of laser polarization in the intensity range from 5.0 × 1013 W/cm2 to 6.0 × 1014 W/cm2. The results demonstrate that non-sequential double ionization, which is induced by laser-driven electron recollision, dominates double ionization of CO2 in the <span class="hlt">strong</span> IR laser field with intensity lower than 2.0 × 1014 W/cm2. The electron recollision could also have contribution in <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field multiple ionization and formation of fragments of CO2 molecules. The present study indicates that the intensity and ellipticity <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of ions yields can be used to probe the complex dynamics of <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field ionization/dissociation of polyatomic molecules. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB922200) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11034003 and 11274140).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Jun-Feng; Ma, Ri; Zuo, Wan-Long; Lv, Hang; Huang, Hong-Wei; Xu, Hai-Feng; Jin, Ming-Xing; Ding, Da-Jun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">70</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1502.04016v1"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strongly</span> interacting photons in arrays of dissipative nonlinear cavities under a frequency-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> incoherent pumping</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report a theoretical study of a quantum optical model consisting of an array of <span class="hlt">strongly</span> nonlinear cavities incoherently pumped by an ensemble of population-inverted two-level atoms. Projective methods are used to eliminate the atomic dynamics and write a generalized master equation for the photonic degrees of freedom only, where the frequency-<span class="hlt">dependence</span> of gain introduces non-Markovian features. In the simplest single cavity configuration, this pumping scheme allows for the selective generation of Fock states with a well-defined photon number. For many cavities in a weakly non-Markovian limit, the non-equilibrium steady state recovers a Grand-Canonical statistical ensemble at a temperature determined by the effective atomic linewidth. For a two-cavity system in the <span class="hlt">strongly</span> nonlinear regime, signatures of a Mott state with one photon per cavity are found.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">José Lebreuilly; Iacopo Carusotto; Michiel Wouters</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-02-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">71</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17881814"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of MLC transmission in IMRT delivery.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In complex intensity-modulated radiation therapy cases, a considerable amount of the total dose may be delivered through closed leaves. In such cases an accurate knowledge of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> characteristics of multileaf collimator (MLC) transmission is crucial, especially for the treatment of large targets with split fields. Measurements with an ionization chamber, radiographic films (EDR2, EBT) and EPID are taken to characterize all relevant effects related to MLC transmission for various field sizes and depths. Here we present a phenomenological model to describe MLC transmission, whereby the main focus is the off-axis decrease of transmission for symmetric and asymmetric fields as well as on effects due to the tongue and groove design of the leaves, such as interleaf transmission and the tongue and groove effect. Data obtained with the four different methods are presented, and the utility of each measurement method to determine the necessary model parameters is discussed. With the developed model, it is possible to predict the relevant MLC effects at any point in the phantom for arbitrary jaw settings and depths. PMID:17881814</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lorenz, Friedlieb; Nalichowski, Adrian; Rosca, Florin; Kung, Jong; Wenz, Frederik; Zygmanski, Piotr</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">72</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.9212S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variability of NO2 over polluted areas and within emission plumes observed by aircraft imaging DOAS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the troposphere, nitrogen dioxide, NO2, is mainly produced from nitric oxide, NO, emitted by combustion processes. Enhanced NO2 amounts are an indicator of air pollution and may lead to boundary layer ozone production as well as acidification and eutrophication of ecosystems. The IUP Bremen AirMAP (Airborne imaging DOAS instrument for Measurements of Atmospheric Pollution) has been used for NO2 observations over point sources and polluted areas during aircraft campaigns in 2011 and 2013. The instrument yields NO2 column densities at fine horizontal resolution, down to 30m ground pixel side length, and at good <span class="hlt">spatial</span> coverage. Areas of several km2 are covered with NO2 measurements within a few minutes. Aircraft observations of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> NO2 distributions are presented for different locations in Europe and different source regions, such as power plants, cities and motorways. The obtained NO2 maps reveal large <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variability. For example, large gradients in the transition between rural and urban areas, <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variability over cities and extended areas and, in particular, remarkably <span class="hlt">strong</span> non-uniform distributions within individual emission plumes downwind of point sources are observed. The observations have implications for experimental emission estimates, the deduced relevance of emission sources and downwind chemistry, as well as the interpretation of satellite- and ground-based remote sensing measurements. The focus of this study is the analysis of the amounts and detailed <span class="hlt">spatial</span> signatures in the NO2 maps, which is made possible by the favourable AirMAP imaging capabilities.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schoenhardt, Anja; Meier, Andreas C.; Richter, Andreas; Ruhtz, Thomas; Lindemann, Carsten; Burrows, John P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">73</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20786742"> <span id="translatedtitle">Wavelength <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of double ionization of xenon in a <span class="hlt">strong</span> laser field</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The wavelength <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of double ionization of xenon in a 100-fs laser pulse (2-4x10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2}) has been studied using photoelectron imaging and ion time-of-flight spectrometry. In the wavelength ranges between 1150 and 1560 nm and 792 and 803 nm a pronounced variation of the ratio of ion yields Xe{sup 2+}/Xe{sup +} is observed. We attribute this variation to the <span class="hlt">strong</span> influence of a 5s{sup 2}5p{sup 5}{yields}5s5p{sup 6} transition on the dynamics of double ionization.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kaminski, Patrick; Wiehle, Rolf; Kamke, Wolfgang; Helm, Hanspeter [Department of Molecular and Optical Physics, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Witzel, Bernd [Departement de physique, genie physique et optique, Universite Laval Pav. Alexandre-Vachon, Quebec G1K7P4 (Canada)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">74</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/956379"> <span id="translatedtitle">Intensity <span class="hlt">dependent</span> waiting time for <span class="hlt">strong</span> electron trapping events in speckle stimulated raman scatter</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The onset of Stimulated Raman scatter from an intense laser speckle is the simplest experimentally realizable laser-plasma-interaction environment. Despite this data and recent 3D particle simulations, the controlling mechanism at the onset of backscatter in the kinetic regime when <span class="hlt">strong</span> electron trapping in the daughter Langmuir wave is a dominant nonlinearity is not understood. This paper explores the consequences of assuming that onset is controlled by large thermal fluctuations. A super exponential <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of mean reflectivity on speckle intensity in the onset regime is predicted.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rose, Harvey [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daughton, W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yin, L [Los Alamos National Laboratory</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">75</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17321174"> <span id="translatedtitle">Object <span class="hlt">dependent</span> sweep width reduction with spectral-<span class="hlt">spatial</span> EPR imaging.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">For spectral-<span class="hlt">spatial</span> EPR imaging, prior knowledge about the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> support of an imaged object can be exploited in two ways. We can shrink the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> field of view (FOV) to closely wrap the object in a sphere or reduce the sweep width in a projection <span class="hlt">dependent</span> fashion. Use of a smaller <span class="hlt">spatial</span> FOV with the same number of samples enhances <span class="hlt">spatial</span> resolution by reducing voxel volume at the expense of signal-to-noise and a consequent degraded line-width resolution. We have developed another approach to define sweep width that prunes away the portions of the projection sweep with no signal. This reduces data acquisition time for the continuous wave (CW) EPR image proportional to the sweep width reduction. This method also avoids voxel volume reduction. Using the reduced-sweep method, we decreased the data acquisition time by 20% maintaining <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and linewidth resolution. PMID:17321174</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ahn, Kang-Hyun; Halpern, Howard J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">76</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1110.1247v2"> <span id="translatedtitle">Anomalous Molecular Weight <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> of Chain Dynamics in Unentangled Polymer Blends with <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Dynamic Asymmetry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We address the general question of how the molecular weight <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of chain dynamics in unentangled polymers is modified by blending. By dielectric spectroscopy we measure the normal mode relaxation of polyisoprene in blends with a slow matrix of poly(ter-butylstyrene). Unentangled polyisoprene in the blend exhibits <span class="hlt">strong</span> deviations from Rouse scaling, approaching 'entangled-like' behavior at low temperatures in concomitance with the increase of the dynamic asymmetry in the blend. The obtained results are discussed in the framework of the generalized Langevin equation formalism. On this basis, a non trivial relationship between the molecular weight <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the longest chain relaxation time and the nonexponentiality of the corresponding Rouse correlator is found. This result is confirmed by molecular dynamics simulations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Silvia Arrese-Igor; Angel Alegria; Angel J. Moreno; Juan Colmenero</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">77</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22027709"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> terahertz radiation by beating of <span class="hlt">spatial</span>-triangular lasers in a plasma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Resonant excitation of terahertz (THz) radiation by beating of two <span class="hlt">spatial</span>-triangular laser beams having different frequencies and wave numbers but the same electric fields is proposed, where the ponderomotive force in the transverse direction is realized due to the beating and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variation of the lasers' fields. This gives rise to a stronger transient transverse current due to a sharp gradient in the laser field, and subsequently THz radiation is excited resonantly in the presence of a periodic density structure. The present scheme yields the THz field {approx}10{sup 5} kV/cm and the efficiency {approx}10{sup -2} for the laser intensity {approx}10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Malik, Anil K.; Malik, Hitendra K. [Plasma Waves and Particle Acceleration Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi-110 016 (India); Stroth, Ulrich [Institute fuer Plasmaforschung, Universitaet Stuttgart, Stuttgart-70569 (Germany)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">78</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/0711.0989v2"> <span id="translatedtitle">Color <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> in the <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Distribution of Satellite Galaxies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We explore the color <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the radial profile of satellite galaxies around isolated parent galaxies. Samples of potential satellites selected from large galaxy redshift surveys are significantly contaminated by interlopers -- objects not bound to the parent galaxy. We use the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to estimate the interloper fraction in samples of candidate satellite galaxies. We show that samples of red and blue satellites have different interloper populations: a larger fraction of blue galaxies are likely to be interlopers compared to red galaxies. Both with and without interloper subtraction, the radial profile of blue satellites is significantly shallower than that of red satellites. In addition, while red and blue primaries have different interloper fractions, the slope of the corrected radial profiles are consistent after interloper correction. We discuss the implications of these results for galaxy formation models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jacqueline Chen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-04-08</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">79</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3391295"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Influence on Colonization Rates in a Pioneer Zooplankton Metacommunity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The magnitude of community-wide dispersal is central to metacommunity models, yet dispersal is notoriously difficult to quantify in passive and cryptic dispersers such as many freshwater invertebrates. By overcoming the problem of quantifying dispersal rates, colonization rates into new habitats can provide a useful estimate of the magnitude of effective dispersal. Here we study the influence of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and local processes on colonization rates into new ponds that indicate differential dispersal limitation of major zooplankton taxa, with important implications for metacommunity dynamics. We identify regional and local factors that affect zooplankton colonization rates and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> patterns in a large-scale experimental system. Our study differs from others in the unique setup of the experimental pond area by which we were able to test <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and environmental variables at a large <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale. We quantified colonization rates separately for the Copepoda, Cladocera and Rotifera from samples collected over a period of 21 months in 48 newly constructed temporary ponds of 0.18–2.95 ha distributed in a restored wetland area of 2,700 ha in Doñana National Park, Southern Spain. Species richness upon initial sampling of new ponds was about one third of that in reference ponds, although the rate of detection of new species from thereon were not significantly different, probably owing to high turnover in the dynamic, temporary reference ponds. Environmental heterogeneity had no detectable effect on colonization rates in new ponds. In contrast, connectivity, space (based on latitude and longitude) and surface area were key determinants of colonization rates for copepods and cladocerans. This suggests dispersal limitation in cladocerans and copepods, but not in rotifers, possibly due to differences in propagule size and abundance. PMID:22792241</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Frisch, Dagmar; Cottenie, Karl; Badosa, Anna; Green, Andy J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">80</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/19515483"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Correlations in <span class="hlt">Strongly</span> Correlated Electron Systems: Extension to Dynamical Mean Field Approximation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We propose a formalism to take account of the correction of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> fluctuations to the local self-energy obtained by the dynamical mean-field approximation. For this purpose, the approximate dynamical susceptibility in the framework of the iterated perturbation theory is proposed and examined. Using the formalism, it is demonstrated that the one-particle spectral intensity in the two-dimensional Hubbard model at</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hiroaki Kusunose</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return 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id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return 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showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">81</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..MAR.X1003A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> DMRG studies of <span class="hlt">strongly</span> correlated systems out of equilibrium</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The recent development of time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> density-matrix renormalization group (tDMRG) has opened the door for studying several interesting problems that involve the nonequilibrium real-time dynamics of <span class="hlt">strongly</span> interacting 1D lattice models [1]. We describe briefly one tDMRG approach, the Suzuki-Trotter algorithm. Then we discuss applying tDMRG to study the conductance of <span class="hlt">strongly</span> correlated nanostructures [2] and describe a method to mitigate finite-size effects which may arise in such studies [3]. We present a few examples including quantum dots in the Kondo regime, and dielectric breakdown of a Mott insulator. Another class of problems involves the time-evolution of excitations in cold atoms and <span class="hlt">strongly</span> interacting electronic materials. We present the results of a tDMRG study of an electron-hole pair in a 1D Mott insulator [4]. We finally present other possible applications and future directions. [4pt] [1] S. R. White and A. E. Feiguin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 076401 (2004).[0pt] [2] K. A. Al-Hassanieh et al., Phys. Rev. B 73, 195304 (2006).[0pt] [3] Luis G. G. V. Dias da Silva et al., Phys. Rev. B 78 195317 (2008).[0pt] [4] K. A. Al-Hassanieh et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 166403 (2008).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Al-Hassanieh, Khaled</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">82</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..118.3650N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hourly global irradiance from satellite data in Badajoz, Spain: <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> and temporal <span class="hlt">dependence</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Satellite estimates of solar radiation at the hourly scale <span class="hlt">depend</span> on the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and temporal variability of solar radiation within a region. To examine this effect, a field program was established near Badajoz, Spain (38.88°N, 7.01°W) consisting in deployment of seven pyranometers at or adjoining the Meteosat pixel for the area. A simple semiempirical retrieval approach based on the satellite reflectance was developed using data from one pyranometer station at the University campus and subsequently tested with an independent data set for the same station. The accuracy of the satellite estimate is a <span class="hlt">strong</span> function of the averaging period and the frequency of satellite scans used. At the hourly scale, best estimates of solar irradiance are obtained with satellite data taken every 5 min, giving a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.883. Within-pixel <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variability of measured irradiance is substantial but only for averaging periods less than 1 h. Comparison of surface point measurements with the satellite retrieval algorithm at the 5 min scale are associated with a relative RMS difference of 20.2% out of which 19.5% is due to model-induced uncertainties and 5.2% is due to instrumentation uncertainties involved in the retrieval process. Within-pixel point sampling will lower both the instrument uncertainty and the uncertainty in the retrieval algorithm for averaging periods lower than 1 h. Beyond this time, a single pyranometer is well representative of the overhead cloud structure, reaching root mean square difference values of 14% at the hourly scale.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nunez, M.; Serrano, A.; Cancillo, M. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">83</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41132864"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temporal and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variability of copper complexation by <span class="hlt">strong</span> chelators in the Sargasso Sea</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Copper(II) complexation in the upper water column was studied at the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series Station (BATS) from January 1992 to March 1993, and in the southern Sargasso Sea in April 1992, using adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (ACSV). Copper titration data, analysed using a one ligand model, indicated that speciation was dominated by a <span class="hlt">strong</span> ligand or ligand class, with</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">James W. Moffett</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">84</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14..358B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Runoff source or sink? Biocrust hydrological function <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">depends</span> on the relative abundance of mosses</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The redistribution of water in semi-arid environments is critical for overall ecosystem productivity. To a large degree, ecosystem engineers may determine the redistribution of water. Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are one such group of ecosystem engineers. Their effects on infiltration have been somewhat controversial, varying from place to place and ranging from <span class="hlt">strongly</span> positive to <span class="hlt">strongly</span> negative. In addition, they coexist with and are modified by additional ecosystem engineers. We used a systems approach to examine the interactive effects of multiple engineers on infiltration processes across two analogous sets of interactors. First in Spain, we examined interactions among Stipa tenacissima, biocrusts, and the European rabbit; and in Australia, the interaction between biocrusts and the bilby (a rabbit-like marsupial). We focused on the effects of particular community properties of biocrusts such as species richness, total cover, species composition, and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> patterning to characterize their variable effects on infiltration. We measured the early (sorptivity) and later (steady-state infiltration) stages of infiltration at two supply potentials using disk permeameters, which allowed us to determine the relative effects of different engineers and soil micropores on water flow through large macropores. In the Spanish case, structural equation modeling showed that both Stipa and biocrust cover exerted substantial and equal positive effects on infiltration under ponding, whereas indirectly, rabbit disturbance negatively affected infiltration by reducing crust cover; rabbits had negligible direct effects. The biocrust influence could be partitioned roughly equally between total cover and composition. All lichen species were negatively related to infiltration and almost all mosses were positively related to infiltration. In the Australian study, bilby forage pits had a direct and <span class="hlt">strong</span> positive influence on steady state infiltration under ponding and most infiltration variables, and moderate effects on biocrust properties. Biocrust total cover and composition were again the most influential of biocrust community properties on infiltration, especially in the case of the composition effect on steady state infiltration under ponding. The key difference was that the Australian biocrusts primarily decreased infiltration. On dune runoff zones, later successional biocrusts (lichens, mosses, dark cyanobacterial crusts) of any type decreased infiltration rates compared to early successional crusts. On swale run-on zones, lichens impeded infiltration and mosses did not. These results highlight the importance of biocrusts as key players in the redistribution of water, and demonstrate the modulating role played by animal ecosystem engineers through their localized surface disturbances. Our studies highlight the central role of the relative abundance of mosses compared to other biocrust organisms as an underappreciated, and perhaps a key, determinant of biocrust hydrology.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bowker, M. A.; Eldridge, D. J.; Maestre, F. T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">85</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2602691"> <span id="translatedtitle">Restricted dispersal reduces the strength of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> density <span class="hlt">dependence</span> in a tropical bird population</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> processes could play an important role in density-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> population regulation because the disproportionate use of poor quality habitats as population size increases is widespread in animal populations—the so-called buffer effect. While the buffer effect patterns and their demographic consequences have been described in a number of wild populations, much less is known about how dispersal affects distribution patterns and ultimately density <span class="hlt">dependence</span>. Here, we investigated the role of dispersal in <span class="hlt">spatial</span> density <span class="hlt">dependence</span> using an extraordinarily detailed dataset from a reintroduced Mauritius kestrel (Falco punctatus) population with a territorial (despotic) breeding system. We show that recruitment rates varied significantly between territories, and that territory occupancy was related to its recruitment rate, both of which are consistent with the buffer effect theory. However, we also show that restricted dispersal affects the patterns of territory occupancy with the territories close to release sites being occupied sooner and for longer as the population has grown than the territories further away. As a result of these dispersal patterns, the strength of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> density <span class="hlt">dependence</span> is significantly reduced. We conclude that restricted dispersal can modify <span class="hlt">spatial</span> density <span class="hlt">dependence</span> in the wild, which has implications for the way population dynamics are likely to be impacted by environmental change. PMID:18285284</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Burgess, Malcolm D; Nicoll, Malcolm A.C; Jones, Carl G; Norris, Ken</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">86</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25904529"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> moment dynamics for collective cell movement incorporating a neighbour-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> directional bias.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The ability of cells to undergo collective movement plays a fundamental role in tissue repair, development and cancer. Interactions occurring at the level of individual cells may lead to the development of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> structure which will affect the dynamics of migrating cells at a population level. Models that try to predict population-level behaviour often take a mean-field approach, which assumes that individuals interact with one another in proportion to their average density and ignores the presence of any small-scale <span class="hlt">spatial</span> structure. In this work, we develop a lattice-free individual-based model (IBM) that uses random walk theory to model the stochastic interactions occurring at the scale of individual migrating cells. We incorporate a mechanism for local directional bias such that an individual's direction of movement is <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on the degree of cell crowding in its neighbourhood. As an alternative to the mean-field approach, we also employ <span class="hlt">spatial</span> moment theory to develop a population-level model which accounts for <span class="hlt">spatial</span> structure and predicts how these individual-level interactions propagate to the scale of the whole population. The IBM is used to derive an equation for dynamics of the second <span class="hlt">spatial</span> moment (the average density of pairs of cells) which incorporates the neighbour-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> directional bias, and we solve this numerically for a <span class="hlt">spatially</span> homogeneous case. PMID:25904529</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Binny, Rachelle N; Plank, Michael J; James, Alex</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">87</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3958339"> <span id="translatedtitle">Need for Space: The Key Distance Effect <span class="hlt">Depends</span> on <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Stimulus Configurations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In numerous psychological experiments, participants classify stimuli by pressing response keys. According to Lakens, Schneider, Jostmann, and Schubert (2011), classification performance is affected by physical distance between response keys – indicating a cognitive tendency to represent categories in <span class="hlt">spatial</span> code. However, previous evidence for a key distance effect (KDE) from a color-naming Stroop task is inconclusive as to whether: (a) key separation automatically leads to an internal <span class="hlt">spatial</span> representation of non-<span class="hlt">spatial</span> stimulus characteristics in participants, or if the KDE rather <span class="hlt">depends</span> on physical <span class="hlt">spatial</span> characteristics of the stimulus configuration; (b) the KDE attenuates the Stroop interference effect. We therefore first adopted the original Stroop task in Experiment 1, confirming that wider key distance facilitated responses, but did not modulate the Stroop effect as was previously found. In Experiments 2 and 3 we controlled potential mediator variables in the original design. When we did not display instructions about stimulus-response mappings, thereby removing the unintended <span class="hlt">spatial</span> context from the Stroop stimuli, no KDE emerged. Presenting the instructions at a central position in Experiment 4 confirmed that key separation alone is not sufficient for a KDE, but correspondence between <span class="hlt">spatial</span> configurations of stimuli and responses is also necessary. Evidence indicates that the KDE on Stroop performance is due to known mechanisms of stimulus-response compatibility and response discriminability. The KDE does, however, not demonstrate a general disposition to represent any stimulus in <span class="hlt">spatial</span> code. PMID:24642888</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stephan, Julia; Franz, Volker H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">88</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24642888"> <span id="translatedtitle">Need for space: the key distance effect <span class="hlt">depends</span> on <span class="hlt">spatial</span> stimulus configurations.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In numerous psychological experiments, participants classify stimuli by pressing response keys. According to Lakens, Schneider, Jostmann, and Schubert (2011), classification performance is affected by physical distance between response keys--indicating a cognitive tendency to represent categories in <span class="hlt">spatial</span> code. However, previous evidence for a key distance effect (KDE) from a color-naming Stroop task is inconclusive as to whether: (a) key separation automatically leads to an internal <span class="hlt">spatial</span> representation of non-<span class="hlt">spatial</span> stimulus characteristics in participants, or if the KDE rather <span class="hlt">depends</span> on physical <span class="hlt">spatial</span> characteristics of the stimulus configuration; (b) the KDE attenuates the Stroop interference effect. We therefore first adopted the original Stroop task in Experiment 1, confirming that wider key distance facilitated responses, but did not modulate the Stroop effect as was previously found. In Experiments 2 and 3 we controlled potential mediator variables in the original design. When we did not display instructions about stimulus-response mappings, thereby removing the unintended <span class="hlt">spatial</span> context from the Stroop stimuli, no KDE emerged. Presenting the instructions at a central position in Experiment 4 confirmed that key separation alone is not sufficient for a KDE, but correspondence between <span class="hlt">spatial</span> configurations of stimuli and responses is also necessary. Evidence indicates that the KDE on Stroop performance is due to known mechanisms of stimulus-response compatibility and response discriminability. The KDE does, however, not demonstrate a general disposition to represent any stimulus in <span class="hlt">spatial</span> code. PMID:24642888</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jonas, Melanie; Eloka, Owino; Stephan, Julia; Franz, Volker H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">89</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMMR21A1989W"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strongly</span> Composition-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Partial Molar Compressibility of Water in Silicate Glasses</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Water and other volatiles have long been known to play a fundamental role in igneous processes, yet their influence on the physical properties of melts are still not well enough understood. Of particular interest is the density contrast between liquid and solid phases, which facilitates melt extraction and migration. Owing to its low molecular weight, dissolved water must decrease magma density, but the way it does so as a function of pressure remains largely to be determined. Studies on quenched melts (glasses) provide useful information because the glass has the same structure as the melt. We measured compressional and shear wave velocities of seven series of hydrous aluminosilicate glasses by Brillouin scattering at room temperature and pressure. The glasses were quenched from high temperature and 2 or 3 kbar pressure. The dry end-members range from highly polymerized albitic and granitic compositions, to depolymerized synthetic analogues of mantle-derived melts. For each set of glasses, the adiabatic shear and bulk moduli have been calculated from the measured sound velocities and densities. These moduli are linear functions of water content up to 5 wt % H2O, the highest concentration investigated, indicating that both are independent of water speciation in all series. For water-free glasses, the bulk modulus decreases from about 65 to 35 GPa with increasing degree of polymerization. Sympathetically, the partial molar bulk modulus of the water component decreases from 114 to 8 GPa, such that dissolved water amplifies the differences in rigidity between the anhydrous glasses. This <span class="hlt">strong</span> variation indicates that the solubility mechanisms of water <span class="hlt">depend</span> <span class="hlt">strongly</span> on silicate composition. Depolymerized liquids are also much less compressible than their polymerized counterparts, suggesting that the partial molar compressibility of dissolved water approaches zero in depolymerized liquids. If this is correct, hydrous mantle melts formed beneath volcanic arcs would be more buoyant at depth than previously thought, facilitating their extraction and rapid ascent.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Whittington, A. G.; Richet, P.; Polian, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">90</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvD..90d3014G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Compton scattering in <span class="hlt">strong</span> magnetic fields: Spin-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> influences at the cyclotron resonance</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The quantum electrodynamical (QED) process of Compton scattering in <span class="hlt">strong</span> magnetic fields is commonly invoked in atmospheric and inner magnetospheric models of x-ray and soft gamma-ray emission in high-field pulsars and magnetars. A major influence of the field is to introduce resonances at the cyclotron frequency and its harmonics, where the incoming photon accesses thresholds for the creation of virtual electrons or positrons in intermediate states with excited Landau levels. At these resonances, the effective cross section typically exceeds the classical Thomson value by over 2 orders of magnitude. Near and above the quantum critical magnetic field of 44.13 TeraGauss, relativistic corrections must be incorporated when computing this cross section. This profound enhancement underpins the anticipation that resonant Compton scattering is a very efficient process in the environs of highly magnetized neutron stars. This paper presents formalism for the QED magnetic Compton differential cross section valid for both subcritical and supercritical fields, yet restricted to scattered photons that are below pair creation threshold. Calculations are developed for the particular case of photons initially propagating along the field, and in the limit of zero vacuum dispersion, mathematically simple specializations that are germane to interactions involving relativistic electrons frequently found in neutron star magnetospheres. This exposition of relativistic, quantum, magnetic Compton cross sections treats electron spin <span class="hlt">dependence</span> fully, since this is a critical feature for describing the finite decay lifetimes of the intermediate states. Such lifetimes are introduced to truncate the resonant cyclotronic divergences via standard Lorentz profiles. The formalism employs both the traditional Johnson and Lippmann (JL) wave functions and the Sokolov and Ternov (ST) electron eigenfunctions of the magnetic Dirac equation. The ST states are formally correct for self-consistently treating spin-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> effects that are so important in the resonances. It is found that the values of the polarization-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> differential cross section <span class="hlt">depend</span> significantly on the choice of ST or JL eigenstates when in the fundamental resonance but not outside of it, a characteristic that is naturally expected. Relatively compact analytic forms for the cross sections are presented that will prove useful for astrophysical modelers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gonthier, Peter L.; Baring, Matthew G.; Eiles, Matthew T.; Wadiasingh, Zorawar; Taylor, Caitlin A.; Fitch, Catherine J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">91</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://allison.bio.uci.edu/publications/martinyj2011.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Drivers of bacterial -diversity <span class="hlt">depend</span> on <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale Jennifer B. H. Martinya,1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">whether the mechanisms that underlie bacterial -diversity vary over centimeters to continental <span class="hlt">spatial</span> diversification of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria taxa at the continental scale, de- spite an overall relationship-decay | Nitrosomonadales | ecological drift Biodiversity supports the ecosystem processes upon which so- ciety <span class="hlt">depends</span> (1</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">German, Donovan P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">92</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52455678"> <span id="translatedtitle">Observed Southern Hemisphere Eddy Statistics at 500 mb: Frequency and <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">Dependence</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nearly eight years of daily Southern Hemisphere analyses at 500 mb have been used to define the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the variance fields of geopotential height and the two geostrophic wind components, the corresponding covariance fields, and the transient kinetic energy. The fields are further examined in the frequency domain by using Lorenz' (1979) `poor man's spectral analysis' technique. In</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kevin E. Trenberth</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">93</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.stt.msu.edu/~sdass/papers/Technometrics-2011.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">ASSESSING FINGERPRINT INDIVIDUALITY USING EPIC: A CASE STUDY IN THE ANALYSIS OF <span class="hlt">SPATIALLY</span> <span class="hlt">DEPENDENT</span> MARKED</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">ASSESSING FINGERPRINT INDIVIDUALITY USING EPIC: A CASE STUDY IN THE ANALYSIS OF <span class="hlt">SPATIALLY</span> <span class="hlt">DEPENDENT</span> MARKED PROCESSES By Chae Young Lim and Sarat C. Dass Michigan State University Fingerprint individuality refers to the extent of uniqueness of finger- prints and is governed by the distribution of fingerprint</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dass, Sarat C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">94</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://web.hwr.arizona.edu/~surface/files/publications/2011WR009998.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> scale <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of ecohydrologically mediated water balance partitioning: A synthesis framework for catchment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">concerned with pre- dicting the effects of global change on water scarcity, water quality, waterrelated<span class="hlt">Spatial</span> scale <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of ecohydrologically mediated water balance partitioning: A synthesis February 2011; published 11 May 2011. [1] The difficulties in predicting whole catchment water balance from</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Troch, Peter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">95</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/76/36/31/PDF/Almendros_Seismic_Interferences.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> amplitude patterns of harmonic tremor at Arenal volcano, Costa Rica</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> amplitude patterns of harmonic tremor at Arenal volcano, Costa Rica: seismic´afico Nacional, 28014 Madrid, Spain 4 Escuela Centroamericana de Geolog´ia, Universidad de Costa Rica, AP 214-2060 San Jos´e, Costa Rica 5 Institut des Sciences de la Terre, Universit´e de Savoie, CNRS, F-73376 Le</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paris-Sud XI, Université de</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">96</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.uni-oldenburg.de/landeco/Staff/Biedermann/biedermann_ens_2007.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">ORIGINAL ARTICLE Scale-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> population dynamics of gall-makers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">ORIGINAL ARTICLE Scale-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> population dynamics of gall-makers on oak Robert, Oldenburg, Germany Abstract The patterns of synchrony in the population fluctuations of six species of gall-makers km) and a large-scale transect (500 km). Gall-maker species differed in their degree of synchrony</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Biedermann, Robert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">97</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3530747"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hippocampus-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> place learning enables <span class="hlt">spatial</span> flexibility in C57BL6/N mice</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> navigation is a fundamental capability necessary in everyday life to locate food, social partners, and shelter. It results from two very different strategies: (1) place learning which enables for flexible way finding and (2) response learning that leads to a more rigid “route following.” Despite the importance of knockout techniques that are only available in mice, little is known about mice' flexibility in <span class="hlt">spatial</span> navigation tasks. Here we demonstrate for C57BL6/N mice in a water-cross maze (WCM) that only place learning enables <span class="hlt">spatial</span> flexibility and relearning of a platform position, whereas response learning does not. This capability <span class="hlt">depends</span> on an intact hippocampal formation, since hippocampus lesions by ibotenic acid (IA) disrupted relearning. In vivo manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging revealed a volume loss of ?60% of the hippocampus as a critical threshold for relearning impairments. In particular the changes in the left ventral hippocampus were indicative of relearning deficits. In summary, our findings establish the importance of hippocampus-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> place learning for <span class="hlt">spatial</span> flexibility and provide a first systematic analysis on <span class="hlt">spatial</span> flexibility in mice. PMID:23293591</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kleinknecht, Karl R.; Bedenk, Benedikt T.; Kaltwasser, Sebastian F.; Grünecker, Barbara; Yen, Yi-Chun; Czisch, Michael; Wotjak, Carsten T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">98</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21805301"> <span id="translatedtitle">Aphid and ladybird beetle abundance <span class="hlt">depend</span> on the interaction of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> effects and genotypic diversity.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Intraspecific variation and genotypic diversity of host-plants can affect the structure of associated arthropod communities and the dynamics of populations. Similarly, neighboring plants can also affect interactions between host-plants and their associated arthropods. However, most studies on the effects of host-plant genotypes have largely ignored the potential effects of neighboring host-plants on arthropod communities. In this study, we used a common garden experiment to ask how <span class="hlt">spatial</span> effects of neighboring patches, along with genotype identity and genotypic diversity in tall goldenrod (Solidago altissima), affect the abundances of a common goldenrod herbivore (Uroleucon nigrotuberculatum) and their dominant predator (Harmonia axyridis, a ladybird beetle). Aphid abundance varied 80-fold among genotypes, while ladybird beetle abundance was not affected by genotype identity. Additionally, there were <span class="hlt">strong</span> effects of neighboring plots: aphid abundance in a focal plot was positively correlated to aphid abundance in nearby plots, suggesting <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> patterning in the abundance of aphids. Neither aphid nor ladybird beetle abundance was affected by genotypic diversity. However, focal plot genotypic diversity mediated the strength of the neighborhood effect (i.e., <span class="hlt">strong</span> effects for genotype polyculture focal plots and weak effects for genotype monoculture focal plots). Our results show that aphids were directly influenced by host-plant genotype identity while ladybird beetles responded mainly to prey abundance, and suggest that genotypic diversity can influence the effects of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> processes on the plant-herbivore interactions. PMID:21805301</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Genung, Mark A; Crutsinger, Gregory M; Bailey, Joseph K; Schweitzer, Jennifer A; Sanders, Nathan J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">99</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1413059P"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Efficiency of Magma Ocean Cumulate Overturn using a <span class="hlt">strong</span> temperature-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> Viscosity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The impact heat accumulated during the late stage of the planetary accretion can melt a significant part or even the entire mantle of a planetary body - producing a global magma ocean. The subsequent cooling of the interior causes the magma ocean to freeze rapidly from the core-mantle boundary to the surface due to the steeper slope of the mantle adiabat compared to the slope of the solidus. Freezing of a magma ocean is a highly complex process, which has been investigated by several authors [e.g. 1, 2]. In the present work, we assume fractional crystallization of such a magma ocean. For fractional crystallization, dense cumulates are produced with time close to the surface, largely due to iron enrichment in the evolving magma ocean liquid [2]. A gravitationally unstable mantle forms, which is prone to overturn. We investigate the cumulate overturn and its influence on the thermal evolution of Mars using the 3D spherical/2D cylindrical mantle convection code Gaia [3, 4]. We present different simulations using the initial conditions from [2] and a <span class="hlt">strong</span> temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the viscosity. Our simulations show that using a rather weak temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the viscosity (e.g. using an activation energy of 100 kJ/mol as in [2]) results in a complete overturn (i.e. dense cumulates from the surface sink to the core mantle boundary). A stable density gradient evolves in the mantle, in which the convection ceases and cannot be rejuvenated during the entire evolution of Mars even with heating by radioactive elements. The lack of convection, however, is not compatible with the observed long-standing volcanic activity and elastic thickness estimates on Mars. When using a <span class="hlt">strongly</span> temperature <span class="hlt">dependent</span> viscosity (e.g. typical activation energy for mantle material of 300 kJ/mol), a stagnant lid forms rapidly on top of the convective interior preventing the uppermost dense cumulates to overturn. The formation of the lid is also given assuming the high surface temperatures due to the efficient greenhouse effect caused by the degassing of the freezing magma ocean [2]. Below the dense stagnant lid, an initially stable density gradient settles which is, however, less steep than in the previous case. In that case, convection continues and the mantle is continuously remixed. The convection pattern is dominated by small scale structures, which is not consistent with the large scale volcanic surface structures. Moreover, the global primordial high density crust as suggested by this scenario is at odds with the assumed low density of the southern hemisphere [5]. We conclude that a fractionated global and deep magma ocean seems to be difficult to reconcile with observations. Further investigations assuming for instance a hemispherical or shallow magma ocean will be studied.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Plesa, A.-C.; Breuer, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">100</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3287332"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> genetic structure in five tropical Piper species: should the Baker–Fedorov hypothesis be revived for tropical shrubs?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fifty years ago, Baker and Fedorov proposed that the high species diversity of tropical forests could arise from the combined effects of inbreeding and genetic drift leading to population differentiation and eventually to sympatric speciation. Decades of research, however have failed to support the Baker–Fedorov hypothesis (BFH), and it has now been discarded in favor of a paradigm where most trees are self-incompatible or <span class="hlt">strongly</span> outcrossing, and where long-distance pollen dispersal prevents population drift. Here, we propose that several hyper-diverse genera of tropical herbs and shrubs, including Piper (>1,000 species), may provide an exception. Species in this genus often have aggregated, high-density populations with self-compatible breeding systems; characteristics which the BFH would predict lead to high local genetic differentiation. We test this prediction for five Piper species on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers. All species showed <span class="hlt">strong</span> genetic structure at both fine- and large-<span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales. Over short distances (200–750 m) populations showed significant genetic differentiation (Fst 0.11–0.46, P < 0.05), with values of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> genetic structure that exceed those reported for other tropical tree species (Sp = 0.03–0.136). This genetic structure probably results from the combined effects of limited seed and pollen dispersal, clonal spread, and selfing. These processes are likely to have facilitated the diversification of populations in response to local natural selection or genetic drift and may explain the remarkable diversity of this rich genus. PMID:22393518</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lasso, E; Dalling, J W; Bermingham, E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a 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onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">101</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21552666"> <span id="translatedtitle">Visualisation of structural inhomogeneities in <span class="hlt">strongly</span> scattering media using the method of <span class="hlt">spatially</span>-resolved reflectometry: Monte Carlo simulation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two-dimensional <span class="hlt">spatial</span> intensity distributions of diffuse scattering of near-infrared laser radiation from a <span class="hlt">strongly</span> scattering medium, whose optical properties are close to those of skin, are obtained using Monte Carlo simulation. The medium contains a cylindrical inhomogeneity with the optical properties, close to those of blood. It is shown that stronger absorption and scattering of light by blood compared to the surrounding medium leads to the fact that the intensity of radiation diffusely reflected from the surface of the medium under study and registered at its surface has a local minimum directly above the cylindrical inhomogeneity. This specific feature makes the method of <span class="hlt">spatially</span>-resolved reflectometry potentially applicable for imaging blood vessels and determining their sizes. It is also shown that blurring of the vessel image increases almost linearly with increasing vessel embedment depth. This relation may be used to determine the depth of embedment provided that the optical properties of the scattering media are known. The optimal position of the sources and detectors of radiation, providing the best imaging of the vessel under study, is determined. (biophotonics)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bykov, A V; Priezzhev, A V; Myllylae, Risto A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-06-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">102</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GGG....14.3887L"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">strong</span> angular <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of magnetic properties of magnetosome chains: Implications for rock magnetism and paleomagnetism</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Single-domain magnetite particles produced by magnetotactic bacteria (magnetosomes) and aligned in chains are of great interest in the biosciences and geosciences. Here, we investigated angular variation of magnetic properties of aligned Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 cells, each of which contains one single fragmental chain of magnetosomes. With measurements at increasing angles from the chain direction, we observed that (i) the hysteresis loop gradually changes from nearly rectangular to a ramp-like shape (e.g., Bc and remanence decrease), (ii) the acquisition and demagnetization curves of IRM shift toward higher fields (e.g., Bcr increases), and (iii) the FORC diagram shifts toward higher coercivity fields (e.g., Bc,FORC increases). For low-temperature results, compared to unoriented samples, the samples containing aligned chains have a much lower remanence loss of field-cooled (?FC) and zero-field-cooled (?ZFC) remanence upon warming through the Verwey transition, higher ?-ratio (? = ?FC/?ZFC) for the measurement parallel to the chain direction, and lower ?-ratio, larger ?FC and ?ZFC values for the perpendicular measurement. Micromagnetic simulations confirm the experimental observations and reveal that the magnetization reversal of magnetosome chain appears to be noncoherent at low angles and coherent at high angles. The simulations also demonstrate that the angular <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of magnetic properties is related to the dispersion degree of individual chains, indicating that effects of anisotropy need to be accounted for when using rock magnetism to identify magnetosomes or magnetofossils once they have been preserved in aligned chains. Additionally, this study experimentally demonstrates an empirical correspondence of the parameter Bc,FORC to Bcr rather than Bc, at least for magnetite chains with <span class="hlt">strong</span> shape anisotropy. This suggests FORC analysis is a good discriminant of magnetofossils in sediments and rocks.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Jinhua; Ge, Kunpeng; Pan, Yongxin; Williams, Wyn; Liu, Qingsong; Qin, Huafeng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">103</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2944877"> <span id="translatedtitle">Suppressing an Anti-Inflammatory Cytokine Reveals a <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Age-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Survival Cost in Mice</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background The central paradigm of ecological immunology postulates that selection acts on immunity as to minimize its cost/benefit ratio. Costs of immunity may arise because the energetic requirements of the immune response divert resources that are no longer available for other vital functions. In addition to these resource-based costs, mis-directed or over-reacting immune responses can be particularly harmful for the host. In spite of the potential importance of immunopathology, most studies dealing with the evolution of the immune response have neglected such non resource-based costs. To keep the immune response under control, hosts have evolved regulatory pathways that should be considered when studying the target of the selection pressures acting on immunity. Indeed, variation in regulation may <span class="hlt">strongly</span> modulate the negative outcome of immune activation, with potentially important fitness consequences. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we experimentally assessed the survival costs of reduced immune regulation by inhibiting an anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) with anti-IL-10 receptor antibodies (anti-IL-10R) in mice that were either exposed to a mild inflammation or kept as control. The experiment was performed on young (3 months) and old (15 months) individuals, as to further assess the age-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> cost of suppressing immune regulation. IL-10 inhibition induced high mortality in old mice exposed to the mild inflammatory insult, whereas no mortality was observed in young mice. However, young mice experienced a transitory lost in body mass when injected with the anti-IL-10R antibodies, showing that the treatment was to a lesser extent also costly for young individuals. Conclusions These results suggest a major role of immune regulation that deserves attention when investigating the evolution of immunity, and indicate that the capacity to down-regulate the inflammatory response is crucial for late survival and longevity. PMID:20886083</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Belloni, Virginia; Faivre, Bruno; Guerreiro, Romain; Arnoux, Emilie; Bellenger, Jérôme; Sorci, Gabriele</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">104</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/6080408"> <span id="translatedtitle">Explicitly incorporating <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> in predictive vegetation models in the form of explanatory variables: a Mojave Desert case study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Predictive vegetation modeling is defined as predicting the distri- bution of vegetation across a landscape based upon its relationship with environmental factors. These models generally ignore or attempt to remove <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> in the data. When explicitly included in the model, <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> can increase model accuracy. We develop presence\\/absence models for 11 vegetation alliances in the Mojave Desert with</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jennifer Miller; Janet Franklin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">105</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvB..86g5462G"> <span id="translatedtitle">k-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> optics of nanostructures: <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> dispersion of metallic nanorings and split-ring resonators</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The response of matter on an electromagnetic wave at a certain point and time <span class="hlt">depends</span> on the field strength prior to this time and at places close to this point. Hence the material parameters are functions of the frequency ? and the wave vector k?, in general. While the temporal dispersion is common knowledge, <span class="hlt">spatial</span> dispersion in usually disregarded. However it becomes crucial in the optical response of nanostructures. Here we map the complete k?-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> optical response of a split-ring-resonator array over a broad frequency range via Mueller-matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry at different angles of incidence and all azimuthal orientations. The comparison with a closed-ring structure elucidates the rule of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> dispersion in metal-dielectric nanostructures.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gompf, Bruno; Krausz, Barbara; Frank, Bettina; Dressel, Martin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">106</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2937579"> <span id="translatedtitle">Luteolin Inhibits Microglia and Alters Hippocampal-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Working Memory in Aged Mice123</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A dysregulated overexpression of inflammatory mediators by microglia may facilitate cognitive aging and neurodegeneration. Considerable evidence suggests the flavonoid luteolin has antiinflammatory effects, but its ability to inhibit microglia, reduce inflammatory mediators, and improve hippocampal-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> learning and memory in aged mice is unknown. In initial studies, pretreatment of BV-2 microglia with luteolin inhibited the induction of inflammatory genes and the release of inflammatory mediators after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Supernatants from LPS-stimulated microglia caused discernible death in Neuro.2a cells. However, treating microglia with luteolin prior to LPS reduced neuronal cell death caused by conditioned supernatants, indicating luteolin was neuroprotective. In subsequent studies, adult (3–6 mo) and aged (22–24 mo) mice were fed control or luteolin (20 mg/d)-supplemented diet for 4 wk and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> working memory was assessed as were several inflammatory markers in the hippocampus. Aged mice fed control diet exhibited deficits in <span class="hlt">spatial</span> working memory and expression of inflammatory markers in the hippocampus indicative of increased microglial cell activity. Luteolin consumption improved <span class="hlt">spatial</span> working memory and restored expression of inflammatory markers in the hippocampus compared with that of young adults. Luteolin did not affect either <span class="hlt">spatial</span> working memory or inflammatory markers in young adults. Taken together, the current findings suggest dietary luteolin enhanced <span class="hlt">spatial</span> working memory by mitigating microglial-associated inflammation in the hippocampus. Therefore, luteolin consumption may be beneficial in preventing or treating conditions involving increased microglial cell activity and inflammation. PMID:20685893</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jang, Saebyeol; Dilger, Ryan N.; Johnson, Rodney W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">107</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20064564"> <span id="translatedtitle">Selective temporal resections and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> memory impairment: cue <span class="hlt">dependent</span> lateralization effects.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Patients who had undergone a unilateral trans-sylvian selective amygdalohippocampectomy as treatment for chronic intractable epilepsy were tested in a virtual Morris Water Maze (MWM) task where they were required to locate a hidden platform as a measure of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> learning. These individuals' performance on <span class="hlt">spatial</span> tasks was compared to age-matched healthy controls and drug-matched healthy controls. Training occurred in two different maze environments, one with conventional cues such as windows and doors, and another with abstract cues, such as colours and patterns. Participants searched for a hidden platform in the virtual pool, guided by either the conventional or abstract cues. There was a significant impairment in the surgery group compared to the control groups in all environments, however in the abstract environment only the patients with right-sided lesions were significantly worse than the controls. There was no difference between the groups on a control egocentric navigation task. These results suggest that people who have had right-sided surgery are impaired in <span class="hlt">spatial</span> tasks, and that the level of impairment on the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> task may be <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on the characteristics of the cues such as how easily the cues are verbalised. These results support the notion of the functional lateralization of specific elements of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> memory and functional lateralization, and may shed light on previous inconsistencies in this area of research. PMID:20064564</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Barkas, Lisa J; Henderson, Jenni L; Hamilton, Derek A; Redhead, Edward S; Gray, William P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">108</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55274463"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the transfer matrix method and WKB approximation for systems with <span class="hlt">spatial-dependent</span> effective mass</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A set of coupled differential equations is derived by considering the continuous limit of the transfer matrix method, which is a numerical approach for the one-dimensional structures such as the semiconductor heterostructures. By decoupling such a set of equations, an extension to the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) method is obtained to incorporate effects due to the <span class="hlt">spatial-dependent</span> effective mass. For a traveling</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chun-Feng Huang; S. D. Chao; D. R. Hang; Y. C. Lee</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">109</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3544717"> <span id="translatedtitle">Native Birds and Alien Insects: <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Density <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> in Songbird Predation of Invading Oak Gallwasps</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Revealing the interactions between alien species and native communities is central to understanding the ecological consequences of range expansion. Much has been learned through study of the communities developing around invading herbivorous insects. Much less, however, is known about the significance of such aliens for native vertebrate predators for which invaders may represent a novel food source. We quantified <span class="hlt">spatial</span> patterns in native bird predation of invading gall-inducing Andricus wasps associated with introduced Turkey oak (Quercus cerris) at eight sites across the UK. These gallwasps are available at high density before the emergence of caterpillars that are the principle spring food of native insectivorous birds. Native birds showed positive <span class="hlt">spatial</span> density <span class="hlt">dependence</span> in gall attack rates at two sites in southern England, foraging most extensively on trees with highest gall densities. In a subsequent study at one of these sites, positive <span class="hlt">spatial</span> density <span class="hlt">dependence</span> persisted through four of five sequential week-long periods of data collection. Both patterns imply that invading galls are a significant resource for at least some native bird populations. Density <span class="hlt">dependence</span> was strongest in southern UK bird populations that have had longest exposure to the invading gallwasps. We hypothesise that this pattern results from the time taken for native bird populations to learn how to exploit this novel resource. PMID:23342048</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schönrogge, Karsten; Begg, Tracey; Stone, Graham N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">110</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21308356"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temporal and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of quantum entanglement from a field theory perspective</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We consider the entanglement dynamics between two Unruh-DeWitt detectors at rest separated at a distance d. This simple model when analyzed properly in quantum field theory shows many interesting facets and helps to dispel some misunderstandings of entanglement dynamics. We find that there is <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of quantum entanglement in the stable regime due to the phase difference of vacuum fluctuations the two detectors experience, together with the interference of the mutual influences from the backreaction of one detector on the other. When two initially entangled detectors are still outside each other's light cone, the entanglement oscillates in time with an amplitude <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on <span class="hlt">spatial</span> separation d. When the two detectors begin to have causal contact, an interference pattern of the relative degree of entanglement (compared to those at <span class="hlt">spatial</span> infinity) develops a parametric <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on d. The detectors separated at those d with a stronger relative degree of entanglement enjoy longer disentanglement times. In the cases with weak coupling and large separation, the detectors always disentangle at late times. For sufficiently small d, the two detectors can have residual entanglement even if they initially were in a separable state, while for d a little larger, there could be transient entanglement created by mutual influences. However, we see no evidence of entanglement creation outside the light cone for initially separable states.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lin, S.-Y.; Hu, B. L. [Physics Division, National Center for Theoretical Sciences, P.O. Box 2-131, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Joint Quantum Institute and Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-4111 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">111</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/0706.0059v2"> <span id="translatedtitle">High-Tc superconductivity originated from <span class="hlt">strong</span> spin-charge correlation: indication from linear temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of resistivity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Both the highest- and the linear temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the resistivity in wide temperature range appear at the optimally doped regions of Cu-based superconductors1,2,3,4,5, and the highest- of Fe-based superconductors6,7 are also associated with the linear temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the resistivity in normal states near superconducting states. This means that the high temperature superconductivity and the linear temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the resistivity should be dominated by the same mechanism. This letter on theoretic calculation clearly shows that <span class="hlt">strong</span> spin-charge correlation dominated resistivity behaves the linear temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span>, thus high-temperature superconductivity should be induced by <span class="hlt">strong</span> spin-charge correlation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tian De Cao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-05</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">112</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.physik.fu-berlin.de/~ag-gross/articles/pdf/KLG04.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> variational approach to molecules in <span class="hlt">strong</span> laser fields</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">in <span class="hlt">strong</span> laser fields using an ansatz for the wavefunction that explicitly incorporates the electron in the understanding of chemical (and biological) processes. Moreover an old chemists' dream, namely to control</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gross, E.K.U.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">113</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24423843"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dependency</span> of planned dose perturbation (PDP) on the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> resolution of MapCHECK 2 detectors.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this study is to determine the <span class="hlt">dependency</span> of the planned dose perturbation (PDP) algorithm (used in Sun Nuclear 3DVH software) on <span class="hlt">spatial</span> resolution of the MapCHECK 2 detectors. In this study, ten brain (small target), ten brain (large target), ten prostate, and ten head-and-neck (H&N) cases were retrospectively selected for QA measurement. IMRT validation plans were delivered using the field-by-field technique with the MapCHECK 2 device. The measurements were performed using standard detector density (standard resolution; SR) and a doubled detector density (high resolution; HR) by merging regular with shifted measurements. SR and HR measurements were fed into the 3DVH software and ROI (region of interest), planning target volume (PTV), and organ at risk (OAR)) dose statistics (D95, Dmean, and Dmax) were determined for each. Differences of the dose statistics normalized to prescription dose for ROIs between original planning and PDP-perturbed planning were calculated for SR (?DSR) and HR (?DHR), and difference between ?DSR and ?DHR (?DSR-HR = ?DSR - ?DHR) was also calculated. In addition, 2D and 3D ? passing rates (GPRs) were determined for both resolutions, and a correlation between GPRs and ?DSR or ?DHR for PTV dose metrics was determined. No considerably high mean differences between ?DSR and ?DHR were found for almost all ROIs and plans (< 2%); however, |?DSR|, |?DHR|, and |?DSR-HR| for PTV were found to significantly increase as the PTV size decreased (e.g., PTV size < 5 cc). And statistically significant differences between SR and HR were observed for OARs proximal to targets in large brain target and H&N cases. As plan modulation represented by fractional MU/prescription dose (MU/cGy) became more complex, the 2D/3D GPRs tended to decrease; however, the modulation complexity did not make any noticeable distinctions in the DVH statistics of PTV between SR and HR, excluding the small brain cases whose PTVs were extremely small (PTV = 11.0 ± 10.1 cc). Moderate to <span class="hlt">strong</span> negative correlations (-1 < r < -0.3) between GPRs and PTV dose metrics indicated that small clinical errors for PTV occur at the higher GPRs. In conclusion, doubling the detector density of the MapCHECK 2 device is recommended for small targets (i.e., PTV < 5 cc) and multiple targets with complex geometry with minimum setup error in the DVH-based plan evaluation. PMID:24423843</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Keeling, Vance P; Ahmad, Salahuddin; Algan, Ozer; Jin, Hosang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">114</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23917430"> <span id="translatedtitle">Neural correlates of reward-based <span class="hlt">spatial</span> learning in persons with cocaine <span class="hlt">dependence</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Dysfunctional learning systems are thought to be central to the pathogenesis of and impair recovery from addictions. The functioning of the brain circuits for episodic memory or learning that support goal-directed behavior has not been studied previously in persons with cocaine <span class="hlt">dependence</span> (CD). Thirteen abstinent CD and 13 healthy participants underwent MRI scanning while performing a task that requires the use of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> cues to navigate a virtual-reality environment and find monetary rewards, allowing the functional assessment of the brain systems for <span class="hlt">spatial</span> learning, a form of episodic memory. Whereas both groups performed similarly on the reward-based <span class="hlt">spatial</span> learning task, we identified disturbances in brain regions involved in learning and reward in CD participants. In particular, CD was associated with impaired functioning of medial temporal lobe (MTL), a brain region that is crucial for <span class="hlt">spatial</span> learning (and episodic memory) with concomitant recruitment of striatum (which normally participates in stimulus-response, or habit, learning), and prefrontal cortex. CD was also associated with enhanced sensitivity of the ventral striatum to unexpected rewards but not to expected rewards earned during <span class="hlt">spatial</span> learning. We provide evidence that <span class="hlt">spatial</span> learning in CD is characterized by disturbances in functioning of an MTL-based system for episodic memory and a striatum-based system for stimulus-response learning and reward. We have found additional abnormalities in distributed cortical regions. Consistent with findings from animal studies, we provide the first evidence in humans describing the disruptive effects of cocaine on the coordinated functioning of multiple neural systems for learning and memory. PMID:23917430</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tau, Gregory Z; Marsh, Rachel; Wang, Zhishun; Torres-Sanchez, Tania; Graniello, Barbara; Hao, Xuejun; Xu, Dongrong; Packard, Mark G; Duan, Yunsuo; Kangarlu, Alayar; Martinez, Diana; Peterson, Bradley S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">115</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2817192"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sex-biased dispersal patterns <span class="hlt">depend</span> on the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale in a social rodent</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Dispersal is a fundamental process in ecology because it influences the dynamics, genetic structure and persistence of populations. Furthermore, understanding the evolutionary causes of dispersal pattern, particularly when they differ between genders, is still a major question in evolutionary ecology. Using a panel of 10 microsatellite loci, we investigated at different <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales the genetic structure and the sex-specific dispersal patterns in the common vole Microtus arvalis, a small colonial mammal. This study was conducted in an intensive agricultural area of western France. Hierarchical FST analyses, relatedness and assignment tests suggested (i) that females are <span class="hlt">strongly</span> kin-clustered within colonies; (ii) that dispersal is <span class="hlt">strongly</span> male-biased at a local scale; and (iii) long-distance dispersal is not rare and more balanced between genders. We conclude that males migrate continuously from colony to colony to reproduce, whereas females may disperse just once and would be mainly involved in new colony foundation. PMID:19586945</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gauffre, B.; Petit, E.; Brodier, S.; Bretagnolle, V.; Cosson, J. F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">116</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://faculty.washington.edu/danielt/Cardiac.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Forces generated by both skeletal and cardiac muscle <span class="hlt">depend</span> <span class="hlt">strongly</span> upon muscle length. The in vivo range of lengths is</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">2455 Forces generated by both skeletal and cardiac muscle <span class="hlt">depend</span> <span class="hlt">strongly</span> upon muscle length for cardiac and skeletal muscles (Allen and Kentish, 1985; Layland et al., 1995). Despite the importance into muscle design. Cardiac muscle is one case where the functional consequences of operating length are well</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Daniel, Tom</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">117</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www-jackson.ch.cam.ac.uk/publications/2010/2010_JBC_Venus_Jackson.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Folding Study of Venus Reveals a <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Ion <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> of Its Yellow Fluorescence under Mildly Acidic Conditions*S</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Folding Study of Venus Reveals a <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Ion <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> of Its Yellow Fluorescence under Mildly- cencethatisrelativelyinsensitivetochangesinpHandionconcen- trations. Here, we present a detailed study of the stability and fold- ing of Venus. By following hydrogen-deuterium exchange of 15 N-labeled Venus using NMR spectroscopy over 13 months, residue</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jackson, Sophie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">118</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.indiana.edu/~ssiweb/papers/MeD-published.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Isotope <span class="hlt">dependent</span>, temperature regulated, energy repartitioning in a low-barrier, short-<span class="hlt">strong</span> hydrogen bonded cluster</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">/deuterium isotope effects, in a fundamental organic hydrogen bonded system using multiple experimental infraredIsotope <span class="hlt">dependent</span>, temperature regulated, energy repartitioning in a low-barrier, short-<span class="hlt">strong</span> hydrogen bonded cluster Xiaohu Li,1 Jos Oomens,2 John R. Eyler,3 David T. Moore,4,a and Srinivasan S</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Iyengar, Srinivasan S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">119</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.indiana.edu/~ssiweb/Posters/mwtcc10-poster-xiaohu.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Isotope <span class="hlt">dependent</span>, temperature regulated, energy repartitioning in a low-barrier, short-<span class="hlt">strong</span> hydrogen bonded cluster</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Isotope <span class="hlt">dependent</span>, temperature regulated, energy repartitioning in a low-barrier, short-<span class="hlt">strong</span> hydrogen bonded cluster Xiaohu Li and Srinivasan S. Iyengar Department of Chemistry, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 Abstract We investigate and analyze the vibrational properties, including H/D isotope</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Iyengar, Srinivasan S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">120</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://web.mit.edu/nse/pdf/faculty/chen/Chen_PRL95.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pressure <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> of Fragile-to-<span class="hlt">Strong</span> Transition and a Possible Second Critical Point in Supercooled Confined Water</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pressure <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> of Fragile-to-<span class="hlt">Strong</span> Transition and a Possible Second Critical Point the crystallization and study the pressure effect on the dynamical behavior in deeply supercooled state using neutron that the transition temperature decreases steadily with an increasing pressure, until it intersects the homogenous</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, Sow-Hsin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return 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onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">121</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23812603"> <span id="translatedtitle">Natal departure timing from <span class="hlt">spatially</span> varying environments is <span class="hlt">dependent</span> of individual ontogenetic status.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Natal departure timing represents one of the first crucial decisions for juveniles born in <span class="hlt">spatially</span> varying environments that ultimately disappear, but our knowledge on its determinants is limited. The present study aimed at understanding the determinants of juvenile natal departure by releasing individually tagged juvenile pike (Esox lucius L.) with variable body size and trophic position in a temporary flooded grassland. Specifically, we investigated whether natal departure <span class="hlt">depends</span> on individual competitive status ('competition hypothesis'), physiological tolerance to environmental conditions ('physiological hypothesis') or individual trophic position and the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> heterogeneity of trophic resources ('trophic hypothesis'). The results indicated that departure timing was negatively correlated with body size at release, showing that the dominance status among competing individuals was not the main trigger of juvenile departure. A positive correlation between departure timing and individual body size at departure was observed, suggesting that inter-individual variability in physiological tolerance did not explain departure patterns. While individual growth performances were similar irrespective of the timing of natal departure, stable isotope analyses revealed that juveniles with higher trophic position departed significantly earlier than individuals with lower trophic position. Therefore, the trade-off driving the use of <span class="hlt">spatially</span> varying environments was most likely <span class="hlt">dependent</span> upon the benefits associated with energetic returns than the costs associated with inter-individual competition or physiological stress. This result highlighted how ontogeny, and particularly ontogenetic niche shift, can play a central role in juvenile's decision to depart from natal habitats in a predatory species. PMID:23812603</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cucherousset, Julien; Paillisson, Jean-Marc; Roussel, Jean-Marc</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">122</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NW....100..761C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Natal departure timing from <span class="hlt">spatially</span> varying environments is <span class="hlt">dependent</span> of individual ontogenetic status</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Natal departure timing represents one of the first crucial decisions for juveniles born in <span class="hlt">spatially</span> varying environments that ultimately disappear, but our knowledge on its determinants is limited. The present study aimed at understanding the determinants of juvenile natal departure by releasing individually tagged juvenile pike ( Esox lucius L.) with variable body size and trophic position in a temporary flooded grassland. Specifically, we investigated whether natal departure <span class="hlt">depends</span> on individual competitive status (`competition hypothesis'), physiological tolerance to environmental conditions (`physiological hypothesis') or individual trophic position and the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> heterogeneity of trophic resources (`trophic hypothesis'). The results indicated that departure timing was negatively correlated with body size at release, showing that the dominance status among competing individuals was not the main trigger of juvenile departure. A positive correlation between departure timing and individual body size at departure was observed, suggesting that inter-individual variability in physiological tolerance did not explain departure patterns. While individual growth performances were similar irrespective of the timing of natal departure, stable isotope analyses revealed that juveniles with higher trophic position departed significantly earlier than individuals with lower trophic position. Therefore, the trade-off driving the use of <span class="hlt">spatially</span> varying environments was most likely <span class="hlt">dependent</span> upon the benefits associated with energetic returns than the costs associated with inter-individual competition or physiological stress. This result highlighted how ontogeny, and particularly ontogenetic niche shift, can play a central role in juvenile's decision to depart from natal habitats in a predatory species.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cucherousset, Julien; Paillisson, Jean-Marc; Roussel, Jean-Marc</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">123</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25553978"> <span id="translatedtitle">Early visual processing deficits in patients with schizophrenia during <span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequency-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> facial affect processing.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abnormal facial emotion recognition is considered as one of the key symptoms of schizophrenia. Only few studies have considered deficits in the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequency (SF)-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> visual pathway leading to abnormal facial emotion recognition in schizophrenia. Twenty-one patients with schizophrenia and 19 matched healthy controls (HC) were recruited for this study. Event-related potentials (ERP) were measured during presentation of SF-modulated face stimuli and their source imaging was analyzed. The patients showed reduced P100 amplitude for low-<span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequency (LSF) pictures of fearful faces compared with the HC group. The P100 amplitude for high-<span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequency (HSF) pictures of neutral faces was increased in the schizophrenia group, but not in the HC group. The neural source activities of the LSF fearful faces and HSF neutral faces led to hypo- and hyperactivation of the frontal lobe of subjects from the schizophrenia group and HC group, respectively. In addition, patients with schizophrenia showed enhanced N170 activation in the right hemisphere in the LSF condition, while the HC group did not. Our results suggest that deficits in the LSF-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> visual pathway, which involves magnocellular neurons, impair early visual processing leading to dysfunctional facial emotion recognition in schizophrenia. Moreover, it suggests impaired bottom-up processing rather than top-down dysfunction for facial emotion recognition in these patients. PMID:25553978</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kim, Do-Won; Shim, Miseon; Song, Myeong Ju; Im, Chang-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Hwan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">124</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21603120"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> Narrow-Band Luminescence from Silicon-Vacancy Color Centers in <span class="hlt">Spatially</span> Localized Sub-10 nm Nanodiamond.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Discrete nanodiamond particles of 500 nm and 6 nm average size were seeded onto silicon substrates and plasma treated using chemical vapor deposition to create silicon-vacancy color centers. The resulting narrow-band room temperature photoluminescence is intense, and readily observed even for weakly agglomerated sub-10 nm size diamond. This is in contrast to the well-studied nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond which has luminescence properties that are <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">dependant</span> on particle size, with low probability for incorporation of centers in sub-10 nm crystals. We suggest the silicon-vacancy center to be a viable alternative to nitrogen-vacancy defects for use as a biomarker in the clinically-relevant sub-10 nm size regime, for which nitrogen defect-related luminescent activity and stability is reportedly poor. PMID:21603120</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Catledge, Shane A; Singh, Sonal</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">125</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3097091"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> Narrow-Band Luminescence from Silicon-Vacancy Color Centers in <span class="hlt">Spatially</span> Localized Sub-10 nm Nanodiamond</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Discrete nanodiamond particles of 500 nm and 6 nm average size were seeded onto silicon substrates and plasma treated using chemical vapor deposition to create silicon-vacancy color centers. The resulting narrow-band room temperature photoluminescence is intense, and readily observed even for weakly agglomerated sub-10 nm size diamond. This is in contrast to the well-studied nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond which has luminescence properties that are <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">dependant</span> on particle size, with low probability for incorporation of centers in sub-10 nm crystals. We suggest the silicon-vacancy center to be a viable alternative to nitrogen-vacancy defects for use as a biomarker in the clinically-relevant sub-10 nm size regime, for which nitrogen defect-related luminescent activity and stability is reportedly poor. PMID:21603120</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Catledge, Shane A.; Singh, Sonal</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">126</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22039631"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> self-shielding method with temperature distribution for LWR lattice physics code PARAGON</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The power distribution within the fuel rod is usually needed in fuel integrity evaluation. To compute the radial power distribution, a multi-ring flux solver, a space <span class="hlt">dependent</span> resonance self-shielding module and a multi-ring depletion module are required. Conventional LWR design codes have almost all of the functions except for the space <span class="hlt">dependent</span> resonance shielding. Therefore, we had developed SDDM (<span class="hlt">Spatially</span> <span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Dancoff Method) and validated the method with Monte Carlo calculations and PIE data. However, the evaluation with the SDDM lacked the temperature distribution within fuel rods. In this paper, the new development of the SDDM with temperature distribution is presented. The preliminary study for the SDDM with temperature distribution was previously discussed in reference [3]. Then it was found that the SDDM predicts a much larger reactivity effect due to the temperature distribution than MCNP. Here, the improvement to the SDDM corrects this overprediction and it will be supported by numerical results. (authors)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Matsumoto, H. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., 3-3-1 Nishu-ku, Yokohama, 220-8401 (Japan); Ouisloumen, M. [Westinghouse Electric Company, Pittsburgh, PA 15230-0355 (United States); Shiraki, T.; Yamaji, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., 3-3-1 Nishu-ku, Yokohama, 220-8401 (Japan); Takeda, T. [Osaka Univ., Yamada-oka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">127</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52845931"> <span id="translatedtitle">Laser based imaging of time <span class="hlt">depending</span> microscopic scenes with <span class="hlt">strong</span> light emission</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Investigating volume scatterometry methods based on short range LIDAR devices for non-static objects we achieved interesting results aside the intended micro-LIDAR: the high speed camera recording of the illuminated scene of an exploding wire -intended for Doppler LIDAR tests - delivered a very effective method of observing details of objects with extremely <span class="hlt">strong</span> light emission. As a side effect a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cornelius Hahlweg; Eugen Wilhelm; Hendrik Rothe</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">128</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.othmar-koch.org/papers/papers/caillat04.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Correlated multielectron systems in <span class="hlt">strong</span> laser fields: A multiconfiguration time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> Hartree-Fock approach</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">-dimensional model systems with up to six active electrons. <span class="hlt">Strong</span> correlation effects are found in the shape in atomic relaxation processes 1 , it may be possible to follow the transfer of charge along a larger mol behavior of the total wave function, become difficult to in- terprete and provide little insight</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Koch, Othmar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">129</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22330520"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of wavelength <span class="hlt">dependent</span> complex refractive index of <span class="hlt">strongly</span> light absorbing liquids.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A practical measurement procedure for the determination of the complex refractive index of <span class="hlt">strongly</span> absorbing liquids within a finite spectral range was developed. The method is based on separate measurements of reflectance and transmittance of the liquid sample, a property of dispersion and absorption, and exploitation of Fresnel's theory. The advantage of the method is that the knowledge of the layer thickness of the light absorbing medium, which is required typically in transmittance measurements, is not needed. In addition, both measurements, the transmittance and the reflectance, were accomplished with one spectrophotometer using a home-built reflectometer and without any sample dilution. The method is validated by numerical simulation using the Lorentz model for permittivity of an insulator, and also by experimental data obtained from three <span class="hlt">strongly</span> absorbing offset inks, namely magenta, yellow and cyan. PMID:22330520</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Räty, Jukka; Pääkkönen, Pertti; Peiponen, Kai-Erik</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">130</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960016975&hterms=terry+parker&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dterry%2Bparker"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> organization and time <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of Jupiter's tropospheric temperatures, 1980-1993</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">spatial</span> organization and time <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of Jupiter's temperature near 250-millibar pressure were measured through a jovian year by imaging thermal emission at 18 micrometers. The temperature field is influenced by seasonal radiative forcing, and its banded organization is closely correlated with the visible cloud field. Evidence was found for a quasi-periodic oscillation of temperatures in the Equatorial Zone, a correlation between tropospheric and stratospheric waves in the North Equatorial Belt, and slowly moving thermal features in the North and South Equatorial Belts. There appears to be no common relation between temporal changes of temperature and changes in the visual albedo of the various axisymmetric bands.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Orton, Glenn S.; Friedson, A. James; Yanamandra-Fisher, Padmavati A.; Caldwell, John; Hammel, Heidi B.; Baines, Kevin H.; Bergstralh, Jay T.; Martin, Terry Z.; West, Robert A.; Veeder, Glenn J., Jr.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">131</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/18430736"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> magnetic field <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of laser emission from quantum wires formed by cleaved edge overgrowth</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Characteristics of GaAsAlGaAs quantum wire (QWR) lasers are studied for the first time under <span class="hlt">strong</span> magnetic fields up to 12T. The QWR laser diodes have been fabricated by the molecular beam epitaxy technique, we call “cleaved edge overgrowth” (CEO), which combines conventional layer growth along the [001] crystal axis with high-quality regrowth on the (110) crystal face formed by an</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">W. Wegscheider; L. N. Pfeiffer; K. W. West; P. Littlewood; O. Narayan; M. Hagn; M. M. Dignam; R. E. Leibenguth</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">132</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...802....8A"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatially</span> Extended 21 cm Signal from <span class="hlt">Strongly</span> Clustered Uv and X-Ray Sources in the Early Universe</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present our prediction for the local 21 cm differential brightness temperature (?Tb) from a set of <span class="hlt">strongly</span> clustered sources of Population III (Pop III) and II (Pop II) objects in the early universe, by a numerical simulation of their formation and radiative feedback. These objects are located inside a highly biased environment, which is a rare, high-density peak (“Rarepeak”) extending to ?7 comoving Mpc. We study the impact of ultraviolet and X-ray photons on the intergalactic medium (IGM) and the resulting ?Tb, when Pop III stars are assumed to emit X-ray photons by forming X-ray binaries very efficiently. We parameterize the rest-frame spectral energy distribution of X-ray photons, which regulates X-ray photon-trapping, IGM-heating, secondary Ly? pumping and the resulting morphology of ?Tb. A combination of emission (?Tb > 0) and absorption (?Tb < 0) regions appears in varying amplitudes and angular scales. The boost of the signal by the high-density environment (? ? 0.64) and on a relatively large scale combines to make Rarepeak a discernible, <span class="hlt">spatially</span> extended (? ? 10?) object for 21 cm observation at 13 ? z ? 17, which is found to be detectable as a single object by SKA with integration time of ?1000 hr. Power spectrum analysis by some of the SKA precursors (Low Frequency Array, Murchison Widefield Array, Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization) of such rare peaks is found to be difficult due to the rarity of these peaks, and the contribution only by these rare peaks to the total power spectrum remains subdominant compared to that by all astrophysical sources.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ahn, Kyungjin; Xu, Hao; Norman, Michael L.; Alvarez, Marcelo A.; Wise, John H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">133</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25413628"> <span id="translatedtitle">Relative <span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequency tuning and its contrast <span class="hlt">dependency</span> in human perception.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Several physiological studies in cats and monkeys have reported that the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequency (SF) tuning of visual neurons varies <span class="hlt">depending</span> on the luminance contrast and size of stimulus. However, comparatively little is known about the effect of changing the stimulus contrast and size on SF tuning in human perception. In the present study, we investigated the effects of stimulus size and luminance contrast on human SF tuning using the subspace-reverse-correlation method. Measuring SF tunings at six different stimulus sizes and three different luminance contrast conditions (90%, 10%, and 1%), we found that human perception exhibits significant stimulus-size-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> SF tunings. At 90% and 10% contrast, participants exhibited relative SF tuning (cycles/image) rather than absolute SF tuning (cycles/°) at response peak latency. On the other hand, at 1% contrast, the magnitude of the size-<span class="hlt">dependent</span>-peak SF shift was too small for strictly relative SF tuning. These results show that human SF tuning is not fixed, but varies <span class="hlt">depending</span> on the stimulus size and contrast. This <span class="hlt">dependency</span> may contribute to size-invariant object recognition within an appropriate contrast rage. PMID:25413628</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Naito, Tomoyuki; Suematsu, Naofumi; Matsumoto, Eriko; Sato, Hiromichi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">134</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2714761"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span>, <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale, and tree species diversity in eastern Asia and North America</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The increase of biodiversity from poles to equator is one of the most pervasive features of nature. For 2 centuries since von Humboldt, Wallace, and Darwin, biogeographers and ecologists have investigated the environmental and historical factors that determine the latitudinal gradient of species diversity, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The recently proposed metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) aims to explain ecological patterns and processes, including geographical patterns of species richness, in terms of the effects of temperature and body size on the metabolism of organisms. Here we use 2 comparable databases of tree distributions in eastern Asia and North America to investigate the roles of environmental temperature and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale in shaping geographical patterns of species diversity. We find that number of species increases exponentially with environmental temperature as predicted by the MTE, and so does the rate of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> turnover in species composition (slope of the species-area relationship). The magnitude of temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of species richness increases with <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale. Moreover, the relationship between species richness and temperature is much steeper in eastern Asia than in North America: in cold climates at high latitudes there are more tree species in North America, but the reverse is true in warmer climates at lower latitudes. These patterns provide evidence that the kinetics of ecological and evolutionary processes play a major role in the latitudinal pattern of biodiversity. PMID:19628692</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Zhiheng; Brown, James H.; Tang, Zhiyao; Fang, Jingyun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">135</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3563338"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fractionating the Neural Substrates of Transitive Reasoning: Task-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Contributions of <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> and Verbal Representations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It has long been suggested that transitive reasoning relies on <span class="hlt">spatial</span> representations in the posterior parietal cortex (PPC). Previous neuroimaging studies, however, have always focused on linear arguments, such as “John is taller than Tom, Tom is taller than Chris, therefore John is taller than Chris.” Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we demonstrate here that verbal representations contribute to transitive reasoning when it involves set-inclusion relations (e.g., “All Tulips are Flowers, All Flowers are Plants, therefore All Tulips are Plants”). In the present study, such arguments were found to engage verbal processing regions of the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and left PPC that were identified in an independent localizer task. Specifically, activity in these verbal regions increased as the number of relations increased in set-inclusion arguments. Importantly, this effect was specific to set-inclusion arguments because left IFG and left PPC were not differentially engaged when the number of relations increased in linear arguments. Instead, such an increase was linked to decreased activity in a <span class="hlt">spatial</span> processing region of the right PPC that was identified in an independent localizer task. Therefore, both verbal and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> representations can underlie transitive reasoning, but their engagement <span class="hlt">depends</span> upon the structure of the argument. PMID:22275478</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mutreja, Rachna; Booth, James R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">136</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5745..407B"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> frequency-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> signal-to-noise ratio as a generalized measure of image quality</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A generalized, objective image quality measure can be defined for X-ray based medical projection imaging: the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequency-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> signal-to-noise ratio SNR = SNR(u,v). This function includes the three main image quality parameters, i.e. <span class="hlt">spatial</span> resolution, object contrast, and noise. The quantity is intimately related to the DQE concept, however its focus is not to characterize the detector, but rather the detectability of a certain object embedded into a defined background. So also effects from focus size and radiation scatter can be quantified by this method. The SNR(u,v) is independent of basic linear post-processing steps such as appropriate windowing or <span class="hlt">spatial</span> filtering. The consideration of the human visual system is beyond the scope of this concept. By means of this quantity, different X-ray systems and setups can be compared with each other and with theoretical calculations. Moreover, X-ray systems (i.e. detector, beam quality, geometry, anti-scatter grid, basic linear post-processing steps etc.) can be optimized to deliver the best object detectability for a given patient dose. In this paper SNR(u,v) is defined using analytical formulas. Furthermore, we demonstrate how it can be applied with a test phantom to a typical flat panel detector system by a combination of analytical calculations and Monte Carlo simulations. Finally the way this function can be used to optimize an X-ray imaging device is demonstrated.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bernhardt, Philipp; Batz, Lothar; Ruhrnschopf, Ernst-Peter; Hoheisel, Martin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">137</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24305861"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fruit removal rate <span class="hlt">depends</span> on neighborhood fruit density, frugivore abundance, and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> context.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fleshy-fruited plants <span class="hlt">depend</span> fundamentally on interactions with frugivores for effective seed dispersal. Recent models of frugivory within <span class="hlt">spatially</span> explicit networks make two general predictions regarding these interactions: rate of fruit removal increases (i.e., is facilitated) as densities of conspecific neighborhood fruits increase, and fruit removal rate varies positively with frugivore abundance. We conducted a field experiment that constitutes the first empirical and simultaneous test of these two primary predictions. We manipulated neighborhood abundances of arrowwood (Viburnum recognitum and Viburnum dentatum) fruits in southern New England's maritime shrub community and monitored removal rates by autumn-migrating birds. Focal arrowwood plants in neighborhoods with high conspecific fruit density sustained moderately decreased fruit removal rates (i.e., competition) relative to those in low-density neighborhoods, a result that agrees with most field research to date but contrasts with theoretical expectation. We suggest the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> contexts that favor competition (i.e., high-abundance neighborhoods and highly aggregated landscapes) are considerably more common than the relatively uniform, low-aggregation fruiting landscapes that promote facilitation. Patterns of arrowwood removal by avian frugivores generally varied positively with, and apparently in response to, seasonal changes in migratory frugivore abundance. However, we suggest that dense stands of arrowwood concentrated frugivore activity at the neighborhood scale, thus counteracting geographic patterns of frugivore abundance. Our results underscore the importance of considering <span class="hlt">spatial</span> context (e.g., fruit distribution and aggregation, frugivory hubs) in plant-avian frugivore interactions. PMID:24305861</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smith, Adam D; McWilliams, Scott R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">138</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6720410"> <span id="translatedtitle">Depth of convection in a fluid with <span class="hlt">strongly</span> temperature and pressure <span class="hlt">dependent</span> viscosity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We discuss the equations describing convective motion of a fluid with temperature and pressure <span class="hlt">dependent</span> rheology. By combining observational constraints from plate tectonics with theoretical constraints deduced from the model equations and parameter values, we are led to the conclusion that shallow upper mantle convection is consistent with the equations of fluid dynamics.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fowler, A.C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">139</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21537554"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ideal gas in a <span class="hlt">strong</span> gravitational field: Area <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of entropy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study the thermodynamic parameters like entropy, energy etc. of a box of gas made up of indistinguishable particles when the box is kept in various static background spacetimes having a horizon. We compute the thermodynamic variables using both statistical mechanics as well as by solving the hydrodynamical equations for the system. When the box is far away from the horizon, the entropy of the gas <span class="hlt">depends</span> on the volume of the box except for small corrections due to background geometry. As the box is moved closer to the horizon with one (leading) edge of the box at about Planck length (L{sub p}) away from the horizon, the entropy shows an area <span class="hlt">dependence</span> rather than a volume <span class="hlt">dependence</span>. More precisely, it <span class="hlt">depends</span> on a small volume A{sub perpendicular}L{sub p}/2 of the box, up to an order O(L{sub p}/K){sup 2} where A{sub perpendicular} is the transverse area of the box and K is the (proper) longitudinal size of the box related to the distance between leading and trailing edge in the vertical direction (i.e. in the direction of the gravitational field). Thus the contribution to the entropy comes from only a fraction O(L{sub p}/K) of the matter degrees of freedom and the rest are suppressed when the box approaches the horizon. Near the horizon all the thermodynamical quantities behave as though the box of gas has a volume A{sub perpendicular}L{sub p}/2 and is kept in a Minkowski spacetime. These effects are: (i) purely kinematic in their origin and are independent of the spacetime curvature (in the sense that the Rindler approximation of the metric near the horizon can reproduce the results) and (ii) observer <span class="hlt">dependent</span>. When the equilibrium temperature of the gas is taken to be equal to the horizon temperature, we get the familiar A{sub perpendicular}/L{sub p}{sup 2} <span class="hlt">dependence</span> in the expression for entropy. All these results hold in a D+1 dimensional spherically symmetric spacetime. The analysis based on methods of statistical mechanics and the one based on thermodynamics applied to the gas treated as a fluid in static geometry, lead to the same results showing the consistency. The implications are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kolekar, Sanved; Padmanabhan, T. [IUCAA, Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">140</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010IJAEO..12..331O"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependency</span> of cholera prevalence on potential cholera reservoirs in an urban area, Kumasi, Ghana</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cholera has been a public health burden in Ghana since the early 1970s. Between 1999 and 2005, a total of 25,636 cases and 620 deaths were officially reported to the WHO. In one of the worst affected urban cities, fecal contamination of surface water is extremely high, and the disease is reported to be prevalent among inhabitants living in close proximity to surface water bodies. Surface runoff from dump sites is a major source of fecal and bacterial contamination of rivers and streams in the study area. This study aims to determine (a) the impacts of surface water contamination on cholera infection and (b) detect and map arbitrary shaped clusters of cholera. A Geographic Information System (GIS) based <span class="hlt">spatial</span> analysis is used to delineate potential reservoirs of the cholera vibrios; possibly contaminated by surface runoff from open space refuse dumps. Statistical modeling using OLS model reveals a significant negative association between (a) cholera prevalence and proximity to all the potential cholera reservoirs ( R2 = 0.18, p < 0.001) and (b) cholera prevalence and proximity to upstream potential cholera reservoirs ( R2 = 0.25, p < 0.001). The inclusion of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> autoregressive coefficients in the OLS model reveals the <span class="hlt">dependency</span> of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of cholera prevalence on the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> neighbors of the communities. A flexible scan statistic identifies a most likely cluster with a higher relative risk (RR = 2.04, p < 0.01) compared with the cluster detected by circular scan statistic (RR = 1.60, p < 0.01). We conclude that surface water pollution through runoff from waste dump sites play a significant role in cholera infection.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Osei, Frank B.; Duker, Alfred A.; Augustijn, Ellen-Wien; Stein, Alfred</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" 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onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">141</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ApJ...760..105L"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatially</span> <span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Heating and Ionization in an ICME Observed by Both ACE and Ulysses</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The 2005 January 21 interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) observed by multiple spacecraft at L1 was also observed from January 21-February 4 at Ulysses (5.3 AU). Previous studies of this ICME have found evidence suggesting that the flanks of a magnetic cloud like structure associated with this ICME were observed at L1 while a more central cut through the associated magnetic cloud was observed at Ulysses. This event allows us to study <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variation across the ICME and relate it to the eruption at the Sun. In order to examine the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the heating in this ICME, we present an analysis and comparison of the heavy ion composition observed during the passage of the ICME at L1 and at Ulysses. Using SWICS, we compare the heavy ion composition across the two different observation cuts through the ICME and compare it with predictions for heating during the eruption based on models of the time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> ionization balance throughout the event.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lepri, Susan T.; Laming, J. Martin; Rakowski, Cara E.; von Steiger, Rudolf</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">142</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22086257"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">SPATIALLY</span> <span class="hlt">DEPENDENT</span> HEATING AND IONIZATION IN AN ICME OBSERVED BY BOTH ACE AND ULYSSES</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The 2005 January 21 interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) observed by multiple spacecraft at L1 was also observed from January 21-February 4 at Ulysses (5.3 AU). Previous studies of this ICME have found evidence suggesting that the flanks of a magnetic cloud like structure associated with this ICME were observed at L1 while a more central cut through the associated magnetic cloud was observed at Ulysses. This event allows us to study <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variation across the ICME and relate it to the eruption at the Sun. In order to examine the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the heating in this ICME, we present an analysis and comparison of the heavy ion composition observed during the passage of the ICME at L1 and at Ulysses. Using SWICS, we compare the heavy ion composition across the two different observation cuts through the ICME and compare it with predictions for heating during the eruption based on models of the time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> ionization balance throughout the event.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lepri, Susan T. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143 (United States); Laming, J. Martin; Rakowski, Cara E. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7674L, Washington, DC 20375-5321 (United States); Von Steiger, Rudolf [International Space Science Institute, Bern CH-3012 (Switzerland)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">143</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/19193617"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> energy <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the optical potential for 32S+58,64Ni near the Coulomb barrier</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The elastic scattering of 32S+ 58,64Ni was measured at sulfur beam energies of 82, 88, 91, 93, 98, 102.5, 108, and 150 MeV. Evidence is found for a marked energy <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the optical potential at the <span class="hlt">strong</span>-absorption radii around the Coulomb barrier, in good agreement with parallel information extracted from the fusion cross sections for the same systems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. M. Stefanini; D. Bonamini; A. Tivelli; G. Montagnoli; G. Fortuna; Y. Nagashima; S. Beghini; C. Signorini; A. Derosa; G. Inglima; M. Sandoli; G. Cardella; F. Rizzo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">144</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21366282"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> geometrical <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the absorption of light in arrays of semiconductor nanowires.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We demonstrate experimentally that arrays of base-tapered InP nanowires on top of an InP substrate form a broad band and omnidirectional absorbing medium. These characteristics are due to the specific geometry of the nanowires. Almost perfect absorption of light (higher than 97%) occurs in the system. We describe the <span class="hlt">strong</span> optical absorption by finite-difference time-domain simulations and present the first study of the influence of the geometry of the nanowires on the enhancement of the optical absorption by arrays. Cylindrical nanowires present the highest absorption normalized to the volume fraction of the semiconductor. The absolute absorption in layers of conical nanowires is higher than that in cylindrical nanowires but requires a larger volume fraction of semiconducting material. Base-tapered nanowires, with a cylindrical top and a conical base, represent an intermediate geometry. These results set the basis for an optimized optical design of nanowire solar cells. PMID:21366282</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Diedenhofen, Silke L; Janssen, Olaf T A; Grzela, Grzegorz; Bakkers, Erik P A M; Gómez Rivas, Jaime</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">145</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22252908"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> field ionization rates simulated with time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> configuration interaction and an absorbing potential</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ionization rates of molecules have been modeled with time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> configuration interaction simulations using atom centered basis sets and a complex absorbing potential. The simulations agree with accurate grid-based calculations for the ionization of hydrogen atom as a function of field strength and for charge resonance enhanced ionization of H{sub 2}{sup +} as the bond is elongated. Unlike grid-based methods, the present approach can be applied to simulate electron dynamics and ionization in multi-electron polyatomic molecules. Calculations on HCl{sup +} and HCO{sup +} demonstrate that these systems also show charge resonance enhanced ionization as the bonds are stretched.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Krause, Pascal; Sonk, Jason A.; Schlegel, H. Bernhard [Department of Chemistry, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48202-3489 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48202-3489 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">146</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22225793"> <span id="translatedtitle">Blood clot formation under flow: the importance of factor XI <span class="hlt">depends</span> <span class="hlt">strongly</span> on platelet count.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A previously validated mathematical model of intravascular platelet deposition and tissue factor (TF)-initiated coagulation under flow is extended and used to assess the influence on thrombin production of the activation of factor XI (fXI) by thrombin and of the activation of factor IX (fIX) by fXIa. It is found that the importance of the thrombin-fXIa-fIXa feedback loop to robust thrombin production <span class="hlt">depends</span> on the concentration of platelets in the blood near the injury. At a near-wall platelet concentration of ~250,000/?L, typical in vessels in which the shear rate is <200 s(-1), thrombin activation of fXI makes a significant difference only at low densities of exposed TF. If the near-wall platelet concentration is significantly higher than this, either because of a higher systemic platelet count or because of the redistribution of platelets toward the vessel walls at high shear rates, then thrombin activation of fXI makes a major difference even for relatively high densities of exposed TF. The model predicts that the effect of a severe fXI deficiency <span class="hlt">depends</span> on the platelet count, and that fXI becomes more important at high platelet counts. PMID:22225793</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fogelson, Aaron L; Hussain, Yasmeen H; Leiderman, Karin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">147</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1409.8612v1"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> Orientation <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> of Multinucleon Transfer Processes in $^{238}$U+$^{124}$Sn Reaction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We theoretically investigate multinucleon transfer (MNT) processes in $^{238}$U+$^{124}$Sn reaction at $E_\\mathrm{lab}=5.7$ MeV/$A$ using the time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> Hartree-Fock (TDHF) theory. For this reaction, measurements of MNT processes have been reported, showing substantial MNT cross sections accompanying more than ten protons. From the calculation, we find that the amount of transferred nucleons <span class="hlt">depends</span> much on the relative orientation between the deformation axis of $^{238}$U and the relative vector connecting centers of $^{238}$U and $^{124}$Sn nuclei. We find a formation of thick neck when the $^{238}$U collides from its tip with $^{124}$Sn. However, the neck formation is substantially suppressed when $^{238}$U collides from its side. We have found that a large number of protons are transferred in the tip collision. This is caused by the breaking of the neck and subsequent absorption of nucleons in the neck region. We thus conclude that the measured MNT processes involving about ten protons originate from the neck breaking dynamics in the tip collisions of a deformed $^{238}$U nucleus.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kazuyuki Sekizawa; Kazuhiro Yabana</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">148</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3250692"> <span id="translatedtitle">Blood Clot Formation under Flow: The Importance of Factor XI <span class="hlt">Depends</span> <span class="hlt">Strongly</span> on Platelet Count</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A previously validated mathematical model of intravascular platelet deposition and tissue factor (TF)-initiated coagulation under flow is extended and used to assess the influence on thrombin production of the activation of factor XI (fXI) by thrombin and of the activation of factor IX (fIX) by fXIa. It is found that the importance of the thrombin-fXIa-fIXa feedback loop to robust thrombin production <span class="hlt">depends</span> on the concentration of platelets in the blood near the injury. At a near-wall platelet concentration of ?250,000/?L, typical in vessels in which the shear rate is <200 s?1, thrombin activation of fXI makes a significant difference only at low densities of exposed TF. If the near-wall platelet concentration is significantly higher than this, either because of a higher systemic platelet count or because of the redistribution of platelets toward the vessel walls at high shear rates, then thrombin activation of fXI makes a major difference even for relatively high densities of exposed TF. The model predicts that the effect of a severe fXI deficiency <span class="hlt">depends</span> on the platelet count, and that fXI becomes more important at high platelet counts. PMID:22225793</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fogelson, Aaron L.; Hussain, Yasmeen H.; Leiderman, Karin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">149</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3911381"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hepcidin Induction by Pathogens and Pathogen-Derived Molecules Is <span class="hlt">Strongly</span> <span class="hlt">Dependent</span> on Interleukin-6</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hepcidin, the iron-regulatory hormone, is increased during infection or inflammation, causing hypoferremia. This response is thought to be a host defense mechanism that restricts iron availability to invading pathogens. It is not known if hepcidin is differentially induced by bacterial versus viral infections, whether the stimulation of pattern recognition receptors directly regulates hepcidin transcription, or which of the proposed signaling pathways are essential for hepcidin increase during infection. We analyzed hepcidin induction and its <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on interleukin-6 (IL-6) in response to common bacterial or viral infections in mice or in response to a panel of pathogen-derived molecules (PAMPs) in mice and human primary hepatocytes. In wild-type (WT) mice, hepcidin mRNA was induced several hundred-fold both by a bacterial (Streptococcus pneumoniae) and a viral infection (influenza virus PR8) within 2 to 5 days. Treatment of mice and human primary hepatocytes with most Toll-like receptor ligands increased hepcidin mRNA within 6 h. Hepcidin induction by microbial stimuli was IL-6 <span class="hlt">dependent</span>. IL-6 knockout mice failed to increase hepcidin in response to S. pneumoniae or influenza infection and had greatly diminished hepcidin response to PAMPs. In vitro, hepcidin induction by PAMPs in primary human hepatocytes was abolished by the addition of neutralizing IL-6 antibodies. Our results support the key role of IL-6 in hepcidin regulation in response to a variety of infectious and inflammatory stimuli. PMID:24478088</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rodriguez, Richard; Jung, Chun-Ling; Gabayan, Victoria; Deng, Jane C.; Ganz, Tomas; Nemeth, Elizabeta</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">150</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NJPh...16a3028J"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> asymmetrical bias <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of magnetoresistance in organic spin valves: the role of ferromagnetic/organic interfaces</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report a highly asymmetric magnetoresistance (MR) bias <span class="hlt">dependence</span>, with the inverse MR peaking at a negative bias and a sign reversal occurring at a positive bias in prototypical La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO)/Alq3/Co organic spin valve (OSV) with a tunnel barrier between LSMO and Alq3. This behavior is in <span class="hlt">strong</span> contrast with the commonly found inverse MR in entire bias range for LSMO/Alq3/Co OSVs. The MR bias voltage <span class="hlt">dependence</span> is independent on the type of the tunnel barrier, either SrTiO3 or Al2O3. Together with first-principle calculations, we demonstrate that the <span class="hlt">strongly</span> hybridized Co d-states with Alq3 molecules at the interface are responsible for the efficient d-states spin injection and the observed MR bias <span class="hlt">dependence</span> is originated from the energy <span class="hlt">dependent</span> density of states of Co d-states. These findings open up new possibilities to engineer interfacial bonding between ferromagnetic materials and a wide variety of molecule selections for the desired spin transport properties.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jiang, S. W.; Shu, D. J.; Lin, L.; Shi, Y. J.; Shi, J.; Ding, H. F.; Du, J.; Wang, M.; Wu, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">151</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2278230"> <span id="translatedtitle">Plant adaptation to fluctuating environment and biomass production are <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on guard cell potassium channels</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">At least four genes encoding plasma membrane inward K+ channels (Kin channels) are expressed in Arabidopsis guard cells. A double mutant plant was engineered by disruption of a major Kin channel gene and expression of a dominant negative channel construct. Using the patch-clamp technique revealed that this mutant was totally deprived of guard cell Kin channel (GCKin) activity, providing a model to investigate the roles of this activity in the plant. GCKin activity was found to be an essential effector of stomatal opening triggered by membrane hyperpolarization and thereby of blue light-induced stomatal opening at dawn. It improved stomatal reactivity to external or internal signals (light, CO2 availability, and evaporative demand). It protected stomatal function against detrimental effects of Na+ when plants were grown in the presence of physiological concentrations of this cation, probably by enabling guard cells to selectively and rapidly take up K+ instead of Na+ during stomatal opening, thereby preventing deleterious effects of Na+ on stomatal closure. It was also shown to be a key component of the mechanisms that underlie the circadian rhythm of stomatal opening, which is known to gate stomatal responses to extracellular and intracellular signals. Finally, in a meteorological scenario with higher light intensity during the first hours of the photophase, GCKin activity was found to allow a <span class="hlt">strong</span> increase (35%) in plant biomass production. Thus, a large diversity of approaches indicates that GCKin activity plays pleiotropic roles that crucially contribute to plant adaptation to fluctuating and stressing natural environments. PMID:18367672</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lebaudy, Anne; Vavasseur, Alain; Hosy, Eric; Dreyer, Ingo; Leonhardt, Nathalie; Thibaud, Jean-Baptiste; Véry, Anne-Aliénor; Simonneau, Thierry; Sentenac, Hervé</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">152</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..DMP.T1067C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> density functional theory calculation of <span class="hlt">strong</span> field ionization rates of H2</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We first report a detailed numerical comparison of <span class="hlt">strong</span> field ionization rates of the H2 molecule using two TDDFT methods, the molecular ADK (MOADK) method, and an ab initio complex scaling (CS) method. The two TDDFT methods are TDSIC and TDLB?, respectively, and they both contain the correct long-range limit of the exchange-correlation potential. The comparison covers different internuclear distances, molecular orientations, and laser intensities. The two TDDFT methods give consistent results. In the DC field limit, they agree with the MOADK and the CS results when the laser intensity is relatively small. At larger intensities the TDDFT results are lower and present a knee structure when plotted against the intensity. We think this difference is due to the ionization of the ion, which is not considered by the MOADK or the CS methods. We further explore the influence of the photon energy. The rates for 800 nm lasers are significantly larger than the values predicted by the slow varying field approximation at lower intensities. This difference diminishes with increasing laser intensity. With a lower intensity DC field, TDDFT methods predict an anisotropy similar to the MOADK prediction. However, we find that both the photon energy and the laser intensity play a role in the anisotropy, which the MOADK method does not describe.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chu, Xi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">153</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhRvA..79c3408M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Angular <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field ionization measured in randomly oriented hydrogen molecules</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We employed electron-ion coincidence momentum spectroscopy to measure the relative angle between an emitted electron and a deuteron resulting from field dissociation of the molecular ion produced by a circularly polarized pulse. We deduced the angular <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the molecular ionization probability without having to align the molecules first. We determined that with 50 fs pulses of 1850 nm wavelength and 2×1014W/cm2 intensity neutral D2 molecules are 1.15 times more likely to be ionized when the laser electric field is parallel to the molecular axis than for the perpendicular orientation, in excellent agreement with our ab initio theoretical model. Our results also agree with predictions of the molecular Ammosov-Delone-Krainov (mo-ADK) theory, as well as those of a similar experiment performed with 800 nm pulses of comparable intensity and duration on H2 molecules.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Magrakvelidze, Maia; He, Feng; de, Sankar; Bocharova, Irina; Ray, Dipanwita; Thumm, Uwe; Litvinyuk, I. V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">154</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1299657"> <span id="translatedtitle">Secondary pair charge recombination in photosystem I under <span class="hlt">strongly</span> reducing conditions: temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span> and suggested mechanism.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Photoinduced electron transfer in photosystem I (PS I) proceeds from the excited primary electron donor P700 (a chlorophyll a dimer) via the primary acceptor A0 (chlorophyll a) and the secondary acceptor A1 (phylloquinone) to three [4Fe-4S] clusters, Fx, FA, and FB. Prereduction of the iron-sulfur clusters blocks electron transfer beyond A1. It has been shown previously that, under such conditions, the secondary pair P700+A1- decays by charge recombination with t1/2 approximately 250 ns at room temperature, forming the P700 triplet state (3P700) with a yield exceeding 85%. This reaction is unusual, as the secondary pair in other photosynthetic reaction centers recombines much slower and forms directly the singlet ground state rather than the triplet state of the primary donor. Here we studied the temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of secondary pair recombination in PS I from the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC6803, which had been illuminated in the presence of dithionite at pH 10 to reduce all three iron-sulfur clusters. The reaction P700+A1- --> 3P700 was monitored by flash absorption spectroscopy. With decreasing temperature, the recombination slowed down and the yield of 3P700 decreased. In the range between 303 K and 240 K, the recombination rates could be described by the Arrhenius law with an activation energy of approximately 170 meV. Below 240 K, the temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span> became much weaker, and recombination to the singlet ground state became the dominating process. To explain the fast activated recombination to the P700 triplet state, we suggest a mechanism involving efficient singlet to triplet spin evolution in the secondary pair, thermally activated repopulation of the more closely spaced primary pair P700+A0- in a triplet spin configuration, and subsequent fast recombination (intrinsic rate on the order of 10(9) s(-1)) forming 3P700. PMID:9635770</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Polm, M; Brettel, K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">155</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvL.111h8101L"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Organization of the Cell Cytoplasm by Position-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Phase Separation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">During asymmetric cell division, cytoplasmic components are segregated to opposite sides of the cell. We discuss how the observed segregation can be achieved by a position-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> phase separation mechanism controlled by a protein concentration gradient. We show that effects of even a weak gradient can be amplified by the phase transition to achieve <span class="hlt">strong</span> segregation. We compare our theory to the segregation of germ granules observed during the divisions in the C. elegans embryo. Our study demonstrates how liquid-liquid phase separation can play a key role in the organization of the cytoplasm.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lee, Chiu Fan; Brangwynne, Clifford P.; Gharakhani, Jöbin; Hyman, Anthony A.; Jülicher, Frank</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">156</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25679780"> <span id="translatedtitle">Input-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> frequency modulation of cortical gamma oscillations shapes <span class="hlt">spatial</span> synchronization and enables phase coding.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fine-scale temporal organization of cortical activity in the gamma range (?25-80Hz) may play a significant role in information processing, for example by neural grouping ('binding') and phase coding. Recent experimental studies have shown that the precise frequency of gamma oscillations varies with input drive (e.g. visual contrast) and that it can differ among nearby cortical locations. This has challenged theories assuming widespread gamma synchronization at a fixed common frequency. In the present study, we investigated which principles govern gamma synchronization in the presence of input-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> frequency modulations and whether they are detrimental for meaningful input-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> gamma-mediated temporal organization. To this aim, we constructed a biophysically realistic excitatory-inhibitory network able to express different oscillation frequencies at nearby <span class="hlt">spatial</span> locations. Similarly to cortical networks, the model was topographically organized with <span class="hlt">spatially</span> local connectivity and <span class="hlt">spatially</span>-varying input drive. We analyzed gamma synchronization with respect to phase-locking, phase-relations and frequency differences, and quantified the stimulus-related information represented by gamma phase and frequency. By stepwise simplification of our models, we found that the gamma-mediated temporal organization could be reduced to basic synchronization principles of weakly coupled oscillators, where input drive determines the intrinsic (natural) frequency of oscillators. The gamma phase-locking, the precise phase relation and the emergent (measurable) frequencies were determined by two principal factors: the detuning (intrinsic frequency difference, i.e. local input difference) and the coupling strength. In addition to frequency coding, gamma phase contained complementary stimulus information. Crucially, the phase code reflected input differences, but not the absolute input level. This property of relative input-to-phase conversion, contrasting with latency codes or slower oscillation phase codes, may resolve conflicting experimental observations on gamma phase coding. Our modeling results offer clear testable experimental predictions. We conclude that input-<span class="hlt">dependency</span> of gamma frequencies could be essential rather than detrimental for meaningful gamma-mediated temporal organization of cortical activity. PMID:25679780</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lowet, Eric; Roberts, Mark; Hadjipapas, Avgis; Peter, Alina; van der Eerden, Jan; De Weerd, Peter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">157</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4334551"> <span id="translatedtitle">Input-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Frequency Modulation of Cortical Gamma Oscillations Shapes <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Synchronization and Enables Phase Coding</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fine-scale temporal organization of cortical activity in the gamma range (?25–80Hz) may play a significant role in information processing, for example by neural grouping (‘binding’) and phase coding. Recent experimental studies have shown that the precise frequency of gamma oscillations varies with input drive (e.g. visual contrast) and that it can differ among nearby cortical locations. This has challenged theories assuming widespread gamma synchronization at a fixed common frequency. In the present study, we investigated which principles govern gamma synchronization in the presence of input-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> frequency modulations and whether they are detrimental for meaningful input-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> gamma-mediated temporal organization. To this aim, we constructed a biophysically realistic excitatory-inhibitory network able to express different oscillation frequencies at nearby <span class="hlt">spatial</span> locations. Similarly to cortical networks, the model was topographically organized with <span class="hlt">spatially</span> local connectivity and <span class="hlt">spatially</span>-varying input drive. We analyzed gamma synchronization with respect to phase-locking, phase-relations and frequency differences, and quantified the stimulus-related information represented by gamma phase and frequency. By stepwise simplification of our models, we found that the gamma-mediated temporal organization could be reduced to basic synchronization principles of weakly coupled oscillators, where input drive determines the intrinsic (natural) frequency of oscillators. The gamma phase-locking, the precise phase relation and the emergent (measurable) frequencies were determined by two principal factors: the detuning (intrinsic frequency difference, i.e. local input difference) and the coupling strength. In addition to frequency coding, gamma phase contained complementary stimulus information. Crucially, the phase code reflected input differences, but not the absolute input level. This property of relative input-to-phase conversion, contrasting with latency codes or slower oscillation phase codes, may resolve conflicting experimental observations on gamma phase coding. Our modeling results offer clear testable experimental predictions. We conclude that input-<span class="hlt">dependency</span> of gamma frequencies could be essential rather than detrimental for meaningful gamma-mediated temporal organization of cortical activity. PMID:25679780</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lowet, Eric; Roberts, Mark; Hadjipapas, Avgis; Peter, Alina; van der Eerden, Jan; De Weerd, Peter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">158</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/940692"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spin <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of k-mixing, <span class="hlt">strong</span> configuration mixing and electromagnetic properties of {sup 178}Hf.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The combined data of two Coulomb excitation experiments has verified the purely electromagnetic population of the K{pi} = 4{sup +}, 6{sup +}, 8{sup -}, and 16{sup +} rotational bands in {sup 178}Hf via 2 {le} {nu} {le} 14 K-forbidden transitions, quantifying the breakdown of the K-selection rule with increasing spin in the low-K bands. The {gamma}{sup -}, 4{sup +}, and 6{sup +} bands were extended, and four new states in a rotational band were tentatively assigned to a previously known K{pi} = 0{sup +} band. The quasiparticle structure of the 6{sup +} (t 1/2 = 77 ns) and 8{sup -} (t 1/2 = 4s) isomer bands were evaluated, showing that the gyromagnetic ratios of the 6{sup +} isomer band are consistent with a pure {pi} 7/2{sup +}[404],{pi} 5/2{sup +}[402] structure. The 8{sup -} isomer band at 1147 keV and the second 8{sup -} band at 1479 keV, thought to be predominantly {nu} 7/2{sup -}[514], {nu} 9/2{sup +}[624] and {pi} 9/2{sup -}[514], {pi}7/2{sup +}[404], respectively, are mixed to a degree approaching the <span class="hlt">strong</span>-mixing limit. Based on measured <K{pi} = 16{sup +} {parallel} E2 {parallel} K{pi} = 0{sup +}> matrix elements, it was shown that heavy-ion bombardment could depopulate the 16{sup +} isomer at the {approx}1% level, although no states were found that would mediate photodeexcitation of the isomer via low-energy x-ray absorption.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hayes, A.B.; Cline, D.; Wu, C.Y.; Ai, H.; Amro, H.; Beausang, C.; Casten, R.F.; Gerl, J.; Hecht, A.A.; Heinz, A.; Hua, H.; Hughes, R.; Janssens, R.V.F; Lister, C.J.; Macchiavelli, A.O.; Meyer, D.A.; Moore, E.F.; Napiorkowski, P.; Pardo, R.C.; Schlegel, Ch.; Seweryniak, D.; Simon, W.M.; Srebrny, J.; Teng, R.; Vetter, K.; Physics; Univ. of Rochester; LLNL; Yale Univ.; Univ. of Richmond; GSI; Peking Univ.; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab.; Warsaw Univ.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">159</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70042773"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seed harvesting by a generalist consumer is context-<span class="hlt">dependent</span>: Interactive effects across multiple <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Granivore foraging decisions affect consumer success and determine the quantity and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> pattern of seed survival. These decisions are influenced by environmental variation at <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales ranging from landscapes to local foraging patches. In a field experiment, the effects of seed patch variation across three <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales on seed removal by western harvester ants Pogonomyrmex occidentalis were evaluated. At the largest scale we assessed harvesting in different plant communities, at the intermediate scale we assessed harvesting at different distances from ant mounds, and at the smallest scale we assessed the effects of interactions among seed species in local seed neighborhoods on seed harvesting (i.e. resource–consumer interface). Selected seed species were presented alone (monospecific treatment) and in mixture with Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass; mixture treatment) at four distances from P. occidentalis mounds in adjacent intact sagebrush and non-native cheatgrass-dominated communities in the Great Basin, Utah, USA. Seed species differed in harvest, with B. tectorum being least preferred. Large and intermediate scale variation influenced harvest. More seeds were harvested in sagebrush than in cheatgrass-dominated communities (largest scale), and the quantity of seed harvested varied with distance from mounds (intermediate-scale), although the form of the distance effect differed between plant communities. At the smallest scale, seed neighborhood affected harvest, but the patterns differed among seed species considered. Ants harvested fewer seeds from mixed-seed neighborhoods than from monospecific neighborhoods, suggesting context <span class="hlt">dependence</span> and potential associational resistance. Further, the effects of plant community and distance from mound on seed harvest in mixtures differed from their effects in monospecific treatments. Beyond the local seed neighborhood, selection of seed resources is better understood by simultaneously evaluating removal at multiple scales. Associational effects provide a useful theoretical basis for better understanding harvester ant foraging decisions. These results demonstrate the importance of ecological context for seed removal, which has implications for seed pools, plant populations and communities.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ostoja, Steven M.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Klinger, Rob</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">160</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18853797"> <span id="translatedtitle">Abiotic methyl bromide formation from vegetation, and its <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on temperature.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Methyl bromide (CH3Br) is the most abundant brominated organic compound in the atmosphere. It is known to originate from natural and anthropogenic sources, although many uncertainties remain regarding strengths of both sources and sinks and the processes leading to its formation. In this study a potential new CH3Br source from vegetation has been examined, analogous to the recently discovered abiotic formation of methyl chloride from plant pectin. Several plant samples with known bromine content, including ash (Fraxinus excelsior), saltwort (Batis maritima), tomato reference material (NIST-1573a), hay reference material (IAEA V-10), and also bromine enriched pectin, were incubated in the temperature range of 25-50 degrees C and analyzed for CH3Br emission using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. All plant samples inspected showed an exponential increase in CH3Br emission as a function of temperature increase, i.e., emissions were observed to approximately double with every 5 degrees C rise in temperature. Next to temperature, it was found that emissions of CH3Br were also <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on the bromine content of the plants. The highest CH3Br release rates were found for the saltwort which contained the highest bromine concentration. Arrhenius plots confirmed that the observed emissions were from an abiotic origin. The contribution of abiotic CH3Br formation from vegetation to the global budget will vary geographically as a result of regional differences in both temperature and bromide content of terrestrial plants. PMID:18853797</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wishkerman, Asher; Gebhardt, Sarah; McRoberts, Colin W; Hamilton, John T G; Williams, Jonathan; Keppler, Frank</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-09-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' 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showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">161</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25378125"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ciprofloxacin metalloantibiotic: an effective antibiotic with an influx route <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on lipid interaction?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fluoroquinolones are antibiotics that have a large spectrum of action against bacteria, especially Gram-negative. A strategy to enhance their pharmacological behavior, and try to counteract bacterial resistance, is their coordination to divalent metal ions and 1,10-phenanthroline. These stable complexes modify fluoroquinolones potency and specificity, possibly due to their alternative translocation through the bacterial membranes. In this work, we determined the interaction of ciprofloxacin and its copper(II) ternary complex with unilamellar liposomes of DMPC, POPE/POPG (0.75:0.25), POPE/POPG/cardiolipin (0.67:0.23:0.10), and E. coli total extract, using time-resolved and steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy. The association constants determined show that the interaction of both compounds <span class="hlt">depends</span> on membrane lipids composition and is always higher for the metalloantibiotic, a trend already observed for other fluoroquinolone metalloantibiotics. Nevertheless, the interaction of ciprofloxacin metalloantibiotic is, normally, higher, which reflects the fluoroquinolone species that are present in solution at physiological pH. In overall, the results obtained suggest that ciprofloxacin and its metalloantibiotic have different translocation pathways, proposing that the diffusion of the metalloantibiotic is a hydrophobic mechanism and suggesting that this new metalloantibiotic may be a good choice to replace the pure ciprofloxacin and bypass, at least, one of the mechanisms of the bacterial resistance to fluoroquinolones. PMID:25378125</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ferreira, Mariana; Gameiro, Paula</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">162</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19527653"> <span id="translatedtitle">Metabolic inhibition <span class="hlt">strongly</span> inhibits Na+-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> Mg2+ efflux in rat ventricular myocytes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We measured intracellular Mg2+ concentration ([Mg2+]i) in rat ventricular myocytes using the fluorescent indicator furaptra (25 degrees C). In normally energized cells loaded with Mg2+, the introduction of extracellular Na+ induced a rapid decrease in [Mg2+]i: the initial rate of decrease in [Mg2+]i (initial Delta[Mg2+]i/Deltat) is thought to represent the rate of Na+-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> Mg2+ efflux (putative Na+/Mg2+ exchange). To determine whether Mg2+ efflux <span class="hlt">depends</span> directly on energy derived from cellular metabolism, in addition to the transmembrane Na+ gradient, we estimated the initial Delta[Mg2+]i/Deltat after metabolic inhibition. In the absence of extracellular Na+ and Ca2+, treatment of the cells with 1 microM carbonyl cyanide p-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone, an uncoupler of mitochondria, caused a large increase in [Mg2+]i from approximately 0.9 mM to approximately 2.5 mM in a period of 5-8 min (probably because of breakdown of MgATP and release of Mg2+) and cell shortening to approximately 50% of the initial length (probably because of formation of rigor cross-bridges). Similar increases in [Mg2+]i and cell shortening were observed after application of 5 mM potassium cyanide (KCN) (an inhibitor of respiration) for > or = 90 min. The initial Delta[Mg2+]i/Deltat was diminished, on average, by 90% in carbonyl cyanide p-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone-treated cells and 92% in KCN-treated cells. When the cells were treated with 5 mM KCN for shorter times (59-85 min), a significant decrease in the initial Delta[Mg2+]i/Deltat (on average by 59%) was observed with only a slight shortening of the cell length. Intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+]i) estimated with a Na+ indicator sodium-binding benzofuran isophthalate was, on average, 5.0-10.5 mM during the time required for the initial Delta[Mg2+]i/Deltat measurements, which is well below the [Na+]i level for half inhibition of the Mg2+ efflux (approximately 40 mM). Normalization of intracellular pH using 10 microM nigericin, a H+ ionophore, did not reverse the inhibition of the Mg2+ efflux. From these results, it seems likely that a decrease in ATP below the threshold of rigor cross-bridge formation (approximately 0.4 mM estimated indirectly in the this study), rather than elevation of [Na+]i or intracellular acidosis, inhibits the Mg2+ efflux, suggesting the absolute necessity of ATP for the Na+/Mg2+ exchange. PMID:19527653</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tashiro, Michiko; Inoue, Hana; Konishi, Masato</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-06-17</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">163</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvB..90k5138G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Angular <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of magnetoresistance in <span class="hlt">strongly</span> anisotropic quasi-two-dimensional metals: Influence of Landau-level shape</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present the quantum-mechanical calculation of the angular <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of interlayer conductivity ?zz(? ) in a tilted magnetic field in quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D) layered metals. Our calculation is applicable for arbitrary density of electron states and shows that the shape of Landau levels (LLs) is important for this angular <span class="hlt">dependence</span>. We derive simple analytical formulas for ?zz(? ) in the particular cases of Gaussian and dome-shaped LLs. Since in <span class="hlt">strongly</span> anisotropic quasi-two-dimensional metals in a high magnetic field the LL shape is closer to dome-like or Gaussian, this analytical formula replaces the traditionally used one, derived for Lorentzian LL shape. The amplitude of angular magnetoresistance oscillations (AMRO) is considerably stronger for the dome-like or Gaussian than for the traditionally used Lorentzian LL shape. The ratio ?zz(? =0)/?zz(? ?±90?) is also several times smaller for the Lorentzian LL shape at the same LL width. The field <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of ?zz(? ?±90?) provides useful information about the electron mean free time. AMRO and Zeeman energy splitting lead to a spin current. For typical organic metals and for a medium magnetic field of 10 T this spin current is only a few percent of the charge current. However, the spin current may almost reach the charge current for special tilt angles of the magnetic field. The spin current has <span class="hlt">strong</span> angular oscillations, which are phase-shifted as compared to the usual AMRO.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grigoriev, P. D.; Mogilyuk, T. I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">164</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JChPh.119.7372L"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatially</span> heterogeneous dynamics investigated via a time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> four-point density correlation function</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Relaxation in supercooled liquids above their glass transition and below the onset temperature of "slow" dynamics involves the correlated motion of neighboring particles. This correlated motion results in the appearance of <span class="hlt">spatially</span> heterogeneous dynamics or "dynamical heterogeneity." Traditional two-point time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> density correlation functions, while providing information about the transient "caging" of particles on cooling, are unable to provide sufficiently detailed information about correlated motion and dynamical heterogeneity. Here, we study a four-point, time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> density correlation function g4(r,t) and corresponding "structure factor" S4(q,t) which measure the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> correlations between the local liquid density at two points in space, each at two different times, and so are sensitive to dynamical heterogeneity. We study g4(r,t) and S4(q,t) via molecular dynamics simulations of a binary Lennard-Jones mixture approaching the mode coupling temperature from above. We find that the correlations between particles measured by g4(r,t) and S4(q,t) become increasingly pronounced on cooling. The corresponding dynamical correlation length ?4(t) extracted from the small-q behavior of S4(q,t) provides an estimate of the range of correlated particle motion. We find that ?4(t) has a maximum as a function of time t, and that the value of the maximum of ?4(t) increases steadily from less than one particle diameter to a value exceeding nine particle diameters in the temperature range approaching the mode coupling temperature from above. At the maximum, ?4(t) and the ? relaxation time ?? are related by a power law. We also examine the individual contributions to g4(r,t), S4(q,t), and ?4(t), as well as the corresponding order parameter Q(t) and generalized susceptibility ?4(t), arising from the self and distinct contributions to Q(t). These contributions elucidate key differences between domains of localized and delocalized particles.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">La?evi?, N.; Starr, F. W.; Schrøder, T. B.; Glotzer, S. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">165</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24326190"> <span id="translatedtitle">PAH effects on meio- and microbial benthic communities <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">depend</span> on bioavailability.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effects of anthropogenic pollutants in dissimilar habitats can vary <span class="hlt">depending</span> on differences in bioavailability. The factors determining bioavailability are not yet fully understood. This study was performed to evaluate whether analysis of total PAH concentrations in sediments is a satisfactory measurement to indicate environmental effects or if bioavailability is needed to be taken into account. We have here performed a 60-day experiment, where nominal PAH concentrations of 1,300 ?g/kg sediment were added to three different marine sediments. Meiofaunal and microbial communities were analyzed for alterations in community response at 30 and 60 days. Results showed that bioavailability of PAHs varied between the three different sediments. Nonetheless, the petroleum addition gave rise to significant negative effects on all three sediments at both time points. The two direct measurements of toxicity on the microbial community, potential nitrification and denitrification, displayed a lower effect of the PAH addition in the muddy sediment at both time points, compared to the other two sediment types. No effects were seen in the analysis of meiofaunal community structure. Measurements of PAH bioavailability in the three sediment types concurred with the results from the microbial community, revealing a lower bioavailability in the muddy sediment compared to the other two sediment types, 34% compared to sandy and 18% compared to organic at day 0. At day 60 it was 61% lower compared to sandy and 20% lower compared to organic. The negative effects of the PAH addition on the microbial nitrogen cycle were in six out of eight cases best correlated to the amount of alkylated bioavailable PAH in the sediments, and thus microbial nitrogen cycle is a possible good indicator for assessing PAH-induced stress. The results presented here have implications for risk analysis studies of petroleum-contaminated marine sediments; consequently, sediment characteristics and its effects on bioavailability are important to include. In addition, these results add to the understanding that bioavailability measurements of PAHs are a more correct assessment compared to measurements of total PAH concentrations, and need to be included when estimating effects of PAHs in marine benthic communities. PMID:24326190</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lindgren, J Fredrik; Hassellöv, Ida-Maja; Dahllöf, Ingela</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">166</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014A%26C.....6...28L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of <span class="hlt">strong</span> gravitational lens model software I. Redshift and model <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of time delay and mass calculations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Analysis of <span class="hlt">strong</span> gravitational lensing <span class="hlt">depends</span> on software analysis of observational data. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the behavior of <span class="hlt">strong</span> gravitational lens modeling software with changes in redshift. Four different <span class="hlt">strong</span> gravitational lens software modeling codes are directly compared (Lenstool/glafic, two light traces mass codes, and GRALE/PixeLens, two non-light traces mass codes) in the analysis of a mock model as well as analysis of SDSSJ1004 + 4112. The calculated time delay is proportional to DdDs /Dds. The percent change in time delays calculated at each redshift tested is compared with percent change in DdDs /Dds. A mock model with a singular isothermal ellipsoid and four images is tested with each code. Five models are used with a constant zlens and a varying zsource, and five models with a constant zsource and a varying zlens. The effects of changing geometry are similarly investigated for SDSSJ1004 + 4112. In general, the changes in time delay are of a similar magnitude and direction, although some calculated time delays did not follow changes in DdDs /Dds. This variation is explained by changes in image position calculated by glafic and GRALE, which varied according to Dds /Ds. Changes in enclosed mass for the mock model with a constant zsource are similar to changes in DdDs /Dds for three of the four codes tested. These data demonstrate the effect of changes in redshift on parameters calculated by each of the codes as compared to changes in DdDs /Dds. The paucity of comparative studies in <span class="hlt">strong</span> gravitational lensing suggests the need for further studies. These results show that small changes in redshift affect the calculated time delay and mass, and that the effect on the calculations is <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on the particular software used.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lefor, A. T.; Futamase, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">167</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4067381"> <span id="translatedtitle">Up, Down, and All Around: Scale-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Variation in Rocky-Shore Communities of Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Understanding the variation of biodiversity along environmental gradients and multiple <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales is relevant for theoretical and management purposes. Hereby, we analysed the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variability in diversity and structure of intertidal and subtidal macrobenthic Antarctic communities along vertical environmental stress gradients and across multiple horizontal <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales. Since biotic interactions and local topographic features are likely major factors for coastal assemblages, we tested the hypothesis that fine-scale processes influence the effects of the vertical environmental stress gradients on the macrobenthic diversity and structure. We used nested sampling designs in the intertidal and subtidal habitats, including horizontal <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales ranging from few centimetres to 1000s of metres along the rocky shore of Fildes Peninsula, King George Island. In both intertidal and subtidal habitats, univariate and multivariate analyses showed a marked vertical zonation in taxon richness and community structure. These patterns <span class="hlt">depended</span> on the horizontal <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale of observation, as all analyses showed a significant interaction between height (or depth) and the finer <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale analysed. Variance and pseudo-variance components supported our prediction for taxon richness, community structure, and the abundance of dominant species such as the filamentous green alga Urospora penicilliformis (intertidal), the herbivore Nacella concinna (intertidal), the large kelp-like Himantothallus grandifolius (subtidal), and the red crustose red alga Lithothamnion spp. (subtidal). We suggest that in coastal ecosystems <span class="hlt">strongly</span> governed by physical factors, fine-scale processes (e.g. biotic interactions and refugia availability) are still relevant for the structuring and maintenance of the local communities. The <span class="hlt">spatial</span> patterns found in this study serve as a necessary benchmark to understand the dynamics and adaptation of natural assemblages in response to observed and predicted environmental changes in Antarctica. PMID:24956114</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Valdivia, Nelson; Díaz, María J.; Holtheuer, Jorge; Garrido, Ignacio; Huovinen, Pirjo; Gómez, Iván</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">168</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24467484"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temperature-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> Hall and field-effect mobility in <span class="hlt">strongly</span> coupled all-inorganic nanocrystal arrays.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report on the temperature-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> Hall effect characteristics of nanocrystal (NC) arrays prepared from colloidal InAs NCs capped with metal chalcogenide complex (MCC) ligands (In2Se4(2-) and Cu7S4(-)). Our study demonstrates that Hall effect measurements are a powerful way of exploring the fundamental properties of NC solids. We found that solution-cast 5.3 nm InAs NC films capped with copper sulfide MCC ligands exhibited high Hall mobility values over 16 cm(2)/(V s). We also showed that the nature of MCC ligands can control doping in NC solids. The comparative study of the temperature-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> Hall and field-effect mobility values provides valuable insights concerning the charge transport mechanism and points to the transition from a weak to a <span class="hlt">strong</span> coupling regime in all-inorganic InAs NC solids. PMID:24467484</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jang, Jaeyoung; Liu, Wenyong; Son, Jae Sung; Talapin, Dmitri V</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-02-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">169</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22220724"> <span id="translatedtitle">Propagation of sound waves through a <span class="hlt">spatially</span> homogeneous but smoothly time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> medium</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The propagation of sound through a <span class="hlt">spatially</span> homogeneous but non-stationary medium is investigated within the framework of fluid dynamics. For a non-vortical fluid, especially, a generalized wave equation is derived for the (scalar) potential of the fluid velocity distribution in <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the equilibrium mass density of the fluid and the sound wave velocity. A solution of this equation for a finite transition period ? is determined in terms of the hypergeometric function for a phenomenologically realistic, sigmoidal change of the mass density and sound wave velocity. Using this solution, it is shown that the energy flux of the sound wave is not conserved but increases always for the propagation through a non-stationary medium, independent of whether the equilibrium mass density is increased or decreased. It is found, moreover, that this amplification of the transmitted wave arises from an energy exchange with the medium and that its flux is equal to the (total) flux of the incident and the reflected wave. An interpretation of the reflected wave as a propagation of sound backward in time is given in close analogy to Feynman and Stueckelberg for the propagation of anti-particles. The reflection and transmission coefficients of sound propagating through a non-stationary medium is analyzed in more detail for hypersonic waves with transition periods ? between 15 and 200 ps as well as the transformation of infrasound waves in non-stationary oceans. -- Highlights: •Analytically exact study of sound propagation through a non-stationary medium. •Energy exchange between the non-stationary medium and the sound wave. •Transformation of hypersonic and ultrasound frequencies in non-stationary media. •Propagation of sound backward in time in close analogy to anti-particles. •Prediction of tsunamis both in <span class="hlt">spatially</span> and temporally inhomogeneous oceans.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hayrapetyan, A.G., E-mail: armen@physi.uni-heidelberg.de [Physikalisches Institut, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Grigoryan, K.K.; Petrosyan, R.G. [Yerevan State University, 1 Alex Manoogian Str., 0025 Yerevan (Armenia)] [Yerevan State University, 1 Alex Manoogian Str., 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Fritzsche, S. [Helmholtz-Institut Jena, Fröbelstieg 3, D-07743 Jena (Germany) [Helmholtz-Institut Jena, Fröbelstieg 3, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Theoretisch-Physikalisches Institut, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">170</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.bio.uib.no/evofish/papers/BerecBoukalBerec2001_AmNat.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Linking the Allee Effect, Sexual Reproduction, and Temperature?<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Sex Determination Via <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Dynamics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We develop a <span class="hlt">spatially</span> explicit, two-sex, individual-based model (IBM) and a derived <span class="hlt">spatially</span> homogeneous model (SHM) to describe the Allee effect due to scarcity of mating possibilities at low population sizes or densities. The SHM, based on coupled difference equations, represents the first <span class="hlt">spatially</span> homogeneous approach to this phenomenon, which differentiates between sexes and relies only on measurable population parameters.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lud?k Berec; David S. Boukal; Michal Berec</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">171</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14568975"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thymic CD8+ T cell production <span class="hlt">strongly</span> influences tumor antigen recognition and age-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> glioma mortality.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">For unknown reasons, advanced age remains a dominant predictor of poor clinical outcome for nearly all cancers. A decrease in the production of T cells by the thymus accompanies normal aging and parallels the age-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> increase in cancer progression, but the specific impact of immunity on tumor progression in general is unknown. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common primary brain neoplasm, is characterized by rapid age-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> rates of progression and death. In this study, we show levels of CD8(+) recent thymic emigrants (RTEs) accounted for the prognostic power of age on clinical outcome in GBM patients. CD8(+) RTEs, typically a tiny proportion of CD8(+) T cells, remarkably accounted for the majority of tumor Ag-binding small precursor cells in PBMC from these patients and from healthy individuals. Large blasting tumor Ag-binding cells comprised of CD8(+) RTEs and phenotypically related cells were predominantly expanded following experimental vaccination of GBM patients. Quantification of CD8(+) RTE expansion in vivo correlated <span class="hlt">strongly</span> with vaccine-elicited cytokine responses, and estimated numbers of expanding CD8(+) RTEs were consistent predictors of clinical outcome in vaccinated GBM patients. Targeted mutant (CD8beta(-/-)) mice specifically deficient in thymic CD8(+) T cell production uniquely displayed an age-specific decrease in glioma host survival as well as a <span class="hlt">strong</span> correlation between host survival and thymus cellular production. These findings suggest that levels and function of newly produced CD8(+) T cells critically influence age-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> cancer mortality and exert one of the strongest known influences on GBM outcome by predominantly mediating clinically beneficial antitumor immune responses. PMID:14568975</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wheeler, Christopher J; Black, Keith L; Liu, Gentao; Ying, Han; Yu, John S; Zhang, Wenxuan; Lee, Paul K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">172</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MSMSE..22f5010F"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> cluster dynamics modeling of microstructure evolution in low energy helium irradiated tungsten</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In fusion reactors, plasma facing components (PFC) and in particular the divertor will be irradiated with high fluxes of low energy (˜100 eV) helium and hydrogen ions. Tungsten is one of the leading candidate divertor materials for ITER and DEMO fusion reactors. However, the behavior of tungsten under high dose, coupled helium/hydrogen exposure remains to be fully understood. The PFC response and performance changes are intimately related to microstructural changes, such as the formation of point defect clusters, helium and hydrogen bubbles or dislocation loops. Computational materials modeling has been used to investigate the mechanisms controlling microstructural evolution in tungsten following high dose, high temperature helium exposure. The aim of this study is to understand and predict helium implantation, primary defect production and defect diffusion, helium-defect clustering and interactions below a tungsten surface exposed to low energy helium irradiation. The important defects include interstitial clusters, vacancy clusters, helium interstitials and helium-vacancy clusters. We report results from a one-dimensional, <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> cluster dynamics model based on the continuum reaction-diffusion rate theory to describe the evolution in space and time of all these defects. The key parameter inputs to the model (diffusion coefficients, migration and binding energies, initial defect production) are determined from a combination of atomistic materials modeling and available experimental data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Faney, T.; Wirth, B. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">173</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011OptEn..50e7202W"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> matrix feature and redundancy elimination algorithm using AdaBoost for object detection</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper describes a novel feature representation and selection approach for classification problems, especially for visual object detection within the framework of AdaBoost. This work is distinguished by two contributions. The first contribution is the introduction of a new feature generation and representation method called the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> matrix feature, which not only provides information related to the first-order statistics distribution of the object, but also gives some information about the relative positions within the object, more importantly, it can provide different degrees of importance for different discriminative parts within the object. It is flexible, extendable, and compatible with Haar-like features. The second contribution is an improved feature selection algorithm, which introduces a novel weighted features redundancy elimination rule that eliminates the irrelevant and redundant features from the candidate feature pool at every boosting stage when gradually training detector, and thus two advantages can be obtained: leading to selecting features with more discrimination and the final detector having a higher accuracy, and also increasing the learning convergence and achieving high training rates. Extensive experiments with synthetic and real scene data sets show that our works outperform conventional AdaBoost and are better than or at least equivalent to previously published results.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wen, Jia; Li, Chao; Xiong, Zhang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">174</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22310776"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span>-field ionization rates of linear polyenes simulated with time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> configuration interaction with an absorbing potential</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">strong</span> field ionization rates for ethylene, trans 1,3-butadiene, and trans,trans 1,3,5-hexatriene have been calculated using time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> configuration interaction with single excitations and a complex absorbing potential (TDCIS-CAP). The calculations used the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set with a large set of diffuse functions (3 s, 2 p, 3 d, and 1 f) on each atom. The absorbing boundary was placed 3.5 times the van der Waals radius from each atom. The simulations employed a seven-cycle cosine squared pulse with a wavelength of 800 nm. Ionization rates were calculated for intensities ranging from 0.3 × 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} to 3.5 × 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}. Ionization rates along the molecular axis increased markedly with increasing conjugation length. By contrast, ionization rates perpendicular to the molecular axis were almost independent of the conjugation length.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Krause, Pascal; Schlegel, H. Bernhard [Department of Chemistry, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48202-3489 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">175</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25044507"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> and body-size <span class="hlt">dependent</span> response of marine pelagic communities to projected global climate change.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Temperature, oxygen, and food availability directly affect marine life. Climate models project a global warming of the ocean's surface (~+3 °C), a de-oxygenation of the ocean's interior (~-3%) and a decrease in total marine net primary production (~-8%) under the 'business as usual' climate change scenario (RCP8.5). We estimated the effects of these changes on biological communities using a coupled biogeochemical (PISCES)--ecosystems (APECOSM) model forced by the physical outputs of the last generation of the IPSL-CM Earth System Model. The APECOSM model is a size-structured bio-energetic model that simulates the 3D dynamical distributions of three interactive pelagic communities (epipelagic, mesopelagic, and migratory) under the effects of multiple environmental factors. The PISCES-APECOSM model ran from 1850 to 2100 under historical forcing followed by RCP8.5. Our RCP8.5 simulation highlights significant changes in the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution, biomass, and maximum body-size of the simulated pelagic communities. Biomass and maximum body-size increase at high latitude over the course of the century, reflecting the capacity of marine organisms to respond to new suitable environment. At low- and midlatitude, biomass and maximum body-size <span class="hlt">strongly</span> decrease. In those regions, large organisms cannot maintain their high metabolic needs because of limited and declining food availability. This resource reduction enhances the competition and modifies the biomass distribution among and within the three communities: the proportion of small organisms increases in the three communities and the migrant community that initially comprised a higher proportion of small organisms is favored. The greater resilience of small body-size organisms resides in their capacity to fulfill their metabolic needs under reduced energy supply and is further favored by the release of predation pressure due to the decline of large organisms. These results suggest that small body-size organisms might be more resilient to climate change than large ones. PMID:25044507</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lefort, Stelly; Aumont, Olivier; Bopp, Laurent; Arsouze, Thomas; Gehlen, Marion; Maury, Olivier</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">176</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25141823"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> topographic sheltering effects lead to <span class="hlt">spatially</span> complex treeline advance and increased forest density in a subtropical mountain region.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Altitudinal treelines are typically temperature limited such that increasing temperatures linked to global climate change are causing upslope shifts of treelines worldwide. While such elevational increases are readily predicted based on shifting isotherms, at the regional level the realized response is often much more complex, with topography and local environmental conditions playing an important modifying role. Here, we used repeated aerial photographs in combination with forest inventory data to investigate changes in treeline position in the Central Mountain Range of Taiwan over the last 60 years. A highly <span class="hlt">spatially</span> variable upslope advance of treeline was identified in which topography is a major driver of both treeline form and advance. The changes in treeline position that we observed occurred alongside substantial increases in forest density, and lead to a large increase in overall forest area. These changes will have a significant impact on carbon stocking in the high altitude zone, while the concomitant decrease in alpine grassland area is likely to have negative implications for alpine species. The complex and <span class="hlt">spatially</span> variable changes that we report highlight the necessity for considering local factors such as topography when attempting to predict species distributional responses to warming climate. PMID:25141823</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Greenwood, Sarah; Chen, Jan-Chang; Chen, Chaur-Tzuhn; Jump, Alistair S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">177</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/36057135"> <span id="translatedtitle">Enriched environment, nitric oxide production and synaptic plasticity prevent the aging-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> impairment of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> cognition</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In rodents, neuronal plasticity decreases and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> learning and working memory deficits increase upon aging. Several authors have shown that rats reared in enriched environments have better cognitive performance in association with increased neuronal plasticity than animals reared in standard environments. We hypothesized that enriched environment could preserve animals from the age-associated neurological impairments, mainly through NO-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> mechanisms of induction</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Silvia Lores Arnaiz; Gabriela D'Amico; Nora Paglia; Mariana Arismendi; Nidia Basso; Mar??a del Rosario Lores Arnaiz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">178</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3273489"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> heterogeneity, frequency-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> selection and polymorphism in host-parasite interactions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Genomic and pathology analysis has revealed enormous diversity in genes involved in disease, including those encoding host resistance and parasite effectors (also known in plant pathology as avirulence genes). It has been proposed that such variation may persist when an organism exists in a <span class="hlt">spatially</span> structured metapopulation, following the geographic mosaic of coevolution. Here, we study gene-for-gene relationships governing the outcome of plant-parasite interactions in a <span class="hlt">spatially</span> structured system and, in particular, investigate the population genetic processes which maintain balanced polymorphism in both species. Results Following previous theory on the effect of heterogeneous environments on maintenance of polymorphism, we analysed a model with two demes in which the demes have different environments and are coupled by gene flow. Environmental variation is manifested by different coefficients of natural selection, the costs to the host of resistance and to the parasite of virulence, the cost to the host of being diseased and the cost to an avirulent parasite of unsuccessfully attacking a resistant host. We show that migration generates negative direct frequency-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> selection, a condition for maintenance of stable polymorphism in each deme. Balanced polymorphism occurs preferentially if there is heterogeneity for costs of resistance and virulence alleles among populations and to a lesser extent if there is variation in the cost to the host of being diseased. We show that the four fitness costs control the natural frequency of oscillation of host resistance and parasite avirulence alleles. If demes have different costs, their frequencies of oscillation differ and when coupled by gene flow, there is amplitude death of the oscillations in each deme. Numerical simulations show that for a multiple deme island model, costs of resistance and virulence need not to be present in each deme for stable polymorphism to occur. Conclusions Our theoretical results confirm the importance of empirical studies for measuring the environmental heterogeneity for genetic costs of resistance and virulence alleles. We suggest that such studies should be developed to investigate the generality of this mechanism for the long-term maintenance of genetic diversity at host and parasite genes. PMID:22044632</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">179</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/33690758"> <span id="translatedtitle">Masking of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequency in visual memory <span class="hlt">depends</span> on distal, not retinal, frequency</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> frequency discrimination thresholds measured in a two-interval forced choice paradigm are virtually constant across inter-stimulus intervals ranging from 400 to 30,000 msec, demonstrating that an accurate representation of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequency is maintained in short-term memory. This representation can be degraded by briefly flashing a grating during the retention interval. Moreover, this memory masking effect varies with the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequency</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Patrick J. Bennett; Filomeno Cortese</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">180</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21362171"> <span id="translatedtitle">Order-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> mappings: <span class="hlt">Strong</span>-coupling behavior from weak-coupling expansions in non-Hermitian theories</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A long time ago, it has been conjectured that a Hamiltonian with a potential of the form x{sup 2}+ivx{sup 3}, v real, has a real spectrum. This conjecture has been generalized to a class of the so-called PT symmetric Hamiltonians and some proofs have been given. Here, we show by numerical investigation that the divergent perturbation series can be summed efficiently by an order-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> mapping (ODM) in the whole complex plane of the coupling parameter v{sup 2}, and that some information about the location of level-crossing singularities can be obtained in this way. Furthermore, we discuss to which accuracy the <span class="hlt">strong</span>-coupling limit can be obtained from the initially weak-coupling perturbative expansion, by the ODM summation method. The basic idea of the ODM summation method is the notion of order-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> 'local' disk of convergence and analytic continuation by an ODM of the domain of analyticity augmented by the local disk of convergence onto a circle. In the limit of vanishing local radius of convergence, which is the limit of high transformation order, convergence is demonstrated both by numerical evidence as well as by analytic estimates.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zinn-Justin, Jean [CEA, IRFU, Centre de Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Jentschura, Ulrich D. [Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, Missouri 65409-0640 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">181</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=gevers&id=EJ859207"> <span id="translatedtitle">Numbers Are Associated with Different Types of <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Information <span class="hlt">Depending</span> on the Task</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, we examined the nature of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span>-numerical associations underlying the SNARC-effect by imposing a verbal or <span class="hlt">spatial</span> working memory load during a parity judgment and a magnitude comparison task. The results showed a double dissociation between the type of working memory load and type of task. The SNARC-effect disappeared under…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">van Dijck, Jean-Philippe; Gevers, Wim; Fias, Wim</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">182</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhRvA..81a2507B"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> Rabi oscillations: An approach to sub-diffraction-limited coherent anti-Stokes Raman-scattering microscopy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a theoretical investigation of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) that is modulated by periodically depleting the ground-state population through Rabi oscillations driven by an additional control laser. We find that such a process generates optical sidebands in the CARS spectrum and that the frequency of the sidebands <span class="hlt">depends</span> on the intensity of the control laser light field. We show that analyzing the sideband frequency upon scanning the beams across the sample allows one to <span class="hlt">spatially</span> resolve emitter positions where a <span class="hlt">spatial</span> resolution of 65 nm, which is well below the diffraction limit, can be obtained.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Beeker, Willem P.; Lee, Chris J.; Boller, Klaus-Jochen; Groß, Petra; Cleff, Carsten; Fallnich, Carsten; Offerhaus, Herman L.; Herek, Jennifer L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">183</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21388720"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> Rabi oscillations: An approach to sub-diffraction-limited coherent anti-Stokes Raman-scattering microscopy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a theoretical investigation of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) that is modulated by periodically depleting the ground-state population through Rabi oscillations driven by an additional control laser. We find that such a process generates optical sidebands in the CARS spectrum and that the frequency of the sidebands <span class="hlt">depends</span> on the intensity of the control laser light field. We show that analyzing the sideband frequency upon scanning the beams across the sample allows one to <span class="hlt">spatially</span> resolve emitter positions where a <span class="hlt">spatial</span> resolution of 65 nm, which is well below the diffraction limit, can be obtained.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Beeker, Willem P.; Lee, Chris J.; Boller, Klaus-Jochen; Gross, Petra; Cleff, Carsten; Fallnich, Carsten; Offerhaus, Herman L.; Herek, Jennifer L. [Laser Physics and Nonlinear Optics Group, MESA Research Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, Enschede NL-7500 AE (Netherlands); Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Optical Sciences Group, MESA Research Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, Enschede NL-7500 AE (Netherlands)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">184</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/956603"> <span id="translatedtitle">Casimir <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of transverse distribution of pairs produced from a <span class="hlt">strong</span> constant chromo-electric background field</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recently the transverse distribution of particle production from <span class="hlt">strong</span> constant chromo-electric fields has been explicitly calculated in Ref. 1 for soft-gluon production and in Ref. 2 for quark (antiquark) production. This particle production method, originally discussed by Heisenberg and Euler, Schwinger and Weisskopf, has a long history as a model of the production of the quark gluon plasma following a relativistic heavy ion collision. The physical picture considered here is that of two relativistic heavy nuclei colliding and leaving behind a semi-classical gluon field which then non-perturbatively produces gluon and quark-antiquark pairs via the Schwinger mechanism. At high energy large hadron colliders, such as RHIC (Au-Au collisions at {radical}{ovr s} = 200 GeV) and LHC (Pb-Pb collisions at {radical}{ovr s} = 5.5 TeV), about half the total center-of-mass energy, E{sub cm}, goes into the production of a semi-classical gluon field, which can be thought to be initially in a Lorentz contracted disc. The gluon field in SU(3) is described by two Casimir invariants, the first one, C{sub 1} = E{sup a}E{sup a}, being related to the energy density of the initial field, where the second one, C{sub 2} = [d{sub abc}E{sup a}E{sup b}E{sup c}]{sup 2}, is related to the SU(3) color hypercharge left behind by the leading particles. So the question we want to study in this short note is how sensitive the transverse distribution is to this second Casimir invariant C{sub 2}. We have considered the <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the pair production rate of quarks and gluons from a <span class="hlt">strong</span> chromo-electric field and have discovered that the effect of the second Casimir invariant of SU(3), which was not present in the electric field problem, effects the distribution by less than 15%. This event by event <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the transverse momentum distribution of jets on C{sub 2} may be something of interest at heavy ion colliders.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cooper, Fred M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mihaila, Bogdan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dawson, John F [UNIV OF NH</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">185</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3694015"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fitness Effects of Chlorpyrifos in the Damselfly Enallagma cyathigerum <span class="hlt">Strongly</span> <span class="hlt">Depend</span> upon Temperature and Food Level and Can Bridge Metamorphosis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Interactions between pollutants and suboptimal environmental conditions can have severe consequences for the toxicity of pollutants, yet are still poorly understood. To identify patterns across environmental conditions and across fitness-related variables we exposed Enallagma cyathigerum damselfly larvae to the pesticide chlorpyrifos at two food levels or at two temperatures and quantified four fitness-related variables (larval survival, development time, mass at emergence and adult cold resistance). Food level and temperature did not affect survival in the absence of the pesticide, yet the pesticide reduced survival only at the high temperature. Animals reacted to the pesticide by accelerating their development but only at the high food level and at the low temperature; at the low food level, however, pesticide exposure resulted in a slower development. Chlorpyrifos exposure resulted in smaller adults except in animals reared at the high food level. Animals reared at the low food level and at the low temperature had a higher cold resistance which was not affected by the pesticide. In summary our study highlight that combined effects of exposure to chlorpyrifos and the two environmental conditions (i) were mostly interactive and sometimes even reversed in comparison with the effect of the environmental condition in isolation, (ii) <span class="hlt">strongly</span> differed <span class="hlt">depending</span> on the fitness-related variable under study, (iii) were not always predictable based on the effect of the environmental condition in isolation, and (iv) bridged metamorphosis <span class="hlt">depending</span> on which environmental condition was combined with the pesticide thereby potentially carrying over from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems. These findings are relevant when extrapolating results of laboratory tests done under ideal environmental conditions to natural communities. PMID:23840819</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Janssens, Lizanne; Stoks, Robby</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">186</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25453501"> <span id="translatedtitle">Electrochemistry of transition metal dichalcogenides: <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on the metal-to-chalcogen composition and exfoliation method.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Beyond MoS2 as the first transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) to have gained recognition as an efficient catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), interest in other TMD nanomaterials is steadily beginning to proliferate. This is particularly true in the field of electrochemistry, with a myriad of emerging applications ranging from catalysis to supercapacitors and solar cells. Despite this rise, current understanding of their electrochemical characteristics is especially lacking. We therefore examine the inherent electroactivities of various chemically exfoliated TMDs (MoSe2, WS2, WSe2) and their implications for sensing and catalysis of the hydrogen evolution and oxygen reduction reactions (ORR). The TMDs studied are found to possess distinctive inherent electroactivities and together with their catalytic effects for the HER are revealed to <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">depend</span> on the chemical exfoliation route and metal-to-chalcogen composition particularly in MoSe2. Despite its inherent activity exhibiting large variations <span class="hlt">depending</span> on the exfoliation procedure, it is also the most efficient HER catalyst with a low overpotential of -0.36 V vs RHE (at 10 mA cm(-2) current density) and fairly low Tafel slope of ?65 mV/dec after BuLi exfoliation. In addition, it demonstrates a fast heterogeneous electron transfer rate with a k0obs of 9.17×10(-4) cm s(-1) toward ferrocyanide, better than that seen for conventional glassy carbon electrodes. Knowledge of TMD electrochemistry is essential for the rational development of future applications; inherent TMD activity may potentially limit certain purposes, but intended objectives can nonetheless be achieved by careful selection of TMD compositions and exfoliation methods. PMID:25453501</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eng, Alex Yong Sheng; Ambrosi, Adriano; Sofer, Zden?k; Šimek, Petr; Pumera, Martin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-12-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">187</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/12756167"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> Decoherence</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We introduce a condition for the <span class="hlt">strong</span> decoherence of a set of alternative histories of a closed quantum-mechanical system such as the universe. The condition applies, for a pure initial state, to sets of homogeneous histories that are chains of projections, generally branch-<span class="hlt">dependent</span>. <span class="hlt">Strong</span> decoherence implies the consistency of probability sum rules but not every set of consistent or even</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Murray Gell-Mann; James B. Hartle</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">188</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGS....12...51M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Brazilian <span class="hlt">spatial</span> dynamics in the long term (1872-2000): ``path <span class="hlt">dependency</span>'' or ``reversal of fortune''?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper analyzes the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> dynamics of Brazilian regional inequalities between 1872 and 2000 using contemporary tools. The first part of the paper provides new estimates of income per capita in 1872 by municipality using census and electoral information on income by occupation. The level of analysis is the Minimum Comparable Areas 1872-2000 developed by Reis et al. (Áreas mínimas comparáveis para os períodos intercensitários de 1872 a 2000, 2007). These areas are the least aggregation of adjacent municipalities required to allow consistent geographic area comparisons between census years. In the second section of the paper, Exploratory <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Data Analysis, Markov chains and stochastic kernel techniques (<span class="hlt">spatially</span> conditioned) are applied to the dataset. The results suggest that, in broad terms, the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> pattern of income distribution in Brazil during that period of time has remained stable.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Monasterio, Leonardo Monteiro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">189</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/58885"> <span id="translatedtitle">Transport lattice models of heat transport in skin with <span class="hlt">spatially</span> heterogeneous, temperature-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> perfusion</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: Investigation of bioheat transfer problems requires the evaluation of temporal and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distributions of temperature. This class of problems has been traditionally addressed using the Pennes bioheat equation. ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martin, Gregory T</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">190</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=80229"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">SPATIAL</span> AGGREGATION IN A FOREST FLOOR INSECT <span class="hlt">DEPENDS</span> ON SEASONAL CONGREGATION AND SCATTERING EFFECTS OF PREDATORS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> aggregations arising from gregarious behavior are common in nature and have important implications for population dynamics, community stability, and conservation. However, the translation of aggregation behaviors into emergent properties of populations and communities de...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">191</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41112777"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reconstructing land use drivers and their <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale <span class="hlt">dependence</span> for Costa Rica (1973 and 1984)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Costa Rican land use and cover (in 1973 and 1984) were investigated using a nested scale analysis. <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> distributions of potential biophysical and human land use\\/cover drivers were statistically related to the distribution of pastures, arable lands, permanent crops, natural and secondary vegetation, for 0.1° grid units and five artificially aggregated <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales. Multiple regression models describing land use\\/cover variability</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Veldkamp; L. O. Fresco</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">192</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4167253"> <span id="translatedtitle">Facile synthesis and <span class="hlt">strongly</span> microstructure-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> electrochemical properties of graphene/manganese dioxide composites for supercapacitors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Graphene has attracted much attention since it was firstly stripped from graphite by two physicists in 2004, and the supercapacitor based on graphene has obtained wide attention and much investment as well. For practical applications of graphene-based supercapacitors, however, there are still many challenges to solve, for instance, to simplify the technological process, to lower the fabrication cost, and to improve the electrochemical performance. In this work, graphene/MnO2 composites are prepared by a microwave sintering method, and we report here a relatively simple method for the supercapacitor packaging, i.e., dipping Ni-foam into a graphene/MnO2 composite solution directly for a period of time to coat the active material on a current collector. It is found that the microwave reaction time has a significant effect on the microstructure of graphene/MnO2 composites, and consequently, the electrochemical properties of the supercapacitors based on graphene/MnO2 composites are <span class="hlt">strongly</span> microstructure <span class="hlt">dependent</span>. An appropriately longer microwave reaction time, namely, 15 min, facilitates a very dense and homogeneous microstructure of the graphene/MnO2 composites, and thus, excellent electrochemical performance is achieved in the supercapacitor device, including a high specific capacitance of 296 F/g and a high capacitance retention of 93% after 3,000 times of charging/discharging cycles. PACS 81.05.ue; 78.67.Sc; 88.80.fh PMID:25258609</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">193</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NRL.....9..490Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Facile synthesis and <span class="hlt">strongly</span> microstructure-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> electrochemical properties of graphene/manganese dioxide composites for supercapacitors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Graphene has attracted much attention since it was firstly stripped from graphite by two physicists in 2004, and the supercapacitor based on graphene has obtained wide attention and much investment as well. For practical applications of graphene-based supercapacitors, however, there are still many challenges to solve, for instance, to simplify the technological process, to lower the fabrication cost, and to improve the electrochemical performance. In this work, graphene/MnO2 composites are prepared by a microwave sintering method, and we report here a relatively simple method for the supercapacitor packaging, i.e., dipping Ni-foam into a graphene/MnO2 composite solution directly for a period of time to coat the active material on a current collector. It is found that the microwave reaction time has a significant effect on the microstructure of graphene/MnO2 composites, and consequently, the electrochemical properties of the supercapacitors based on graphene/MnO2 composites are <span class="hlt">strongly</span> microstructure <span class="hlt">dependent</span>. An appropriately longer microwave reaction time, namely, 15 min, facilitates a very dense and homogeneous microstructure of the graphene/MnO2 composites, and thus, excellent electrochemical performance is achieved in the supercapacitor device, including a high specific capacitance of 296 F/g and a high capacitance retention of 93% after 3,000 times of charging/discharging cycles.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Caiyun; Zhu, Xiaohong; Wang, Zhongxing; Sun, Ping; Ren, Yinjuan; Zhu, Jiliang; Zhu, Jianguo; Xiao, Dingquan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">194</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21448524"> <span id="translatedtitle">Time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> density-functional-theory calculation of <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field ionization rates of H{sub 2}</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report a numerical study of <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field ionization rates of the H{sub 2} molecule using time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> density-functional theory (TDDFT). In the dc field limit, TDDFT results for the rate of tunneling ionization agree with molecular Ammosov-Delone-Kralnov (MO-ADK) predictions, as well as results from a complex scaling method at the full configuration interaction level. Our study demonstrates the effect of photon energy, molecular vibration, and orientation on the ionization. Calculated rates for 800-nm lasers are about four times greater than the values predicted by the slowly varying field approximation for tunneling ionization. The rate for the ground vibrational state is higher than that of the fixed nuclei value at the equilibrium distance. This difference decreases with increasing field intensity. When the field intensity is sufficiently high, the two rates are very similar, and the fixed nuclear distance rate may be used to approximate the ground-vibrational-state rate. TDDFT methods predict an anisotropy slightly larger than the prediction obtained from the MO-ADK method. We also find that the field intensity plays a role in the anisotropy, which the MO-ADK results do not show.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chu Xi [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Montana, Missoula, Montana 59812 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-08-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">195</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhRvA..82b3407C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> density-functional-theory calculation of <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field ionization rates of H2</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report a numerical study of <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field ionization rates of the H2 molecule using time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> density-functional theory (TDDFT). In the dc field limit, TDDFT results for the rate of tunneling ionization agree with molecular Ammosov-Delone-Kralnov (MO-ADK) predictions, as well as results from a complex scaling method at the full configuration interaction level. Our study demonstrates the effect of photon energy, molecular vibration, and orientation on the ionization. Calculated rates for 800-nm lasers are about four times greater than the values predicted by the slowly varying field approximation for tunneling ionization. The rate for the ground vibrational state is higher than that of the fixed nuclei value at the equilibrium distance. This difference decreases with increasing field intensity. When the field intensity is sufficiently high, the two rates are very similar, and the fixed nuclear distance rate may be used to approximate the ground-vibrational-state rate. TDDFT methods predict an anisotropy slightly larger than the prediction obtained from the MO-ADK method. We also find that the field intensity plays a role in the anisotropy, which the MO-ADK results do not show.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chu, Xi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">196</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1212.1566v2"> <span id="translatedtitle">Exact solutions of a <span class="hlt">spatially-dependent</span> mass Dirac equation for Coulomb field plus tensor interaction via Laplace transformation method</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">spatially-dependent</span> mass Dirac equation is solved exactly for attractive scalar and repulsive vector Coulomb potentials including a tensor interaction potential under the spin and pseudospin (p-spin) symmetric limits by using the Laplace transformation method (LTM). Closed forms of the energy eigenvalue equation and wave functions are obtained for arbitrary spin-orbit quantum number Some numerical results are given too. The effect of the tensor interaction on the bound states is presented. It is shown that the tensor interaction removes the degeneracy between two states in the spin doublets. We also investigate the effects of the <span class="hlt">spatially-dependent</span> mass on the bound states under the conditions of the spin symmetric limit and in the absence of tensor interaction</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mahdi Eshghi; Sameer M. Ikhdair</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">197</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032343"> <span id="translatedtitle">Species richness effects on ecosystem multifunctionality <span class="hlt">depend</span> on evenness, composition and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> pattern</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">1.?Recent studies have suggested that the simultaneous maintenance of multiple ecosystem functions (multifunctionality) is positively supported by species richness. However, little is known regarding the relative importance of other community attributes (e.g. <span class="hlt">spatial</span> pattern, species evenness) as drivers of multifunctionality. 2.?We conducted two microcosm experiments using model biological soil crust communities dominated by lichens to: (i) evaluate the joint effects and relative importance of changes in species composition, <span class="hlt">spatial</span> pattern (clumped and random distribution of lichens), evenness (maximal and low evenness) and richness (from two to eight species) on soil functions related to nutrient cycling (?-glucosidase, urease and acid phosphatase enzymes, in situ N availability, total N, organic C, and N fixation), and (ii) assess how these community attributes affect multifunctionality. 3.?Species richness, composition and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> pattern affected multiple ecosystem functions (e.g. organic C, total N, N availability, ?-glucosidase activity), albeit the magnitude and direction of their effects varied with the particular function, experiment and soil depth considered. Changes in species composition had effects on organic C, total N and the activity of ?-glucosidase. Significant species richness × evenness and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> pattern × evenness interactions were found when analysing functions such as organic C, total N and the activity of phosphatase. 4.?The probability of sustaining multiple ecosystem functions increased with species richness, but this effect was largely modulated by attributes such as species evenness, composition and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> pattern. Overall, we found that model communities with high species richness, random <span class="hlt">spatial</span> pattern and low evenness increased multifunctionality. 5.?Synthesis. Our results illustrate how different community attributes have a diverse impact on ecosystem functions related to nutrient cycling, and provide new experimental evidence illustrating the importance of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> pattern of organisms on ecosystem functioning. They also indicate that species richness is not the only biotic driver of multifunctionality, and that particular combinations of community attributes may be required to maximize it.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maestre, F.T.; Castillo-Monroy, A. P.; Bowker, M.A.; Ochoa-Hueso, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">198</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54596742"> <span id="translatedtitle">Exact Klein-Gordon equation with <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> masses for unequal scalar-vector Coulomb-like potentials</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study the effect of <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> mass functions over the solution of the Klein-Gordon equation in the (3 + 1 -dimensions for spinless bosonic particles where the mixed scalar-vector Coulomb-like field potentials and masses are directly proportional and inversely proportional to the distance from the force center. The exact bound-state energy eigenvalues and the corresponding wave functions of the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. M. Ikhdair</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">199</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/19463768"> <span id="translatedtitle">Exact Klein-Gordon equation with <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> masses for unequal scalar-vector Coulomb-like potentials</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study the effect of <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> mass functions over the solution of the Klein-Gordon equation in the (3 + 1 -dimensions\\u000a for spinless bosonic particles where the mixed scalar-vector Coulomb-like field potentials and masses are directly proportional\\u000a and inversely proportional to the distance from the force center. The exact bound-state energy eigenvalues and the corresponding\\u000a wave functions of the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sameer M. Ikhdair</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">200</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24089937"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> parameter estimation and nonlinear data assimilation by autosynchronization of a system of partial differential equations.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Given multiple images that describe chaotic reaction-diffusion dynamics, parameters of a partial differential equation (PDE) model are estimated using autosynchronization, where parameters are controlled by synchronization of the model to the observed data. A two-component system of predator-prey reaction-diffusion PDEs is used with <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> parameters to benchmark the methods described. Applications to modeling the ecological habitat of marine plankton blooms by nonlinear data assimilation through remote sensing are discussed. PMID:24089937</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kramer, Sean; Bollt, Erik M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return 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<a style="font-weight: bold;">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">201</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3936477"> <span id="translatedtitle">Apolipoprotein E – Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor Interaction Affects <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Memory Retention and Brain ApoE Levels in an Isoform-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Manner</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Human apolipoprotein E (apoE) exists in three isoforms: apoE2, apoE3 and apoE4. APOE ?4 (E4) is a major genetic risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). ApoE mediates cholesterol metabolism by binding various receptors. The low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) has a high affinity for apoE, and is the only member of its receptor family to demonstrate an apoE isoform specific binding affinity (E4>E3>>E2). Evidence suggests that a functional interaction between apoE and LDLR influences the risk of CVD and AD. We hypothesize that the differential cognitive effects of the apoE isoforms are a direct result of their varying interactions with LDLR. To test this hypothesis, we have employed transgenic mice that express human apoE2, apoE3, or apoE4, and either human LDLR (hLDLR) or no LDLR (LDLR?/?). Our results show that plasma and brain apoE levels, cortical cholesterol, and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> memory are all regulated by isoform-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> interactions between apoE and LDLR. Conversely, both anxiety-like behavior and cued associative memory are <span class="hlt">strongly</span> influenced by APOE genotype, but these processes appear to occur via an LDLR-independent mechanism. Both the lack of LDLR and the interaction between E4 and the LDLR were associated with significant impairments in the retention of long term <span class="hlt">spatial</span> memory. Finally, levels of hippocampal apoE correlate with long term <span class="hlt">spatial</span> memory retention in mice with human LDLR. In summary, we demonstrate that the apoE-LDLR interaction affects regional brain apoE levels, brain cholesterol, and cognitive function in an apoE isoform-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> manner. PMID:24412220</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Johnson, Lance A.; Olsen, Reid H.J.; Merkens, Louise S.; DeBarber, Andrea; Steiner, Robert D.; Sullivan, Patrick M.; Maeda, Nobuyo; Raber, Jacob</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">202</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21300071"> <span id="translatedtitle">How does the resistance threshold in <span class="hlt">spatially</span> explicit epidemic dynamics <span class="hlt">depend</span> on the basic reproductive ratio and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> correlation of crop genotypes?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We examined the fraction of resistant cultivars necessary to prevent a global pathogen outbreak (the resistance threshold) using a <span class="hlt">spatially</span> explicit epidemiological model (SIR model) in a finite, two-dimensional, lattice-structured host population. Infectious diseases in our model could be transmitted to susceptible nearest-neighbour sites, and the infected site either recovered or died after an exponentially distributed infectious period. Threshold behaviour of this <span class="hlt">spatially</span> explicit SIR model cannot be reduced to that of bond percolation, as was previously noted in the literature, unless extreme assumptions (synchronized infection events with a fixed lag) are imposed on infection process. The resistance threshold is significantly lower than that of conventional mean-field epidemic models, and is even lower if the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> configuration of resistant and susceptible crops are negatively correlated. Finite size scaling applied to the resistance threshold for a finite basic reproductive ratio ? of pathogen reveals that its difference from static percolation threshold (0.41) is inversely proportional to ?. Our formula for the basic reproductive ratio <span class="hlt">dependency</span> of the resistance threshold produced an estimate for the critical basic reproductive ratio (4.7) in a universally susceptible population, which is much larger than the corresponding critical value (1) in the mean-field model and nearly three times larger than the critical growth rate of a basic contact process (SIS model). Pair approximation reveals that the resistance threshold for preventing a global epidemic is factor 1/(1-?) greater with <span class="hlt">spatially</span> correlated planting than with random planting, where ? is initial correlation in host genotypes between nearest-neighbour sites. Thus the eradication is harder with a positive <span class="hlt">spatial</span> correlation (?>0) in mixed susceptible/resistant plantings, and is easier with a negative correlation (?<0). The effect of finite field size (L), which corresponded to the mean distance between sources of infections, is given by the increased resistance threshold (by the amount L??·??) from its infinite size limit. Implications of these results on effective planting strategies in multi-line control plans are discussed. PMID:21300071</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Suzuki, Sayaki U; Sasaki, Akira</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">203</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cns.atr.jp/~osu/pdf/GomiOsu_JNS1998.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Task-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Viscoelasticity of Human Multijoint Arm and Its <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Characteristics for Interaction with Environments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Human arm viscoelasticity is important in stabilizing posture, movement, and in interacting with objects. Viscoelastic <span class="hlt">spatial</span> characteristics are usually indexed by the size, shape, and orientation of a hand stiffness ellipse. It is well known that arm posture is a dominant factor in determining the properties of the stiffness ellipse. However, it is still unclear how much joint stiffness can</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hiroaki Gomi; Rieko Osu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">204</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.werc.usgs.gov/davis/pdfs/Ackerman%202004%20Oikos%20DD.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Is predation on waterfowl nests density <span class="hlt">dependent</span>? - Tests at three <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">ha? 1) in a complete randomized block design and examined differences in nest predation. At the smallest <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale, we examined nest success in relation to nearest- neighbor fates and distances for artificial (2000, n? \\/280) and natural nests (2000, n ? \\/507). We detected no relationship between nest success and the density of natural nests among fields in any</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Joshua T. Ackerman; Alexis L. Blackmer; John M. Eadie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">205</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://romanstocker.scripts.mit.edu/web/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/35.-2011_Steger_PLosONE.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Systematic <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Bias in DNA Microarray Hybridization Is Caused by Probe Spot Position-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Variability</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Systematic <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Bias in DNA Microarray Hybridization Is Caused by Probe Spot Position research. Despite its widespread application, DNA microarray technology still suffers from several biases uniformity and accuracy of quantitative DNA microarray hybridization. Citation: Steger D, Berry D, Haider S</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Entekhabi, Dara</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">206</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70031557"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessments of habitat preferences and quality <span class="hlt">depend</span> on <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale and metrics of fitness</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">1. Identifying the habitat features that influence habitat selection and enhance fitness is critical for effective management. Ecological theory predicts that habitat choices should be adaptive, such that fitness is enhanced in preferred habitats. However, studies often report mismatches between habitat preferences and fitness consequences across a wide variety of taxa based on a single <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale and/or a single fitness component. 2. We examined whether habitat preferences of a declining shrub steppe songbird, the Brewer's sparrow Spizella breweri, were adaptive when multiple reproductive fitness components and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales (landscape, territory and nest patch) were considered. 3. We found that birds settled earlier and in higher densities, together suggesting preference, in landscapes with greater shrub cover and height. Yet nest success was not higher in these landscapes; nest success was primarily determined by nest predation rates. Thus landscape preferences did not match nest predation risk. Instead, nestling mass and the number of nesting attempts per pair increased in preferred landscapes, raising the possibility that landscapes were chosen on the basis of food availability rather than safe nest sites. 4. At smaller <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales (territory and nest patch), birds preferred different habitat features (i.e. density of potential nest shrubs) that reduced nest predation risk and allowed greater season-long reproductive success. 5. Synthesis and applications. Habitat preferences reflect the integration of multiple environmental factors across multiple <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales, and individuals may have more than one option for optimizing fitness via habitat selection strategies. Assessments of habitat quality for management prescriptions should ideally include analysis of diverse fitness consequences across multiple ecologically relevant <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales. ?? 2007 The Authors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chalfoun, A.D.; Martin, T.E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">207</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16..268C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Role of space-time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> eddy viscosity on the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> pattern of tidal and residual flow in estuaries</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Several field studies in estuaries show non-logarithmic profiles of the tidal flow amplitude over the water column and complex patterns of residual flow. To gain fundamental understanding about these phenomena, a semi-analytical 3D model is designed and analysed, with focus on the sensitivity of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> pattern of tidal (semi-diurnal) and residual (tidally-averaged) flow to formulations of eddy viscosity that account for <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and temporal variations. To allow comparison of model results with field observations measured in sigma-levels, the model is formulated in sigma-coordinates. The residual flow is decomposed into individual contributions induced by river discharge (including discharge due to Stokes return flow), horizontal density gradient, tidal rectification, wind, depth-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> friction and asymmetric tidal mixing due to temporal covariance between eddy viscosity and velocity shear. By using scaling and perturbation techniques, new analytical solutions for semi-diurnal tide and residual flows are found for space-time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> eddy viscosity. The model reveals that "Surface Velocity Jumps" (tidal flow amplitude non-logarithmically increasing near the surface of water column) and "Subsurface Velocity Jets" (maximum tidal flow amplitude shows at subsurface of water column) occur for relatively low mixing conditions. Model output is subsequently compared with field data collected at an estuarine cross-section in the North Passage of the Yangtze (Changjiang) estuary. It is found that the modelled tidal velocity shear agrees better with observations when using space-time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> eddy viscosity instead of a constant eddy viscosity. Moreover, the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> patterns of individual residual flow components on along-estuary direction are more spread over the cross section, which agrees with observations. With space-time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> eddy viscosity, it turns out that density gradient and time-varying mixing are key forcing agents of residual flow.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, Wei; de Swart, Huib</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">208</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/19273359"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temperature <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> of <span class="hlt">Spatially</span> Resolved Picosecond Laser Induced Transients in a Deep Submicron CMOS Inverter</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Spatially</span>-resolved picosecond laser induced transients have been measured in a 0.18 mum CMOS inverter test structure as a function of temperature. Sensitive n-drain and p-drain nodes have been scaled in size to accommodate characteristic differences between ion and laser tracks. Images based on pulse characteristics have been collected from 325 K to 400 K and transient currents extracted from laser</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jamie S. Laird; Yuan Chen; Tuan Vo; Larry Edmonds; Leif Scheick; Philippe Adell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">209</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4016234"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> hearing in Cope’s gray treefrog: II. Frequency-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> directionality in the amplitude and phase of tympanum vibrations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Anuran ears function as pressure difference receivers, and the amplitude and phase of tympanum vibrations are inherently directional, varying with sound incident angle. We quantified the nature of this directionality for Cope’s gray treefrog, Hyla chrysoscelis. We presented subjects with pure tones, advertisement calls, and frequency-modulated sweeps to examine the influence of frequency, signal level, lung inflation, and sex on ear directionality. Interaural differences in the amplitude of tympanum vibrations were 1–4 dB greater than sound pressure differences adjacent to the two tympana, while interaural differences in the phase of tympanum vibration were similar to or smaller than those in sound phase. Directionality in the amplitude and phase of tympanum vibration were highly <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on sound frequency, and directionality in amplitude varied slightly with signal level. Directionality in the amplitude and phase of tone- and call-evoked responses did not differ between sexes. Lung inflation <span class="hlt">strongly</span> affected tympanum directionality over a narrow frequency range that, in females, included call frequencies. This study provides a foundation for further work on the biomechanics and neural mechanisms of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> hearing in H. chrysoscelis, and lends valuable perspective to behavioral studies on the use of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> information by this species and other frogs. PMID:24504183</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lee, Norman; Schrode, Katrina M.; Johns, Anastasia R.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Bee, Mark A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">210</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://stat.tamu.edu/~mjun/paper/Jun_et_al08_JASA.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Analysis to Quantify Numerical Model Bias and <span class="hlt">Dependence</span>: How Many Climate Models Are There?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">the Earth's atmosphere, ocean, and land processes are the primary tool to study how climate may change over detailed knowledge of potential future climate change comes from coupled atmosphere ocean general circu are not <span class="hlt">strongly</span> related. KEY WORDS: Cross-covariance model; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; Kernel</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jun, Mikyoung</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">211</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21613299"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> heterogeneity in the effects of climate and density-<span class="hlt">dependence</span> on dispersal in a house sparrow metapopulation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Dispersal plays a key role in the response of populations to climate change and habitat fragmentation. Here, we use data from a long-term metapopulation study of a non-migratory bird, the house sparrow (Passer domesticus), to examine the influence of increasing spring temperature and density-<span class="hlt">dependence</span> on natal dispersal rates and how these relationships <span class="hlt">depend</span> on <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variation in habitat quality. The effects of spring temperature and population size on dispersal rate <span class="hlt">depended</span> on the habitat quality. Dispersal rate increased with temperature and population size on poor-quality islands without farms, where house sparrows were more exposed to temporal fluctuations in weather conditions and food availability. By contrast, dispersal rate was independent of spring temperature and population size on high-quality islands with farms, where house sparrows had access to food and shelter all the year around. This illustrates large <span class="hlt">spatial</span> heterogeneity within the metapopulation in how population density and environmental fluctuations affect the dispersal process. PMID:21613299</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pärn, Henrik; Ringsby, Thor Harald; Jensen, Henrik; Sæther, Bernt-Erik</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">212</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://cds.cern.ch/record/288607/files/9509054.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> decoherence</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We introduce a condition for the <span class="hlt">strong</span> decoherence of a set of alternative histories of a closed quantum-mechanical system such as the universe. The condition applies, for a pure initial state, to sets of homogeneous histories that are chains of projections, generally branch-<span class="hlt">dependent</span>. <span class="hlt">Strong</span> decoherence implies the consistency of probability sum rules but not every set of consistent or even medium decoherent histories is <span class="hlt">strongly</span> decoherent. Two conditions characterize a <span class="hlt">strongly</span> decoherent set of histories: (1) At any time the operators that effectively commute with generalized records of history up to that moment provide the pool from which --- with suitable adjustment for elapsed time --- the chains of projections extending history to the future may be drawn. (2) Under the adjustment process, generalized record operators acting on the initial state of the universe are approximately unchanged. This expresses the permanence of generalized records. The <span class="hlt">strong</span> decoherence conditions (1) and (2) guarantee wha...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gell-Mann, Murray; Gell-Mann, Murray; Hartle, James B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">213</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.physics.georgetown.edu:80/~jkf/publications/noneq_moment_prb_06e.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Erratum: Spectral moment sum rules for <span class="hlt">strongly</span> correlated electrons in time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> electric fields [Phys. Rev. B 73, 075108 (2006)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Erratum: Spectral moment sum rules for <span class="hlt">strongly</span> correlated electrons in time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> electric . The second moment of the noninteracting DOS is easy to determine for a wide class of lattices. We find 2 /209902 1 ©2006 The American Physical Society209902-1 #12;</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Freericks, Jim</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">214</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRD..119.9822P"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of water vapor variability inferred from observations from a very tall tower</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent studies have established that atmospheric water vapor fields exhibit <span class="hlt">spatial</span> spectra that take the form of power laws and hence can be compactly characterized by scaling exponents. The power law scaling exponents have been shown to exhibit substantial vertical variability. In this work, Taylor's frozen turbulence hypothesis is used to infer the first-order <span class="hlt">spatial</span> structure function and generalized detrended fluctuation function scaling exponents for scales between 1 km and 100 km. Both methods are used to estimate the Hurst exponent (H) using 10 Hz time series of water vapor measured at 396 m altitude from an Ameriflux tower in Wisconsin. Due to the diurnal cycle in the boundary layer height at the 396 m observational level, H may be estimated for both the daytime convective mixed layer and the nocturnal residual layer. Values of H? 1/3 are obtained for the convective mixed layer, while values of H> 1/2 apply in the nocturnal residual layer. The results are shown to be remarkably consistent with a similar analysis from satellite-based observations as reported in Pressel and Collins (2012).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pressel, Kyle G.; Collins, William D.; Desai, Ankur R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">215</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830014422&hterms=infer+soil+texture&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dinfer%2Bsoil%2Btexture"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> variation of corn canopy temperature as <span class="hlt">dependent</span> upon soil texture and crop rooting characteristics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A soil plant atmosphere model for corn (Zea mays L.) together with the scaling theory for soil hydraulic heterogeneity are used to study the sensitivity of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variation of canopy temperature to field averaged soil texture and crop rooting characteristics. The soil plant atmosphere model explicitly solves a continuity equation for water flux resulting from root water uptake, changes in plant water storage and transpirational flux. Dynamical equations for root zone soil water potential and the plant water storage models the progressive drying of soil, and day time dehydration and night time hydration of the crop. The statistic of scaling parameter which describes the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variation of soil hydraulic conductivity and matric potential is assumed to be independent of soil texture class. The field averaged soil hydraulic characteristics are chosen to be representative of loamy sand and clay loam soils. Two rooting characteristics are chosen, one shallow and the other deep rooted. The simulation shows that the range of canopy temperatures in the clayey soil is less than 1K, but for the sandy soil the range is about 2.5 and 5.0 K, respectively, for the shallow and deep rooted crops.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Choudhury, B. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">216</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2831362"> <span id="translatedtitle">Population Change and Farm <span class="hlt">Dependence</span>: Temporal and <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Variation in the U.S. Great Plains, 1900–2000</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">I investigate the relationship between county population change and farm <span class="hlt">dependence</span> in the Great Plains region during the twentieth century, using <span class="hlt">spatial</span> data analysis techniques. This research is rooted in a long-standing sociological and demographic interest in population responses to economic transitions and informs the theoretical understanding of urbanization processes. Using census and environmental data, the analysis challenges earlier assertions of a simple transition in the relationship between farm <span class="hlt">dependence</span> and population change that accompanied modern technological advancements, namely tractors (the mechanization thesis). Rather than observing the proposed positive-to-negative shift, study results show a negative association throughout the pre- and post-mechanization periods. Partial support is found if the thesis is revised to consider the relationship between population change and the change in farm <span class="hlt">dependence</span> rather than the level of farm <span class="hlt">dependence</span>. Findings show mixed support for an alternative argument that nonfarm industries moderate the influence of farm <span class="hlt">dependence</span> (the industry complex thesis). In contrast to earlier applications of the thesis, industrial relations in the Great Plains context are characterized by specialization rather than cooperation. PMID:18613486</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">CURTIS WHITE, KATHERINE J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">217</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.8443B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Depth <span class="hlt">Depending</span> Pattern Recognition (DDPR) - a tool for visualization of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and temporal similarities of properties in sediment cores</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Depth <span class="hlt">Depending</span> Pattern Recognition (DDPR) is a new simple tool for the visualization of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and temporal similarities of measured parameters in a set of sediment cores. It was developed to support the multivariate analysis of data of sediment cores taken in a still water area of the River Elbe [1]. The idea behind is the assumption that correlations in <span class="hlt">spatial</span> or temporal distributions of environmental parameters can be visualized by different ways and that a distance between two patterns can be defined with mathematical methods. So the similarity of two patterns can be quantified and assessed by a catalog of subjective rules. Generally, defining one reference pattern, the computation of a distance matrix for different parameter distributions is easily possible. Consequently, the three main steps of the algorithm are a) the creation of the pattern from the measurements, b) the definition of the distance calculation and c) the interpretation and assessment of the distance matrix. The method can be used in addition to classical uni- or multivariate statistical methods like regression analysis, principal component analysis, correlation analysis etc. DDPR supports hypothesis testing and explanation of relationships. In the poster DDPR is explained and the method is presented for two examples, an artificial one and one with data from sediment cores. Reference [1] Baborowski M., Büttner O., Morgenstern P., Jancke T., Westrich B. (2012) <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> variability of metal pollution in groyne fields of the Middle Elbe - Implications for sediment monitoring, Environmental Pollution, 167,115-123</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Büttner, Olaf; Baborowski, Martina</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">218</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/gr-qc/9509054v4"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> Decoherence</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We introduce a condition for the <span class="hlt">strong</span> decoherence of a set of alternative histories of a closed quantum-mechanical system such as the universe. The condition applies, for a pure initial state, to sets of homogeneous histories that are chains of projections, generally branch-<span class="hlt">dependent</span>. <span class="hlt">Strong</span> decoherence implies the consistency of probability sum rules but not every set of consistent or even medium decoherent histories is <span class="hlt">strongly</span> decoherent. Two conditions characterize a <span class="hlt">strongly</span> decoherent set of histories: (1) At any time the operators that effectively commute with generalized records of history up to that moment provide the pool from which -- with suitable adjustment for elapsed time -- the chains of projections extending history to the future may be drawn. (2) Under the adjustment process, generalized record operators acting on the initial state of the universe are approximately unchanged. This expresses the permanence of generalized records. The <span class="hlt">strong</span> decoherence conditions (1) and (2) guarantee what we call ``permanence of the past'' -- in particular the continued decoherence of past alternatives as the chains of projections are extended into the future. <span class="hlt">Strong</span> decoherence is an idealization capturing in a general way this and other aspects of realistic physical mechanisms that destroy interference, as we illustrate in a simple model. We discuss the connection between the reduced density matrices that have often been used to characterize mechanisms of decoherence and the more general notion of <span class="hlt">strong</span> decoherence. The relation between <span class="hlt">strong</span> decoherence and a measure of classicality is briefly described.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Murray Gell-Mann; James B. Hartle</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-11-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">219</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3131281"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatiotopic Coding of BOLD Signal in Human Visual Cortex <span class="hlt">Depends</span> on <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Attention</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The neural substrate of the phenomenological experience of a stable visual world remains obscure. One possible mechanism would be to construct spatiotopic neural maps where the response is selective to the position of the stimulus in external space, rather than to retinal eccentricities, but evidence for these maps has been inconsistent. Here we show, with fMRI, that when human subjects perform concomitantly a demanding attentive task on stimuli displayed at the fovea, BOLD responses evoked by moving stimuli irrelevant to the task were mostly tuned in retinotopic coordinates. However, under more unconstrained conditions, where subjects could attend easily to the motion stimuli, BOLD responses were tuned not in retinal but in external coordinates (spatiotopic selectivity) in many visual areas, including MT, MST, LO and V6, agreeing with our previous fMRI study. These results indicate that <span class="hlt">spatial</span> attention may play an important role in mediating spatiotopic selectivity. PMID:21750720</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Crespi, Sofia; Biagi, Laura; d'Avossa, Giovanni; Burr, David C.; Tosetti, Michela; Morrone, Maria Concetta</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">220</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PMB....58..159U"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of optimal fractionation schemes on the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> dose distribution</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We consider the fractionation problem in radiation therapy. Tumor sites in which the dose-limiting organ at risk (OAR) receives a substantially lower dose than the tumor, bear potential for hypofractionation even if the ?/?-ratio of the tumor is larger than the ?/?-ratio of the OAR. In this work, we analyze the interdependence of the optimal fractionation scheme and the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> dose distribution in the OAR. In particular, we derive a criterion under which a hypofractionation regimen is indicated for both a parallel and a serial OAR. The approach is based on the concept of the biologically effective dose (BED). For a hypothetical homogeneously irradiated OAR, it has been shown that hypofractionation is suggested by the BED model if the ?/?-ratio of the OAR is larger than ?/?-ratio of the tumor times the sparing factor, i.e. the ratio of the dose received by the tumor and the OAR. In this work, we generalize this result to inhomogeneous dose distributions in the OAR. For a parallel OAR, we determine the optimal fractionation scheme by minimizing the integral BED in the OAR for a fixed BED in the tumor. For a serial structure, we minimize the maximum BED in the OAR. This leads to analytical expressions for an effective sparing factor for the OAR, which provides a criterion for hypofractionation. The implications of the model are discussed for lung tumor treatments. It is shown that the model supports hypofractionation for small tumors treated with rotation therapy, i.e. highly conformal techniques where a large volume of lung tissue is exposed to low but nonzero dose. For larger tumors, the model suggests hyperfractionation. We further discuss several non-intuitive interdependencies between optimal fractionation and the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> dose distribution. For instance, lowering the dose in the lung via proton therapy does not necessarily provide a biological rationale for hypofractionation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Unkelbach, Jan; Craft, David; Salari, Ehsan; Ramakrishnan, Jagdish; Bortfeld, Thomas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous 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showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">221</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25451312"> <span id="translatedtitle">Early life inflammatory pain induces long-lasting deficits in hippocampal-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> memory in male and female rats.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The present experiment tested the hypothesis that neonatal injury disrupts adult hippocampal functioning and that normal aging or chronic stress during adulthood, which are known to have a negative impact on hippocampal function, exacerbate these effects. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were given an intraplantar injection of the inflammatory agent carrageenan (1%) on the day of birth and their memory was tested in the hippocampal-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> water maze in adulthood and again in middle age. We found that neonatal injury impaired hippocampal-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> memory in adulthood, that the effects of injury on memory were more pronounced in middle-aged male rats, and that chronic stress accelerated the onset of these memory deficits. Neonatal injury also decreased glucocorticoid receptor mRNA in the dorsal CA1 area of middle-aged rats, a brain region critical for <span class="hlt">spatial</span> memory. Morphine administration at the time of injury completely reversed injury-induced memory deficits, but neonatal morphine treatments in the absence of injury produced significant memory impairments in adulthood. Collectively, these findings are consistent with our hypothesis that neonatal injury produces long-lasting disruption in adult hippocampal functioning. PMID:25451312</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Henderson, Yoko O; Victoria, Nicole C; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Murphy, Anne Z; Parent, Marise B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">222</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014OptEn..53l6108K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bit error rate analysis of free-space optical system with <span class="hlt">spatial</span> diversity over <span class="hlt">strong</span> atmospheric turbulence channel with pointing errors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Free-space optical communication (FSO) is emerging as a captivating alternative to work out the hindrances in the connectivity problems. It can be used for transmitting signals over common lands and properties that the sender or receiver may not own. The performance of an FSO system <span class="hlt">depends</span> on the random environmental conditions. The bit error rate (BER) performance of differential phase shift keying FSO system is investigated. A distributed <span class="hlt">strong</span> atmospheric turbulence channel with pointing error is considered for the BER analysis. Here, the system models are developed for single-input, single-output-FSO (SISO-FSO) and single-input, multiple-output-FSO (SIMO-FSO) systems. The closed-form mathematical expressions are derived for the average BER with various combining schemes in terms of the Meijer's G function.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Krishnan, Prabu; Sriram Kumar, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">223</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2992741"> <span id="translatedtitle">Personality-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> dispersal: characterization, ontogeny and consequences for <span class="hlt">spatially</span> structured populations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Dispersal is one of the most fundamental components of ecology, and affects processes as diverse as population growth, metapopulation dynamics, gene flow and adaptation. Although the act of moving from one habitat to another entails major costs to the disperser, empirical and theoretical studies suggest that these costs can be reduced by having morphological, physiological or behavioural specializations for dispersal. A few recent studies on different systems showed that individuals exhibit personality-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> dispersal, meaning that dispersal tendency is associated with boldness, sociability or aggressiveness. Indeed, in several species, dispersers not only develop behavioural differences at the onset of dispersal, but display these behavioural characteristics through their life cycle. While personality-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> dispersal has been demonstrated in only a few species, we believe that it is a widespread phenomenon with important ecological consequences. Here, we review the evidence for behavioural differences between dispersers and residents, to what extent they constitute personalities. We also examine how a link between personality traits and dispersal behaviours can be produced and how personality-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> dispersal affects the dynamics of metapopulations and biological invasions. Finally, we suggest future research directions for population biologists, behavioural ecologists and conservation biologists such as how the direction and the strength of the relationship between personality traits and dispersal vary with ecological contexts. PMID:21078658</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cote, J.; Clobert, J.; Brodin, T.; Fogarty, S.; Sih, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">224</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.phys.ksu.edu/personal/atle/Papers/CO2_MOADK_pra09.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of angular <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field tunneling ionization for CO2 Song-Feng Zhao,1,2</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">, Delone, and Krainov ADK 9 , i.e., the MO-ADK theory, or the <span class="hlt">strong</span>- field approximation SFA 10,11 appear of Pavici et al. 5 where the peak of P was found to be at about 46°, while based on the original MO-ADK probability is distributed over a much narrower angular range than the MO-ADK theory predicted. The possible</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Le, Anh-Thu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">225</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25434818"> <span id="translatedtitle">Age-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> effects of environmental enrichment on <span class="hlt">spatial</span> memory and neurochemistry.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although aging and environmental stimulation are well-known to affect cognitive abilities, the question of whether aging effects can be distinguished in already-mature adult rats has not been fully addressed. In the present study, therefore, young and mature adult rats were housed in either enriched or standard conditions (EE or SC) for three months. Open-field (OFT) and radial-maze (RM) behavior, and ex-vivo contents of GABA and glutamate in hippocampus, and of dopamine and DOPAC in ventral striatum (VS) were analyzed and compared between the four groups. In OFT, young rats were more active than mature adults irrespective of the housing condition. Surprisingly, in the RM test, mature adults outperformed young counterparts except for the young-enriched rats, which showed a progressive improvement in RM performance. At the neurochemical level, young EE rats showed higher hippocampal glutamate and GABA concentrations, and DA turnover in VS, which correlated with RM performance. Altogether, the behavioral and cognitive strategies underlying habituation learning and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> memory seem to be qualitatively different between the two ages analyzed. These results challenge the assumption that mature adult animals are always worse in learning and memory tasks. However, young rats benefited more from the social and physical stimulation provided by the enrichment than mature adult counterparts. The latter effect was evident not just on behavior, but also on brain neurochemistry. PMID:25434818</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mora-Gallegos, Andrea; Rojas-Carvajal, Mijail; Salas, Sofía; Saborío-Arce, Adriana; Fornaguera-Trías, Jaime; Brenes, Juan C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">226</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4375725"> <span id="translatedtitle">Does a hospital's quality <span class="hlt">depend</span> on the quality of other hospitals? A <span class="hlt">spatial</span> econometrics approach</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We examine whether a hospital's quality is affected by the quality provided by other hospitals in the same market. We first sketch a theoretical model with regulated prices and derive conditions on demand and cost functions which determine whether a hospital will increase its quality if its rivals increase their quality. We then apply <span class="hlt">spatial</span> econometric methods to a sample of English hospitals in 2009–10 and a set of 16 quality measures including mortality rates, readmission, revision and redo rates, and three patient reported indicators, to examine the relationship between the quality of hospitals. We find that a hospital's quality is positively associated with the quality of its rivals for seven out of the sixteen quality measures. There are no statistically significant negative associations. In those cases where there is a significant positive association, an increase in rivals' quality by 10% increases a hospital's quality by 1.7% to 2.9%. The finding suggests that for some quality measures a policy which improves the quality in one hospital will have positive spillover effects on the quality in other hospitals.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gravelle, Hugh; Santos, Rita; Siciliani, Luigi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">227</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvA..91b3422R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> density-functional study of the alignment-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> ionization of acetylene and ethylene by <span class="hlt">strong</span> laser pulses</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The alignment-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> ionization of acetylene and ethylene in short laser pulses is investigated in the framework of the time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> density-functional theory coupled with Ehrenfest dynamics. The molecular alignment is found to have a substantial effect on the total ionization. Bond stretching is shown to cause an increase of the ionization efficiency, i.e., enhanced ionization, in qualitative agreement with previous theoretical investigations. It is also demonstrated that the enhanced ionization mechanism greatly enhances the ionization from the inner valence orbitals, and the ionization of the inner orbitals is primarily due to their extended weakly bound density tails.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Russakoff, Arthur; Bubin, Sergiy; Xie, Xinhua; Erattupuzha, Sonia; Kitzler, Markus; Varga, Kálmán</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">228</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21450594"> <span id="translatedtitle">Time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> second-order Born calculations for model atoms and molecules in <span class="hlt">strong</span> laser fields</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using the finite-element discrete variable representation of the nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) we extend previous work [K. Balzer et al., Phys. Rev. A 81, 022510 (2010)] to nonequilibrium situations and compute--from the two-time Schwinger-Keldysh-Kadanoff-Baym equations--the response of the helium atom and the heteronuclear molecule lithium hydride to laser fields in the uv and xuv regimes. In particular, by comparing the one-electron density and the dipole moment to time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> Hartree-Fock results on one hand and the full solution of the time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> Schroedinger equation on the other hand, we demonstrate that the time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> second Born approximation carries valuable information about electron-electron correlation effects. Also, we outline an efficient distributed memory concept which enables a parallel and well-scalable algorithm for computing the NEGF in the two-time domain.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Balzer, K.; Bauch, S.; Bonitz, M. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet Kiel, Leibnizstrasse 15, D-24098 Kiel (Germany)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-09-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">229</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3268013"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> of Alveolar Angiogenesis in Post-Pneumonectomy Lung Growth</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Growth of the remaining lung after pneumonectomy has been observed in many mammalian species; nonetheless, the pattern and morphology of alveolar angiogenesis during compensatory growth is unknown. Here, we investigated alveolar angiogenesis in a murine model of post-pneumonectomy lung growth. As expected, the volume and weight of the remaining lung returned to near-baseline levels within 21 days of pneumonectomy. The percentage increase in lobar weight was greatest in the cardiac lobe (p<.001). Cell cycle flow cytometry demonstrated a peak of lung cell proliferation (12.02±1.48%) 6 days after pneumonectomy. <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> autocorrelation analysis of the cardiac lobe demonstrated clustering of similar vascular densities (positive autocorrelation) that consistently mapped to subpleural regions of the cardiac lobe. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated increased cell density and enhanced expression of angiogenesis-related factors VEGFA, and GLUT1 in these subpleural regions. Corrosion casting and scanning electron microscopy 3-6 days after pneumonectomy demonstrated subpleural vessels with angiogenic sprouts. The monopodial sprouts appeared to be randomly oriented along the vessel axis with interbranch distances of 11.4±4.8 um in the regions of active angiogenesis. Also present within the regions of increased vascular density were frequent “holes” or “pillars” consistent with active intussusceptive angiogenesis. The mean pillar diameter was 4.2±3.8 um and the pillars were observed in all regions of active angiogenesis. These findings indicate that the process of alveolar construction involves discrete regions of regenerative growth, particularly in the subpleural regions of the cardiac lobe, characterized by both sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis. PMID:21969134</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Konerding, Moritz A.; Gibney, Barry C.; Houdek, Jan; Chamoto, Kenji; Ackermann, Maximilian; Lee, Grace S.; Lin, Miao; Tsuda, Akira; Mentzer, Steven J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">230</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21969134"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of alveolar angiogenesis in post-pneumonectomy lung growth.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Growth of the remaining lung after pneumonectomy has been observed in many mammalian species; nonetheless, the pattern and morphology of alveolar angiogenesis during compensatory growth is unknown. Here, we investigated alveolar angiogenesis in a murine model of post-pneumonectomy lung growth. As expected, the volume and weight of the remaining lung returned to near-baseline levels within 21 days of pneumonectomy. The percentage increase in lobar weight was greatest in the cardiac lobe (P < 0.001). Cell cycle flow cytometry demonstrated a peak of lung cell proliferation (12.02 ± 1.48%) 6 days after pneumonectomy. <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> autocorrelation analysis of the cardiac lobe demonstrated clustering of similar vascular densities (positive autocorrelation) that consistently mapped to subpleural regions of the cardiac lobe. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated increased cell density and enhanced expression of angiogenesis-related factors VEGFA, and GLUT1 in these subpleural regions. Corrosion casting and scanning electron microscopy 3-6 days after pneumonectomy demonstrated subpleural vessels with angiogenic sprouts. The monopodial sprouts appeared to be randomly oriented along the vessel axis with interbranch distances of 11.4 ± 4.8 ?m in the regions of active angiogenesis. Also present within the regions of increased vascular density were frequent "holes" or "pillars" consistent with active intussusceptive angiogenesis. The mean pillar diameter was 4.2 ± 3.8 ?m, and the pillars were observed in all regions of active angiogenesis. These findings indicate that the process of alveolar construction involves discrete regions of regenerative growth, particularly in the subpleural regions of the cardiac lobe, characterized by both sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis. PMID:21969134</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Konerding, Moritz A; Gibney, Barry C; Houdek, Jan P; Chamoto, Kenji; Ackermann, Maximilian; Lee, Grace S; Lin, Miao; Tsuda, Akira; Mentzer, Steven J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">231</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18776368"> <span id="translatedtitle">m7GTP alphaS is a <span class="hlt">strong</span> and stable inhibitor of cap-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> translation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two diastereomers of 7-methylguanosine 5'-O-(1-thiotriphosphate) have been synthesized and resolved by RP HPLC. Preliminary studies revealed that these new analogs of mRNA cap are characterized by high affinity for eIF4E, resistance towards DcpS pyrophosphatase and high potency to inhibit cap-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> translation. PMID:18776368</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kowalska, Joanna; Lukaszewicz, Maciej; Zuberek, Joanna; Ziemniak, Marcin; Strenkowska, Malwina; Darzynkiewicz, Edward; Jemielity, Jacek</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">232</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.eng.auburn.edu/users/aesmith/publications/journal/JMSproofs.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The manufacture of nylon involves the use of cyclohexane, whose successful production is <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on the</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">of the process is highly <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on the rate of oxygen feeding into the reaction mixture, which in turn rate, involving liq- uid cyclohexane and a feed gas, can be affected by kinetics and the gas of the reaction mixture; x3, temperature of the reac- tion mixture; and x4, liquid height. Each variable was set</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smith, Alice E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">233</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=austin%2c+AND+texas&pg=3&id=EJ762339"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> Libraries, <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Scores</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article talks about the first-ever Texas Conference on School Libraries on April 6, 2005 that was attended by one hundred thirty-five school administrators and trustees. The miniconference, entitled <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Libraries, <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Scores, was held at the Austin Hilton, Austin, Texas during the Texas Library Association's Annual Conference and was…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gray, Carlyn</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">234</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/cond-mat/0508383v1"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pressure <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> of Fragile-to-<span class="hlt">Strong</span> Transition and a Possible Second Critical Point in Supercooled Confined Water</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">By confining water in nano-pores of silica glass, we can bypass the crystallization and study the pressure effect on the dynamical behavior in deeply supercooled state using neutron scattering. We observe a clear evidence of a cusp-like fragile-to-<span class="hlt">strong</span> (F-S) dynamic transition. Here we show that the transition temperature decreases steadily with an increasing pressure, until it intersects the homogenous nucleation temperature line of bulk water at a pressure of 1600 bar. Above this pressure, it is no longer possible to discern the characteristic feature of the F-S transition. Identification of this end point with the possible second critical point is discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li Liu; Sow-Hsin Chen; Antonio Faraone; Chun-Wan Yen; Chung-Yuan Mou</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-08-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">235</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25765326"> <span id="translatedtitle">Somatosensory cortex functional connectivity abnormalities in autism show opposite trends, <span class="hlt">depending</span> on direction and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Functional connectivity is abnormal in autism, but the nature of these abnormalities remains elusive. Different studies, mostly using functional magnetic resonance imaging, have found increased, decreased, or even mixed pattern functional connectivity abnormalities in autism, but no unifying framework has emerged to date. We measured functional connectivity in individuals with autism and in controls using magnetoencephalography, which allowed us to resolve both the directionality (feedforward versus feedback) and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale (local or long-range) of functional connectivity. Specifically, we measured the cortical response and functional connectivity during a passive 25-Hz vibrotactile stimulation in the somatosensory cortex of 20 typically developing individuals and 15 individuals with autism, all males and right-handed, aged 8-18, and the mu-rhythm during resting state in a subset of these participants (12 per group, same age range). Two major significant group differences emerged in the response to the vibrotactile stimulus. First, the 50-Hz phase locking component of the cortical response, generated locally in the primary (S1) and secondary (S2) somatosensory cortex, was reduced in the autism group (P < 0.003, corrected). Second, feedforward functional connectivity between S1 and S2 was increased in the autism group (P < 0.004, corrected). During resting state, there was no group difference in the mu-? rhythm. In contrast, the mu-? rhythm, which has been associated with feedback connectivity, was significantly reduced in the autism group (P < 0.04, corrected). Furthermore, the strength of the mu-? was correlated to the relative strength of 50 Hz component of the response to the vibrotactile stimulus (r = 0.78, P < 0.00005), indicating a shared aetiology for these seemingly unrelated abnormalities. These magnetoencephalography-derived measures were correlated with two different behavioural sensory processing scores (P < 0.01 and P < 0.02 for the autism group, P < 0.01 and P < 0.0001 for the typical group), with autism severity (P < 0.03), and with diagnosis (89% accuracy). A biophysically realistic computational model using data driven feedforward and feedback parameters replicated the magnetoencephalography data faithfully. The direct observation of both abnormally increased and abnormally decreased functional connectivity in autism occurring simultaneously in different functional connectivity streams, offers a potential unifying framework for the unexplained discrepancies in current findings. Given that cortical feedback, whether local or long-range, is intrinsically non-linear, while cortical feedforward is generally linear relative to the stimulus, the present results suggest decreased non-linearity alongside an increased veridical component of the cortical response in autism. PMID:25765326</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Khan, Sheraz; Michmizos, Konstantinos; Tommerdahl, Mark; Ganesan, Santosh; Kitzbichler, Manfred G; Zetino, Manuel; Garel, Keri-Lee A; Herbert, Martha R; Hämäläinen, Matti S; Kenet, Tal</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">236</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/891748"> <span id="translatedtitle">Electronic Coupling between Heme Electron-Transfer Centers and Its Decay with Distance <span class="hlt">Depends</span> <span class="hlt">Strongly</span> on Relative Orientation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A method for calculating the electron-transfer matrix element VRP using density functional theory Kohn-Sham orbitals is presented and applied to heme dimers of varying relative orientation. The electronic coupling decays with increased iron separation according to VRP ) V0RP exp(-?r/2) with a distance <span class="hlt">dependence</span> parameter ? ? 2 Å-1 for hemes with parallel porphyrins and either 1.1 or 4.0 Å-1 when the porphyrin planes are perpendicular, <span class="hlt">depending</span> on the alignment of the iron d? orbital. These findings are used to interpret the observed orientation of the hemes in tetraheme redox proteins such as Flavocytochrome c3 fumarate reductase (Ifc3, PDB code 1QJD) of Shewanella frigidimarina, another flavocytochrome from the same bacterium (Fcc3, 1E39) and a small tetraheme cytochrome of Shewanella oneidensis strain MR1 (1M1P). Our results show that shifting and rotating the hemes controls the adiabaticity of the three electron hopping steps.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smith, Dayle MA; Rosso, Kevin M.; Dupuis, Michel; Valiev, Marat; Straatsma, TP</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-08-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">237</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3873525"> <span id="translatedtitle">Developmental plasticity of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> hearing following asymmetric hearing loss: context-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> cue integration and its clinical implications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Under normal hearing conditions, comparisons of the sounds reaching each ear are critical for accurate sound localization. Asymmetric hearing loss should therefore degrade <span class="hlt">spatial</span> hearing and has become an important experimental tool for probing the plasticity of the auditory system, both during development and adulthood. In clinical populations, hearing loss affecting one ear more than the other is commonly associated with otitis media with effusion, a disorder experienced by approximately 80% of children before the age of two. Asymmetric hearing may also arise in other clinical situations, such as after unilateral cochlear implantation. Here, we consider the role played by <span class="hlt">spatial</span> cue integration in sound localization under normal acoustical conditions. We then review evidence for adaptive changes in <span class="hlt">spatial</span> hearing following a developmental hearing loss in one ear, and show that adaptation may be achieved either by learning a new relationship between the altered cues and directions in space or by changing the way different cues are integrated in the brain. We next consider developmental plasticity as a source of vulnerability, describing maladaptive effects of asymmetric hearing loss that persist even when normal hearing is provided. We also examine the extent to which the consequences of asymmetric hearing loss <span class="hlt">depend</span> upon its timing and duration. Although much of the experimental literature has focused on the effects of a stable unilateral hearing loss, some of the most common hearing impairments experienced by children tend to fluctuate over time. We therefore propose that there is a need to bridge this gap by investigating the effects of recurring hearing loss during development, and outline recent steps in this direction. We conclude by arguing that this work points toward a more nuanced view of developmental plasticity, in which plasticity may be selectively expressed in response to specific sensory contexts, and consider the clinical implications of this. PMID:24409125</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Keating, Peter; King, Andrew J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">238</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25451612"> <span id="translatedtitle">Systemic lipopolysaccharide administration impairs retrieval of context-object discrimination, but not <span class="hlt">spatial</span>, memory: Evidence for selective disruption of specific hippocampus-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> memory functions during acute neuroinflammation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Neuroinflammation is implicated in impairments in neuronal function and cognition that arise with aging, trauma, and/or disease. Therefore, understanding the underlying basis of the effect of immune system activation on neural function could lead to therapies for treating cognitive decline. Although neuroinflammation is widely thought to preferentially impair hippocampus-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> memory, data on the effects of cytokines on cognition are mixed. One possible explanation for these inconsistent results is that cytokines may disrupt specific neural processes underlying some forms of memory but not others. In an earlier study, we tested the effect of systemic administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on retrieval of hippocampus-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> context memory and neural circuit function in CA3 and CA1 (Czerniawski and Guzowski, 2014). Paralleling impairment in context discrimination memory, we observed changes in neural circuit function consistent with disrupted pattern separation function. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that acute neuroinflammation selectively disrupts memory retrieval in tasks requiring hippocampal pattern separation processes. Male Sprague-Dawley rats given LPS systemically prior to testing exhibited intact performance in tasks that do not require hippocampal pattern separation processes: novel object recognition and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> memory in the water maze. By contrast, memory retrieval in a task thought to require hippocampal pattern separation, context-object discrimination, was <span class="hlt">strongly</span> impaired in LPS-treated rats in the absence of any gross effects on exploratory activity or motivation. These data show that LPS administration does not impair memory retrieval in all hippocampus-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> tasks, and support the hypothesis that acute neuroinflammation impairs context discrimination memory via disruption of pattern separation processes in hippocampus. PMID:25451612</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Czerniawski, Jennifer; Miyashita, Teiko; Lewandowski, Gail; Guzowski, John F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">239</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatSR...4E6725S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatially</span>-resolved mapping of history-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> coupled electrochemical and electronical behaviors of electroresistive NiO</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bias-induced oxygen ion dynamics underpins a broad spectrum of electroresistive and memristive phenomena in oxide materials. Although widely studied by device-level and local voltage-current spectroscopies, the relationship between electroresistive phenomena, local electrochemical behaviors, and microstructures remains elusive. Here, the interplay between history-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> electronic transport and electrochemical phenomena in a NiO single crystalline thin film with a number of well-defined defect types is explored on the nanometer scale using an atomic force microscopy-based technique. A variety of electrochemically-active regions were observed and <span class="hlt">spatially</span> resolved relationship between the electronic and electrochemical phenomena was revealed. The regions with pronounced electroresistive activity were further correlated with defects identified by scanning transmission electron microscopy. Using fully coupled mechanical-electrochemical modeling, we illustrate that the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of strain plays an important role in electrochemical and electroresistive phenomena. These studies illustrate an approach for simultaneous mapping of the electronic and ionic transport on a single defective structure level such as dislocations or interfaces, and pave the way for creating libraries of defect-specific electrochemical responses.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sugiyama, Issei; Kim, Yunseok; Jesse, Stephen; Strelcov, Evgheni; Kumar, Amit; Tselev, Alexander; Rahani, Ehasan Kabiri; Shenoy, Vivek B.; Yamamoto, Takahisa; Shibata, Naoya; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Kalinin, Sergei V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">240</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25335689"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatially</span>-resolved mapping of history-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> coupled electrochemical and electronical behaviors of electroresistive NiO.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bias-induced oxygen ion dynamics underpins a broad spectrum of electroresistive and memristive phenomena in oxide materials. Although widely studied by device-level and local voltage-current spectroscopies, the relationship between electroresistive phenomena, local electrochemical behaviors, and microstructures remains elusive. Here, the interplay between history-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> electronic transport and electrochemical phenomena in a NiO single crystalline thin film with a number of well-defined defect types is explored on the nanometer scale using an atomic force microscopy-based technique. A variety of electrochemically-active regions were observed and <span class="hlt">spatially</span> resolved relationship between the electronic and electrochemical phenomena was revealed. The regions with pronounced electroresistive activity were further correlated with defects identified by scanning transmission electron microscopy. Using fully coupled mechanical-electrochemical modeling, we illustrate that the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of strain plays an important role in electrochemical and electroresistive phenomena. These studies illustrate an approach for simultaneous mapping of the electronic and ionic transport on a single defective structure level such as dislocations or interfaces, and pave the way for creating libraries of defect-specific electrochemical responses. PMID:25335689</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sugiyama, Issei; Kim, Yunseok; Jesse, Stephen; Strelcov, Evgheni; Kumar, Amit; Tselev, Alexander; Rahani, Ehasan Kabiri; Shenoy, Vivek B; Yamamoto, Takahisa; Shibata, Naoya; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Kalinin, Sergei V</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous 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showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">241</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvB..90v0508K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Anomalous pressure <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the superconductivity in noncentrosymmetric LaNi C2 : Evidence of <span class="hlt">strong</span> electronic correlations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The superconductivity of the noncentrosymmetric system LaNi C2 has been studied under high pressures up to 30 GPa with electrical resistivity measurements. For this superconducting state, the breaking of time-reversal symmetry was shown recently in a muon spin relaxation (? SR ) experiment, which leads to nonunitary spin-triplet superconductive pairings. The present experiments on this superconductor reveal that the transition temperature Tc greatly increases at the rate of 0.25 (±0.01) K/GPa up to 3 GPa. However, above this pressure, Tc gradually decreases; and at the pressures over 8 GPa, the superconductivity disappears completely. With this disappearance of the superconductivity, a different state with a high-energy scale dramatically emerges. These results indicate that the system is not a simple normal metal, but is rather highly correlated with <span class="hlt">strong</span> electronic interactions which would contribute to its superconductivity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Katano, Susumu; Nakagawa, Hideya; Matsubayashi, Kazuyuki; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Soeda, Hideto; Tomita, Takahiro; Takahashi, Hiroki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">242</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22131013"> <span id="translatedtitle">THE <span class="hlt">SPATIAL</span> AND TEMPORAL <span class="hlt">DEPENDENCE</span> OF CORONAL HEATING BY ALFVEN WAVE TURBULENCE</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The solar atmosphere may be heated by Alfven waves that propagate up from the convection zone and dissipate their energy in the chromosphere and corona. To further test this theory, we consider wave heating in an active region observed on 2012 March 7. A potential field model of the region is constructed, and 22 field lines representing observed coronal loops are traced through the model. Using a three-dimensional (3D) reduced magnetohydrodynamics code, we simulate the dynamics of Alfven waves in and near the observed loops. The results for different loops are combined into a single formula describing the average heating rate Q as a function of position within the observed active region. We suggest this expression may be approximately valid also for other active regions, and therefore may be used to construct 3D, time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> models of the coronal plasma. Such models are needed to understand the role of thermal non-equilibrium in the structuring and dynamics of the Sun's corona.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Asgari-Targhi, M.; Van Ballegooijen, A. A.; Cranmer, S. R.; DeLuca, E. E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street MS-15, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">243</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22221144"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solution pH that minimizes self-association of three monoclonal antibodies is <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on ionic strength.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Monoclonal antibodies display highly variable solution properties such as solubility and viscosity at elevated concentrations (>50 mg/mL), which complicates antibody formulation and delivery. To understand this complex behavior, it is critical to measure the underlying protein self-interactions that govern the solution properties of antibody suspensions. We have evaluated the pH-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> self-association behavior of three monoclonal antibodies using self-interaction chromatography for a range of pH values commonly used in antibody formulations (pH 4.4-6). At low ionic strength (<25 mM), we find that each antibody is more associative at near-neutral pH (pH 6) than at low pH (pH 4.4). At high ionic strength (>100 mM), we observe the opposite pH-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> pattern of antibody self-association. Importantly, this inversion in self-association behavior is not unique to multidomain antibodies, as similar pH-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> behavior is observed for some small globular proteins (e.g., ribonuclease A and ?-chymotrypsinogen). We also find that the opalescence of concentrated antibody solutions (90 mg/mL) is minimized at low ionic strength at pH 4.4 and high ionic strength at pH 6, in agreement with the self-interaction measurements conducted at low antibody concentrations (5 mg/mL). Our results highlight the complexity of antibody self-association and emphasize the need for systematic approaches to optimize the solution properties of concentrated antibody formulations. PMID:22221144</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sule, Shantanu V; Cheung, Jason K; Antochshuk, Valentyn; Bhalla, Amardeep S; Narasimhan, Chakravarthy; Blaisdell, Steven; Shameem, Mohammed; Tessier, Peter M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">244</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PApGe.167..253P"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> and Temporal <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> of Temperature Variations Induced by Atmospheric Pressure Variations in Shallow Underground Cavities</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pressure-induced temperature (PIT) variations are systematically observed in the atmosphere of underground cavities. Such PIT variations are due to the compressibility of the air, damped by heat exchange with the rock surface. It is important to characterize such processes for numerous applications, such as the preservation of painted caves or the assessment of the long-term stability of underground laboratories and underground waste repositories. In this paper we thoroughly study the spatiotemporal <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the PIT response versus frequency using vertical and horizontal profiles of temperature installed in an abandoned underground quarry located in Vincennes, near Paris. The PIT response varies from about 20 × 10-3°C hPa-1 at a frequency of 2 × 10-4 Hz to 2-3 × 10-3°C hPa-1 at a frequency of one cycle per day. An analytical expression based on a simple heat exchange model accounts for the observed features of the PIT response and allows for correcting the measured time series, having standard deviations of about 10-2°C, to residual variations with a standard deviation of about 2 × 10-3°C. However, a frequency-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> attenuation of the response, corresponding to a reduction in amplitude with a factor varying from 2 to 3, is observed near the walls. This effect is not included in the simple analytical expression, but it can be accounted for by a one-dimensional differential equation, solved numerically, where temperature variations in the atmosphere are damped by an effective radiative coupling with the rock surface, complemented by a diffusive coupling near the walls. The TIP response is observed to remain stable over several years, but a large transient enhancement of about a factor of two is observed near the roof at one location from July to October 2005. In a cavity located below the Paris Observatory, an additional contribution is identified in the PIT response function versus frequency for frequencies smaller than 2 × 10-5 Hz. This contribution can be described using a modified analytical expression that includes the effect of heat diffusion into the surrounding rock. Using this expression, in this case also, the temperature time series can then be corrected, giving a residual standard deviation smaller than 1.6 × 10-3°C. Transient temporal variations of the PIT response are observed in all sites, with possible nonlinear components in the PIT. Such effects are not properly understood at this stage, and limit the reduction of time series to standard deviations of the order of 2 × 10-3°C, and consequently limit the search for new transient or seasonal temperature signals, for example due to the presence of tiny heat sources in the cavity or to geodynamical effects.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Perrier, Frederic; Le Mouël, Jean-Louis; Richon, Patrick</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">245</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999SPIE.3659..159J"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial-frequency-dependent</span> DQE performance of a CsI:Tl-based x-ray detector for digital mammography</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Monte Carlo calculations were performed to generate the point spread functions of x-ray photons absorbed in a CsI:Tl x-ray detector at the x-ray energies normally used in mammography (i.e., 20 keV to 50 keV). The corresponding modulation transfer functions [MTF(f)] for the CsI:Tl screen were also computed, taking into account the optical spread of light within the CsI:Tl crystals. The computed MTF(f)s were dominated by scintillation light lateral dispersion within the CsI:Tl screen. For the photon energy range encountered in digital mammography, the MTF(f) was a minimum at an x-ray photon energy just above the k-edge of Iodine (33 keV). Noise propagation theory for a cascaded imaging system was subsequently used to derive a theoretical expression for the detector DQE(f), including the <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of DQE(f) on the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of x-ray photon energy deposition. Detector performance was investigated as a function of x-ray exposure, CCD electronic noise, coupling efficiency of the fiber optical coupler, and the CCD quantum efficiency. Although most of the x-rays are absorbed via the photoelectric effect, the deposited x-ray energy spread within the CsI:Tl screen from the emission of characteristic x-rays can have a marked effect on detector performance, and the DQE(f) was found to decrease rapidly with photon energy just above the Iodine K-edge. X-ray exposure levels to the detector should be greater than or equal to 5 mR with a CCD electronic noise of approximately 20 electrons rms to ensure that DQE(f) performance is not significantly degraded at the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequencies important in digital mammography (i.e., 0 to 10 lp/mm). Light dispersion within the CsI:Tl crystals was the major factor degrading imaging system DQE(f) at higher <span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequencies. Optical coupling efficiency and CCD quantum efficiency are important system design parameters, which need to be maintained at a relatively high value. An optical coupling efficiency of approximately 0.7, and a CCD quantum efficiency of approximately 0.4, would still permit system DQE values greater than 60% at a <span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequency of 5 lp/mm.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jing, Zhenxue; Huda, Walter; Walker, James K.; Choi, Won Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">246</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..MARP54007N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Magnetic-field <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of energy levels of superconducting nano-scale mettalic grains with <span class="hlt">strong</span> spin-orbit scattering</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study the Zeeman splitting of discrete energy levels of superconducting nano-scale metallic grains whose single-electron dynamics is chaotic [1]. In the absence of spin-orbit scattering the Zeeman splitting of a single-electron level is trivial; it is the same for all levels and linear in magnetic field. Spin-orbit coupling suppresses this splitting, induces level-to-level fluctuations and non-linear corrections to the energies. We investigate the combined effect of pairing correlations, which lead to superconductivity in the bulk limit, and spin-orbit scattering on the many-electron energy levels in a weak magnetic field. In particular, we focus our studies on the linear (g-factor) and quadratic (zero-field level curvature) corrections and their mesoscopic fluctuations. The single-electron part of the Hamiltonian follows the statistics of the Gaussian symplectic ensemble of random matrix theory, which is applicable in the limit of <span class="hlt">strong</span> spin-orbit scattering and a large dimensionless Thouless conductance. The interaction is given by a BCS-like pairing term and the magnetic field coupling is described by a Zeeman term. [1] K. Nesterov and Y. Alhassid, to be published.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nesterov, Konstantin; Alhassid, Yoram</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9618M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temporal and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of tropospheric NO2 over arid areas of Central Asia by OMI Satellite observations: Evidence for a <span class="hlt">strong</span> contribution of soil biogenic nitric oxide</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present results observations of tropospheric NO2 carried out by Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) over the Central Asian arid areas from 2005 to 2011. We selected 8 oases (Ruoqiang, Milan, Waxxari, Qiemo, Minfeng, Shache, Awati and Kuche) in Taklimakan desert (part of the great Central Asian deserts). For these, <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distributions, seasonal variations, and trends of tropospheric NO2 Vertical Column Densities (VCDs) retrieved are discussed. In the Taklimakan desert, oases are the centers of all human activities and the economy of the selected oases are dominated by oasis agriculture. Irrigation and fertilization favor the microbial production of nitric oxide in soils, which after emission is converted to NO2 by ozone. Consequently, tropospheric NO2-VCDs are a good proxy for biogenic NO emissions from soils. For contrast, we examined also the NO2-VCDs in the area of the growing megacity Urumqi (43.85°N, 87.62°E), which is known as an anthropogenic highly polluted city in the Central Asian deserts. For 2005-2011, all selected oases are hot spots of NO/NO2 in the Taklimakan desert. Higher NO2-VCDs were observed during growing seasons over all 8 oases. NO2-VCDs observed in summer generally increased from 2005 to 2011. NO2-VCDs over Urumqi were generally at least 1 order of magnitude higher than those over the oases. In contrast to the oases, wintertime NO2-VCDs over Urumqi are higher than in summer. We evaluated governmental statistical agricultural data of the 8 oasis, and compared the trends with corresponding summertime NO2-VCDs. Inter-annual trends of NO2-VCDs over the oases show similar patterns to those of N-fertilizer application and sown (and irrigated) areas. Highest NO2-VCDs observed in summer for agriculturally dominated oases are a <span class="hlt">strong</span> indication that soil biogenic NO emission is the main contributor to the tropospheric NO2 over all 8 oases, while in Urumqi fossil fuel combustion, particularly during winter, is the main source for NO/NO2. With regard to recent/future agriculture development in the Taklimakan oases (80% of the current Chinese cotton production originates from there), biogenic NO emission from soils will provide an increasing contribution to tropospheric NO2 over Central Asia.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mamtimin, Buhalqem; Qi, Yue; Beirle, Steffen; Wagner, Thomas; Meixner, Franz X.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1044749"> <span id="translatedtitle">Determination of Earths transient and equilibrium climate sensitivities from observations over the twentieth century: <span class="hlt">Strong</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on assumed forcing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Relations among observed changes in global mean surface temperature, ocean heat content, ocean heating rate, and calculated radiative forcing, all as a function of time over the twentieth century, that are based on a two-compartment energy balance model, are used to determine key properties of Earth's climate system. The increase in heat content of the world ocean, obtained as the average of several recent compilations, is found to be linearly related to the increase in global temperature over the period 1965-2009; the slope, augmented to account for additional heat sinks, which is an effective heat capacity of the climate system, is 21.8 {+-} 2.1 W year m{sup -2} K{sup -1} (one sigma), equivalent to the heat capacity of 170 m of seawater (for the entire planet) or 240 m for the world ocean. The rate of planetary heat uptake, determined from the time derivative of ocean heat content, is found to be proportional to the increase in global temperature relative to the beginning of the twentieth century with proportionality coefficient 1.05 {+-} 0.06 W m{sup -2} K{sup -1}. Transient and equilibrium climate sensitivities were evaluated for six published data sets of forcing mainly by incremental greenhouse gases and aerosols over the twentieth century as calculated by radiation transfer models; these forcings ranged from 1.1 to 2.1 W m{sup -2}, spanning much of the range encompassed by the 2007 assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). For five of the six forcing data sets, a rather robust linear proportionality obtains between the observed increase in global temperature and the forcing, allowing transient sensitivity to be determined as the slope. Equilibrium sensitivities determined by two methods that account for the rate of planetary heat uptake range from 0.31 {+-} 0.02 to 1.32 {+-} 0.31 K (W m{sup -2}){sup -1} (CO{sub 2} doubling temperature 1.16 {+-} 0.09-4.9 {+-} 1.2 K), more than spanning the IPCC estimated 'likely' uncertainty range, and <span class="hlt">strongly</span> anticorrelated with the forcing used to determine the sensitivities. Transient sensitivities, relevant to climate change on the multidecadal time scale, are considerably lower, 0.23 {+-} 0.01 to 0.51 {+-} 0.04 K (W m{sup -2}){sup -1}. The time constant characterizing the response of the upper ocean compartment of the climate system to perturbations is estimated as about 5 years, in broad agreement with other recent estimates, and much shorter than the time constant for thermal equilibration of the deep ocean, about 500 years.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schwartz S. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-04</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020070562&hterms=Statistics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DStatistics"> <span id="translatedtitle">Scale <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> of Statistics of <span class="hlt">Spatially</span> Averaged Rain Rate Seen in TOGA COARE Comparison with Predictions from a Stochastic Model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A characteristic feature of rainfall statistics is that they in general <span class="hlt">depend</span> on the space and time scales over which rain data are averaged. As a part of an earlier effort to determine the sampling error of satellite rain averages, a space-time model of rainfall statistics was developed to describe the statistics of gridded rain observed in GATE. The model allows one to compute the second moment statistics of space- and time-averaged rain rate which can be fitted to satellite or rain gauge data to determine the four model parameters appearing in the precipitation spectrum - an overall strength parameter, a characteristic length separating the long and short wavelength regimes and a characteristic relaxation time for decay of the autocorrelation of the instantaneous local rain rate and a certain 'fractal' power law exponent. For area-averaged instantaneous rain rate, this exponent governs the power law <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of these statistics on the averaging length scale $L$ predicted by the model in the limit of small $L$. In particular, the variance of rain rate averaged over an $L \\times L$ area exhibits a power law singularity as $L \\rightarrow 0$. In the present work the model is used to investigate how the statistics of area-averaged rain rate over the tropical Western Pacific measured with ship borne radar during TOGA COARE (Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean Atmospheric Response Experiment) and gridded on a 2 km grid <span class="hlt">depends</span> on the size of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> averaging scale. Good agreement is found between the data and predictions from the model over a wide range of averaging length scales.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kundu, Prasun K.; Bell, T. L.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvB..90u4421T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Magnetic hyperthermia properties of nanoparticles inside lysosomes using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations: Influence of key parameters and dipolar interactions, and evidence for <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variation of heating power</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Understanding the influence of dipolar interactions in magnetic hyperthermia experiments is of crucial importance for fine optimization of nanoparticle (NP) heating power. In this study we use a kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm to calculate hysteresis loops that correctly account for both time and temperature. This algorithm is shown to correctly reproduce the high-frequency hysteresis loop of both superparamagnetic and ferromagnetic NPs without any ad hoc or artificial parameters. The algorithm is easily parallelizable with a good speed-up behavior, which considerably decreases the calculation time on several processors and enables the study of assemblies of several thousands of NPs. The specific absorption rate (SAR) of magnetic NPs dispersed inside spherical lysosomes is studied as a function of several key parameters: volume concentration, applied magnetic field, lysosome size, NP diameter, and anisotropy. The influence of these parameters is illustrated and comprehensively explained. In summary, magnetic interactions increase the coercive field, saturation field, and hysteresis area of major loops. However, for small amplitude magnetic fields such as those used in magnetic hyperthermia, the heating power as a function of concentration can increase, decrease, or display a bell shape, <span class="hlt">depending</span> on the relationship between the applied magnetic field and the coercive/saturation fields of the NPs. The hysteresis area is found to be well correlated with the parallel or antiparallel nature of the dipolar field acting on each particle. The heating power of a given NP is <span class="hlt">strongly</span> influenced by a local concentration involving approximately 20 neighbors. Because this local concentration <span class="hlt">strongly</span> decreases upon approaching the surface, the heating power increases or decreases in the vicinity of the lysosome membrane. The amplitude of variation reaches more than one order of magnitude in certain conditions. This transition occurs on a thickness corresponding to approximately 1.3 times the mean distance between two neighbors. The amplitude and sign of this variation is explained. Finally, implications of these various findings are discussed in the framework of magnetic hyperthermia optimization. It is concluded that feedback on two specific points from biology experiments is required for further advancement of the optimization of magnetic NPs for magnetic hyperthermia. The present simulations will be an advantageous tool to optimize magnetic NPs heating power and interpret experimental results.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tan, R. P.; Carrey, J.; Respaud, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMAE33A0327O"> <span id="translatedtitle">Statistical analyses of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and time <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of lightning whistlers observed by VLF/WBA onboard AKEBONO</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">AKEBONO (EXOS-D) has been continuously operated for more than 24 years since 1989 to observe particles and plasma waves in the auroral region and the plasmasphere. It covers altitude region from 300 km to about 10,000 km with an inclination of 75 degree. Therefore, analyses of the data obtained by AKEBONO enable us to study how the magnetosphere varies <span class="hlt">depending</span> on the local time, season and solar activity. The WBA (Wide Band Analyzer) is one of subsystems of the VLF instruments onboard AKEBONO. It measures one component of electric or magnetic analogue waveform at frequency band of 50 Hz - 15 kHz. Lightning whistler is one of typical waves frequently observed by the WBA. It is generated by lightning discharge and propagates along the geomagnetic field lines from northern to southern hemisphere and vice-versa. Their dispersions <span class="hlt">depend</span> on their path length and electron density profile along their propagation path. We have been developed an automatic detection system of lightning whistlers from the spectrogram of the WBA receiver. In the present study, we statistically analyzed the data received at Uchinoura Space Center from 1989 to 2005, and got <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and time distribution of lightning whistlers by the system. First, we found that lightning whistlers were mainly observed only inside the plasmasphere with L-value below 4. Next, we studied MLT (Magnetic Local Time) and seasonal <span class="hlt">dependences</span> of occurrence frequency of the lightning whistlers. It is noted that the coverage of MLT and season of the AKEBONO orbit changes simultaneously, but we could successfully identified the MLT and seasonal <span class="hlt">dependences</span> separately analyzing the long term observation data. Consequently lightning whistlers were mainly observed in the night-side (from 16 to 4 in MLT), while their occurrence frequency becomes quite small in the dayside (from 7 to 15 in MLT). Presumably this is caused by the condition of the ionosphere. In the dayside, it is difficult for whistler-mode wave to propagate into the plasmasphere but it can easily propagate in the night-side. About the seasonal <span class="hlt">dependence</span>, we found two peaks of occurrence frequency of lightning whistlers. One is from December to January and another is from June to July. The source of lightning whistler is lightning discharge, whose occurrence frequency is known to become maximum in summer. Thus we can find two peaks of occurrence frequency which correspond to the lightning whistlers propagating from summer hemisphere to winter hemisphere. As a future work, we will study solar activity <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of lightning whistlers. By normalizing the bias caused by MLT and seasonal <span class="hlt">dependences</span> of lightning whistler based on the results derived in the present study, it is expected to clarify the solar activity <span class="hlt">dependence</span> independent of the MLT and seasonal variation. It is also interesting to estimate the electron density profile using trends of whistler dispersion. The propagation time of whistler mode wave can be theoretically calculated using ray tracing technique under assumption of electron density profile model. By comparing the observed trends of dispersion along the AKEBONO trajectories with those theoretically derived, we can determine an appropriate electron density profile, and we can know the time variation of the electron density profile in the plasmasphere statistically.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Oike, Y.; Kasahara, Y.; Goto, Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1021792"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Min Oscillator Uses MinD-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Conformational Changes in MinE to <span class="hlt">Spatially</span> Regulate Cytokinesis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In E. coli, MinD recruits MinE to the membrane, leading to a coupled oscillation required for <span class="hlt">spatial</span> regulation of the cytokinetic Z ring. How these proteins interact, however, is not clear because the MinD-binding regions of MinE are sequestered within a six-stranded {beta} sheet and masked by N-terminal helices. minE mutations that restore interaction between some MinD and MinE mutants were isolated. These mutations alter the MinE structure leading to release of the MinD-binding regions and the N-terminal helices that bind the membrane. Crystallization of MinD-MinE complexes revealed a four-stranded {beta} sheet MinE dimer with the released {beta} strands (MinD-binding regions) converted to {alpha} helices bound to MinD dimers. These results identify the MinD-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> conformational changes in MinE that convert it from a latent to an active form and lead to a model of how MinE persists at the MinD-membrane surface.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Park, Kyung-Tase; Wu, Wei; Battaile, Kevin P.; Lovell, Scott; Holyoak, Todd; Lutkenhaus, Joe (Kansas); (HWMRI)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhyE...63...14B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantum confinement in nonadditive space with a <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> effective mass for Si and Ge quantum wells</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We calculate the effect of a <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> effective mass (SPDEM) [adapted from Costa Filho et al. (2011)] on an electron and a hole confined in a quantum well (QW). In the work of Costa Filho et al., the translation operator is modified to include an inverse character length scale, ?, which defines the SPDEM. The introduction of ? means that translations are no longer additive. In nonadditive space, we choose a ‘skewed' Gaussian confinement potential defined by the replacement x??-1ln(1+?x) in the usual Gaussian potential. Within the parabolic approximation ? is inversely related to the QW thickness and we obtain analytic solutions to our confinement Hamiltonian. Our calculation yields a reduced dispersion relation for the gap energy (EG) as a function of QW thickness, D: EG~D-1, compared to the effective mass approximation: EG~D-2. Additionally, nonadditive space contracts the position space metric thus increasing the occupied momentum space and reducing the effective mass, in agreement with the relation: mo*-1??2E/?k2. The change in the effective mass is shown to be a function of the confinement potential via a point canonical transformation. Our calculation agrees with experimental measurements of EG for Si and Ge QWs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Barbagiovanni, E. G.; Filho, R. N. Costa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2859807"> <span id="translatedtitle">Involvement of Cyclin-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Kinase-Like 2 in Cognitive Function Required for Contextual and <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Learning in Mice</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cyclin-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> kinase-like 2 (Cdkl2) is a cdc2-related serine/threonine protein kinase that is postnatally expressed in various brain regions, including the cerebral cortex, entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and dorsal thalamus. The extremely high Cdkl2 expression in these regions suggests that it has a role in cognition and emotion. Recent genetic studies indicate that mutations of Cdkl family kinases are associated with neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders in humans. To elucidate the physiologic role of Cdkl2, we behaviorally analyzed Cdkl2LacZ/LacZ mice lacking Cdkl2. Cdkl2LacZ/LacZ mice had reduced latencies to enter the dark compartment after electric footshock in an inhibitory avoidance task and attenuated contextual fear responses when exposed to mild training conditions. Hippocampal <span class="hlt">spatial</span> learning in the Morris water maze was slightly anomalous with mice exhibiting an abnormal swimming pattern. The aversive response in a two-way avoidance task was slightly, but not significantly, enhanced. On the other hand, Cdkl2LacZ/LacZ mice did not exhibit altered sensitivity to aversive stimuli, such as electric footshock and heat, or deficits in the elevated plus maze or rotating rod test. These findings suggest that Cdkl2 is involved in cognitive function and provide in vivo evidence for the function of Cdkl family kinases expressed in terminally differentiated neurons in mice. PMID:20428496</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gomi, Hiroshi; Sassa, Takayuki; Thompson, Richard F.; Itohara, Shigeyoshi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015E%26PSL.415...38C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Alteration of ocean crust provides a <span class="hlt">strong</span> temperature <span class="hlt">dependent</span> feedback on the geological carbon cycle and is a primary driver of the Sr-isotopic composition of seawater</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">On geological timescales there is a temperature <span class="hlt">dependent</span> feedback that means that increased degassing of CO2 into the atmosphere leads to increased CO2 drawdown into rocks stabilizing Earth's climate. It is widely considered that this thermostat largely comes from continental chemical weathering. An alternative, or additional, feedback comes from dissolution of seafloor basalt in low-temperature (tens of °C), off-axis, hydrothermal systems. Carbonate minerals precipitated in these systems provide <span class="hlt">strong</span> evidence that increased bottom water temperature (traced by their O-isotopic compositions) leads to increased basalt dissolution (traced by their Sr-isotopic compositions). Inversion of a simple probabilistic model of fluid-rock interaction allows us to determine the apparent activation energy of rock dissolution in these systems. The high value we find (92 ± 7 kJmol-1) indicates a <span class="hlt">strong</span> temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of rock dissolution. Because deep-ocean temperature is sensitive to global climate, and the fluid temperature in the upper oceanic crust is <span class="hlt">strongly</span> influenced by bottom water temperature, increased global temperature must lead to increased basalt dissolution. In turn, through the generation of alkalinity by rock dissolution, this leads to a negative feedback on planetary warming; i.e. off-axis, hydrothermal systems play an important role in the planetary thermostat. Changes in the extent of rock dissolution, due to changes in bottom water temperature, also lead to changes in the flux of unradiogenic Sr into the ocean. The decreased flux of unradiogenic Sr into the ocean due to the cooling of ocean bottom water over the last 35 Myr is sufficient to explain most of the increase in seawater 87Sr/86Sr over this time.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Coogan, Laurence A.; Dosso, Stan E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://sheng-lab.psych.umn.edu/pdf_files/Jiang-etal-PNAS-06.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A gender-and sexual orientation-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> attentional effect of invisible images Yi Jiang, Patricia Costello, Fang Fang, Miner Huang, and Sheng He</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A gender- and sexual orientation-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> attentional effect of invisible images Yi Jiang images Yi Jiang*, Patricia Costello , Fang Fang*, Miner Huang , and Sheng He*§ *Department of Psychology to invisible female nudes, heterosexual females' attention was attracted to invisible male nudes, gay males be</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">He, Sheng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25199610"> <span id="translatedtitle">The roles of scene gist and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependency</span> among objects in the semantic guidance of attention in real-world scenes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A previous study (Vision Research 51 (2011) 1192-1205) found evidence for semantic guidance of visual attention during the inspection of real-world scenes, i.e., an influence of semantic relationships among scene objects on overt shifts of attention. In particular, the results revealed an observer bias toward gaze transitions between semantically similar objects. However, this effect is not necessarily indicative of semantic processing of individual objects but may be mediated by knowledge of the scene gist, which does not require object recognition, or by known <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependency</span> among objects. To examine the mechanisms underlying semantic guidance, in the present study, participants were asked to view a series of displays with the scene gist excluded and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependency</span> varied. Our results show that <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependency</span> among objects seems to be sufficient to induce semantic guidance. Scene gist, on the other hand, does not seem to affect how observers use semantic information to guide attention while viewing natural scenes. Extracting semantic information mainly based on <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependency</span> may be an efficient strategy of the visual system that only adds little cognitive load to the viewing task. PMID:25199610</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wu, Chia-Chien; Wang, Hsueh-Cheng; Pomplun, Marc</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=298060"> <span id="translatedtitle">An RNA polymerase II transcription factor has an associated DNA-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> ATPase (dATPase) activity <span class="hlt">strongly</span> stimulated by the TATA region of promoters.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A transcription factor required for synthesis of accurately initiated run-off transcripts by RNA polymerase II has been purified and shown to have an associated DNA-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> ATPase (dATPase) activity that is <span class="hlt">strongly</span> stimulated by the TATA region of promoters. This transcription factor, designated delta, was purified more than 3000-fold from extracts of crude rat liver nuclei and has a native molecular mass of approximately 230 kDa. DNA-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> ATPase (dATPase) and transcription activities copurify when delta is analyzed by hydrophobic interaction and ion-exchange HPLC, arguing that transcription factor delta possesses an ATPase (dATPase) activity. ATPase (dATPase) is specific for adenine nucleotides; ATP and dATP, but not CTP, UTP, or GTP, are hydrolyzed. ATPase (dATPase) is stimulated by both double-stranded and single-stranded DNAs, including pUC18, ssM13, and poly(dT); however, DNA fragments containing the TATA region of either the adenovirus 2 major late or mouse interleukin 3 promoters stimulate ATPase as much as 10-fold more effectively than DNA fragments containing nonpromoter sequences. These data suggest the intriguing possibility that delta plays a critical role in the ATP (dATP)-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> activation of run-off transcription through a direct interaction with the TATA region of promoters. Images PMID:2552440</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Conaway, R C; Conaway, J W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1023307"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thickness <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> of Magnetic Relaxation and E-J Characteristics in Superconducting (Gd-Y)-Ba-Cu-O Films with <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Vortex Pinning</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the critical current density Jc on temperature, magnetic field, and film thickness has been investigated in (Gd-Y)BaCu-oxide materials of 0.7, 1.4, and 2.8 m thickness. Generally, the Jc decreases with film thickness at investigated temperatures and magnetic fields. The nature and strength of the pinning centers for vortices have been identified through angular and temperature measurements, respectively. These films do not exhibit c-axis correlated vortex pinning, but do have correlated defects oriented near the ab-planes. For all film thicknesses studied, <span class="hlt">strong</span> pinning dominates at most temperatures. The vortex dynamics were investigated through magnetic relaxation studies in the temperature range of 5 77 K in 1 T and 3 T applied magnetic fields, H || surface-normal. The creep rate S is thickness <span class="hlt">dependent</span> at high temperatures, implying that the pinning energy is also thickness <span class="hlt">dependent</span>. Maley analyses of the relaxation data show an inverse power law variation for the effective pinning energy Ueff ~ (J0/J) . Finally, the electric field-current density (E-J) characteristics were determined over a wide range of dissipation by combining experimental results from transport, swept field magnetometry (VSM), and Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometry. We develop a self-consistent model of the combined experimental results, leading to an estimation of the critical current density Jc0(T) in the absence of flux creep.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Polat, Ozgur [ORNL; Sinclair IV, John W [ORNL; Zuev, Yuri L [ORNL; Thompson, James R [ORNL; Christen, David K [ORNL; Cook, Sylvester W [ORNL; Kumar, Dhananjay [ORNL; Chen, Y [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York; Selvamanickam, V. [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAP...117e5702K"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the Hall factor of p-type CoSb3: A re-analysis incorporating band nonparabolicity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Hall factor has been calculated as a function of temperature for p-type CoSb3 samples reported by Hui et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 115, 103704 (2014)] in addition to those reported by Caillat et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 80, 4442 (1996)], incorporating the valence band nonparabolicity. For the nominally undoped p-type samples, reported by Caillat et al., the Hall factor was calculated to increase with temperature from about 1.6 around room temperature to about as large as 5 at 900 K. Owing to the incorporation of the Hall factor, the net acceptor concentration has been corrected to be larger by about 1.6 times. Furthermore, due to the <span class="hlt">strong</span> temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the Hall factor, the band-gap energy deduced through fitting the temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the Hall coefficient has been corrected to be smaller by about 0.03 eV than the values deduced when assuming a constant Hall factor of unity. It has also been shown that, even when the temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the Hall factor is considered, the incorporation of the second valence band into the calculation is necessary to explain the anomalous increase of the Hall coefficient with temperature in the Sn-doped p-type CoSb3 sample reported by Hui et al.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kajikawa, Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> 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href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.bsos.umd.edu/psyc/batlab/publication/Echolocation%20bats%20can%20use%20acoustic%20landmarks.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Animals <span class="hlt">depend</span> heavily on <span class="hlt">spatial</span> information from the environment to find food, mates, a roost or a nest. Local visual</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">, breaking the established <span class="hlt">spatial</span> relationship between the two. In control trials the bats repeatedly echoes from small objects at a distance up to 5·m (Kick, 1982). For object localization, bats compute, the positions of the net opening and landmark were moved, but the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> relationship between the two remained</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Moss, Cynthia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/887251"> <span id="translatedtitle">Verification test problems for the calculation of probability of loss of assured safety in temperature-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> systems with multiple weak and <span class="hlt">strong</span> links.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Four verification test problems are presented for checking the conceptual development and computational implementation of calculations to determine the probability of loss of assured safety (PLOAS) in temperature-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> systems with multiple weak links (WLs) and <span class="hlt">strong</span> links (SLs). The problems are designed to test results obtained with the following definitions of loss of assured safety: (1) Failure of all SLs before failure of any WL, (2) Failure of any SL before failure of any WL, (3) Failure of all SLs before failure of all WLs, and (4) Failure of any SL before failure of all WLs. The test problems are based on assuming the same failure properties for all links, which results in problems that have the desirable properties of fully exercising the numerical integration procedures required in the evaluation of PLOAS and also possessing simple algebraic representations for PLOAS that can be used for verification of the analysis.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Johnson, Jay Dean (ProStat, Mesa, AZ); Oberkampf, William Louis; Helton, Jon Craig (Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22300275"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> spin-orbit coupling and Zeeman spin splitting in angle <span class="hlt">dependent</span> magnetoresistance of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have studied angle <span class="hlt">dependent</span> magnetoresistance of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin film with field up to 9?T over 2–20?K temperatures. The perpendicular field magnetoresistance has been explained by the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka theory alone in a system with <span class="hlt">strong</span> spin-orbit coupling, from which we have estimated the mean free path, the phase coherence length, and the spin-orbit relaxation time. We have obtained the out-of-plane spin-orbit relaxation time to be small and the in-plane spin-orbit relaxation time to be comparable to the momentum relaxation time. The estimation of these charge and spin transport parameters are useful for spintronics applications. For parallel field magnetoresistance, we have confirmed the presence of Zeeman effect which is otherwise suppressed in perpendicular field magnetoresistance due to <span class="hlt">strong</span> spin-orbit coupling. The parallel field data have been explained using both the contributions from the Maekawa-Fukuyama localization theory for non-interacting electrons and Lee-Ramakrishnan theory of electron-electron interactions. The estimated Zeeman g-factor and the strength of Coulomb screening parameter agree well with the theory. Finally, the anisotropy in magnetoresistance with respect to angle has been described by the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka theory. This anisotropy can be used in anisotropic magnetic sensor applications.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dey, Rik, E-mail: rikdey@utexas.edu; Pramanik, Tanmoy; Roy, Anupam; Rai, Amritesh; Guchhait, Samaresh; Sonde, Sushant; Movva, Hema C. P.; Register, Leonard F.; Banerjee, Sanjay K. [Microelectronics Research Center, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Colombo, Luigi [Texas Instruments, Dallas, Texas 75243 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-02</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/0603190v2"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multiply wound Polyakov loops at <span class="hlt">strong</span> coupling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study the expectation value of a Polyakov-Maldacena loop that wraps the thermal circle k times in <span class="hlt">strongly</span> coupled N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. This is achieved by considering probe D3 and D5 brane embeddings in the dual black hole geometry. In contrast to multiply wound <span class="hlt">spatial</span> Wilson loops, nontrivial <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on k is captured through D5 branes. We find N^{-2/3} corrections, reminiscent of the scaling behaviour near a Gross-Witten transition.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sean A. Hartnoll; S. Prem Kumar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-04-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013998"> <span id="translatedtitle">DEFINITION OF MULTIVARIATE GEOCHEMICAL ASSOCIATIONS WITH POLYMETALLIC MINERAL OCCURRENCES USING A <span class="hlt">SPATIALLY</span> <span class="hlt">DEPENDENT</span> CLUSTERING TECHNIQUE AND RASTERIZED STREAM SEDIMENT DATA - AN ALASKAN EXAMPLE.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The application of an unsupervised, <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> clustering technique (AMOEBA) to interpolated raster arrays of stream sediment data has been found to provide useful multivariate geochemical associations for modeling regional polymetallic resource potential. The technique is based on three assumptions regarding the compositional and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> relationships of stream sediment data and their regional significance. These assumptions are: (1) compositionally separable classes exist and can be statistically distinguished; (2) the classification of multivariate data should minimize the pair probability of misclustering to establish useful compositional associations; and (3) a compositionally defined class represented by three or more contiguous cells within an array is a more important descriptor of a terrane than a class represented by <span class="hlt">spatial</span> outliers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jenson, Susan K.; Trautwein, C.M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ThCFD..27...21K"> <span id="translatedtitle">A linear stability analysis on the onset of thermal convection of a fluid with <span class="hlt">strongly</span> temperature-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> viscosity in a spherical shell</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A linear stability analysis was performed in order to study the onset of thermal convection in the presence of a <span class="hlt">strong</span> viscosity variation, with a special emphasis on the condition for the stagnant-lid (ST) convection where a convection takes place only in a sublayer beneath a highly viscous lid of cold fluid. We consider the temporal evolution (growth or decay) of an infinitesimal perturbation superimposed to a Boussinesq fluid with an infinite Prandtl number which is in a static (motionless) and conductive state in a basally heated planar layer or spherical shell. The viscosity of the fluid is assumed to be exponentially <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on temperature. The linearized equations for conservations of mass, momentum, and internal (thermal) energy are numerically solved for the critical Rayleigh number, Ra c , as well as the radial profiles of eigenfunctions for infinitesimal perturbations. The above calculations are repeatedly carried out by systematically varying (i) the magnitude of the temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of viscosity, E, and (ii) the ratio of the inner and outer radii of the spherical shell, ?. A careful analysis of the vertical structure of incipient flows demonstrated that the dominance of the ST convection can be quantitatively identified by the vertical profile of ? h (a measure of conversion between horizontal and vertical flows), regardless of the model geometries. We also found that, in the spherical shell relevant to the Earth's mantle ( ? = 0.55), the transition into ST convection takes place at the viscosity contrast across the layer {r_?˜eq10^4} . Taken together with the fact that the threshold value of r ? falls in the range of r ? for a so-called sluggish-lid convection, our finding suggests that the ST-mode of convection with horizontally elongated convection cells is likely to arise in the Earth's mantle solely from the temperature-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> viscosity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kameyama, Masanori; Ichikawa, Hiroki; Miyauchi, Arata</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002A%26A...381..668S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spectropolarimetry in a sunspot penumbra. <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of Stokes asymmetries in Fe I 1564.8 nm</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Stokes profiles of sunspot penumbrae show distinct asymmetries, which point to gradients in the velocity field and in the magnetic field. We present spectropolarimetric measurements of the Stokes vector in the neutral iron triplet at 1564.8 nm taken with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter (TIP) at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) in Tenerife. We report on the peculiarities of the profiles of circularly and linearly polarized light for spots at different heliocentric angles. We elaborate on the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of Stokes asymmetries within the penumbra and find for profiles of circularly polarized light: (1) In the center-side penumbra the amplitude difference of Stokes-V exhibits a sign reversal on a radial cut, i.e., in the inner (outer) penumbra the red (blue) lobe is broader and shows a smaller amplitude than the blue (red) lobe. (2) In the outer limb-side penumbra (beyond the magnetic neutral line) the red lobe is broader and of less amplitude than the blue lobe. (3) Along the magnetic neutral line we find abnormal Stokes-V profiles, which consist of more than 2 lobes. This indicates the presence of two polarities. For small heliocentric angles abnormal profiles are also seen beyond the magnetic neutral line in the outer penumbra. (4) Maps of the net circular polarization have the tendency to be antisymmetric with respect to the axis that connects disk center with spot center. This finding is striking, because corresponding maps for Fe I 630.25 are symmetric. For linearly polarized profiles we extract the following features: (5) On the center-side penumbra at a heliocentric angle of 56o a Doppler-shift as high as 5 km s-1 can be directly measured by the splitting of the pi -component of the linearly polarized component. (6) In limb-side penumbrae, the profiles of the pi -component show the typical asymmetry properties of the Evershed flow as observed in Stokes-I of magnetically insensitive lines. (7) In the outer center- and limb-side penumbrae the center of the pi -component is blue-shifted relative to the zero-crossing of the V-profile. Motivated by the moving tube model of Schlichenmaier et al. (\\cite{schlichenmaier+jahn+schmidt1998b}), we construct simple model atmospheres featuring hot upflows and cool outflows and calculate corresponding synthetic V-profiles. These profiles are compared with our measured ones and with observed V-profiles in Fe I 630.25 from other authors. We find that the synthetic V-profiles can reproduce all essential characteristics of observed V-profiles for both lines.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schlichenmaier, R.; Collados, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25714473"> <span id="translatedtitle">Neuroprotective Mechanism of Lycium barbarum Polysaccharides against Hippocampal-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Memory Deficits in a Rat Model of Obstructive Sleep Apnea.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is a hallmark of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), which induces hippocampal injuries mediated by oxidative stress. This study aims to examine the neuroprotective mechanism of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) against CIH-induced <span class="hlt">spatial</span> memory deficits. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to hypoxic treatment resembling a severe OSA condition for a week. The animals were orally fed with LBP solution (1mg/kg) daily 2 hours prior to hypoxia or in air for the control. The effect of LBP on the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> memory and levels of oxidative stress, inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, apoptosis and neurogenesis in the hippocampus was examined. There was a significant deficit in the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> memory and an elevated level of malondialdehyde with a decreased expression of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx-1) in the hypoxic group when compared with the normoxic control. In addition, redox-sensitive nuclear factor kappa B (NF?B) canonical pathway was activated with a translocation of NF?B members (p65, p50) and increased expression levels of NF?B-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> inflammatory cytokines and mediator (TNF?, IL-1?, COX-2); also, a significantly elevated level of ER stress (GRP78/Bip, PERK, CHOP) and autophagic flux in the hypoxic group, leading to neuronal apoptosis in hippocampal subfields (DG, CA1, CA3). Remarkably, LBP administration normalized the elevated level of oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, ER stress, autophagic flux and apoptosis induced by hypoxia. Moreover, LBP significantly mitigated both the caspase-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> intrinsic (Bax, Bcl2, cytochrome C, cleaved caspase-3) and extrinsic (FADD, cleaved caspase-8, Bid) signaling apoptotic cascades. Furthermore, LBP administration prevented the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> memory deficit and enhanced the hippocampal neurogenesis induced by hypoxia. Our results suggest that LBP is neuroprotective against CIH-induced hippocampal-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> memory deficits by promoting hippocampal neurogenesis and negatively modulating the apoptotic signaling cascades activated by oxidative stress and inflammation. PMID:25714473</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lam, Chun-Sing; Tipoe, George Lim; So, Kwok-Fai; Fung, Man-Lung</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4340928"> <span id="translatedtitle">Neuroprotective Mechanism of Lycium barbarum Polysaccharides against Hippocampal-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Memory Deficits in a Rat Model of Obstructive Sleep Apnea</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is a hallmark of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), which induces hippocampal injuries mediated by oxidative stress. This study aims to examine the neuroprotective mechanism of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) against CIH-induced <span class="hlt">spatial</span> memory deficits. Adult Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to hypoxic treatment resembling a severe OSA condition for a week. The animals were orally fed with LBP solution (1mg/kg) daily 2 hours prior to hypoxia or in air for the control. The effect of LBP on the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> memory and levels of oxidative stress, inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, apoptosis and neurogenesis in the hippocampus was examined. There was a significant deficit in the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> memory and an elevated level of malondialdehyde with a decreased expression of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx-1) in the hypoxic group when compared with the normoxic control. In addition, redox-sensitive nuclear factor kappa B (NF?B) canonical pathway was activated with a translocation of NF?B members (p65, p50) and increased expression levels of NF?B-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> inflammatory cytokines and mediator (TNF?, IL-1?, COX-2); also, a significantly elevated level of ER stress (GRP78/Bip, PERK, CHOP) and autophagic flux in the hypoxic group, leading to neuronal apoptosis in hippocampal subfields (DG, CA1, CA3). Remarkably, LBP administration normalized the elevated level of oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, ER stress, autophagic flux and apoptosis induced by hypoxia. Moreover, LBP significantly mitigated both the caspase-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> intrinsic (Bax, Bcl2, cytochrome C, cleaved caspase-3) and extrinsic (FADD, cleaved caspase-8, Bid) signaling apoptotic cascades. Furthermore, LBP administration prevented the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> memory deficit and enhanced the hippocampal neurogenesis induced by hypoxia. Our results suggest that LBP is neuroprotective against CIH-induced hippocampal-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> memory deficits by promoting hippocampal neurogenesis and negatively modulating the apoptotic signaling cascades activated by oxidative stress and inflammation. PMID:25714473</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lam, Chun-Sing; Tipoe, George Lim; So, Kwok-Fai; Fung, Man-Lung</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25457025"> <span id="translatedtitle">CaMKII-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> dendrite ramification and spine generation promote <span class="hlt">spatial</span> training-induced memory improvement in a rat model of sporadic Alzheimer's disease.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Participation in cognitively stimulating activities can preserve memory capacities in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the mechanism is not fully understood. Here, we used a rat model with hyperhomocysteinemia, an independent risk factor of AD, to study whether <span class="hlt">spatial</span> training could remodel the synaptic and/or dendritic plasticity and the key molecular target(s) involved. We found that <span class="hlt">spatial</span> training in water maze remarkably improved the subsequent short-term and long-term memory performance in contextual fear conditioning and Barnes maze. The trained rats showed an enhanced dendrite ramification, spine generation and plasticity in dentate gyrus (DG) neurons, and stimulation of long-term potentiation between perforant path and DG circuit. <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> training also increased the levels of postsynaptic GluA1, GluN2A, GluN2B, and PSD93 with selective activation of calcium/calmodulin-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> protein kinase II (CaMKII), although inhibition of CaMKII by stereotaxic injection of KN93 into hippocampal DG, abolished the training-induced cognitive improvement, dendrite ramification, and spine generation. We conclude that <span class="hlt">spatial</span> training can preserve the cognitive function by CaMKII-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> remodeling of dendritic plasticity in hyperhomocysteinemia-induced sporadic AD-like rats. PMID:25457025</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jiang, Xia; Chai, Gao-Shang; Wang, Zhi-Hao; Hu, Yu; Li, Xiao-Guang; Ma, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Qun; Wang, Jian-Zhi; Liu, Gong-Ping</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24269653"> <span id="translatedtitle">?-Catenin-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> pathway activation by both promiscuous "canonical" WNT3a-, and specific "noncanonical" WNT4- and WNT5a-FZD receptor combinations with <span class="hlt">strong</span> differences in LRP5 and LRP6 <span class="hlt">dependency</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The WNT/?-catenin signalling cascade is the best-investigated frizzled receptor (FZD) pathway, however, whether and how specific combinations of WNT/FZD and co-receptors LRP5 and LRP6 differentially affect this pathway are not well understood. This is mostly due to the fact that there are 19 WNTs, 10 FZDs and at least two co-receptors. In our attempt to identify the signalling capabilities of specific WNT/FZD/LRP combinations we made use of our previously reported TCF/LEF Gaussia luciferase reporter gene HEK293 cell line (Ring et al., 2011). Generation of WNT/FZD fusion constructs - but not their separate transfection - without or with additional isogenic overexpression of LRP5 and LRP6 in our reporter cells permitted the investigation of specific WNT/FZD/LRP combinations. The canonical WNT3a in fusion to almost all FZDs was able to induce ?-catenin-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> signalling with <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">dependency</span> on LRP6 but not LRP5. Interestingly, noncanonical WNT ligands, WNT4 and WNT5a, were also able to act "canonically" but only in fusion with specific FZDs and with selective <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on LRP5 or LRP6. These data and extension of this experimental setup to the poorly characterized other WNTs should facilitate deeper insight into the complex WNT/FZD signalling system and its function. PMID:24269653</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ring, Larisa; Neth, Peter; Weber, Christian; Steffens, Sabine; Faussner, Alexander</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/822158534145n586.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Survival and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> fidelity of moufl on ( Ovis gmelini ): A Bayesian analysis of an age-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> capture-recapture model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study the influence of age and sex on survival and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> fidelity of moufl on (Ovis gmelini) in the Caroux-Espinouse massif. Survival and movement probabilities are estimated through a Bayesian analysis of an age-<span class="hlt">dependent</span>\\u000a capture-recapture model. Prior information is based on external data, namely on radio-tracked animals. Recapture rates differed\\u000a between age, sexes, and areas. Whatever the area, survival</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jerôme Dupuis; Jacques Badia; Marie-Line Maublanc; Richard Bon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22300310"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> variability of nitrous oxide and methane emissions from an MBT landfill in operation: <span class="hlt">Strong</span> N{sub 2}O hotspots at the working face</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Highlights: ? First measurements of N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emissions from an MBT landfill. ? High N{sub 2}O emissions from recently deposited material. ? N{sub 2}O emissions associated with aeration and the occurrence of nitrite and nitrate. ? <span class="hlt">Strong</span> negative correlation between CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O production activity. - Abstract: Mechanical biological treatment (MBT) is an effective technique, which removes organic carbon from municipal solid waste (MSW) prior to deposition. Thereby, methane (CH{sub 4}) production in the landfill is <span class="hlt">strongly</span> mitigated. However, direct measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from full-scale MBT landfills have not been conducted so far. Thus, CH{sub 4} and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions from a German MBT landfill in operation as well as their concentrations in the landfill gas (LFG) were measured. High N{sub 2}O emissions of 20–200 g CO{sub 2} eq. m{sup ?2} h{sup ?1} magnitude (up to 428 mg N m{sup ?2} h{sup ?1}) were observed within 20 m of the working face. CH{sub 4} emissions were highest at the landfill zone located at a distance of 30–40 m from the working face, where they reached about 10 g CO{sub 2} eq. m{sup ?2} h{sup ?1}. The MBT material in this area has been deposited several weeks earlier. Maximum LFG concentration for N{sub 2}O was 24.000 ppmv in material below the emission hotspot. At a depth of 50 cm from the landfill surface a <span class="hlt">strong</span> negative correlation between N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} concentrations was observed. From this and from the distribution pattern of extractable ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate it has been concluded that <span class="hlt">strong</span> N{sub 2}O production is associated with nitrification activity and the occurrence of nitrite and nitrate, which is initiated by oxygen input during waste deposition. Therefore, CH{sub 4} mitigation measures, which often employ aeration, could result in a net increase of GHG emissions due to increased N{sub 2}O emissions, especially at MBT landfills.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Harborth, Peter, E-mail: p.harborth@tu-bs.de [Department of Waste and Resource Management, Leichtweiß-Institute for Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany); Fuß, Roland [Institute of Climate-Smart Agriculture, Johann Heinrich von Thünen Institute, Braunschweig (Germany); Münnich, Kai [Department of Waste and Resource Management, Leichtweiß-Institute for Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany); Flessa, Heinz [Institute of Climate-Smart Agriculture, Johann Heinrich von Thünen Institute, Braunschweig (Germany); Fricke, Klaus [Department of Waste and Resource Management, Leichtweiß-Institute for Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25446431"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of the triazine, T4, a representative from a novel series of CaV2 inhibitors with <span class="hlt">strong</span> state-<span class="hlt">dependence</span>, poor use-<span class="hlt">dependence</span>, and distinctively fast kinetics.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">There is <span class="hlt">strong</span> pharmacological, biological, and genetic evidence supporting the role of N-type calcium channels (CaV2.2) in nociception. There is also human validation data from ziconotide, the CaV2.2-selective peptidyl inhibitor used clinically to treat refractory pain. Unfortunately, ziconotide utility is limited by its narrow therapeutic window and required intrathecal route of administration. A major focus has been placed on identifying state-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> CaV2.2 inhibitors to improve safety margins. Much less attention, however, has been given to characterizing the kinetics of CaV2.2 inhibitors as a means to further differentiate compounds and maximize therapeutic potential. Here we provide a detailed characterization of the CaV2.2 inhibitor T4 in terms of its state-<span class="hlt">dependence</span>, use-<span class="hlt">dependence</span>, kinetics, and mechanism of inhibition. Compound T4 displayed a >20-fold difference in potency when measured under inactivating conditions (IC50=1.1 ?M) as compared to closed-state conditions (IC50=25 ?M). At 3 ?M, T4 produced a 15-fold hyperpolarizing shift in the inactivation curve for CaV2.2 while having no effect on channel activation. To assess the kinetic properties of T4 in a more physiological manner, its inhibition kinetics were assessed at 32°C using 2 mM Ca(2+) as the charge carrier. Surprisingly, the repriming rate for CaV2.2 channels at hyperpolarized potentials was similar in both the presence and absence of T4. This was in contrast to other compounds which markedly delayed repriming. Furthermore, T4 inhibited CaV2.2 channels more potently when channel inactivation was driven through a tonic sub-threshold depolarization rather than through a use-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> protocol, despite similar levels of inactivation. PMID:25446431</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Swensen, Andrew M; Niforatos, Wende; Lee, Chih-Hung; Jarvis, Michael F; McGaraughty, Steve</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-12-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14989351"> <span id="translatedtitle">Uptake of Onchocerca volvulus (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) by Simulium (Diptera: Simuliidae) is not <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on the density of skin microfilariae in the human host.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The relation between the number of microfilariae (mf) ingested by host-seeking vectors of human onchocerciasis and skin mf load is an important component of the population biology of Onchocerca volvulus, with implications for disease control and evaluation of the risk of transmission recrudescence. The microsimulation model ONCHOSIM has been used to assess such risk in the area of the Onchocerciasis Control Program (OCP) in West Africa, based on a <span class="hlt">strongly</span> nonlinear relation between vector mf uptake and human mf skin density previously published. However, observed levels of recrudescence have exceeded predictions, warranting a recalibration of the model. To this end, we present the results of a series of fly-feeding experiments carried out in savanna and forest localities of West Africa. Flies belonging to Simulium damnosum s.s., S. sirbanum, S. soubrense, and S. leonense were fed on mf carriers and dissected to assess the number of ingested mf escaping imprisonment by the peritrophic matrix (the number of exo-peritrophic mf), a predictor of infective larval output. The method of instrumental variables was used to obtain (nearly) unbiased estimates of the parameters of interest, taking into account error in the measurement of skin mf density. This error is often neglected in these types of studies, making it difficult to ascertain the degree of density-<span class="hlt">dependence</span> truly present in the relation between mf uptake and skin load. We conclude that this relation is weakly (yet significantly) nonlinear in savanna settings but indistinguishable from linearity in forest vectors. Exo-peritrophic mf uptake does not account for most of the density <span class="hlt">dependence</span> in the transmission dynamics of the parasite as previously thought. The number of exo-mf in forest simuliids is at least five times higher than in the savanna vectors. Parasite abundance in human onchocerciasis is regulated by poorly known mechanisms operating mainly on other stages of the lifecycle. PMID:14989351</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Soumbey-Alley, Edoh; Basáñez, María-Gloria; Bissan, Yeriba; Boatin, Boakye A; Remme, Jan H F; Nagelkerke, Nico J D; de Vlas, Sake J; Borsboom, Gerard J J M; Habbema, J Dik F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=infrared&pg=5&id=EJ916447"> <span id="translatedtitle">Asymmetrical Brain Activity Induced by Voluntary <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Attention <span class="hlt">Depends</span> on the Visual Hemifield: A Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of the visual hemifield to which <span class="hlt">spatial</span> attention was oriented on the activities of the posterior parietal and occipital visual cortices was examined using functional near-infrared spectroscopy in order to investigate the neural substrates of voluntary visuospatial attention. Our brain imaging data support the theory put forth in a…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Harasawa, Masamitsu; Shioiri, Satoshi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://people.ucalgary.ca/~fedigan/Valenta%20&%20Fedigan,%202010.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Patterns of Seed Dispersal by White-Faced Capuchins in Costa Rica: Evaluating Distant-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Seed Mortality</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Patterns of Seed Dispersal by White-Faced Capuchins in Costa Rica: Evaluating Distant dispersal by white- faced capuchin monkeys Cebus capucinus in Santa Rosa National Park, Costa Rica of the Area de Conservacion Guanacaste (ACG), in north- western Costa Rica (101500</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fedigan, Linda M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9033E..5GD"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dose reduction in CT with correlated-polarity noise reduction: context-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> resolution and noise properties demonstrating two-fold dose reduction with minimal artifacts</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Correlated-polarity noise reduction (CPNR) is a novel noise reduction technique that uses a statistical approach to reducing noise while maintaining excellent <span class="hlt">spatial</span> resolution and a traditional noise appearance. It was demonstrated in application to CT imaging for the first time at SPIE 2013 and showed qualitatively excellent image quality at half of normal CT dose. In this current work, we measure quantitatively the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> resolution and noise properties of CPNR in CT imaging. To measure the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> resolution, we developed a metrology approach that is suitable for nonlinear algorithms such as CPNR. We introduce the formalism of Signal Modification Factor, SMF(u,v), which is the ratio in frequency space of the CPNR-processed image divided by the noise-free image, averaged over an ensemble of ROIs in a given anatomical context. SMF is a nonlinear analog to the MTF. We used XCAT computer-generated anthropomorphic phantom images followed by projection space processing with CPNR. The SMF revealed virtually no effect from CPNR on <span class="hlt">spatial</span> resolution of the images (<7% degradation at all frequencies). Corresponding contextdependent NPS measurements generated with CPNR at half-dose were about equal to the NPS of full-dose images without CPNR. This result demonstrates for the first time the quantitative determination of a two-fold reduction in dose with CPNR with less than 7% reduction in <span class="hlt">spatial</span> resolution. We conclude that CPNR shows <span class="hlt">strong</span> promise as a method for reduction of noise (and hence, dose) in CT. CPNR may also be used in combination with iterative reconstruction techniques for yet further dose reduction, pending further investigation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dobbins, James T.; Wells, Jered R.; Segars, W. Paul</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3642213"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantitative PCR Reveals <span class="hlt">Strong</span> <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> and Temporal Variation of the Wasting Disease Pathogen, Labyrinthula zosterae in Northern European Eelgrass (Zostera marina) Beds</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Seagrass beds are the foundation species of functionally important coastal ecosystems worldwide. The world’s largest losses of the widespread seagrass Zostera marina (eelgrass) have been reported as a consequence of wasting disease, an infection with the endophytic protist Labyrinthula zosterae. During one of the most extended epidemics in the marine realm, ?90% of East and Western Atlantic eelgrass beds died-off between 1932 and 1934. Today, small outbreaks continue to be reported, but the current extent of L. zosterae in European meadows is completely unknown. In this study we quantify the abundance and prevalence of the wasting disease pathogen among 19 Z. marina populations in northern European coastal waters, using quantitative PCR (QPCR) with primers targeting a species specific portion of the internally transcribed spacer (ITS1) of L. zosterae. <span class="hlt">Spatially</span>, we found marked variation among sites with abundances varying between 0 and 126 cells mg?1 Z. marina dry weight (mean: 5.7 L. zosterae cells mg?1 Z. marina dry weight ±1.9 SE) and prevalences ranged from 0–88.9%. Temporarily, abundances varied between 0 and 271 cells mg?1 Z. marina dry weight (mean: 8.5±2.6 SE), while prevalences ranged from zero in winter and early spring to 96% in summer. Field concentrations accessed via bulk DNA extraction and subsequent QPCR correlated well with prevalence data estimated via isolation and cultivation from live plant tissue. L. zosterae was not only detectable in black lesions, a sign of Labyrinthula-induced necrosis, but also occurred in green, apparently healthy tissue. We conclude that L. zosterae infection is common (84% infected populations) in (northern) European eelgrass populations with highest abundances during the summer months. In the light of global climate change and increasing rate of marine diseases our data provide a baseline for further studies on the causes of pathogenic outbreaks of L. zosterae. PMID:23658711</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bockelmann, Anna-Christina; Tams, Verena; Ploog, Jana; Schubert, Philipp R.; Reusch, Thorsten B. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24732883"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> and temporal analysis of Air Pollution Index and its timescale-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> relationship with meteorological factors in Guangzhou, China, 2001-2011.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">There is an increasing interest in <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and temporal variation of air pollution and its association with weather conditions. We presented the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and temporal variation of Air Pollution Index (API) and examined the associations between API and meteorological factors during 2001-2011 in Guangzhou, China. A Seasonal-Trend Decomposition Procedure Based on Loess (STL) was used to decompose API. Wavelet analyses were performed to examine the relationships between API and several meteorological factors. Air quality has improved since 2005. APIs were highly correlated among five monitoring stations, and there were substantial temporal variations. Timescale-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> relationships were found between API and a variety of meteorological factors. Temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and wind speed were negatively correlated with API, while diurnal temperature range and atmospheric pressure were positively correlated with API in the annual cycle. Our findings should be taken into account when determining air quality forecasts and pollution control measures. PMID:24732883</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Li; Qian, Jun; Ou, Chun-Quan; Zhou, Ying-Xue; Guo, Cui; Guo, Yuming</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return 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class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20154089"> <span id="translatedtitle">Endogenous proteolytic cleavage of disease-associated prion protein to produce C2 fragments is <span class="hlt">strongly</span> cell- and tissue-<span class="hlt">dependent</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The abnormally folded form of the prion protein (PrP(Sc)) accumulating in nervous and lymphoid tissues of prion-infected individuals can be naturally cleaved to generate a N-terminal-truncated fragment called C2. Information about the identity of the cellular proteases involved in this process and its possible role in prion biology has remained limited and controversial. We investigated PrP(Sc) N-terminal trimming in different cell lines and primary cultured nerve cells, and in the brain and spleen tissue from transgenic mice infected by ovine and mouse prions. We found the following: (i) the full-length to C2 ratio varies considerably <span class="hlt">depending</span> on the infected cell or tissue. Thus, in primary neurons and brain tissue, PrP(Sc) accumulated predominantly as untrimmed species, whereas efficient trimming occurred in Rov and MovS cells, and in spleen tissue. (ii) Although C2 is generally considered to be the counterpart of the PrP(Sc) proteinase K-resistant core, the N termini of the fragments cleaved in vivo and in vitro can actually differ, as evidenced by a different reactivity toward the Pc248 anti-octarepeat antibody. (iii) In lysosome-impaired cells, the ratio of full-length versus C2 species dramatically increased, yet efficient prion propagation could occur. Moreover, cathepsin but not calpain inhibitors markedly inhibited C2 formation, and in vitro cleavage by cathepsins B and L produced PrP(Sc) fragments lacking the Pc248 epitope, <span class="hlt">strongly</span> arguing for the primary involvement of acidic hydrolases of the endolysosomal compartment. These findings have implications on the molecular analysis of PrP(Sc) and cell pathogenesis of prion infection. PMID:20154089</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dron, Michel; Moudjou, Mohammed; Chapuis, Jérôme; Salamat, Muhammad Khalid Farooq; Bernard, Julie; Cronier, Sabrina; Langevin, Christelle; Laude, Hubert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2856230"> <span id="translatedtitle">Endogenous Proteolytic Cleavage of Disease-associated Prion Protein to Produce C2 Fragments Is <span class="hlt">Strongly</span> Cell- and Tissue-<span class="hlt">dependent</span>*</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The abnormally folded form of the prion protein (PrPSc) accumulating in nervous and lymphoid tissues of prion-infected individuals can be naturally cleaved to generate a N-terminal-truncated fragment called C2. Information about the identity of the cellular proteases involved in this process and its possible role in prion biology has remained limited and controversial. We investigated PrPSc N-terminal trimming in different cell lines and primary cultured nerve cells, and in the brain and spleen tissue from transgenic mice infected by ovine and mouse prions. We found the following: (i) the full-length to C2 ratio varies considerably <span class="hlt">depending</span> on the infected cell or tissue. Thus, in primary neurons and brain tissue, PrPSc accumulated predominantly as untrimmed species, whereas efficient trimming occurred in Rov and MovS cells, and in spleen tissue. (ii) Although C2 is generally considered to be the counterpart of the PrPSc proteinase K-resistant core, the N termini of the fragments cleaved in vivo and in vitro can actually differ, as evidenced by a different reactivity toward the Pc248 anti-octarepeat antibody. (iii) In lysosome-impaired cells, the ratio of full-length versus C2 species dramatically increased, yet efficient prion propagation could occur. Moreover, cathepsin but not calpain inhibitors markedly inhibited C2 formation, and in vitro cleavage by cathepsins B and L produced PrPSc fragments lacking the Pc248 epitope, <span class="hlt">strongly</span> arguing for the primary involvement of acidic hydrolases of the endolysosomal compartment. These findings have implications on the molecular analysis of PrPSc and cell pathogenesis of prion infection. PMID:20154089</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dron, Michel; Moudjou, Mohammed; Chapuis, Jérôme; Salamat, Muhammad Khalid Farooq; Bernard, Julie; Cronier, Sabrina; Langevin, Christelle; Laude, Hubert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22280313"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of polycrystalline FTO’s conductance analyzed by conductive atomic force microscope (C-AFM)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fluorine-doped Tin oxide (FTO) is a highly transparent, electrically conductive polycrystalline material frequently used as an electrode in organic solar cells and optical-electronic devices [1–2]. In this work a <span class="hlt">spatial</span> analysis of the conductive behavior of FTO was carried out by Conductive-mode Atomic Force Microscopy (C-AFM). Rare highly oriented grains sample give us an opportunity to analyze the top portion of polycrystalline FTO and compare with the border one. It is shown that the current flow essentially takes place through the polycrystalline edge at grain boundaries.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peixoto, Alexandre Pessoa; Costa, J. C. da [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Brasília, Campus Universitário Darcy Ribeiro, Asa Norte, PO Box 4386, Brasília - DF, 70919-970 (Brazil)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2670188"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantitative <span class="hlt">spatial</span> comparison of diffuse optical imaging with blood oxygen level-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> and arterial spin labeling-based functional magnetic resonance imaging</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Akin to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), diffuse optical imaging (DOI) is a noninvasive method for measuring localized changes in hemoglobin levels within the brain. When combined with fMRI methods, multimodality approaches could offer an integrated perspective on the biophysics, anatomy, and physiology underlying each of the imaging modalities. Vital to the correct interpretation of such studies, control experiments to test the consistency of both modalities must be performed. Here, we compare DOI with blood oxygen level-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> (BOLD) and arterial spin labeling fMRI-based methods in order to explore the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> agreement of the response amplitudes recorded by these two methods. Rather than creating optical images by regularized, tomographic reconstructions, we project the fMRI image into optical measurement space using the optical forward problem. We report statistically better <span class="hlt">spatial</span> correlation between the fMRI-BOLD response and the optically measured deoxyhemoglobin (R=0.71, p=1 × 10?7) than between the BOLD and oxyhemoglobin or total hemoglobin measures (R=0.38, p=0.04|0.37, p=0.05, respectively). Similarly, we find that the correlation between the ASL measured blood flow and optically measured total and oxyhemoglobin is stronger (R=0.73, p=5 × 10?6 and R=0.71, p=9 × 10?6, respectively) than the flow to deoxyhemoglobin <span class="hlt">spatial</span> correlation (R=0.26, p=0.10). PMID:17212541</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huppert, Theodore J.; Hoge, Rick D.; Dale, Anders M.; Franceschini, Maria A.; Boas, David A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014DSRII.104..267D"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> scale-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> habitat heterogeneity influences submarine canyon macrofaunal abundance and diversity off the Main and Northwest Hawaiian Islands</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The mapping of biodiversity on continental margins on landscape scales is highly relevant to marine <span class="hlt">spatial</span> planning and conservation. Submarine canyons are widespread topographic features on continental and island margins that enhance benthic biomass across a range of oceanic provinces and productivity regimes. However, it remains unclear whether canyons enhance faunal biodiversity on landscape scales relevant to marine protected area (MPA) design. Furthermore, it is not known which physical attributes and heterogeneity metrics can provide good surrogates for large-scale mapping of canyon benthic biodiversity. To test mechanistic hypotheses evaluating the role of different canyon-landscape attributes in enhancing benthic biodiversity at different <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales we conducted 34 submersible dives in six submarine canyons and nearby slopes in the Hawaiian archipelago, sampling infaunal macrobenthos in a depth-stratified sampling design. We employed multivariate multiple regression models to evaluate sediment and topographic heterogeneity, canyon transverse profiles, and overall water mass variability as potential drivers of macrobenthic community structure and species richness. We find that variables related to habitat heterogeneity at medium (0.13 km2) and large (15-33 km2) <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales such as slope, backscatter reflectivity and canyon transverse profiles are often good predictors of macrobenthic biodiversity, explaining 16-30% of the variance. Particulate organic carbon (POC) flux and distance from shore are also important variables, implicating food supply as a major predictor of canyon biodiversity. Canyons off the high Main Hawaiian Islands (Oahu and Moloka'i) are significantly affected by organic enrichment, showing enhanced infaunal macrobenthos abundance, whereas this effect is imperceptible around the low Northwest Hawaiian Islands (Nihoa and Maro Reef). Variable canyon alpha-diversity and high rates of species turnover (beta-diversity), particularly for polychaetes, suggest that canyons play important roles in maintaining high levels of regional biodiversity in the extremely oligotrophic system of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. This information is of key importance to the process of MPA design, suggesting that canyon habitats be explicitly included in marine <span class="hlt">spatial</span> planning. The low-islands of Nihoa and Maro Reef in the NWHI showed a lack of sustained input of terrestrial and macrolagae detritus, likely having an influence on the observed low macrofaunal abundances (see further discussion of ‘canyon effects’ in Section 4.3), and showing the fundamental role of coastal landscape characteristics in determining the amount and nature of allochthonous organic matter entering the system. Total and highly-mobile invertebrate megafauna abundances were two to three times higher in the submarine canyons and slopes of the MHI contrasted with the NWHI (Vetter et al., 2010), also demonstrating the role of this larger contribution of terrestrial and coastal organic enrichment in the MHI contrasted with the NWHI.</ce:section></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">De Leo, Fabio C.; Vetter, Eric W.; Smith, Craig R.; Rowden, Ashley A.; McGranaghan, Matthew</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/11884934"> <span id="translatedtitle">Streaming potentials maps are <span class="hlt">spatially</span> resolvedind icators of amplitude, frequency and ionic strength <span class="hlt">dependant</span> responses of articular cartilage to load</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Streaming potential distributions were measured on the surface of articular cartilage in uniaxial unconfined compression using a linear array of microelectrodes. Potential profiles were obtained for sinusoidal and ramp\\/stress-relaxation displacements and exhibited <span class="hlt">dependencies</span> on radial position, sinusoidal amplitude and frequency, time during stress relaxation, and on ionic strength. The measurements agreed with trends predicted by biphasic and related models. In</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. Guardo; P. Savard; M. D. Buschmann</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52154913"> <span id="translatedtitle">Scale <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> of Statistics of <span class="hlt">Spatially</span> Averaged Rain Rate Seen in TOGA COARE -- Comparison with Predictions from a Stochastic Model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A characteristic feature of rainfall statistics is that they in general <span class="hlt">depend</span> on the space and time scales over which rain data are averaged. As a part of an earlier effort to determine the sampling error of satellite rain averages, a space-time model of rainfall statistics was developed to describe the statistics of gridded rain observed in GATE. The model</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. K. Kundu; T. L. Bell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25661847"> <span id="translatedtitle">Possible interaction of hippocampal nitric oxide and calcium/calmodulin-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> protein kinase II on reversal of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> memory impairment induced by morphine.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The opioid system plays an important role in learning and memory by modulation of different molecules in the brain. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of hippocampal nitric oxide and calcium/calmodulin-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> protein kinase II (CaMKII) on the morphine-induced modulation of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> memory consolidation in male rats. <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> memory was assessed in Morris water maze task by a single training session of eight trials followed by a probe trial and visible test 24h later. Our data indicated that post-training administration of l-arginine, a nitric oxide precursor (6 and 9µg/rat, intra-CA1) significantly decreased amnesia induced by morphine (10mg/kg) in <span class="hlt">spatial</span> memory consolidation. A reversal effect of l-arginine on morphine-induced amnesia prevented by KN-93 (N-[2-(N-(4-chlorocinnamyl)-N-methylaminomethyl) phenyl]-N-[2-hydroxyethyl] methoxybenzenesulfnamide), CaMKII inhibitor, (10nmol/0.5µl/site). In addition, post-training injection of l-NAME, (NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester), a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor (10 and 15µg/rat) or KN-93 (10nmol/0.5µl/site) with lower dose of morphine (2.5mg/kg), which did not induce amnesia by itself, caused inhibition of memory consolidation. We also showed that co-administration of l-arginine (9µg/rat) and morphine (10mg/kg) significantly increased CaMKII activity in the rat hippocampus. On the other hand, administration of l-NAME (10µg/rat) led to a decrease in the haippocampal activity of CaMKII in morphine-treated (2.5mg/kg) animals. These results indicate that acute single exposure to morphine can modulate consolidation of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> memory, which may be mediated by a hippocampal nitrergic system and CaMKII activity. PMID:25661847</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Farahmandfar, Maryam; Kadivar, Mehdi; Naghdi, Nasser</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-03-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.8551B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Conflict of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> development and water supply under climate change in case of water <span class="hlt">dependent</span> ecosystem of Ljubljana Moor</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Water resources are vulnerable to climate change and to many other socio-economic drivers of change. A key aspect of vulnerability is that it is <span class="hlt">spatially</span> variable, reflecting variations of physical and socio-economic conditions. Given the real representation of vulnerability and a set of climate change adaptation options there is need to develop a common transnational strategy for vulnerability reduction. The latter is the goal of SEE CC-WARE project. Among others, ecosystem services, land use change, improving water use efficiency and economic incentives for water management have large potentials to decrease water resources vulnerability. Especially, forests, wetlands and grasslands are important ecosystems, which together with their management emerged as an important means for a sustainable future drinking water supply. The Ljubljana Moor is one of the biggest and most important complexes of wet meadows in Slovenia, which have, due to land use high biodiversity. The Ljubljana Moor extends from the southern part of Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia, where in the last two centuries extensive irrigation and river regulation projects were implemented to develop agricultural land. Biodiversity of the area is high due to large zones of wet meadows, some flood forest patches, bog areas, and open water courses habitats. The Ljubljana Moor is therefore protected as Natura 2000 site. The Ljubljana Moor is changing very fast and impacts are especially intense in the present years, mostly due to spreading of urbanization and monocultures. In this area the water well field Brest has been designed as important future drinking water source for Ljubljana, pumping mainly water from confined aquifer. The pressure from urbanisation and agriculture and high subsidence that are noticed in the central and eastern part of the aquifer, those two phenomena pose high risk to stable drinking water supply and wetland habitats that are protected as NATURA 2000. Water protection areas with limitation of land use were delineated for protection of drinking water from Brest pumping station. A part of Ljubljana Moor area is also protected as Landscape Park. These legal acts are in conflict with existing agricultural practices, <span class="hlt">spatial</span> development plans and further urbanisation processes (including new and larger roads, flood areas disconnections and destruction). No attention has been given yet to integrated water management and there is no consideration of long term hydrological and hydrogeological processes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bra?i? Železnik, Branka; Souvent, Petra; ?en?ur Curk, Barbara</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=strong+AND+coll&id=ED175896"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Has <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Biases.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The revised and renamed <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Campbell Interest Inventory (SCII) is examined to determine if the occupational and sex biases present in the older <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Vocational Interest Blank (SVIB) were eliminated. It is concluded that an occupational bias (favoring professional rather than blue-collar occupations) still exists in the SCII, although there is…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pezzoli, Jean A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4294306"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using Multivariate Geostatistics to Assess Patterns of <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> of Apparent Soil Electrical Conductivity and Selected Soil Properties</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa) was continuously recorded in three successive dates using electromagnetic induction in horizontal (ECa-H) and vertical (ECa-V) dipole modes at a 6 ha plot located in Northwestern Spain. One of the ECa data sets was used to devise an optimized sampling scheme consisting of 40 points. Soil was sampled at the 0.0–0.3?m depth, in these 40 points, and analyzed for sand, silt, and clay content; gravimetric water content; and electrical conductivity of saturated soil paste. Coefficients of correlation between ECa and gravimetric soil water content (0.685 for ECa-V and 0.649 for ECa-H) were higher than those between ECa and clay content (ranging from 0.197 to 0.495, when different ECa recording dates were taken into account). Ordinary and universal kriging have been used to assess the patterns of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variability of the ECa data sets recorded at successive dates and the analyzed soil properties. Ordinary and universal cokriging methods have improved the estimation of gravimetric soil water content using the data of ECa as secondary variable with respect to the use of ordinary kriging. PMID:25614893</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Siqueira, Glécio Machado; Dafonte, Jorge Dafonte; Valcárcel Armesto, Montserrat; Silva, Ênio Farias França e</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JNano...9.3097S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatially</span> dispersive functional optical metamaterials</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Functional optical metamaterials usually consist of absorbing, anisotropic, and often noncentrosymmetric structures of a size that is only a few times smaller than the wavelength of visible light. If the structures were substantially smaller, excitation of higher-order electromagnetic multipoles in them, including magnetic dipoles, would be inefficient. The required non-negligible size of metamolecules, however, makes the material <span class="hlt">spatially</span> dispersive, so that its optical characteristics <span class="hlt">depend</span> on the light propagation direction. We consider the possibility to use this usually unwanted effect. We present a theoretical model that allows one to study the interaction of such <span class="hlt">spatially</span> dispersive metamaterials with optical beams. Applying the model, we show that a <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> dispersion, combined with optical anisotropy and absorption, can be used to efficiently control propagational characteristics of optical beams and create new types of optical elements.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shevchenko, Andriy; Grahn, Patrick; Kivijärvi, Ville; Nyman, Markus; Kaivola, Matti</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/0512274v2"> <span id="translatedtitle">Volume and Quark Mass <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> of the Chiral Phase Transition</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigate chiral symmetry restoration in finite <span class="hlt">spatial</span> volume and at finite temperature by calculating the <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the chiral phase transition temperature on the size of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> volume and the current-quark mass for the quark-meson model, using the proper-time Renormalization Group approach. We find that the critical temperature is weakly <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on the size of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> volume for large current-quark masses, but <span class="hlt">depends</span> <span class="hlt">strongly</span> on it for small current-quark masses. In addition, for small volumes we observe a <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on the choice of quark boundary conditions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Braun; B. Klein; H. -J. Pirner; A. H. Rezaeian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-06-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JaJAP..54dDD02T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Channel doping concentration and cell program state <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on random telegraph noise <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and statistical distribution in 30 nm NAND flash memory</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and statistical distribution of random telegraph noise (RTN) in a 30 nm NAND flash memory on channel doping concentration NA and cell program state Vth is comprehensively investigated using three-dimensional Monte Carlo device simulation considering random dopant fluctuation (RDF). It is found that single trap RTN amplitude ?Vth is larger at the center of the channel region in the NAND flash memory, which is closer to the jellium (uniform) doping results since NA is relatively low to suppress junction leakage current. In addition, ?Vth peak at the center of the channel decreases in the higher Vth state due to the current concentration at the shallow trench isolation (STI) edges induced by the high vertical electrical field through the fringing capacitance between the channel and control gate. In such cases, ?Vth distribution slope ? cannot be determined by only considering RDF and single trap.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tomita, Toshihiro; Miyaji, Kousuke</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/18930736"> <span id="translatedtitle">Time-integrated and time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> angular analyses of B>J\\/psiKpi: A measurement of cos(2beta with no sign ambiguity from <span class="hlt">strong</span> phases</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present results on B-->J\\/psiKpi decays using e+e-annihilation data collected with the BABAR detector at the Upsilon(4S) resonance. The detector is located at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy storage ring facility at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Using approximately 88×106 BB¯ pairs, we measure the decay amplitudes for the flavor eigenmodes and observe <span class="hlt">strong</span>-phase differences indicative of final-state interactions with a significance</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. Aubert; R. Barate; D. Boutigny; F. Couderc; J.-M. Gaillard; Y. Karyotakis; J. P. Lees; V. Poireau; V. Tisserand; A. Zghiche; A. Palano; A. Pompili; J. C. Chen; N. D. Qi; G. Rong; P. Wang; Y. S. Zhu; G. Eigen; I. Ofte; B. Stugu; G. S. Abrams; A. W. Borgland; A. B. Breon; D. N. Brown; J. Button-Shafer; R. N. Cahn; E. Charles; C. T. Day; M. S. Gill; A. V. Gritsan; Y. Groysman; R. G. Jacobsen; R. W. Kadel; J. Kadyk; L. T. Kerth; Yu. G. Kolomensky; G. Kukartsev; G. Lynch; L. M. Mir; P. J. Oddone; T. J. Orimoto; M. Pripstein; N. A. Roe; M. T. Ronan; V. G. Shelkov; W. A. Wenzel; M. Barrett; K. E. Ford; T. J. Harrison; A. J. Hart; C. M. Hawkes; S. E. Morgan; A. T. Watson; M. Fritsch; K. Goetzen; T. Held; H. Koch; B. Lewandowski; M. Pelizaeus; M. Steinke; J. T. Boyd; N. Chevalier; W. N. Cottingham; M. P. Kelly; T. E. Latham; F. F. Wilson; T. Cuhadar-Donszelmann; C. Hearty; N. S. Knecht; T. S. Mattison; J. A. McKenna; D. Thiessen; A. Khan; P. Kyberd; L. Teodorescu; A. E. Blinov; V. E. Blinov; V. P. Druzhinin; V. B. Golubev; V. N. Ivanchenko; E. A. Kravchenko; A. P. Onuchin; S. I. Serednyakov; Yu. I. Skovpen; E. P. Solodov; A. N. Yushkov; D. Best; M. Bruinsma; M. Chao; I. Eschrich; D. Kirkby; A. J. Lankford; M. Mandelkern; R. K. Mommsen; W. Roethel; D. P. Stoker; C. Buchanan; B. L. Hartfiel; S. D. Foulkes; J. W. Gary; B. C. Shen; K. Wang; D. del Re; H. K. Hadavand; E. J. Hill; D. B. Macfarlane; H. P. Paar; Sh. Rahatlou; V. Sharma; J. Adam Cunha; J. W. Berryhill; C. Campagnari; B. Dahmes; T. M. Hong; O. Long; A. Lu; M. A. Mazur; J. D. Richman; W. Verkerke; T. W. Beck; A. M. Eisner; C. A. Heusch; J. Kroseberg; W. S. Lockman; G. Nesom; T. Schalk; B. A. Schumm; A. Seiden; P. Spradlin; D. C. Williams; M. G. Wilson; J. Albert; E. Chen; G. P. Dubois-Felsmann; A. Dvoretskii; D. G. Hitlin; I. Narsky; T. Piatenko; F. C. Porter; A. Ryd; A. Samuel; S. Yang; S. Jayatilleke; G. Mancinelli; B. T. Meadows; M. D. Sokoloff; F. Blanc; P. Bloom; S. Chen; W. T. Ford; U. Nauenberg; A. Olivas; P. Rankin; J. G. Smith; J. Zhang; L. Zhang; A. Chen; J. L. Harton; A. Soffer; W. H. Toki; R. J. Wilson; Q. Zeng; D. Altenburg; T. Brandt; J. Brose; M. Dickopp; E. Feltresi; A. Hauke; H. M. Lacker; R. Müller-Pfefferkorn; R. Nogowski; S. Otto; A. Petzold; J. Schubert; K. R. Schubert; R. Schwierz; B. Spaan; J. E. Sundermann; D. Bernard; G. R. Bonneaud; F. Brochard; P. Grenier; S. Schrenk; Ch. Thiebaux; G. Vasileiadis; M. Verderi; D. J. Bard; P. J. Clark; D. Lavin; F. Muheim; S. Playfer; Y. Xie; M. Andreotti; V. Azzolini; D. Bettoni; C. Bozzi; R. Calabrese; G. Cibinetto; E. Luppi; M. Negrini; L. Piemontese; A. Sarti; E. Treadwell; F. Anulli; R. Baldini-Ferroli; A. Calcaterra; R. de Sangro; G. Finocchiaro; P. Patteri; I. M. Peruzzi; M. Piccolo; A. Zallo; A. Buzzo; R. Capra; R. Contri; G. Crosetti; M. Lo Vetere; M. Macri; M. R. Monge; S. Passaggio; C. Patrignani; E. Robutti; A. Santroni; S. Tosi; S. Bailey; G. Brandenburg; K. S. Chaisanguanthum; M. Morii; E. Won; R. S. Dubitzky; U. Langenegger; J. Marks; U. Uwer; W. Bhimji; D. A. Bowerman; P. D. Dauncey; U. Egede; J. R. Gaillard; G. W. Morton; J. A. Nash; M. B. Nikolich; G. P. Taylor; M. J. Charles; G. J. Grenier; U. Mallik; J. Cochran; H. B. Crawley; J. Lamsa; W. T. Meyer; S. Prell; E. I. Rosenberg; A. E. Rubin; J. Yi; M. Biasini; R. Covarelli; M. Pioppi; M. Davier; X. Giroux; G. Grosdidier; A. Höcker; S. Laplace; F. Le Diberder; V. Lepeltier; A. M. Lutz; T. C. Petersen; S. Plaszczynski; M. H. Schune; L. Tantot; G. Wormser; C. H. Cheng; D. J. Lange; M. C. Simani; D. M. Wright; A. J. Bevan; C. A. Chavez; J. P. Coleman; I. J. Forster; J. R. Fry; E. Gabathuler; R. Gamet; D. E. Hutchcroft; R. J. Parry; D. J. Payne; R. J. Sloane; C. Touramanis; C. M. Cormack; F. Di Lodovico; C. L. Brown; G. Cowan; R. L. Flack; H. U. Flaecher; M. G. Green; P. D. Jackson; T. R. McMahon; S. Ricciardi; F. Salvatore; M. A. Winter; C. L. Davis; J. Allison; N. R. Barlow; R. J. Barlow; M. C. Hodgkinson; G. D. Lafferty; A. J. Lyon; J. C. Williams; A. Farbin; W. D. Hulsbergen; A. Jawahery; D. Kovalskyi; C. K. Lae; V. Lillard; D. A. Roberts; G. Blaylock; C. Dallapiccola; S. S. Hertzbach; R. Kofler; V. B. Koptchev; T. B. Moore; S. Saremi; H. Staengle; S. Willocq; R. Cowan; G. Sciolla; S. J. Sekula; F. Taylor; R. K. Yamamoto; D. J. Mangeol; P. M. Patel; S. H. Robertson; A. Lazzaro; V. Lombardo; F. Palombo; J. M. Bauer; L. Cremaldi; V. Eschenburg; R. Godang; R. Kroeger; J. Reidy; D. A. Sanders; D. J. Summers; H. W. Zhao; S. Brunet; D. Côté; P. Taras; H. Nicholson; N. Cavallo; F. Fabozzi; C. Gatto; L. Lista; D. Monorchio; P. Paolucci; D. Piccolo; C. Sciacca; M. Baak; H. Bulten; G. Raven; H. L. Snoek; L. Wilden; C. P. Jessop; J. M. Losecco; T. Allmendinger; K. K. Gan; K. Honscheid; D. Hufnagel; H. Kagan; R. Kass; T. Pulliam; A. M. Rahimi; R. Ter-Antonyan; Q. K. Wong; J. Brau</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/10167661"> <span id="translatedtitle">Isolation by distance in a continuous population: reconciliation between <span class="hlt">spatial</span> autocorrelation analysis and population genetics models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Analysis of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> genetic structure within continuous populations in their natural habitat can reveal acting evolutionary processes. <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> autocorrelation statistics are often used for this purpose, but their relationships with population genetics models have not been thoroughly established. Moreover, it has been argued that the <span class="hlt">dependency</span> of these statistics on variation in mutation rates among loci <span class="hlt">strongly</span> limits their</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">OLIVIER J. HARDY; XAVIER VEKEMANS</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.fhpv.unipo.sk/kagerr/pracovnici/hofierka/projekty/Hofierka_Cebecauer_Folia12.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatially</span> distributed assessment of solar resources for energy applications in Slovakia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> and temporal distribution of available solar energy <span class="hlt">depends</span> on several factors. Besides latitude and astronomical factors it is <span class="hlt">strongly</span> influenced by climate factors (e.g. cloudiness, turbidity) and topography. This paper presents a solar database of Slovakia containing <span class="hlt">spatially</span>-distributed solar energy resource data necessary for planning, sitting and forecasting of solar device installations. The database consists of several data sets</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jaroslav HOFIERKA</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24449532"> <span id="translatedtitle">Time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> effects of isoflurane and dexmedetomidine on functional connectivity, spectral characteristics, and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of spontaneous BOLD fluctuations.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Anesthesia is often necessary to perform fMRI experiments in the rodent model; however, commonly used anesthetic protocols may manifest changing brain conditions over the duration of the study. This possibility was explored in the current work. Eleven rats were anesthetized with 2% isoflurane anesthesia; four rats were anesthetized for a short period (30?min, simulating induction and fMRI setup) and seven rats were anesthetized for a long period (3?h, simulating surgical preparation). Following the initial anesthetic period, isoflurane was discontinued, and a dexmedetomidine bolus (0.025?mg/kg) and continuous subcutaneous infusion (0.05?mg/kg/h) were administered. Blood-oxygen-level <span class="hlt">dependent</span> resting state imaging was performed every 30?min from 0.75?h post dexmedetomidine bolus until 5.75?h post-bolus. Evaluation of power spectra obtained from time courses in the primary somatosensory cortex revealed, in general, a monotonic increase in low-frequency power (0.05-0.3?Hz) in both groups over the duration of resting state imaging. Greater low-band spectral power (0.05-0.15?Hz) is present in the short isoflurane group for the first 2.75?h, but the spectra become highly uniform at 3.25?h. The emergence of a ~0.18?Hz peak, beginning at the 3.75?h time point, exists in both groups and evolves similarly, increasing in strength as the duration of dexmedetomidine sedation (and time since isoflurane cessation) extends. In the long isoflurane group only, bilateral functional connectivity strengthens with anesthetic duration, and correlation is linearly linked to low-band spectral power. Convergence of connectivity and spectral metrics between the short and long isoflurane groups occurs at ~3.25?h, suggesting the effects of isoflurane have subsided. Researchers using dexmedetomidine following isoflurane for functional studies should be aware of the duration specific effects of the pre-scan isoflurane durations as well as the continuing influences of long-term imaging under dexmedetomidine. PMID:24449532</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Magnuson, Matthew Evan; Thompson, Garth John; Pan, Wen-Ju; Keilholz, Shella Dawn</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49331931"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the magnetic anisotropy on the growth temperature of Fe 3 + x Si 1 - x ( x = 0.34 ) films on GaAs(1 1 3)A substrates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the magnetic anisotropy on the growth temperature of Fe3+xSi1-x Heusler alloy films on GaAs(113)A substrates is reported for a composition of 17.5at.% Si (x=0.34). This composition of Fe–Si alloy lies within the stable phase of the technologically promising Heusler alloy Fe3Si. The layers grown at the optimized growth temperature of 250°C exhibit the expected four-fold magnetic</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. K. Muduli; J. Herfort; H.-P. Schönherr; K. H. Ploog</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3794195"> <span id="translatedtitle">Vestibular modulation of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> perception</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Vestibular inputs make a key contribution to the sense of one’s own <span class="hlt">spatial</span> location. While the effects of vestibular stimulation on visuo-<span class="hlt">spatial</span> processing in neurological patients have been extensively described, the normal contribution of vestibular inputs to <span class="hlt">spatial</span> perception remains unclear. To address this issue, we used a line bisection task to investigate the effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) on <span class="hlt">spatial</span> perception, and on the transition between near and far space. Brief left-anodal and right-cathodal GVS or right-anodal and left-cathodal GVS were delivered. A sham stimulation condition was also included. Participants bisected lines of different lengths at six distances from the body using a laser pointer. Consistent with previous results, our data showed an overall shift in the bisection bias from left to right as viewing distance increased. This pattern suggests leftward bias in near space, and rightward bias in far space. GVS induced <span class="hlt">strong</span> polarity <span class="hlt">dependent</span> effects in <span class="hlt">spatial</span> perception, broadly consistent with those previously reported in patients: left-anodal and right-cathodal GVS induced a leftward bisection bias, while right-anodal and left-cathodal GVS reversed this effect, and produced bisection bias toward the right side of the space. Interestingly, the effects of GVS were comparable in near and far space. We speculate that vestibular-induced biases in space perception may optimize gathering of information from different parts of the environment. PMID:24133440</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ferrè, Elisa R.; Longo, Matthew R.; Fiori, Federico; Haggard, Patrick</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return 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class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24759677"> <span id="translatedtitle">A single nucleotide polymorphism -35 kb T>C (rs9264942) is <span class="hlt">strongly</span> associated with psoriasis vulgaris <span class="hlt">depending</span> on HLA-Cw(?)06.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">HLA class I molecules play a role both in viral infection control and in autoimmune diseases development. rs9264942T>C polymorphism in HLA-C gene was found to impact on HLA-C surface expression level and to be associated with HIV-1 control. It was found that these HLA alleles which protect against AIDS are associated with autoimmune disease e.g. psoriasis vulgaris (PsV). Whether rs9264942 SNP is associated with PsV was investigated here. rs9264942T>C was genotyped in 292 PsV patients, and 254 controls using TaqMan Genotyping Assay. PsV patients differed from controls in frequencies of rs9264942T>C alleles (p=3.62 × 10(-16)) and genotypes (5.67 × 10(-15)). However, rs9264942C allele was predisposing to PsV 3-fold weaker than HLA-Cw(?)06 (OR=5.04 vs. OR=15.61, respectively). In addition, this SNP was described earlier to be in <span class="hlt">strong</span> linkage disequilibrium (LD) with another SNP, rs67384697 ins/del, which by affecting a microRNA binding is responsible for regulating HLA-C expression. However, typing for is cheaper and simpler than that for rs67384697, therefore we think it may substitute for it to some extent. PMID:24759677</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Majorczyk, Edyta; Matusiak, Lukasz; Nowak, Izabela; Pietkiewicz-Sworowska, Aneta; Luszczek, Wioleta; Szepietowski, Jacek C; Ku?nierczyk, Piotr</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993Geo....21.1059V"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of silicate weathering in nature: How <span class="hlt">strong</span> a negative feedback on long-term accumulation of atmospheric CO2 and global greenhouse warming?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Estimation of the temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of natural feldspar weathering in two catchments at different elevations yields an apparent Arrhenius activation energy of 18.4 kcal/mol (77.0 kJ/mol), much higher than most laboratory values. This finding supports recent suggestions that hydrolytic weathering of silicate minerals may consume carbonic acid and thereby remove atmospheric carbon dioxide more rapidly with increasing temperature than previously thought. This result provides a stronger negative feedback on long-term greenhouse warming than has been assumed in most models of global carbon cycling. The present estimate was determined from the ratio of feldspar weathering rates (determined by geochemical mass balance) in the southern Blue Ridge Mountains of North Carolina, United States. Temperature (a function of elevation) is the only factor that differs between the two catchments; parent rock type, aspect, hillslope hydrology, and vegetation type and successional stage are the same in both.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Velbel, Michael Anthony</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22137783"> <span id="translatedtitle">How <span class="hlt">strong</span> is the evidence for accelerated expansion?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We test the present expansion of the universe using supernova type Ia data without making any assumptions about the matter and energy content of the universe or about the parametrization of the deceleration parameter. We assume the cosmological principle to apply in a strict sense. The result <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">depends</span> on the data set, the light curve fitting method and the calibration of the absolute magnitude used for the test, indicating <span class="hlt">strong</span> systematic errors. Nevertheless, in a <span class="hlt">spatially</span> flat universe there is at least 5{sigma} evidence for acceleration which drops to 1.8{sigma} in an open universe.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Seikel, Marina; Schwarz, Dominik J, E-mail: mseikel@physik.uni-bielefeld.de, E-mail: dschwarz@physik.uni-bielefeld.de [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Bielefeld, Postfach 100131, 33501 Bielefeld (Germany)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-02-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830047232&hterms=topics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dtopics"> <span id="translatedtitle">Topics in <span class="hlt">strong</span> Langmuir turbulence</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Progress in two approaches to the study of <span class="hlt">strong</span> Langmuir turbulence is reported. In two <span class="hlt">spatial</span> dimensions, numerical solution of the Zakharov equations yields a steady state involving linear growth, linear damping, and a collection of coherent, long-lived entities which might loosely be called solitons. In one <span class="hlt">spatial</span> dimension, a statistical theory is applied to the cubically nonlinear Schroedinger equation and is solved analytically in a special case.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nicholson, D. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830047013&hterms=topics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dtopics"> <span id="translatedtitle">Topics in <span class="hlt">strong</span> Langmuir turbulence</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Progress in two approaches to the study of <span class="hlt">strong</span> Langmuir turbulence is reported. In two <span class="hlt">spatial</span> dimensions, numerical solution of the Zakharov equations yields a steady state involving linear growth, linear damping, and a collection of coherent, long-lived entities which might loosely be called solitons. In one <span class="hlt">spatial</span> dimension, a statistical theory is applied to the cubically nonlinear Schroedinger equation and is solved analytically in a special case.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nicholson, D. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=list&pg=2&id=EJ972516"> <span id="translatedtitle">Remaking Memories: Reconsolidation Updates Positively Motivated <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Memory in Rats</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">There is <span class="hlt">strong</span> evidence that reactivation of a memory returns it to a labile state, initiating a restabilization process termed reconsolidation, which allows for updating of the memory. In this study we investigated reactivation-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> updating using a new positively motivated <span class="hlt">spatial</span> task in rodents that was designed specifically to model a…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jones, Bethany; Bukoski, Elizabeth; Nadel, Lynn; Fellous, Jean-Marc</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25523028"> <span id="translatedtitle">Drug-, dose- and sex-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> effects of chronic fluoxetine, reboxetine and venlafaxine on open-field behavior and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> memory in rats.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In an effort to address the need to include both sexes in studies of effects of the SSRI fluoxetine, the NRI reboxetine and the SNRI venlafaxine on anxiety-related behavior and memory along with the use of chronic drug administration, male and female PVG/c rats were fed diets containing two doses of each drug for 21 days. The rats' anxiety level was then assessed in an open field. Short-term <span class="hlt">spatial</span> memory for a brightness change in a Y maze was also measured. While there was little evidence of anxiolytic effects of any of the drugs, both fluoxetine and, to a lesser extent, venlafaxine appeared to be mainly anxiogenic in their action <span class="hlt">depending</span> on both dose and sex. Reboxetine was relatively ineffective in this respect. Ability to locate the Y-maze arm that had changed (from white to black) seemed to be impaired for male (but not female) rats by both fluoxetine and venlafaxine and, to a much lesser extent, by reboxetine. Given the relative ineffectiveness of reboxetine in either test, it is possible that the effects of the other two drugs on both anxiety and memory were mainly due to their serotonin reuptake inhibiting properties. The differences that occurred between males and females in responsiveness to all three drugs supported the long-held view that both sexes should be investigated in studies of this sort, especially in view of reports of sex differences in effects of clinically prescribed antidepressants. PMID:25523028</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gray, Vanessa C; Hughes, Robert N</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-03-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12935883"> <span id="translatedtitle">Polyphosphates <span class="hlt">strongly</span> inhibit the tRNA <span class="hlt">dependent</span> synthesis of poly(A) catalyzed by poly(A) polymerase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Polyphosphates of different chain lengths (P(3), P(4), P(15), P(35)), (1 microM) inhibited 10, 60, 90 and 100%, respectively, the primer (tRNA) <span class="hlt">dependent</span> synthesis of poly(A) catalyzed poly(A) polymerase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The relative inhibition evoked by p(4)A and P(4) (1 microM) was 40 and 60%, respectively, whereas 1 microM Ap(4)A was not inhibitory. P(4) and P(15) were assayed as inhibitors of the enzyme in the presence of (a) saturating tRNA and variable concentrations of ATP and (b) saturating ATP and variable concentrations of tRNA. In (a), P(4) and P(15) behaved as competitive inhibitors, with K(i) values of 0.5 microM and 0.2 microM, respectively. In addition, P(4) (at 1 microM) and P(15) (at 0.3 microM) changed the Hill coefficient (n(H)) from 1 (control) to about 1.3 and 1.6, respectively. In (b), the inhibition by P(4) and P(15) decreased V and modified only slightly the K(m) values of the enzyme towards tRNA. PMID:12935883</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sillero, María A Günther; de Diego, Anabel; Silles, Eduardo; Osorio, Hugo; Sillero, Antonio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-08-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/985925"> <span id="translatedtitle">HER2 signaling pathway activation and response of breast cancer cells to HER2-targeting agents is <span class="hlt">dependent</span> <span class="hlt">strongly</span> on the 3D microenvironment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Development of effective and durable breast cancer treatment strategies requires a mechanistic understanding of the influence of the microenvironment on response. Previous work has shown that cellular signaling pathways and cell morphology are dramatically influenced by three-dimensional (3D) cultures as opposed to traditional two-dimensional (2D) monolayers. Here, we compared 2D and 3D culture models to determine the impact of 3D architecture and extracellular matrix (ECM) on HER2 signaling and on the response of HER2-amplified breast cancer cell lines to the HER2-targeting agents Trastuzumab, Pertuzumab and Lapatinib. We show that the response of the HER2-amplified AU565, SKBR3 and HCC1569 cells to these anti-HER2 agents was highly <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on whether the cells were cultured in 2D monolayer or 3D laminin-rich ECM gels. Inhibition of {beta}1 integrin, a major cell-ECM receptor subunit, significantly increased the sensitivity of the HER2-amplified breast cancer cell lines to the humanized monoclonal antibodies Trastuzumab and Pertuzumab when grown in a 3D environment. Finally, in the absence of inhibitors, 3D cultures had substantial impact on HER2 downstream signaling and induced a switch between PI3K-AKT- and RAS-MAPKpathway activation in all cell lines studied, including cells lacking HER2 amplification and overexpression. Our data provide direct evidence that breast cancer cells are able to rapidly adapt to different environments and signaling cues by activating alternative pathways that regulate proliferation and cell survival, events that may play a significant role in the acquisition of resistance to targeted therapies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Weigelt, Britta; Lo, Alvin T; Park, Catherine C; Gray, Joe W; Bissell, Mina J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-07-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22261928"> <span id="translatedtitle">Anomalous decay of photon echo in a quantum dot ensemble in the <span class="hlt">strong</span> excitation regime</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigated the coherent dynamics of exciton ground-state transitions in an 150-layer-stacked strain-compensated InAs quantum dot ensemble using photon echo (PE) technique in the <span class="hlt">strong</span> excitation regime. The time delay <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of PE signal intensity shows a drastic change <span class="hlt">depending</span> on the excitation intensity and the aperture position placed in front of a detector. Our results suggest that the excitation-intensity-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of PE signal intensity plays an important role in observing PE signal decay in the <span class="hlt">strong</span> excitation regime.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Suemori, Ryosuke; Ishi-Hayase, Junko [Department of Applied Physics and Physico-Informatics, Keio University, 3-14-1, Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); Akahane, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Naokatsu [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), 4-2-1, Nukuikitamchi, Koganei, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-04</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4169599"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Strong</span> In Vivo Anti-Tumor Effect of the UIC2 Monoclonal Antibody Is the Combined Result of Pgp Inhibition and Antibody <span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">P-glycoprotein (Pgp) extrudes a large variety of chemotherapeutic drugs from the cells, causing multidrug resistance (MDR). The UIC2 monoclonal antibody recognizes human Pgp and inhibits its drug transport activity. However, this inhibition is partial, since UIC2 binds only to 10–40% of cell surface Pgps, while the rest becomes accessible to this antibody only in the presence of certain substrates or modulators (e.g. cyclosporine A (CsA)). The combined addition of UIC2 and 10 times lower concentrations of CsA than what is necessary for Pgp inhibition when the modulator is applied alone, decreased the EC50 of doxorubicin (DOX) in KB-V1 (Pgp+) cells in vitro almost to the level of KB-3-1 (Pgp-) cells. At the same time, UIC2 alone did not affect the EC50 value of DOX significantly. In xenotransplanted severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice co-treated with DOX, UIC2 and CsA, the average weight of Pgp+ tumors was only ?10% of the untreated control and in 52% of these animals we could not detect tumors at all, while DOX treatment alone did not decrease the weight of Pgp+ tumors. These data were confirmed by visualizing the tumors in vivo by positron emission tomography (PET) based on their increased 18FDG accumulation. Unexpectedly, UIC2+DOX treatment also decreased the size of tumors compared to the DOX only treated animals, as opposed to the results of our in vitro cytotoxicity assays, suggesting that immunological factors are also involved in the antitumor effect of in vivo UIC2 treatment. Since UIC2 binding itself did not affect the viability of Pgp expressing cells, but it triggered in vitro cell killing by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), it is concluded that the impressive in vivo anti-tumor effect of the DOX-UIC2-CsA treatment is the combined result of Pgp inhibition and antibody <span class="hlt">dependent</span> cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). PMID:25238617</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Szalóki, Gábor; Krasznai, Zoárd T.; Tóth, Ágnes; Vízkeleti, Laura; Szöll?si, Attila G.; Trencsényi, György; Lajtos, Imre; Juhász, István; Krasznai, Zoltán; Márián, Teréz; Balázs, Margit; Szabó, Gábor; Goda, Katalin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/gr-qc/9410040v2"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> cosmic censorship in vacuum space--times with compact, locally homogeneous Cauchy surfaces</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We consider the question of <span class="hlt">strong</span> cosmic censorship in <span class="hlt">spatially</span> compact, <span class="hlt">spatially</span> locally homogeneous vacuum models. We show in particular that <span class="hlt">strong</span> cosmic censorship holds in Bianchi IX vacuum space--times with spherical <span class="hlt">spatial</span> topology.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Piotr T. Chru?ciel; Alan D. Rendall</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-10-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1503.07049.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fluctuation effects on QCD phase diagram at <span class="hlt">strong</span> coupling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study the QCD phase diagram away from the <span class="hlt">strong</span> coupling limit (SCL) with fluctuation effects in the auxiliary field Monte-Carlo (AFMC) method. First, we give an effective action which contains next-to-leading order (NLO) finite coupling effects of the <span class="hlt">strong</span> coupling expansion as well as fluctuation effects. Second, we examine NLO effects of the <span class="hlt">strong</span> coupling expansion in AFMC at zero quark density. We find that the chiral condensate is reduced by both NLO terms from temporal plaquettes and fluctuation effects, and almost no <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on NLO terms from <span class="hlt">spatial</span> plaquettes in the current analysis. These behaviors can be understood from the modification of the mass and the wave function renormalization factor by auxiliary fields as in the mean field analysis and the fluctuation effects in the <span class="hlt">strong</span> coupling limit.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ichihara, Terukazu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1503.07049v1"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fluctuation effects on QCD phase diagram at <span class="hlt">strong</span> coupling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study the QCD phase diagram away from the <span class="hlt">strong</span> coupling limit (SCL) with fluctuation effects in the auxiliary field Monte-Carlo (AFMC) method. First, we give an effective action which contains next-to-leading order (NLO) finite coupling effects of the <span class="hlt">strong</span> coupling expansion as well as fluctuation effects. Second, we examine NLO effects of the <span class="hlt">strong</span> coupling expansion in AFMC at zero quark density. We find that the chiral condensate is reduced by both NLO terms from temporal plaquettes and fluctuation effects, and almost no <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on NLO terms from <span class="hlt">spatial</span> plaquettes in the current analysis. These behaviors can be understood from the modification of the mass and the wave function renormalization factor by auxiliary fields as in the mean field analysis and the fluctuation effects in the <span class="hlt">strong</span> coupling limit.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Terukazu Ichihara; Akira Ohnishi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-03-24</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.P51B0927Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Low-degree mantle convection in terrestrial planets: The style of numerically modeled mantle convection with <span class="hlt">strongly</span> temperature- and depth-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> viscosity in a three-dimensional spherical shell</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A series of numerical simulations of thermal convection of Boussinesq fluid with infinite Prandtl number, with realistic Rayleigh number 107, and with the <span class="hlt">strongly</span> temperature- and depth- <span class="hlt">dependent</span> viscosity in a three-dimensional spherical shell is carried out to study the mantle convection of single-plate terrestrial planets like Venus or Mars without an Earth-like plate tectonics. Basic equations governing the mantle convection are solved by a second-order finite difference discretization. A kind of the overset, or Chimera grid system, "Yin-Yang grid" (Kageyama and Sato, 2004), is used. The Yin-Yang grid is suitable to solve the mantle convection problems because it automatically avoids the pole problems, i.e., the coordinate singularity and grid convergence that are inevitable in the usual latitude-longitude grid (Yoshida and Kageyama, 2004). The constant viscosity convection with the rigid boundary condition, assuming that it is the base of an immobile lithosphere of terrestrial planets, on the top surface shows that the convection has long-wavelength structures; the spherical harmonic degree-one becomes dominant throughout the convecting layer. In contrast, the models only with <span class="hlt">strongly</span> temperature-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> viscosity (the viscosity contrast across the shell is 105 or over) and the stress-free condition on the top surface show that the convection under spontaneously generated stagnant-lid has short-wavelength structures; the degree 6--10 is dominant throughout the depth. Numerous, cylindrical upwelling plumes are developed because of the secondary downwelling plumes arising from the bottom of lid. This convection pattern is inconsistent with that inferred from the geoid observation of the Venus or Mars. The effects of the stratified viscosity at the upper/lower mantle (the viscosity contrast is varied from 30 to 300) are considered. It is found that the combination of the <span class="hlt">strongly</span> temperature- and depth-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> viscosity causes long-wavelength structures of convection in which the degree is dominant at 2--4 or lower. The geoid anomaly calculated by the simulated convections shows a long-wavelength structure, which is compared with observations. The degree-one convection like the Martian mantle is realized in the wide range of viscosity contrast from 30 to 100. Our results suggest that the viscosity stratification is indispensable to understand the mantle convection of the terrestrial planets when <span class="hlt">strongly</span> temperature <span class="hlt">dependent</span> viscosity is taking into account.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yoshida, M.; Kageyama, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2112128"> <span id="translatedtitle">Direct cytochemical localization of catalytic subunits dissociated from cAMP-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> protein kinase in Reuber H-35 hepatoma cells. II. Temporal and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> kinetics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The activation of cyclic AMP-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> protein kinase has been found to be the predominant mode by which cyclic AMP (cAMP) leads to alterations of a large variety of cellular functions. The activation of the kinase results in the release of the catalytic subunit which as the free enzyme possesses phosphotransferase activity for a variety of specific protein substrates. Using a sensitive and specific cytofluorometric technique we monitored the appearance of free catalytic subunit in Reuber H35 hepatoma cells in culture after incubation with N6-1'-O- dibutyryl-cyclic AMP (DBcAMP), 8-bromoadenosine-3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-BrcAMP), and glucagon. The cytochemical method employs the heat-stable inhibitor of the free catalytic subunit which has been conjugated to fluorescein isothiocyanate (F:PKI) and was validated as described in the companion paper (Fletcher and Byus. 1982. J. Cell Biol. 93:719-726). Here we studied the temporal and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> kinetics of the free catalytic subunit following activation of cAMP-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> protein kinase by increasing concentrations of DBcAMP,8-BrcAMP, and glucagon. Under similar conditions protein kinase activation was also assessed biochemically in H35 cell supernatants by assaying the protein kinase activity ratio. Incubation of the hepatoma cells with DBcAMP (0.1 mM) led to an increase in the activity ratio from 0.2 in control cultures to a value of nearly 1.0 within a 1- to 2-h period. During this same period using the F:PKI probe, a significant increase in cytoplasmic and nucleolar fluorescence indicative of the release of the free catalytic subunit was coincidentally observed. In contrast to the rapid appearance of catalytic subunit in the cytoplasm and nucleolus of the cell within 5-15 min of the addition of DBcAMP, discernible nucleoplasmic fluorescence did not occur until after 1 h. H35 cell cultures incubated with 8-BrcAMP (0.01-1.0 mM) exhibited a more rapid activation of the protein kinase measured cytochemically compared to the cells treated with DBcAMP. Cultures incubated with 8-BrcAMP had significantly increased cytoplasmic and nucleolar fluorescence compared to unstimulated cells within 1 min of the addition of the analogue and reached a maximal level within 15 min. By employing a microspectrophotometer a distinct dose-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> increase in cellular fluorescence (i.e., free catalytic subunit) was observed as the concentration of 8-BrcAMP was increased from 0.01 to 1.0 mM at 1, 5, 15, and 60 min following stimulation. The addition of glucagon (10(-6) M) to the culture also led to the activation of cAMP-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> protein kinase as determined by an increase in the activity ratio. This increase was paralleled throughout the incubation period by a marked elevation in cytoplasmic and nucleolar fluorescence. The results reported herein suggest that both cyclic nucleotide analogues and a polypeptide hormone lead to the activation of cAMP-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> protein kinase in similar intracellular compartments in Reuber H35 hepatoma cells... PMID:6288733</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3631344"> <span id="translatedtitle">Diurnal pattern of stomatal conductance in the large-leaved temperate liana Aristolochia macrophylla <span class="hlt">depends</span> on <span class="hlt">spatial</span> position within the leaf lamina</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background and Aims The large distance between peripheral leaf regions and the petiole in large leaves is expected to cause stronger negative water potentials at the leaf apex and marginal zones compared with more central or basal leaf regions. Leaf zone-specific differences in water supply and/or gas exchange may therefore be anticipated. In this study, an investigation was made to see whether zonal differences in gas exchange regulation can be detected in large leaves. Methods The diurnal course of stomatal conductance, gs, was monitored at defined lamina zones during two consecutive vegetation periods in the liana Aristolochia macrophylla that has large leaves. Local climate and stem water potential were also monitored to include parameters involved in stomatal response. Additionally, leaf zonal vein densities were measured to assess possible trends in local hydraulic supply. Key Results It was found that the diurnal pattern of gs <span class="hlt">depends</span> on the position within a leaf in A. macrophylla. The highest values during the early morning were shown by the apical region, with subsequent decline later in the morning and a further gradual decline towards the evening. The diurnal pattern of gs at the marginal regions was similar to that of the leaf tip but showed a time lag of about 1 h. At the leaf base, the diurnal pattern of gs was similar to that of the margins but with lower maximum gs. At the the leaf centre regions, gs tended to show quite constant moderate values during most of the day. Densities of minor veins were lower at the margin and tip compared with the centre and base. Conclusions Gas exchange regulation appears to be zone specific in A. macrophylla leaves. It is suggested that the <span class="hlt">spatial</span>–diurnal pattern of gs expressed by A. macrophylla leaves represents a strategy to prevent leaf zonal water stress and subsequent vein embolism. PMID:23606681</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Miranda, Tatiana; Ebner, Martin; Traiser, Christopher; Roth-Nebelsick, Anita</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2728269"> <span id="translatedtitle">The association of CaM and Hsp70 regulates S-phase arrest and apoptosis in a <span class="hlt">spatially</span> and temporally <span class="hlt">dependent</span> manner in human cells</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The cell cycle is controlled by regulators functioning at the right time and at the right place. We have found that calmodulin (CaM) has specific distribution patterns during different cell-cycle stages. Here, we identify cell-cycle-specific binding proteins of CaM and examine their function during cell-cycle progression. We first applied immunoprecipitation methods to isolate CaM-binding proteins from cell lysates obtained at different cell-cycle phases and then identified these proteins using mass spectrometry methods. A total of 41 proteins were identified including zinc finger proteins, ribosomal proteins, and heat shock proteins operating in a Ca2+-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> or independent manner. Fifteen proteins were shown to interact with CaM in a cell-phase-specific manner. The association of the selected proteins and CaM were confirmed with in vitro immunoprecipitation and immunostaining methods. One of the identified proteins, heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), was further studied with respect to its cell-cycle-related function. In vivo fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis showed that the interaction of CaM and Hsp70 was found in the nucleus during the S phase. Overexpression of Hsp70 is shown to arrest cells at S phase and, thus, induce cell apoptosis. When we disrupted the CaM-Hsp70 association with HSP70 truncation without the CaM-binding domain, we found that S-phase arrest and apoptosis could be rescued. The results suggest that the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and temporal association of CaM and Hsp70 can regulate cell-cycle progression and cell apoptosis. PMID:18989758</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huang, Min; Wei, Jun-Ning; Peng, Wan-Xin; Liang, Juan; Zhao, Chun; Qian, Yan; Dai, Gu; Yuan, Jun; Pan, Fei-Yan; Xue, Bin; Sha, Jia-Hao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ERL.....8a4046F"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> decoupling of agricultural production and consumption: quantifying <span class="hlt">dependences</span> of countries on food imports due to domestic land and water constraints</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In our globalizing world, the geographical locations of food production and consumption are becoming increasingly disconnected, which increases reliance on external resources and their trade. We quantified to what extent water and land constraints limit countries’ capacities, at present and by 2050, to produce on their own territory the crop products that they currently import from other countries. Scenarios of increased crop productivity and water use, cropland expansion (excluding areas prioritized for other uses) and population change are accounted for. We found that currently 16% of the world population use the opportunities of international trade to cover their demand for agricultural products. Population change may <span class="hlt">strongly</span> increase the number of people <span class="hlt">depending</span> on ex situ land and water resources up to about 5.2 billion (51% of world population) in the SRES A2r scenario. International trade will thus have to intensify if population growth is not accompanied by dietary change towards less resource-intensive products, by cropland expansion, or by productivity improvements, mainly in Africa and the Middle East. Up to 1.3 billion people may be at risk of food insecurity in 2050 in present low-income economies (mainly in Africa), if their economic development does not allow them to afford productivity increases, cropland expansion and/or imports from other countries.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fader, Marianela; Gerten, Dieter; Krause, Michael; Lucht, Wolfgang; Cramer, Wolfgang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvA..88c5805Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Control of higher spectral components by <span class="hlt">spatially</span> inhomogeneous fields in quantum wells</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The propagation of a <span class="hlt">spatially</span> inhomogeneous few-cycle laser field, linked to surface plasmon polaritons, through an ensemble of quantum wells is investigated under two conditions. It is found that the transmitted spectra sensitively <span class="hlt">depend</span> on the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> inhomogeneity due to the nonlinear propagation effects. Under the small-frequency mismatch condition, the transmitted spectral distribution is continuous for the <span class="hlt">spatially</span> homogeneous case. However, when <span class="hlt">spatial</span> inhomogeneity is introduced, the distribution is discrete instead, with clearly even- and odd-order harmonic peaks coexisting, which is related to the <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field reshaping effect and the inversion symmetry breaking due to the introduction of the <span class="hlt">spatially</span> inhomogeneous field. As for the large-frequency mismatch condition, only odd-order harmonics exist, no matter how <span class="hlt">strong</span> the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> inhomogeneity is. Under both conditions, the propagation effect can obviously enhance the intensity of higher spectral components.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Chaojin; Liu, Chengpu; Xu, Zhizhan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a 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showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1501.05976.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Robustness of <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Micronetworks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Power lines, roadways, pipelines and other physical infrastructure are critical to modern society. These structures may be viewed as <span class="hlt">spatial</span> networks where geographic distances play a role in the functionality and construction cost of links. Traditionally, studies of network robustness have primarily considered the connectedness of large, random networks. Yet for <span class="hlt">spatial</span> infrastructure physical distances must also play a role in network robustness. Understanding the robustness of small <span class="hlt">spatial</span> networks is particularly important with the increasing interest in microgrids, small-area distributed power grids that are well suited to using renewable energy resources. We study the random failures of links in small networks where functionality <span class="hlt">depends</span> on both <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distance and topological connectedness. By introducing a percolation model where the failure of each link is proportional to its <span class="hlt">spatial</span> length, we find that, when failures <span class="hlt">depend</span> on <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distances, networks are more fragile than expected. Accounting...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McAndrew, Thomas C; Bagrow, James P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3055563"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Memory Consolidation is Associated with Induction of Several Lysine-Acetyltransferase (Histone Acetyltransferase) Expression Levels and H2B/H4 Acetylation-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Transcriptional Events in the Rat Hippocampus</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Numerous genetic studies have shown that the CREB-binding protein (CBP) is an essential component of long-term memory formation, through its histone acetyltransferase (HAT) function. E1A-binding protein p300 and p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) have also recently been involved in memory formation. By contrast, only a few studies have reported on acetylation modifications during memory formation, and it remains unclear as to how the system is regulated during this dynamic phase. We investigated acetylation-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> events and the expression profiles of these HATs during a hippocampus-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> task taxing <span class="hlt">spatial</span> reference memory in the Morris water maze. We found a specific increase in H2B and H4 acetylation in the rat dorsal hippocampus, while <span class="hlt">spatial</span> memory was being consolidated. This increase correlated with the degree of specific acetylated histones enrichment on some memory/plasticity-related gene promoters. Overall, a global increase in HAT activity was measured during this memory consolidation phase, together with a global increase of CBP, p300, and PCAF expression. Interestingly, these regulations were altered in a model of hippocampal denervation disrupting <span class="hlt">spatial</span> memory consolidation, making it impossible for the hippocampus to recruit the CBP pathway (CBP regulation and acetylated-H2B-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> transcription). CBP has long been thought to be present in limited concentrations in the cells. These results show, for the first time, that CBP, p300, and PCAF are dynamically modulated during the establishment of a <span class="hlt">spatial</span> memory and are likely to contribute to the induction of a specific epigenetic tagging of the genome for hippocampus-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> (<span class="hlt">spatial</span>) memory consolidation. These findings suggest the use of HAT-activating molecules in new therapeutic strategies of pathological aging, Alzheimer's disease, and other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:20811339</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bousiges, Olivier; Vasconcelos, Anne Pereira de; Neidl, Romain; Cosquer, Brigitte; Herbeaux, Karine; Panteleeva, Irina; Loeffler, Jean-Philippe; Cassel, Jean-Christophe; Boutillier, Anne-Laurence</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvA..91a3841A"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> optical solitons in highly nonlocal media</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We theoretically investigate the propagation of bright <span class="hlt">spatial</span> solitary waves in highly nonlocal media possessing radial symmetry in a three-dimensional cylindrical geometry. Focusing on a thermal nonlinearity, modeled by a Poisson equation, we show how the profile of the light-induced waveguide <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">depends</span> on the extension of the nonlinear medium in the propagation direction as compared to the beamwidth. We demonstrate that self-trapped beams undergo oscillations in size, either periodically or aperiodically, <span class="hlt">depending</span> on the input waist and power. The—usually neglected—role of the longitudinal nonlocality as well as the detrimental effect of absorptive losses are addressed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alberucci, Alessandro; Jisha, Chandroth P.; Smyth, Noel F.; Assanto, Gaetano</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3307831"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dissecting the age-related decline on <span class="hlt">spatial</span> learning and memory tasks in rodent models: N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and voltage-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> Ca2+ channels in senescent synaptic plasticity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In humans, heterogeneity in the decline of hippocampal-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> episodic memory is observed during aging. Rodents have been employed as models of age-related cognitive decline and the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> water maze has been used to show variability in the emergence and extent of impaired hippocampal-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> memory. Impairment in the consolidation of intermediate-term memory for rapidly acquired and flexible <span class="hlt">spatial</span> information emerges early, in middle-age. As aging proceeds, deficits may broaden to include impaired incremental learning of a <span class="hlt">spatial</span> reference memory. The extent and time course of impairment has been be linked to senescence of calcium (Ca2+) regulation and Ca2+-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> synaptic plasticity mechanisms in region CA1. Specifically, aging is associated with altered function of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), voltage-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> Ca2+ channels (VDCCs), and ryanodine receptors (RyRs) linked to intracellular Ca2+ stores (ICS). In young animals, NMDAR activation induces long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission (NMDAR-LTP), which is thought to mediate the rapid consolidation of intermediate-term memory. Oxidative stress, starting in middle-age, reduces NMDAR function. In addition, VDCCs and ICS can actively inhibit NMDAR-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> LTP and oxidative stress enhances the role of VDCC and RyR-ICS in regulating synaptic plasticity. Blockade of L-type VDCCs promotes NMDAR-LTP and memory in older animals. Interestingly, pharmacological or genetic manipulations to reduce hippocampal NMDAR function readily impair memory consolidation or rapid learning, generally leaving incremental learning intact. Finally, evidence is mounting to indicate a role for VDCC-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> synaptic plasticity in associative learning and the consolidation of remote memories. Thus, VDCC-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> synaptic plasticity and extrahippocampal systems may contribute to incremental learning deficits observed with advanced aging. PMID:22307057</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Foster, Thomas C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25078295"> <span id="translatedtitle">Learning strategy preference of 5XFAD transgenic mice <span class="hlt">depends</span> on the sequence of place/<span class="hlt">spatial</span> and cued training in the water maze task.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Learning strategy preference was assessed in 5XFAD mice, which carry 5 familial Alzheimer's disease (AD) mutations. Mice were sequentially trained in cued and place/<span class="hlt">spatial</span> versions of the water maze task. After training, a strategy preference test was conducted in which mice were required to choose between the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> location where the platform had previously been during the place/<span class="hlt">spatial</span> training, and a visible platform in a new location. 5XFAD and non-transgenic control mice showed equivalent escape performance in both training tasks. However, in the strategy preference test, 5XFAD mice preferred a cued strategy relative to control mice. When the training sequence was presented in the reverse order (i.e., place/<span class="hlt">spatial</span> training before cued training), 5XFAD mice showed impairments in place/<span class="hlt">spatial</span> training, but no differences in cued training or in the strategy preference test comparing to control. Analysis of regional A?42 deposition in brains of 5XFAD mice showed that the hippocampus, which is involved in the place/<span class="hlt">spatial</span> learning strategy, had the highest levels of A?42 and the dorsal striatum, which is involved in cued learning strategy, showed a small increase in A?42 levels. The effect of training protocol order on performance, and regional differences in A?42 deposition observed in 5XFAD mice, suggest differential functional recruitment of brain structures related to learning in healthy and AD individuals. PMID:25078295</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cho, Woo-Hyun; Park, Jung-Cheol; Chung, ChiHye; Jeon, Won Kyung; Han, Jung-Soo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/953508"> <span id="translatedtitle">Momentum <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> of Superconducting Gap, <span class="hlt">Strong</span>-Coupling Dispersion Kink, And Tightly Bound Cooper Pairs in the High-T(C)(Sr,Ba)(1-X)(K,Na)(X)Fe(2) As(2) Superconductors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a systematic angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopic study of the high-T{sub c} superconductor class (Sr/Ba){sub 1-x}K{sub x}Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2}. By utilizing a photon-energy-modulation contrast and scattering geometry we report the Fermi surface and the momentum <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the superconducting gap, {triangle}(k{open_square}). A prominent quasiparticle dispersion kink reflecting <span class="hlt">strong</span> scattering processes is observed in a binding-energy range of 25--55 meV in the superconducting state, and the coherence length or the extent of the Cooper pair wave function is found to be about 20 {angstrom}, which is uncharacteristic of a superconducting phase realized by the BCS-phonon-retardation mechanism. The observed 40{+-}15 meV kink likely reflects contributions from the frustrated spin excitations in a J{sub 1}-J{sub 2} magnetic background and scattering from the soft phonons. Results taken collectively provide direct clues to the nature of the pairing potential including an internal phase-shift factor in the superconducting order parameter which leads to a Brillouin zone node in a <span class="hlt">strong</span>-coupling setting.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wray, L.; Qian, D.; Hsieh, D.; Xia, Y.; Li, L.; Checkelsky, J.G.; Pasupathy, A.; Gomes, K.K.; Parker, C.V.; Fedorov, A.V.; Chen, G.F.; Luo, J.L.; Yazdani, A.; Ong, N.P.; Wang, N.L.; Hasan, M.Z.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3448370"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatially</span> and Temporally Varying Associations between Temporary Outmigration and Natural Resource Availability in Resource-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Rural Communities in South Africa: A Modeling Framework</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Migration-environment models tend to be aspatial within chosen study regions, although associations between temporary outmigration and environmental explanatory variables likely vary across the study space. This research extends current approaches by developing migration models considering <span class="hlt">spatial</span> non-stationarity and temporal variation – through examination of the migration-environment association at nested geographic scales (i.e. whole-population, village, and subvillage) within a specific study site. Demographic survey data from rural South Africa, combined with indicators of natural resource availability from satellite imagery, are employed in a nested modeling approach that brings out distinct patterns of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variation in model associations derived at finer geographic scales. Given recent heightened public and policy concern with the human migratory implications of climate change, we argue that consideration of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variability adds important nuance to scientific understanding of the migration-environment association. PMID:23008525</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leyk, Stefan; Maclaurin, Galen J.; Hunter, Lori M.; Nawrotzki, Raphael; Twine, Wayne; Collinson, Mark; Erasmus, Barend</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4231322"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatially</span> embedded growing small-world networks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Networks in nature are often formed within a <span class="hlt">spatial</span> domain in a dynamical manner, gaining links and nodes as they develop over time. Motivated by the growth and development of neuronal networks, we propose a class of <span class="hlt">spatially</span>-based growing network models and investigate the resulting statistical network properties as a function of the dimension and topology of the space in which the networks are embedded. In particular, we consider two models in which nodes are placed one by one in random locations in space, with each such placement followed by configuration relaxation toward uniform node density, and connection of the new node with <span class="hlt">spatially</span> nearby nodes. We find that such growth processes naturally result in networks with small-world features, including a short characteristic path length and nonzero clustering. We find no qualitative differences in these properties for two different topologies, and we suggest that results for these properties may not <span class="hlt">depend</span> <span class="hlt">strongly</span> on the topology of the embedding space. The results do <span class="hlt">depend</span> <span class="hlt">strongly</span> on dimension, and higher-dimensional spaces result in shorter path lengths but less clustering. PMID:25395180</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zitin, Ari; Gorowara, Alexander; Squires, Shane; Herrera, Mark; Antonsen, Thomas M.; Girvan, Michelle; Ott, Edward</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25395180"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatially</span> embedded growing small-world networks.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Networks in nature are often formed within a <span class="hlt">spatial</span> domain in a dynamical manner, gaining links and nodes as they develop over time. Motivated by the growth and development of neuronal networks, we propose a class of <span class="hlt">spatially</span>-based growing network models and investigate the resulting statistical network properties as a function of the dimension and topology of the space in which the networks are embedded. In particular, we consider two models in which nodes are placed one by one in random locations in space, with each such placement followed by configuration relaxation toward uniform node density, and connection of the new node with <span class="hlt">spatially</span> nearby nodes. We find that such growth processes naturally result in networks with small-world features, including a short characteristic path length and nonzero clustering. We find no qualitative differences in these properties for two different topologies, and we suggest that results for these properties may not <span class="hlt">depend</span> <span class="hlt">strongly</span> on the topology of the embedding space. The results do <span class="hlt">depend</span> <span class="hlt">strongly</span> on dimension, and higher-dimensional spaces result in shorter path lengths but less clustering. PMID:25395180</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zitin, Ari; Gorowara, Alexander; Squires, Shane; Herrera, Mark; Antonsen, Thomas M; Girvan, Michelle; Ott, Edward</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41874805"> <span id="translatedtitle">Do <span class="hlt">spatial</span> patterns of clonal fragments and architectural responses to defoliation <span class="hlt">depend</span> on the structural blue-print? An experimental test with two rhizomatous Cyperaceae</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Clonal architecture is involved in performance of clonal fragments, as it determines <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of ramets. It is\\u000a expected to rely on the species-specific expression of several architectural traits (structural blue-print). However, in contrasting\\u000a environments, realized clonal architectures may differ, due to phenotypic plasticity. In this paper, we compared clonal architectures\\u000a between two rhizomatous ecologically close Cyperaceae (Carex divisa and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marie-Lise Benot; Anne Bonis; Cendrine Mony</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/54486"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span>-visual skills and engineering design</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this study was to determine whether students with <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span>-visual skills tend to design more complex mechanisms for the undergraduate course Design and Manufacturing I. The Purdue <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Visualization ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tseng, Tiffany</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3078196"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Inhibition and the Visual Cortex: A Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Imaging Study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Introduction Deficits in processing <span class="hlt">spatial</span> information have been observed in clinical populations who have abnormalities within the dopamine (DA) system. As psychostimulants such as methamphetamine (MA) are particularly neurotoxic to the dopaminergic system it was of interest to examine the performance of MA-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> individuals on a task of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> attention. Method 51 MA-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> subjects and 22 age-matched non-substance abusing control subjects were tested on a <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Stroop attention test. MR Spectroscopy (MRS) imaging data were analyzed from 32 MA abusers and 13 controls. Results No group differences in response time or accuracy emerged on the behavioral task with both groups exhibiting equivalent slowing when the word meaning and the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> location of the word were in conflict. MRS imaging data from the MA abusers revealed a <span class="hlt">strong</span> inverse correlation between NAA/Cr ratios in the primary visual cortex (PVC) and <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> interference (p=0.0001). Moderate inverse correlations were also seen in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) (p = 0.02). No significant correlations were observed in the controls, perhaps due to the small sample of imaging data available (n=13). Discussion The <span class="hlt">strong</span> correlation between <span class="hlt">spatial</span> conflict suppression and NAA/Cr levels within the PVC in the MA-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> individuals suggests that preserved neuronal integrity within the PVC of stimulant abusers may modulate cognitive mechanisms that process implicit <span class="hlt">spatial</span> information. PMID:21237183</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Salo, R; Nordahl, TE; Buonocore, MH; Natsuaki, YT; Moore, CD; Waters, C; Leamon, MH</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/44288894"> <span id="translatedtitle">Abortion: <span class="hlt">Strong’s</span> counterexamples fail</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by <span class="hlt">Strong</span> in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis’s argument against abortion fail. <span class="hlt">Strong’s</span> basic idea is that there are cases—for example, terminally ill patients—where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally wrong even though that human being is not being deprived of a “valuable future”. So</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E Di Nucci</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.H13D1358S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dependence</span> of Uncertainty in Parameter Estimation in Non-stationary Heterogeneous Aquifers on the Number and <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Distribution of Observation Wells</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Even with the many recent advances made in the use of inverse modeling techniques for parameter estimation, in practice, model calibration, to a large extent still relies on trial and error methods. These methods use available data from observation wells that are limited in number and are not necessarily optimally located. These limitations introduce uncertainty to estimated parameters, thus introducing errors to predications that are made using the calibrated model. To reduce calibration uncertainty, modelers in addition to "hard data" based on standard aquifer tests and drawdown observations, rely on localized "soft data" that are less quantitative. To develop an improved understanding of how additional data on drawdown observations and soft data on other geologic features reduce the parameter estimation uncertainty, a set of experiments was conducted in a three-dimensional synthetic aquifer. This three-dimensional test aquifer with dimensions 208 (L) x 117 (W) x 57 cm (H) was constructed using five well-characterized sands in a laboratory test tank. The aquifer consists of two regions. The first, a stationary <span class="hlt">spatially</span> correlated random field has a log-normally distributed hydraulic conductivity with a mean lnK = 4.02 (K in m/day) and variance of ?2lnK = 1.2. A structured heterogeneity was introduced by embedding into the stationary field a second region with a lens-like layer of find sand, resulting in the composite aquifer heterogeneity to be non-stationary. The boundary heads in the aquifer was controlled with two end reservoirs. Three pumping wells with different screen depths were placed in the aquifer. The pressure distribution within the aquifer was measured at 92 monitoring locations using an automated pressure measuring system. A number of experimental simulations were conducted to generate a data set on the aquifer response to various pumping excitations. The forward modeling code MODFLOW-2000 and the inverse modeling code UCODE were used in data analysis. The data set and the modeling tools were used to conduct number of investigations on parameter estimation uncertainty with the goal of developing a model calibration protocol that uses both hard and soft data. This paper presents the results of a study that investigates the relationship between parameter uncertainties and the number and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of the observation points. The preliminary results suggest that the parameter accuracy is not only related to the number of observations, but also to the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of the observation points in the three dimensional space. This suggests a well-designed observation well network improves the calibration accuracy of model and hence reducing the prediction errors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sakaki, T.; Illangasekare, T. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21421191"> <span id="translatedtitle">Higgs-induced spectroscopic shifts near <span class="hlt">strong</span> gravity sources</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We explore the consequences of the mass generation due to the Higgs field in <span class="hlt">strong</span> gravity astrophysical environments. The vacuum expectation value of the Higgs field is predicted to <span class="hlt">depend</span> on the curvature of spacetime, potentially giving rise to peculiar spectroscopic shifts, named hereafter 'Higgs shifts'. Higgs shifts could be searched through dedicated multiwavelength and multispecies surveys with high <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and spectral resolution near <span class="hlt">strong</span> gravity sources such as Sagittarius A* or broad searches for signals due to primordial black holes. The possible absence of Higgs shifts in these surveys should provide limits to the coupling between the Higgs particle and the curvature of spacetime, a topic of interest for a recently proposed Higgs-driven inflationary model. We discuss some conceptual issues regarding the coexistence between the Higgs mechanism and gravity, especially for their different handling of fundamental and composite particles.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Onofrio, Roberto [Dipartimento di Fisica 'Galileo Galilei', Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, Padova 35131 (Italy) and ITAMP, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-09-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25644899"> <span id="translatedtitle">Toll-like receptor ligands sensitize B-cell receptor signalling by reducing actin-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> confinement of the receptor.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Integrating signals from multiple receptors allows cells to interpret the physiological context in which a signal is received. Here we describe a mechanism for receptor crosstalk in which receptor-induced increases in actin dynamics lower the threshold for signalling by another receptor. We show that the Toll-like receptor ligands lipopolysaccharide and CpG DNA, which are conserved microbial molecules, enhance signalling by the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) by activating the actin-severing protein cofilin. Single-particle tracking reveals that increased severing of actin filaments reduces the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> confinement of the BCR within the plasma membrane and increases BCR mobility. This allows more frequent collisions between BCRs and greater signalling in response to low densities of membrane-bound antigen. These findings implicate actin dynamics as a means of tuning receptor signalling and as a mechanism by which B cells distinguish inert antigens from those that are accompanied by indicators of microbial infection. PMID:25644899</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Freeman, Spencer A; Jaumouillé, Valentin; Choi, Kate; Hsu, Brian E; Wong, Harikesh S; Abraham, Libin; Graves, Marcia L; Coombs, Daniel; Roskelley, Calvin D; Das, Raibatak; Grinstein, Sergio; Gold, Michael R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22136598"> <span id="translatedtitle">THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY DATA RELEASE 7 SPECTROSCOPIC M DWARF CATALOG. III. THE <span class="hlt">SPATIAL</span> <span class="hlt">DEPENDENCE</span> OF MAGNETIC ACTIVITY IN THE GALAXY</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We analyze the magnetic activity of 59,318 M dwarfs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. This analysis explores the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of M dwarf activity as a function of both vertical distance from the Galactic plane (Z) and planar distance from the Galactic center (R). We confirm the established trends of decreasing magnetic activity (as measured by H{alpha} emission) with increasing distance from the mid-plane of the disk and find evidence of a trend in Galactocentric radii. We measure a non-zero radial gradient in the activity fraction in our analysis of stars with spectral types dM3 and dM4. The activity fraction increases with R and can be explained by a decreasing mean stellar age with increasing distance from the Galactic center.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sebastian Pineda, J. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); West, Andrew A. [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Bochanski, John J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Haverford College, 370 Lancaster Avenue, Haverford, PA 19041 (United States); Burgasser, Adam J., E-mail: jspineda@astro.caltech.edu [Center of Astrophysics and Space Sciences, Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4327415"> <span id="translatedtitle">Toll-like receptor ligands sensitize B-cell receptor signalling by reducing actin-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> confinement of the receptor</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Integrating signals from multiple receptors allows cells to interpret the physiological context in which a signal is received. Here we describe a mechanism for receptor crosstalk in which receptor-induced increases in actin dynamics lower the threshold for signalling by another receptor. We show that the Toll-like receptor ligands lipopolysaccharide and CpG DNA, which are conserved microbial molecules, enhance signalling by the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) by activating the actin-severing protein cofilin. Single-particle tracking reveals that increased severing of actin filaments reduces the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> confinement of the BCR within the plasma membrane and increases BCR mobility. This allows more frequent collisions between BCRs and greater signalling in response to low densities of membrane-bound antigen. These findings implicate actin dynamics as a means of tuning receptor signalling and as a mechanism by which B cells distinguish inert antigens from those that are accompanied by indicators of microbial infection. PMID:25644899</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Freeman, Spencer A.; Jaumouillé, Valentin; Choi, Kate; Hsu, Brian E.; Wong, Harikesh S.; Abraham, Libin; Graves, Marcia L.; Coombs, Daniel; Roskelley, Calvin D.; Das, Raibatak; Grinstein, Sergio; Gold, Michael R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999PhRvE..59..874M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Magnetic-resonance determination of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the droplet size distribution in the cream layer of oil-in-water emulsions: Evidence for the effects of depletion flocculation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is shown that a combination of pulsed-field-gradient spin-echo (PGSE) nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) restricted diffusion analysis and NMR imaging may be used to measure the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the droplet size distribution in the cream layer of turbid oil-in-water emulsions. 1H-13C cyclic J cross-polarization PGSE is introduced as a technique for this purpose in cases where selective observation of the oil component (or other carbohydrate constituent) is required. With this method, 13C nuclei are chemical shift selectively excited by cross-polarization from coupled 1H partners. An optimum detection sensitivity is ensured by transferring the polarization back to the coupled protons with which the combined imaging and diffusion experiment is then carried out. The <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the oil droplet size distribution was measured for a series of emulsions containing various fractions of gum xanthan thickener dissolved in the water. The experimental results are compared with a recent model of the creaming process due to Pinfield, Dickinson, and Povey [J. Colloid Interface Sci. 166, 363 (1994)]. When no gum xanthan is present, the experimental results are in good agreement with the model. However, the model fails to describe the droplet distribution for emulsions with a gum xanthan concentration of the order of 0.1 wt %. The discrepancy is discussed in terms of depletion flocculation and depletion stabilization.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McDonald, P. J.; Ciampi, E.; Keddie, J. L.; Heidenreich, M.; Kimmich, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21054380"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scaling of habitat selection by African elephants.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">1. Understanding and accurately predicting the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> patterns of habitat use by organisms is important for ecological research, biodiversity conservation and ecosystem management. However, this understanding is complicated by the effects of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale, because the scale of analysis affects the quantification of species-environment relationships. 2. We therefore assessed the influence of environmental context (i.e. the characteristics of the landscape surrounding a site), varied over a large range of scales (i.e. ambit radii around focal sites), on the analysis and prediction of habitat selection by African elephants in Kruger National Park, South Africa. 3. We focused on the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scaling of the elephants' response to their main resources, forage and water, and found that the quantification of habitat selection <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">depended</span> on the scales at which environmental context was considered. Moreover, the inclusion of environmental context at characteristic scales (i.e. those at which habitat selectivity was maximized) increased the predictive capacity of habitat suitability models. 4. The elephants responded to their environment in a scale-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> and perhaps hierarchical manner, with forage characteristics driving habitat selection at coarse <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales, and surface water at fine <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales. 5. Furthermore, the elephants exhibited sexual habitat segregation, mainly in relation to vegetation characteristics. Male elephants preferred areas with high tree cover and low herbaceous biomass, whereas this pattern was reversed for female elephants. 6. We show that the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of elephants can be better understood and predicted when scale-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> species-environment relationships are explicitly considered. This demonstrates the importance of considering the influence of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale on the analysis of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> patterning in ecological phenomena. PMID:21054380</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">de Knegt, Henrik J; van Langevelde, Frank; Skidmore, Andrew K; Delsink, Audrey; Slotow, Rob; Henley, Steve; Bucini, Gabriela; de Boer, Willem F; Coughenour, Michael B; Grant, Cornelia C; Heitkönig, Ignas M A; Henley, Michelle; Knox, Nicky M; Kohi, Edward M; Mwakiwa, Emmanuel; Page, Bruce R; Peel, Mike; Pretorius, Yolanda; van Wieren, Sipke E; Prins, Herbert H T</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' 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onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880014768&hterms=cognition&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dcognition"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> cognition</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> cognition is the ability to reason about geometric relationships in the real (or a metaphorical) world based on one or more internal representations of those relationships. The study of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> cognition is concerned with the representation of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> knowledge, and our ability to manipulate these representations to solve <span class="hlt">spatial</span> problems. <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> cognition is utilized most critically when direct perceptual cues are absent or impoverished. Examples are provided of how human <span class="hlt">spatial</span> cognitive abilities impact on three areas of space station operator performance: orientation, path planning, and data base management. A videotape provides demonstrations of relevant phenomena (e.g., the importance of orientation for recognition of complex, configural forms). The presentation is represented by abstract and overhead visuals only.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kaiser, Mary Kister; Remington, Roger</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/47977599"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Autocorrelation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this chapter we review the concept of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> autocorrelation and its attributes. Our purpose is to outline the various\\u000a formulations and measures of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> autocorrelation and to point out how the concept helps assess the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> nature of georeferenced\\u000a data. For a fuller treatment of the subject, a number of texts, written at various junctures in the development of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arthur Getis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014tmt..confE..13O"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> gravitational lenses in the 2020s</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> gravitational lenses are a useful cosmological probe, and will continue to be so until 2020s. TMT will play a crucial role in <span class="hlt">strong</span> lens studies as it allows us to take very high <span class="hlt">spatial</span> resolution images with help of adaptive optics. In the talk I will discuss prospects for future <span class="hlt">strong</span> lens searches in wide-field surveys, and show what kind of studies will be enabled in the TMT era. I also discuss our ongoing adaptive optics observations of <span class="hlt">strongly</span> lensed quasars that highlight the difficulty and importance of an accurate characterization of the point spread function in adaptive optics observations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Oguri, Masamune</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21902696"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of acid phosphatase activity in ectomycorrhizal tissues <span class="hlt">depends</span> on soil fertility and morphotype, and relates to host plant phosphorus uptake.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Acid phosphatase (ACP) enzymes are involved in the mobilization of soil phosphorus (P) and polyphosphate accumulated in the fungal tissues of ectomycorrhizal roots, thereby influencing the amounts of P that are stored in the fungus and transferred to the host plant. This study evaluated the effects of ectomycorrhizal morphotype and soil fertility on ACP activity in the extraradical mycelium (ACP(myc)), the mantle (ACP(mantle)) and the Hartig net region (ACP(Hartig)) of ectomycorrhizal Nothofagus obliqua seedlings. ACP activity was quantified in vivo using enzyme-labelled fluorescence-97 (ELF-97) substrate, confocal laser microscopy and digital image processing routines. There was a significant effect of ectomycorrhizal morphotype on ACP(myc), ACP(mantle) and ACP(Hartig), while soil fertility had a significant effect on ACP(myc) and ACP(Hartig). The relative contribution of the mantle and the Hartig net region to the ACP activity on the ectomycorrhizal root was significantly affected by ectomycorrhizal morphotype and soil fertility. A positive correlation between ACP(Hartig) and the shoot P concentration was found, providing evidence that ACP activity at the fungus:root interface is involved in P transfer from the fungus to the host. It is concluded that the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of ACP in ectomycorrhizas varies as a function of soil fertility and colonizing fungus. PMID:21902696</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alvarez, Maricel; Huygens, Dries; Díaz, Leila Milena; Villanueva, Claudia Añazco; Heyser, Wolfgang; Boeckx, Pascal</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=522823"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependency</span> of Buruli ulcer prevalence on arsenic-enriched domains in Amansie West District, Ghana: implications for arsenic mediation in Mycobacterium ulcerans infection</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background In 1998, the World Health Organization recognized Buruli ulcer (BU), a human skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU), as the third most prevalent mycobacterial disease. In Ghana, there have been more than 2000 reported cases in the last ten years; outbreaks have occurred in at least 90 of its 110 administrative districts. In one of the worst affected districts, Amansie West, there are arsenic-enriched surface environments resulting from the oxidation of arsenic-bearing minerals, occurring naturally in mineral deposits. Results Proximity analysis, carried out to determine <span class="hlt">spatial</span> relationships between BU-affected areas and arsenic-enriched farmlands and arsenic-enriched drainage channels in the Amansie West District, showed that mean BU prevalence in settlements along arsenic-enriched drainages and within arsenic-enriched farmlands is greater than elsewhere. Furthermore, mean BU prevalence is greater along arsenic-enriched drainages than within arsenic-enriched farmlands. Conclusion The results suggest that arsenic in the environment may play a contributory role in MU infection. PMID:15369592</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Duker, Alfred A; Carranza, Emmanuel JM; Hale, Martin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..MARD35009H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temperature and <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> of the Superconducting and Pseudogap of NdFeAsO0.86F0.14.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy are used to investigate the superconducting gap and pseudogap of Fe based high-Tc superconducting material NdFeAsO0.86F0.14 at various temperatures from 17 K to 150 K. The superconducting gap (SG) in the tunneling spectra follows the BCS prediction and closes at Tc of the bulk material. Surprisingly, a pseudogap (PG) opens abruptly just above Tc and closes at 120 K, <span class="hlt">strongly</span> suggesting that the SG and PG states have competing order parameters in contrast to the cuprates. The PG state may be related to spin fluctuations in the doped materials. Research was supported in part at ORNL by Laboratory Directed Research and Development funds and by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, US DOE.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">He, X. B.; Pan, M. H.; Li, G. R.; Wendelken, J. F.; Jin, R. Y.; Sefat, A. S.; McGuire, M. A.; Sales, B. C.; Mandrus, D.; Plummer, E. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22048001"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">SPATIALLY</span> RESOLVED H{alpha} MAPS AND SIZES OF 57 <span class="hlt">STRONGLY</span> STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT z {approx} 1 FROM 3D-HST: EVIDENCE FOR RAPID INSIDE-OUT ASSEMBLY OF DISK GALAXIES</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigate the buildup of galaxies at z {approx} 1 using maps of H{alpha} and stellar continuum emission for a sample of 57 galaxies with rest-frame H{alpha} equivalent widths >100 A in the 3D-HST grism survey. We find that the H{alpha} emission broadly follows the rest-frame R-band light but that it is typically somewhat more extended and clumpy. We quantify the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution with the half-light radius. The median H{alpha} effective radius r{sub e} (H{alpha}) is 4.2 {+-} 0.1 kpc but the sizes span a large range, from compact objects with r{sub e} (H{alpha}) {approx} 1.0 kpc to extended disks with r{sub e} (H{alpha}) {approx} 15 kpc. Comparing H{alpha} sizes to continuum sizes, we find <r{sub e} (H{alpha})/r{sub e} (R) > =1.3 {+-} 0.1 for the full sample. That is, star formation, as traced by H{alpha}, typically occurs out to larger radii than the rest-frame R-band stellar continuum; galaxies are growing their radii and building up from the inside out. This effect appears to be somewhat more pronounced for the largest galaxies. Using the measured H{alpha} sizes, we derive star formation rate surface densities, {Sigma}{sub SFR}. We find that {Sigma}{sub SFR} ranges from {approx}0.05 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2} for the largest galaxies to {approx}5 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2} for the smallest galaxies, implying a large range in physical conditions in rapidly star-forming z {approx} 1 galaxies. Finally, we infer that all galaxies in the sample have very high gas mass fractions and stellar mass doubling times <500 Myr. Although other explanations are also possible, a straightforward interpretation is that we are simultaneously witnessing the rapid formation of compact bulges and large disks at z {approx} 1.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nelson, Erica June; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Bezanson, Rachel; Lundgren, Britt [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Brammer, Gabriel [European Southern Observatory, Alonson de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Foerster Schreiber, Natascha [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Patel, Shannon; Labbe, Ivo [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Leiden (Netherlands); Rix, Hans-Walter; Da Cunha, Elisabete; Schmidt, Kasper B. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy (MPIA), Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Kriek, Mariska [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Quadri, Ryan [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21505036"> <span id="translatedtitle">First-order quantum correction to the Larmor radiation from a moving charge in a <span class="hlt">spatially</span> homogeneous time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> electric field</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">First-order quantum correction to the Larmor radiation is investigated on the basis of the scalar QED on a homogeneous background of a time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> electric field, which is a generalization of a recent work by Higuchi and Walker so as to be extended for an accelerated charged particle in a relativistic motion. We obtain a simple approximate formula for the quantum correction in the limit of the relativistic motion when the direction of the particle motion is parallel to that of the electric field.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Gen [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900013602&hterms=palette+colour+algorithm+evaluation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dpalette%2Bcolour%2Balgorithm%2Bevaluation"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Displays and <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Instruments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The conference proceedings topics are divided into two main areas: (1) issues of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and picture perception raised by graphical electronic displays of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> information; and (2) design questions raised by the practical experience of designers actually defining new <span class="hlt">spatial</span> instruments for use in new aircraft and spacecraft. Each topic is considered from both a theoretical and an applied direction. Emphasis is placed on discussion of phenomena and determination of design principles.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ellis, Stephen R. (editor); Kaiser, Mary K. (editor); Grunwald, Arthur J. (editor)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3438696"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ocular following in humans: <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> properties</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ocular following responses (OFRs) are tracking eye movements elicited at ultrashort latency by the sudden movement of a textured pattern. Here we report the results of our study of their <span class="hlt">dependency</span> on the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> arrangement of the motion stimulus. Unlike previous studies that looked at the effect of stimulus size, we investigated the impact of stimulus location and how two distinct stimuli, presented together, collectively determine the OFR. We used as stimuli vertical gratings that moved in the horizontal direction and that were confined to either one or two 0.58° high strips, spanning the width of the screen. We found that the response to individual strips varied as a function of the location and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequency (SF) of the stimulus. The response decreased as the stimulus eccentricity increased, but this relationship was more accentuated at high than at low <span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequencies. We also found that when pairs of stimuli were presented, nearby stimuli interacted <span class="hlt">strongly</span>, so that the response to the pair was barely larger than the response to a single strip in the pair. This suppressive effect faded away as the separation between the strips increased. The variation of the suppressive interaction with strip separation, paired with the <span class="hlt">dependency</span> on eccentricity of the responses to single strips, caused the peak response for strip pairs to be achieved at a specific separation, which varied as a function of SF. PMID:22523400</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Quaia, Christian; Sheliga, Boris M.; FitzGibbon, Edmond J.; Optican, Lance M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.atmosp.physics.utoronto.ca/people/strong/cyril_osafts_june99.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Line Broadening and Temperature <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> in the 0 --> 3 Overtone Band of Carbon Monoxide Cyril Hnatovsky , Adriana Predoi-Cross , Kimberly <span class="hlt">Strong</span> , James R. Drummond , and D. Chris Benner1 1 1 1 2</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">, Canadian Space Agency and Industrial Research Chair in Atmospheric Remote Sounding from Space. 1 and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variations in the CO concentration [1].Anumber of ground-based and space- based remote sounding parameters for many lines of the 0 3 overtone band of CO. The spectra were recorded using a Bomem DA8</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Strong, Kimberly</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1004.4827.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Minimal <span class="hlt">strong</span> digraphs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We introduce adequate concepts of expansion of a digraph to obtain a sequential construction of minimal <span class="hlt">strong</span> digraphs. We characterize the class of minimal <span class="hlt">strong</span> digraphs whose expansion preserves the property of minimality. We prove that every minimal <span class="hlt">strong</span> digraph of order $n\\geq 2$ is the expansion of a minimal <span class="hlt">strong</span> digraph of order $n-1$ and we give sequentially generative procedures for the constructive characterization of the classes of minimal <span class="hlt">strong</span> digraphs. Finally we describe algorithms to compute unlabeled minimal <span class="hlt">strong</span> digraphs and their isospectral classes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">García-López, Jesús</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/960764"> <span id="translatedtitle">Coupled-cluster theory of a gas of <span class="hlt">strongly</span>-interacting electrons in the dilute limit</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study the ground-state properties of a dilute gas of <span class="hlt">strongly</span>-interacting fermions in the framework of the coupled-cluster expansion (CCE). We demonstrate that properties such as universality, opening of a gap in the excitation spectrum and applicability of s-wave approximations appear naturally in the CCE approach. In the zero-density limit, we show that the ground-state energy density <span class="hlt">depends</span> on only one parameter which in turn may <span class="hlt">depend</span> at most on the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> dimensionality of the system.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mihaila, Bodgan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cardenas, Andres L [Los Alamos National Laboratory</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22855789"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> and functional relationships among Pol V-associated loci, Pol IV-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> siRNAs, and cytosine methylation in the Arabidopsis epigenome.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Multisubunit RNA polymerases IV and V (Pols IV and V) mediate RNA-directed DNA methylation and transcriptional silencing of retrotransposons and heterochromatic repeats in plants. We identified genomic sites of Pol V occupancy in parallel with siRNA deep sequencing and methylcytosine mapping, comparing wild-type plants with mutants defective for Pol IV, Pol V, or both Pols IV and V. Approximately 60% of Pol V-associated regions encompass regions of 24-nucleotide (nt) siRNA complementarity and cytosine methylation, consistent with cytosine methylation being guided by base-pairing of Pol IV-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> siRNAs with Pol V transcripts. However, 27% of Pol V peaks do not overlap sites of 24-nt siRNA biogenesis or cytosine methylation, indicating that Pol V alone does not specify sites of cytosine methylation. Surprisingly, the number of methylated CHH motifs, a hallmark of RNA-directed de novo methylation, is similar in wild-type plants and Pol IV or Pol V mutants. In the mutants, methylation is lost at 50%-60% of the CHH sites that are methylated in the wild type but is gained at new CHH positions, primarily in pericentromeric regions. These results indicate that Pol IV and Pol V are not required for cytosine methyltransferase activity but shape the epigenome by guiding CHH methylation to specific genomic sites. PMID:22855789</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wierzbicki, Andrzej T; Cocklin, Ross; Mayampurath, Anoop; Lister, Ryan; Rowley, M Jordan; Gregory, Brian D; Ecker, Joseph R; Tang, Haixu; Pikaard, Craig S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1097971"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> and Functional Relationships Among Pol V-Associated loci, Pol IV-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> siRNAs, and Cytosine Methylation in the Arabidopsis Epigenome</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Multisubunit RNA polymerases IV and V (Pols IV and V) mediate RNA-directed DNA methylation and transcriptional silencing of retrotransposons and heterochromatic repeats in plants. We identified genomic sites of Pol V occupancy in parallel with siRNA deep sequencing and methylcytosine mapping, comparing wild-type plants with mutants defective for Pol IV, Pol V, or both Pols IV and V. Approximately 60% of Pol V-associated regions encompass regions of 24-nucleotide (nt) siRNA complementarity and cytosine methylation, consistent with cytosine methylation being guided by base-pairing of Pol IV-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> siRNAs with Pol V transcripts. However, 27% of Pol V peaks do not overlap sites of 24-nt siRNA biogenesis or cytosine methylation, indicating that Pol V alone does not specify sites of cytosine methylation. Surprisingly, the number of methylated CHH motifs, a hallmark of RNA-directed de novo methylation, is similar in wild-type plants and Pol IV or Pol V mutants. In the mutants, methylation is lost at 50%-60% of the CHH sites that are methylated in the wild type but is gained at new CHH positions, primarily in pericentromeric regions. These results indicate that Pol IV and Pol V are not required for cytosine methyltransferase activity but shape the epigenome by guiding CHH methylation to specific genomic sites.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wierzbicki, A. T.; Cocklin, Ross; Mayampurath, Anoop; Lister, Ryan; Rowley, M. J.; Gregory, Brian D.; Ecker, Joseph R.; Tang, Haixu; Pikaard, Craig S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40383473"> <span id="translatedtitle">Yugoslav <span class="hlt">strong</span> motion network</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Data concerning ground motion and the response of structures during <span class="hlt">strong</span> earthquakes are necessary for seismic hazard evaluation and the definition of design criteria for structures to be constructed in seismically active zones. The only way to obtain such data is the installation of a <span class="hlt">strong</span>-motion instrument network. The Yugoslav <span class="hlt">strong</span>-motion programme was created in 1972 to recover <span class="hlt">strong</span>-motion response</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vladimir Mihailov</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dcl.wustl.edu/pubs/ZacksJCN2003_031008.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">SPATIAL</span> TRANSFORMATIONS 1 Running head: Imagined Viewer and Object Rotations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">SPATIAL</span> TRANSFORMATIONS 1 Running head: Imagined Viewer and Object Rotations Imagined Viewer, JOURNAL OF COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE #12;<span class="hlt">SPATIAL</span> TRANSFORMATIONS 2 Abstract Human <span class="hlt">spatial</span> reasoning may <span class="hlt">depend</span> in part on two dissociable types of mental image transformations: object-based transformations</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zacks, Jeffrey M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.novaspatial.com/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nova <span class="hlt">Spatial</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nova <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> is a software firm which has developed GIS software for the Android (TM) mobile device platform. Products include pcMapper Lite and extensions that allow for creation of GIS shape files using just a standard smartphone.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nova Spatial LLC</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24859384"> <span id="translatedtitle">Vitamin A Deficiency Impairs <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Learning and Memory: The Mechanism of Abnormal CBP-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Histone Acetylation Regulated by Retinoic Acid Receptor Alpha.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Vitamin A (VA) is an essential micronutrient. Numerous studies have confirmed that VA deficiency (VAD) leads to a decline in learning and memory function. Our previous studies have demonstrated that retinoic acid nuclear receptor ? (RAR?) in the hippocampus plays a crucial role in learning and memory, but the exact mechanism for this process is unclear. Epigenetic modifications, particularly histone acetylation, are involved in nervous system development, learning and memory function, and the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs), such as CREB-binding protein (CBP), E1A-binding protein p300 (p300), and p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF), are critical for regulating memory function. The current study uses RAR? and CBP as examples to study the connections between the RA signaling pathway and histone acetylation modification and to reveal the epigenetic mechanism in VAD-induced learning and memory impairment. This study examined the expression of RAR?, HATs, acetylated histone H3/H4, and memory-related genes (Zif268, cFos, FosB), as well as the interaction of RAR? and CBP in the hippocampus of 8-week-old rats. Additionally, the changes shown in vivo were further assessed in primary cultured neurons with the inhibition or overexpression of RAR?. We found significantly lower levels of histone acetylation in the VAD rats. Furthermore, this downregulation, which impairs learning and memory, is induced by the dysregulation of CBP-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> histone acetylation that is mediated by RAR?. This work provides a solid theoretical foundation and experimental basis for the importance of ensuring sufficient nutritional VA during pregnancy and early life to prevent impairments of learning and memory in adulthood. PMID:24859384</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hou, Nali; Ren, Lan; Gong, Min; Bi, Yang; Gu, Yan; Dong, Zhifang; Liu, Youxue; Chen, Jie; Li, Tingyu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4012025"> <span id="translatedtitle">Serial <span class="hlt">dependence</span> in visual perception</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Visual input often arrives in a noisy and discontinuous stream, owing to head and eye movements, occlusion, lighting changes, and many other factors. Yet the physical world is generally stable—objects and physical characteristics rarely change spontaneously. How then does the human visual system capitalize on continuity in the physical environment over time? Here we show that visual perception is serially <span class="hlt">dependent</span>, using both prior and present input to inform perception at the present moment. Using an orientation judgment task, we found that even when visual input changes randomly over time, perceived orientation is <span class="hlt">strongly</span> and systematically biased toward recently seen stimuli. Further, the strength of this bias is modulated by attention and tuned to the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and temporal proximity of successive stimuli. These results reveal a serial <span class="hlt">dependence</span> in perception characterized by a spatiotemporally tuned, orientation-selective operator—which we call a continuity field—that may promote visual stability over time. PMID:24686785</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fischer, Jason; Whitney, David</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a 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href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://epsppd.epfl.ch/Praha/WEB/98icpp_w/e040pr.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">ON INTERACTION OF <span class="hlt">STRONG</span> LHW WITH ELECTRONS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The diffusion of electrons in velocity space induced by a spectrum of electrostatic waves has been numerically investigated in (1). A <span class="hlt">strong</span> disagreement between the numerically obtained diffusion coefficient and the quasilinear one has been found at electric field amplitudes exceeding 104 V\\/m, narrow spectra and short (<span class="hlt">spatial</span>) lengths of the interaction region, which are however usual in Lower Hybrid</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. Krl; P. Pavlo; V. Petr</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4000839"> <span id="translatedtitle">Natural auditory scene statistics shapes human <span class="hlt">spatial</span> hearing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Human perception, cognition, and action are laced with seemingly arbitrary mappings. In particular, sound has a <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> connotation: Sounds are high and low, melodies rise and fall, and pitch systematically biases perceived sound elevation. The origins of such mappings are unknown. Are they the result of physiological constraints, do they reflect natural environmental statistics, or are they truly arbitrary? We recorded natural sounds from the environment, analyzed the elevation-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> filtering of the outer ear, and measured frequency-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> biases in human sound localization. We find that auditory scene statistics reveals a clear mapping between frequency and elevation. Perhaps more interestingly, this natural statistical mapping is tightly mirrored in both ear-filtering properties and in perceived sound location. This suggests that both sound localization behavior and ear anatomy are fine-tuned to the statistics of natural auditory scenes, likely providing the basis for the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> connotation of human hearing. PMID:24711409</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Parise, Cesare V.; Knorre, Katharina; Ernst, Marc O.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70132466"> <span id="translatedtitle">High-resolution delineation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in a dipping, fractured mudstone: depth- and strata-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variability from rock-core sampling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Synthesis of rock-core sampling and chlorinated volatile organic compound (CVOC) analysis at five coreholes, with hydraulic and water-quality monitoring and a detailed hydrogeologic framework, was used to characterize the fine-scale distribution of CVOCs in dipping, fractured mudstones of the Lockatong Formation of Triassic age, of the Newark Basin in West Trenton, New Jersey. From these results, a refined conceptual model for more than 55 years of migration of CVOCs and depth- and strata-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> rock-matrix contamination was developed. Industrial use of trichloroethene (TCE) at the former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) from 1953 to 1995 resulted in dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) TCE and dissolved TCE and related breakdown products, including other CVOCs, in underlying mudstones. Shallow highly weathered and fractured strata overlie unweathered, gently dipping, fractured strata that become progressively less fractured with depth. The unweathered lithology includes black highly fractured (fissile) carbon-rich strata, gray mildly fractured thinly layered (laminated) strata, and light-gray weakly fractured massive strata. CVOC concentrations in water samples pumped from the shallow weathered and highly fractured strata remain elevated near residual DNAPL TCE, but dilution by uncontaminated recharge, and other natural and engineered attenuation processes, have substantially reduced concentrations along flow paths removed from sources and residual DNAPL. CVOCs also were detected in most rock-core samples in source areas in shallow wells. In many locations, lower aqueous concentrations, compared to rock core concentrations, suggest that CVOCs are presently back-diffusing from the rock matrix. Below the weathered and highly fractured strata, and to depths of at least 50 meters (m), groundwater flow and contaminant transport is primarily in bedding-plane-oriented fractures in thin fissile high-carbon strata, and in fractured, laminated strata of the gently dipping mudstones. Despite more than 18 years of pump and treat (P&T) remediation, and natural attenuation processes, CVOC concentrations in aqueous samples pumped from these deeper strata remain elevated in isolated intervals. DNAPL was detected in one borehole during coring at a depth of 27 m. In contrast to core samples from the weathered zone, concentrations in core samples from deeper unweathered and unfractured strata are typically below detection. However, high CVOC concentrations were found in isolated samples from fissile black carbon-rich strata and fractured gray laminated strata. Aqueous-phase concentrations were correspondingly high in samples pumped from these strata via short-interval wells or packer-isolated zones in long boreholes. A refined conceptual site model considers that prior to P&T remediation groundwater flow was primarily subhorizontal in the higher-permeability near surface strata, and the bulk of contaminant mass was shallow. CVOCs diffused into these fractured and weathered mudstones. DNAPL and high concentrations of CVOCs migrated slowly down in deeper unweathered strata, primarily along isolated dipping bedding-plane fractures. After P&T began in 1995, using wells open to both shallow and deep strata, downward transport of dissolved CVOCs accelerated. Diffusion of TCE and other CVOCs from deeper fractures penetrated only a few centimeters into the unweathered rock matrix, likely due to sorption of CVOCs on rock organic carbon. Remediation in the deep, unweathered strata may benefit from the relatively limited migration of CVOCs into the rock matrix. Synthesis of rock core sampling from closely spaced boreholes with geophysical logging and hydraulic testing improves understanding of the controls on CVOC delineation and informs remediation design and monitoring.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Goode, Daniel J.; Imbrigiotta, Thomas E.; Lacombe, Pierre J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25461882"> <span id="translatedtitle">High-resolution delineation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in a dipping, fractured mudstone: Depth- and strata-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variability from rock-core sampling.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Synthesis of rock-core sampling and chlorinated volatile organic compound (CVOC) analysis at five coreholes, with hydraulic and water-quality monitoring and a detailed hydrogeologic framework, was used to characterize the fine-scale distribution of CVOCs in dipping, fractured mudstones of the Lockatong Formation of Triassic age, of the Newark Basin in West Trenton, New Jersey. From these results, a refined conceptual model for more than 55years of migration of CVOCs and depth- and strata-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> rock-matrix contamination was developed. Industrial use of trichloroethene (TCE) at the former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) from 1953 to 1995 resulted in dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) TCE and dissolved TCE and related breakdown products, including other CVOCs, in underlying mudstones. Shallow highly weathered and fractured strata overlie unweathered, gently dipping, fractured strata that become progressively less fractured with depth. The unweathered lithology includes black highly fractured (fissile) carbon-rich strata, gray mildly fractured thinly layered (laminated) strata, and light-gray weakly fractured massive strata. CVOC concentrations in water samples pumped from the shallow weathered and highly fractured strata remain elevated near residual DNAPL TCE, but dilution by uncontaminated recharge, and other natural and engineered attenuation processes, have substantially reduced concentrations along flow paths removed from sources and residual DNAPL. CVOCs also were detected in most rock-core samples in source areas in shallow wells. In many locations, lower aqueous concentrations, compared to rock core concentrations, suggest that CVOCs are presently back-diffusing from the rock matrix. Below the weathered and highly fractured strata, and to depths of at least 50 meters (m), groundwater flow and contaminant transport is primarily in bedding-plane-oriented fractures in thin fissile high-carbon strata, and in fractured, laminated strata of the gently dipping mudstones. Despite more than 18 years of pump and treat (P&T) remediation, and natural attenuation processes, CVOC concentrations in aqueous samples pumped from these deeper strata remain elevated in isolated intervals. DNAPL was detected in one borehole during coring at a depth of 27 m. In contrast to core samples from the weathered zone, concentrations in core samples from deeper unweathered and unfractured strata are typically below detection. However, high CVOC concentrations were found in isolated samples from fissile black carbon-rich strata and fractured gray laminated strata. Aqueous-phase concentrations were correspondingly high in samples pumped from these strata via short-interval wells or packer-isolated zones in long boreholes. A refined conceptual site model considers that prior to P&T remediation groundwater flow was primarily subhorizontal in the higher-permeability near surface strata, and the bulk of contaminant mass was shallow. CVOCs diffused into these fractured and weathered mudstones. DNAPL and high concentrations of CVOCs migrated slowly down in deeper unweathered strata, primarily along isolated dipping bedding-plane fractures. After P&T began in 1995, using wells open to both shallow and deep strata, downward transport of dissolved CVOCs accelerated. Diffusion of TCE and other CVOCs from deeper fractures penetrated only a few centimeters into the unweathered rock matrix, likely due to sorption of CVOCs on rock organic carbon. Remediation in the deep, unweathered strata may benefit from the relatively limited migration of CVOCs into the rock matrix. Synthesis of rock core sampling from closely spaced boreholes with geophysical logging and hydraulic testing improves understanding of the controls on CVOC delineation and informs remediation design and monitoring. PMID:25461882</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Goode, Daniel J; Imbrigiotta, Thomas E; Lacombe, Pierre J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-12-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JCHyd.171....1G"> <span id="translatedtitle">High-resolution delineation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in a dipping, fractured mudstone: Depth- and strata-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variability from rock-core sampling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Synthesis of rock-core sampling and chlorinated volatile organic compound (CVOC) analysis at five coreholes, with hydraulic and water-quality monitoring and a detailed hydrogeologic framework, was used to characterize the fine-scale distribution of CVOCs in dipping, fractured mudstones of the Lockatong Formation of Triassic age, of the Newark Basin in West Trenton, New Jersey. From these results, a refined conceptual model for more than 55 years of migration of CVOCs and depth- and strata-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> rock-matrix contamination was developed. Industrial use of trichloroethene (TCE) at the former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) from 1953 to 1995 resulted in dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) TCE and dissolved TCE and related breakdown products, including other CVOCs, in underlying mudstones. Shallow highly weathered and fractured strata overlie unweathered, gently dipping, fractured strata that become progressively less fractured with depth. The unweathered lithology includes black highly fractured (fissile) carbon-rich strata, gray mildly fractured thinly layered (laminated) strata, and light-gray weakly fractured massive strata. CVOC concentrations in water samples pumped from the shallow weathered and highly fractured strata remain elevated near residual DNAPL TCE, but dilution by uncontaminated recharge, and other natural and engineered attenuation processes, have substantially reduced concentrations along flow paths removed from sources and residual DNAPL. CVOCs also were detected in most rock-core samples in source areas in shallow wells. In many locations, lower aqueous concentrations, compared to rock core concentrations, suggest that CVOCs are presently back-diffusing from the rock matrix. Below the weathered and highly fractured strata, and to depths of at least 50 meters (m), groundwater flow and contaminant transport is primarily in bedding-plane-oriented fractures in thin fissile high-carbon strata, and in fractured, laminated strata of the gently dipping mudstones. Despite more than 18 years of pump and treat (P&T) remediation, and natural attenuation processes, CVOC concentrations in aqueous samples pumped from these deeper strata remain elevated in isolated intervals. DNAPL was detected in one borehole during coring at a depth of 27 m. In contrast to core samples from the weathered zone, concentrations in core samples from deeper unweathered and unfractured strata are typically below detection. However, high CVOC concentrations were found in isolated samples from fissile black carbon-rich strata and fractured gray laminated strata. Aqueous-phase concentrations were correspondingly high in samples pumped from these strata via short-interval wells or packer-isolated zones in long boreholes. A refined conceptual site model considers that prior to P&T remediation groundwater flow was primarily subhorizontal in the higher-permeability near surface strata, and the bulk of contaminant mass was shallow. CVOCs diffused into these fractured and weathered mudstones. DNAPL and high concentrations of CVOCs migrated slowly down in deeper unweathered strata, primarily along isolated dipping bedding-plane fractures. After P&T began in 1995, using wells open to both shallow and deep strata, downward transport of dissolved CVOCs accelerated. Diffusion of TCE and other CVOCs from deeper fractures penetrated only a few centimeters into the unweathered rock matrix, likely due to sorption of CVOCs on rock organic carbon. Remediation in the deep, unweathered strata may benefit from the relatively limited migration of CVOCs into the rock matrix. Synthesis of rock core sampling from closely spaced boreholes with geophysical logging and hydraulic testing improves understanding of the controls on CVOC delineation and informs remediation design and monitoring.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Goode, Daniel J.; Imbrigiotta, Thomas E.; Lacombe, Pierre J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dl.uncw.edu/digilib/chemistry/physical%20and%20theoretical%20chemistry/theory%20of%20solution/nonstrongweak2a.avi"> <span id="translatedtitle">Conductivity of <span class="hlt">Strong</span>, Weak, and Nonelectrolyte Solutions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This is a video clip of <span class="hlt">strong</span>, weak, and nonelectrolyte solutions conducting electricity. Each solution is tested with the light bulb apparatus and the bulb glows brightly, dimly, or not at all <span class="hlt">depending</span> on the solution.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dr. Charles Ward</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/16026"> <span id="translatedtitle">Time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> density-functional theory for <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field multiphoton processes: Application to the study of the role of dynamical electron correlation in multiple high-order harmonic generation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a self-interaction-free time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> density-functional theory (TDDFT) for nonperturbative treatment of multiphoton processes of many-electron atomic systems in intense laser fields. The theory is based on the ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tong, Xiao-Min; Chu, Shih-I</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/15991"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of electron structure and multielectron dynamical response on <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field multiphoton ionization of diatomic molecules with arbitrary orientation: An all-electron time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> density-functional-theory approach</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> density-functional-theory approach for the ab initio study of the effect of correlated multielectron responses on the multiphoton ionization (MPI) of diatomic molecules N2, O2, and F2 in intense ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chu, Shih-I; Telnov, Dmitry A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-03</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/16025"> <span id="translatedtitle">Time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> density-functional theory for molecular processes in <span class="hlt">strong</span> fields: Study of multiphoton processes and dynamical response of individual valence electrons of N2 in intense laser fields</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> density-functional theory (TDDFT) with proper asymptotic long-range potential for nonperturbative treatment of multiphoton processes of many-electron molecular systems in intense laser fields. ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chu, Xi; Chu, Shih-I</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-11-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dcl.wustl.edu/pubs/Zacks05_SCC_inpress.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">SPATIAL</span> TRANSFORMATIONS 1 Running head: <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> transformations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">SPATIAL</span> TRANSFORMATIONS 1 Running head: <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> transformations Multiple Systems for <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Imagery: Transformations of Objects and Bodies Jeffrey M. Zacks* and Barbara Tversky * Washington COGNITION & COMPUTATION #12;<span class="hlt">SPATIAL</span> TRANSFORMATIONS 2 Abstract Problem-solving often requires imagining</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zacks, Jeffrey M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24364723"> <span id="translatedtitle">One <span class="hlt">spatial</span> map or many? <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> coding of connected environments.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigated how humans encode large-scale <span class="hlt">spatial</span> environments using a virtual taxi game. We hypothesized that if 2 connected neighborhoods are explored jointly, people will form a single integrated <span class="hlt">spatial</span> representation of the town. However, if the neighborhoods are first learned separately and later observed to be connected, people will form separate <span class="hlt">spatial</span> representations; this should incur an accuracy cost when inferring directions from one neighborhood to the other. Interestingly, our data instead suggest that people have a very <span class="hlt">strong</span> tendency to form local representations, regardless of whether the neighborhoods were learned together or separately. Only when all visible distinctions between neighborhoods were removed did people behave as if they formed one integrated <span class="hlt">spatial</span> representation. These data are broadly consistent with evidence from rodent hippocampal place cell recordings in connected boxes, and with hierarchical models of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> coding. PMID:24364723</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Han, Xue; Becker, Suzanna</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013qopu.conf..164F"> <span id="translatedtitle">LHC Phenomenology and Lattice <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Dynamics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">While the LHC experimentalists work to find evidence of physics beyond the standard model, lattice gauge theorists are working as well to characterize the range of possible phenomena in <span class="hlt">strongly</span>-coupled models of electroweak symmetry breaking. I will summarize the current progress of the Lattice <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Dynamics (LSD) collaboration on the flavor <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of SU(3) gauge theories.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fleming, G. T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ecf.caltech.edu/~heaton/papers/Strength_IASPEI.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Implications of <span class="hlt">Strong</span>-Rate-Weakening Friction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Implications of <span class="hlt">Strong</span>-Rate- Weakening Friction for the Length-Scale <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> of the Strength · Rapid transitions between high static friction and very low dynamic friction · Leads to slip-pulse rupture · Slip pulses are extremely localized and have <span class="hlt">strong</span> positive feedback between friction and slip</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Greer, Julia R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25244100"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatially</span> confined assembly of nanoparticles.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The ability to assemble NPs into ordered structures that are expected to yield collective physical or chemical properties has afforded new and exciting opportunities in the field of nanotechnology. Among the various configurations of nanoparticle assemblies, two-dimensional (2D) NP patterns and one-dimensional (1D) NP arrays on surfaces are regarded as the ideal assembly configurations for many technological devices, for example, solar cells, magnetic memory, switching devices, and sensing devices, due to their unique transport phenomena and the cooperative properties of NPs in assemblies. To realize the potential applications of NP assemblies, especially in nanodevice-related applications, certain key issues must still be resolved, for example, ordering and alignment, manipulating and positioning in nanodevices, and multicomponent or hierarchical structures of NP assemblies for device integration. Additionally, the assembly of NPs with high precision and high levels of integration and uniformity for devices with scaled-down dimensions has become a key and challenging issue. Two-dimensional NP patterns and 1D NP arrays are obtained using traditional lithography techniques (top-down strategies) or interfacial assembly techniques (bottom-up strategies). However, a formidable challenge that persists is the controllable assembly of NPs in desired locations over large areas with high precision and high levels of integration. The difficulty of this assembly is due to the low efficiency of small features over large areas in lithography techniques or the inevitable structural defects that occur during the assembly process. The combination of self-assembly strategies with existing nanofabrication techniques could potentially provide effective and distinctive solutions for fabricating NPs with precise position control and high resolution. Furthermore, the synergistic combination of <span class="hlt">spatially</span> mediated interactions between nanoparticles and prestructures on surfaces may play an increasingly important role in the controllable assembly of NPs. In this Account, we summarize our approaches and progress in fabricating <span class="hlt">spatially</span> confined assemblies of NPs that allow for the positioning of NPs with high resolution and considerable throughput. The <span class="hlt">spatially</span> selective assembly of NPs at the desired location can be achieved by various mechanisms, such as, a controlled dewetting process, electrostatically mediated assembly of particles, and confined deposition and growth of NPs. Three nanofabrication techniques used to produce prepatterns on a substrate are summarized: the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) patterning technique, e-beam lithography (EBL), and nanoimprint lithography (NPL). The particle density, particle size, or interparticle distance in NP assemblies <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">depends</span> on the geometric parameters of the template structure due to <span class="hlt">spatial</span> confinement. In addition, with smart design template structures, multiplexed NPs can be assembled into a defined structure, thus demonstrating the structural and functional complexity required for highly integrated and multifunction applications. PMID:25244100</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jiang, Lin; Chen, Xiaodong; Lu, Nan; Chi, Lifeng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57505167"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> anxiety relates to <span class="hlt">spatial</span> abilities as a function of working memory in children</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> ability is a <span class="hlt">strong</span> predictor of students' pursuit of higher education in science and mathematics. However, very little is known about the affective factors that influence individual differences in <span class="hlt">spatial</span> ability, particularly at a young age. We examine the role of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> anxiety in young children's performance on a mental rotation task. We show that even at a young</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gerardo Ramirez; Elizabeth A. Gunderson; Susan C. Levine; Sian L. Beilock</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9136E..0KF"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> nonlocal interaction stabilizes cavity solitons with a varying size plateau</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cavity solitons are localized light peaks in the transverse section of nonlinear resonators. These structures are usually formed under a coexistence condition between a homogeneous background of radiation and a self- organized patterns resulting from a Turing type of instabilities. In this issue, most of studies have been realized ignoring the nonlocal e?ects. Non-local e?ects can play an important role in the formation of cavity solitons in optics, population dynamics and plant ecology. <span class="hlt">Depending</span> on the choice of the nonlocal interaction function, the nonlocal coupling can be <span class="hlt">strong</span> or weak. When the nonlocal coupling is <span class="hlt">strong</span>, the interaction between fronts is controlled by the whole non-local interaction function. Recently it has shown that this type of nonlocal coupling <span class="hlt">strongly</span> a?ects the dynamics of fronts connecting two homogeneous steady states and leads to the stabilization of cavity solitons with a varying size plateau. Here, we consider a ring passive cavity filled with a Kerr medium like a liquid crystal or left-handed materials and driven by a coherent injected beam. We show that cavity solitons resulting for <span class="hlt">strong</span> front interaction are stable in one and two-dimensional setting out of any type of Turing instability. Their <span class="hlt">spatial</span> profile is characterized by a varying size plateau. Our results can apply to large class of <span class="hlt">spatially</span> extended systems with <span class="hlt">strong</span> nonlocal coupling.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fernandez-Oto, Cristian; Tlidi, Mustapha; Escaff, Daniel; Clerc, Marcel; Kockaert, Pascal</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15089118"> <span id="translatedtitle">Phase transitions driven by state-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> poisson noise.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nonlinear systems driven by state-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> Poisson noise are introduced to model the persistence of climatic anomalies in land-atmosphere interaction caused by the soil-moisture <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the frequency of rainfall events. It is found that these systems may give rise to bimodal probability distributions, while the state variable randomly persists around the preferential states because of transient dynamics that are opposite to the long-term behavior. Mean-field analysis and numerical simulations of the <span class="hlt">spatially</span> distributed systems reveal a symmetry-breaking bifurcation for sufficiently <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> diffusive couplings and intermediate noise intensities. In such conditions, the initial development of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> patterns is followed by a stable configuration, selected on the bases of the initial conditions in correspondence of the remnants of the modes of the uncoupled system. PMID:15089118</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Porporato, Amilcare; D'Odorico, Paolo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-03-19</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50583909"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluating <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Data Quality in GIS Database</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The quality of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> data is often limited by the quality of their sources such as paper maps and satellite images. <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> operations performed on database of geographical information systems (GIS) such as selection, projection, and Cartesian product, do not always work correctly because their accuracy and completeness <span class="hlt">depends</span> on the quality of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> data. The present paper suggests a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ying Su; Lei Yang; Zhanming Jin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ822991.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> Navajo Marriages</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this qualitative study, conducted in two Navajo Nation chapters, was to learn what makes Navajo marriages <span class="hlt">strong</span> because no research has been done on this topic. Twenty-one Navajo couples (42 individuals) who felt they had <span class="hlt">strong</span> marriages volunteered to participate in the study. Couples identified the following marital strengths:…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Skogrand, Linda; Mueller, Mary Lou; Arrington, Rachel; LeBlanc, Heidi; Spotted Elk, Davina; Dayzie, Irene; Rosenbrand, Reva</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.chemeddl.org/alfresco/service/org/chemeddl/nsdl/groups?id=chemeddl_1130&guest=true"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> Acids (GCMP)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> Acids: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". This problem will explore the properties of common <span class="hlt">strong</span> acids. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return 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onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=boundary+AND+value&id=EJ851282"> <span id="translatedtitle">What Is <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Correlation?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Interpretation of correlation is often based on rules of thumb in which some boundary values are given to help decide whether correlation is non-important, weak, <span class="hlt">strong</span> or very <span class="hlt">strong</span>. This article shows that such rules of thumb may do more harm than good, and instead of supporting interpretation of correlation--which is their aim--they teach a…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kozak, Marcin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JAP...102f3310M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measurement and modeling of Ar /H2/CH4 arc jet discharge chemical vapor deposition reactors II: Modeling of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of expanded plasma parameters and species number densities</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Detailed methodology and results are presented for a two-dimensional (r,z) computer model applicable to dc arc jet reactors operating on argon/hydrogen/hydrocarbon gas mixtures and used for chemical vapor deposition of micro- and nanocrystalline diamond and diamondlike carbon films. The model incorporates gas activation, expansion into the low pressure reactor chamber, and the chemistry of the neutral and charged species. It predicts the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variation of temperature, flow velocities and number densities of 25 neutral and 14 charged species, and the <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of these parameters on the operating conditions of the reactor such as flows of H2 and CH4 and input power. Selected outcomes of the model are compared with experimental data in the accompanying paper [C. J. Rennick et al., J. Appl. Phys. 102, 063309 (2007)]. Two-dimensional <span class="hlt">spatial</span> maps of the number densities of key radical and molecular species in the reactor, derived from the model, provide a summary of the complicated chemical processing that occurs. In the vortex region beyond the plume, the key transformations are CH4?CH3?C2H2?large hydrocarbons; in the plume or the transition zone to the cooler regions, the chemical processing involves C2Hx?(CHyandCHz), C3Hx?(CHyandC2Hz), (C2HyandC2Hz)?C4Hx?(CHyandC3Hz). <span class="hlt">Depending</span> on the local gas temperature Tg and the H /H2 ratio, the equilibria of H-shifting reactions favor C, CH, and C2 species (in the hot, H-rich axial region of the plume) or CH2, C2H, and C2H2 species (at the outer boundary of the transition zone). Deductions are drawn about the most abundant C-containing radical species incident on the growing diamond surface (C atoms and CH radicals) within this reactor, and the importance of chemistry involving charged species is discussed. Modifications to the boundary conditions and model reactor geometry allow its application to a lower power arc jet reactor operated and extensively studied by Jeffries and co-workers at SRI International, and comparisons are drawn with the reported laser induced fluorescence data from these studies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mankelevich, Yu. A.; Ashfold, M. N. R.; Orr-Ewing, A. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/p1hw2556q52k6123.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> and House Price Index Construction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Accurate estimation of prevailing metropolitan housing prices is important for both business and research investigations of housing and mortgage markets. This is typically done by constructing quality-adjusted house price indices from hedonic price regressions for given metropolitan areas. A major limitation of currently available indices is their insensitivity to the geographic location of dwellings within the metropolitan area. Indices are</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ay se Can; Isaac Megbolugbe</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://mcb.asm.org/cgi/reprint/23/23/8829.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Recruitment of SWI\\/SNF by Gcn4p Does Not Require Snf2p or Gcn5p but <span class="hlt">Depends</span> <span class="hlt">Strongly</span> on SWI\\/SNF Integrity, SRB Mediator, and SAGA</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The nucleosome remodeling complex SWI\\/SNF is a coactivator for yeast transcriptional activator Gcn4p. We provide <span class="hlt">strong</span> evidence that Gcn4p recruits the entire SWI\\/SNF complex to its target genes ARG1 and SNZ1 but that SWI\\/SNF is dispensable for Gcn4p binding to these promoters. It was shown previously that Snf2p\\/Swi2p, Snf5p, and Swi1p interact directly with Gcn4p in vitro. However, we found</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sungpil Yoon; Hongfang Qiu; Mark J. Swanson; Alan G. Hinnebusch</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19412624"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> and environmental factors contributing to patterns in arboreal and terrestrial oribatid mite diversity across <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Understanding the conditions under which species traits, species-environment relationships, and the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> structure of the landscape interact to shape local communities requires quantifying the relative contributions of space and the environment on community composition. Using analogous sampling of arboreal and terrestrial oribatid mite communities across a large <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale in a temperate rainforest, we quantified the variation in oribatid mite community structure relating to environmental and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> factors, and tested whether terrestrial and arboreal communities demonstrated a difference in their patterns of community composition based on the assumption of differences in dispersal potential. The expectation that terrestrial oribatid mite communities are <span class="hlt">spatially</span> structured while arboreal communities are environmentally structured was supported by our analyses at the level of variation in beta diversity, but not by assessing beta diversity itself. We found that terrestrial oribatid mite communities with active, cursorial dispersal demonstrate <span class="hlt">spatial</span> constraint consistent with reduced long-distance dispersal opportunities and high environmental dissimilarity among sites. Arboreal communities, which potentially disperse long distances via passive aerial vectors, show a <span class="hlt">spatial</span> signature associated with patterns in beta diversity and a correlation with environmental dissimilarities among sites. In the arboreal community, moisture content of the substrate, total tree height, and average sampled branch height were significant factors explaining beta diversity patterns. For ground-dwelling species, predator abundance and soil type were important local determinants of community variability. Both communities showed clear <span class="hlt">spatial</span> structuring, suggesting that dispersal limitation continues to influence community composition across multiple forest watershed locations. Our results provide evidence of dispersal-maintained diversity patterns in response to local environmental factors in arboreal and terrestrial communities. The relative importance of stochastic dispersal assembly may be <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on <span class="hlt">strong</span> deterministic effects associated with micro-site and macro-site environmental variation, particularly across large <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales. PMID:19412624</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lindo, Zoë; Winchester, Neville N</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://webdocs.cs.ualberta.ca/~jmodayil/papers/Modayil-icdl-10.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Discovering Sensor Space: Constructing <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Embeddings That Explain</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Discovering Sensor Space: Constructing <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Embeddings That Explain Sensor Correlations Joseph a sensor space from sensor correlations, namely the algorithm generates a <span class="hlt">spatial</span> embedding of sensors where <span class="hlt">strongly</span> correlated sensors will be neighbors in the embedding. The algorithm first infers</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Modayil, Joseph</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvE..86f6110R"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> effects in real networks: Measures, null models, and applications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Spatially</span> embedded networks are shaped by a combination of purely topological (space-independent) and space-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> formation rules. While it is quite easy to artificially generate networks where the relative importance of these two factors can be varied arbitrarily, it is much more difficult to disentangle these two architectural effects in real networks. Here we propose a solution to this problem, by introducing global and local measures of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> effects that, through a comparison with adequate null models, effectively filter out the spurious contribution of nonspatial constraints. Our filtering allows us to consistently compare different embedded networks or different historical snapshots of the same network. As a challenging application we analyze the World Trade Web, whose topology is known to <span class="hlt">depend</span> on geographic distances but is also <span class="hlt">strongly</span> determined by nonspatial constraints (degree sequence or gross domestic product). Remarkably, we are able to detect weak but significant <span class="hlt">spatial</span> effects both locally and globally in the network, showing that our method succeeds in retrieving <span class="hlt">spatial</span> information even when nonspatial factors dominate. We finally relate our results to the economic literature on gravity models and trade globalization.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ruzzenenti, Franco; Picciolo, Francesco; Basosi, Riccardo; Garlaschelli, Diego</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/88691"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strongly</span> interacting Fermi gases</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Strongly</span> interacting gases of ultracold fermions have become an amazingly rich test-bed for many-body theories of fermionic matter. Here we present our recent experiments on these systems. Firstly, we discuss high-precision ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bakr, W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/15993"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of multiple electronic shells on <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field multiphoton ionization and high-order harmonic generation of diatomic molecules with arbitrary orientation: An all-electron time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> density-functional approach</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">, the first few harmonics #2;3 to 7#1; always manifest <span class="hlt">strong</span> involvement of #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0;#0; #0;#0; #0;#0; #0;#0; #0;#0; #0;#0; #0;#0; #0;#0; #0;#0; #0;#0; #0;#0; #0;#0; #0;#0; #0;#0...; #0;#0; #0;#0; #0;#0; #0;#0; #0;#0; #0;#0; #0;#0; #0;#0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0; #0...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chu, Shih-I; Telnov, Dmitry A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-10-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3435965"> <span id="translatedtitle">CMEIAS-Aided Microscopy of the <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Ecology of Individual Bacterial Interactions Involving Cell-to-Cell Communication within Biofilms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper describes how the quantitative analytical tools of CMEIAS image analysis software can be used to investigate in situ microbial interactions involving cell-to-cell communication within biofilms. Various <span class="hlt">spatial</span> pattern analyses applied to the data extracted from the 2-dimensional coordinate positioning of individual bacterial cells at single-cell resolution indicate that microbial colonization within natural biofilms is not a <span class="hlt">spatially</span> random process, but rather involves <span class="hlt">strong</span> positive interactions between communicating cells that influence their neighbors' aggregated colonization behavior. Geostatistical analysis of the data provide statistically defendable estimates of the micrometer scale and interpolation maps of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> heterogeneity and local intensity at which these microbial interactions autocorrelate with their <span class="hlt">spatial</span> patterns of distribution. Including in situ image analysis in cell communication studies fills an important gap in understanding the <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> microbial ecophysiology that governs the intensity of biofilm colonization and its unique architecture. PMID:22969336</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dazzo, Frank B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22969336"> <span id="translatedtitle">CMEIAS-aided microscopy of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> ecology of individual bacterial interactions involving cell-to-cell communication within biofilms.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper describes how the quantitative analytical tools of CMEIAS image analysis software can be used to investigate in situ microbial interactions involving cell-to-cell communication within biofilms. Various <span class="hlt">spatial</span> pattern analyses applied to the data extracted from the 2-dimensional coordinate positioning of individual bacterial cells at single-cell resolution indicate that microbial colonization within natural biofilms is not a <span class="hlt">spatially</span> random process, but rather involves <span class="hlt">strong</span> positive interactions between communicating cells that influence their neighbors' aggregated colonization behavior. Geostatistical analysis of the data provide statistically defendable estimates of the micrometer scale and interpolation maps of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> heterogeneity and local intensity at which these microbial interactions autocorrelate with their <span class="hlt">spatial</span> patterns of distribution. Including in situ image analysis in cell communication studies fills an important gap in understanding the <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> microbial ecophysiology that governs the intensity of biofilm colonization and its unique architecture. PMID:22969336</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dazzo, Frank B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20771435"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> structure of neutron Cooper pair in low density uniform matter</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">spatial</span> structure of the neutron Cooper pair in superfluid low-density uniform matter is analyzed by means of BCS calculations employing a bare force and the effective Gogny interaction. It is shown that the Cooper pair exhibits a <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> dineutron correlation over a wide range of neutron densities {rho}/{rho}{sub 0}{approx_equal}10{sup -4}-0.5. This feature is related to the crossover behavior between the pairing of the weak coupling BCS type and the Bose-Einstein condensation of bound neutron pairs. It is also shown that the zero-range {delta} interaction can describe the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> structure of the neutron Cooper pair if the density-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> interaction strength and the cutoff energy are appropriately chosen. Parametrizations of the density-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> {delta} interaction satisfying this condition are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Matsuo, Masayuki [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-04-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48260225"> <span id="translatedtitle">Retinoic acid increases amount of phosphorylated raf; Ectopic expression of cFMS reveals that retinoic acid-induced differentiation is more <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on ERK2 signaling than induced go arrest is</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary  Retinoic acid is known to cause the myeloid differentiation and G1\\/0 cell cycle arrest of HL-60 cells in a process that requires\\u000a mitogen-activated protein\\/extracellular signal regulated kinase (MEK)-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK)2\\u000a activation. It has also been shown that ectopic expression of cFMS, a platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-family transmembrane\\u000a tyrosine kinase receptor, enhances retinoic acid-induced differentiation and G1\\/0 arrest.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Andrew Yen; Rhonda Sturgill; Susi Varvayanis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www-bcf.usc.edu/~kpsounis/Papers/sensordatacorr_journal.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling <span class="hlt">Spatially</span> Correlated Data in Sensor Networks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Modeling <span class="hlt">Spatially</span> Correlated Data in Sensor Networks APOORVA JINDAL and KONSTANTINOS PSOUNIS University of Southern California The physical phenomena monitored by sensor networks, for example, forest temperature or water contamination, usually yield sensed data that are <span class="hlt">strongly</span> correlated in space</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2827858"> <span id="translatedtitle">On <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Anticipation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We examine Dubois's (2003) distinction between weak anticipation and <span class="hlt">strong</span> anticipation. Anticipation is weak if it arises from a model of the system via internal simulations. Anticipation is <span class="hlt">strong</span> if it arises from the system itself via lawful regularities embedded in the system's ordinary mode of functioning. The assumption of weak anticipation dominates cognitive science and neuroscience and in particular the study of perception and action. The assumption of <span class="hlt">strong</span> anticipation, however, seems to be required by anticipation's ubiquity. It is, for example, characteristic of homeostatic processes at the level of the organism, organs, and cells. We develop the formal distinction between <span class="hlt">strong</span> and weak anticipation by elaboration of anticipating synchronization, a phenomenon arising from time delays in appropriately coupled dynamical systems. The elaboration is conducted in respect to (a) strictly physical systems, (b) the defining features of circadian rhythms, often viewed as paradigmatic of biological behavior based in internal models, (c) Pavlovian learning, and (d) forward models in motor control. We identify the common thread of <span class="hlt">strongly</span> anticipatory systems and argue for its significance in furthering understanding of notions such as “internal”, “model” and “prediction”. PMID:20191086</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stepp, N.; Turvey, M. T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985PEPI...38..110M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Yugoslav <span class="hlt">strong</span> motion network</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Data concerning ground motion and the response of structures during <span class="hlt">strong</span> earthquakes are necessary for seismic hazard evaluation and the definition of design criteria for structures to be constructed in seismically active zones. The only way to obtain such data is the installation of a <span class="hlt">strong</span>-motion instrument network. The Yugoslav <span class="hlt">strong</span>-motion programme was created in 1972 to recover <span class="hlt">strong</span>-motion response data used by the structural engineering community in developing earthquake resistant design. Instruments, accelerographs SMA-1 and seismoscopes WM-1, were installed in free-field stations and on structures (high-rise buildings, dams, bridges, etc.). A total number of 176 accelerographs and 137 seismoscopes have been installed and are operating in Yugoslavia. The <span class="hlt">strong</span>-motion programme in Yugoslavia consists of five subactivities: network design, network operation, data processing, network management and research as well as application. All these activities are under the responsibility of IZIIS in cooperation with the Yugoslav Association of Seismology. By 1975 in the realisation of this project participated the CALTECH as cooperative institution in the joint American-Yugoslav cooperative project. The results obtained which are presented in this paper, and their application in the aseismic design justify the necessity for the existence of such a network in Yugoslavia.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mihailov, Vladimir</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21538355"> <span id="translatedtitle">Detecting the Amplitude Mode of <span class="hlt">Strongly</span> Interacting Lattice Bosons by Bragg Scattering</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report the first detection of the Higgs-type amplitude mode using Bragg spectroscopy in a <span class="hlt">strongly</span> interacting condensate of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice. By the comparison of our experimental data with a <span class="hlt">spatially</span> resolved, time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> bosonic Gutzwiller calculation, we obtain good quantitative agreement. This allows for a clear identification of the amplitude mode, showing that it can be detected with full momentum resolution by going beyond the linear response regime. A systematic shift of the sound and amplitude modes' resonance frequencies due to the finite Bragg beam intensity is observed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bissbort, Ulf; Hofstetter, Walter [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, 60438 Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Goetze, Soeren; Heinze, Jannes; Krauser, Jasper S.; Weinberg, Malte; Becker, Christoph; Sengstock, Klaus [Institut fuer Laser-Physik, Universitaet Hamburg, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Li Yongqiang [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, 60438 Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Department of Physics, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-05-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2864974"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> processing and visual backward masking</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Most theories of visual masking focus prima-rily on the temporal aspects of visual information processing, <span class="hlt">strongly</span> neglecting <span class="hlt">spatial</span> factors. In recent years, however, we have shown that this position is not tenable. <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> aspects cannot be neglected in metacontrast, pattern and un-masking. Here, we review these results. PMID:20517500</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Herzog, Michael H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element">