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1

Spatial occupancy models applied to atlas data show Southern Ground Hornbills strongly depend on protected areas.  

PubMed

Determining the range of a species and exploring species--habitat associations are central questions in ecology and can be answered by analyzing presence--absence data. Often, both the sampling of sites and the desired area of inference involve neighboring sites; thus, positive spatial autocorrelation between these sites is expected. Using survey data for the Southern Ground Hornbill (Bucorvus leadbeateri) from the Southern African Bird Atlas Project, we compared advantages and disadvantages of three increasingly complex models for species occupancy: an occupancy model that accounted for nondetection but assumed all sites were independent, and two spatial occupancy models that accounted for both nondetection and spatial autocorrelation. We modeled the spatial autocorrelation with an intrinsic conditional autoregressive (ICAR) model and with a restricted spatial regression (RSR) model. Both spatial models can readily be applied to any other gridded, presence--absence data set using a newly introduced R package. The RSR model provided the best inference and was able to capture small-scale variation that the other models did not. It showed that ground hornbills are strongly dependent on protected areas in the north of their South African range, but less so further south. The ICAR models did not capture any spatial autocorrelation in the data, and they took an order, of magnitude longer than the RSR models to run. Thus, the RSR occupancy model appears to be an attractive choice for modeling occurrences at large spatial domains, while accounting for imperfect detection and spatial autocorrelation. PMID:24689147

Broms, Kristin M; Johnson, Devin S; Altwegg, Res; Conquest, Loveday L

2014-03-01

2

Strong diffusion limit in the realistic magnetosphere: Dependence on geomagnetic condition and spatial location  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract<p label="1">As an essential concept of resonant wave-particle interactions, the <span class="hlt">strong</span> diffusion limit DSD is an important variable to explore the efficiency of wave-induced pitch angle scattering for particle precipitation loss to the atmosphere. Determined by the size of equatorial loss cone on a given field line and the bounce period at a given energy, the value of DSD sets a lower limit to the precipitation timescale for loss cone filling, regardless of the strength of wave-particle interactions. However, no efforts have ever been made to evaluate DSD in the realistic magnetosphere considering the impact of various geomagnetic activities. To perform a systematic exploration of the <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of DSD on geomagnetic condition, <span class="hlt">spatial</span> location, and global magnetic field model, we have numerically computed DSD using the dipolar and non-dipolar Tsyganenko magnetic field models under three representative (quiet, moderate, and active) geomagnetic conditions. Use of more realistic Tsyganenko magnetic field models introduces non-negligible or considerable differences in DSD magnitude from that obtained using a dipolar field. The difference can be over an order of magnitude at the field lines with equatorial crossings ?6 Re during geomagnetically disturbed times. We also report that in the realistic magnetosphere both DSD magnitude and its variations have a <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> location. Computed DSD shows the maximum tending to occur on the dayside (MLT = 12 and 16) and the minimum DSD more likely to occur at MLT = 00. Compared to the dipolar results, largest deviation in DSD occurs for MLT = 00, 04, and 20, while DSD variations on the dayside are relatively small. Our results demonstrate that accurate evaluation of DSD besides scattering rates in the realistic magnetosphere, especially at high <span class="hlt">spatial</span> locations and under geomagnetically disturbed conditions for which a dipolar approximation fails, can make an important contribution to quantifying the wave effect on particle resonant diffusion, which should be incorporated into future modeling efforts for comprehending the role of resonant wave-particle interactions and the dynamics of magnetospheric electrons under a variety of geomagnetic conditions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhou, Chen; Yang, Guobin; Ni, Binbin; Zhao, Zhengyu; Hu, Ze-Jun; Shi, Run</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">3</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3909009"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Structure of Seagrass Suggests That Size-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Plant Traits Have a <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Influence on the Distribution and Maintenance of Tropical Multispecies Meadows</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Seagrass species in the tropics occur in multispecies meadows. How these meadows are maintained through species co-existence and what their ecological drivers may be has been an overarching question in seagrass biogeography. In this study, we quantify the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> structure of four co-existing species and infer potential ecological processes from these structures. Methods and Results Species presence/absence data were collected using underwater towed and dropped video cameras in Pulau Tinggi, Malaysia. The geostatistical method, utilizing semivariograms, was used to describe the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> structure of Halophila spp, Halodule uninervis, Syringodium isoetifolium and Cymodocea serrulata. Species had <span class="hlt">spatial</span> patterns that were oriented in the along-shore and across-shore directions, nested with larger species in meadow interiors, and consisted of multiple structures that indicate the influence of 2–3 underlying processes. The Linear Model of Coregionalization (LMC) was used to estimate the amount of variance contributing to the presence of a species at specific <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales. These distances were <2.5 m (micro-scale), 2.5–50 m (fine-scale) and >50 m (broad-scale) in the along-shore; and <2.5 m (micro-scale), 2.5–140 m (fine-scale) and >140 m (broad-scale) in the across-shore. The LMC suggests that smaller species (Halophila spp and H. uninervis) were most influenced by broad-scale processes such as hydrodynamics and water depth whereas large, localised species (S. isoetifolium and C. serrulata) were more influenced by finer-scale processes such as sediment burial, seagrass colonization and growth, and physical disturbance. Conclusion In this study, we provide evidence that <span class="hlt">spatial</span> structure is distinct even when species occur in well-mixed multispecies meadows, and we suggest that size-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> plant traits have a <span class="hlt">strong</span> influence on the distribution and maintenance of tropical marine plant communities. This study offers a contrast from previous <span class="hlt">spatial</span> models of seagrasses which have largely focused on monospecific temperate meadows.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ooi, Jillian L. S.; Van Niel, Kimberly P.; Kendrick, Gary A.; Holmes, Karen W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">4</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....8299H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spartan models of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Modelling the variability of <span class="hlt">spatially</span> distributed data often involves the classical geostatistical framework, which requires calculating two-point variogram functions that characterize the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span>. This is a computationally intensive procedure, especially for large-size samples. In addition, calculation of the variogram from a single sample realization relies on a number of assumptions. We propose an alternative method of modelling <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span>, which is based on random fields that we call Spartan, because their probability density function is determined from a small number of parameters. We present some general properties of Spartan random fields, and we further investigate specific models. We also present a specific algorithm for inferring the field parameters from available samples. The algorithm is illustrated with the help of synthetic samples, both with regular (lattice) and irregular (random) <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution. The advantage of the Spartan models is the numerical efficiency of the model inference process, which is considerably faster than the standard variogram calculation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hristopulos, D. T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">5</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21706301"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependency</span> of action simulation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, we investigated the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependency</span> of action simulation. From previous research in the field of single-cell recordings, grasping studies and from crossmodal extinction tasks, it is known that our surrounding space can be divided into a peripersonal space and extrapersonal space. These two spaces are functionally different at both the behavioral and neuronal level. The peripersonal space can be seen as an action space which is limited to the area in which we can grasp objects without moving the object or ourselves. The extrapersonal space is the space beyond the peripersonal space. Objects situated within peripersonal space are mapped onto an egocentric reference frame. This mapping is thought to be accomplished by action simulation. To provide direct evidence of the embodied nature of this simulated motor act, we performed two experiments, in which we used two mental rotation tasks, one with stimuli of hands and one with stimuli of graspable objects. Stimuli were presented in both peri- and extrapersonal space. The results showed increased reaction times for biomechanically difficult to adopt postures compared to more easy to adopt postures for both hand and graspable object stimuli. Importantly, this difference was only present for stimuli presented in peripersonal space but not for the stimuli presented in extrapersonal space. These results extend previous behavioral findings on the functional distinction between peripersonal- and extrapersonal space by providing direct evidence for the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependency</span> of the use of action simulation. Furthermore, these results strengthen the hypothesis that objects situated within the peripersonal space are mapped onto an egocentric reference frame by action simulation. PMID:21706301</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">ter Horst, Arjan C; van Lier, Rob; Steenbergen, Bert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">6</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApPhB.113..317H"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> mode cleaning in radically asymmetric <span class="hlt">strongly</span> focused laser beams</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We demonstrate that a femtosecond laser pulse <span class="hlt">strongly</span> focused in air can produce a highly symmetric damage pattern on glass. This damage pattern contains a series of near-perfect radial rings, with diameters much larger than the predicted focal spot diameter. These rings disappear when the experiment is conducted in vacuum, indicating atmospheric involvement. Surprisingly, the shape and size of the rings seem to be nearly independent of the shape of the generating laser beam, showing dramatic <span class="hlt">spatial</span> mode cleaning. A "half moon" initial laser mode created by obscuring one side of the round beam produces rings of similar quality to those obtained with the unclipped beam. While <span class="hlt">spatial</span> mode cleaning has previously been reported in filaments, this is the most dramatic demonstration of the effect that we are aware of. We argue that the effect is due primarily to ionization, in contrast to studies in longer filaments that attribute it to self-focusing.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Heins, Alan M.; Guo, Chunlei</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">7</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/14182773"> <span id="translatedtitle">Unusually <span class="hlt">Strong</span> <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> of Conformation on Solvent</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Relative partition coefficients between aqueous methanol and pentane of the two stereoisomers of a series of 4-tert-butylcyclohexylamines were measured by NMR. The cis isomer shows a larger partition coefficient, with a ¢¢G°orgfaq up to 1.4 kcal\\/mol. A thermodynamic cycle relates these values to a solvent <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the A value for conformational equilibrium of an amino substituent. The variation with</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Charles L. Perrin; Miles A. Fabian; Ignacio A. Rivero</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">8</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24325257"> <span id="translatedtitle">Coexisting orchid species have distinct mycorrhizal communities and display <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> segregation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Because orchids are <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on mycorrhizal fungi for germination and establishment of seedlings, differences in the mycorrhizal communities associating with orchids can be expected to mediate the abundance, <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution and coexistence of terrestrial orchids in natural communities. We assessed the small-scale <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of seven orchid species co-occurring in 25 × 25 m plots in two Mediterranean grasslands. In order to characterize the mycorrhizal community associating with each orchid species, 454 pyrosequencing was used. The extent of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> clustering was assessed using techniques of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> point pattern analysis. The community of mycorrhizal fungi consisted mainly of members of the Tulasnellaceae, Thelephoraceae and Ceratobasidiaceae, although sporadically members of the Sebacinaceae, Russulaceae and Cortinariaceae were observed. Pronounced differences in mycorrhizal communities were observed between species, whereas <span class="hlt">strong</span> clustering and significant segregation characterized the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of orchid species. However, <span class="hlt">spatial</span> segregation was not significantly related to phylogenetic dissimilarity of fungal communities. Our results indicate that co-occurring orchid species have distinctive mycorrhizal communities and show <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> segregation, suggesting that mycorrhizal fungi are important factors driving niche partitioning in terrestrial orchids and may therefore contribute to orchid coexistence. PMID:24325257</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jacquemyn, Hans; Brys, Rein; Merckx, Vincent S F T; Waud, Michael; Lievens, Bart; Wiegand, Thorsten</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">9</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4041825"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">Dependencies</span> between Large-Scale Brain Networks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Functional neuroimaging reveals both increases (task-positive) and decreases (task-negative) in neural activation with many tasks. Many studies show a temporal relationship between task positive and task negative networks that is important for efficient cognitive functioning. Here we provide evidence for a <span class="hlt">spatial</span> relationship between task positive and negative networks. There are <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> similarities between many reported task negative brain networks, termed the default mode network, which is typically assumed to be a <span class="hlt">spatially</span> fixed network. However, this is not the case. The <span class="hlt">spatial</span> structure of the DMN varies <span class="hlt">depending</span> on what specific task is being performed. We test whether there is a fundamental <span class="hlt">spatial</span> relationship between task positive and negative networks. Specifically, we hypothesize that the distance between task positive and negative voxels is consistent despite different <span class="hlt">spatial</span> patterns of activation and deactivation evoked by different cognitive tasks. We show significantly reduced variability in the distance between within-condition task positive and task negative voxels than across-condition distances for four different sensory, motor and cognitive tasks - implying that deactivation patterns are <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on activation patterns (and vice versa), and that both are modulated by specific task demands. We also show a similar relationship between positively and negatively correlated networks from a third ‘rest’ dataset, in the absence of a specific task. We propose that this <span class="hlt">spatial</span> relationship may be the macroscopic analogue of microscopic neuronal organization reported in sensory cortical systems, and that this organization may reflect homeostatic plasticity necessary for efficient brain function.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leech, Robert; Scott, Gregory; Carhart-Harris, Robin; Turkheimer, Federico; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D.; Sharp, David J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">10</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvE..88d2119C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Frequency-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> effective hydraulic conductivity of <span class="hlt">strongly</span> heterogeneous media</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The determination of the transport properties of heterogeneous porous rocks, such as an effective hydraulic conductivity, arises in a range of geoscience problems, from groundwater flow analysis to hydrocarbon reservoir modeling. In the presence of formation-scale heterogeneities, nonstationary flows, induced by pumping tests or propagating elastic waves, entail localized pressure diffusion processes with a characteristic frequency <span class="hlt">depending</span> on the pressure diffusivity and size of the heterogeneity. Then, on a macroscale, a homogeneous equivalent medium exists, which has a frequency-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> effective conductivity. The frequency <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the conductivity can be analyzed with Biot's equations of poroelasticity. In the quasistatic frequency regime of this framework, the slow compressional wave is a proxy for pressure diffusion processes. This slow compressional wave is associated with the out-of-phase motion of the fluid and solid phase, thereby creating a relative fluid-solid displacement vector field. Decoupling of the poroelasticity equations gives a diffusion equation for the fluid-solid displacement field valid in a poroelastic medium with <span class="hlt">spatial</span> fluctuations in hydraulic conductivity. Then, an effective conductivity is found by a Green's function approach followed by a <span class="hlt">strong</span>-contrast perturbation theory suggested earlier in the context of random dielectrics. This theory leads to closed-form expressions for the frequency-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> effective conductivity as a function of the one- and two-point probability functions of the conductivity fluctuations. In one dimension, these expressions are consistent with exact solutions in both low- and high-frequency limits for arbitrary conductivity contrast. In 3D, the low-frequency limit <span class="hlt">depends</span> on the details of the microstructure. However, the derived approximation for the effective conductivity is consistent with the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Caspari, E.; Gurevich, B.; Müller, T. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">11</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18831619"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependencies</span> between local luminance and contrast in natural images.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Previous research has suggested only weak statistical <span class="hlt">dependencies</span> between local luminance and contrast in natural images. Here we study luminance and contrast in natural images using established measures and show that when multiple measurements of these two local quantities are taken in different <span class="hlt">spatial</span> locations across the visual field, <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">dependencies</span> are revealed that were not apparent in previous pointwise (single-site) analyses. We present a few simple experiments demonstrating this <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependency</span> of luminance and contrast and show that the luminance measurements can be used to approximate the contrast measurements. We also show that relying on higher-order statistics, independent component analysis learns paired <span class="hlt">spatial</span> features for luminance and contrast. These features are shown to share orientation and localization, with the filters corresponding to the features <span class="hlt">dependent</span> in their outputs. Finally, we demonstrate that the found <span class="hlt">dependencies</span> also exist in artificial images generated from a dead leaves model, implying that simple image phenomena may suffice to account for the <span class="hlt">dependencies</span>. Our results indicate that local luminance and contrast computations do not recover independent information sources from the visual signal. Subsequently, our results predict <span class="hlt">spatial</span> processing of local luminance and contrast to be non-separable in visual systems. PMID:18831619</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lindgren, Jussi T; Hurri, Jarmo; Hyvärinen, Aapo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">12</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1691754"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> variation and density-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> dispersal in competitive coexistence.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is well known that dispersal from localities favourable to a species' growth and reproduction (sources) can prevent competitive exclusion in unfavourable localities (sinks). What is perhaps less well known is that too much emigration can undermine the viability of sources and cause regional competitive exclusion. Here, I investigate two biological mechanisms that reduce the cost of dispersal to source communities. The first involves increasing the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variation in the strength of competition such that sources can withstand high rates of emigration; the second involves reducing emigration from sources via density-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> dispersal. I compare how different forms of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variation and modes of dispersal influence source viability, and hence source-sink coexistence, under dominance and pre-emptive competition. A key finding is that, while <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variation substantially reduces dispersal costs under both types of competition, density-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> dispersal does so only under dominance competition. For instance, when <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variation in the strength of competition is high, coexistence is possible (regardless of the type of competition) even when sources experience high emigration rates; when <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variation is low, coexistence is restricted even under low emigration rates. Under dominance competition, density-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> dispersal has a <span class="hlt">strong</span> effect on coexistence. For instance, when the emigration rate increases with density at an accelerating rate (Type III density-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> dispersal), coexistence is possible even when <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variation is quite low; when the emigration rate increases with density at a decelerating rate (Type II density-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> dispersal), coexistence is restricted even when <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variation is quite high. Under pre-emptive competition, density-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> dispersal has only a marginal effect on coexistence. Thus, the diversity-reducing effects of high dispersal rates persist under pre-emptive competition even when dispersal is density <span class="hlt">dependent</span>, but can be significantly mitigated under dominance competition if density-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> dispersal is Type III rather than Type II. These results lead to testable predictions about source-sink coexistence under different regimes of competition, <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variation and dispersal. They identify situations in which density-independent dispersal provides a reasonable approximation to species' dispersal patterns, and those under which consideration of density-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> dispersal is crucial to predicting long-term coexistence.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Amarasekare, Priyanga</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">13</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997JPhB...30L.757D"> <span id="translatedtitle">LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Multiple ionization of chlorine in <span class="hlt">strong</span> laser fields: II. <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> ion distribution</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of chlorine ions in the focal spot of intense 130 fs laser pulses is studied. To this end a one-colour pump - probe experiment is performed, where the pump pulse produces multiply ionized molecules exploding into energetic fragments and the probe induces additional ionization of these fragments shortly after their creation. Our method is based on the simulation of the recorded experimental pump - probe spectra, using tunnel ionization theory to describe the further ionization of the fragments by the probe. The ionization process is shown to <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">depend</span> on the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of the molecular ions produced in the focus of the pump. Comparison of the simulated and experimental spectra <span class="hlt">strongly</span> suggests a pyramid-like distribution within the laser focus, thereby allowing us to discard onion- or potato-like distributions as observed for atoms.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dobosz, S.; Lewenstein, M.; Lezius, M.; Normand, D.; Schmidt, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">14</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1331920"> <span id="translatedtitle">Configuration <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of scotopic <span class="hlt">spatial</span> summation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">1. Psychophysical experiments were done under conditions of complete dark adaptation, 7° in the human temporal retina, using blue-green flashes brief enough to be within the range of complete temporal summation. 2. Frequency-of-seeing experiments were done for two 3·4? squares separated by 20? or 23? and for each square separately. The results were consistent with the hypothesis that the squares acted independently in determining the absolute threshold. There was no observable summation occurring between them. 3. The absolute threshold (50% seeing) for two 3·4? squares (the centre-to-centre separation varied from 3·4? to 56?) was measured relative to the absolute threshold for just one such square. It required more photons at the cornea at threshold for two spots than for one such spot, except when they were actually touching. 4. The same subject, in the same retinal region and under otherwise identical test conditions, showed complete <span class="hlt">spatial</span> summation at absolute threshold for circular spots up to 30? in diameter. 5. Similar experiments were done on other subjects using 3·4? squares and lines of width 3·4?. All subjects showed complete summation at absolute threshold for lines 34? long. All showed lack of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> summation for two squares unless the two squares touched to form a rectangle. 6. The absolute threshold for N small spots was compared to the absolute threshold for 1 spot, where N varied from 2 to 25. Again complete <span class="hlt">spatial</span> summation broke down even when all the spots lay within the Ricco area. 7. It was shown that the results are inconsistent with the hypothesis of a linear output and a linear summation of excitations. 8. Various hypotheses are examined and it is shown that no simple hypothesis can explain all the results. The conclusion is that <span class="hlt">spatial</span> summation at absolute threshold is configuration <span class="hlt">dependent</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sakitt, B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1971-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">15</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMEP23C0836K"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> Predictability Of <span class="hlt">Spatially</span> Distributed Physical Habitat Preferences For O. Mykiss Spawning Across Three <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Scales</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Currently accepted perception assumes Oncorhynchus mykiss prefer different ranges of similar physical habitat elements for spawning than Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), taking into account their difference in size. While there is increasing research interest regarding O. mykiss habitat use and migratory behavior, research conducted to date distinguishing the physical habitat conditions utilized for O. mykiss spawning has not provided quantified understanding of their spawning habitat preferences. The purpose of this study was to use electivity indices and other measures to assess the physical habitat characteristics preferred for O. mykiss spawning in terms of both 1-m scale microhabitat attributes, and landforms at different <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales from 0.1-100 times channel width. The testbed for this study was the 37.5-km regulated gravel-cobble Lower Yuba River (LYR). Using <span class="hlt">spatially</span> distributed 2D hydrodynamic model results, substrate mapping, and a census of O. mykiss redds from two years of observation, micro- and meso-scale representations of physical habitat were tested for their ability to predict spawning habitat preference and avoidance. Overall there was <span class="hlt">strong</span> stratification of O. mykiss redd occurrence for all representation types of physical habitat. A <span class="hlt">strong</span> preference of hydraulic conditions was shown for mean water column velocities of 1.18-2.25 ft/s, and water depths of 1.25-2.76 ft. There was a marked preference for the two most upstream alluvial reaches of the LYR (out of 8 total reaches), accounting for 92% of all redds observed. The preferred morphological units (MUs) for O. mykiss spawning were more variable than for Chinook salmon and changed with increasing discharge, demonstrating that O. mykiss shift spawning to different MUs in order to utilize their preferred hydraulic conditions. The substrate range preferred for O. mykiss spawning was within 32-90 mm. Overall, O. mykiss spawning behavior was highly predictable and required a holistic blend of hydraulic and geomorphic representations to explain.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kammel, L.; Pasternack, G. B.; Wyrick, J. R.; Massa, D.; Bratovich, P.; Johnson, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">16</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987PhLA..121..224J"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> resonance and travelling waves in benard convection</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study the normal form for the onset of convection in a fluid layer when conditions are such that two modes whose horizontal wavenumbers are in the ratio 1:2 bifurcate simultaneously. It is shown that when the boundary conditions on the convection layer are such that there is no symmetry between the top and bottom of the layer, then the normal form possesses additional quadratic terms, and these equations have been shown to admit solutions in the form of travelling waves, modulated waves and standing waves. We give a discussion of the stability properties of these waves and describe a further form of nonsteady motion, namely an attracting homoclinic trajectory. The generality of the circumstances leading to this resonant behaviour suggests that such complex time <span class="hlt">dependence</span> may play a role in convective disorder just above threshold. The results may also explain phenomena observed in laboratory experiments on cylindrical convection by Azouni, and Azouni and Normand.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jones, C. A.; Proctor, M. R. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">17</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/926184"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> of Condensates in <span class="hlt">Strongly</span> Coupled Gauge Theories</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We analyze quark and gluon condensates in quantum chromodynamics. We suggest that these are localized inside hadrons, because the particles whose interactions are responsible for them are confined within these hadrons. This can explain the results of recent studies of gluon condensate contributions to vacuum correlators. We also give a general discussion of condensates in asymptotically free vectorial and chiral gauge theories.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC /SUNY, Stony Brook; Shrock, Robert; /SUNY, Stony Brook</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-03-25</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">18</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001SuMi...29..187K"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> wavevector <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of hole transport in heterostructures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Heterostructures such as resonant tunneling diodes, quantum well photodetectors and lasers, and cascade lasers break the symmetry of the crystalline lattice. Such break in lattice symmetry causes a <span class="hlt">strong</span> interaction of heavy-, light- and split-off hole bands. A resonant tunneling diode is used as a vehicle to study hole transport in heterostructures including the subband dispersion transverse to the main transport direction. Four key findings are demonstrated: (1) the heavy and light hole interaction is shown to be <span class="hlt">strong</span> enough to result in dominant current flow off the ? zone center (more holes flow through the structure at an angle than straight through), (2) explicit inclusion of the transverse momentum in the current integration is needed, (3) most of the current flow is due to injection from heavy holes in the emitter, and (4) the <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on the angle ? of the transverse momentum k is weak. Two bandstructure models are utilized to demonstrate the underlying physics: (1) independent/uncoupled heavy-, light- and split-off bands, and (2) second-nearest neighbor sp3s* tight-binding model. Current-voltage ( I- V) simulations including explicit integration of the total energy E, transverse momentum | k | and transverse momentum angle ? are analyzed. An analytic formula for the current density J ( k) as a function of transverse momentum k is derived and utilized to explain the three independent mechanisms that generate off-zone-center current flow: (1) nonmonotonic (electron-like) hole dispersion, (2) different quantum well and emitter effective masses, and (3) momentum-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> quantum well coupling strength. The analytic expression is also used to generate a complete I- V characteristic that compares well to the full numerical solution. The Fermi level and temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on the I- V is examined. Finally a simulation is compared to experimental data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Klimeck, Gerhard; Bowen, R. Chris; Boykin, Timothy B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">19</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ApPhL..87c3107M"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> polarization-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> photoluminescence from silicon nanowire fibers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fibers of highly oriented Si nanowires (SiNWs) were formed by drawing from a condensed SiNW suspension. The SiNW fiber, excited at 514.5 nm, produces a <span class="hlt">strong</span> photoluminescence (PL) at room temperature. The PL spectrum shows three bands at 565-580, 605-640, and 680-690 nm, respectively, which are consistent with the PL of porous silicon. The relative intensity of these bands and the integrated intensity of the PL vary with the angle ? between the electric field of the polarized laser excitation and the fiber axis. The <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on ? is attributed to the combined effects of the one-dimensional shape of the SiNW and the large dielectric contrast between the SiNW and the ambient.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ma, D. D. D.; Lee, S. T.; Shinar, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">20</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21371486"> <span id="translatedtitle">Verifying the <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> of Fractal Coefficients on Different <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Distributions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A fractal distribution requires that the number of objects larger than a specific size r has a power-law <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on the size N(r) = C/r{sup D}propor tor{sup -D} where D is the fractal dimension. Usually the correlation integral is calculated to estimate the correlation fractal dimension of epicentres. A 'box-counting' procedure could also be applied giving the 'capacity' fractal dimension. The fractal dimension can be an integer and then it is equivalent to a Euclidean dimension (it is zero of a point, one of a segment, of a square is two and of a cube is three). In general the fractal dimension is not an integer but a fractional dimension and there comes the origin of the term 'fractal'. The use of a power-law to statistically describe a set of events or phenomena reveals the lack of a characteristic length scale, that is fractal objects are scale invariant. Scaling invariance and chaotic behavior constitute the base of a lot of natural hazards phenomena. Many studies of earthquakes reveal that their occurrence exhibits scale-invariant properties, so the fractal dimension can characterize them. It has first been confirmed that both aftershock rate decay in time and earthquake size distribution follow a power law. Recently many other earthquake distributions have been found to be scale-invariant. The <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of both regional seismicity and aftershocks show some fractal features. Earthquake <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distributions are considered fractal, but indirectly. There are two possible models, which result in fractal earthquake distributions. The first model considers that a fractal distribution of faults leads to a fractal distribution of earthquakes, because each earthquake is characteristic of the fault on which it occurs. The second assumes that each fault has a fractal distribution of earthquakes. Observations <span class="hlt">strongly</span> favour the first hypothesis.The fractal coefficients analysis provides some important advantages in examining earthquake <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution, which are: - Simple way to quantify scale-invariant distributions of complex objects or phenomena by a small number of parameters. - It is becoming evident that the applicability of fractal distributions to geological problems could have a more fundamental basis. Chaotic behaviour could underlay the geotectonic processes and the applicable statistics could often be fractal.The application of fractal distribution analysis has, however, some specific aspects. It is usually difficult to present an adequate interpretation of the obtained values of fractal coefficients for earthquake epicenter or hypocenter distributions. That is why in this paper we aimed at other goals - to verify how a fractal coefficient <span class="hlt">depends</span> on different <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distributions. We simulated earthquake <span class="hlt">spatial</span> data by generating randomly points first in a 3D space - cube, then in a parallelepiped, diminishing one of its sides. We then continued this procedure in 2D and 1D space. For each simulated data set we calculated the points' fractal coefficient (correlation fractal dimension of epicentres) and then checked for correlation between the coefficients values and the type of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution.In that way one can obtain a set of standard fractal coefficients' values for varying <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distributions. These then can be used when real earthquake data is analyzed by comparing the real data coefficients values to the standard fractal coefficients. Such an approach can help in interpreting the fractal analysis results through different types of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distributions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gospodinov, Dragomir [Plovdiv University 'Paisii Hilendarski', 24, Tsar Asen Str., Plovdiv (Bulgaria); Geophysical Institute of Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Akad. G. Bonchev Str., bl.3, Sofia (Bulgaria); Marekova, Elisaveta; Marinov, Alexander [Plovdiv University 'Paisii Hilendarski', 24, Tsar Asen Str., Plovdiv (Bulgaria)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a style="font-weight: bold;">1</a> <a onClick='return 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<img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">21</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22043818"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of pairing in deformed nuclei</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The solution of time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov equations by the Wignerfunction-moments method leads to the appearance of refined low-lying modes whose description requires the accurate knowledge of the anomalous density matrix. It is shown that calculations with Woods-Saxon potential satisfy this requirement, producing an anomalous density matrix of the same quality as more complicated calculations with realistic forces.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Balbutsev, E. B.; Malov, L. A., E-mail: malov@theor.jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Schuck, P. [CNRS andUniversite Paris-Sud, Institut de Physique Nucleaire (France)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">22</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3025072"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatially</span> <span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Polya Tree Modeling for Survival Data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary With the proliferation of <span class="hlt">spatially</span> oriented time-to-event data, <span class="hlt">spatial</span> modeling in the survival context has received increased recent attention. A traditional way to capture a <span class="hlt">spatial</span> pattern is to introduce frailty terms in the linear predictor of a semiparametric model, such as proportional hazards or accelerated failure time. We propose a new methodology to capture the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> pattern by assuming a prior based on a mixture of <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> Polya trees for the baseline survival in the proportional hazards model. Thanks to modern Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods, this approach remains computationally feasible in a fully hierarchical Bayesian framework. We compare the <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> mixture of Polya trees (MPT) approach to the traditional <span class="hlt">spatial</span> frailty approach, and illustrate the usefulness of this method with an analysis of Iowan breast cancer survival data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program of the National Cancer Institute. Our method provides better goodness of fit over the traditional alternatives as measured by log pseudo marginal likelihood (LPML), the deviance information criterion (DIC) and full sample score (FSS) statistics.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhao, Luping; Hanson, Timothy E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">23</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1050941"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">Dependencies</span> and Semantic Concepts in Data Mining</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Data mining is the process of discovering new patterns and relationships in large datasets. However, several studies have shown that general data mining techniques often fail to extract meaningful patterns and relationships from the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> data owing to the violation of fundamental geospatial principles. In this tutorial, we introduce basic principles behind explicit modeling of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and semantic concepts in data mining. In particular, we focus on modeling these concepts in the widely used classification, clustering, and prediction algorithms. Classification is the process of learning a structure or model (from user given inputs) and applying the known model to the new data. Clustering is the process of discovering groups and structures in the data that are ``similar,'' without applying any known structures in the data. Prediction is the process of finding a function that models (explains) the data with least error. One common assumption among all these methods is that the data is independent and identically distributed. Such assumptions do not hold well in <span class="hlt">spatial</span> data, where <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependency</span> and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> heterogeneity are a norm. In addition, <span class="hlt">spatial</span> semantics are often ignored by the data mining algorithms. In this tutorial we cover recent advances in explicitly modeling of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependencies</span> and semantic concepts in data mining.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vatsavai, Raju [ORNL] [ORNL</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">24</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12149468"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strongly</span> enhanced field-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> single-molecule electroluminescence.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Individual, <span class="hlt">strongly</span> electroluminescent Ag(n) molecules (n = 2 approximately 8 atoms) have been electrically written within otherwise nonemissive silver oxide films. Exhibiting characteristic single-molecule behavior, these individual room-temperature molecules exhibit extreme electroluminescence enhancements (>10(4) vs. bulk and dc excitation on a per molecule basis) when excited with specific ac frequencies. Occurring through field extraction of electrons with subsequent reinjection and radiative recombination, single-molecule electroluminescence is enhanced by a general mechanism that avoids slow bulk material response. Thus, while we detail <span class="hlt">strong</span> electroluminescence from single, highly fluorescent Ag(n) molecules, this mechanism also yields <span class="hlt">strong</span> ac-excited electroluminescence from similarly prepared, but otherwise nonemissive, individual Cu nanoclusters. PMID:12149468</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lee, Tae-Hee; Gonzalez, Jose I; Dickson, Robert M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">25</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AIPC..874...35G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temperature <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> of Stark Broadening Dominated by <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Collisions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The influence of electron temperature in the broadening of spectral lines dominated by <span class="hlt">strong</span> collisions has been studied. Computer simulation allows us to study the effects of <span class="hlt">strong</span> and weak collisions separately. Results shown here are focused on some Sr+ and Ba+ resonance lines as examples of lines broadened dominantly by <span class="hlt">strong</span> collisions. The exact numerical integration of the perturbation process due to the collision with a single particle permits the evaluation of Weisskopf radius. This parameter is usually defined as rw ~ 1/v ~ 1/?T, obtained from Bora approximation that is correct for high temperatures. However, at low temperatures the full integration of the collision process permits to test the relationship rw ~ 1/T1/6. This calculation has allowed us to study the influence of temperature on the broadening of the lines dominated by <span class="hlt">strong</span> collisions. This study has been done in two ways : through a plasma simulation and analyzing the calculated Weisskopf radius for an individual collision. The obtained results show that at low temperatures the width of the line increases for increasing temperature as a consequence of an increase of the number of collisions not compensated by the decrease of Weisskopf radius.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gigosos, M. A.; González, M. Á.; Konjevi?, N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">26</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1134640"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temperature <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> of Thermopower in <span class="hlt">Strongly</span> Correlated Multiorbital Systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of thermopower in the multiorbital Hubbard model is studied by using the dynamical mean-field theory with the non-crossing approximation impurity solver. It is found that the Coulomb interaction, the Hund coupling, and the crystal filed splitting bring about nonmonotonic temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the hermopower, including its sign reversal. The implication of our theoretical results to some materials is discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sekino, M [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA)] [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA); Okamoto, Satoshi [ORNL] [ORNL; Koshibae, W [RIKEN, Japan] [RIKEN, Japan; Mori, Michiyasu [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA)] [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA); Maekawa, Sadamichi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA)] [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">27</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvX...4b1039R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Balanced Networks of Spiking Neurons with <span class="hlt">Spatially</span> <span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Recurrent Connections</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Networks of model neurons with balanced recurrent excitation and inhibition capture the irregular and asynchronous spiking activity reported in cortex. While mean-field theories of <span class="hlt">spatially</span> homogeneous balanced networks are well understood, a mean-field analysis of <span class="hlt">spatially</span> heterogeneous balanced networks has not been fully developed. We extend the analysis of balanced networks to include a connection probability that <span class="hlt">depends</span> on the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> separation between neurons. In the continuum limit, we derive that stable, balanced firing rate solutions require that the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> spread of external inputs be broader than that of recurrent excitation, which in turn must be broader than or equal to that of recurrent inhibition. Notably, this implies that network models with broad recurrent inhibition are inconsistent with the balanced state. For finite size networks, we investigate the pattern-forming dynamics arising when balanced conditions are not satisfied. Our study highlights the new challenges that balanced networks pose for the spatiotemporal dynamics of complex systems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rosenbaum, Robert; Doiron, Brent</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">28</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57793448"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal Density <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> in Atlantic Salmon over Varying <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Scales</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Scale and ontogeny are important in understanding how various ecological processes structure populations. This is expected to be the case for density-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> effects (DDE), which influence the population dynamics of many organisms. Our goal was to evaluate stage-specific DDE on the growth, movement, and survival of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar from the individual to the group level over varying <span class="hlt">spatial</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michael M. Bailey; Gregg E. Horton; Benjamin H. Letcher; Michael T. Kinnison</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">29</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AIPC..650...65H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Material <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of ferroelectric emission under <span class="hlt">strong</span> accelerating field</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have studied emission characteristics of a PZT ferroelectric cathode under influence of a <span class="hlt">strong</span> accelerating field using two kinds of PZT materials, LZT-2 and APC850, with the same cathode geometry. The perveances of the electron guns differ by more than 100%. The difference of the emitted electron is found to be related to the difference of frequency characteristics of the materials, which implies that the electron emission is possibly caused by the local domain oscillation in the close vicinity of vacuum-ferroelectric-metal triple-junction. The experimental results provide a key-point, which may lead to a more complete understanding of electron emission from ferroelectric materials.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hayashi, Yasushi; Hotta, Eiki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">30</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22012327"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> glucose <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of electron current in human monocytes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by human monocytes differs profoundly from that by neutrophils and eosinophils in its <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on external media glucose. Activated granulocytes produce vast amounts of ROS, even in the absence of glucose. Human peripheral blood monocytes (PBM), in contrast, are suspected not to be able to produce any ROS if glucose is absent from the media. Here we compare ROS production by monocytes and neutrophils, measured electrophysiologically on a single-cell level. Perforated-patch-clamp measurements revealed that electron current appeared after stimulation of PBM with phorbol myristate acetate. Electron current reflects the translocation of electrons through the NADPH oxidase, the main source of ROS production. The electron current was nearly abolished by omitting glucose from the media. Furthermore, in preactivated glucose-deprived cells, electron current appeared immediately with the addition of glucose to the bath. To characterize glucose <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of PBM further, NADPH oxidase activity was assessed as hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) production and was recorded fluorometrically. H(2)O(2) production exhibited similar glucose <span class="hlt">dependence</span> as did electron current. We show fundamental differences in the glucose <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of ROS in human monocytes compared with human neutrophils. PMID:22012327</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Musset, Boris; Cherny, Vladimir V; DeCoursey, Thomas E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">31</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3328910"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> glucose <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of electron current in human monocytes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by human monocytes differs profoundly from that by neutrophils and eosinophils in its <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on external media glucose. Activated granulocytes produce vast amounts of ROS, even in the absence of glucose. Human peripheral blood monocytes (PBM), in contrast, are suspected not to be able to produce any ROS if glucose is absent from the media. Here we compare ROS production by monocytes and neutrophils, measured electrophysiologically on a single-cell level. Perforated-patch-clamp measurements revealed that electron current appeared after stimulation of PBM with phorbol myristate acetate. Electron current reflects the translocation of electrons through the NADPH oxidase, the main source of ROS production. The electron current was nearly abolished by omitting glucose from the media. Furthermore, in preactivated glucose-deprived cells, electron current appeared immediately with the addition of glucose to the bath. To characterize glucose <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of PBM further, NADPH oxidase activity was assessed as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production and was recorded fluorometrically. H2O2 production exhibited similar glucose <span class="hlt">dependence</span> as did electron current. We show fundamental differences in the glucose <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of ROS in human monocytes compared with human neutrophils.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Musset, Boris; Cherny, Vladimir V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">32</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3669068"> <span id="translatedtitle">Overnight Sleep Enhances Hippocampus-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Aspects of <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Memory</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Study Objectives: Several studies have now demonstrated that <span class="hlt">spatial</span> information is processed during sleep, and that posttraining sleep is beneficial for human navigation. However, it remains unclear whether the effects of sleep are primarily due to consolidation of cognitive maps, or alternatively, whether sleep might also affect nonhippocampal aspects of navigation (e.g., speed of motion) involved in moving through a virtual environment. Design: Participants were trained on a virtual maze navigation task (VMT) and then given a memory test following either a day of wakefulness or a night of sleep. Subjects reported to the laboratory for training at either 10:00am or 10:00pm, <span class="hlt">depending</span> on randomly assigned condition, and were tested 11 h later. Overnight subjects slept in the laboratory with polysomnography. Setting: A hospital-based academic sleep laboratory. Patients or Participants: Thirty healthy college student volunteers. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Point-by-point position data were collected from the VMT. Analysis of the movement data revealed a sleep-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> improvement in maze completion time (P < 0.001) due to improved <span class="hlt">spatial</span> understanding of the maze layout, which led to a shortening of path from start to finish (P = 0.01) rather than faster exploration speed through the maze (P = 0.7). Conclusions: We found that overnight sleep benefitted performance, not because subjects moved faster through the maze, but because they were more accurate in navigating to the goal. These findings suggest that sleep enhances participants' knowledge of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> layout of the maze, contributing to the consolidation of hippocampus-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> information. Citation: Nguyen ND; Tucker MA; Stickgold R; Wamsley EJ. Overnight sleep enhances hippocampus-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> aspects of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> memory. SLEEP 2013;36(7):1051-1057.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nguyen, Nam D.; Tucker, Matthew A.; Stickgold, Robert; Wamsley, Erin J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">33</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NJPh...15l5003G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spin-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> phenomena in semiconductors in <span class="hlt">strong</span> electric fields</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We develop a theory of spin-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> phenomena in the streaming regime characterized by ballistic acceleration of electrons in the moderate electric field until they achieve the optical phonon energy and abruptly emit phonons. It is shown that the Dyakonov-Perel spin relaxation is drastically modified in this regime, the current-induced spin orientation remarkably increases, reaches a high value ?2% in the electric field ˜1 kV cm-1 and falls with further increase in the field. The spin polarization enhancement is caused by squeezing of the electron momentum distribution in the direction of drift. We also predict field-induced oscillatory dynamics of spin polarization of the photocarriers excited into the conduction band by a short circularly polarized optical pulse.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Golub, L. E.; Ivchenko, E. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">34</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19219904"> <span id="translatedtitle">Finite mixture models for mapping <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> disease counts.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A vast literature has recently been concerned with the analysis of variation in disease counts recorded across geographical areas with the aim of detecting clusters of regions with homogeneous behavior. Most of the proposed modeling approaches have been discussed for the univariate case and only very recently <span class="hlt">spatial</span> models have been extended to predict more than one outcome simultaneously. In this paper we extend the standard finite mixture models to the analysis of multiple, <span class="hlt">spatially</span> correlated, counts. <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> among outcomes is modeled using a set of correlated random effects and estimation is carried out by numerical integration through an EM algorithm without assuming any specific parametric distribution for the random effects. The <span class="hlt">spatial</span> structure is captured by the use of a Gibbs representation for the prior probabilities of component membership through a Strauss-like model. The proposed model is illustrated using real data. PMID:19219904</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alfó, Marco; Nieddu, Luciano; Vicari, Donatella</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">35</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23504984"> <span id="translatedtitle">Local temperatures inferred from plant communities suggest <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> buffering of climate warming across Northern Europe.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent studies from mountainous areas of small <span class="hlt">spatial</span> extent (<2500 km(2) ) suggest that fine-grained thermal variability over tens or hundreds of metres exceeds much of the climate warming expected for the coming decades. Such variability in temperature provides buffering to mitigate climate-change impacts. Is this local <span class="hlt">spatial</span> buffering restricted to topographically complex terrains? To answer this, we here study fine-grained thermal variability across a 2500-km wide latitudinal gradient in Northern Europe encompassing a large array of topographic complexities. We first combined plant community data, Ellenberg temperature indicator values, locally measured temperatures (LmT) and globally interpolated temperatures (GiT) in a modelling framework to infer biologically relevant temperature conditions from plant assemblages within <1000-m(2) units (community-inferred temperatures: CiT). We then assessed: (1) CiT range (thermal variability) within 1-km(2) units; (2) the relationship between CiT range and topographically and geographically derived predictors at 1-km resolution; and (3) whether <span class="hlt">spatial</span> turnover in CiT is greater than <span class="hlt">spatial</span> turnover in GiT within 100-km(2) units. Ellenberg temperature indicator values in combination with plant assemblages explained 46-72% of variation in LmT and 92-96% of variation in GiT during the growing season (June, July, August). Growing-season CiT range within 1-km(2) units peaked at 60-65°N and increased with terrain roughness, averaging 1.97 °C (SD = 0.84 °C) and 2.68 °C (SD = 1.26 °C) within the flattest and roughest units respectively. Complex interactions between topography-related variables and latitude explained 35% of variation in growing-season CiT range when accounting for sampling effort and residual <span class="hlt">spatial</span> autocorrelation. <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> turnover in growing-season CiT within 100-km(2) units was, on average, 1.8 times greater (0.32 °C km(-1) ) than <span class="hlt">spatial</span> turnover in growing-season GiT (0.18 °C km(-1) ). We conclude that thermal variability within 1-km(2) units <span class="hlt">strongly</span> increases local <span class="hlt">spatial</span> buffering of future climate warming across Northern Europe, even in the flattest terrains. PMID:23504984</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lenoir, Jonathan; Graae, Bente Jessen; Aarrestad, Per Arild; Alsos, Inger Greve; Armbruster, W Scott; Austrheim, Gunnar; Bergendorff, Claes; Birks, H John B; Bråthen, Kari Anne; Brunet, Jörg; Bruun, Hans Henrik; Dahlberg, Carl Johan; Decocq, Guillaume; Diekmann, Martin; Dynesius, Mats; Ejrnaes, Rasmus; Grytnes, John-Arvid; Hylander, Kristoffer; Klanderud, Kari; Luoto, Miska; Milbau, Ann; Moora, Mari; Nygaard, Bettina; Odland, Arvid; Ravolainen, Virve Tuulia; Reinhardt, Stefanie; Sandvik, Sylvi Marlen; Schei, Fride Høistad; Speed, James David Mervyn; Tveraabak, Liv Unn; Vandvik, Vigdis; Velle, Liv Guri; Virtanen, Risto; Zobel, Martin; Svenning, Jens-Christian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">36</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013MNRAS.436.2708M"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">strong</span> environmental <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of black hole scaling relations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigate how the scaling relations between central black hole mass and host galaxy properties (velocity dispersion, bulge stellar mass and bulge luminosity) <span class="hlt">depend</span> on the large-scale environment. For each of a sample of 69 galaxies with dynamical black hole measurements we compile four environmental measures (nearest-neighbour distance, fixed aperture number density, total halo mass and central/satellite). We find that central and satellite galaxies follow distinctly separate scalings in each of the three relations we have examined. The M•-? relation of central galaxies is significantly steeper (? = 6.38 ± 0.49) than that of satellite galaxies (? = 4.91 ± 0.49), but has a similar intercept. This behaviour remains even after restricting to a sample of only early-type galaxies or after removing the eight brightest cluster galaxies. The M•-? relation shows more modest differences when splitting the sample based on the other environmental indicators, suggesting that they are driven by the underlying satellite/central fractions. Separate relations for centrals and satellites are also seen in the power-law scaling between black hole mass and bulge stellar mass or bulge luminosity. We suggest that gas rich, low-mass galaxies undergo a period of rapid black hole growth in the process of becoming satellites. If central galaxies in the current M•-? relation are representative progenitors of the satellite population, the observations imply that a ? = 120 km s-1 galaxy must nearly triple its central black hole mass. The elevated black hole masses of massive central galaxies are then a natural consequence of the accretion of satellites.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McGee, Sean L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">37</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011OptCo.284.4477L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Polarization-<span class="hlt">dependence</span> of optical <span class="hlt">spatial</span> solitons in photoisomerization material</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Experimental observation of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> solitons in azobenzene-doped organic polymer is demonstrated in dye-doped polymer bulk material. Solitons cannot only be formed in this material with linearly polarized light, but also with circularly polarized light. An interesting phenomenon is revealed that the soliton is polarization-<span class="hlt">dependent</span>. The solitons with the same intensity but with different polarizations have different widths. The experimental results are further theoretically explained with the dynamics model based on a photochemical process, namely photoisomerization.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liang, Jianchu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">38</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..MARB54002R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">Spatial-Dependent</span> Utility on Social Group Domination</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The mathematical modeling of social group competition has garnered much attention. We consider a model originated by Abrams and Strogatz [Nature 424, 900 (2003)] that predicts the extinction of one of two social groups. This model assigns a utility to each social group, which is constant over the entire society. We find by allowing this utility to vary over a society, through the introduction of a network or <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span>, this model may result in the coexistence of the two social groups.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rodriguez, Nathaniel; Meyertholen, Andrew</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">39</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8843E..08S"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effect of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> light modulator (SLM) <span class="hlt">dependent</span> dispersion on <span class="hlt">spatial</span> beam shaping</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">SLMs used for <span class="hlt">spatial</span> modulation of lasers are often used in conjunction with very narrow bandwidth laser light where diffractive dispersion could be approximated as a constant. It is known that diffractive dispersion is inversely proportional to wavelength and this effect can be compensated for <span class="hlt">depending</span> on the optical set-up. SLMs use birefringent liquid crystal (LC) pixels each with an adjustable refractive index at a specific polarization. The range of the adjustable refractive index is wavelength <span class="hlt">dependent</span>. This adds an additional SLM <span class="hlt">dependent</span> dispersion. Note that we distinguish between diffractive dispersion and SLM <span class="hlt">dependent</span> dispersion. SLMs are therefore calibrated in order to have linearly adjustable phase retardation of light incident on the pixels between zero and two pi for a specific wavelength. It is therefore unavoidable when using the same SLM, to do beam shaping of a source which emits multiple wavelengths or a wide bandwidth, that the device will not modulate all wavelengths between zero and two pi. We numerically and experimentally investigate the effect of SLM <span class="hlt">dependent</span> dispersion on <span class="hlt">spatial</span> modulation of light incident on a 2D SLM. We further discuss why it is possible to modulate multiple wavelengths between zero and two pi despite SLM <span class="hlt">dependent</span> dispersion.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Spangenberg, Dirk-Mathys; Dudley, Angela; Neethling, Pieter; Forbes, Andrew; Rohwer, Erich</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">40</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JASTP.104..151K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temporal and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> characteristics of the formation of <span class="hlt">strong</span> noctilucent clouds</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The 3-D Lagrangian model LIMA/ICE is used to track ice particles forming noctilucent clouds (NLC). Fifty <span class="hlt">strong</span> NLC events at three different latitudes are analyzed. Visible particles are traced back to their nucleation sites as well as traced forward until sublimation. Particle nucleation occurs in bursts within areas of high supersaturation. We characterize NLC particle growth and vertical transport: Slow growth occurs below the mesopause up to ?6h before observation. It is followed by rapid growth within the high water vapor zone around 83km during phases of upward winds. At the same time temperature perturbations in these cold phases of waves lead to a high supersaturation. Sublimation occurs quickly after maximum brightness, since sedimentation into subsaturated altitudes is accelerated by downward winds. The duration of particle visibility (?>10% of observed backscatter) is only ?5h. The mean particle age of all NLC events at 69°N is around 36h, but particle age varies by more than 24h for the different events studied. Although the age of particles in <span class="hlt">strong</span> NLC <span class="hlt">depends</span> on latitude, the visibility period does not. The brightness of <span class="hlt">strong</span> NLC <span class="hlt">depends</span> mainly on background conditions during the last 3h before observation. This implies that local measurements, e.g. by lidar, are representative for the morphology of <span class="hlt">strong</span> NLC on scales of several hundred kilometers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kiliani, J.; Baumgarten, G.; Lübken, F.-J.; Berger, U.; Hoffmann, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" 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showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">41</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18045914"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> attention does not <span class="hlt">strongly</span> modulate neuronal responses in early human visual cortex.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Attention can dramatically enhance behavioral performance based on a visual stimulus, but the degree to which attention modulates activity in early visual cortex is unclear. Whereas single-unit studies of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> attention in monkeys have repeatedly revealed relatively modest attentional modulations in V1, human functional magnetic resonance imaging studies demonstrate a large attentional enhancement of the blood oxygen level-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> (BOLD) signal in V1. To explore this discrepancy, we used intracranial electrodes to directly measure the effect of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> attention on the responses of neurons near the human occipital pole. We found that <span class="hlt">spatial</span> attention does not robustly modulate stimulus-driven local field potentials in early human visual cortex, but instead produces modest modulations that are consistent with those seen in monkey neurophysiology experiments. This finding suggests that the neuronal activity that underlies visual attention in humans is similar to that found in other primates and that behavioral state may alter the linear relationship between neuronal activity and BOLD. PMID:18045914</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yoshor, Daniel; Ghose, Geoffrey M; Bosking, William H; Sun, Ping; Maunsell, John H R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-11-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">42</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20640406"> <span id="translatedtitle">Enhancing nonlinear frequency conversion using <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> coherence</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We consider pulse propagation in a {lambda}-type medium with <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> coherence. It has been shown in previous works that it is impossible to get complete nonlinear energy conversion between an injected pulse and a generated pulse for homogenous coherence distribution. The aim of our work is to achieve unity conversion efficiency. We show by analytic considerations and numerical simulations that this can be achieved only if the propagation satisfies the conditions of adiabaticity in the local frame on the position domain. We also derive an exact analytic model for pulse propagation in our {lambda}-type medium, which is valid even if adiabaticity is not satisfie000.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kis, Z. [Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Paspalakis, E. [Materials Science Department, School of Natural Sciences, University of Patras, Patras 265 04 (Greece)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">43</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvL.112o3002S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Coherence Properties of Organic Molecules Coupled to Plasmonic Surface Lattice Resonances in the Weak and <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Coupling Regimes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study <span class="hlt">spatial</span> coherence properties of a system composed of periodic silver nanoparticle arrays covered with a fluorescent organic molecule (DiD) film. The evolution of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> coherence of this composite structure from the weak to the <span class="hlt">strong</span> coupling regime is investigated by systematically varying the coupling strength between the localized DiD excitons and the collective, delocalized modes of the nanoparticle array known as surface lattice resonances. A gradual evolution of coherence from the weak to the <span class="hlt">strong</span> coupling regime is observed, with the <span class="hlt">strong</span> coupling features clearly visible in interference fringes. A high degree of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> coherence is demonstrated in the <span class="hlt">strong</span> coupling regime, even when the mode is very excitonlike (80%), in contrast to the purely localized nature of molecular excitons. We show that coherence appears in proportion to the weight of the plasmonic component of the mode throughout the weak-to-<span class="hlt">strong</span> coupling crossover, providing evidence for the hybrid nature of the normal modes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shi, L.; Hakala, T. K.; Rekola, H. T.; Martikainen, J.-P.; Moerland, R. J.; Törmä, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">44</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24785036"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> coherence properties of organic molecules coupled to plasmonic surface lattice resonances in the weak and <span class="hlt">strong</span> coupling regimes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study <span class="hlt">spatial</span> coherence properties of a system composed of periodic silver nanoparticle arrays covered with a fluorescent organic molecule (DiD) film. The evolution of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> coherence of this composite structure from the weak to the <span class="hlt">strong</span> coupling regime is investigated by systematically varying the coupling strength between the localized DiD excitons and the collective, delocalized modes of the nanoparticle array known as surface lattice resonances. A gradual evolution of coherence from the weak to the <span class="hlt">strong</span> coupling regime is observed, with the <span class="hlt">strong</span> coupling features clearly visible in interference fringes. A high degree of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> coherence is demonstrated in the <span class="hlt">strong</span> coupling regime, even when the mode is very excitonlike (80%), in contrast to the purely localized nature of molecular excitons. We show that coherence appears in proportion to the weight of the plasmonic component of the mode throughout the weak-to-<span class="hlt">strong</span> coupling crossover, providing evidence for the hybrid nature of the normal modes. PMID:24785036</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shi, L; Hakala, T K; Rekola, H T; Martikainen, J-P; Moerland, R J; Törmä, P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">45</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24097054"> <span id="translatedtitle">Near-field <span class="hlt">spatial</span> mapping of <span class="hlt">strongly</span> interacting multiple plasmonic infrared antennas.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Near-field dipolar plasmon interactions of multiple infrared antenna structures in the <span class="hlt">strong</span> coupling limit are studied using scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscope (s-SNOM) and theoretical finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations. We monitor in real-space the evolution of plasmon dipolar mode of a stationary antenna structure as multiple resonantly matched dipolar plasmon particles are closely approaching it. Interparticle separation, length and polarization <span class="hlt">dependent</span> studies show that the cross geometry structure favors <span class="hlt">strong</span> interparticle charge-charge, dipole-dipole and charge-dipole Coulomb interactions in the nanometer scale gap region, which results in <span class="hlt">strong</span> field enhancement in cross-bowties and further allows these structures to be used as polarization filters. The nanoscale local field amplitude and phase maps show that due to <span class="hlt">strong</span> interparticle Coulomb coupling, cross-bowtie structures redistribute and highly enhance the out-of-plane (perpendicular to the plane of the sample) plasmon near-field component at the gap region relative to ordinary bowties. PMID:24097054</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grefe, Sarah E; Leiva, Daan; Mastel, Stefan; Dhuey, Scott D; Cabrini, Stefano; Schuck, P James; Abate, Yohannes</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">46</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT........73K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Optofluidic intracavity spectroscopy for <span class="hlt">spatially</span>, temperature, and wavelength <span class="hlt">dependent</span> refractometry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A microfluidic refractometer was designed based on previous optofluidic intracavity spectroscopy (OFIS) chips utilized to distinguish healthy and cancerous cells. The optofluidic cavity is realized by adding high reflectivity dielectric mirrors to the top and bottom of a microfluidic channel. This creates a plane-plane Fabry-Perot optical cavity in which the resonant wavelengths are highly <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on the optical path length inside the cavity. Refractometry is a useful method to determine the nature of fluids, including the concentration of a solute in a solvent as well as the temperature of the fluid. Advantages of microfluidic systems are the easy integration with lab-on-chip devices and the need for only small volumes of fluid. The unique abilities of the microfluidic refractometer in this thesis include its <span class="hlt">spatial</span>, temperature, and wavelength <span class="hlt">dependence</span>. <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the transmission spectrum is inherent through a <span class="hlt">spatial</span> filtering process implemented with an optical fiber and microscope objective. A sequence of experimental observations guided the change from using the OFIS chip as a cell discrimination device to a complimentary refractometer. First, it was noted the electrode structure within the microfluidic channel, designed to trap and manipulate biological cells with dielectrophoretic (DEP) forces, caused the resonant wavelengths to blue-shift when the electrodes were energized. This phenomenon is consistent with the negative dn/dT property of water and water-based solutions. Next, it was necessary to develop a method to separate the optical path length into physical path length and refractive index. Air holes were placed near the microfluidic channel to exclusively measure the cavity length with the known refractive index of air. The cavity length was then interpolated across the microfluidic channel, allowing any mechanical changes to be taken into account. After the separation of physical path length and refractive index, it was of interest to characterize the temperature <span class="hlt">dependent</span> refractive index relationship, n(T), for phosphate buffered saline. Phosphate buffered saline (PBS) is a water-based solution used with our biological cells because it maintains an ion concentration similar to that found in body fluids. The n(T) characterization was performed using a custom-built isothermal apparatus in which the temperature could be controlled. To check for the accuracy of the PBS refractive index measurements, water was also measured and compared with known values in the literature. The literature source of choice has affiliations to NIST and a formulation of refractive index involving temperature and wavelength <span class="hlt">dependence</span>, two parameters which are necessary for our specialized infrared wavelength range. From the NIST formula, linear approximations were found to be dn/dT = -1.4x10-4 RIU °C-1 and dn/dlambda = -1.5x10-5 RIU nm-1 for water. A comparison with the formulated refractive indices of water indicated the measured values were off. This was attributed to the fact that light penetration into the HfO2/SiO2 dielectric mirrors had not been considered. Once accounted for, the refractive indices of water were consistent with the literature, and the values for PBS are believed to be accurate. A further discovery was the refractive index values at the discrete resonant wavelengths were monotonically decreasing, such that the dn/dlambda slope for water was considerably close to the NIST formula. Thus, n(T,lambda) was characterized for both water and PBS. A refractive index relationship for PBS with <span class="hlt">spatial</span>, temperature, and wavelength <span class="hlt">dependence</span> is particularly useful for non-uniform temperature distributions caused by DEP electrodes. First, a maximum temperature can be inferred, which is the desired measurement for cell viability concerns. In addition, a lateral refractive index distribution can be measured to help quantify the gradient index lenses that are formed by the energized electrodes. The non-uniform temperature distribution was also simulated with a finite element analysis software package. Th</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kindt, Joel D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">47</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApJ...787L...2Y"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> of the Inner Edge of the Habitable Zone on Planetary Rotation Rate</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Planetary rotation rate is a key parameter in determining atmospheric circulation and hence the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> pattern of clouds. Since clouds can exert a dominant control on planetary radiation balance, rotation rate could be critical for determining the mean planetary climate. Here we investigate this idea using a three-dimensional general circulation model with a sophisticated cloud scheme. We find that slowly rotating planets (like Venus) can maintain an Earth-like climate at nearly twice the stellar flux as rapidly rotating planets (like Earth). This suggests that many exoplanets previously believed to be too hot may actually be habitable, <span class="hlt">depending</span> on their rotation rate. The explanation for this behavior is that slowly rotating planets have a weak Coriolis force and long daytime illumination, which promotes <span class="hlt">strong</span> convergence and convection in the substellar region. This produces a large area of optically thick clouds, which greatly increases the planetary albedo. In contrast, on rapidly rotating planets a much narrower belt of clouds form in the deep tropics, leading to a relatively low albedo. A particularly striking example of the importance of rotation rate suggested by our simulations is that a planet with modern Earth's atmosphere, in Venus' orbit, and with modern Venus' (slow) rotation rate would be habitable. This would imply that if Venus went through a runaway greenhouse, it had a higher rotation rate at that time.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yang, Jun; Boué, Gwenaël; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Abbot, Dorian S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">48</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6144..860J"> <span id="translatedtitle">A variational approach to <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> non-rigid registration</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper we propose a new method for non-rigid registration of PET/CT datasets incorporating prior knowledge about the rigidity of regions within the PET volumes into the matching process. State-of-the-art medical image registration approaches usually assume that the whole image domain is associated with a homogeneous deformation property, thus bone structure and soft tissue have the same stiffness, for instance. This assumption, however, is invalid in the majority of cases. In many applications the deformation properties can be estimated automatically by a segmentation step, beforehand. The presented non-rigid registration method integrates knowledge about the tissue directly into the deformation field computation. For this reason, no additional post-processing steps, like filtering of the deformation field, are required. To integrate the tissue constraints the regularizer is replaced by a novel <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> smoother. <span class="hlt">Dependent</span> on the location within the image, the smoother is able to explicitly adjust the rigidity. Thus, different tissue classes can be treated in the registration process. To pass the stiffness coefficients to the algorithm an additional mask image is used. The registration results are illustrated on synthetic data first to give a good intuition about the effectiveness of the proposed method. Finally, we illustrate the improvement of the registration using real clinical data. It is shown that the mono-modal registration of PET images yields more reasonable results using a <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> regularizer constraining the deformations of regions with high tracer concentration than using a normal curvature regularizer. Furthermore, the method is evaluated on multi-modal PET/CT registration problems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jäger, Florian; Han, Jingfeng; Hornegger, Joachim; Kuwert, Torsten</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">49</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3325540"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatiotemporal properties of sensory responses in vivo are <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on network context</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sensory responses in neocortex are <span class="hlt">strongly</span> modulated by changes in brain state, such as those observed between sleep stages or attentional levels. However, the specific effects of network state changes on the spatiotemporal properties of sensory responses are poorly understood. The slow oscillation, which is observed in neocortex under ketamine-xylazine anesthesia and is characterized by alternating depolarizing (up-states) and hyperpolarizing (down-states) phases, provides an opportunity to study the state-<span class="hlt">dependence</span> of primary sensory responses in large networks. Here we used voltage sensitive dye (VSD) imaging to record the spatiotemporal properties of sensory responses and local field potential (LFP) and multiunit activity (MUA) recordings to monitor the ongoing brain state in which the sensory responses occurred. Despite a rich variability of slow oscillation patterns, sensory responses showed a consistent relationship with the ongoing oscillation and triggered a new up-state only after the termination of the refractory period that followed the preceding oscillatory cycle. We show that spatiotemporal properties of whisker-evoked responses are highly <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on their timing with regard to the ongoing oscillation. In both the up- and down-states, responses spread across large portions of the barrel field, although the up-state responses were reduced in total area due to their sparseness. The depolarizing response in the up-state showed a tendency to propagate along the rows, with an amplitude and slope favoring the higher-numbered arcs. In the up-state, but not in the down-state, the depolarizing response was followed by a hyperpolarizing wave with a consistent <span class="hlt">spatial</span> structure. We measured the suppression of whisker-evoked responses by a preceding response at 100 ms, and found that suppression showed the same <span class="hlt">spatial</span> asymmetry as the depolarization. Because the resting level of cells in the up-state is likely to be closer to that in the awake animal, we suggest that the polarities in signal propagation which we observed in the up-state could be used as computational mechanisms in the behaving animal. These results demonstrate the critical importance of ongoing network activity on the dynamics of sensory responses and their integration.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Civillico, Eugene F.; Contreras, Diego</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">50</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.econ.cam.ac.uk/faculty/pesaran/wp09/CPT_StrongWeakCSD_14June09.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Weak and <span class="hlt">strong</span> cross-section <span class="hlt">dependence</span> and estimation of large panels</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary This paper introduces the concepts of time-specific weak and <span class="hlt">strong</span> cross-section <span class="hlt">dependence</span>, and investigates how these notions are related to the concepts of weak, <span class="hlt">strong</span> and semi-<span class="hlt">strong</span> common factors, frequently used for modelling residual cross-section correlations in panel data models. It then focuses on the problems of estimating slope coefficients in large panels, where cross-section units are subject to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alexander Chudiky; M. Hashem Pesaran; Elisa Tosetti</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">51</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20867880"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spin- and energy-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> tunneling through a single molecule with intramolecular <span class="hlt">spatial</span> resolution.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigate the spin- and energy-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> tunneling through a single organic molecule (CoPc) adsorbed on a ferromagnetic Fe thin film, <span class="hlt">spatially</span> resolved by low-temperature spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy. Interestingly, the metal ion as well as the organic ligand show a significant spin <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of tunneling current flow. State-of-the-art ab initio calculations including also van der Waals interactions reveal a <span class="hlt">strong</span> hybridization of molecular orbitals and substrate 3d states. The molecule is anionic due to a transfer of one electron, resulting in a nonmagnetic (S=0) state. Nevertheless, tunneling through the molecule exhibits a pronounced spin <span class="hlt">dependence</span> due to spin-split molecule-surface hybrid states. PMID:20867880</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brede, Jens; Atodiresei, Nicolae; Kuck, Stefan; Lazi?, Predrag; Caciuc, Vasile; Morikawa, Yoshitada; Hoffmann, Germar; Blügel, Stefan; Wiesendanger, Roland</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">52</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49588"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">Dependencies</span> for Mining Geospatial Data: An Introduction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">this paper we first review <span class="hlt">spatial</span> statistical methods which explictly modelspatial autocorrelation and we propose PLUMS (Predicting Locations Using MapSimilarity), a new approach for supervised <span class="hlt">spatial</span> data mining problems. PLUMSsearches the parameter space of models using a map-similarity measure which ismore appropriate in the context of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> data. We will show that compared tostate-of-the-art <span class="hlt">spatial</span> statistics approaches, PLUMS achives comparable</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sanjay Chawla; Shashi Shekhar; Weili Wu; Uygar Ozesmi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">53</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000AcSSn..13...29C"> <span id="translatedtitle">The characteristics of variation in inhomogeneity of temporal-<span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of short to imminent precursors before <span class="hlt">strong</span> earthquakes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">C v is used in this paper to describe the variation in inhomogeneity of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and temporal distribution of precursors. The inhomogeneous variation in the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and temporal distribution of the anomalies in water radon and electromagnetic waves before M s?6 earthquakes in northern North China is analyzed in detail. Results show that before a moderate to <span class="hlt">strong</span> earthquake, the distribution of anomalies in water radon and electromagnetic waves changes inhomogeneously, i.e., C v increases significantly. The inhomogeneity in <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of short-to-imminent precursors increases before a <span class="hlt">strong</span> earthquake, which may relates to the enhancement of crustal strain field. The research will not only help us to know more about the process of seismogeny and to improve practical earthquake prediction, but also blaze a new way to do earthquake prediction with present precursor data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, Xue-Zhong; Wang, Xiao-Qing; Li, Zhi-Xiong; Song, Zhi-Ping; Jiao, Ming-Ruo; Hou, Jian-Sheng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">54</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JKPS...63.1789J"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> pore-size <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the optical properties in porous alumina membranes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report on the <span class="hlt">strong</span> pore-size-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> optical properties of porous alumina membranes (PAMs) by using the photoluminescence and the optical spectroscopic techniques. The pore diameters of our PAMs varied from 60 to 420 nm. All samples showed a sizable violet/blue emission with a <span class="hlt">strong</span> temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span>. We found that the peak position of the emission shifted to higher energies with increasing pore diameter, which was in accord with the smaller binding energy extracted from the temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the emission intensity. From the transmission spectra, we found that the effective bandgap of the PAMs shifted significantly to lower energies with increasing pore diameter, which indicated that the impurity states within the bandgap was affected <span class="hlt">strongly</span> by the geometry of the PAM.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jeon, C. H.; Kim, D. H.; Lee, Y. S.; Han, J. K.; Choi, Y. C.; Bu, S. D.; Shin, H. Y.; Yoon, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">55</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/19111866"> <span id="translatedtitle">Exact probabilistic solution of <span class="hlt">spatial-dependent</span> stochastics and associated <span class="hlt">spatial</span> potential landscape for the bicoid protein</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigated the <span class="hlt">spatial-dependent</span> stochastic effects originating from the finite number of bicoid proteins in Drosophila melanogaster, which are crucial to cell development. We obtained an exact solution to the <span class="hlt">spatial-dependent</span> stochastic chemical master equation and recovered the usual reaction-diffusion solution for the average of the bicoid concentration, valid in the bulk. We also used the steady state probability to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David Lepzelter; Jin Wang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">56</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50111700"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quadratic <span class="hlt">spatial</span> soliton generation by seeded down conversion of a <span class="hlt">strong</span> pump beam</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Quadratic <span class="hlt">spatial</span> solitons have been generated during second-harmonic generation under easy-to-achieve conditions and should be pervasive in other second-order nonlinear interactions. One of the more interesting cases is the downconversion process, which is the essence of parametric generators and oscillators. In this investigation, we report on the generation of two-dimensional quadratic <span class="hlt">spatial</span> solitons (QSS) in a KTP crystal near the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. T. G. Canva; R. A. Fuerst; D. Baboiu; G. I. Stegeman; G. Assanto</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">57</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22004532"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">STRONG</span> GRAVITATIONAL LENS MODELING WITH <span class="hlt">SPATIALLY</span> VARIANT POINT-SPREAD FUNCTIONS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Astronomical instruments generally possess <span class="hlt">spatially</span> variant point-spread functions, which determine the amount by which an image pixel is blurred as a function of position. Several techniques have been devised to handle this variability in the context of the standard image deconvolution problem. We have developed an iterative gravitational lens modeling code called Mirage that determines the parameters of pixelated source intensity distributions for a given lens model. We are able to include the effects of <span class="hlt">spatially</span> variant point-spread functions using the iterative procedures in this lensing code. In this paper, we discuss the methods to include <span class="hlt">spatially</span> variant blurring effects and test the results of the algorithm in the context of gravitational lens modeling problems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rogers, Adam; Fiege, Jason D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T-2N2 (Canada)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">58</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1212366W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Climate change responses of carbon storage <span class="hlt">depend</span> on <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variability in forested mountain catchments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Forests carbon both in living biomass and in soils and whether forests have the potential to act as carbon sinks in the future <span class="hlt">depends</span> on the complex, non-linear response of Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) to changes in driving forces such as temperature, precipitation and atmospheric CO2 concentration. Mountains catchments with their a complex topography show often a great variability of these driving forces over very short horizontal distances, e.g. along elevation gradients, or with slope angle and aspect. We use a biogeochemical process based model to investigate the carbon budget of forested mountain catchments in the European Alps using recent regional climate change scenarios. For the European Alps, higher summer temperatures and a decrease in summer precipitation are to be expected. We use climate scenarios that differ in the extent and duration of droughts to investigate the response of mountain forest ecosystems to extreme events compared to a monotonous decrease in growing season precipitation. We could show that changes in carbon storage capacity vary <span class="hlt">strongly</span> between and within catchments. The overall effects of increasing temperatures and changes in precipitation patterns <span class="hlt">depended</span> on the elevation gradient of the investigated valleys; they are thus <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> resolution that is used in the simulations. Considering that forested mountain catchments harbor a large fraction of the biospheric carbon, we conclude that in order to estimate the carbon storage capacity and hence the mitigation potential of forests in highly complex terrain such as the European Alps, the non-linear effects of interacting driving forces must be considered, and they must be studied at high <span class="hlt">spatial</span> resolution in biogeochemical models, otherwise misleading results may be obtained.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wolf, Annett; Leuzinger, Sebastian; Bugmann, Harald</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">59</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22093571"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pulse-shape-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field ionization viewed with velocity-map imaging</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We explore <span class="hlt">strong</span> field molecular ionization with velocity map imaging of fragment ions produced by dissociation following ionization. Our measurements and ab initio electronic structure calculations allow us to identify various electronic states of the molecular cation populated during ionization, with multiple pathways to individual states highlighted by the pulse shape <span class="hlt">dependence</span>. In addition, we show that relative populations can be reconstructed from our measurements. The results illustrate how <span class="hlt">strong</span> field molecular ionization can be complicated by the presence and interaction of multiple cationic states during ionization.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Geissler, Dominik; Weinacht, Thomas C. [Department of Physics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Rozgonyi, Tamas [Chemical Research Center of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Pusztaszeri u't 59-67, Budapest, HU-1025 (Hungary); Gonzalez-Vazquez, Jesus [Instituto de Quimica Fisica Rocasolano, CSIC, C/Serrano 119, ES-28006 Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez, Leticia; Marquetand, Philipp [Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 17, 1090 Vienna (Austria)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">60</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/19201063"> <span id="translatedtitle">Excitonic charge-density-wave instability of <span class="hlt">spatially</span> separated electron-hole layers in <span class="hlt">strong</span> magnetic fields</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We use the Hartree-Fock approximation to investigate the ground state of a system consisting of <span class="hlt">spatially</span> separated electron and hole layers in <span class="hlt">strong</span> magnetic fields. When the layer separation is larger than a critical value a novel excitonic-density-wave state is found to have a lower energy than either a homogeneous exciton fluid or a double charge-density-wave state. The order parameters</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">X. M. Chen; J. J. Quinn</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">61</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22027709"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> terahertz radiation by beating of <span class="hlt">spatial</span>-triangular lasers in a plasma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Resonant excitation of terahertz (THz) radiation by beating of two <span class="hlt">spatial</span>-triangular laser beams having different frequencies and wave numbers but the same electric fields is proposed, where the ponderomotive force in the transverse direction is realized due to the beating and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variation of the lasers' fields. This gives rise to a stronger transient transverse current due to a sharp gradient in the laser field, and subsequently THz radiation is excited resonantly in the presence of a periodic density structure. The present scheme yields the THz field {approx}10{sup 5} kV/cm and the efficiency {approx}10{sup -2} for the laser intensity {approx}10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Malik, Anil K.; Malik, Hitendra K. [Plasma Waves and Particle Acceleration Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi-110 016 (India); Stroth, Ulrich [Institute fuer Plasmaforschung, Universitaet Stuttgart, Stuttgart-70569 (Germany)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">62</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17227864"> <span id="translatedtitle">Explicit off-line criteria for stable accurate time filtering of <span class="hlt">strongly</span> unstable <span class="hlt">spatially</span> extended systems.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many contemporary problems in science involve making predictions based on partial observation of extremely complicated <span class="hlt">spatially</span> extended systems with many degrees of freedom and physical instabilities on both large and small scales. Various new ensemble filtering strategies have been developed recently for these applications, and new mathematical issues arise. Here, explicit off-line test criteria for stable accurate discrete filtering are developed for use in the above context and mimic the classical stability analysis for finite difference schemes. First, constant coefficient partial differential equations, which are randomly forced and damped to mimic mesh scale energy spectra in the above problems are developed as off-line filtering test problems. Then mathematical analysis is used to show that under natural suitable hypothesis the time filtering algorithms for general finite difference discrete approximations to an sxs partial differential equation system with suitable observations decompose into much simpler independent s-dimensional filtering problems for each <span class="hlt">spatial</span> wave number separately; in other test problems, such block diagonal models rigorously provide upper and lower bounds on the filtering algorithm. In this fashion, elementary off-line filtering criteria can be developed for complex <span class="hlt">spatially</span> extended systems. The theory is illustrated for time filters by using both unstable and implicit difference scheme approximations to the stochastically forced heat equation where the combined effects of filter stability and model error are analyzed through the simpler off-line criteria. PMID:17227864</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Majda, Andrew J; Grote, Marcus J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">63</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Medina+AND+Medina+R&pg=2&id=EJ767975"> <span id="translatedtitle">Retrieval Induces Hippocampal-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Reconsolidation of <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Memory</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nonreinforced retrieval can cause extinction and/or reconsolidation, two processes that affect subsequent retrieval in opposite ways. Using the Morris water maze task we show that, in the rat, repeated nonreinforced expression of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> memory causes extinction, which is unaffected by inhibition of protein synthesis within the CA1 region of the…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rossato, Janine I.; Medina, Jorge H.; Izquierdo, Ivan; Cammarota, Martin; Bevilaqua, Lia R. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">64</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhRvL.101p6401V"> <span id="translatedtitle">Time-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Density-Functional Theory and <span class="hlt">Strongly</span> Correlated Systems: Insight from Numerical Studies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We illustrate the scope of time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> density-functional theory for <span class="hlt">strongly</span> correlated (lattice) models out of equilibrium. Using the exact many-body time evolution, we reverse engineer the exact exchange correlation (xc) potential vxc for small Hubbard chains exposed to time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> fields. We introduce an adiabatic local density approximation to vxc for the 1D Hubbard model and compare it to exact results, to gain insight about approximate xc potentials. Finally, we provide some remarks on the v-representability for the 1D Hubbard model.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Verdozzi, Claudio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">65</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/18563611"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the measurement of frequency-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> ultrasonic attenuation in <span class="hlt">strongly</span> heterogeneous materials</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper deals with the measurement of frequency-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> ultrasonic attenuation in <span class="hlt">strongly</span> heterogeneous materials, such as cementitious materials. To improve the measurement of this parameter on this kind of materials, a linear swept–frequency signal is used to drive an emitter transducer to conduct a through-transmission inspection in immersion. To filter out undesirable frequency content, time–frequency filtering and detection process are</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Molero; I. Segura; S. Aparicio; M. G. Hernández; M. A. G. Izquierdo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">66</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/16476766"> <span id="translatedtitle">Large-Sample Properties of Parameter Estimates for <span class="hlt">Strongly</span> <span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Stationary Gaussian Time Series</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> Gaussian sequence has a spectral density $f(x, \\\\theta)$ satisfying $f(x, \\\\theta) \\\\sim |x|^{-\\\\alpha(\\\\theta)} L_\\\\theta(x)$ as $x \\\\rightarrow 0$, where $0 < \\\\alpha(\\\\theta) < 1$ and $L_\\\\theta(x)$ varies slowly at 0. Here $\\\\theta$ is a vector of unknown parameters. An estimator for $\\\\theta$ is proposed and shown to be consistent and asymptotically normal under appropriate conditions. These conditions</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robert Fox; Murad S. Taqqu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">67</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24092046"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bimodal voltage <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of TRPA1: mutations of a key pore helix residue reveal <span class="hlt">strong</span> intrinsic voltage-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> inactivation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) is implicated in somatosensory processing and pathological pain sensation. Although not strictly voltage-gated, ionic currents of TRPA1 typically rectify outwardly, indicating channel activation at depolarized membrane potentials. However, some reports also showed TRPA1 inactivation at high positive potentials, implicating voltage-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> inactivation. Here we report a conserved leucine residue, L906, in the putative pore helix, which <span class="hlt">strongly</span> impacts the voltage <span class="hlt">dependency</span> of TRPA1. Mutation of the leucine to cysteine (L906C) converted the channel from outward to inward rectification independent of divalent cations and irrespective to stimulation by allyl isothiocyanate. The mutant, but not the wild-type channel, displayed exclusively voltage-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> inactivation at positive potentials. The L906C mutation also exhibited reduced sensitivity to inhibition by TRPA1 blockers, HC030031 and ruthenium red. Further mutagenesis of the leucine to all natural amino acids individually revealed that most substitutions at L906 (15/19) resulted in inward rectification, with exceptions of three amino acids that dramatically reduced channel activity and one, methionine, which mimicked the wild-type channel. Our data are plausibly explained by a bimodal gating model involving both voltage-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> activation and inactivation of TRPA1. We propose that the key pore helix residue, L906, plays an essential role in responding to the voltage-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> gating. PMID:24092046</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wan, Xia; Lu, Yungang; Chen, Xueqin; Xiong, Jian; Zhou, Yuanda; Li, Ping; Xia, Bingqing; Li, Min; Zhu, Michael X; Gao, Zhaobing</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">68</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://jdr.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/72/8/1206.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> and Gender-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> Variations in Perioral Pinprick Sensitivity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Twenty-eight right-handed young adults participated in a sensory testing experiment to evaluate pinprick sensitivity at ten <span class="hlt">spatially</span> matched sites on the right and left sides of the face. Stimuli were provided by a sharp-pointed dental explorer on which a rubber eraser had been positioned to minimize variations in the extent to which the skin was indented. Sharpness was defined as</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Lee; G. K. Essick</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">69</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18831177"> <span id="translatedtitle">Terrestrial habitat selection and <span class="hlt">strong</span> density-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> mortality in recently metamorphosed amphibians.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To predict the effects of terrestrial habitat change on amphibian populations, we need to know how amphibians respond to habitat heterogeneity, and whether habitat choice remains consistent throughout the life-history cycle. We conducted four experiments to evaluate how the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of juvenile wood frogs, Rana sylvatica (including both overall abundance and localized density), was influenced by habitat choice and habitat structure, and how this relationship changed with <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale and behavioral phase. The four experiments included (1) habitat manipulation on replicated 10-ha landscapes surrounding breeding pools; (2) short-term experiments with individual frogs emigrating through a manipulated landscape of 1 m wide hexagonal patches; and habitat manipulations in (3) small (4-m2); and (4) large (100-m2) enclosures with multiple individuals to compare behavior both during and following emigration. The <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of juvenile wood frogs following emigration resulted from differences in the scale at which juvenile amphibians responded to habitat heterogeneity during active vs. settled behavioral phases. During emigration, juvenile wood frogs responded to coarse-scale variation in habitat (selection between 2.2-ha forest treatments) but not to fine-scale variation. After settling, however, animals showed habitat selection at much smaller scales (2-4 m2). This resulted in high densities of animals in small patches of suitable habitat where they experienced rapid mortality. No evidence of density-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> habitat selection was seen, with juveniles typically choosing to remain at extremely high densities in high-quality habitat, rather than occupying low-quality habitat. These experiments demonstrate how prediction of the terrestrial distribution of juvenile amphibians requires understanding of the complex behavioral responses to habitat heterogeneity. Understanding these patterns is important, given that human alterations to amphibian habitats may generate extremely high densities of animals, resulting in high density-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> mortality. PMID:18831177</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Patrick, David A; Harper, Elizabeth B; Hunter, Malcolm L; Calhoun, Aram J K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">70</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19768764"> <span id="translatedtitle">Normalization reduces the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependency</span> of the jaw-stretch reflex activity in the human masseter muscle.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The jaw-stretch reflex is the short-latency response in the jaw-closing muscles after a sudden stretch. The hypothesis whether normalization of the jaw-stretch reflex amplitude with respect to prestimulus electromyographic (EMG) activity will make the amplitude more independent of the location of the electrodes over the masseter muscle was tested. A 5 x 6 electrode grid was used to record the jaw-stretch reflex from 25 sites over the right masseter muscle of 15 healthy men. The results showed that there was a significant site <span class="hlt">dependency</span> of the prestimulus EMG activity and the reflex amplitude. High cross-correlation coefficients were found between the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of mean prestimulus EMG activities and reflex amplitude. When the reflex amplitude was normalized with respect to the prestimulus EMG activity, no site <span class="hlt">dependency</span> was found. In conclusion, normalization of the jaw-stretch reflex amplitude by the prestimulus EMG activity <span class="hlt">strongly</span> reduces its <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependency</span>. PMID:19768764</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Koutris, Michail; Naeije, Machiel; Lobbezoo, Frank; Wang, Kelun; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Svensson, Peter; Farina, Dario</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">71</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21251074"> <span id="translatedtitle">Casimir <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of transverse distribution of pairs produced from a <span class="hlt">strong</span> constant chromoelectric background field</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The transverse distribution of gluon and quark-antiquark pairs produced from a <span class="hlt">strong</span> constant chromoelectric field <span class="hlt">depends</span> on two gauge invariant quantities, C{sub 1}=E{sup a}E{sup a} and C{sub 2}=[d{sub abc}E{sup a}E{sup b}E{sup c}]{sup 2}, as shown earlier in [G. C. Nayak and P. van Nieuwenhuizen, Phys. Rev. D 71, 125001 (2005)] for gluons and in [G. C. Nayak, Phys. Rev. D 72, 125010 (2005)] for quarks. Here, we discuss the explicit <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the distribution on the second Casimir invariant C{sub 2} and show the <span class="hlt">dependence</span> is at most a 15% effect.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cooper, Fred [National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Blvd., Arlington, Virginia 22230 (United States); Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501 (United States); Center for Nonlinear Studies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Dawson, John F. [Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire 03824 (United States); Mihaila, Bogdan [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">72</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H43D1377H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Insights from Modelling the <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> Structure of Hydraulic Conductivity at the MADE Site Using <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Copulas</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Claus P. Haslauer(1) and Geoffrey C. Bohling(2) <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> copulas have in the recent past been applied successfully to model the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> structure of heterogeneous subsurface datasets. At the MADE site, hydraulic conductivity (K) has been measured in exceptional detail. Two independently collected data-sets were used for this study: (1) ~2000 flowmeter based K measurements, and (2) ~20,000 direct-push based K measurements. These datasets exhibit a very heterogeneous (Var[ln(K)]>2) <span class="hlt">spatially</span> distributed K field. A copula analysis reveals that the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> structure of the flowmeter and direct-push datasets are essentially the same. A <span class="hlt">spatial</span> copula analysis factors out the influence of the marginal distribution of the property under investigation. This independence from the marginal distributions allows the copula analysis to reveal the underlying similarity between the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> structures of the flowmeter and direct-push datasets despite two complicating factors: 1) an overall offset between the datasets, with direct-push K values being, on average, roughly a factor of five lower than flowmeter K values, due at least in part to opposite biases between the two measurement techniques, and 2) the presence of some anomalously high K values in the direct-push dataset due to a lower limit on accurately measureable pressure responses in high-K zones. In addition, the vertical resolution of the direct-push dataset is ten times finer than that of the flowmeter dataset. Upscaling the direct-push data to compensate for this difference resulted in little change to the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> structure. Affiliations 1: University of Tübingen, Germany. 2: Kansas Geological Survey, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, USA.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Haslauer, C. P.; Bohling, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">73</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JPSJ...75e4713K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Correlations in <span class="hlt">Strongly</span> Correlated Electron Systems: Extension to Dynamical Mean Field Approximation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We propose a formalism to take account of the correction of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> fluctuations to the local self-energy obtained by the dynamical mean-field approximation. For this purpose, the approximate dynamical susceptibility in the framework of the iterated perturbation theory is proposed and examined. Using the formalism, it is demonstrated that the one-particle spectral intensity in the two-dimensional Hubbard model at half-filling exhibits the pseudo-gap behavior in the central coherent quasiparticle peak due to the critical antiferromagnetic fluctuation. The specific heat is considerably enhanced by the short-range order, which assists a tendency of the Mott localization showing the reduction of the double occupancy. We briefly discuss a formulation for the superconducting transition temperature in the present approximation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kusunose, Hiroaki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">74</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JAP....92.5950P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spectral <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of signal distortions in <span class="hlt">spatially</span> resolved photothermal radiometry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We consider a photothermal microscope based on <span class="hlt">spatially</span> resolved IR radiometry to perform thermal diffusivity measurements. We analyze the influence of the detected IR wavelength range on the signal distortion arising from nonlinearity in the IR emission and diffraction effects. These distortions, which are responsible for raising the phase profile and hence for a thermal diffusivity overestimate, are further enhanced if the short wavelength portion of the emitted IR spectra is selected for a given heating power. A theoretical explanation is given which is confirmed by measurements.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paoloni, S.; Fournier, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">75</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNG32A..03B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Copulas for the description of non-Gaussian <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> (Invited)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many natural processes lead to <span class="hlt">spatially</span> distributed variables which exhibit considerable <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variability and heterogeneous structures. The statistical description, interpolation or simulation of such fields can be done by geostatistical tools. Geostatistical methods use second order statistics, variograms and covariance functions for the description of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variability and the subsequent interpolation and simulation. However natural structures often exhibit non-Gaussian features both in their distributions and in their <span class="hlt">dependence</span>. One of these is the different <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of high and low values. This kind of asymmetrical <span class="hlt">dependence</span> is a clear sign of a non-Gaussian organization of the structure. Asymmetrical <span class="hlt">dependence</span> is a feature which is independent of the distribution and thus can be related to the <span class="hlt">dependence</span> described using copulas. Copulas offer a comprehensive description of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variability offering a framework to describe and to model asymmetrical behavior. A third order statistical function can describe asymmetrical behavior. Theoretical models allow interpolation and simulation of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> fields. They differ from those obtained using geostatistics mainly in their uncertainty quantification. Examples from different <span class="hlt">spatial</span> fields including topographical surfaces, rainfall and groundwater quality fields illustrate the methodology. Consequences of the models with respect to <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scaling are also discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bardossy, A.; Guthke, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">76</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860040629&hterms=DALY&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DDALY"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the penetration of a hot diapir through a <span class="hlt">strongly</span> temperature-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> viscosity medium</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The ascent of a hot spherical body through a fluid with a <span class="hlt">strongly</span> temperature-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> viscosity has been studied using an axisymmetric finite element method. Numerical solutions range over Peclet numbers of 0.1 - 1000 from constant viscosity up to viscosity variations of 100,000. Both rigid and stress-free boundary conditions were applied at the surface of the sphere. The <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of drag on viscosity variation was shown to have no <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on the stress boundary condition except for a Stokes flow scaling factor. A Nusselt number parameterization based on the stress-free constant viscosity functional <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on the Peclet number scaled by a parameter <span class="hlt">depending</span> on the viscosity structure fits both stress-free and rigid boundary condition data above viscosity variations of 100. The temperature scale height was determined as a function of sphere radius. For the simple physical model studied in this paper pre-heating is required to reduce the ambient viscosity of the country rock to less than 10 to the 22nd sq cm/s in order for a 10 km diapir to penetrate a distance of several radii.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Daly, S. F.; Raefsky, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">77</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGS....15...31E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Conditional versus unconditional industrial agglomeration: disentangling <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> heterogeneity in the analysis of ICT firms' distribution in Milan</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A series of recent papers have introduced some explorative methods based on Ripley's K-function (Ripley in J R Stat Soc B 39(2):172-212, 1977) analyzing the micro-geographical patterns of firms. Often the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> heterogeneity of an area is handled by referring to a case-control design, in which <span class="hlt">spatial</span> clusters occur as over-concentrations of firms belonging to a specific industry as opposed to the distribution of firms in the whole economy. Therefore, positive, or negative, <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> between firms occurs when a specific sector of industry is seen to present a more aggregated pattern (or more dispersed) than is common in the economy as a whole. This approach has led to the development of relative measures of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> concentration which, as a consequence, are not straightforwardly comparable across different economies. In this article, we explore a parametric approach based on the inhomogeneous K-function (Baddeley et al. in Statistica Nederlandica 54(3):329-350, 2000) that makes it possible to obtain an absolute measure of the industrial agglomeration that is also able to capture <span class="hlt">spatial</span> heterogeneity. We provide an empirical application of the approach taken with regard to the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of high-tech industries in Milan (Italy) in 2001.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Espa, Giuseppe; Arbia, Giuseppe; Giuliani, Diego</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">78</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21448523"> <span id="translatedtitle">Implementation of the time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> configuration-interaction singles method for atomic <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field processes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present an implementation of the time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> configuration-interaction singles (TDCIS) method for treating atomic <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field processes. In order to absorb the photoelectron wave packet when it reaches the end of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> grid, we add to the exact nonrelativistic many-electron Hamiltonian a radial complex absorbing potential (CAP). We determine the orbitals for the TDCIS calculation by diagonalizing the sum of the Fock operator and the CAP using a flexible pseudospectral grid for the radial degree of freedom and spherical harmonics for the angular degrees of freedom. The CAP is chosen such that the occupied orbitals in the Hartree-Fock ground state remain unaffected. Within TDCIS, the many-electron wave packet is expanded in terms of the Hartree-Fock ground state and its single excitations. The virtual orbitals satisfy nonstandard orthogonality relations, which must be taken into consideration in the calculation of the dipole and Coulomb matrix elements required for the TDCIS equations of motion. We employ a stable propagation scheme derived by second-order finite differencing of the TDCIS equations of motion in the interaction picture and subsequent transformation to the Schroedinger picture. Using the TDCIS wave packet, we calculate the expectation value of the dipole acceleration and the reduced density matrix of the residual ion. The technique implemented will allow one to study electronic channel-coupling effects in <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field processes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Greenman, Loren; Kamarchik, Eugene; Mazziotti, David A. [Department of Chemistry and James Franck Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Ho, Phay J. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Pabst, Stefan [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Santra, Robin [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-08-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">79</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23542480"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pressures at larger <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales <span class="hlt">strongly</span> influence the ecological status of heavily modified river water bodies in Germany.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">River biota are influenced by anthropogenic pressures that operate at different <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales. Understanding which pressures at which <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales affect biota is essential to manage and restore degraded rivers. In Europe, many river reaches were designated as Heavily Modified Water Bodies (HMWB) according to the European Water Framework Directive (WFD), where the ecological potential might mainly be determined by pressures at larger <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales outside the HMWB (e.g. hydromorphological alterations at the river network and land use at the catchment scale). In Germany, hydromorphological alterations and diffuse pollution were the main pressures. Therefore, the three objectives of this study were to (i) identify the hydromorphological pressures at the site, reach, and river network scale, and land use categories at the catchment scale which significantly affect the ecological status of HMWB in Germany, (ii) quantify the relative importance of these pressures at different <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales, and (iii) analyse the differences in response between fish and macroinvertebrates. The results indicated that: (i) At the reach scale, fish were most <span class="hlt">strongly</span> influenced by channel-bank conditions whilst the naturalness of channel-planform was the best proxy for the ecological status of macroinvertebrates. At the catchment scale, urbanization was the most detrimental land use. (ii) The pressures at larger <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales (catchment land use and hydromorphological alterations in the river network) generally were more important than hydromorphological alterations at the reach scale. (iii) Fish were affected equally by both, hydromorphological alterations at the reach scale and large-scale pressures whereas the latter were far more important for the ecological status of macroinvertebrates. In conclusion, these results indicated that large-scale pressures may often limit the efficiency of reach-scale restoration, especially for macroinvertebrates, even in the absence of saprobic pollution, and have to be considered for the management and restoration of HMWB in Germany and comparable degraded river reaches. PMID:23542480</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kail, Jochem; Wolter, Christian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">80</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/956379"> <span id="translatedtitle">Intensity <span class="hlt">dependent</span> waiting time for <span class="hlt">strong</span> electron trapping events in speckle stimulated raman scatter</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The onset of Stimulated Raman scatter from an intense laser speckle is the simplest experimentally realizable laser-plasma-interaction environment. Despite this data and recent 3D particle simulations, the controlling mechanism at the onset of backscatter in the kinetic regime when <span class="hlt">strong</span> electron trapping in the daughter Langmuir wave is a dominant nonlinearity is not understood. This paper explores the consequences of assuming that onset is controlled by large thermal fluctuations. A super exponential <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of mean reflectivity on speckle intensity in the onset regime is predicted.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rose, Harvey [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daughton, W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yin, L [Los Alamos National Laboratory</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">81</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMSH23B1840L"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> heating and ionization: From CME to ICME</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The January 21st 2005 Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection (ICME) observed by multiple spacecraft at L1 was also observed further out in the heliosphere at Ulysses (~3.25 AU). Previous multi-spacecraft studies of this ICME found evidence suggesting that the flanks of a magnetic cloud like structure associated with this ICME were observed at L1 while a more central cut through the associated magnetic cloud was observed at Ulysses. This event presents a unique opportunity to study the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variation of the ionic composition contained within a single ICME and relate it to the eruption at the Sun. Using SWICS, we compare and contrast the heavy ion composition across the two different observations cuts through the ICME. We will compare the results from ACE and Ulysses with predictions from ionization models in the corona and with remote observations of phenomena indicative of electron heating in the inner corona.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lepri, S. T.; Laming, J.; Rakowski, C. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">82</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.homepages.ucl.ac.uk/~smgxscd/Papers/2000%20ContrastMod.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sensitivity to contrast modulation <span class="hlt">depends</span> on carrier <span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequency and orientation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We consider how the detection of second-order contrast structure <span class="hlt">depends</span> on the orientation and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequency of first-order luminance structure. For patterns composed of a bandpass noise carrier multiplied by a contrast envelope function, we show that sensitivity to the envelope varies in proportion to the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequency of the carrier. For oriented carriers at low <span class="hlt">spatial</span>-frequen- cies, detection of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Steven C. Dakin; Isabelle Mareschal</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">83</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42296441"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of windthrow disturbance on a forest bird community <span class="hlt">depend</span> on <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Community structure is expected to be affected by <span class="hlt">spatial</span> heterogeneity in a landscape. We examined the <span class="hlt">spatial-scale-dependent</span> effects of windthrow caused by a large typhoon on a forest bird community. Typhoon events of this magnitude are rare in Hokkaido, Japan, occurring only once or twice a century. To assess the “functional <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale” at which bird groups (community, species, body-size</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Masashi Murakami; Toshihide Hirao; Jiro Iwamoto; Hiroyuki Oguma</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">84</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..MART11008K"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> Rotational Angle <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> of Raman Spectroscopy in Rotated Double-Layer Graphene</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We perform a complementary Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study, as well as electronic-structure and Raman calculations, on suspended rotated double-layer graphene. Graphene Raman spectra show a <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on the rotational angles between two stacked layers. For low-angle mis-orientations (<˜ 10 degrees), double-layer graphene exhibits Raman signature closer to AB-stacked bilayer graphene. Double-layers with high rotational angles (>˜ 15 degrees), on the other hand, display Raman spectra similar to monolayer graphene. Rotational angle <span class="hlt">dependent</span> modifications of the electronic band structure in double-layer graphene can explain this trend and a G peak enhancement at certain middle angles. The computed electronic band structures and key features of the graphene Raman peaks including the blue shift, width and intensity of the 2D peaks agree well with experimental data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kim, Kwanpyo; Coh, Sinisa; Tan, Liang Z.; Regan, William; Yuk, Jong Min; Chatterjee, Eric; Crommie, M. F.; Cohen, Marvin L.; Louie, Steven G.; Zettl, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">85</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvB..89v0502M"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> pressure-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> electron-phonon coupling in FeSe</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have computed the correlated electronic structure of FeSe and its <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on the A1g mode versus compression. Using the self-consistent density functional theory-dynamical mean field theory (DFT-DMFT) with continuous time quantum Monte Carlo, we find that there is greatly enhanced coupling between some correlated electron states and the A1g lattice distortion. Superconductivity in FeSe shows a very <span class="hlt">strong</span> sensitivity to pressure, with an increase in Tc of almost a factor of 5 within a few GPa, followed by a drop, despite monotonic pressure <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of almost all electronic properties. We find that the maximum A1g deformation potential behaves similar to the experimental Tc. In contrast, the maximum deformation potential in DFT for this mode increases monotonically with increasing pressure.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mandal, Subhasish; Cohen, R. E.; Haule, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">86</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPSJ...82h4710P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Momentum <span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Local-Ansatz with Hybrid Wavefunction from Weak to <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Electron Correlations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The variational theory of momentum <span class="hlt">dependent</span> local-ansatz (MLA) has been generalized by introducing a hybrid (HB) wavefunction as a starting wavefunction, whose potential can flexibly change from the Hartree--Fock type to the alloy-analogy type by varying a weighting factor from zero to one. Numerical results based on the half-filled band Hubbard model on the hypercubic lattice in infinite dimensions show up that the new wavefunction yields the ground-state energy lower than that of the Gutzwiller wavefunction (GW) in the whole Coulomb interaction regime. Calculated double occupation number is smaller than the result of the GW in the weak Coulomb interaction regime, and remains finite in the <span class="hlt">strong</span> regime. Furthermore, the momentum distribution shows a distinct momentum <span class="hlt">dependence</span>, which is qualitatively different from that of the GW.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Patoary, M. Atiqur R.; Kakehashi, Yoshiro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">87</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPSJ...82a3701P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Momentum <span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Local-Ansatz Wavefunction from Weak to <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Electron Correlations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Momentum <span class="hlt">dependent</span> local-ansatz (MLA) wavefunction describes accurately electron correlations from the weak to intermediate Coulomb interaction regimes. We point out that the MLA can describe the correlations from the weak to <span class="hlt">strong</span> Coulomb interaction regimes by modifying the starting wavefunction from the Hartree--Fock (HF) type to an alloy-analogy (AA) type wavefunction. Numerical results based on the half-filled band Hubbard model on the hypercubic lattice in infinite dimensions show up that the new wavefunction yields the ground-state energy lower than the Gutzwiller wavefunction (GW) in the whole Coulomb interaction regime. Calculated double occupation number is smaller than the result of the GW in the metallic regime, and is finite in the insulator regime. Furthermore, the momentum distribution shows a distinct momentum-<span class="hlt">dependence</span> in both the metallic and insulator regions, which are qualitatively different from those of the GW.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Patoary, M. Atiqur R.; Chandra, Sumal; Kakehashi, Yoshiro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">88</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995PhRvE..52.6550L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temporal and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of hydrodynamic correlations: Simulation and experiment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> hydrodynamic interactions in a colloidal suspension of hard spheres are studied, both experimentally and through computer simulation. The focus is on the behavior at small wave vectors, which directly probes the temporal evolution of hydrodynamic interactions between nearby particles. The computer simulations show that the time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> diffusion coefficient has the same functional form for all wave vectors, with a single characteristic scaling time for each length scale and for each volume fraction. Wave-vector-averaged effective diffusion coefficients, measured experimentally using diffusing wave spectroscopy, also scale to the same functional form. In this case, the scaling time is <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on both volume fraction and particle size; it decreases sharply with decreasing particle radius, reflecting the greater contribution from smaller wave vectors that is contained in the scattering from the smaller particles. For a direct comparison of simulation and experiment, we simulate the experimentally observed correlation functions, by averaging the wave-vector-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> computer-simulation data with the weighting appropriate to the experimental technique. Although the overall scaling is similar, there are quantitative differences in the simulated and measured relaxation times. We suggest these differences are due to the compressibility of the suspension, and that the resultant pressure waves make an unexpectedly significant contribution to the hydrodynamic interactions. (c) 1995 The American Physical Society</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ladd, Anthony J. C.; Gang, Hu; Zhu, J. X.; Weitz, D. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">89</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49041440"> <span id="translatedtitle">Microtubule-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Organization of Mitochondria in Fission Yeast</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The microtubule cytoskeleton has an important role in the control of mitochondrial distribution in higher eukaryotes. In humans, defects in axonal mitochondrial transport are linked to neurodegenerative diseases. This chapter highlights fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe as a powerful genetic model system for the study of microtubule-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> mitochondrial movement, dynamics and inheritance.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maitreyi Das; Stéphane Chiron; Fulvia Verde</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">90</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..MAR.X1003A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> DMRG studies of <span class="hlt">strongly</span> correlated systems out of equilibrium</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The recent development of time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> density-matrix renormalization group (tDMRG) has opened the door for studying several interesting problems that involve the nonequilibrium real-time dynamics of <span class="hlt">strongly</span> interacting 1D lattice models [1]. We describe briefly one tDMRG approach, the Suzuki-Trotter algorithm. Then we discuss applying tDMRG to study the conductance of <span class="hlt">strongly</span> correlated nanostructures [2] and describe a method to mitigate finite-size effects which may arise in such studies [3]. We present a few examples including quantum dots in the Kondo regime, and dielectric breakdown of a Mott insulator. Another class of problems involves the time-evolution of excitations in cold atoms and <span class="hlt">strongly</span> interacting electronic materials. We present the results of a tDMRG study of an electron-hole pair in a 1D Mott insulator [4]. We finally present other possible applications and future directions. [4pt] [1] S. R. White and A. E. Feiguin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 076401 (2004).[0pt] [2] K. A. Al-Hassanieh et al., Phys. Rev. B 73, 195304 (2006).[0pt] [3] Luis G. G. V. Dias da Silva et al., Phys. Rev. B 78 195317 (2008).[0pt] [4] K. A. Al-Hassanieh et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 166403 (2008).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Al-Hassanieh, Khaled</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">91</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..MARA21011G"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strongly</span> Temperature-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> Compressibility of Dilute 2D Holes near the Metal-Insulator Transition</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We used the capacitance measurement to study the compressibility of dilute 2D holes in a 10nm wide GaAs quantum well for T=0.01-0.7K. The sample exhibits the B=0 metal-insulator transition (MIT) at a critical density pc˜ 1.0 x 10^10 /cm^2. Deep in the metallic state, the sample capacitance decreases slowly as hole density p increases, due to the (negative) exchange contribution to the compressibility of an interacting 2D system. As p is reduced below pc at low-T, the capacitance of sample diminishes rapidly as a result of the incompressible nature of the insulator state, similar to previous studies (Dultz and Jiang, PRL 84, 4689 (2000); Allison et al., PRL 96, 216407 (2006)). On the other hand, we found that temperature has a <span class="hlt">strong</span> effect near the MIT, in contrast to literature. In our system, the compressibility of insulator state increases with T and remains positive, while the behavior of metallic phase is more complex. Notably, for metallic phase with p slightly above pc, the sign of compressibility can change from positive to negative as T increases. This <span class="hlt">strongly</span> T-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> compressibility is possibly related to the competition between two phases with distinctive compressibility in our system, which is more <span class="hlt">strongly</span> interacting than samples studied previously.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gao, Xuan; Masuhara, Naoto; Boebinger, Greg; Pfeiffer, Loren</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">92</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10339357"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sedimentation of <span class="hlt">Strongly</span> and Weakly Charged Colloidal Particles: Prediction of Fractional Density <span class="hlt">Dependence</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report on calculations of the reduced sedimentation velocity U/U0 in homogenous suspensions of <span class="hlt">strongly</span> and weakly charged colloidal spheres as a function of particle volume fraction ?. For dilute suspensions of <span class="hlt">strongly</span> charged spheres at low salinity, U/U0 is well represented by the parametric form 1 - p?alpha with a fractional exponent alpha = 13 and a parameter p approximately 1.8, which is essentially independent from the macroion charge Z. This nonlinear volume fraction <span class="hlt">dependence</span> can be quantitatively understood in terms of a model of effective hard spheres with ?-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> diameter. For weakly charged spheres in a deionized solvent, we show that the exponent alpha can be equal to 12, if an expression for U/U0 given by Petsev and Denkov (1992, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 149, 329) is employed. We further show that the range of validity of this expression is limited to very small values of ? and Z, which are probably not accessible in sedimentation experiments. The presented results might also hold for other systems such as spherical proteins or ionic micelles. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID:10339357</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Watzlawek; Nägele</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-06-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">93</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA255689"> <span id="translatedtitle">Enhancement of Video Imagery by Modified Intensity-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Summation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A contract-enhancement algorithm is described which avoids the flat noisy appearance often produced by histogram equalization. This algorithm is based on the intensity-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> summation (IDS) model purported by Cornsweet and Yellott. The model's...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. G. Harnden F. F. Holly D. R. Shires S. P. Schipani C. A. Chang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">94</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8774045"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> frequency-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> asymmetry of visual evoked potential amplitudes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The extent to which pattern reversal evoked potential amplitudes are distributed symmetrically over the scalp was investigated as a function of stimulus <span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequency. Nine right-handed male subjects viewed sinusoidal grating stimuli of 4.0 and 0.5 c/deg phase reversed every 900 msec. A visual half-field configuration enabled selective stimulation of the right- or left-hemisphere visual cortex. Evoked responses were recorded from the 2 cm above the inion (Oz) and at 7 and 13 cm lateral to Oz. Analyses of normalized evoked response amplitudes showed a significant asymmetry for the 4.0 c/deg stimulus; right-hemisphere amplitudes declined as a function of distance from the midline, while left-hemisphere amplitudes were greatest at the 7 cm recording site. No hemispheric differences were observed for the 0.5 c/deg stimulus; amplitudes for both hemispheres declined as a function of distance from the midline. The data are discussed in terms of hemispheric differences in morphology and functional asymmetries at early levels of sensory processing. PMID:8774045</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">van Orden, K F; House, J F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">95</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2628349"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependency</span> of V. cholera prevalence on open space refuse dumps in Kumasi, Ghana: a <span class="hlt">spatial</span> statistical modelling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Cholera has persisted in Ghana since its introduction in the early 70's. From 1999 to 2005, the Ghana Ministry of Health officially reported a total of 26,924 cases and 620 deaths to the WHO. Etiological studies suggest that the natural habitat of V. cholera is the aquatic environment. Its ability to survive within and outside the aquatic environment makes cholera a complex health problem to manage. Once the disease is introduced in a population, several environmental factors may lead to prolonged transmission and secondary cases. An important environmental factor that predisposes individuals to cholera infection is sanitation. In this study, we exploit the importance of two main <span class="hlt">spatial</span> measures of sanitation in cholera transmission in an urban city, Kumasi. These are proximity and density of refuse dumps within a community. Results A <span class="hlt">spatial</span> statistical modelling carried out to determine the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependency</span> of cholera prevalence on refuse dumps show that, there is a direct <span class="hlt">spatial</span> relationship between cholera prevalence and density of refuse dumps, and an inverse <span class="hlt">spatial</span> relationship between cholera prevalence and distance to refuse dumps. A <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scan statistics also identified four significant <span class="hlt">spatial</span> clusters of cholera; a primary cluster with greater than expected cholera prevalence, and three secondary clusters with lower than expected cholera prevalence. A GIS based buffer analysis also showed that the minimum distance within which refuse dumps should not be sited within community centres is 500 m. Conclusion The results suggest that proximity and density of open space refuse dumps play a contributory role in cholera infection in Kumasi.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Osei, Frank B; Duker, Alfred A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">96</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhRvE..77d1917L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Exact probabilistic solution of <span class="hlt">spatial-dependent</span> stochastics and associated <span class="hlt">spatial</span> potential landscape for the bicoid protein</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigated the <span class="hlt">spatial-dependent</span> stochastic effects originating from the finite number of bicoid proteins in Drosophila melanogaster, which are crucial to cell development. We obtained an exact solution to the <span class="hlt">spatial-dependent</span> stochastic chemical master equation and recovered the usual reaction-diffusion solution for the average of the bicoid concentration, valid in the bulk. We also used the steady state probability to get the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> potential landscape. The stochastic effects are captured by the Poisson distribution; so, as the average of the bicoid concentration decreases from the anterior (A) to the posterior (P) of the embryo, the statistical fluctuations also decrease. An alternative way of interpreting this is that the shape of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> potential landscape shrinks from A to P. While the mathematical result is known, we offer a simple approach to understanding why it is what it is and give associated physical intuitions. The approach can be generalized and applied to any problem with a particle that diffuses, decays, and has a stochastic source.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lepzelter, David; Wang, Jin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">97</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2100385"> <span id="translatedtitle">Object <span class="hlt">dependent</span> sweep width reduction with spectral-<span class="hlt">spatial</span> EPR imaging</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">For spectral-<span class="hlt">spatial</span> EPR imaging, prior knowledge about the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> support of an imaged object can be exploited in two ways. We can shrink the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> field of view (FOV) to closely wrap the object in a sphere or reduce the sweep width in a projection <span class="hlt">dependent</span> fashion. Use of a smaller <span class="hlt">spatial</span> FOV with the same number of samples enhances <span class="hlt">spatial</span> resolution by reducing voxel volume at the expense of signal-to-noise and a consequent degraded line width resolution. We have developed another approach to define sweep width that prunes away the portions of the projection sweep with no signal. This reduces data acquisition time for the continuous wave (CW) EPR image proportional to the sweep width reduction. This method also avoids voxel volume reduction. Using the reduced-sweep method, we decreased the data acquisition time by 20% maintaining <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and linewidth resolution.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ahn, Kang-Hyun; Halpern, Howard J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">98</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20646108"> <span id="translatedtitle">Time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> density-functional theory for trapped <span class="hlt">strongly</span> interacting fermionic atoms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The dynamics of <span class="hlt">strongly</span> interacting trapped dilute two-component Fermi gases (dilute in the sense that the range of interatomic potential is small compared with interparticle spacing) is investigated in a single-equation approach to the time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> density-functional theory. For the ground-state energy per particle of the system in the homogeneous phase, we have constructed an Pade parametrization based on Monte Carlo data and asymptotic behavior. Our numerical results for collective frequencies in the BCS-BEC crossover regime are in good agreement with recent experimental data obtained by the Duke University group. In addition, we show that the calculated corrections to the hydrodynamic approximation may be important, even for systems with a rather large number of atoms.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kim, Yeong E.; Zubarev, Alexander L. [Purdue Nuclear and Many-Body Theory Group (PNMBTG), Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">99</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1458697"> <span id="translatedtitle">Persistence of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> populations <span class="hlt">depends</span> on returning home</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">There is a need for better description and heuristic understanding of the sustainability of populations connected over space by a dispersing stage, both for management purposes and to increase our basic knowledge of the dynamics of these populations. We show that persistence of such a population of connected subpopulations <span class="hlt">depends</span> on whether the sum of the reproductive gains through all possible closed, between-patch reproductive paths through multiple generations, relative to the shortfall in self-persistence in each path, exceeds unity plus extra terms, which only appear if there are four or more patches. These extra terms have the heuristic explanation that they avoid double counting of reproductive paths that arise with four or more patches because there can be nonoverlapping subnetworks. Thus only those patterns of reproduction and connectivity which eventually lead to descendants returning to the patch from which they originate contribute to persistence. This result provides the basis for evaluating connectivity and habitat heterogeneity to understand reserve design, the effects of human fragmentation, the collapse of marine fisheries, and other conservation issues.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hastings, Alan; Botsford, Louis W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">100</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22550068"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ca(2+)-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> desensitization of insulin secretion by <span class="hlt">strong</span> potassium depolarization.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Depolarization by a high K(+) concentration is a widely used experimental tool to stimulate insulin secretion. The effects occurring after the initial rise in secretion were investigated here. After the initial peak a fast decline occurred, which was followed by a slowly progressive decrease in secretion when a <span class="hlt">strong</span> K(+) depolarization was used. At 40 mM KCl, but not at lower concentrations, the decrease continued when the glucose concentration was raised from 5 to 10 mM, suggesting an inhibitory effect of the K(+) depolarization. When tolbutamide was added instead of the glucose concentration being raised, a complete inhibition down to prestimulatory values was observed. Equimolar reduction of the NaCl concentration to preserve isoosmolarity enabled an increase in secretion in response to glucose. Unexpectedly, the same was true when the Na(+)-reduced media were made hyperosmolar by choline chloride or mannitol. The insulinotropic effect of tolbutamide was not rescued by the compensatory reduction of NaCl, suggesting a requirement for activated energy metabolism. These inhibitory effects could not be explained by a lack of depolarizing strength or by a diminished free cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)). Rather, the complexation of extracellular Ca(2+) concomitant with the K(+) depolarization markedly diminished [Ca(2+)](i) and attenuated the inhibitory action of 40 mM KCl. This suggests that a <span class="hlt">strong</span> but not a moderate depolarization by K(+) induces a [Ca(2+)](i)-<span class="hlt">dependent</span>, slowly progressive desensitization of the secretory machinery. In contrast, the decline immediately following the initial peak of secretion may result from the inactivation of voltage-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> Ca(2+) channels. PMID:22550068</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Willenborg, M; Belz, M; Schumacher, K; Paufler, A; Hatlapatka, K; Rustenbeck, I</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return 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<img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">101</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6617472"> <span id="translatedtitle">Observations of height-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> pressure-perturbation structure of a <span class="hlt">strong</span> mesoscale gravity wave</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Airborne observations using a downward-looking, dual-frequency, near-infrared, differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system provide the first measurements of the height-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> pressure-perturbation field associated with a <span class="hlt">strong</span> mesoscale gravity wave. A pressure-perturbation amplitude of 3.5 mb was measured within the lowest 1.6 km of the atmosphere over a 52-km flight line. Corresponding vertical displacements of 250-500 m were inferred from lidar-observed displacement of aerosol layers. Accounting for probable wave orientation, a horizontal wavelength of about 40 km was estimated. Satellite observations reveal wave structure of a comparable scale in concurrent cirrus cloud fields over an extended area. Smaller-scale waves were also observed. Local meteorological soundings are analyzed to confirm the existence of a suitable wave duct. Potential wave-generation mechanisms are examined and discussed. The large pressure-perturbation wave is attributed to rapid amplification or possible wave breaking of a gravity wave as it propagated offshore and interacted with a very stable marine boundary layer capped by a <span class="hlt">strong</span> shear layer.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Starr, D.O.; Korb, C.L.; Schwemmer, G.K. (NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)); Weng, C.Y. (Science Systems and Applications Inc., Seabrook, MD (United States))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">102</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3058051"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ascaroside Expression in Caenorhabditis elegans Is <span class="hlt">Strongly</span> <span class="hlt">Dependent</span> on Diet and Developmental Stage</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background The ascarosides form a family of small molecules that have been isolated from cultures of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. They are often referred to as “dauer pheromones” because most of them induce formation of long-lived and highly stress resistant dauer larvae. More recent studies have shown that ascarosides serve additional functions as social signals and mating pheromones. Thus, ascarosides have multiple functions. Until now, it has been generally assumed that ascarosides are constitutively expressed during nematode development. Methodology/Principal Findings Cultures of C. elegans were developmentally synchronized on controlled diets. Ascarosides released into the media, as well as stored internally, were quantified by LC/MS. We found that ascaroside biosynthesis and release were <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on developmental stage and diet. The male attracting pheromone was verified to be a blend of at least four ascarosides, and peak production of the two most potent mating pheromone components, ascr#3 and asc#8 immediately preceded or coincided with the temporal window for mating. The concentration of ascr#2 increased under starvation conditions and peaked during dauer formation, <span class="hlt">strongly</span> supporting ascr#2 as the main population density signal (dauer pheromone). After dauer formation, ascaroside production largely ceased and dauer larvae did not release any ascarosides. These findings show that both total ascaroside production and the relative proportions of individual ascarosides <span class="hlt">strongly</span> correlate with these compounds' stage-specific biological functions. Conclusions/Significance Ascaroside expression changes with development and environmental conditions. This is consistent with multiple functions of these signaling molecules. Knowledge of such differential regulation will make it possible to associate ascaroside production to gene expression profiles (transcript, protein or enzyme activity) and help to determine genetic pathways that control ascaroside biosynthesis. In conjunction with findings from previous studies, our results show that the pheromone system of C. elegans mimics that of insects in many ways, suggesting that pheromone signaling in C. elegans may exhibit functional homology also at the sensory level. In addition, our results provide a <span class="hlt">strong</span> foundation for future behavioral modeling studies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kaplan, Fatma; Srinivasan, Jagan; Mahanti, Parag; Ajredini, Ramadan; Durak, Omer; Nimalendran, Rathika; Sternberg, Paul W.; Teal, Peter E. A.; Schroeder, Frank C.; Edison, Arthur S.; Alborn, Hans T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">103</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JHEP...05..083A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Velocity <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of baryon screening in a hot <span class="hlt">strongly</span> coupled plasma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The L-<span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the static potential between Nc quarks arranged in a circle of radius L (a ``baryon") immersed in the hot plasma of a gauge theory with Nc colors defines a screening length Ls. We use the AdS/CFT correspondence to compute this screening length for the case of heavy quarks in the plasma of <span class="hlt">strongly</span> coupled Script N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory moving with velocity v relative to the baryon. We find that in the v ? 1 limit, Ls propto (1-v2)1/4/T, and find that corrections to this velocity <span class="hlt">dependence</span> are small at lower velocities. This result provides evidence for the robustness of the analogous behavior of the screening length defined by the static quark-antiquark pair, which has been computed previously and in QCD is relevant to quarkonium physics in heavy ion collisions. Our results also show that as long as the hot wind is not blowing precisely perpendicular to the plane of the baryon configuration that we analyze, the Nc different quarks are not all affected by the wind velocity to the same degree, with those quarks lying perpendicular to the wind direction screened most effectively.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Athanasiou, Christiana; Liu, Hong; Rajagopal, Krishna</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">104</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3287332"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> genetic structure in five tropical Piper species: should the Baker-Fedorov hypothesis be revived for tropical shrubs?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fifty years ago, Baker and Fedorov proposed that the high species diversity of tropical forests could arise from the combined effects of inbreeding and genetic drift leading to population differentiation and eventually to sympatric speciation. Decades of research, however have failed to support the Baker–Fedorov hypothesis (BFH), and it has now been discarded in favor of a paradigm where most trees are self-incompatible or <span class="hlt">strongly</span> outcrossing, and where long-distance pollen dispersal prevents population drift. Here, we propose that several hyper-diverse genera of tropical herbs and shrubs, including Piper (>1,000 species), may provide an exception. Species in this genus often have aggregated, high-density populations with self-compatible breeding systems; characteristics which the BFH would predict lead to high local genetic differentiation. We test this prediction for five Piper species on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers. All species showed <span class="hlt">strong</span> genetic structure at both fine- and large-<span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales. Over short distances (200–750 m) populations showed significant genetic differentiation (Fst 0.11–0.46, P < 0.05), with values of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> genetic structure that exceed those reported for other tropical tree species (Sp = 0.03–0.136). This genetic structure probably results from the combined effects of limited seed and pollen dispersal, clonal spread, and selfing. These processes are likely to have facilitated the diversification of populations in response to local natural selection or genetic drift and may explain the remarkable diversity of this rich genus.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lasso, E; Dalling, J W; Bermingham, E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">105</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3413989"> <span id="translatedtitle">Brightness induction by local contrast and the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of assimilation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two mechanisms of brightness perception (1) brightness induction by local contrast and (2) assimilation, were examined for a variety of visual stimuli. Local contrast is the primary determinant of brightness perception, making objects appear brighter on a background of lower luminance and darker on a background of greater luminance. Assimilation is the opposite effect, whereby objects on a brighter (but not necessarily more luminant) background appear brighter or on a dark background appear darker. We have compared the relative strength of the two effects using stimuli which permit them to be studied separately. Brightness induction by local contrast is quantitatively stronger in all situations. Further, the strength of assimilation is <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on <span class="hlt">spatial</span> parameters in the visual scene. These results are shown to be true both for simple visual stimuli as well as for complicated Mondrian-like patterns. The Retinex theory of brightness perception predicts that the two effects are equal. Our results show a range of relative strengths (assimilation vs brightness induction due to contrast) from 0.59 to 0.63 at 5' down to 0.34 at 43'. PMID:3413989</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reid, R C; Shapley, R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">106</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42495259"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Significance of <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">Dependencies</span> in Small Area Income Determination Models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">KEANE M. J. (1989) The significance of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependencies</span> in small area income determination models, Reg. Studies23, 000–00. This paper uses a logit model of consumer <span class="hlt">spatial</span> behaviour to derive some measures of the degree of economic support provided by the local area non-resident community to their adjacent first order centre. A formal model is developed and simulations are made</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michael J. Keane</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">107</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.7439F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Long-range memory in Earth surface temperatures: <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale <span class="hlt">dependence</span> and land-sea differences</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a study of how the long-range memory in temperature time series on scales from months to decades varies between land and sea, and with different degrees of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> averaging. Earlier analyses suggest that sea temperatures are more persistent than land temperatures, and that global temperatures are more persistent than regional temperatures. As a measure of the long-range memory we estimate the Hurst exponent H by parametric as well as non-parametric methods, and by performing <span class="hlt">spatial</span> averaging of global gridded temperatures we make a systematic investigation of how the Hurst exponent varies on different <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales and between ocean/coastal and continental interior data records. Increasing <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale from local records up to the global scale implies that for these data aggregation of relatively weakly persistent records produce records with <span class="hlt">strong</span> long-range persistence (H?1). We propose some statistical models that may give rise to this phenomenon and discuss their physical relevance.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fredriksen, Hege-Beate; Rypdal, Kristoffer; Rypdal, Martin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">108</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003CosRe..41..221P"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span>-Temporal Characteristics of Large Scale Disturbances of Electron Density Observed in the Ionospheric F-Region before <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Earthquakes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">spatial</span> dimensions and temporal dynamics of large scale disturbances of electron density in the ionospheric F-region during the preparatory phase of destructive earthquakes are estimated. The most appropriate data (as far as the moments of satellite passages are concerned) were selected out of more than 300 investigated cases. In order to demonstrate effects at different latitudes, the cases of high-latitude (Alaska), mid-latitude (Central Italy), and low-latitude (New Zealand) earthquakes were considered. Using the data of external vertical sounding of the ionosphere performed by the Alouette-1 and Interkosmos-19 satellites together with the data of vertical sounding of the ionosphere by ground-based instruments, we get for the first time with reasonable accuracy the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> characteristics of precursors in the ionosphere. It is shown that seismic ionospheric disturbances are <span class="hlt">strongly</span> time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> before the beginning of the main shock. Seismic ionospheric disturbances are generated weakly several days before the first shock, but at that moment the disturbed region is located not above the epicenter, but rather a little displaced from it. As the moment of the earthquake approaches, the disturbance covers more and more space; moreover, its value also increases. Several hours after the shock the disturbance migrates in the reverse order. Under some conditions, the disturbances may appear not only above epicenter regions. They can be transferred along the magnetic field lines into conjugate regions in the opposite hemisphere.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pulinets, S. A.; Legen'ka, A. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">109</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvB..85d5134Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> density functional theory for <span class="hlt">strong</span> electromagnetic fields in crystalline solids</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We apply the coupled dynamics of time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> density functional theory and Maxwell equations to the interaction of intense laser pulses with crystalline silicon. As a function of electromagnetic field intensity, we see several regions in the response. At the lowest intensities, the pulse is reflected and transmitted in accord with the dielectric response, and the characteristics of the energy deposition are consistent with two-photon absorption. The absorption process begins to deviate from that at laser intensities of ˜1013 W/cm2, where the energy deposited is of the order of 1 eV per atom. Changes in the reflectivity are seen as a function of intensity. When it passes a threshold of about 3×1012 W/cm2, there is a small decrease. At higher intensities, above 2×1013 W/cm2, the reflectivity increases <span class="hlt">strongly</span>. This behavior can be understood qualitatively in a model treating the excited electron-hole pairs as a plasma.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yabana, K.; Sugiyama, T.; Shinohara, Y.; Otobe, T.; Bertsch, G. F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">110</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=311286"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Specific Role for Group I mGluRs in Hippocampal LTP and Hippocampus-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Learning</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) have been implicated in long-term potentiation and in learning and memory formation. In this study, we tested the effects of group I mGluR inhibition on synaptic plasticity and learning of rats at different levels of organization (1) in the hippocampal slice preparation; (2) in freely moving animals implanted with chronic hippocampal electrodes; and (3) in different <span class="hlt">spatial</span> learning paradigms. To allow a direct comparison of the effects obtained the same doses were used in all paradigms. Bath-application of the selective group I mGluR antagonist (S)4-carboxyphenylglycine (4-CPG) impaired a decremental long-term potentiation (LTP) induced by a weak tetanization paradigm, but failed to affect a robust LTP generated by <span class="hlt">strong</span> tetanization. In contrast, 4-CPG impaired a robust LTP in freely moving animals if applied 30 min before tetanization. The same dose of 4-CPG only impeded <span class="hlt">spatial</span> learning mildly in the eight-arm radial maze and had no effect on a simple configuration of the Y-maze <span class="hlt">spatial</span> alternation task. In the more difficult configuration of this task, however, 4-CPG caused complete amnesia. The lack of state-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> 4-CPG actions and the absence of any 4-CPG effects in the open-field test classify the obtained retention deficit as a selective impairment of memory storage. Our results indicate a specific role of group I mGluRs in certain types of synaptic plasticity and of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> learning.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Balschun, Detlef; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise; Wagner, Thomas; Behnisch, Thomas; Reymann, Klaus G.; Wetzel, Wolfram</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">111</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.T51A1521B"> <span id="translatedtitle">3D Rheological Modeling of NW Intraplate Europe, Deciphering <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Integrated strength patterns, Mechanical <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Layering and EET</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Better understanding of 3D rheological heterogeneity of the European Lithosphere provide the key to tie the recorded intraplate deformation pattern to stress fields transmitted into plate interior from plate boundary forces. The first order strain patterns result from stresses transmitted through the European lithosphere that is marked by a patchwork of high strength variability from inherited structural and compositional heterogeneities and upper mantle thermal perturbations. As the lithospheric rheology <span class="hlt">depends</span> primarily on its <span class="hlt">spatial</span> structure, composition and thermal estate, the 3D strength model for the European lithosphere relies on a 3D compositional model that yields the compositional heterogeneities and an iteratively calculated thermal cube using Fouriers law for heat conduction. The accurate appraisal of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> strength variability results from proper mapping and integration of the geophysical compositional and thermal input parameters. Therefore, much attention has been paid to a proper description of first order structural and tectonic features that facilitate compilation of the compositional and thermal input models. As such, the 3D strength model reflects the thermo-mechanical structure inherited from the Europeans polyphase deformation history. Major 3D <span class="hlt">spatial</span> mechanical strength variability has been revealed. The East-European and Fennoscandian Craton to the NE exhibit high strength (30-50 1012 N/m) from low mantle temperatures and surface heatflow of 35-60 mW/m2 while central and western Europe reflect a polyphase Phanerozoic thermo- tectonic history. Here, regions with high rigidity are formed primarily by patches of thermally stabilized Variscan Massifs (e.g. Rhenish, Armorican, Bohemian, and Iberian Massif) with low heatflow and lithospheric thickness values (50-65 mW/m2; 110-150 km) yielding strengths of ~15-25 1012 N/m. In contrast, major axis of weakened lithosphere coincides with Cenozoic Rift System (e.g. Upper and Lower Rhine Grabens, Pannonian Basin and Massif Central) attributed to the presence of tomographically imaged plumes. This study has elucidated the memory of the present-days Europeans lithosphere induced by compositional and thermal heterogeneities. The resulting lateral strength variations has a clear signature of the pst lithospheres polyphase deformation and also entails active tectonics, tectonically induced topography and surface processes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Beekman, F.; Hardebol, N.; Cloetingh, S.; Tesauro, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">112</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3097091"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> Narrow-Band Luminescence from Silicon-Vacancy Color Centers in <span class="hlt">Spatially</span> Localized Sub-10 nm Nanodiamond</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Discrete nanodiamond particles of 500 nm and 6 nm average size were seeded onto silicon substrates and plasma treated using chemical vapor deposition to create silicon-vacancy color centers. The resulting narrow-band room temperature photoluminescence is intense, and readily observed even for weakly agglomerated sub-10 nm size diamond. This is in contrast to the well-studied nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond which has luminescence properties that are <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">dependant</span> on particle size, with low probability for incorporation of centers in sub-10 nm crystals. We suggest the silicon-vacancy center to be a viable alternative to nitrogen-vacancy defects for use as a biomarker in the clinically-relevant sub-10 nm size regime, for which nitrogen defect-related luminescent activity and stability is reportedly poor.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Catledge, Shane A.; Singh, Sonal</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">113</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21603120"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> Narrow-Band Luminescence from Silicon-Vacancy Color Centers in <span class="hlt">Spatially</span> Localized Sub-10 nm Nanodiamond.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Discrete nanodiamond particles of 500 nm and 6 nm average size were seeded onto silicon substrates and plasma treated using chemical vapor deposition to create silicon-vacancy color centers. The resulting narrow-band room temperature photoluminescence is intense, and readily observed even for weakly agglomerated sub-10 nm size diamond. This is in contrast to the well-studied nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond which has luminescence properties that are <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">dependant</span> on particle size, with low probability for incorporation of centers in sub-10 nm crystals. We suggest the silicon-vacancy center to be a viable alternative to nitrogen-vacancy defects for use as a biomarker in the clinically-relevant sub-10 nm size regime, for which nitrogen defect-related luminescent activity and stability is reportedly poor. PMID:21603120</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Catledge, Shane A; Singh, Sonal</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">114</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.H43F1093H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Non-Gaussian <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> of Hydraulic Conductivity on Hydrodynamic Macrodispersion</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hydraulic conductivity (K) is a fundamental parameter that influences groundwater flow and contaminant transport. The <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of K impacts the groundwater velocity field and hence directly influences the advective spreading of a contaminant migrating in the subsurface. This spreading causes portions of the plume to advance more rapidly than the average velocity while in other zones, migration rates are slower than the average velocity. This spreading phenomenon is commonly referred to as hydrodynamic macrodispersion. The objective of the presented work is to use copulas as a novel non-Gaussian stochastic model to simulate <span class="hlt">spatially</span>-correlated random fields of K. The <span class="hlt">spatially</span> distributed non-Gaussian K-fields are then used to conduct a series of numerical tracer experiments using a high-resolution groundwater flow and contaminant transport model (HydroGeoSphere). Flow and transport characteristics are derived, particularly the rate of change of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> moments of the evolving contaminant plume. These characteristics are also compared with those obtained under the assumption that the underlying <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of K has a Gaussian <span class="hlt">dependence</span> structure, a commonly made assumption. Both types of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> K-fields were constrained to have the same variogram and the same distribution of K, but they do exhibit a different <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> structure when modeled by copulas, and thus produce a different transport behavior. The dispersion tensor, which is proportional to the rate of change of the 2nd-order <span class="hlt">spatial</span> moments of the evolving contaminant plume, is different for the Gaussian and non-Gaussian descriptions of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span>. The outlined theory is applied to three-dimensional statistically anisotropic K-data obtained from two of the most extensively studied aquifer test-sites. Each site comprises ~1200 or more samples taken along two cross-sections. One site is the Borden aquifer, a modestly heterogeneous aquifer, and the other site, located near North Bay, Ontario, is comprised of a highly heterogeneous glacial deposit. In both of these settings, non-Gaussian <span class="hlt">dependence</span> structures of K and hence non-Gaussian transport characteristics have been found.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Haslauer, C. P.; Guthke, P.; Bárdossy, A.; Sudicky, E. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">115</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3715549"> <span id="translatedtitle">Frequency <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> of Signal Power and <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Reach of the Local Field Potential</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Despite its century-old use, the interpretation of local field potentials (LFPs), the low-frequency part of electrical signals recorded in the brain, is still debated. In cortex the LFP appears to mainly stem from transmembrane neuronal currents following synaptic input, and obvious questions regarding the ‘locality’ of the LFP are: What is the size of the signal-generating region, i.e., the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> reach, around a recording contact? How far does the LFP signal extend outside a synaptically activated neuronal population? And how do the answers <span class="hlt">depend</span> on the temporal frequency of the LFP signal? Experimental inquiries have given conflicting results, and we here pursue a modeling approach based on a well-established biophysical forward-modeling scheme incorporating detailed reconstructed neuronal morphologies in precise calculations of population LFPs including thousands of neurons. The two key factors determining the frequency <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of LFP are the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> decay of the single-neuron LFP contribution and the conversion of synaptic input correlations into correlations between single-neuron LFP contributions. Both factors are seen to give low-pass filtering of the LFP signal power. For uncorrelated input only the first factor is relevant, and here a modest reduction (<50%) in the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> reach is observed for higher frequencies (>100 Hz) compared to the near-DC () value of about . Much larger frequency-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> effects are seen when populations of pyramidal neurons receive correlated and <span class="hlt">spatially</span> asymmetric inputs: the low-frequency () LFP power can here be an order of magnitude or more larger than at 60 Hz. Moreover, the low-frequency LFP components have larger <span class="hlt">spatial</span> reach and extend further outside the active population than high-frequency components. Further, the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> LFP profiles for such populations typically span the full vertical extent of the dendrites of neurons in the population. Our numerical findings are backed up by an intuitive simplified model for the generation of population LFP.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leski, Szymon; Linden, Henrik; Tetzlaff, Tom; Pettersen, Klas H.; Einevoll, Gaute T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">116</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19296622"> <span id="translatedtitle">Growth of solid domains in model membranes: quantitative image analysis reveals a <span class="hlt">strong</span> correlation between domain shape and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> position.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The nucleation and growth of solid domains in supported bilayers composed of a binary mixture of equimolar 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) have been studied using combined fluorescence microscopy and AFM. We have found that the formation of the DPPC-enriched solid domains occurs by a combination of homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation and that the nucleation density is directly proportional to the cooling rate. Furthermore, during cooling the shape of the domains evolve from compact to a branched morphology. This suggests that the growth is controlled by the diffusion of DPPC from the liquid phase toward the solid domain interface. In the late stages of the growth, we observe that the size and overall shape of the domains <span class="hlt">depend</span> on the position of the nucleation points relative to the surrounding nucleation point positions. To analyze this effect, the nucleation points were used as generators in a Voronoi construction. Associated with each generator is a Voronoi polygon that contains all points closer to this generator than to any other. Through a detailed quantitative analysis of the Voronoi cells and the domains, we have found that their area, orientation, and asymmetry correlate and that the correlation becomes stronger for larger domains. This means that the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of the nucleation points regulate the domain shape. PMID:19296622</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bernchou, Uffe; Ipsen, John Hjort; Simonsen, Adam Cohen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">117</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900048116&hterms=distributed+control+system&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Ddistributed%2Bcontrol%2Bsystem"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stabilization and control of distributed systems with time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> domains</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper considers the problem of the stabilization and control of distributed systems with time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> domains. The evolution of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> domains with time is described by a finite-dimensional system of ordinary differential equations, while the distributed systems are described by first-order or second-order linear evolution equations defined on appropriate Hilbert spaces. First, results pertaining to the existence and uniqueness of solutions of the system equations are presented. Then, various optimal control and stabilization problems are considered. The paper concludes with some examples which illustrate the application of the main results.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, P. K. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">118</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3157431"> <span id="translatedtitle">Systematic <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Bias in DNA Microarray Hybridization Is Caused by Probe Spot Position-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Variability in Lateral Diffusion</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background The hybridization of nucleic acid targets with surface-immobilized probes is a widely used assay for the parallel detection of multiple targets in medical and biological research. Despite its widespread application, DNA microarray technology still suffers from several biases and lack of reproducibility, stemming in part from an incomplete understanding of the processes governing surface hybridization. In particular, non-random <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variations within individual microarray hybridizations are often observed, but the mechanisms underpinning this positional bias remain incompletely explained. Methodology/Principal Findings This study identifies and rationalizes a systematic <span class="hlt">spatial</span> bias in the intensity of surface hybridization, characterized by markedly increased signal intensity of spots located at the boundaries of the spotted areas of the microarray slide. Combining observations from a simplified single-probe block array format with predictions from a mathematical model, the mechanism responsible for this bias is found to be a position-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> variation in lateral diffusion of target molecules. Numerical simulations reveal a <span class="hlt">strong</span> influence of microarray well geometry on the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> bias. Conclusions Reciprocal adjustment of the size of the microarray hybridization chamber to the area of surface-bound probes is a simple and effective measure to minimize or eliminate the diffusion-based bias, resulting in increased uniformity and accuracy of quantitative DNA microarray hybridization.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Haider, Susanne; Horn, Matthias; Wagner, Michael; Stocker, Roman; Loy, Alexander</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">119</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999JPSJ...68.2019Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tunneling Conductance and <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">Dependences</span> of Pair Potentials in Normal Metal-Triplet Superconductor Junctions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tunneling conductance spectra in normal metal / insulator / triplet superconductorjunctions are theoretically investigated.For the triplet paring states, we select several kinds of the symmetrieswhich are promising candidates for the superconducting statesof UPt3 and Sr2RuO4.We present a conductance formula that can treatspatially varying pair potential witharbitrary barrier height cases.In order to analyze realistic situations, thepair potentials are determined self-consistentlyusing the quasi-classical Green's function method.It is shown that the pair potentials exhibit diverse <span class="hlt">spatial</span> dependencesnear the insulator.The conductance spectra show zero-bias conductance peaksas well as gap structures <span class="hlt">depending</span> on the junction orientation,which qualitatively agrees withour previous calculation where the pair potentialsare assumed to be <span class="hlt">spatially</span> constant.The agreement implies an insensitive natureof the tunneling conductance spectra onthe detailed <span class="hlt">spatial</span> profile of the pair potential.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yamashiro, Masashi; Tanaka, Yukio; Yoshida, Nobukatsu; Kashiwaya, Satoshi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">120</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12205157"> <span id="translatedtitle">Contrast-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> changes in <span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequency tuning of macaque V1 neurons: effects of a changing receptive field size.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Previous studies on single neurons in primary visual cortex have reported that selectivity for orientation and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequency tuning do not change with stimulus contrast. The prevailing hypothesis is that contrast scales the response magnitude but does not differentially affect particular stimuli. Models where responses are normalized over contrast to maintain constant tuning for parameters such as orientation and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequency have been proposed to explain these results. However, our results indicate that a fundamental property of receptive field organization, <span class="hlt">spatial</span> summation, is not contrast invariant. We examined the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequency tuning of cells that show contrast-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> changes in <span class="hlt">spatial</span> summation and have found that <span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequency selectivity also <span class="hlt">depends</span> on stimulus contrast. These results indicate that contrast changes in the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequency tuning curves result from <span class="hlt">spatial</span> reorganization of the receptive field. PMID:12205157</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sceniak, Michael P; Hawken, Michael J; Shapley, Robert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">121</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60593261"> <span id="translatedtitle">Intensity <span class="hlt">dependent</span> waiting time for <span class="hlt">strong</span> electron trapping events in speckle stimulated raman scatter</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The onset of Stimulated Raman scatter from an intense laser speckle is the simplest experimentally realizable laser-plasma-interaction environment. Despite this data and recent 3D particle simulations, the controlling mechanism at the onset of backscatter in the kinetic regime when <span class="hlt">strong</span> electron trapping in the daughter Langmuir wave is a dominant nonlinearity is not understood. This paper explores the consequences of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Harvey Rose; W Daughton; L Yin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">122</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/16336966"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the Uniform <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Consistency of Local Polynomial Regression Under <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> Conditions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this article, nonparametric estimators of the regression function, and its derivatives, obtained by means of weighted local polynomial fitting are studied. Consider the fixed regression model where the error random variables are coming from a stationary stochastic process satisfying a mixing condition. Uniform <span class="hlt">strong</span> consistency, along with rates, are established for these estimators. Furthermore, when the errors follow an</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Francisco-Fernández; J. M. Vilar-Fernández; J. A. Vilar-Fernández</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">123</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56859725"> <span id="translatedtitle">A theory for treating <span class="hlt">spatially-dependent</span> friction in classical activated rate processes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A variational approach is developed to generalize Kramers–Grote–Hynes theory into the regime of <span class="hlt">spatially-dependent</span> friction. The theory is developed by identifying the probability function for a particle to retain its energy as it leaves the barrier region. This function provides the basis for a variational equation to determine the zero-time value of an effective linear friction. The latter quantity, which</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gregory A. Voth</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">124</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6146348"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the sheath power transmission factor in DIII-D</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the power transmission factor, d, associated with an ion-electron pair passing through the sheath at the DIII-D divertor plate has been determined by sweeping the edge plasma across Langmuir probe detectors. Our results show that d decreases from the classically expected value of eight near the low density edge of the scrape-off-layer plasma to values less than unity at the peak of the profile. 13 refs., 16 figs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Futch, A.H.; Hill, D.N.; Porter, G.D. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Matthews, G.F. (UKAEA Culham Lab., Abingdon (UK)); Buchenauer, D. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (USA))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">125</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3441186"> <span id="translatedtitle">On <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Processes and Asymptotic Inference under Near-Epoch <span class="hlt">Dependence</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The development of a general inferential theory for nonlinear models with cross-sectionally or <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> data has been hampered by a lack of appropriate limit theorems. To facilitate a general asymptotic inference theory relevant to economic applications, this paper first extends the notion of near-epoch <span class="hlt">dependent</span> (NED) processes used in the time series literature to random fields. The class of processes that is NED on, say, an ?-mixing process, is shown to be closed under infinite transformations, and thus accommodates models with <span class="hlt">spatial</span> dynamics. This would generally not be the case for the smaller class of ?-mixing processes. The paper then derives a central limit theorem and law of large numbers for NED random fields. These limit theorems allow for fairly general forms of heterogeneity including asymptotically unbounded moments, and accommodate arrays of random fields on unevenly spaced lattices. The limit theorems are employed to establish consistency and asymptotic normality of GMM estimators. These results provide a basis for inference in a wide range of models with <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jenish, Nazgul; Prucha, Ingmar R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">126</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22984323"> <span id="translatedtitle">On <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Processes and Asymptotic Inference under Near-Epoch <span class="hlt">Dependence</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The development of a general inferential theory for nonlinear models with cross-sectionally or <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> data has been hampered by a lack of appropriate limit theorems. To facilitate a general asymptotic inference theory relevant to economic applications, this paper first extends the notion of near-epoch <span class="hlt">dependent</span> (NED) processes used in the time series literature to random fields. The class of processes that is NED on, say, an ?-mixing process, is shown to be closed under infinite transformations, and thus accommodates models with <span class="hlt">spatial</span> dynamics. This would generally not be the case for the smaller class of ?-mixing processes. The paper then derives a central limit theorem and law of large numbers for NED random fields. These limit theorems allow for fairly general forms of heterogeneity including asymptotically unbounded moments, and accommodate arrays of random fields on unevenly spaced lattices. The limit theorems are employed to establish consistency and asymptotic normality of GMM estimators. These results provide a basis for inference in a wide range of models with <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span>. PMID:22984323</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jenish, Nazgul; Prucha, Ingmar R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">127</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42344757"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mass and heat transport in <span class="hlt">strongly</span> time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> thermal convection at infinite prandtl number</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have studied heat and mass transport in two-dimensional, infinite Prandtl number, incompressible thermal convection for a range of Rayleigh numbers (Ra), between 10 and 10, and two different aspect-ratio boxes, between 1·8 and 10. This study has been motivated by recent developments in studying the transition from weak to <span class="hlt">strong</span> turbulence in thermal convection. We have employed a two-dimensional</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ulrich Hansen; David A. Yuen; Sherri E. Kroening</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">128</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23917430"> <span id="translatedtitle">Neural correlates of reward-based <span class="hlt">spatial</span> learning in persons with cocaine <span class="hlt">dependence</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Dysfunctional learning systems are thought to be central to the pathogenesis of and impair recovery from addictions. The functioning of the brain circuits for episodic memory or learning that support goal-directed behavior has not been studied previously in persons with cocaine <span class="hlt">dependence</span> (CD). Thirteen abstinent CD and 13 healthy participants underwent MRI scanning while performing a task that requires the use of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> cues to navigate a virtual-reality environment and find monetary rewards, allowing the functional assessment of the brain systems for <span class="hlt">spatial</span> learning, a form of episodic memory. Whereas both groups performed similarly on the reward-based <span class="hlt">spatial</span> learning task, we identified disturbances in brain regions involved in learning and reward in CD participants. In particular, CD was associated with impaired functioning of medial temporal lobe (MTL), a brain region that is crucial for <span class="hlt">spatial</span> learning (and episodic memory) with concomitant recruitment of striatum (which normally participates in stimulus-response, or habit, learning), and prefrontal cortex. CD was also associated with enhanced sensitivity of the ventral striatum to unexpected rewards but not to expected rewards earned during <span class="hlt">spatial</span> learning. We provide evidence that <span class="hlt">spatial</span> learning in CD is characterized by disturbances in functioning of an MTL-based system for episodic memory and a striatum-based system for stimulus-response learning and reward. We have found additional abnormalities in distributed cortical regions. Consistent with findings from animal studies, we provide the first evidence in humans describing the disruptive effects of cocaine on the coordinated functioning of multiple neural systems for learning and memory. PMID:23917430</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tau, Gregory Z; Marsh, Rachel; Wang, Zhishun; Torres-Sanchez, Tania; Graniello, Barbara; Hao, Xuejun; Xu, Dongrong; Packard, Mark G; Duan, Yunsuo; Kangarlu, Alayar; Martinez, Diana; Peterson, Bradley S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">129</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6720410"> <span id="translatedtitle">Depth of convection in a fluid with <span class="hlt">strongly</span> temperature and pressure <span class="hlt">dependent</span> viscosity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We discuss the equations describing convective motion of a fluid with temperature and pressure <span class="hlt">dependent</span> rheology. By combining observational constraints from plate tectonics with theoretical constraints deduced from the model equations and parameter values, we are led to the conclusion that shallow upper mantle convection is consistent with the equations of fluid dynamics.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fowler, A.C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">130</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://people.maths.ox.ac.uk/~muite/CruzMuiteServat.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> linear scaling for spectral simulations of time <span class="hlt">dependent</span> semilinear partial differential equations on Marenostrum</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We solve a time <span class="hlt">dependent</span> semilinear partial differential equation using a spectral collocation method on a distributed memory supercomputer. Previous attempts to use spectral methods to solve evolution- ary partial differential equations have scaled poorly on distributed memory machines because typical time stepping algorithms require fast global all-to-all communications. Consequently, primarily expen- sive supercomputers with very fast interprocessor communications are</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. de la Cruz; B. K. Muite; H. Servat</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">131</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2817192"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sex-biased dispersal patterns <span class="hlt">depend</span> on the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale in a social rodent</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Dispersal is a fundamental process in ecology because it influences the dynamics, genetic structure and persistence of populations. Furthermore, understanding the evolutionary causes of dispersal pattern, particularly when they differ between genders, is still a major question in evolutionary ecology. Using a panel of 10 microsatellite loci, we investigated at different <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales the genetic structure and the sex-specific dispersal patterns in the common vole Microtus arvalis, a small colonial mammal. This study was conducted in an intensive agricultural area of western France. Hierarchical FST analyses, relatedness and assignment tests suggested (i) that females are <span class="hlt">strongly</span> kin-clustered within colonies; (ii) that dispersal is <span class="hlt">strongly</span> male-biased at a local scale; and (iii) long-distance dispersal is not rare and more balanced between genders. We conclude that males migrate continuously from colony to colony to reproduce, whereas females may disperse just once and would be mainly involved in new colony foundation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gauffre, B.; Petit, E.; Brodier, S.; Bretagnolle, V.; Cosson, J. F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">132</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21537554"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ideal gas in a <span class="hlt">strong</span> gravitational field: Area <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of entropy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study the thermodynamic parameters like entropy, energy etc. of a box of gas made up of indistinguishable particles when the box is kept in various static background spacetimes having a horizon. We compute the thermodynamic variables using both statistical mechanics as well as by solving the hydrodynamical equations for the system. When the box is far away from the horizon, the entropy of the gas <span class="hlt">depends</span> on the volume of the box except for small corrections due to background geometry. As the box is moved closer to the horizon with one (leading) edge of the box at about Planck length (L{sub p}) away from the horizon, the entropy shows an area <span class="hlt">dependence</span> rather than a volume <span class="hlt">dependence</span>. More precisely, it <span class="hlt">depends</span> on a small volume A{sub perpendicular}L{sub p}/2 of the box, up to an order O(L{sub p}/K){sup 2} where A{sub perpendicular} is the transverse area of the box and K is the (proper) longitudinal size of the box related to the distance between leading and trailing edge in the vertical direction (i.e. in the direction of the gravitational field). Thus the contribution to the entropy comes from only a fraction O(L{sub p}/K) of the matter degrees of freedom and the rest are suppressed when the box approaches the horizon. Near the horizon all the thermodynamical quantities behave as though the box of gas has a volume A{sub perpendicular}L{sub p}/2 and is kept in a Minkowski spacetime. These effects are: (i) purely kinematic in their origin and are independent of the spacetime curvature (in the sense that the Rindler approximation of the metric near the horizon can reproduce the results) and (ii) observer <span class="hlt">dependent</span>. When the equilibrium temperature of the gas is taken to be equal to the horizon temperature, we get the familiar A{sub perpendicular}/L{sub p}{sup 2} <span class="hlt">dependence</span> in the expression for entropy. All these results hold in a D+1 dimensional spherically symmetric spacetime. The analysis based on methods of statistical mechanics and the one based on thermodynamics applied to the gas treated as a fluid in static geometry, lead to the same results showing the consistency. The implications are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kolekar, Sanved; Padmanabhan, T. [IUCAA, Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">133</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21546804"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pulse-duration <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the isotopic effect in simple molecular ions driven by <span class="hlt">strong</span> laser fields</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper we discuss isotopic effects in simple molecular ions subjected to <span class="hlt">strong</span> laser fields. We show that the intensity of the emitted spectra <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">depends</span> upon both the nuclear mass of the molecular ions and the laser pulse duration. In particular, for short pulse duration [up to 8 optical cycles (o.c.)], we confirm the trend described in the most studied case in which the high-order harmonic generation is more efficient for heavier isotopes; in contrast, an interesting physical phenomenon is predicted for pulses longer than 16 o.c. characterized by an inverse effect in which lighter molecular species are responsible for higher-order harmonic emission.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Castiglia, G.; Corso, P. P.; Fiordilino, E.; Persico, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli studi di Palermo, Via Archirafi 36, I-90123 Palermo (Italy)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-05-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">134</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1010995"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> strain <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of ferroelectric coercivity in a BiFeO3 film</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The ferroelectric polarization loop of an epitaxial BiFeO3 film on a piezoelectric substrate has been measured as a function of the continuously and reversibly varied biaxial strain of e = 0.36 0.51 %. Over this range, the ferroelectric coercive field (Ec) at 80 K increases reversibly by 36 % with the increasing tensile strain. The strain <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the remanent polarization agrees with previous experimental results and simulations based on thermodynamic considerations. In contrast, such calculations predict dEc/de <0, contradicting our experiments. Thus, the strain <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of kinetic barriers influencing the rates of domain wall nucleation and propagation which are neglected in thermodynamic models may dominate the observed positive dEc/de.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Biegalski, Michael D [ORNL; Kim, Dae Ho [Tulane University; Dorr, Kathrin [IFW Dresden; Christen, Hans M [ORNL</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">135</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23812603"> <span id="translatedtitle">Natal departure timing from <span class="hlt">spatially</span> varying environments is <span class="hlt">dependent</span> of individual ontogenetic status.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Natal departure timing represents one of the first crucial decisions for juveniles born in <span class="hlt">spatially</span> varying environments that ultimately disappear, but our knowledge on its determinants is limited. The present study aimed at understanding the determinants of juvenile natal departure by releasing individually tagged juvenile pike (Esox lucius L.) with variable body size and trophic position in a temporary flooded grassland. Specifically, we investigated whether natal departure <span class="hlt">depends</span> on individual competitive status ('competition hypothesis'), physiological tolerance to environmental conditions ('physiological hypothesis') or individual trophic position and the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> heterogeneity of trophic resources ('trophic hypothesis'). The results indicated that departure timing was negatively correlated with body size at release, showing that the dominance status among competing individuals was not the main trigger of juvenile departure. A positive correlation between departure timing and individual body size at departure was observed, suggesting that inter-individual variability in physiological tolerance did not explain departure patterns. While individual growth performances were similar irrespective of the timing of natal departure, stable isotope analyses revealed that juveniles with higher trophic position departed significantly earlier than individuals with lower trophic position. Therefore, the trade-off driving the use of <span class="hlt">spatially</span> varying environments was most likely <span class="hlt">dependent</span> upon the benefits associated with energetic returns than the costs associated with inter-individual competition or physiological stress. This result highlighted how ontogeny, and particularly ontogenetic niche shift, can play a central role in juvenile's decision to depart from natal habitats in a predatory species. PMID:23812603</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cucherousset, Julien; Paillisson, Jean-Marc; Roussel, Jean-Marc</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">136</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NW....100..761C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Natal departure timing from <span class="hlt">spatially</span> varying environments is <span class="hlt">dependent</span> of individual ontogenetic status</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Natal departure timing represents one of the first crucial decisions for juveniles born in <span class="hlt">spatially</span> varying environments that ultimately disappear, but our knowledge on its determinants is limited. The present study aimed at understanding the determinants of juvenile natal departure by releasing individually tagged juvenile pike ( Esox lucius L.) with variable body size and trophic position in a temporary flooded grassland. Specifically, we investigated whether natal departure <span class="hlt">depends</span> on individual competitive status (`competition hypothesis'), physiological tolerance to environmental conditions (`physiological hypothesis') or individual trophic position and the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> heterogeneity of trophic resources (`trophic hypothesis'). The results indicated that departure timing was negatively correlated with body size at release, showing that the dominance status among competing individuals was not the main trigger of juvenile departure. A positive correlation between departure timing and individual body size at departure was observed, suggesting that inter-individual variability in physiological tolerance did not explain departure patterns. While individual growth performances were similar irrespective of the timing of natal departure, stable isotope analyses revealed that juveniles with higher trophic position departed significantly earlier than individuals with lower trophic position. Therefore, the trade-off driving the use of <span class="hlt">spatially</span> varying environments was most likely <span class="hlt">dependent</span> upon the benefits associated with energetic returns than the costs associated with inter-individual competition or physiological stress. This result highlighted how ontogeny, and particularly ontogenetic niche shift, can play a central role in juvenile's decision to depart from natal habitats in a predatory species.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cucherousset, Julien; Paillisson, Jean-Marc; Roussel, Jean-Marc</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">137</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18707273"> <span id="translatedtitle">Linking the allee effect, sexual reproduction, and temperature-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> sex determination via <span class="hlt">spatial</span> dynamics.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We develop a <span class="hlt">spatially</span> explicit, two-sex, individual-based model (IBM) and a derived <span class="hlt">spatially</span> homogeneous model (SHM) to describe the Allee effect due to scarcity of mating possibilities at low population sizes or densities. The SHM, based on coupled difference equations, represents the first <span class="hlt">spatially</span> homogeneous approach to this phenomenon, which differentiates between sexes and relies only on measurable population parameters. The IBM reinforces the findings of the SHM by adopting more realistic mate search strategies of diffusive movement and active search. Both models are characterized by a hyperbolic-shaped extinction boundary in the male-female state space, which contrasts with a linear boundary in one-dimensional models of the Allee effect. We examine how the position of the extinction boundary <span class="hlt">depends</span> on population demography (primary sex ratio, reproduction and mortality probabilities) and adopted mate search strategies. The investigation of different phases in the IBM dynamics emphasizes the differences between local and global densities and shows the importance of scale when assessing the Allee effect. To demonstrate the potential application of our models, we combine the SHM and available data to predict the impact of environmental temperature changes on two turtle species with temperature-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> sex determination. PMID:18707273</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Berec, L; Boukal, D S; Berec, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">138</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhRvB..72e4502O"> <span id="translatedtitle">State-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> impedance of a <span class="hlt">strongly</span> coupled oscillator-qubit system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigate the measurements of two-state quantum systems (qubits) at finite temperatures using a resonant harmonic oscillator as a quantum probe. The reduced density matrix and oscillator correlators are calculated by a scheme combining numerical methods with an analytical perturbation theory. Correlators provide us information about the system impedance, which <span class="hlt">depends</span> on the qubit state. We show in detail how this property can be exploited in the qubit measurement.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ojanen, Teemu; Heikkilä, Tero T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">139</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21366282"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> geometrical <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the absorption of light in arrays of semiconductor nanowires.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We demonstrate experimentally that arrays of base-tapered InP nanowires on top of an InP substrate form a broad band and omnidirectional absorbing medium. These characteristics are due to the specific geometry of the nanowires. Almost perfect absorption of light (higher than 97%) occurs in the system. We describe the <span class="hlt">strong</span> optical absorption by finite-difference time-domain simulations and present the first study of the influence of the geometry of the nanowires on the enhancement of the optical absorption by arrays. Cylindrical nanowires present the highest absorption normalized to the volume fraction of the semiconductor. The absolute absorption in layers of conical nanowires is higher than that in cylindrical nanowires but requires a larger volume fraction of semiconducting material. Base-tapered nanowires, with a cylindrical top and a conical base, represent an intermediate geometry. These results set the basis for an optimized optical design of nanowire solar cells. PMID:21366282</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Diedenhofen, Silke L; Janssen, Olaf T A; Grzela, Grzegorz; Bakkers, Erik P A M; Gómez Rivas, Jaime</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">140</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2118671"> <span id="translatedtitle">A/T mutagenesis in hypermutated immunoglobulin genes <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">depends</span> on PCNAK164 modification</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">B cells use translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) to introduce somatic mutations around genetic lesions caused by activation-induced cytidine deaminase. Monoubiquitination at lysine164 of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNAK164) stimulates TLS. To determine the role of PCNAK164 modifications in somatic hypermutation, PCNAK164R knock-in mice were generated. PCNAK164R/K164R mutants are born at a sub-Mendelian frequency. Although PCNAK164R/K164R B cells proliferate and class switch normally, the mutation spectrum of hypermutated immunoglobulin (Ig) genes alters dramatically. A <span class="hlt">strong</span> reduction of mutations at template A/T is associated with a compensatory increase at G/C, which is a phenotype similar to polymerase ? (Pol?) and mismatch repair–deficient B cells. Mismatch recognition, monoubiquitinated PCNA, and Pol? likely cooperate in establishing mutations at template A/T during replication of Ig genes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Langerak, Petra; Nygren, Anders O.H.; Krijger, Peter H.L.; van den Berk, Paul C.M.; Jacobs, Heinz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">141</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNG33A1573F"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> scale <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the long-range memory properties of Earth surface temperature</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a study of the long-range memory properties of the Earth surface temperature. Different <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales are analyzed, and it is observed that the persistence of the time series increases with increasing <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale. It is also observed that sea surface temperatures are more persistent than land temperatures. The analysis is performed by coarse-graining gridded temperature data, starting out with boxes of 5 x 5 degrees, and then averaging them up to global scales. As a measure of the strength of persistence we have the Hurst exponent, which we have estimated using methods like wavelet variance and maximum likelihood. In the search of an explanation for the differences in the degree of persistence we have studied the strength of the cross-covariances between the temperatures at different locations. If this is <span class="hlt">strong</span> it will have an impact on the autocovariance function for the average temperature within the area studied. In this way we can see that the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> covariance is closely linked to the temporal covariance.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fredriksen, H.; Rypdal, K.; Rypdal, M.; Løvsletten, O.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">142</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22039631"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> self-shielding method with temperature distribution for LWR lattice physics code PARAGON</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The power distribution within the fuel rod is usually needed in fuel integrity evaluation. To compute the radial power distribution, a multi-ring flux solver, a space <span class="hlt">dependent</span> resonance self-shielding module and a multi-ring depletion module are required. Conventional LWR design codes have almost all of the functions except for the space <span class="hlt">dependent</span> resonance shielding. Therefore, we had developed SDDM (<span class="hlt">Spatially</span> <span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Dancoff Method) and validated the method with Monte Carlo calculations and PIE data. However, the evaluation with the SDDM lacked the temperature distribution within fuel rods. In this paper, the new development of the SDDM with temperature distribution is presented. The preliminary study for the SDDM with temperature distribution was previously discussed in reference [3]. Then it was found that the SDDM predicts a much larger reactivity effect due to the temperature distribution than MCNP. Here, the improvement to the SDDM corrects this overprediction and it will be supported by numerical results. (authors)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Matsumoto, H. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., 3-3-1 Nishu-ku, Yokohama, 220-8401 (Japan); Ouisloumen, M. [Westinghouse Electric Company, Pittsburgh, PA 15230-0355 (United States); Shiraki, T.; Yamaji, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., 3-3-1 Nishu-ku, Yokohama, 220-8401 (Japan); Takeda, T. [Osaka Univ., Yamada-oka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">143</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23679419"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hydration-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> dynamics of deeply cooled water under <span class="hlt">strong</span> confinement.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have measured the hydration-level <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the single-particle dynamics of water confined in the ordered mesoporous silica MCM-41. The dynamic crossover observed at full hydration is absent at monolayer hydration. The monolayer dynamics are significantly slower than those of water in a fully hydrated pore at ambient temperatures. At low temperatures, the opposite is found to be true. These results underscore the importance of water's tetrahedral hydrogen-bond network in accounting for its low temperature dynamic properties. PMID:23679419</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bertrand, C E; Liu, K-H; Mamontov, E; Chen, S-H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">144</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24811631"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> field ionization rates simulated with time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> configuration interaction and an absorbing potential.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ionization rates of molecules have been modeled with time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> configuration interaction simulations using atom centered basis sets and a complex absorbing potential. The simulations agree with accurate grid-based calculations for the ionization of hydrogen atom as a function of field strength and for charge resonance enhanced ionization of [Formula: see text] as the bond is elongated. Unlike grid-based methods, the present approach can be applied to simulate electron dynamics and ionization in multi-electron polyatomic molecules. Calculations on HCl(+) and HCO(+) demonstrate that these systems also show charge resonance enhanced ionization as the bonds are stretched. PMID:24811631</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Krause, Pascal; Sonk, Jason A; Schlegel, H Bernhard</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">145</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvE..87d2312B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hydration-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> dynamics of deeply cooled water under <span class="hlt">strong</span> confinement</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have measured the hydration-level <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the single-particle dynamics of water confined in the ordered mesoporous silica MCM-41. The dynamic crossover observed at full hydration is absent at monolayer hydration. The monolayer dynamics are significantly slower than those of water in a fully hydrated pore at ambient temperatures. At low temperatures, the opposite is found to be true. These results underscore the importance of water's tetrahedral hydrogen-bond network in accounting for its low temperature dynamic properties.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bertrand, C. E.; Liu, K.-H.; Mamontov, E.; Chen, S.-H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">146</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3120772"> <span id="translatedtitle">Novel scatter compensation of list-mode PET data using <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and energy <span class="hlt">dependent</span> corrections</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">With the widespread use of PET crystals with greatly improved energy resolution (e.g., 11.5% with LYSO as compared to 20% with BGO) and of list-mode acquisitions, the use of the energy of individual events in scatter correction schemes becomes feasible. We propose a novel scatter approach that incorporates the energy of individual photons in the scatter correction and reconstruction of list-mode PET data in addition to the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> information presently used in clinical scanners. First, we rewrite the Poisson likelihood function of list-mode PET data including the energy distributions of primary and scatter coincidences and show that this expression yields an MLEM reconstruction algorithm containing both energy and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> corrections. To estimate the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of scatter coincidences we use the single scatter simulation (SSS). Next, we derive two new formulae which allow estimation of the 2D (coincidences) energy probability density functions (E-PDF) of primary and scatter coincidences from the 1D (photons) E-PDFs associated with each photon. We also describe an accurate and robust object-specific method for estimating these 1D E-PDFs based on a decomposition of the total energy spectra detected across the scanner into primary and scattered components. Finally, we show that the energy information can be used to accurately normalize the scatter sinogram to the data. We compared the performance of this novel scatter correction incorporating both the position and energy of detected coincidences to that of the traditional approach modeling only the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of scatter coincidences in 3D Monte Carlo simulations of a medium cylindrical phantom and a large, non uniform NCAT phantom. Incorporating the energy information in the scatter correction decreased bias in the activity distribution estimation by ~20% and ~40% in the cold regions of the large NCAT phantom at energy resolutions 11.5 and 20% at 511 keV, respectively, compared to when using the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> information alone.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Guerin, Bastien</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">147</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhRvA..80e3616P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Single-particle density matrix for a time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> <span class="hlt">strongly</span> interacting one-dimensional Bose gas</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We derive a 1/c expansion for the single-particle density matrix of a <span class="hlt">strongly</span> interacting time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> one-dimensional Bose gas, described by the Lieb-Liniger model ( c denotes the strength of the interaction). The formalism is derived by expanding Gaudin’s Fermi-Bose mapping operator up to 1/c terms. We derive an efficient numerical algorithm for calculating the density matrix for time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> states in the <span class="hlt">strong</span> coupling limit, which evolve from a family of initial conditions in the absence of an external potential. We have applied the formalism to study contraction dynamics of a localized wave packet upon which a parabolic phase is imprinted initially.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pezer, R.; Gasenzer, T.; Buljan, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">148</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23187534"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> polarization <span class="hlt">dependence</span> in the optical transmission through a bull's eye with an elliptical sub-wavelength aperture.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> polarization <span class="hlt">dependence</span> in the optical transmission through a bull's eye with a central elliptical aperture in a thin Au film is analyzed numerically by finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. Focusing on the impacts of the structural anisotropy, detailed investigation of polarization <span class="hlt">dependent</span> enhanced optical transmission (EOT) of light is discussed in terms of the resonance intensity variations caused by the incident light polarization and the geometrical parameters of bull's eye. We found that the light polarized along the minor axis of the elliptic aperture has significantly larger EOT by more than three orders of magnitude than the other orthogonal polarization, which can be further utilized in polarized EOT devices. PMID:23187534</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pournoury, Marzieh; Arabi, Hesam Edin; Oh, Kyunghwan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-19</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">149</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17664295"> <span id="translatedtitle">A/T mutagenesis in hypermutated immunoglobulin genes <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">depends</span> on PCNAK164 modification.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">B cells use translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) to introduce somatic mutations around genetic lesions caused by activation-induced cytidine deaminase. Monoubiquitination at lysine(164) of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA(K164)) stimulates TLS. To determine the role of PCNA(K164) modifications in somatic hypermutation, PCNA(K164R) knock-in mice were generated. PCNA(K164R/K164R) mutants are born at a sub-Mendelian frequency. Although PCNA(K164R/K164R) B cells proliferate and class switch normally, the mutation spectrum of hypermutated immunoglobulin (Ig) genes alters dramatically. A <span class="hlt">strong</span> reduction of mutations at template A/T is associated with a compensatory increase at G/C, which is a phenotype similar to polymerase eta (Poleta) and mismatch repair-deficient B cells. Mismatch recognition, monoubiquitinated PCNA, and Poleta likely cooperate in establishing mutations at template A/T during replication of Ig genes. PMID:17664295</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Langerak, Petra; Nygren, Anders O H; Krijger, Peter H L; van den Berk, Paul C M; Jacobs, Heinz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">150</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4016234"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> hearing in Cope's gray treefrog: II. Frequency-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> directionality in the amplitude and phase of tympanum vibrations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Anuran ears function as pressure difference receivers, and the amplitude and phase of tympanum vibrations are inherently directional, varying with sound incident angle. We quantified the nature of this directionality for Cope’s gray treefrog, Hyla chrysoscelis. We presented subjects with pure tones, advertisement calls, and frequency-modulated sweeps to examine the influence of frequency, signal level, lung inflation, and sex on ear directionality. Interaural differences in the amplitude of tympanum vibrations were 1–4 dB greater than sound pressure differences adjacent to the two tympana, while interaural differences in the phase of tympanum vibration were similar to or smaller than those in sound phase. Directionality in the amplitude and phase of tympanum vibration were highly <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on sound frequency, and directionality in amplitude varied slightly with signal level. Directionality in the amplitude and phase of tone- and call-evoked responses did not differ between sexes. Lung inflation <span class="hlt">strongly</span> affected tympanum directionality over a narrow frequency range that, in females, included call frequencies. This study provides a foundation for further work on the biomechanics and neural mechanisms of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> hearing in H. chrysoscelis, and lends valuable perspective to behavioral studies on the use of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> information by this species and other frogs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lee, Norman; Schrode, Katrina M.; Johns, Anastasia R.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Bee, Mark A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">151</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15955814"> <span id="translatedtitle">A lipomannan variant with <span class="hlt">strong</span> TLR-2-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> pro-inflammatory activity in Saccharothrix aerocolonigenes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Lipomannans (LMs) are powerful pro-inflammatory lipoglycans found in mycobacteria and related genera, however the molecular bases of their activity are not fully understood. We report here the isolation and the structural and functional characterization of a new lipomannan variant present in the Pseudonocardineae, Saccharothrix aerocolonigenes, designated SaeLM. Using a range of chemical degradations, NMR experiments, and mass spectrometry analyses, SaeLM revealed a mannosylphosphatidyl-myo-inositol (MPI) anchor glycosylated by an original carbohydrate structure whereby an (alpha1-->6)-Manp backbone is substituted at >80% of the O-2 position by side chains composed of Manp-(alpha1-->2)-Manp-(alpha1-->. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis indicated a distribution of SaeLM glyco-forms ranging from 19 to 61 Manp units, which centered on species containing 37 or 40 Manp units. SaeLM induced a Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2)-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) by human THP-1 monocyte/macrophage cell lines and interestingly was found to be the strongest inducer of this pro-inflammatory cytokine when compared with other LAM/LM-like molecules. We previously established that a linear (alpha1-->6)-Manp chain, linked to the MPI anchor, is sufficient in providing pro-inflammatory activity. We demonstrate here that by adding side chains and increasing their size, one may potentiate this activity. These findings should enable a better understanding of the structure/function relationships of TLR-2-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> lipoglycan signaling. PMID:15955814</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gibson, Kevin J C; Gilleron, Martine; Constant, Patricia; Sichi, Bénédicte; Puzo, Germain; Besra, Gurdyal S; Nigou, Jérôme</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">152</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008MNRAS.389..741A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Radial velocity <span class="hlt">dependence</span> in the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> orientations of galaxies in and around the local supercluster</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study the radial velocity <span class="hlt">dependence</span> in the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> orientations of 10562 spiral galaxies that have radial velocity <5000 km s-1. The inclination angle and intrinsic flatness of galaxy are used to covert two-dimensional given parameters into three-dimensional spin vectors of the galaxy. We have performed Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Kuiper and Fourier tests in order to examine non-random effects in the expected isotropic distributions. The galaxies that have radial velocities 1500 to 2000 and 3000 to 3500 km s-1 show preferred alignments in both the two- and three-dimensional analysis. The possible explanations of the results will be discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aryal, B.; Kafle, P. R.; Saurer, W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">153</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960016975&hterms=ADIABATIC+SHEAR+BANDS&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DADIABATIC%2BSHEAR%2BBANDS"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> organization and time <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of Jupiter's tropospheric temperatures, 1980-1993</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">spatial</span> organization and time <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of Jupiter's temperature near 250-millibar pressure were measured through a jovian year by imaging thermal emission at 18 micrometers. The temperature field is influenced by seasonal radiative forcing, and its banded organization is closely correlated with the visible cloud field. Evidence was found for a quasi-periodic oscillation of temperatures in the Equatorial Zone, a correlation between tropospheric and stratospheric waves in the North Equatorial Belt, and slowly moving thermal features in the North and South Equatorial Belts. There appears to be no common relation between temporal changes of temperature and changes in the visual albedo of the various axisymmetric bands.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Orton, Glenn S.; Friedson, A. James; Yanamandra-Fisher, Padmavati A.; Caldwell, John; Hammel, Heidi B.; Baines, Kevin H.; Bergstralh, Jay T.; Martin, Terry Z.; West, Robert A.; Veeder, Glenn J., Jr.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">154</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ChPhC..37e3103E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Relativistic particle scattering states with tensor potential and <span class="hlt">spatially-dependent</span> mass</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigate the relativistic equation for particles with spin 1/2 in the q-parameter modified Pöschl-Teller potential, including Coulomb-like tensor interaction with <span class="hlt">spatially-dependent</span> mass for the D-dimension. We present approximate solutions of the Dirac equation with these potentials for any spin-orbit quantum number ? under spin symmetry. The normalized wave functions are expressed in terms of the hyper-geometric series of the scattering states on the k/2? scale. We also give the formula for the phase shifts, and use the Nikiforov-Uvarov method to obtain the energy eigen-values equation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eshghi, M.; R. Abdi, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">155</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JAP...102k4505D"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span>, energy, and time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> study of surface charging using spectroscopy and microscopy techniques</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span>, energy, and time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> effects induced by surface charging of conductive and nonconductive samples have been studied by spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. Surface charging of indium-tin oxide and cesium iodide has been studied by atomic force microscopy with a conducting tip and photoemission electron microscopy. Intensity fluctuations of the photoemission spectra recorded on amorphous and crystalline silicon nitride are also presented. The consequence of such effects on the determination of local physical and chemical properties of insulating materials is discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">di Santo, Giovanni; Coluzza, Carlo; Flammini, Roberto; Zanoni, Robertino; Decker, Franco</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">156</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ASAJ..112.2392O"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seismo-acoustic propagation in environments that <span class="hlt">depend</span> <span class="hlt">strongly</span> on both range and depth</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The parabolic equation method provides an excellent combination of accuracy and efficiency for range-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> ocean acoustics and seismology problems. This approach is highly developed for problems in which the ocean bottom can be modeled as a fluid. For the elastic case, there remain some accuracy limitations for problems involving sloping interfaces. Progress on this problem has been made by combining a new formulation of the elastic parabolic equation that handles layering more effectively [W. Jerzak, ''Parabolic Equations for Layered Elastic Media,'' doctoral dissertation, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (2001)] and a mapping approach that handles sloping interfaces accurately [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 107, 1937-1942 (2000)]. This approach makes it possible to handle problems involving complex layering and steep slopes, but the rate of change of the slope must be small. The method and its application to data will be described. Our immediate goal is to model propagation of seismic surface waves propagating across a transition between dry and marshy terrain. We have suitable data applicable to vehicle-tracking problems from Marine Corps Base Camp, Pendleton, CA. [Work supported by ONR.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Outing, Donald A.; Siegmann, William L.; Dorman, LeRoy M.; Collins, Michael D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">157</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvA..88a3414H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Optimal control of <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field ionization with time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> density-functional theory</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We show that quantum optimal control theory (OCT) and time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> density-functional theory (TDDFT) can be combined to provide realistic femtosecond laser pulses for an enhanced ionization yield in few-electron systems. Using a one-dimensional model H2 molecule as a test case, the optimized laser pulse from the numerically exact scheme is compared to pulses obtained from OCT+TDDFT within the TD exact-exchange (TDEXX) and the TD local-density approximation (TDLDA). We find that the TDDFT pulses produce an ionization yield of up to 50% when applied to the exact system. In comparison, pulses with a single frequency but the same fluence typically reach to yields around 5%-15%, unless the frequency is carefully tuned into a Fano-type resonance that leads to ˜30% yield. On the other hand, optimization within the exact system alone leads to yields higher than 80%, demonstrating that correlation effects beyond the TDEXX and TDLDA can give rise to even more efficient ionization mechanisms.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hellgren, Maria; Räsänen, Esa; Gross, E. K. U.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">158</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NJPh...16a3028J"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> asymmetrical bias <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of magnetoresistance in organic spin valves: the role of ferromagnetic/organic interfaces</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report a highly asymmetric magnetoresistance (MR) bias <span class="hlt">dependence</span>, with the inverse MR peaking at a negative bias and a sign reversal occurring at a positive bias in prototypical La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO)/Alq3/Co organic spin valve (OSV) with a tunnel barrier between LSMO and Alq3. This behavior is in <span class="hlt">strong</span> contrast with the commonly found inverse MR in entire bias range for LSMO/Alq3/Co OSVs. The MR bias voltage <span class="hlt">dependence</span> is independent on the type of the tunnel barrier, either SrTiO3 or Al2O3. Together with first-principle calculations, we demonstrate that the <span class="hlt">strongly</span> hybridized Co d-states with Alq3 molecules at the interface are responsible for the efficient d-states spin injection and the observed MR bias <span class="hlt">dependence</span> is originated from the energy <span class="hlt">dependent</span> density of states of Co d-states. These findings open up new possibilities to engineer interfacial bonding between ferromagnetic materials and a wide variety of molecule selections for the desired spin transport properties.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jiang, S. W.; Shu, D. J.; Lin, L.; Shi, Y. J.; Shi, J.; Ding, H. F.; Du, J.; Wang, M.; Wu, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">159</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5745..407B"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> frequency-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> signal-to-noise ratio as a generalized measure of image quality</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A generalized, objective image quality measure can be defined for X-ray based medical projection imaging: the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequency-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> signal-to-noise ratio SNR = SNR(u,v). This function includes the three main image quality parameters, i.e. <span class="hlt">spatial</span> resolution, object contrast, and noise. The quantity is intimately related to the DQE concept, however its focus is not to characterize the detector, but rather the detectability of a certain object embedded into a defined background. So also effects from focus size and radiation scatter can be quantified by this method. The SNR(u,v) is independent of basic linear post-processing steps such as appropriate windowing or <span class="hlt">spatial</span> filtering. The consideration of the human visual system is beyond the scope of this concept. By means of this quantity, different X-ray systems and setups can be compared with each other and with theoretical calculations. Moreover, X-ray systems (i.e. detector, beam quality, geometry, anti-scatter grid, basic linear post-processing steps etc.) can be optimized to deliver the best object detectability for a given patient dose. In this paper SNR(u,v) is defined using analytical formulas. Furthermore, we demonstrate how it can be applied with a test phantom to a typical flat panel detector system by a combination of analytical calculations and Monte Carlo simulations. Finally the way this function can be used to optimize an X-ray imaging device is demonstrated.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bernhardt, Philipp; Batz, Lothar; Ruhrnschopf, Ernst-Peter; Hoheisel, Martin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">160</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2714761"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span>, <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale, and tree species diversity in eastern Asia and North America</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The increase of biodiversity from poles to equator is one of the most pervasive features of nature. For 2 centuries since von Humboldt, Wallace, and Darwin, biogeographers and ecologists have investigated the environmental and historical factors that determine the latitudinal gradient of species diversity, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The recently proposed metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) aims to explain ecological patterns and processes, including geographical patterns of species richness, in terms of the effects of temperature and body size on the metabolism of organisms. Here we use 2 comparable databases of tree distributions in eastern Asia and North America to investigate the roles of environmental temperature and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale in shaping geographical patterns of species diversity. We find that number of species increases exponentially with environmental temperature as predicted by the MTE, and so does the rate of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> turnover in species composition (slope of the species-area relationship). The magnitude of temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of species richness increases with <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale. Moreover, the relationship between species richness and temperature is much steeper in eastern Asia than in North America: in cold climates at high latitudes there are more tree species in North America, but the reverse is true in warmer climates at lower latitudes. These patterns provide evidence that the kinetics of ecological and evolutionary processes play a major role in the latitudinal pattern of biodiversity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Zhiheng; Brown, James H.; Tang, Zhiyao; Fang, Jingyun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> 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showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">161</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24326190"> <span id="translatedtitle">PAH effects on meio- and microbial benthic communities <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">depend</span> on bioavailability.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effects of anthropogenic pollutants in dissimilar habitats can vary <span class="hlt">depending</span> on differences in bioavailability. The factors determining bioavailability are not yet fully understood. This study was performed to evaluate whether analysis of total PAH concentrations in sediments is a satisfactory measurement to indicate environmental effects or if bioavailability is needed to be taken into account. We have here performed a 60-day experiment, where nominal PAH concentrations of 1,300 ?g/kg sediment were added to three different marine sediments. Meiofaunal and microbial communities were analyzed for alterations in community response at 30 and 60 days. Results showed that bioavailability of PAHs varied between the three different sediments. Nonetheless, the petroleum addition gave rise to significant negative effects on all three sediments at both time points. The two direct measurements of toxicity on the microbial community, potential nitrification and denitrification, displayed a lower effect of the PAH addition in the muddy sediment at both time points, compared to the other two sediment types. No effects were seen in the analysis of meiofaunal community structure. Measurements of PAH bioavailability in the three sediment types concurred with the results from the microbial community, revealing a lower bioavailability in the muddy sediment compared to the other two sediment types, 34% compared to sandy and 18% compared to organic at day 0. At day 60 it was 61% lower compared to sandy and 20% lower compared to organic. The negative effects of the PAH addition on the microbial nitrogen cycle were in six out of eight cases best correlated to the amount of alkylated bioavailable PAH in the sediments, and thus microbial nitrogen cycle is a possible good indicator for assessing PAH-induced stress. The results presented here have implications for risk analysis studies of petroleum-contaminated marine sediments; consequently, sediment characteristics and its effects on bioavailability are important to include. In addition, these results add to the understanding that bioavailability measurements of PAHs are a more correct assessment compared to measurements of total PAH concentrations, and need to be included when estimating effects of PAHs in marine benthic communities. PMID:24326190</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lindgren, J Fredrik; Hassellöv, Ida-Maja; Dahllöf, Ingela</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">162</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010IJAEO..12..331O"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependency</span> of cholera prevalence on potential cholera reservoirs in an urban area, Kumasi, Ghana</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cholera has been a public health burden in Ghana since the early 1970s. Between 1999 and 2005, a total of 25,636 cases and 620 deaths were officially reported to the WHO. In one of the worst affected urban cities, fecal contamination of surface water is extremely high, and the disease is reported to be prevalent among inhabitants living in close proximity to surface water bodies. Surface runoff from dump sites is a major source of fecal and bacterial contamination of rivers and streams in the study area. This study aims to determine (a) the impacts of surface water contamination on cholera infection and (b) detect and map arbitrary shaped clusters of cholera. A Geographic Information System (GIS) based <span class="hlt">spatial</span> analysis is used to delineate potential reservoirs of the cholera vibrios; possibly contaminated by surface runoff from open space refuse dumps. Statistical modeling using OLS model reveals a significant negative association between (a) cholera prevalence and proximity to all the potential cholera reservoirs ( R2 = 0.18, p < 0.001) and (b) cholera prevalence and proximity to upstream potential cholera reservoirs ( R2 = 0.25, p < 0.001). The inclusion of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> autoregressive coefficients in the OLS model reveals the <span class="hlt">dependency</span> of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of cholera prevalence on the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> neighbors of the communities. A flexible scan statistic identifies a most likely cluster with a higher relative risk (RR = 2.04, p < 0.01) compared with the cluster detected by circular scan statistic (RR = 1.60, p < 0.01). We conclude that surface water pollution through runoff from waste dump sites play a significant role in cholera infection.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Osei, Frank B.; Duker, Alfred A.; Augustijn, Ellen-Wien; Stein, Alfred</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">163</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JChPh.119.6290H"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> Jahn-Teller effect in the excited state: Anomalous temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the zero-phonon line</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We are studying the optical spectra of impurity centers in the case when the optical transition takes place between nondegenerate and two-fold degenerate electronic E-states characterized by a <span class="hlt">strong</span> vibronic coupling. In the latter state the adiabatic surface has a shape of a deformed Mexican hat with three flat minima on the trough of the ``hat.'' We have found that in this case the usual T7-<span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the homogeneous width of the zero-phonon line at low temperatures is replaced by a <span class="hlt">dependence</span> close to the T3-one. Besides, the usual T4-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> redshift of the line is replaced by the T2-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> shift. <span class="hlt">Depending</span> on the flatness of the adiabatic surface, the latter shift may be to the red or to the blue. The theory is applied to the zero-phonon line 637 nm of the nitrogen-containing N-V center in a diamond. In this system the temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the ZPL results from the common action of the Jahn-Teller effect and the pseudo-Jahn-Teller effect in the excited E-state: the pseudo-Jahn-Teller effect ``helps'' to get the system close to the dynamical instability due to the enlargement of the Jahn-Teller distortion.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hizhnyakov, V.; Boltrushko, V.; Kaasik, H.; Sildos, I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">164</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23673330"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> dynamic MAPK modulation by the Nde1-Lis1-Brap complex patterns mammalian CNS.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Regulating cell proliferation and differentiation in CNS development requires both extraordinary complexity and precision. Neural progenitors receive graded overlapping signals from midline signaling centers, yet each makes a unique cell fate decision in a spatiotemporally restricted pattern. The Nde1-Lis1 complex regulates individualized cell fate decisions based on the geographical location with respect to the midline. While cells distant from the midline fail to self-renew in the Nde1-Lis1 double-mutant CNS, cells embedded in the signaling centers showed marked overproliferation. A direct interaction between Lis1 and Brap, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling threshold modulator, mediates this differential response to mitogenic signal gradients. Nde1-Lis1 deficiency resulted in a <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> alteration of MAPK scaffold Ksr and hyperactivation of MAPK. Epistasis analyses supported synergistic Brap and Lis1 functions. These results suggest that a molecular complex composed of Nde1, Lis1, and Brap regulates the dynamic MAPK signaling threshold in a <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> fashion. PMID:23673330</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lanctot, Alison A; Peng, Chian-Yu; Pawlisz, Ashley S; Joksimovic, Milan; Feng, Yuanyi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">165</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22086257"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">SPATIALLY</span> <span class="hlt">DEPENDENT</span> HEATING AND IONIZATION IN AN ICME OBSERVED BY BOTH ACE AND ULYSSES</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The 2005 January 21 interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) observed by multiple spacecraft at L1 was also observed from January 21-February 4 at Ulysses (5.3 AU). Previous studies of this ICME have found evidence suggesting that the flanks of a magnetic cloud like structure associated with this ICME were observed at L1 while a more central cut through the associated magnetic cloud was observed at Ulysses. This event allows us to study <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variation across the ICME and relate it to the eruption at the Sun. In order to examine the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the heating in this ICME, we present an analysis and comparison of the heavy ion composition observed during the passage of the ICME at L1 and at Ulysses. Using SWICS, we compare the heavy ion composition across the two different observation cuts through the ICME and compare it with predictions for heating during the eruption based on models of the time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> ionization balance throughout the event.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lepri, Susan T. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143 (United States); Laming, J. Martin; Rakowski, Cara E. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7674L, Washington, DC 20375-5321 (United States); Von Steiger, Rudolf [International Space Science Institute, Bern CH-3012 (Switzerland)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">166</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24299197"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> photon energy <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the photocatalytic dissociation rate of methanol on TiO2(110).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Photocatalytic dissociation of methanol (CH3OH) on a TiO2(110) surface has been studied by temperature programmed desorption (TPD) at 355 and 266 nm. Primary dissociation products, CH2O and H atoms, have been detected. The <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the reactant and product TPD signals on irradiation time has been measured, allowing the photocatalytic reaction rate of CH3OH at both wavelengths to be directly determined. The initial dissociation rate of CH3OH at 266 nm is nearly 2 orders of magnitude faster than that at 355 nm, suggesting that CH3OH photocatalysis is <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on photon energy. This experimental result raises doubt about the widely accepted photocatalysis model on TiO2, which assumes that the excess potential energy of charge carriers is lost to the lattice via <span class="hlt">strong</span> coupling with phonon modes by very fast thermalization and the reaction of the adsorbate is thus only <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on the number of electron-hole pairs created by photoexcitation. PMID:24299197</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xu, Chenbiao; Xu, Chengbiao; Yang, Wenshao; Ren, Zefeng; Dai, Dongxu; Guo, Qing; Minton, Timothy K; Yang, Xueming</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">167</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3648484"> <span id="translatedtitle">Defining neighborhood boundaries in studies of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> in child behavior problems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background The purpose of this study was to extend the analysis of neighborhood effects on child behavioral outcomes in two ways: (1) by examining the geographic extent of the relationship between child behavior and neighborhood physical conditions independent of standard administrative boundaries such as census tracts or block groups and (2) by examining the relationship and geographic extent of geographic peers’ behavior and individual child behavior. Methods The study neighborhood was a low income, ethnic minority neighborhood of approximately 20,000 residents in a large city in the southwestern United States. Observational data were collected for 11,552 parcels and 1,778 face blocks in the neighborhood over a five week period. Data on child behavior problems were collected from the parents of 261 school-age children (81% African American, 14% Latino) living in the neighborhood. <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> analysis methods were used to examine the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of child behavior problems in relation to physical conditions in the neighborhood for areas surrounding the child’s home ranging from a radius of 50 meters to a radius of 1000 meters. Likewise, the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of child behavior problems in relation to the behavior problems of neighborhood peers was examined for areas ranging from a radius 255 meters to a radius of 600 meters around the child’s home. Finally, we examined the joint influence of neighborhood physical conditions and geographic peers. Results Poor conditions of the physical environment of the neighborhood were related to more behavioral problems, and the geographic extent of the physical environment that mattered was an area with a radius between 400 and 800 meters surrounding the child’s home. In addition, the average level of behavior problems of neighborhood peers within 255 meters of the child’s home was also positively associated with child behavior problems. Furthermore, these effects were independent of one another. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that using flexible geographies in the study of neighborhood effects can provide important insights into <span class="hlt">spatial</span> influences on health outcomes. With regards to child behavioral outcomes, specifically, these findings support the importance of addressing the physical and social environment when planning community-level interventions to reduce child behavior problems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">168</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21020534"> <span id="translatedtitle">Three-dimensional time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> Hartree-Fock approach for arbitrarily oriented molecular hydrogen in <span class="hlt">strong</span> electromagnetic fields</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a theoretical framework for the electronic dynamics of arbitrarily oriented molecular hydrogen in <span class="hlt">strong</span> and short electromagnetic fields. The ground state of H{sub 2} is obtained by propagating the time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> Schroedinger equation in imaginary time by assuming the Hartree-Fock ansatz for the interaction between the electrons. The interaction of H{sub 2} with the radiation field is considered in the single-active-electron approximation, with the continuum electron subject to Hartree-Fock radial potentials. We propagate the wave function by a split-operator scheme projected on a spherical harmonics basis. Alignment-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> yields and angular distributions for one- and two-photon ionization induced by an external femtosecond light source are presented and compared with available theoretical results.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nikolopoulos, L. A. A.; Kjeldsen, T. K.; Madsen, L. B. [Lundbeck Foundation Theoretical Center for Quantum System Research, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-09-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">169</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19495098"> <span id="translatedtitle">Anamorphic and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequency <span class="hlt">dependent</span> phase modulation on liquid crystal displays. Optimization of the modulation diffraction efficiency.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this work we present experimental evidence of an anamorphic and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequency <span class="hlt">dependent</span> phase modulation in commercially available twisted nematic liquid crystal <span class="hlt">spatial</span> light modulators. We have found that the phase modulation depth <span class="hlt">depends</span> on the magnitude of the local <span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequency component along the horizontal direction. Along the vertical direction the phase modulation depth does not <span class="hlt">depend</span> on the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequency. This phenomenon is related with the electronics driving the device and in no way related to liquid crystal physics. It causes a reduction of the optical efficiency of a diffractive optical element displayed onto this type of modulator. We present an algorithm to correct this effect and more efficiently display a diffractive optical element. We apply it to the particular case of a Fresnel lens. Experimental results that confirm the improvements in the efficiency of the displayed diffractive lens are presented. PMID:19495098</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Márquez, Andrés; Iemmi, Claudio; Moreno, Ignacio; Campos, Juan; Yzuel, María</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-03-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">170</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70042773"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seed harvesting by a generalist consumer is context-<span class="hlt">dependent</span>: Interactive effects across multiple <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Granivore foraging decisions affect consumer success and determine the quantity and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> pattern of seed survival. These decisions are influenced by environmental variation at <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales ranging from landscapes to local foraging patches. In a field experiment, the effects of seed patch variation across three <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales on seed removal by western harvester ants Pogonomyrmex occidentalis were evaluated. At the largest scale we assessed harvesting in different plant communities, at the intermediate scale we assessed harvesting at different distances from ant mounds, and at the smallest scale we assessed the effects of interactions among seed species in local seed neighborhoods on seed harvesting (i.e. resource–consumer interface). Selected seed species were presented alone (monospecific treatment) and in mixture with Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass; mixture treatment) at four distances from P. occidentalis mounds in adjacent intact sagebrush and non-native cheatgrass-dominated communities in the Great Basin, Utah, USA. Seed species differed in harvest, with B. tectorum being least preferred. Large and intermediate scale variation influenced harvest. More seeds were harvested in sagebrush than in cheatgrass-dominated communities (largest scale), and the quantity of seed harvested varied with distance from mounds (intermediate-scale), although the form of the distance effect differed between plant communities. At the smallest scale, seed neighborhood affected harvest, but the patterns differed among seed species considered. Ants harvested fewer seeds from mixed-seed neighborhoods than from monospecific neighborhoods, suggesting context <span class="hlt">dependence</span> and potential associational resistance. Further, the effects of plant community and distance from mound on seed harvest in mixtures differed from their effects in monospecific treatments. Beyond the local seed neighborhood, selection of seed resources is better understood by simultaneously evaluating removal at multiple scales. Associational effects provide a useful theoretical basis for better understanding harvester ant foraging decisions. These results demonstrate the importance of ecological context for seed removal, which has implications for seed pools, plant populations and communities.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ostoja, Steven M.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Klinger, Rob</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">171</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..PSF.H1006P"> <span id="translatedtitle">The relativistic time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> Aharonov-Bohm effect in two <span class="hlt">spatial</span> dimensions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Aharonov-Bohm (A-B) effect provides direct proof that the charged fermion fields are directly coupled to the gauge 4-vector potential. In this work the A-B effect is studied by means of the relativistic time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> Dirac equation coupled with static, external electromagnetic potentials. The staggered leap-frog numerical method is used and proven to be stable and accurate. The effect of possible residual Lorentz forces due to solenoid finite length is examined and compared to the pure A-B effect by means of the time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> interference patterns. The effect is also investigated inside quantum rings and shown to alter the fermion azimuthal probability distribution. There is a <span class="hlt">strong</span> interaction A-B effect equivalent.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Petridis, Athanasios; Kertzman, Zachary</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">172</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24309909"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of surface plasmon resonance and surface enhanced Raman scattering on the composition of Au-Fe nanoalloys.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nanoalloys of noble metals with transition metals are crucial components for the integration of plasmonics with magnetic and catalytic properties, as well as for the production of low-cost photonic devices. However, due to synthetic challenges in the realization of nanoscale solid solutions of noble metals and transition metals, very little is known about the composition <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of plasmonic response in nanoalloys. Here we demonstrate for the first time that the elemental composition of Au-Fe nanoalloys obtained by laser ablation in liquid solution can be tuned by varying the liquid environment. Due to surface passivation and reaction with thiolated ligands, the nanoalloys obtained by our synthetic protocol are structurally and colloidally stable. Hence, we studied the <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) on the iron fraction and, for the first time, we observed surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) in Au-Fe nanoalloys. SPR and SERS performances are <span class="hlt">strongly</span> affected by the iron content and are investigated using analytical and numerical models. By demonstrating the <span class="hlt">strong</span> modification of plasmonic properties on the composition, our results provide important insights into the exploitation of Au-Fe nanoalloys in photonics, nanomedicine, magneto-plasmonic and plasmon-enhanced catalysis. Moreover, our findings show that several other plasmonic materials exist beyond gold and silver nanostructures. PMID:24309909</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Amendola, Vincenzo; Scaramuzza, Stefano; Agnoli, Stefano; Polizzi, Stefano; Meneghetti, Moreno</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">173</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991Sci...252..537O"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thermal maps of Jupiter - <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> organization and time <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of stratospheric temperatures, 1980 to 1990</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">spatial</span> organization and time <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of Jupiter's stratospheric temperatures have been measured by observing thermal emission from the 7.8-micrometer CH4 band. These temperatures, observed through the greater part of a Jovian year, exhibit the influence of seasonal radiative forcing. Distinct bands of high temperature are located at the poles and midlatitudes, while the equator alternates between warm and cold with a period of approximately 4 years. Substantial longitudinal variability is often observed within the warm midlatitude bands, and occasionally elsewhere on the planet. This variability includes small, localized structures, as well as large-scale waves with wavelengths longer than about 30,000 kilometers. The amplitudes of the waves vary on a time scale of about 1 month; structures on a smaller scale may have lifetimes of only days. Waves observed in 1985, 1987, and 1988 propagated with group velocities less than + or - 30 meters/sec.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Orton, G. S.; Friedson, A. J.; Caldwell, J.; Hammel, H. B.; Baines, K. H.; Bergstralh, J. T.; Martin, T. Z.; Malcom, M. E.; West, R. A.; Golisch, W. F.; Griep, D. M.; Kaminski, C. D.; Tokunaga, A. T.; Baron, R.; Shure, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">174</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3018062"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spectral and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of?diffuse optical signals in response to?peripheral nerve stimulation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using non-invasive, near-infrared spectroscopy we have previously reported optical signals measured at or around peripheral nerves in response to their stimulation. Such optical signals featured amplitudes on the order of 0.1% and peaked about 100 ms after peripheral nerve stimulation in human subjects. Here, we report a study of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and spectral <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the optical signals induced by stimulation of the human median and sural nerves, and observe that these optical signals are: (1) unlikely due to either dilation or constriction of blood vessels, (2) not associated with capillary bed hemoglobin, (3) likely due to blood vessel(s) displacement, and (4) unlikely due to fiber-skin optical coupling effects. We conclude that the most probable origin of the optical response to peripheral nerve stimulation is from displacement of blood vessels within the optically probed volume, as a result of muscle twitch in adjacent areas.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, Debbie K.; Erb, M. Kelley; Tong, Yunjie; Yu, Yang; Sassaroli, Angelo; Bergethon, Peter R.; Fantini, Sergio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">175</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3974035"> <span id="translatedtitle">A comparison of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of body mass index among adults and children in a Swiss general population</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: Body mass index (BMI) may cluster in space among adults and be <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span>. Whether BMI clusters among children and how age-specific BMI clusters are related remains unknown. We aimed to identify and compare the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of BMI in adults and children in a Swiss general population, taking into account the area's income level. Methods: Geo-referenced data from the Bus Santé study (adults, n=6663) and Geneva School Health Service (children, n=3601) were used. We implemented global (Moran's I) and local (local indicators of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> association (LISA)) indices of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> autocorrelation to investigate the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of BMI in adults (35–74 years) and children (6–7 years). Weight and height were measured using standardized procedures. Five <span class="hlt">spatial</span> autocorrelation classes (LISA clusters) were defined including the high–high BMI class (high BMI participant's BMI value correlated with high BMI-neighbors' mean BMI values). The <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distributions of clusters were compared between adults and children with and without adjustment for area's income level. Results: In both adults and children, BMI was clearly not distributed at random across the State of Geneva. Both adults' and children's BMIs were associated with the mean BMI of their neighborhood. We found that the clusters of higher BMI in adults and children are located in close, yet different, areas of the state. Significant clusters of high versus low BMIs were clearly identified in both adults and children. Area's income level was associated with children's BMI clusters. Conclusions: BMI clusters show a specific <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> in adults and children from the general population. Using a fine-scale <span class="hlt">spatial</span> analytic approach, we identified life course-specific clusters that could guide tailored interventions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Guessous, I; Joost, S; Jeannot, E; Theler, J-M; Mahler, P; Gaspoz, J-M; Cantoreggi, Nicola; Chételat, Joël; Simos, Jean</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">176</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.U21E2178J"> <span id="translatedtitle">Field Observations Of The 29 September Tsunami In American Samoa: <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Variability And Indications Of <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Return Flow</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The 29 September 2009 tsunami caused 181 fatalities and displaced more than 5000 people on the islands of Samoa, American Samoa, and Tonga. This is the first tsunami to cause significant damage and fatalities on U.S. soil in more than 30 years. Scientists from around the world quickly mobilized to help document the tsunami water levels before this ephemeral data was forever lost as recovery activities and natural processes overtook the effected area. A USGS team collected data in American Samoa from October 6-22 and November 5-12, 2009. The tsunami was large, reaching elevations of greater than 15 m, however wave heights and devastation varied from village to village in American Samoa. Even within villages, some structures were completely destroyed, some flooded and left standing, and others barely touched. Wave heights, flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, and flow directions were collected for use in ground-truthing inundation models. The team also collected nearshore bathymetry, topography and reef flat elevation, sediment samples, and documented the distribution and characteristics of both sand and boulder deposits. Eyewitness accounts of the tsunami were also videotaped. One striking aspect of this tsunami was the abundance of indicators of <span class="hlt">strong</span> return flow. For example at Poloa in the northwest of Tutuila, where the runup was greater than 11 m along a 300-m stretch of coast and flow depths exceeded 4 m, the coral reef flat was strewn with debris including chairs, desks, and books from a school. On land, River channels were excavated and new channels formed as return flow scoured sediment and transported it offshore. Possible causes for the <span class="hlt">strong</span> return flow and the relation between the stength of the return flow, inundation distance, and runup in American Samoa are presented. These relationships and others based on data collected by field survey teams will ultimately reduce loss of life and destruction from tsunamis in the Pacific and elsewhere.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jaffe, B. E.; Richmond, B. M.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Watt, S.; Apotsos, A. A.; Buckley, M. L.; Dudley, W. C.; Peck, B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">177</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2651997"> <span id="translatedtitle">Contextual modulation of V1 receptive fields <span class="hlt">depends</span> on their <span class="hlt">spatial</span> symmetry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary The apparent receptive field characteristics of sensory neurons <span class="hlt">depend</span> on the statistics of the stimulus ensemble – a nonlinear phenomenon often called contextual modulation. Since visual cortical receptive fields determined from simple stimuli typically do not predict responses to complex stimuli, understanding contextual modulation is crucial to understanding responses to natural scenes. To analyze contextual modulation, we examined how apparent receptive fields differ for two stimulus ensembles that are matched in first- and second-order statistics, but differ in their feature content: one ensemble is enriched in elongated contours. To identify systematic trends across the neural population, we used a multidimensional scaling method, the Procrustes transformation. We found that contextual modulation of receptive field components increases with their <span class="hlt">spatial</span> extent. More surprisingly, we also found that odd-symmetric components change systematically, but even-symmetric components do not. This symmetry <span class="hlt">dependence</span> suggests that contextual modulation is driven by oriented on-off dyads, i.e., modulation of the strength of intracortically-generated signals.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sharpee, Tatyana O.; Victor, Jonathan D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">178</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4067381"> <span id="translatedtitle">Up, Down, and All Around: Scale-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Variation in Rocky-Shore Communities of Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Understanding the variation of biodiversity along environmental gradients and multiple <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales is relevant for theoretical and management purposes. Hereby, we analysed the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variability in diversity and structure of intertidal and subtidal macrobenthic Antarctic communities along vertical environmental stress gradients and across multiple horizontal <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales. Since biotic interactions and local topographic features are likely major factors for coastal assemblages, we tested the hypothesis that fine-scale processes influence the effects of the vertical environmental stress gradients on the macrobenthic diversity and structure. We used nested sampling designs in the intertidal and subtidal habitats, including horizontal <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales ranging from few centimetres to 1000s of metres along the rocky shore of Fildes Peninsula, King George Island. In both intertidal and subtidal habitats, univariate and multivariate analyses showed a marked vertical zonation in taxon richness and community structure. These patterns <span class="hlt">depended</span> on the horizontal <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale of observation, as all analyses showed a significant interaction between height (or depth) and the finer <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale analysed. Variance and pseudo-variance components supported our prediction for taxon richness, community structure, and the abundance of dominant species such as the filamentous green alga Urospora penicilliformis (intertidal), the herbivore Nacella concinna (intertidal), the large kelp-like Himantothallus grandifolius (subtidal), and the red crustose red alga Lithothamnion spp. (subtidal). We suggest that in coastal ecosystems <span class="hlt">strongly</span> governed by physical factors, fine-scale processes (e.g. biotic interactions and refugia availability) are still relevant for the structuring and maintenance of the local communities. The <span class="hlt">spatial</span> patterns found in this study serve as a necessary benchmark to understand the dynamics and adaptation of natural assemblages in response to observed and predicted environmental changes in Antarctica.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Valdivia, Nelson; Diaz, Maria J.; Holtheuer, Jorge; Garrido, Ignacio; Huovinen, Pirjo; Gomez, Ivan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">179</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48232998"> <span id="translatedtitle">Scale-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> heterogeneity of vegetation in Mu Us sandy land, a semi-arid area of China</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">To examine <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> variation in the vegetation in Mu Ussandy land, in the semi-arid area of NW China, two transects (5 kmin length, meeting at right angle) were set, and two vegetation attributes(quantitative descriptors), vegetation cover and number of plant species, wereinvestigated. The data were analyzed combining geostatistics and fractalgeometry. Nested <span class="hlt">spatial</span> structures were revealed for both vegetationattributes, indicating</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yu Fu Chen; Fei Hai Yu; Ming Dong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">180</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23535719"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> learning impairments in PLB1Triple knock-in Alzheimer mice are task-specific and age-<span class="hlt">dependent</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We recently generated an advanced mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by targeted knock-in of single-copy mutated human amyloid precursor-protein (APP) and tau genes, crossed with a non-symptomatic presenilin (PS1A246E) over-expressing mouse line. These PLB1Triple mice presented with age-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> and AD-relevant phenotypes. Homozygous PLB1Triple mice aged 4-12 months were assessed here in a battery of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> learning tasks: Exp.1 radial-arm water maze (<span class="hlt">spatial</span> reference and working memory) Exp.2 open-field water maze (<span class="hlt">spatial</span> reference memory); Exp.3 home cage observation system with <span class="hlt">spatial</span> learning (IntelliCage); Exp.4 spontaneous object recognition (SOR; novel object and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> object shift). A separate test with high-expression transgenic APP mice matching the design of experiment 1 was also performed. <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> deficits in PLB1Triple mice were confirmed at 12, but not 4 months in both water maze tasks. PSAPP mice, by contrast, presented with severe yet non-progressive <span class="hlt">spatial</span> learning deficits already at 4 months. During tests of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> learning in SOR and IntelliCage, PLB1Triple mice neither acquired the location of the water-rewarded corner, nor recognize novel or <span class="hlt">spatially</span> shifted objects at 4 months, indicating these protocols to be more sensitive than the water maze. Collectively and in line with AD symptomatology, PLB1Triple mice present with a graded and progressive age-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> loss of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> memory that can be revealed by the use of a battery of tasks. With the emergence of subtle deficits progressively increasing in severity, PLB1Triple mice may offer a more patho-physiologically relevant model of dementia than aggressive expression models. PMID:23535719</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ryan, D; Koss, D; Porcu, E; Woodcock, H; Robinson, L; Platt, B; Riedel, G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">181</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984PEPI...36..355M"> <span id="translatedtitle">A boundary-layer analysis of Benard convection in a fluid of <span class="hlt">strongly</span> temperature-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> viscosity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A theory of Benard convection is given for a fluid whose viscosity <span class="hlt">depends</span> <span class="hlt">strongly</span> on temperature, so that the essential viscosity variations in a given thermal boundary layer occur in a sublayer very thin compared to the thermal layer containing it. This separation of length scales is used to develop a specific theory for a flow in which the essential viscosity variations are associated with a cold surface rather than a hot one. The boundary value problem is first stated in dimensional form, and an asymptotic analysis is made of the cold horizontal layer. The isoviscous core is analyzed to obtain the stream-function outside the boundary layers in terms of the heat flow. The temperature drop across the hot horizontal layer is determined, and a detailed calculation is given for the case in which the bottom is traction-free. The resulting analytical predictions are compared with experimental and numerical results obtained elsewhere.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Morris, S.; Canright, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">182</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/501579"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dependence</span> of large-scale precipitation climatologies on temporal and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> sampling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Large-scale observed precipitation climatologies are needed for a variety of purposes in the fields of climate and environmental modeling. Although new satellite-derived precipitation estimates offer the prospect of near-global climatologies covering the last one or two decades, historical assessments of precipitation and its variability in time remain <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on conventional gauge observations. A number of questions need to be asked of the existing precipitation climatologies that use such gauge observations. What time period do they sample? What is the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> density of gauge coverage? What adjustments are made for measurement bias? And what interpolation method is used to convert them to regular grids? Different precipitation climatologies, nominally describing the same variable, can yield very different answers when used as inputs in either the fields of climate model validation or environmental modeling. This paper explores some of the reasons for these differences by examining the importance of the first two questions listed above-the temporal and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> sampling of the precipitation normals that form the basis of these types of climatologies. The authors draw upon subcontinental examples from tropical North Africa and Europe and show that, in the presence of significant decadal-scale precipitation variability, climatologies constructed from the same station network, but sampling different 30-yr time periods, can vary by 25% or more. Using the same two regions, the authors also examine the influence of different spatiotemporal gauge sampling strategies on the construction of a long-term, {open_quotes}twentieth-century,{close_quotes} precipitation climatology. 39 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hulme, M.; New, M. [Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom)] [Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">183</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22220724"> <span id="translatedtitle">Propagation of sound waves through a <span class="hlt">spatially</span> homogeneous but smoothly time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> medium</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The propagation of sound through a <span class="hlt">spatially</span> homogeneous but non-stationary medium is investigated within the framework of fluid dynamics. For a non-vortical fluid, especially, a generalized wave equation is derived for the (scalar) potential of the fluid velocity distribution in <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the equilibrium mass density of the fluid and the sound wave velocity. A solution of this equation for a finite transition period ? is determined in terms of the hypergeometric function for a phenomenologically realistic, sigmoidal change of the mass density and sound wave velocity. Using this solution, it is shown that the energy flux of the sound wave is not conserved but increases always for the propagation through a non-stationary medium, independent of whether the equilibrium mass density is increased or decreased. It is found, moreover, that this amplification of the transmitted wave arises from an energy exchange with the medium and that its flux is equal to the (total) flux of the incident and the reflected wave. An interpretation of the reflected wave as a propagation of sound backward in time is given in close analogy to Feynman and Stueckelberg for the propagation of anti-particles. The reflection and transmission coefficients of sound propagating through a non-stationary medium is analyzed in more detail for hypersonic waves with transition periods ? between 15 and 200 ps as well as the transformation of infrasound waves in non-stationary oceans. -- Highlights: •Analytically exact study of sound propagation through a non-stationary medium. •Energy exchange between the non-stationary medium and the sound wave. •Transformation of hypersonic and ultrasound frequencies in non-stationary media. •Propagation of sound backward in time in close analogy to anti-particles. •Prediction of tsunamis both in <span class="hlt">spatially</span> and temporally inhomogeneous oceans.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hayrapetyan, A.G., E-mail: armen@physi.uni-heidelberg.de [Physikalisches Institut, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Grigoryan, K.K.; Petrosyan, R.G. [Yerevan State University, 1 Alex Manoogian Str., 0025 Yerevan (Armenia)] [Yerevan State University, 1 Alex Manoogian Str., 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Fritzsche, S. [Helmholtz-Institut Jena, Fröbelstieg 3, D-07743 Jena (Germany) [Helmholtz-Institut Jena, Fröbelstieg 3, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Theoretisch-Physikalisches Institut, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">184</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApPhL.104v3111D"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> spin-orbit coupling and Zeeman spin splitting in angle <span class="hlt">dependent</span> magnetoresistance of Bi2Te3</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have studied angle <span class="hlt">dependent</span> magnetoresistance of Bi2Te3 thin film with field up to 9 T over 2-20 K temperatures. The perpendicular field magnetoresistance has been explained by the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka theory alone in a system with <span class="hlt">strong</span> spin-orbit coupling, from which we have estimated the mean free path, the phase coherence length, and the spin-orbit relaxation time. We have obtained the out-of-plane spin-orbit relaxation time to be small and the in-plane spin-orbit relaxation time to be comparable to the momentum relaxation time. The estimation of these charge and spin transport parameters are useful for spintronics applications. For parallel field magnetoresistance, we have confirmed the presence of Zeeman effect which is otherwise suppressed in perpendicular field magnetoresistance due to <span class="hlt">strong</span> spin-orbit coupling. The parallel field data have been explained using both the contributions from the Maekawa-Fukuyama localization theory for non-interacting electrons and Lee-Ramakrishnan theory of electron-electron interactions. The estimated Zeeman g-factor and the strength of Coulomb screening parameter agree well with the theory. Finally, the anisotropy in magnetoresistance with respect to angle has been described by the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka theory. This anisotropy can be used in anisotropic magnetic sensor applications.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dey, Rik; Pramanik, Tanmoy; Roy, Anupam; Rai, Amritesh; Guchhait, Samaresh; Sonde, Sushant; Movva, Hema C. P.; Colombo, Luigi; Register, Leonard F.; Banerjee, Sanjay K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">185</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012Nanos...4.2072S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatially</span> resolved frequency-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> elasticity measured with pulsed force microscopy and nanoindentation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recently several atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based surface property mapping techniques like pulsed force microscopy (PFM), harmonic force microscopy or Peakforce QNM® have been introduced to measure the nano- and micro-mechanical properties of materials. These modes all work at different operating frequencies. However, complex materials are known to display viscoelastic behavior, a combination of solid and fluid-like responses, <span class="hlt">depending</span> on the frequency at which the sample is probed. In this report, we show that the frequency-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> mechanical behavior of complex materials, such as polymer blends that are frequently used as calibration samples, is clearly measurable with AFM. Although this frequency-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> mechanical behavior is an established observation, we demonstrate that the new high frequency mapping techniques enable AFM-based rheology with nanoscale <span class="hlt">spatial</span> resolution over a much broader frequency range compared to previous AFM-based studies. We further highlight that it is essential to account for the frequency-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> variation in mechanical properties when using these thin polymer samples as calibration materials for elasticity measurements by high-frequency surface property mapping techniques. These results have significant implications for the accurate interpretation of the nanomechanical properties of polymers or complex biological samples. The calibration sample is composed of a blend of soft and hard polymers, consisting of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) islands in a polystyrene (PS) surrounding, with a stiffness of 0.2 GPa and 2 GPa respectively. The spring constant of the AFM cantilever was selected to match the stiffness of LDPE. From 260 Hz to 1100 Hz the sample was imaged with the PFM method. At low frequencies (0.5-35 Hz), single-point nanoindentation was performed. In addition to the material's stiffness, the relative heights of the LDPE islands (with respect to the PS) were determined as a function of the frequency. At the lower operation frequencies for PFM, the islands exhibited lower heights than when measured with tapping mode at 120 kHz. Both spring constants and heights at the different frequencies clearly show a frequency-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> behavior.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sweers, Kim K. M.; van der Werf, Kees O.; Bennink, Martin L.; Subramaniam, Vinod</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">186</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22331128"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatially</span> resolved frequency-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> elasticity measured with pulsed force microscopy and nanoindentation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recently several atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based surface property mapping techniques like pulsed force microscopy (PFM), harmonic force microscopy or Peakforce QNM® have been introduced to measure the nano- and micro-mechanical properties of materials. These modes all work at different operating frequencies. However, complex materials are known to display viscoelastic behavior, a combination of solid and fluid-like responses, <span class="hlt">depending</span> on the frequency at which the sample is probed. In this report, we show that the frequency-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> mechanical behavior of complex materials, such as polymer blends that are frequently used as calibration samples, is clearly measurable with AFM. Although this frequency-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> mechanical behavior is an established observation, we demonstrate that the new high frequency mapping techniques enable AFM-based rheology with nanoscale <span class="hlt">spatial</span> resolution over a much broader frequency range compared to previous AFM-based studies. We further highlight that it is essential to account for the frequency-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> variation in mechanical properties when using these thin polymer samples as calibration materials for elasticity measurements by high-frequency surface property mapping techniques. These results have significant implications for the accurate interpretation of the nanomechanical properties of polymers or complex biological samples. The calibration sample is composed of a blend of soft and hard polymers, consisting of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) islands in a polystyrene (PS) surrounding, with a stiffness of 0.2 GPa and 2 GPa respectively. The spring constant of the AFM cantilever was selected to match the stiffness of LDPE. From 260 Hz to 1100 Hz the sample was imaged with the PFM method. At low frequencies (0.5-35 Hz), single-point nanoindentation was performed. In addition to the material's stiffness, the relative heights of the LDPE islands (with respect to the PS) were determined as a function of the frequency. At the lower operation frequencies for PFM, the islands exhibited lower heights than when measured with tapping mode at 120 kHz. Both spring constants and heights at the different frequencies clearly show a frequency-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> behavior. PMID:22331128</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sweers, Kim K M; van der Werf, Kees O; Bennink, Martin L; Subramaniam, Vinod</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">187</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20945879"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of mechanical properties on fiber diameter for polymer-nanotube composite fibers: differentiating defect from orientation effects.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have prepared polyvinylalcohol-SWNT fibers with diameters from ?1 to 15 ?m by coagulation spinning. When normalized to nanotube volume fraction, V(f), both fiber modulus, Y, and strength, ?(B), scale <span class="hlt">strongly</span> with fiber diameter, D: Y/V(f) ? D(-1.55) and ?(B)/V(f) ? D(-1.75). We show that much of this <span class="hlt">dependence</span> is attributable to correlation between V(f) and D due to details of the spinning process: V(f) ? D(0.93). However, by carrying out Weibull failure analysis and measuring the orientation distribution of the nanotubes, we show that the rest of the diameter <span class="hlt">dependence</span> is due to a combination of defect and orientation effects. For a given nanotube volume fraction, the fiber strength scales as ?(B) ? D(-0.29)D(-0.64), with the first and second terms representing the defect and orientation contributions, respectively. The orientation term is present and dominates for fibers of diameter between 4 and 50 ?m. By preparing fibers with low diameter (1-2 ?m), we have obtained mean mechanical properties as high as Y = 244 GPa and ?(B) = 2.9 GPa. PMID:20945879</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Young, Karen; Blighe, Fiona M; Vilatela, Juan J; Windle, Alan H; Kinloch, Ian A; Deng, Libo; Young, Robert J; Coleman, Jonathan N</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-11-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">188</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21362171"> <span id="translatedtitle">Order-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> mappings: <span class="hlt">Strong</span>-coupling behavior from weak-coupling expansions in non-Hermitian theories</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A long time ago, it has been conjectured that a Hamiltonian with a potential of the form x{sup 2}+ivx{sup 3}, v real, has a real spectrum. This conjecture has been generalized to a class of the so-called PT symmetric Hamiltonians and some proofs have been given. Here, we show by numerical investigation that the divergent perturbation series can be summed efficiently by an order-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> mapping (ODM) in the whole complex plane of the coupling parameter v{sup 2}, and that some information about the location of level-crossing singularities can be obtained in this way. Furthermore, we discuss to which accuracy the <span class="hlt">strong</span>-coupling limit can be obtained from the initially weak-coupling perturbative expansion, by the ODM summation method. The basic idea of the ODM summation method is the notion of order-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> 'local' disk of convergence and analytic continuation by an ODM of the domain of analyticity augmented by the local disk of convergence onto a circle. In the limit of vanishing local radius of convergence, which is the limit of high transformation order, convergence is demonstrated both by numerical evidence as well as by analytic estimates.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zinn-Justin, Jean [CEA, IRFU, Centre de Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Jentschura, Ulrich D. [Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, Missouri 65409-0640 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">189</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48936966"> <span id="translatedtitle">Supraglacial lake <span class="hlt">spatial</span> structure in western Greenland during the 2007 ablation season</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> structure of supraglacial lakes demonstrates <span class="hlt">spatial</span> heterogeneityLakes are <span class="hlt">strongly</span> clustered in regions outside ice sheet shear marginsMagnitude of lake clustering is <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on elevation and ice thickness</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. J. Lampkin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">190</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AnPhy.333...47H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Propagation of sound waves through a <span class="hlt">spatially</span> homogeneous but smoothly time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> medium</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The propagation of sound through a <span class="hlt">spatially</span> homogeneous but non-stationary medium is investigated within the framework of fluid dynamics. For a non-vortical fluid, especially, a generalized wave equation is derived for the (scalar) potential of the fluid velocity distribution in <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the equilibrium mass density of the fluid and the sound wave velocity. A solution of this equation for a finite transition period ? is determined in terms of the hypergeometric function for a phenomenologically realistic, sigmoidal change of the mass density and sound wave velocity. Using this solution, it is shown that the energy flux of the sound wave is not conserved but increases always for the propagation through a non-stationary medium, independent of whether the equilibrium mass density is increased or decreased. It is found, moreover, that this amplification of the transmitted wave arises from an energy exchange with the medium and that its flux is equal to the (total) flux of the incident and the reflected wave. An interpretation of the reflected wave as a propagation of sound backward in time is given in close analogy to Feynman and Stueckelberg for the propagation of anti-particles. The reflection and transmission coefficients of sound propagating through a non-stationary medium is analyzed in more detail for hypersonic waves with transition periods ? between 15 and 200 ps as well as the transformation of infrasound waves in non-stationary oceans.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hayrapetyan, A. G.; Grigoryan, K. K.; Petrosyan, R. G.; Fritzsche, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">191</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001APS..DPPRO2014E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Late-time Hohlraum Simulations: <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> of X-Rays from NIF Targets</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The simulation of the late-time (t > 50 ns) behavior of hohlraums requires a proper treatment of the hohlraum expansion. While the outer walls of the hohlraum are expanding, the laser entrance hole (LEH) can be filled to an extent such that x-rays can no longer easily escape. Closure of the LEH to incoming laser light has been studied by a number of authors, but closure of the LEH to escaping x-rays has received little attention. We present 1 and 2D LASNEX results as well as 2 and 3D HYDRA results for NIF hohlraums. The <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the x-rays from NIF targets is important because the x-ray fluence is sufficient to ablate and shock spall diagnostic components. The resulting debris and shrapnel can have a large impact on the lifetimes of the NIF debris shields.1 1) D. C. Eder, M. T. Tobin, O. S. Jones, D. G. Braun, M. J. Shaw, R. E. Tokheim, T. Cooper, and B. Lew, "Methodology for Shrapnel and Debris Impact and an Assessment for an Experiment Planned for NIF", UCRL-ID-140691, NIF 0058102 (2001). * This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by UC under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eder, David; Koniges, Alice; Marinak, Marty</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">192</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JaJAP..47.8681K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Altitude and <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Angle <span class="hlt">Dependences</span> of Natural and Secondary Cosmic Ray Radiations on Terrestrial Electronic Devices</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">For the purpose of studying the radiation effects on electronic devices on the ground, observations of total-time radiation counts of natural and secondary cosmic rays up to an energy of 12 MeV were carried out at two locations with different altitudes: Chofu (53 m) and Sugadaira (1313 m) in Japan, using a multichannel analyzer (MCA) with a NaI detector. Sugadaira recorded more counts by 15% for the natural rays and by 20% for the cosmic rays than Chofu. This small increasing rate in cosmic rays compared with a 3-times increase in the soft error rate (SER) that is predicted at the altitude at Sugadaira suggested that the SER might originate from the higher energy neutrons above 12 MeV, which account for only 3% (0.3 counts\\cdoth-1\\cdotcm-2) of the effect below 12 MeV in the neutrons reaching the ground. Moreover, the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> angle <span class="hlt">dependences</span> of radiation were investigated by changing the angle between the NaI detector tube and the ground plane, and it was found that in the center of the direction parallel to the ground plane, the counts indicated a maximum immediately under the ground plane for the natural rays, and a maximum at the zenith for the cosmic rays.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kawano, Katsuyasu; Mishima, Kenta; Deguchi, Masahiro; Tomizawa, Ichiro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">193</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/956603"> <span id="translatedtitle">Casimir <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of transverse distribution of pairs produced from a <span class="hlt">strong</span> constant chromo-electric background field</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recently the transverse distribution of particle production from <span class="hlt">strong</span> constant chromo-electric fields has been explicitly calculated in Ref. 1 for soft-gluon production and in Ref. 2 for quark (antiquark) production. This particle production method, originally discussed by Heisenberg and Euler, Schwinger and Weisskopf, has a long history as a model of the production of the quark gluon plasma following a relativistic heavy ion collision. The physical picture considered here is that of two relativistic heavy nuclei colliding and leaving behind a semi-classical gluon field which then non-perturbatively produces gluon and quark-antiquark pairs via the Schwinger mechanism. At high energy large hadron colliders, such as RHIC (Au-Au collisions at {radical}{ovr s} = 200 GeV) and LHC (Pb-Pb collisions at {radical}{ovr s} = 5.5 TeV), about half the total center-of-mass energy, E{sub cm}, goes into the production of a semi-classical gluon field, which can be thought to be initially in a Lorentz contracted disc. The gluon field in SU(3) is described by two Casimir invariants, the first one, C{sub 1} = E{sup a}E{sup a}, being related to the energy density of the initial field, where the second one, C{sub 2} = [d{sub abc}E{sup a}E{sup b}E{sup c}]{sup 2}, is related to the SU(3) color hypercharge left behind by the leading particles. So the question we want to study in this short note is how sensitive the transverse distribution is to this second Casimir invariant C{sub 2}. We have considered the <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the pair production rate of quarks and gluons from a <span class="hlt">strong</span> chromo-electric field and have discovered that the effect of the second Casimir invariant of SU(3), which was not present in the electric field problem, effects the distribution by less than 15%. This event by event <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the transverse momentum distribution of jets on C{sub 2} may be something of interest at heavy ion colliders.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cooper, Fred M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mihaila, Bogdan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dawson, John F [UNIV OF NH</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">194</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3273489"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> heterogeneity, frequency-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> selection and polymorphism in host-parasite interactions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Genomic and pathology analysis has revealed enormous diversity in genes involved in disease, including those encoding host resistance and parasite effectors (also known in plant pathology as avirulence genes). It has been proposed that such variation may persist when an organism exists in a <span class="hlt">spatially</span> structured metapopulation, following the geographic mosaic of coevolution. Here, we study gene-for-gene relationships governing the outcome of plant-parasite interactions in a <span class="hlt">spatially</span> structured system and, in particular, investigate the population genetic processes which maintain balanced polymorphism in both species. Results Following previous theory on the effect of heterogeneous environments on maintenance of polymorphism, we analysed a model with two demes in which the demes have different environments and are coupled by gene flow. Environmental variation is manifested by different coefficients of natural selection, the costs to the host of resistance and to the parasite of virulence, the cost to the host of being diseased and the cost to an avirulent parasite of unsuccessfully attacking a resistant host. We show that migration generates negative direct frequency-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> selection, a condition for maintenance of stable polymorphism in each deme. Balanced polymorphism occurs preferentially if there is heterogeneity for costs of resistance and virulence alleles among populations and to a lesser extent if there is variation in the cost to the host of being diseased. We show that the four fitness costs control the natural frequency of oscillation of host resistance and parasite avirulence alleles. If demes have different costs, their frequencies of oscillation differ and when coupled by gene flow, there is amplitude death of the oscillations in each deme. Numerical simulations show that for a multiple deme island model, costs of resistance and virulence need not to be present in each deme for stable polymorphism to occur. Conclusions Our theoretical results confirm the importance of empirical studies for measuring the environmental heterogeneity for genetic costs of resistance and virulence alleles. We suggest that such studies should be developed to investigate the generality of this mechanism for the long-term maintenance of genetic diversity at host and parasite genes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">195</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57414665"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of Low-Level Stimulus Features, Task <span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Factors, and <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Biases on Overt Visual Attention</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Visual attention is thought to be driven by the interplay between low-level visual features and task <span class="hlt">dependent</span> information content of local image regions, as well as by <span class="hlt">spatial</span> viewing biases. Though <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on experimental paradigms and model assumptions, this idea has given rise to varying claims that either bottom-up or top-down mechanisms dominate visual attention. To contribute toward a resolution</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sepp Kollmorgen; Nora Nortmann; Sylvia Schröder; Peter König</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">196</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3694015"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fitness Effects of Chlorpyrifos in the Damselfly Enallagma cyathigerum <span class="hlt">Strongly</span> <span class="hlt">Depend</span> upon Temperature and Food Level and Can Bridge Metamorphosis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Interactions between pollutants and suboptimal environmental conditions can have severe consequences for the toxicity of pollutants, yet are still poorly understood. To identify patterns across environmental conditions and across fitness-related variables we exposed Enallagma cyathigerum damselfly larvae to the pesticide chlorpyrifos at two food levels or at two temperatures and quantified four fitness-related variables (larval survival, development time, mass at emergence and adult cold resistance). Food level and temperature did not affect survival in the absence of the pesticide, yet the pesticide reduced survival only at the high temperature. Animals reacted to the pesticide by accelerating their development but only at the high food level and at the low temperature; at the low food level, however, pesticide exposure resulted in a slower development. Chlorpyrifos exposure resulted in smaller adults except in animals reared at the high food level. Animals reared at the low food level and at the low temperature had a higher cold resistance which was not affected by the pesticide. In summary our study highlight that combined effects of exposure to chlorpyrifos and the two environmental conditions (i) were mostly interactive and sometimes even reversed in comparison with the effect of the environmental condition in isolation, (ii) <span class="hlt">strongly</span> differed <span class="hlt">depending</span> on the fitness-related variable under study, (iii) were not always predictable based on the effect of the environmental condition in isolation, and (iv) bridged metamorphosis <span class="hlt">depending</span> on which environmental condition was combined with the pesticide thereby potentially carrying over from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems. These findings are relevant when extrapolating results of laboratory tests done under ideal environmental conditions to natural communities.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Janssens, Lizanne; Stoks, Robby</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">197</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://invasivespecies.gsfc.nasa.gov/pub/STM4/Pt_Process_Model_Reich.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Predicting the location of northern goshawk nests: modeling the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependency</span> between nest locations and forest structure</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Northern goshawks interact with each other and their environment in a <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> manner. However, finding the location of active goshawk nests (e.g. where eggs are laid) in a given year is difficult due to the secretive nature of the hawks in their forest environment, their annually variable attempts at nesting, and the extent of the area within a home</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robin M. Reich; Suzanne M. Joy; Richard T. Reynolds</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">198</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26406494"> <span id="translatedtitle">Monte-Carlo calculation of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the coaxial HPGe detector efficiency for point sources</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is shown that fine geometric modelling of the HPGe detector structure using the GEANT system leads to a good match between the calculated and measured <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of efficiency for point sources in the region of photon energies from 60 keV to 1115 keV.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Korun; A. Likar; T. Vidmar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">199</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/p94813244532043h.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Frequency distributions and <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> variability of ammonium and nitrate concentrations in soil under grazed and ungrazed grassland</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The frequency distributions of soil NO3- and NH4+ concentrations under grazed and ungrazed grassland were found to be lognormal, irrespective of time of year or soil depth. The variance and skewness of the sample values increased with stocking density and use of N fertilizer. An analysis of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the variability using the semivariogram showed a high ‘nugget’</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">RE White; Rosalyn A Haigh; Jh Macduff</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">200</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvB..86w5446L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Terahertz optical properties of multilayer graphene: Experimental observation of <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on stacking arrangements and misorientation angles</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The optical conductivity of monolayer and multilayer graphene in the terahertz spectral region is experimentally measured using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. The stacking arrangement and the misorientation angle of each sample are determined by Raman spectroscopy. The chemical potential of each sample is measured using ultrafast midinfrared pump-probe spectroscopy to be 63 or 64 meV for all samples. The intraband scattering rate can be obtained by fitting the measured data with theoretical models. Other physical parameters, including carrier density, dc conductivity, and carrier mobility, of each sample can also be deduced from the theoretical fitting. The fitting results show the existence of misoriented or AA-stacked layers with an interaction energy of ?1=217meV in our multilayer samples. Here we show that the scattering rate <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">depends</span> on the stacking arrangement of the sample. High scattering rates and high optical conductivity are associated with AA-stacked samples, while lower ones are associated with misoriented multilayer graphene. This implies that the THz optoelectronic properties of multilayer graphene can be tuned by purposefully misorienting layers or employing different stacking schemes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lin, I.-Tan; Liu, Jia-Ming; Shi, Kai-Yao; Tseng, Pei-Shan; Wu, Kuang-Hsiung; Luo, Chih-Wei; Li, Lain-Jong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">201</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16771991"> <span id="translatedtitle">Respiration of the external mycelium in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis shows <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on recent photosynthates and acclimation to temperature.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">* Although arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are a major pathway in the global carbon cycle, their basic biology and, in particular, their respiratory response to temperature remain obscure. * A pulse label of the stable isotope (13)C was applied to Plantago lanceolata, either uninoculated or inoculated with the AM fungus Glomus mosseae. The extra-radical mycelium (ERM) of the fungus was allowed to grow into a separate hyphal compartment excluding roots. We determined the carbon costs of the ERM and tested for a direct temperature effect on its respiration by measuring total carbon and the (13)C:(12)C ratio of respired CO(2). With a second pulse we tested for acclimation of ERM respiration after 2 wk of soil warming. * Root colonization remained unchanged between the two pulses but warming the hyphal compartment increased ERM length. delta(13)C signals peaked within the first 10 h and were higher in mycorrhizal treatments. The concentration of CO(2) in the gas samples fluctuated diurnally and was highest in the mycorrhizal treatments but was unaffected by temperature. Heating increased ERM respiration only after the first pulse and reduced specific ERM respiration rates after the second pulse; however, both pulses <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">depended</span> on radiation flux. * The results indicate a fast ERM acclimation to temperature, and that light is the key factor controlling carbon allocation to the fungus. PMID:16771991</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Heinemeyer, A; Ineson, P; Ostle, N; Fitter, A H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">202</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=schwartz&id=EJ990897"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> and Heterogeneity in Bayesian Factor Analysis: A Cross-National Investigation of Schwartz Values</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this article, we present a Bayesian <span class="hlt">spatial</span> factor analysis model. We extend previous work on confirmatory factor analysis by including geographically distributed latent variables and accounting for heterogeneity and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> autocorrelation. The simulation study shows excellent recovery of the model parameters and demonstrates the consequences…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stakhovych, Stanislav; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Wedel, Michel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">203</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21388720"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> Rabi oscillations: An approach to sub-diffraction-limited coherent anti-Stokes Raman-scattering microscopy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a theoretical investigation of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) that is modulated by periodically depleting the ground-state population through Rabi oscillations driven by an additional control laser. We find that such a process generates optical sidebands in the CARS spectrum and that the frequency of the sidebands <span class="hlt">depends</span> on the intensity of the control laser light field. We show that analyzing the sideband frequency upon scanning the beams across the sample allows one to <span class="hlt">spatially</span> resolve emitter positions where a <span class="hlt">spatial</span> resolution of 65 nm, which is well below the diffraction limit, can be obtained.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Beeker, Willem P.; Lee, Chris J.; Boller, Klaus-Jochen; Gross, Petra; Cleff, Carsten; Fallnich, Carsten; Offerhaus, Herman L.; Herek, Jennifer L. [Laser Physics and Nonlinear Optics Group, MESA Research Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, Enschede NL-7500 AE (Netherlands); Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Optical Sciences Group, MESA Research Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, Enschede NL-7500 AE (Netherlands)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">204</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB95183968"> <span id="translatedtitle">Generalized Semi-Markov Process for Modeling <span class="hlt">Spatially</span> and Temporally <span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Earthquakes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Site-specific hazard estimation requires the modeling of the occurrences of earthquakes on any faults with the potential to impact the site. Previous earthquake occurrence models have assumed either <span class="hlt">spatial</span> independence or temporal independence or both. H...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. S. Kiremidjian K. A. Lutz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">205</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=80229"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">SPATIAL</span> AGGREGATION IN A FOREST FLOOR INSECT <span class="hlt">DEPENDS</span> ON SEASONAL CONGREGATION AND SCATTERING EFFECTS OF PREDATORS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> aggregations arising from gregarious behavior are common in nature and have important implications for population dynamics, community stability, and conservation. However, the translation of aggregation behaviors into emergent properties of populations and communities de...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">206</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGS....12...51M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Brazilian <span class="hlt">spatial</span> dynamics in the long term (1872-2000): ``path <span class="hlt">dependency</span>'' or ``reversal of fortune''?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper analyzes the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> dynamics of Brazilian regional inequalities between 1872 and 2000 using contemporary tools. The first part of the paper provides new estimates of income per capita in 1872 by municipality using census and electoral information on income by occupation. The level of analysis is the Minimum Comparable Areas 1872-2000 developed by Reis et al. (Áreas mínimas comparáveis para os períodos intercensitários de 1872 a 2000, 2007). These areas are the least aggregation of adjacent municipalities required to allow consistent geographic area comparisons between census years. In the second section of the paper, Exploratory <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Data Analysis, Markov chains and stochastic kernel techniques (<span class="hlt">spatially</span> conditioned) are applied to the dataset. The results suggest that, in broad terms, the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> pattern of income distribution in Brazil during that period of time has remained stable.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Monasterio, Leonardo Monteiro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">207</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=N8322693"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Variation of Corn Canopy Temperature as <span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Upon Soil Texture and Crop Rooting Characteristics.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A soil plant atmosphere model for corn (Zea mays L.) together with the scaling theory for soil hydraulic heterogeneity are used to study the sensitivity of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variation of canopy temperature to field averaged soil texture and crop rooting characteris...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. J. Choudhury</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">208</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41112777"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reconstructing land use drivers and their <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale <span class="hlt">dependence</span> for Costa Rica (1973 and 1984)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Costa Rican land use and cover (in 1973 and 1984) were investigated using a nested scale analysis. <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> distributions of potential biophysical and human land use\\/cover drivers were statistically related to the distribution of pastures, arable lands, permanent crops, natural and secondary vegetation, for 0.1° grid units and five artificially aggregated <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales. Multiple regression models describing land use\\/cover variability</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Veldkamp; L. O. Fresco</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">209</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2011.01918.x"> <span id="translatedtitle">Species richness effects on ecosystem multifunctionality <span class="hlt">depend</span> on evenness, composition and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> pattern</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">1.?Recent studies have suggested that the simultaneous maintenance of multiple ecosystem functions (multifunctionality) is positively supported by species richness. However, little is known regarding the relative importance of other community attributes (e.g. <span class="hlt">spatial</span> pattern, species evenness) as drivers of multifunctionality. 2.?We conducted two microcosm experiments using model biological soil crust communities dominated by lichens to: (i) evaluate the joint effects and relative importance of changes in species composition, <span class="hlt">spatial</span> pattern (clumped and random distribution of lichens), evenness (maximal and low evenness) and richness (from two to eight species) on soil functions related to nutrient cycling (?-glucosidase, urease and acid phosphatase enzymes, in situ N availability, total N, organic C, and N fixation), and (ii) assess how these community attributes affect multifunctionality. 3.?Species richness, composition and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> pattern affected multiple ecosystem functions (e.g. organic C, total N, N availability, ?-glucosidase activity), albeit the magnitude and direction of their effects varied with the particular function, experiment and soil depth considered. Changes in species composition had effects on organic C, total N and the activity of ?-glucosidase. Significant species richness × evenness and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> pattern × evenness interactions were found when analysing functions such as organic C, total N and the activity of phosphatase. 4.?The probability of sustaining multiple ecosystem functions increased with species richness, but this effect was largely modulated by attributes such as species evenness, composition and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> pattern. Overall, we found that model communities with high species richness, random <span class="hlt">spatial</span> pattern and low evenness increased multifunctionality. 5.?Synthesis. Our results illustrate how different community attributes have a diverse impact on ecosystem functions related to nutrient cycling, and provide new experimental evidence illustrating the importance of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> pattern of organisms on ecosystem functioning. They also indicate that species richness is not the only biotic driver of multifunctionality, and that particular combinations of community attributes may be required to maximize it.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maestre, F. T.; Castillo-Monroy, A. P.; Bowker, M. A.; Ochoa-Hueso, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">210</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3765222"> <span id="translatedtitle">Is strain by Speckle Tracking Echocardiography <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on user controlled <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and temporal smoothing? An experimental porcine study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Speckle Tracking Echocardiography (STE) strain analysis relies on both <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and temporal smoothing. The user is often allowed to adjust these smoothing parameters during analysis. This experimental study investigates how different degrees of user controllable <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and temporal smoothing affect global and regional STE strain values in recordings obtained from normal and ischemic myocardium. Methods In seven anesthetized pigs, left ventricular short- and long-axis B-mode cineloops were recorded before and after left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion. Peak- and postsystolic global STE strain in the radial, circumferential and longitudinal direction as well as corresponding regional strain in the anterior and posterior walls were measured. During post-processing, strain values were obtained with three different degrees of both <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and temporal smoothing (minimum, factory default and maximum), resulting in nine different combinations. Results All parameters for global and regional longitudinal strain were unaffected by adjustments of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and temporal smoothing in both normal and ischemic myocardium. Radial and circumferential strain <span class="hlt">depended</span> on smoothing to a variable extent, radial strain being most affected. However, in both directions the different combinations of smoothing did only result in relatively small changes in the strain values. Overall, the maximal strain difference was found in normal myocardium for peak systolic radial strain of the posterior wall where strain was 22.0 ± 2.2% with minimal <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and maximal temporal smoothing and 30.9 ± 2.6% with maximal <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and minimal temporal smoothing (P?<?0.05). Conclusions Longitudinal strain was unaffected by different degrees of user controlled smoothing. Radial and circumferential strain <span class="hlt">depended</span> on the degree of smoothing. However, in most cases these changes were small and would not lead to altered conclusions in a clinical setting. Furthermore, smoothing did not affect strain variance. For all strain parameters, variance remained within the corresponding interobserver variance.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">211</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15876620"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and temporal characteristics of the apparent-diffusion-coefficient-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> fMRI signal changes during visual stimulation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The blood oxygenation level <span class="hlt">dependent</span> (BOLD) contrast has been commonly used to detect fMRI signal. The majority of the BOLD signals are believed to arise from the venous and capillary networks. However, only those from the capillaries are <span class="hlt">spatially</span> close to the neuronal activities, while the signals from large veins could be distant, rendering the overall localization inaccurate. In recent years, an alternative contrast using arterial spin labeled (ASL) perfusion imaging techniques has been proposed for predominant capillary sensitivity. Such acquisition methods, however, are intrinsically limited in temporal resolution and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> coverage. Another contrast mechanism, free of such constraints, is based on the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) changes during brain activation using isotropic diffusion weighting. It has been shown that these changes are synchronized with brain activation and that they, as a whole, temporally precede BOLD activation, suggesting significant upstream arterial contribution. Moreover, the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> overlaps between the upstream ADC and downstream BOLD activations are shown to be more localized in the capillaries, which are the temporal and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> middle ground. In this paper, we sought to further investigate the temporal and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> characteristics of ADC contrast with additional arterial signal suppression. Also, a pixel-based evaluation was performed in conjunction with the averaged global assessment. It was found that in addition to the known <span class="hlt">spatial</span> discrepancy and global timing advance compared to the BOLD signal, the ADC activation endured significant temporal heterogeneities. Such fine <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and temporal assessment could help characterize the exact signal sources of ADC contrast, and ultimately achieve exclusive capillary sensitivity. PMID:15876620</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Song, Allen W; Gangstead, Stacey L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">212</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGeo...11.1693Z"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> scale-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> land-atmospheric methane exchanges in the northern high latitudes from 1993 to 2004</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Effects of various <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales of water table dynamics on land-atmospheric methane (CH4) exchanges have not yet been assessed for large regions. Here we used a coupled hydrology-biogeochemistry model to quantify daily CH4 exchanges over the pan-Arctic from 1993 to 2004 at two <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales of 100 km and 5 km. The effects of sub-grid <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variability of the water table depth (WTD) on CH4 emissions were examined with a TOPMODEL-based parameterization scheme for the northern high latitudes. We found that both WTD and CH4 emissions are better simulated at a 5 km <span class="hlt">spatial</span> resolution. By considering the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> heterogeneity of WTD, net regional CH4 emissions at a 5 km resolution are 38.1-55.4 Tg CH4 yr-1 from 1993 to 2004, which are on average 42% larger than those simulated at a 100 km resolution using a grid-cell-mean WTD scheme. The difference in annual CH4 emissions is attributed to the increased emitting area and enhanced flux density with finer resolution for WTD. Further, the inclusion of sub-grid WTD <span class="hlt">spatial</span> heterogeneity also influences the inter-annual variability of CH4 emissions. Soil temperature plays an important role in the 100 km estimates, while the 5 km estimates are mainly influenced by WTD. This study suggests that previous macro-scale biogeochemical models using a grid-cell-mean WTD scheme might have underestimated the regional CH4 emissions. The <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> effects of WTD should be considered in future quantification of regional CH4 emissions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhu, X.; Zhuang, Q.; Lu, X.; Song, L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">213</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=strong&id=EJ762339"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> Libraries, <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Scores</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article talks about the first-ever Texas Conference on School Libraries on April 6, 2005 that was attended by one hundred thirty-five school administrators and trustees. The miniconference, entitled <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Libraries, <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Scores, was held at the Austin Hilton, Austin, Texas during the Texas Library Association's Annual Conference and was…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gray, Carlyn</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">214</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49709633"> <span id="translatedtitle">Scale-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> predictability of DEM-based landform attributes for soil <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variability in a coastal dune system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Much soil–landform modeling has shown that the predictability of topographic parameters derived from digital elevation models (DEM) for soil <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variability is influenced by the selection of DEM's grid size. This study investigates soil–terrain relationships in a coastal dune at multiple DEM resolutions to examine if such scale-<span class="hlt">dependence</span> is a ubiquitous phenomenon even in low-relief systems with relatively homogeneous substrates.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Daehyun Kim; Yanbing Zheng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">215</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/11501453"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dependency</span> of polyelectrolyte complex stoichiometry on the order of addition. 1. Effect of salt concentration during streaming current titrations with <span class="hlt">strong</span> poly-acid and poly-base</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Titrations were carried out between solutions of a <span class="hlt">strong</span> poly-acid (polyvinylsulfate, potassium salt) and a <span class="hlt">strong</span> poly-base (poly-diallyldimethylammonium chloride (poly-DADMAC)) over a range of salt concentrations. Streaming current (SC) analysis of the titration endpoints appeared to show increasing deviations from 1:1 stoichiometry of complexation with increased salt. The results <span class="hlt">depended</span> on the direction of the titration, such that a stoichiometric</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Junhua Chen; John A. Heitmann; Martin A. Hubbe</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">216</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://students.washington.edu/a975764/Larson&Franklin_JVS_2006.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Structural segregation and scales of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependency</span> in Abies amabilis forests</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Question: Is a mosaic structure apparent in the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distri- bution of trees in old-growth Abies amabilis forests? Location: Montane forests of the western Cascade Range, Washington, USA. Methods: Maps of tree locations were created for study areas located in two, 300-year old stands and a single 600-year old stand. Stand structure parameters were calculated using sev- eral subsample quadrats</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Andrew; F. Jerry</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">217</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA201061"> <span id="translatedtitle">Atropine Sulfate Impairs Performance on an Overtrained <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Task in a Dose-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Fashion,</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Twelve rats were trained to learn the location of a <span class="hlt">spatially</span> fixed platform hidden in a Morris maze. Accurate navigation was rewarded by escape from the water on to the platform. Asymptotic performance was achieved over six training days (10 trials/day)....</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. I. Welch L. Gallego T. M. Rauch</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">218</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/14529806"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> resolution <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of DTI tractography in human occipito-callosal region</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fiber tracking have been used to measure the fiber structural connectivity in humans in a non-invasive manner. However, low sensitivity is a principal limitation of these methods, causing a large number of possibly missing fiber tracts (FTs). Here we studied how the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> resolution affects the sensitivity of the fiber tracing by rescaling data to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mina Kim; Itamar Ronen; Kamil Ugurbil; Dae-Shik Kim</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">219</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27693364"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of 2MASS luminosity and mass functions in the old open cluster NGC 188</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Luminosity and mass functions in the old open cluster NGC 188 are analysed by means of J and H 2MASS photometry, which provides uniformity and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> coverage for a proper background subtraction. With an age of about 6-8 Gyr, NGC 188 is expected to be suffering the effects of advanced dynamical evolution. Indeed, previous works in optical bands have suggested</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. Bonatto; E. Bica; J. F. C. Santos Jr.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">220</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/36381895"> <span id="translatedtitle">Path <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> in <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Networks: The Standardization of Railway Track Gauge</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article investigates the historical emergence of regional standard railway track gauges in light of a model of the interaction of agents' choices within a <span class="hlt">spatial</span> network. Contingent events, reinforced by positive feedbacks, determined both particular standards and the geographic extent of standardization in Britain, Continental Europe, North America, and Australia. The model, solved using numerical simulation, shows the allocation</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Douglas J. Puffert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">221</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2582876"> <span id="translatedtitle">POST-TRAINING PROGESTERONE DOSE-<span class="hlt">DEPENDENTLY</span> ENHANCES OBJECT, BUT NOT <span class="hlt">SPATIAL</span>, MEMORY CONSOLIDATION</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of this study was to determine if progesterone modulates object and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> memory consolidation in young ovariectomized C57BL/6 mice. Object memory was tested in an object recognition task using 24- and 48-hr delays. <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> memory was tested in a 2-day version of the Morris water maze in which retention was tested 24 or 48 hrs after training. Immediately after training in each task, mice received a single intraperitoneal injection of vehicle or 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg water-soluble progesterone. Mice were then tested 24 or 48 hrs later in the absence of circulating progesterone. Post-training injections of 10 and 20 mg/kg progesterone enhanced object recognition, but not memory in the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> water maze. These findings suggest that object memory consolidation in young female mice is more sensitive to the modulatory effects of progesterone than <span class="hlt">spatial</span> memory consolidation, at least using the tasks, doses, and delays tested. As such, these findings may have important implications for the design of progesterone therapies intended to reduce age-related memory decline.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Harburger, Lauren L.; Pechenino, Angela S.; Saadi, Altaf; Frick, Karyn M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">222</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998PhDT.......105T"> <span id="translatedtitle">An implicit higher-order <span class="hlt">spatially</span> accurate scheme for solving time <span class="hlt">dependent</span> flows on unstructured meshes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The present research is aimed at developing a higher-order, <span class="hlt">spatially</span> accurate scheme for both steady and unsteady flow simulations using unstructured meshes. The resulting scheme must work on a variety of general problems to ensure the creation of a flexible, reliable and accurate aerodynamic analysis tool. To calculate the flow around complex configurations, unstructured grids and the associated flow solvers have been developed. Efficient simulations require the minimum use of computer memory and computational times. Unstructured flow solvers typically require more computer memory than a structured flow solver due to the indirect addressing of the cells. The approach taken in the present research was to modify an existing three-dimensional unstructured flow solver to first decrease the computational time required for a solution and then to increase the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> accuracy. The terms required to simulate flow involving non-stationary grids were also implemented. First, an implicit solution algorithm was implemented to replace the existing explicit procedure. Several test cases, including internal and external, inviscid and viscous, two-dimensional, three-dimensional and axi-symmetric problems, were simulated for comparison between the explicit and implicit solution procedures. The increased efficiency and robustness of modified code due to the implicit algorithm was demonstrated. Two unsteady test cases, a plunging airfoil and a wing undergoing bending and torsion, were simulated using the implicit algorithm modified to include the terms required for a moving and/or deforming grid. Secondly, a higher than second-order <span class="hlt">spatially</span> accurate scheme was developed and implemented into the baseline code. Third- and fourth-order <span class="hlt">spatially</span> accurate schemes were implemented and tested. The original dissipation was modified to include higher-order terms and modified near shock waves to limit pre- and post-shock oscillations. The unsteady cases were repeated using the higher-order <span class="hlt">spatially</span> accurate code. The new solutions were compared with those obtained using the second-order <span class="hlt">spatially</span> accurate scheme. Finally, the increased efficiency of using an implicit solution algorithm in a production Computational Fluid Dynamics flow solver was demonstrated for steady and unsteady flows. A third- and fourth-order <span class="hlt">spatially</span> accurate scheme has been implemented creating a basis for a state-of-the-art aerodynamic analysis tool.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tomaro, Robert F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">223</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2007.01352.x"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessments of habitat preferences and quality <span class="hlt">depend</span> on <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale and metrics of fitness</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">1. Identifying the habitat features that influence habitat selection and enhance fitness is critical for effective management. Ecological theory predicts that habitat choices should be adaptive, such that fitness is enhanced in preferred habitats. However, studies often report mismatches between habitat preferences and fitness consequences across a wide variety of taxa based on a single <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale and/or a single fitness component. 2. We examined whether habitat preferences of a declining shrub steppe songbird, the Brewer's sparrow Spizella breweri, were adaptive when multiple reproductive fitness components and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales (landscape, territory and nest patch) were considered. 3. We found that birds settled earlier and in higher densities, together suggesting preference, in landscapes with greater shrub cover and height. Yet nest success was not higher in these landscapes; nest success was primarily determined by nest predation rates. Thus landscape preferences did not match nest predation risk. Instead, nestling mass and the number of nesting attempts per pair increased in preferred landscapes, raising the possibility that landscapes were chosen on the basis of food availability rather than safe nest sites. 4. At smaller <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales (territory and nest patch), birds preferred different habitat features (i.e. density of potential nest shrubs) that reduced nest predation risk and allowed greater season-long reproductive success. 5. Synthesis and applications. Habitat preferences reflect the integration of multiple environmental factors across multiple <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales, and individuals may have more than one option for optimizing fitness via habitat selection strategies. Assessments of habitat quality for management prescriptions should ideally include analysis of diverse fitness consequences across multiple ecologically relevant <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales. ?? 2007 The Authors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chalfoun, A. D.; Martin, T. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">224</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/34743160"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> summation of thermal sensations <span class="hlt">depends</span> on skin type and skin sensitivity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of the present study was to examine the extent to which <span class="hlt">spatial</span> summation (SS) of thermal senses is affected\\u000a by skin type and skin thermal sensitivity. A total of 19 healthy subjects underwent measurements of warm- and cold-sensation\\u000a threshold (WST and CST) with a large (9 cm2) and small (2.25 cm2) stimulation area, within the glabrous (palm) and hairy skin</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ruth Defrin; Laura Petrini; Lars Arendt-Nielsen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">225</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRF..116.2014L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cumulative versus transient shoreline change: <span class="hlt">Dependencies</span> on temporal and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using shoreline change measurements of two oceanside reaches of the North Carolina Outer Banks, USA, we explore an existing premise that shoreline change on a sandy coast is a self-affine signal, wherein patterns of change are scale invariant. Wavelet analysis confirms that the mean variance (spectral power) of shoreline change can be approximated by a power law at alongshore scales from tens of meters up to ˜4-8 km. However, the possibility of a power law relationship does not necessarily reveal a unifying, scale-free, dominant process, and deviations from power law scaling at scales of kilometers to tens of kilometers may suggest further insights into shoreline change processes. Specifically, the maximum of the variance in shoreline change and the scale at which that maximum occurs both increase when shoreline change is measured over longer time scales. This suggests a temporal control on the magnitude of change possible at a given <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale and, by extension, that aggregation of shoreline change over time is an important component of large-scale shifts in shoreline position. We also find a consistent difference in variance magnitude between the two survey reaches at large <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales, which may be related to differences in oceanographic forcing conditions or may involve hydrodynamic interactions with nearshore geologic bathymetric structures. Overall, the findings suggest that shoreline change at small <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales (less than kilometers) does not represent a peak in the shoreline change signal and that change at larger <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales dominates the signal, emphasizing the need for studies that target long-term, large-scale shoreline change.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lazarus, Eli; Ashton, Andrew; Murray, A. Brad; Tebbens, Sarah; Burroughs, Stephen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">226</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16..268C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Role of space-time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> eddy viscosity on the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> pattern of tidal and residual flow in estuaries</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Several field studies in estuaries show non-logarithmic profiles of the tidal flow amplitude over the water column and complex patterns of residual flow. To gain fundamental understanding about these phenomena, a semi-analytical 3D model is designed and analysed, with focus on the sensitivity of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> pattern of tidal (semi-diurnal) and residual (tidally-averaged) flow to formulations of eddy viscosity that account for <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and temporal variations. To allow comparison of model results with field observations measured in sigma-levels, the model is formulated in sigma-coordinates. The residual flow is decomposed into individual contributions induced by river discharge (including discharge due to Stokes return flow), horizontal density gradient, tidal rectification, wind, depth-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> friction and asymmetric tidal mixing due to temporal covariance between eddy viscosity and velocity shear. By using scaling and perturbation techniques, new analytical solutions for semi-diurnal tide and residual flows are found for space-time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> eddy viscosity. The model reveals that "Surface Velocity Jumps" (tidal flow amplitude non-logarithmically increasing near the surface of water column) and "Subsurface Velocity Jets" (maximum tidal flow amplitude shows at subsurface of water column) occur for relatively low mixing conditions. Model output is subsequently compared with field data collected at an estuarine cross-section in the North Passage of the Yangtze (Changjiang) estuary. It is found that the modelled tidal velocity shear agrees better with observations when using space-time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> eddy viscosity instead of a constant eddy viscosity. Moreover, the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> patterns of individual residual flow components on along-estuary direction are more spread over the cross section, which agrees with observations. With space-time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> eddy viscosity, it turns out that density gradient and time-varying mixing are key forcing agents of residual flow.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, Wei; de Swart, Huib</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">227</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/814315"> <span id="translatedtitle">Variant 22: <span class="hlt">Spatially-Dependent</span>: Transient Processes in MOX Fueled Core</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This work is a part of Joint U.S./Russian Project with Weapons-Grade Plutonium Disposition in VVER Reactors and presents the results of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> kinetics calculational benchmarks. The examinations were carried out with the following purposes: to verify one of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> neutronic kinetics model elaborated in KI, to understand sensibility of the model to neutronics difference of UOX and MOX cores, and to compare in future point and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> kinetics models (on the base of a set of selected accidents) in view of eventual creation of RELAP option with 3D kinetics. The document contains input data and results of model operation of three emergency dynamic processes in the VVER-1000 core: (1) Central control rod ejection by pressure drop caused by destroying of the moving mechanism cover. (2) Overcooling of the reactor core caused by steam line rupture and non-closure of steam generator stop valve. (3) The boron dilution of coolant in part of the VVER-1000 core caused by penetration of the distillate slug into the core at start up of non-working loop. These accidents have been applied to: (1) Uranium reference core that is the so-called Advanced VVER-1000 core with Zirconium fuel pins claddings and guide tubes. A number of assemblies contained 18 boron BPRs while first year operating. (2) MOX core with about 30% MOX fuel. At a solving it was supposed that MOX-fuel thermophysical characteristics are identical to uranium fuel ones. The calculations were carried out with the help of the program NOSTRA/1/, simulating VVER dynamics that is briefly described in Chapter 1. Chapter 3 contains the description of reference Uranium and MOX cores that are used in calculations. The neutronics calculations of MOX core with about 30% MOX fuel are named ''Variant 2 1''. Chapters 4-6 contain the calculational results of three above mentioned benchmark accidents that compose in a whole the ''Variant 22''.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pavlovichev, A.M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-09-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">228</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AIPC.1598...39P"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of polycrystalline FTO's conductance analyzed by conductive atomic force microscope (C-AFM)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fluorine-doped Tin oxide (FTO) is a highly transparent, electrically conductive polycrystalline material frequently used as an electrode in organic solar cells and optical-electronic devices [1-2]. In this work a <span class="hlt">spatial</span> analysis of the conductive behavior of FTO was carried out by Conductive-mode Atomic Force Microscopy (C-AFM). Rare highly oriented grains sample give us an opportunity to analyze the top portion of polycrystalline FTO and compare with the border one. It is shown that the current flow essentially takes place through the polycrystalline edge at grain boundaries.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peixoto, Alexandre Pessoa; da Costa, J. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">229</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3724536"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span>-temporal disease mapping of illicit drug abuse or <span class="hlt">dependence</span> in the presence of misaligned ZIP codes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Geo-referenced data often are collected in small, administrative units such as census enumeration districts or postal code areas. Such areas vary in geographic area and population size and may change over time. In research into drug-related health issues within the United States, U.S. Postal Service ZIP codes represent a commonly used unit for data collection, storage, and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> analysis because of their widespread availability in health databases through patient contact and billing information. However, the ZIP code was developed for the specific purpose of delivering mail and may be changed at any time, and its design and development does not take into consideration problems that may arise in data collection, analysis, and presentation in health studies. In this paper, we propose a <span class="hlt">spatial</span> hierarchical modeling approach to quantify trends within ZIP-code based counts when some fraction of ZIP codes change over the study period, that is, when the data are <span class="hlt">spatially</span> misaligned across time. We propose a data vector approach and adjust the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> auto-correlation structure within our Bayesian hierarchical model to provide inference for our misaligned data. We motivate and illustrate our approach to explore spatio-temporal patterns of amphetamine abuse and/or <span class="hlt">dependence</span> in Tracy, California over the years 1995-2005. Uncertainty associated with misaligned data is modeled, quantified, and visualized. The approach offers a framework for further investigation into other risk factors in order to more fully understand the dynamics of illicit drug abuse or <span class="hlt">dependence</span> across time and space in imperfectly measured data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhu, Li; Waller, Lance A.; Ma, Juan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">230</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/18865561"> <span id="translatedtitle">Time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> theory of Auger decay induced by ultra-short pulses in a <span class="hlt">strong</span> laser field</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A quantum mechanical theory of a laser-assisted Auger process in atoms excited by an ultra-short (attosecond) electromagnetic pulse in the field of a few-cycle <span class="hlt">strong</span> laser pulse is presented. It is based on the non-stationary Schrödinger equation, which describes the photoionization of an inner atomic shell and the decay of the created vacancy, while the Auger electron is treated in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A K Kazansky; I P Sazhina; N M Kabachnik</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">231</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830014422&hterms=dehydration+synthesis&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Ddehydration%2Bsynthesis"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> variation of corn canopy temperature as <span class="hlt">dependent</span> upon soil texture and crop rooting characteristics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A soil plant atmosphere model for corn (Zea mays L.) together with the scaling theory for soil hydraulic heterogeneity are used to study the sensitivity of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variation of canopy temperature to field averaged soil texture and crop rooting characteristics. The soil plant atmosphere model explicitly solves a continuity equation for water flux resulting from root water uptake, changes in plant water storage and transpirational flux. Dynamical equations for root zone soil water potential and the plant water storage models the progressive drying of soil, and day time dehydration and night time hydration of the crop. The statistic of scaling parameter which describes the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variation of soil hydraulic conductivity and matric potential is assumed to be independent of soil texture class. The field averaged soil hydraulic characteristics are chosen to be representative of loamy sand and clay loam soils. Two rooting characteristics are chosen, one shallow and the other deep rooted. The simulation shows that the range of canopy temperatures in the clayey soil is less than 1K, but for the sandy soil the range is about 2.5 and 5.0 K, respectively, for the shallow and deep rooted crops.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Choudhury, B. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">232</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18776368"> <span id="translatedtitle">m7GTP alphaS is a <span class="hlt">strong</span> and stable inhibitor of cap-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> translation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two diastereomers of 7-methylguanosine 5'-O-(1-thiotriphosphate) have been synthesized and resolved by RP HPLC. Preliminary studies revealed that these new analogs of mRNA cap are characterized by high affinity for eIF4E, resistance towards DcpS pyrophosphatase and high potency to inhibit cap-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> translation. PMID:18776368</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kowalska, Joanna; Lukaszewicz, Maciej; Zuberek, Joanna; Ziemniak, Marcin; Strenkowska, Malwina; Darzynkiewicz, Edward; Jemielity, Jacek</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">233</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3131281"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatiotopic Coding of BOLD Signal in Human Visual Cortex <span class="hlt">Depends</span> on <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Attention</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The neural substrate of the phenomenological experience of a stable visual world remains obscure. One possible mechanism would be to construct spatiotopic neural maps where the response is selective to the position of the stimulus in external space, rather than to retinal eccentricities, but evidence for these maps has been inconsistent. Here we show, with fMRI, that when human subjects perform concomitantly a demanding attentive task on stimuli displayed at the fovea, BOLD responses evoked by moving stimuli irrelevant to the task were mostly tuned in retinotopic coordinates. However, under more unconstrained conditions, where subjects could attend easily to the motion stimuli, BOLD responses were tuned not in retinal but in external coordinates (spatiotopic selectivity) in many visual areas, including MT, MST, LO and V6, agreeing with our previous fMRI study. These results indicate that <span class="hlt">spatial</span> attention may play an important role in mediating spatiotopic selectivity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Crespi, Sofia; Biagi, Laura; d'Avossa, Giovanni; Burr, David C.; Tosetti, Michela; Morrone, Maria Concetta</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">234</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3535481"> <span id="translatedtitle">A System of Repressor Gradients <span class="hlt">Spatially</span> Organizes the Boundaries of "Morphogen-<span class="hlt">dependent</span>" Target Genes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary The homeodomain (HD) protein Bicoid (Bcd) is thought to function as a gradient morphogen that positions boundaries of target genes via threshold-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> activation mechanisms. Here we analyze 66 Bcd-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> regulatory elements, and show that their boundaries are positioned primarily by repressive gradients that antagonize Bcd-mediated activation. A major repressor is the pair-rule protein Runt, which is expressed in an opposing gradient, and is necessary and sufficient for limiting Bcd-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> activation. Evidence is presented that Runt functions with the maternal repressor Capicua and the gap protein Kruppel as the principal components of a repression system that correctly orders boundaries throughout the anterior half of the embryo. These results put conceptual limits on the Bcd morphogen hypothesis, and demonstrate how the Bcd gradient functions within the gene network that patterns the embryo.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, Hongtao; Xu, Zhe; Mei, Constance; Yu, Danyang; Small, Stephen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">235</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22541432"> <span id="translatedtitle">A system of repressor gradients <span class="hlt">spatially</span> organizes the boundaries of Bicoid-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> target genes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The homeodomain (HD) protein Bicoid (Bcd) is thought to function as a gradient morphogen that positions boundaries of target genes via threshold-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> activation mechanisms. Here, we analyze 66 Bcd-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> regulatory elements and show that their boundaries are positioned primarily by repressive gradients that antagonize Bcd-mediated activation. A major repressor is the pair-rule protein Runt (Run), which is expressed in an opposing gradient and is necessary and sufficient for limiting Bcd-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> activation. Evidence is presented that Run functions with the maternal repressor Capicua and the gap protein Kruppel as the principal components of a repression system that correctly orders boundaries throughout the anterior half of the embryo. These results put conceptual limits on the Bcd morphogen hypothesis and demonstrate how the Bcd gradient functions within the gene network that patterns the embryo. PMID:22541432</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, Hongtao; Xu, Zhe; Mei, Constance; Yu, Danyang; Small, Stephen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">236</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PMB....58..159U"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of optimal fractionation schemes on the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> dose distribution</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We consider the fractionation problem in radiation therapy. Tumor sites in which the dose-limiting organ at risk (OAR) receives a substantially lower dose than the tumor, bear potential for hypofractionation even if the ?/?-ratio of the tumor is larger than the ?/?-ratio of the OAR. In this work, we analyze the interdependence of the optimal fractionation scheme and the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> dose distribution in the OAR. In particular, we derive a criterion under which a hypofractionation regimen is indicated for both a parallel and a serial OAR. The approach is based on the concept of the biologically effective dose (BED). For a hypothetical homogeneously irradiated OAR, it has been shown that hypofractionation is suggested by the BED model if the ?/?-ratio of the OAR is larger than ?/?-ratio of the tumor times the sparing factor, i.e. the ratio of the dose received by the tumor and the OAR. In this work, we generalize this result to inhomogeneous dose distributions in the OAR. For a parallel OAR, we determine the optimal fractionation scheme by minimizing the integral BED in the OAR for a fixed BED in the tumor. For a serial structure, we minimize the maximum BED in the OAR. This leads to analytical expressions for an effective sparing factor for the OAR, which provides a criterion for hypofractionation. The implications of the model are discussed for lung tumor treatments. It is shown that the model supports hypofractionation for small tumors treated with rotation therapy, i.e. highly conformal techniques where a large volume of lung tissue is exposed to low but nonzero dose. For larger tumors, the model suggests hyperfractionation. We further discuss several non-intuitive interdependencies between optimal fractionation and the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> dose distribution. For instance, lowering the dose in the lung via proton therapy does not necessarily provide a biological rationale for hypofractionation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Unkelbach, Jan; Craft, David; Salari, Ehsan; Ramakrishnan, Jagdish; Bortfeld, Thomas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">237</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9618M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temporal and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of tropospheric NO2 over arid areas of Central Asia by OMI Satellite observations: Evidence for a <span class="hlt">strong</span> contribution of soil biogenic nitric oxide</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present results observations of tropospheric NO2 carried out by Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) over the Central Asian arid areas from 2005 to 2011. We selected 8 oases (Ruoqiang, Milan, Waxxari, Qiemo, Minfeng, Shache, Awati and Kuche) in Taklimakan desert (part of the great Central Asian deserts). For these, <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distributions, seasonal variations, and trends of tropospheric NO2 Vertical Column Densities (VCDs) retrieved are discussed. In the Taklimakan desert, oases are the centers of all human activities and the economy of the selected oases are dominated by oasis agriculture. Irrigation and fertilization favor the microbial production of nitric oxide in soils, which after emission is converted to NO2 by ozone. Consequently, tropospheric NO2-VCDs are a good proxy for biogenic NO emissions from soils. For contrast, we examined also the NO2-VCDs in the area of the growing megacity Urumqi (43.85°N, 87.62°E), which is known as an anthropogenic highly polluted city in the Central Asian deserts. For 2005-2011, all selected oases are hot spots of NO/NO2 in the Taklimakan desert. Higher NO2-VCDs were observed during growing seasons over all 8 oases. NO2-VCDs observed in summer generally increased from 2005 to 2011. NO2-VCDs over Urumqi were generally at least 1 order of magnitude higher than those over the oases. In contrast to the oases, wintertime NO2-VCDs over Urumqi are higher than in summer. We evaluated governmental statistical agricultural data of the 8 oasis, and compared the trends with corresponding summertime NO2-VCDs. Inter-annual trends of NO2-VCDs over the oases show similar patterns to those of N-fertilizer application and sown (and irrigated) areas. Highest NO2-VCDs observed in summer for agriculturally dominated oases are a <span class="hlt">strong</span> indication that soil biogenic NO emission is the main contributor to the tropospheric NO2 over all 8 oases, while in Urumqi fossil fuel combustion, particularly during winter, is the main source for NO/NO2. With regard to recent/future agriculture development in the Taklimakan oases (80% of the current Chinese cotton production originates from there), biogenic NO emission from soils will provide an increasing contribution to tropospheric NO2 over Central Asia.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mamtimin, Buhalqem; Qi, Yue; Beirle, Steffen; Wagner, Thomas; Meixner, Franz X.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">238</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.8443B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Depth <span class="hlt">Depending</span> Pattern Recognition (DDPR) - a tool for visualization of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and temporal similarities of properties in sediment cores</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Depth <span class="hlt">Depending</span> Pattern Recognition (DDPR) is a new simple tool for the visualization of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and temporal similarities of measured parameters in a set of sediment cores. It was developed to support the multivariate analysis of data of sediment cores taken in a still water area of the River Elbe [1]. The idea behind is the assumption that correlations in <span class="hlt">spatial</span> or temporal distributions of environmental parameters can be visualized by different ways and that a distance between two patterns can be defined with mathematical methods. So the similarity of two patterns can be quantified and assessed by a catalog of subjective rules. Generally, defining one reference pattern, the computation of a distance matrix for different parameter distributions is easily possible. Consequently, the three main steps of the algorithm are a) the creation of the pattern from the measurements, b) the definition of the distance calculation and c) the interpretation and assessment of the distance matrix. The method can be used in addition to classical uni- or multivariate statistical methods like regression analysis, principal component analysis, correlation analysis etc. DDPR supports hypothesis testing and explanation of relationships. In the poster DDPR is explained and the method is presented for two examples, an artificial one and one with data from sediment cores. Reference [1] Baborowski M., Büttner O., Morgenstern P., Jancke T., Westrich B. (2012) <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> variability of metal pollution in groyne fields of the Middle Elbe - Implications for sediment monitoring, Environmental Pollution, 167,115-123</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Büttner, Olaf; Baborowski, Martina</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">239</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/891748"> <span id="translatedtitle">Electronic Coupling between Heme Electron-Transfer Centers and Its Decay with Distance <span class="hlt">Depends</span> <span class="hlt">Strongly</span> on Relative Orientation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A method for calculating the electron-transfer matrix element VRP using density functional theory Kohn-Sham orbitals is presented and applied to heme dimers of varying relative orientation. The electronic coupling decays with increased iron separation according to VRP ) V0RP exp(-?r/2) with a distance <span class="hlt">dependence</span> parameter ? ? 2 Å-1 for hemes with parallel porphyrins and either 1.1 or 4.0 Å-1 when the porphyrin planes are perpendicular, <span class="hlt">depending</span> on the alignment of the iron d? orbital. These findings are used to interpret the observed orientation of the hemes in tetraheme redox proteins such as Flavocytochrome c3 fumarate reductase (Ifc3, PDB code 1QJD) of Shewanella frigidimarina, another flavocytochrome from the same bacterium (Fcc3, 1E39) and a small tetraheme cytochrome of Shewanella oneidensis strain MR1 (1M1P). Our results show that shifting and rotating the hemes controls the adiabaticity of the three electron hopping steps.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smith, Dayle MA; Rosso, Kevin M.; Dupuis, Michel; Valiev, Marat; Straatsma, TP</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-08-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">240</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://stroke.ahajournals.org/cgi/reprint/29/3/635.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Serum Uric Acid Is a <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Predictor of Stroke in Patients With Non-Insulin-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Diabetes Mellitus</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background and Purpose—Patients with non-insulin-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) are at increased risk for stroke. Hyperuricemia is a common finding in NIDDM, but its significance as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease has remained uncertain. Therefore, we investigated serum urate as a predictor of stroke in NIDDM patients free of clinical nephropathy (ie, with a serum creatinine level of #120</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Seppo Lehto; Leo Niskanen; Tapani Ronnemaa; Markku Laakso</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span 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</span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">241</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001ApOpt..40.4770R"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> of Rain-Induced Lidar Depolarization on the Illumination Angle: Experimental Evidence and Geometrical-Optics Interpretation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Backscatter and depolarization lidar measurements from clouds and precipitation are reported as functions of the elevation angle of the pointing lidar direction. We recorded the data by scanning the lidar beam (Nd:YAG) at a constant angular speed of ~3.5 /s while operating at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. We show that in rain there is an evident and at times spectacular <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on the elevation angle. That <span class="hlt">dependence</span> appears to be sensitive to raindrop size. We have developed a three-dimensional polarization-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> ray-tracing algorithm to calculate the backscatter and the depolarization ratio by large nonspherical droplets. We have applied it to raindrop shapes derived from existing static and dynamic (oscillating) models. We show that many of the observed complex backscatter and depolarization features can be interpreted to a good extent by geometrical optics. These results suggest that there is a definite need for more extensive calculations of the scattering phase matrix elements for large deformed raindrops as functions of the direction of illumination. Obvious applications are retrieval of information on the liquid -solid phase of precipitation and on the size and the vibration state of raindrops.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roy, Gilles; Bissonnette, Luc R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">242</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvB..88a4517B"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> Pauli-limiting behavior of Hc2 and uniaxial pressure <span class="hlt">dependencies</span> in KFe2As2</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">KFe2As2 single crystals are studied using specific-heat, high-resolution thermal-expansion, magnetization, and magnetostriction measurements. The magnetization and magnetostriction data provide clear evidence for <span class="hlt">strong</span> Pauli-limiting effects of the upper critical field for magnetic fields parallel to the FeAs planes, suggesting that KFe2As2 may be a good candidate to search for the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov state. Using standard thermodynamic relations, the uniaxial pressure derivatives of the critical temperature Tc, the normal-state Sommerfeld coefficient ?n, the normal-state susceptibility ?, and the thermodynamic critical field Hc are calculated from our data. We find that the close relationship between doping and pressure as found in other Fe-based systems does not hold for KFe2As2.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Burger, P.; Hardy, F.; Aoki, D.; Böhmer, A. E.; Eder, R.; Heid, R.; Wolf, T.; Schweiss, P.; Fromknecht, R.; Jackson, M. J.; Paulsen, C.; Meingast, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">243</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvA..86d3408T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> analytical R-matrix approach for <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field dynamics. I. One-electron systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We develop a flexible analytical approach to describe <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field dynamics in atoms and molecules. The approach is based on the ideas of the R-matrix method. Here, we illustrate and validate our approach by applying it to systems with one active electron bound by the Coulomb potential and benchmark our results against the standard theory of Perelomov, Popov, and Terent'ev [Sov. Phys. JETP0021-903710.1007/BF01132710 23, 924 (1966)]. We discuss corrections to the ionization amplitude associated with the interplay of the Coulomb potential and the laser field on the sub-laser cycle time scale and the shape of the tunneling wave packets associated with different instants of ionization.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Torlina, Lisa; Smirnova, Olga</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">244</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvA..88f3417Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Abnormal <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field-ionization-induced nitrogen lasing on polarization ellipticity of the driving field</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We experimentally investigate lasing behaviors of population-inverted N2+ ions for the transitions between the vibrational level (v' = 0) of excited electronic B 2?u+ state and the two lowest vibrational levels (v = 0, 1) of the ground X 2?g+ state in an elliptically polarized laser field. It is found that, as the polarization of the pump laser evolves from linear to circular, the lasing signal for the 0 ? 0 transition at 391 nm first increases with a maximum enhancement of ˜40% at the ellipticity of 0.3 and then decreases, whereas for the 0 ? 1 transition at 428 nm, the lasing signal decreases monotonically. This difference between the 391- and 428-nm lasing signals is ascribed to the high sensitivity of the <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field response of the molecular ion to molecular vibrations, which indicates the possibility to control the vibrational state distribution of molecules by tuning the ellipticity of the laser pulse.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Haisu; Jing, Chenrui; Li, Guihua; Xie, Hongqiang; Yao, Jinping; Zeng, Bin; Chu, Wei; Ni, Jielei; Xu, Huailiang; Cheng, Ya</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">245</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22927163"> <span id="translatedtitle">Blood oxygenation level-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> functional MRI signal turbulence caused by ultrahigh <span class="hlt">spatial</span> resolution: numerical simulation and theoretical explanation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">High-<span class="hlt">spatial</span>-resolution functional MRI (fMRI) can enhance image contrast and improve <span class="hlt">spatial</span> specificity for brain activity mapping. As the voxel size is reduced, an irregular magnetic fieldmap will emerge as a result of less local averaging, and will lead to abnormal fMRI signal evolution with respect to the image acquisition TE. In this article, we report this signal turbulence phenomenon observed in simulations of ultrahigh-<span class="hlt">spatial</span>-resolution blood oxygenation level-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> (BOLD) fMRI (voxel size of less than 50?×?50?×?50 µm³). We present a four-level coarse-to-fine multiresolution BOLD fMRI signal simulation. Based on the statistical histogram of an intravoxel fieldmap, we reformulate the intravoxel dephasing summation (a form of Riemann sum) into a new formula that is a discrete Fourier transformation of the intravoxel fieldmap histogram (a form of Lebesgue sum). We interpret the BOLD signal formation by relating its magnitude (phase) to the even (odd) symmetry of the fieldmap histogram. Based on multiresolution BOLD signal simulation, we find that the signal turbulence mainly emerges at the vessel boundary, and that there are only a few voxels (less than 10%) in an ultrahigh-resolution image that reveal turbulence in the form of sparse point noise. Our simulation also shows that, for typical human brain imaging of the cerebral cortex with millimeter resolution, TE?< 30 ms and B? ?=?3 T, we are unlikely to observe BOLD signal turbulence. Overall, the main causes of voxel signal turbulence include a high <span class="hlt">spatial</span> resolution, high field, long TE and large vessel. PMID:22927163</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, Zikuan; Chen, Zeyuan; Calhoun, Vince</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">246</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3718043"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatially-dependent</span> Dynamic MAPK Modulation by the Nde1-Lis1-Brap Complex Patterns Mammalian CNS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary Regulating cell proliferation and differentiation in CNS development requires both extraordinary complexity and precision. Neural progenitors receive graded overlapping signals from midline signaling centers, yet each makes a unique cell fate decision in a spatiotemporally restricted pattern. The Nde1-Lis1 complex regulates individualized cell fate decisions based on the geographical location with respect to the midline. While cells distant from the midline fail to self-renew in the Nde1-Lis1 double mutant CNS, cells embedded in the signaling centers showed marked over-proliferation. A direct interaction between Lis1 and Brap, a MAPK signaling threshold modulator, mediates this differential response to mitogenic signal gradients. Nde1-Lis1 deficiency resulted in a <span class="hlt">spatially-dependent</span> alteration of MAPK scaffold Ksr and hyper-activation of MAPK. Epistasis analyses supported synergistic Brap and Lis1 functions. These results suggest that a molecular complex composed of Nde1, Lis1, and Brap regulates the dynamic MAPK signaling threshold in a <span class="hlt">spatially-dependent</span> fashion.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lanctot, Alison A.; Peng, Chian-Yu; Pawlisz, Ashley S.; Joksimovic, Milan; Feng, Yuanyi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3602931"> <span id="translatedtitle">N-cadherin regulates <span class="hlt">spatially</span> polarized signals through distinct p120ctn and ?-catenin-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> signaling pathways</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of molecular signals within cells is crucial for cellular functions. Here, as a model to study the polarized <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of molecular activities, we used cells on micro-patterned strips of fibronectin with one end free and the other end contacting a neighboring cell. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and the small GTPase Rac display greater activity at the free end, whereas myosin II light chain (MLC) and actin filaments are enriched near the intercellular junction. PI3K and Rac polarization <span class="hlt">depend</span> specifically on the N-cadherin-p120ctn complex, whereas MLC and actin filament polarization <span class="hlt">depend</span> on the N-cadherin-?-catenin complex. Integrins promote high PI3K/Rac activities at the free end, and the N-cadherin–p120ctn complex excludes integrin ?5 at the junctions to suppress local PI3K and Rac activity. We hence conclude that N-cadherin couples with distinct effectors to polarize PI3K/Rac and MLC/actin filaments in migrating cells.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ouyang, Mingxing; Lu, Shaoying; Kim, Taejin; Chen, Chin-En; Seong, Jihye; Leckband, Deborah E.; Wang, Fei; Reynolds, Albert B.; Schwartz, Martin A.; Wang, Yingxiao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3056245"> <span id="translatedtitle">Strain-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Variations in <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Learning and in Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity in the Dentate Gyrus Of Freely Behaving Rats</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hippocampal synaptic plasticity is believed to comprise the cellular basis for <span class="hlt">spatial</span> learning. Strain-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> differences in synaptic plasticity in the CA1 region have been reported. However, it is not known whether these differences extend to other synapses within the trisynaptic circuit, although there is evidence for morphological variations within that path. We investigated whether Wistar and Hooded Lister (HL) rat strains express differences in synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus in vivo. We also explored whether they exhibit differences in the ability to engage in <span class="hlt">spatial</span> learning in an eight-arm radial maze. Basal synaptic transmission was stable over a 24-h period in both rat strains, and the input–output relationship of both strains was not significantly different. Paired-pulse analysis revealed significantly less paired-pulse facilitation in the HL strain when pulses were given 40–100?ms apart. Low frequency stimulation at 1?Hz evoked long-term depression (>24?h) in Wistar and short-term depression (<2?h) in HL rats; 200?Hz stimulation induced long-term potentiation (>24?h) in Wistar, and a transient, significantly smaller potentiation (<1?h) in HL rats, suggesting that HL rats have higher thresholds for expression of persistent synaptic plasticity. Training for 10 days in an eight-arm radial maze revealed that HL rats master the working memory task faster than Wistar rats, although both strains show an equivalent performance by the end of the trial period. HL rats also perform more efficiently in a double working and reference memory task. On the other hand, Wistar rats show better reference memory performance on the final (8–10) days of training. Wistar rats were less active and more anxious than HL rats. These data suggest that strain-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> variations in hippocampal synaptic plasticity occur in different hippocampal synapses. A clear correlation with differences in <span class="hlt">spatial</span> learning is not evident however.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Manahan-Vaughan, Denise; Schwegler, Herbert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/15010143"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oculoparalytic Illusion: Visual-Field <span class="hlt">Dependent</span> <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Mislocalizations by Humans Partially Paralyzed with Curare</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In darkness, observers partially paralyzed with curare make large (> 20 degrees) gaze- and dosage-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> errors in visually localizing eye-level-horizontal and median planes, in matching the location of a sound to a light, and in pointing at a light. In illuminated, structured visual fields visual localization and pointing are accurate but errors in auditory-to-visual matches remain. Defects in extraretinal eye</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leonard Matin; Evan Picoult; John K. Stevens; Mciver W. Edwards; David Young; Rodger MacArthur</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2992741"> <span id="translatedtitle">Personality-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> dispersal: characterization, ontogeny and consequences for <span class="hlt">spatially</span> structured populations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Dispersal is one of the most fundamental components of ecology, and affects processes as diverse as population growth, metapopulation dynamics, gene flow and adaptation. Although the act of moving from one habitat to another entails major costs to the disperser, empirical and theoretical studies suggest that these costs can be reduced by having morphological, physiological or behavioural specializations for dispersal. A few recent studies on different systems showed that individuals exhibit personality-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> dispersal, meaning that dispersal tendency is associated with boldness, sociability or aggressiveness. Indeed, in several species, dispersers not only develop behavioural differences at the onset of dispersal, but display these behavioural characteristics through their life cycle. While personality-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> dispersal has been demonstrated in only a few species, we believe that it is a widespread phenomenon with important ecological consequences. Here, we review the evidence for behavioural differences between dispersers and residents, to what extent they constitute personalities. We also examine how a link between personality traits and dispersal behaviours can be produced and how personality-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> dispersal affects the dynamics of metapopulations and biological invasions. Finally, we suggest future research directions for population biologists, behavioural ecologists and conservation biologists such as how the direction and the strength of the relationship between personality traits and dispersal vary with ecological contexts.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cote, J.; Clobert, J.; Brodin, T.; Fogarty, S.; Sih, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3427406"> <span id="translatedtitle">CHRNB3 is more <span class="hlt">strongly</span> associated with FTCD-based nicotine <span class="hlt">dependence</span> than cigarettes per day: phenotype definition changes GWAS results</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aims Nicotine <span class="hlt">dependence</span> is a highly heritable disorder associated with severe medical morbidity and mortality. Recent meta-analyses have found novel genetic loci associated with cigarettes per day (CPD), a proxy for nicotine <span class="hlt">dependence</span>. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the importance of phenotype definition (i.e. CPD versus Fagerström Test for Cigarette <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> (FTCD) score as a measure of nicotine <span class="hlt">dependence</span>) on genome-wide association studies of nicotine <span class="hlt">dependence</span>. Design Genome-wide association study Setting Community sample Participants A total of 3,365 subjects who had smoked at least one cigarette were selected from the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment (SAGE). Of the participants, 2,267 were European Americans,999 were African Americans. Measurements Nicotine <span class="hlt">dependence</span> defined by FTCD score ?4, CPD Findings The genetic locus most <span class="hlt">strongly</span> associated with nicotine <span class="hlt">dependence</span> was rs1451240 on chromosome 8 in the region of CHRNB3 (OR=0.65, p=2.4×10?8). This association was further strengthened in a meta-analysis with a previously published dataset (combined p=6.7 ×10?16, total n=4,200).When CPD was used as an alternate phenotype, the association no longer reached genome-wide significance (?=?0.08, p=0.0007). Conclusions Daily cigarette consumption and the Fagerstrom Test for Cigarette <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> (FTCD) show different associations with polymorphisms in genetic loci.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rice, John P.; Hartz, Sarah; Agrawal, Arpana; Almasy, Laura; Bennett, Siiri; Breslau, Naomi; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Doheny, Kimberly F.; Edenberg, Howard J.; Goate, Alison M.; Hesselbrock, Victor; Howells, William B.; Johnson, Eric O.; Kramer, John; Krueger, Robert F.; Kuperman, Samuel; Laurie, Cathy; Manolio, Teri A.; Neuman, Rosalind J.; Nurnberger, John I.; Porjesz, Bernice; Pugh, Elizabeth; Ramos, Erin M.; Saccone, Nancy; Saccone, Scott; Schuckit, Marc; Bierut, Laura J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..MARP54007N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Magnetic-field <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of energy levels of superconducting nano-scale mettalic grains with <span class="hlt">strong</span> spin-orbit scattering</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study the Zeeman splitting of discrete energy levels of superconducting nano-scale metallic grains whose single-electron dynamics is chaotic [1]. In the absence of spin-orbit scattering the Zeeman splitting of a single-electron level is trivial; it is the same for all levels and linear in magnetic field. Spin-orbit coupling suppresses this splitting, induces level-to-level fluctuations and non-linear corrections to the energies. We investigate the combined effect of pairing correlations, which lead to superconductivity in the bulk limit, and spin-orbit scattering on the many-electron energy levels in a weak magnetic field. In particular, we focus our studies on the linear (g-factor) and quadratic (zero-field level curvature) corrections and their mesoscopic fluctuations. The single-electron part of the Hamiltonian follows the statistics of the Gaussian symplectic ensemble of random matrix theory, which is applicable in the limit of <span class="hlt">strong</span> spin-orbit scattering and a large dimensionless Thouless conductance. The interaction is given by a BCS-like pairing term and the magnetic field coupling is described by a Zeeman term. [1] K. Nesterov and Y. Alhassid, to be published.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nesterov, Konstantin; Alhassid, Yoram</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ApPhL..98t1116O"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of output pulse delay in a niobium nitride nanowire superconducting single-photon detector</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report on the position-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> variation in output pulse timing across a superconducting single-photon detector. Our device consists of a single niobium nitride nanowire meander (100 nm width, 4 nm film thickness, 2 mm length). We use a confocal microscope configuration (full width at half maximum-spot size 1.3 ?m at 1550 nm wavelength) and a femtosecond laser to study local variations in detection efficiency and output pulse timing. Pulse delays of up to 50 ps across the device correlate to local detection efficiency and resistance variations. This study indicates an underlying mechanism for timing jitter in superconducting nanowire devices.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">O'Connor, J. A.; Tanner, M. G.; Natarajan, C. M.; Buller, G. S.; Warburton, R. J.; Miki, S.; Wang, Z.; Nam, S. W.; Hadfield, R. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhRvB..78f0509C"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span>-coupling theory of the universal linear temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the nodal Fermi velocity in layered cuprates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We explain the recently observed linear temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the nodal Fermi velocity vF(T) in nearly optimally doped cuprates. We argue that it originates from electron-electron interaction and it is a fundamental property of an arbitrary two-dimensional (2D) Fermi liquid. We consider a spin-fermion model with input parameters extracted from the data, and we show that the T term is about 30% at 300 K, in agreement with the data. We show that the sub-leading term in vF(T) is a regular (and small) T2 correction. We also show that at a 2kF quantum-critical point, temperature corrections to the dispersion are singular.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chubukov, Andrey; Eremin, Ilya</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JHEP...09..003P"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> volume <span class="hlt">dependence</span> for 2+1 dimensional SU(N) Yang-Mills theory</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study the 2+1 dimensional SU(N) Yang-Mills theory on a finite two-torus with twisted boundary conditions. Our goal is to study the interplay between the rank of the group N , the length of the torus L and the Z N magnetic flux. After presenting the classical and quantum formalism, we analyze the spectrum of the theory using perturbation theory to one-loop and using Monte Carlo techniques on the lattice. In perturbation theory, results to all orders <span class="hlt">depend</span> on the combination x = ? N L and an angle defined in terms of the magnetic flux (? is `t Hooft coupling). Thus, fixing the angle, the system exhibits a form of volume independence ( N L <span class="hlt">dependence</span>). The numerical results interpolate between our perturbative calculations and the confinement regime. They are consistent with x-scaling and provide interesting information about the k-string spectrum and effective string theories. The occurrence of tachyonic instabilities is also analysed. They seem to be avoidable in the large N limit with a suitable scaling of the magnetic flux.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pérez, Margarita García; González-Arroyo, Antonio; Okawa, Masanori</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3700044"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Effect of Opium <span class="hlt">Dependency</span> of Parent (s) on Offspring's <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Learning & Memory in Adult Male Rats</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective(s): As far as we know, there has been no report regarding the effects of opium addiction or <span class="hlt">dependency</span> of both parents on the learning and memory process in offspring. The aim of this study was to examine the learning and memory changes of adult male offspring whose mothers, fathers and/or both parents had <span class="hlt">dependency</span> to opium before and during pregnancy. Materials and Methods : All experiments were carried out on Wistar rats. Opium <span class="hlt">dependency</span> was induced by daily injections of opium (10 mg/kg/SC, bid/10 d) before mating. The presence of a vaginal plug was designated as gestation day. Treatment with opium continued through breeding and gestation until parturition. <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> memory was tested in male offspring of control, saline and prenatal opium treated groups by a training trial and the probe test in the Morris water maze. Swimming escape latency in the maze and the ability to find the platform in the training trial were recorded. The time spent in the trigger zone and number of times the rats crossed the platform during the probe phase and swimming speed were measured. Results: The data revealed increased escape latency and a greater distance traveled to find the hidden platform in the offspring’s whose mother, father and /or both parents were exposed to opium. Crossings to target quadrant at probe trials was significantly reduced in all of the prenatal opium exposed offsprings. The swimming speed showed a significant increase in father and parent’s opium exposed offspring. Conclusion: Prenatal opium exposure of either parent may cause deficits in <span class="hlt">spatial</span> learning, but the precise mechanism(s) remain largely unknown.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Saberi Moghadam, Arezoo; Sepehri, Gholamreza; Sheibani, Vahid; Haghpanah, Tahereh; Divsalar, Kouros; Hajzadeh, Mousa-Al-Reza; Afarineshkhaki, Mohammadreza</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3573031"> <span id="translatedtitle">Voltage <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the Ca2+-activated K+ conductance of human red cell membranes is <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on the extracellular K+ concentration.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The conductance of the Ca2+-activated K+ channel (gK(Ca)) of the human red cell membrane was studied as a function of membrane potential (Vm) and extracellular K+ concentration ([K+]ex). ATP-depleted cells, with fixed values of cellular K+ (145 mM) and pH (approximately 7.1), and preloaded with approximately 27 microM ionized Ca were transferred, with open K+ channels, to buffer-free salt solutions with given K+ concentrations. Outward-current conductances were calculated from initial net effluxes of K+, corresponding Vm, monitored by CCCP-mediated electrochemical equilibration of protons between a buffer-free extracellular and the heavily buffered cellular phases, and Nernst equilibrium potentials of K ions (EK) determined at the peak of hyperpolarization. Zero-current conductances were calculated from unidirectional effluxes of 42K at (Vm-EK) approximately equal to 0, using a single-file flux ratio exponent of 2.7. Within a [K+]ex range of 5.5 to 60 mM and at (Vm-EK) greater than or equal to 20 mV a basic conductance, which was independent of [K+]ex, was found. It had a small voltage <span class="hlt">dependence</span>, varying linearly from 45 to 70 microS/cm2 between 0 and -100 mV. As (Vm-EK) decreased from 20 towards zero mV gK(Ca) increased hyperbolically from the basic value towards a zero-current value of 165 microS/cm2. The zero-current conductance was not significantly <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on [K+]ex (30 to 156 mM) corresponding to Vm (-50 mV to 0). A further increase in gK(Ca) symmetrically around EK is suggested as (Vm-EK) becomes positive. Increasing the extracellular K+ concentration from zero and up to approximately 3 mM resulted in an increase in gK(Ca) from approximately 50 to approximately 70 microS/cm2. Since the driving force (Vm-EK) was larger than 20 mV within this range of [K+]ex this was probably a specific K+ activation of gK(Ca). In conclusion: The Ca2+-activated K+ channel of the human red cell membrane is an inward rectifier showing the characteristic voltage <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of this type of channel. PMID:3573031</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vestergaard-Bogind, B; Stampe, P; Christophersen, P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JOSAA..24.1830Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of surround articulation on lightness <span class="hlt">depend</span> on the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> arrangement of the articulated region</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigated the effect of surround articulation on the perceived lightness of a target disk. Surround articulation was manipulated by varying either the number of wedges in a surround consisting of wedges of alternating luminance or the number of checks in a surround consisting of a radial checkerboard pattern. In most conditions, increased articulation caused incremental targets to appear lighter and decremental targets to appear darker. But increasing the surround articulation in a way that did not increase the number of target-coaligned edges in the display did not affect the target lightness. We propose that the effects of surround articulation <span class="hlt">depend</span> on the relationship between the orientations and contrast polarities of the target edges and those of edges present within the surround.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zemach, Iris K.; Rudd, Michael E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1044749"> <span id="translatedtitle">Determination of Earths transient and equilibrium climate sensitivities from observations over the twentieth century: <span class="hlt">Strong</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on assumed forcing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Relations among observed changes in global mean surface temperature, ocean heat content, ocean heating rate, and calculated radiative forcing, all as a function of time over the twentieth century, that are based on a two-compartment energy balance model, are used to determine key properties of Earth's climate system. The increase in heat content of the world ocean, obtained as the average of several recent compilations, is found to be linearly related to the increase in global temperature over the period 1965-2009; the slope, augmented to account for additional heat sinks, which is an effective heat capacity of the climate system, is 21.8 {+-} 2.1 W year m{sup -2} K{sup -1} (one sigma), equivalent to the heat capacity of 170 m of seawater (for the entire planet) or 240 m for the world ocean. The rate of planetary heat uptake, determined from the time derivative of ocean heat content, is found to be proportional to the increase in global temperature relative to the beginning of the twentieth century with proportionality coefficient 1.05 {+-} 0.06 W m{sup -2} K{sup -1}. Transient and equilibrium climate sensitivities were evaluated for six published data sets of forcing mainly by incremental greenhouse gases and aerosols over the twentieth century as calculated by radiation transfer models; these forcings ranged from 1.1 to 2.1 W m{sup -2}, spanning much of the range encompassed by the 2007 assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). For five of the six forcing data sets, a rather robust linear proportionality obtains between the observed increase in global temperature and the forcing, allowing transient sensitivity to be determined as the slope. Equilibrium sensitivities determined by two methods that account for the rate of planetary heat uptake range from 0.31 {+-} 0.02 to 1.32 {+-} 0.31 K (W m{sup -2}){sup -1} (CO{sub 2} doubling temperature 1.16 {+-} 0.09-4.9 {+-} 1.2 K), more than spanning the IPCC estimated 'likely' uncertainty range, and <span class="hlt">strongly</span> anticorrelated with the forcing used to determine the sensitivities. Transient sensitivities, relevant to climate change on the multidecadal time scale, are considerably lower, 0.23 {+-} 0.01 to 0.51 {+-} 0.04 K (W m{sup -2}){sup -1}. The time constant characterizing the response of the upper ocean compartment of the climate system to perturbations is estimated as about 5 years, in broad agreement with other recent estimates, and much shorter than the time constant for thermal equilibration of the deep ocean, about 500 years.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schwartz S. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-04</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SGeo...33..745S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Determination of Earth's Transient and Equilibrium Climate Sensitivities from Observations Over the Twentieth Century: <span class="hlt">Strong</span> <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> on Assumed Forcing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Relations among observed changes in global mean surface temperature, ocean heat content, ocean heating rate, and calculated radiative forcing, all as a function of time over the twentieth century, that are based on a two-compartment energy balance model, are used to determine key properties of Earth's climate system. The increase in heat content of the world ocean, obtained as the average of several recent compilations, is found to be linearly related to the increase in global temperature over the period 1965-2009; the slope, augmented to account for additional heat sinks, which is an effective heat capacity of the climate system, is 21.8 ± 2.1 W year m-2 K-1 (one sigma), equivalent to the heat capacity of 170 m of seawater (for the entire planet) or 240 m for the world ocean. The rate of planetary heat uptake, determined from the time derivative of ocean heat content, is found to be proportional to the increase in global temperature relative to the beginning of the twentieth century with proportionality coefficient 1.05 ± 0.06 W m-2 K-1. Transient and equilibrium climate sensitivities were evaluated for six published data sets of forcing mainly by incremental greenhouse gases and aerosols over the twentieth century as calculated by radiation transfer models; these forcings ranged from 1.1 to 2.1 W m-2, spanning much of the range encompassed by the 2007 assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). For five of the six forcing data sets, a rather robust linear proportionality obtains between the observed increase in global temperature and the forcing, allowing transient sensitivity to be determined as the slope. Equilibrium sensitivities determined by two methods that account for the rate of planetary heat uptake range from 0.31 ± 0.02 to 1.32 ± 0.31 K (W m-2)-1 (CO2 doubling temperature 1.16 ± 0.09-4.9 ± 1.2 K), more than spanning the IPCC estimated "likely" uncertainty range, and <span class="hlt">strongly</span> anticorrelated with the forcing used to determine the sensitivities. Transient sensitivities, relevant to climate change on the multidecadal time scale, are considerably lower, 0.23 ± 0.01 to 0.51 ± 0.04 K (W m-2)-1. The time constant characterizing the response of the upper ocean compartment of the climate system to perturbations is estimated as about 5 years, in broad agreement with other recent estimates, and much shorter than the time constant for thermal equilibration of the deep ocean, about 500 years.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schwartz, Stephen E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" 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onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24726000"> <span id="translatedtitle">BK Polyomavirus-Specific Cellular Immune Responses Are Age-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> and <span class="hlt">Strongly</span> Correlate With Phases of Virus Replication.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) infection is widespread and typically asymptomatic during childhood, but may cause nephropathy in kidney transplant recipients. However, there is only limited knowledge on BKPyV-specific immunity in children and adults, and its role in BKPyV-replication and disease posttransplant. We therefore characterized BKPyV-specific immunity from 122 immunocompetent individuals (1-84 years), 38 adult kidney recipients with (n?=?14) and without BKPyV-associated complications (n?=?24), and 25 hemodialysis (HD) patients. Blood samples were stimulated with overlapping peptides of BKPyV large-T antigen and VP1 followed by flow-cytometric analysis of activated CD4 T cells expressing interferon-?, IL-2 and tumor necrosis factor-?. Antibody-levels were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Both BKPyV-IgG levels and BKPyV-specific CD4 T cell frequencies were age-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> (p?=?0.0059) with maximum levels between 20 and 30 years (0.042%, interquartile range 0.05%). Transplant recipients showed a significantly higher BKPyV-specific T cell prevalence (57.9%) compared to age-matched controls (21.7%) or HD patients (28%, p?=?0.017). Clinically relevant BKPyV-replication was associated with elevated frequencies of BKPyV-specific T cells (p?=?0.0002), but decreased percentage of cells expressing multiple cytokines (p?=?0.009). In conclusion, BKPyV-specific cellular immunity reflects phases of active BKPyV-replication either after primary infection in childhood or during reactivation after transplantation. Combined analysis of BKPyV-specific T cell functionality and viral loads may improve individual risk assessment. PMID:24726000</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schmidt, T; Adam, C; Hirsch, H H; Janssen, M W W; Wolf, M; Dirks, J; Kardas, P; Ahlenstiel-Grunow, T; Pape, L; Rohrer, T; Fliser, D; Sester, M; Sester, U</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..DMP.Q1031T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Precision treatment of single and double multiphoton ionization of He atoms by <span class="hlt">strong</span> laser fields: Time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> generalized pseudospectral method in internal coordinates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have developed a new computational method for accurate and efficient numerical solution of the time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> Schr"odinger equation for two-electron atoms. Our approach is full-dimensional and makes use of the internal coordinates of the electrons in the plane defined by the electrons and the nucleus (r1, r2, and ?12) as well as Euler angles which determine the orientation of the plane in space. The internal coordinates can be optimally discretized by means of the generalized pseudospectral method while the Euler angles appear through the basis set functions with the definite total angular momentum and its projections. The results of the single and double ionization of the helium atom by <span class="hlt">strong</span> 800 nm laser fields will be presented. The accurate time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> electron density obtained can be used for testing and improvement of various approximate exchange-correlation functionals of the time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> density functional theory.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Telnov, Dmitry A.; Heslar, John; Chu, Shih-I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3873525"> <span id="translatedtitle">Developmental plasticity of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> hearing following asymmetric hearing loss: context-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> cue integration and its clinical implications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Under normal hearing conditions, comparisons of the sounds reaching each ear are critical for accurate sound localization. Asymmetric hearing loss should therefore degrade <span class="hlt">spatial</span> hearing and has become an important experimental tool for probing the plasticity of the auditory system, both during development and adulthood. In clinical populations, hearing loss affecting one ear more than the other is commonly associated with otitis media with effusion, a disorder experienced by approximately 80% of children before the age of two. Asymmetric hearing may also arise in other clinical situations, such as after unilateral cochlear implantation. Here, we consider the role played by <span class="hlt">spatial</span> cue integration in sound localization under normal acoustical conditions. We then review evidence for adaptive changes in <span class="hlt">spatial</span> hearing following a developmental hearing loss in one ear, and show that adaptation may be achieved either by learning a new relationship between the altered cues and directions in space or by changing the way different cues are integrated in the brain. We next consider developmental plasticity as a source of vulnerability, describing maladaptive effects of asymmetric hearing loss that persist even when normal hearing is provided. We also examine the extent to which the consequences of asymmetric hearing loss <span class="hlt">depend</span> upon its timing and duration. Although much of the experimental literature has focused on the effects of a stable unilateral hearing loss, some of the most common hearing impairments experienced by children tend to fluctuate over time. We therefore propose that there is a need to bridge this gap by investigating the effects of recurring hearing loss during development, and outline recent steps in this direction. We conclude by arguing that this work points toward a more nuanced view of developmental plasticity, in which plasticity may be selectively expressed in response to specific sensory contexts, and consider the clinical implications of this.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Keating, Peter; King, Andrew J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22131013"> <span id="translatedtitle">THE <span class="hlt">SPATIAL</span> AND TEMPORAL <span class="hlt">DEPENDENCE</span> OF CORONAL HEATING BY ALFVEN WAVE TURBULENCE</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The solar atmosphere may be heated by Alfven waves that propagate up from the convection zone and dissipate their energy in the chromosphere and corona. To further test this theory, we consider wave heating in an active region observed on 2012 March 7. A potential field model of the region is constructed, and 22 field lines representing observed coronal loops are traced through the model. Using a three-dimensional (3D) reduced magnetohydrodynamics code, we simulate the dynamics of Alfven waves in and near the observed loops. The results for different loops are combined into a single formula describing the average heating rate Q as a function of position within the observed active region. We suggest this expression may be approximately valid also for other active regions, and therefore may be used to construct 3D, time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> models of the coronal plasma. Such models are needed to understand the role of thermal non-equilibrium in the structuring and dynamics of the Sun's corona.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Asgari-Targhi, M.; Van Ballegooijen, A. A.; Cranmer, S. R.; DeLuca, E. E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street MS-15, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPD....4430501A"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> and Temporal <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> of Coronal Heating by Alfven Wave Turbulence</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The solar atmosphere may be heated by Alfven waves that propagate up from the convection zone and dissipate their energy in the chromosphere and corona. To further test this theory, we consider wave heating in an active region observed on 2012 March 7. A potential field model of the region is constructed, and 22 field lines representing observed coronal loops are traced through the model. Using a three-dimensional (3D) reduced magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) code, we simulate the dynamics of Alfven waves in and near the observed loops. The results for different loops are combined into a single formula describing the average heating rate $Q$ as function of position within the observed active region. We suggest this expression may be approximately valid also for other active regions, and therefore may be used to construct 3D, time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> models of the coronal plasma. Such models are needed to understand the role of thermal non-equilibrium in the structuring and dynamics of the Sun's corona.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Asgari-Targhi, Mahboubeh; Van Ballegooijen, A. A.; Cranmer, S. R.; DeLuca, E. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23938576"> <span id="translatedtitle">Focusing polychromatic light through <span class="hlt">strongly</span> scattering media.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We demonstrate feedback-optimized focusing of <span class="hlt">spatially</span> coherent polychromatic light after transmission through <span class="hlt">strongly</span> scattering media, and describe the relationship between optimized focus intensity and initial far-field speckle contrast. Optimization is performed using a MEMS <span class="hlt">spatial</span> light modulator with camera-based or spectrometer-based feedback. We observe that the spectral bandwidth of the optimized focus <span class="hlt">depends</span> on characteristics of the feedback signal. We interpret this <span class="hlt">dependence</span> as a modification in the number of independent frequency components, or spectral correlations, transmitted by the sample, and introduce a simple model for polychromatic focus enhancement that is corroborated by experiment with calibrated samples. PMID:23938576</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paudel, Hari P; Stockbridge, Chris; Mertz, Jerome; Bifano, Thomas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24015534"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Scale-<span class="hlt">dependency</span> of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variability of surface soil moisture under different land use types in Heihe Oasis, China].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To study the surface soil moisture <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variability and its scale effect is of significance to understand the real variability of soil moisture and to objectively provide a reference for constructing a logical sampling scheme. By using "re-sampling" method, this paper studied the scale-<span class="hlt">dependency</span> of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variability of soil surface moisture in the woodland and farmland in the oasis ecological system in the middle reaches of Heihe River. The results showed that the variation degree of the surface soil moisture in the test woodland and farmland increased with increasing soil moisture content, and the coefficient of variation (CV) became closer to the true value when the sampling scale increased. Under both dry and moist conditions, and when the sampling amplitude increased within a definite range, the CV, Moran's I index, nugget, and sill of soil moisture in the woodland and farmland as well as the variation range in the woodland all increased, while the variation range in the farmland under arid condition did not show a stable regular pattern. When the sampling density increased within a definite range, the nugget and variation range increased, but the CV, Moran's I index, and sill showed less change. PMID:24015534</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Guo, De-Liang; Fan, Jun; Mi, Mei-Xia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1004988"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> and Mitigation of Radiation Damage by a Line Focus Mini Beam</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recently, strategies to reduce primary radiation damage have been proposed which <span class="hlt">depend</span> on focusing X-rays to dimensions smaller than the penetration depth of excited photoelectrons. For a line focus as used here the penetration depth is the maximum distance from the irradiated region along the X-ray polarization direction that the photoelectrons penetrate. Reported here are measurements of the penetration depth and distribution of photoelectron damage excited by 18.6 keV photons in a lysozyme crystal. The experimental results showed that the penetration depth of {approx}17.35 keV photoelectrons is 1.5 {+-} 0.2 {micro}m, which is well below previous theoretical estimates of 2.8 {micro}m. Such a small penetration depth raises challenging technical issues in mitigating damage by line-focus mini-beams. The optimum requirements to reduce damage in large crystals by a factor of 2.0-2.5 are Gaussian line-focus mini-beams with a root-mean-square width of 0.2 {micro}m and a distance between lines of 2.0 {micro}m. The use of higher energy X-rays (>26 keV) would help to alleviate some of these requirements by more than doubling the penetration depth. It was found that the X-ray dose has a significant contribution from the crystal's solvent, which initially contained 9.0%(w/v) NaCl. The 15.8 keV photoelectrons of the Cl atoms and their accompanying 2.8 keV local dose from the decay of the resulting excited atoms more than doubles the dose deposited in the X-ray-irradiated region because of the much greater cross-section and higher energy of the excited atom, degrading the mitigation of radiation damage from 2.5 to 2.0. Eliminating heavier atoms from the solvent and data collection far from heavy-atom absorption edges will significantly improve the mitigation of damage by line-focus mini-beams.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Finfrock, Y.Z.; Evans-Lutterodt, K.; Stern, E.A.; Yacoby, Y.; Alkire, R.W.; Stein, A.; Isakovic, A.F.; Kas, J. J.; Joachimiak, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-09-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1006271"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> and mitigation of radiation damage by a line-focus mini-beam.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recently, strategies to reduce primary radiation damage have been proposed which <span class="hlt">depend</span> on focusing X-rays to dimensions smaller than the penetration depth of excited photoelectrons. For a line focus as used here the penetration depth is the maximum distance from the irradiated region along the X-ray polarization direction that the photoelectrons penetrate. Reported here are measurements of the penetration depth and distribution of photoelectron damage excited by 18.6 keV photons in a lysozyme crystal. The experimental results showed that the penetration depth of {approx}17.35 keV photoelectrons is 1.5 {+-} 0.2 {micro}m, which is well below previous theoretical estimates of 2.8 {micro}m. Such a small penetration depth raises challenging technical issues in mitigating damage by line-focus mini-beams. The optimum requirements to reduce damage in large crystals by a factor of 2.0-2.5 are Gaussian line-focus mini-beams with a root-mean-square width of 0.2 {micro}m and a distance between lines of 2.0 {micro}m. The use of higher energy X-rays (>26 keV) would help to alleviate some of these requirements by more than doubling the penetration depth. It was found that the X-ray dose has a significant contribution from the crystal's solvent, which initially contained 9.0%(w/v) NaCl. The 15.8 keV photoelectrons of the Cl atoms and their accompanying 2.8 keV local dose from the decay of the resulting excited atoms more than doubles the dose deposited in the X-ray-irradiated region because of the much greater cross-section and higher energy of the excited atom, degrading the mitigation of radiation damage from 2.5 to 2.0. Eliminating heavier atoms from the solvent and data collection far from heavy-atom absorption edges will significantly improve the mitigation of damage by line-focus mini-beams.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Finfrock, Y.; Stern, E.; Yacoby, Y.; Alkire, R.; Evans-Lutterodt, K.; Stein, A.; Isakovic, A. F.; Kas, J.; Joachimiak, A.; Biosciences Division; Univ. of Washington; Hebrew Univ.; BNL</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011EPJD...61..551V"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantum fluid dynamics based current-density functional study of a helium atom in a <span class="hlt">strong</span> time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> magnetic field</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Evolution of the helium atom in a <span class="hlt">strong</span> time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> (TD) magnetic field ( B) of strength up to 1011 G is investigated through a quantum fluid dynamics (QFD) based current-density functional theory (CDFT). The TD-QFD-CDFT computations are performed through numerical solution of a single generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation employing vector exchange-correlation potentials and scalar exchange-correlation density functionals that <span class="hlt">depend</span> both on the electronic charge-density and the current-density. The results are compared with that obtained from a B-TD-QFD-DFT approach (based on conventional TD-DFT) under similar numerical constraints but employing only scalar exchange-correlation potential <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on electronic charge-density only. The B-TD-QFD-DFT approach, at a particular TD magnetic field-strength, yields electronic charge- and current-densities as well as exchange-correlation potential resembling with that obtained from the time-independent studies involving static (time-independent) magnetic fields. However, TD-QFD-CDFT electronic charge- and current-densities along with the exchange-correlation potential and energy differ significantly from that obtained using B-TD-QFD-DFT approach, particularly at field-strengths >109 G, representing dynamical effects of a TD field. The work concludes that when a helium atom is subjected to a <span class="hlt">strong</span> TD magnetic field of order >109 G, the conventional TD-DFT based approach differs "dynamically" from the CDFT based approach under similar computational constraints.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vikas, Hash(0x125f4490)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900049387&hterms=spring+water&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dspring%2Bwater"> <span id="translatedtitle">Observation of a <span class="hlt">strong</span> inverse temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span> for the opacity of atmospheric water vapor in the mm continuum near 280 GHz</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Results are presented of the field measurements of atmospheric opacity at 278 GHz (9.3/cm) conducted at the McMurdo Station (Antarctica) during the austral springs of 1986 and 1987, in conjunction with balloon measurements of water vapor profile and total column density, showing a <span class="hlt">strong</span> inverse temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span> when normalized to precipitable water vapor. The value of measured opacity per mm of precipitable water vapor (PWV) is roughly two times greater at -35 C than at -10 C and three times greater than measurements at +25 C reported by Zammit and Ade (1981). Various theories proposed to explain excess absorption in continuum regions are reviewed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Emmons, Louisa K.; De Zafra, Robert L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2774502"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tract-based <span class="hlt">spatial</span> statistics (TBSS) of diffusion tensor imaging data in alcohol <span class="hlt">dependence</span>: abnormalities of the motivational neurocircuitry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Previous diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies indicated microstructural disruption of white matter in alcohol <span class="hlt">dependence</span>. To investigate the microstructure of primary neurocircuitry involved in alcohol use disorders, the present study used Tract-Based <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Statistics (TBSS) of DTI measures as well as probabilistic tractography. Eleven recovering alcoholics in their first week of abstinence from alcohol were compared with ten light drinking controls; diffusion measures were correlated with measures of neurocognition and drinking severity. Regions characterized by low fractional anisotropy and high mean diffusivity included cortico-striatal fibers and those in frontal white matter and limbic pathways. Greater diffusion abnormalities in sections of commissural fibers (inter-hemispheric connections) were associated with stronger drinking severity, and lower fractional anisotropy measures in frontal and limbic fiber tracts correlated with lower visuospatial memory performance. These study findings provide direct evidence of compromised integrity of the motivational brain circuitry in alcohol use disorders. These abnormalities in fiber connections could be partially responsible for deficiencies in executive functions, behavioral regulation, and impulse control commonly described in alcohol <span class="hlt">dependence</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yeh, Ping-Hong; Simpson, Ken; Durazzo, Timothy C.; Gazdzinski, Stefan; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23482170"> <span id="translatedtitle">Efficient three-photon luminescence with <span class="hlt">strong</span> polarization <span class="hlt">dependence</span> from a scintillating silicate glass co-doped with Gd3+ and Tb3+.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Efficient three-photon luminescence (3PL) from a scintillating silicate glass co-doped with Gd(3+) and Tb(3+) was generated by using a focused femtosecond laser beam at 800 nm. Four emission bands centered at 496, 541, 583, and 620 nm were identified as the electronic transitions between the energy levels of Tb(3+) followed by three-photon absorption (3PA) in Gd(3+) and Tb(3+) and the resonant energy transfer from Gd(3+) to Tb(3+). More interestingly, a <span class="hlt">strong</span> polarization <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the 3PL was observed and it is ascribed to the polarization <span class="hlt">dependent</span> 3PA in Gd(3+) and Tb(3+) and/or the angular distribution of photogenerated electrons in the glass. PMID:23482170</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Guang-Can; Zhang, Cheng-Yun; Deng, Hai-Dong; Liu, Guang-Yin; Lan, Sheng; Qian, Qi-; Yang, Zhong-Min; Gopal, Achanta Venu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020070562&hterms=Statistics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DStatistics"> <span id="translatedtitle">Scale <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> of Statistics of <span class="hlt">Spatially</span> Averaged Rain Rate Seen in TOGA COARE Comparison with Predictions from a Stochastic Model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A characteristic feature of rainfall statistics is that they in general <span class="hlt">depend</span> on the space and time scales over which rain data are averaged. As a part of an earlier effort to determine the sampling error of satellite rain averages, a space-time model of rainfall statistics was developed to describe the statistics of gridded rain observed in GATE. The model allows one to compute the second moment statistics of space- and time-averaged rain rate which can be fitted to satellite or rain gauge data to determine the four model parameters appearing in the precipitation spectrum - an overall strength parameter, a characteristic length separating the long and short wavelength regimes and a characteristic relaxation time for decay of the autocorrelation of the instantaneous local rain rate and a certain 'fractal' power law exponent. For area-averaged instantaneous rain rate, this exponent governs the power law <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of these statistics on the averaging length scale $L$ predicted by the model in the limit of small $L$. In particular, the variance of rain rate averaged over an $L \\times L$ area exhibits a power law singularity as $L \\rightarrow 0$. In the present work the model is used to investigate how the statistics of area-averaged rain rate over the tropical Western Pacific measured with ship borne radar during TOGA COARE (Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean Atmospheric Response Experiment) and gridded on a 2 km grid <span class="hlt">depends</span> on the size of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> averaging scale. Good agreement is found between the data and predictions from the model over a wide range of averaging length scales.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kundu, Prasun K.; Bell, T. L.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ApPhL.101k3107S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Prediction of <span class="hlt">strong</span> ground state electron and hole wave function <span class="hlt">spatial</span> overlap in nonpolar GaN/AlN quantum dots</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a detailed analysis of the electrostatic built-in field, the electronic structure, and the optical properties of a-plane GaN/AlN quantum dots with an arrowhead-shaped geometry. This geometry is based on extensive experimental analysis given in the literature. Our results indicate that the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> overlap of electron and hole ground state wave functions is significantly increased, compared to that of a c-plane system, when taking the experimentally suggested trapezoid-shaped dot base into account. This finding is in agreement with experimental data on the optical properties of a-plane GaN/AlN quantum dots.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schulz, S.; Caro, M. A.; O'Reilly, E. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1665581"> <span id="translatedtitle">Expression of Na+-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> citrate transport in a <span class="hlt">strongly</span> metastatic human prostate cancer PC-3M cell line: regulation by voltage-gated Na+ channel activity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Prostate is a unique organ which synthesizes and releases large amounts of citrate. It has been shown that in metastatic prostate cancer, the amount of citrate in prostatic fluid is significantly reduced, approaching the level normally found in blood. In our previous study, we characterized electrophysiologically the mechanism of citrate transport in a normal prostatic epithelial (PNT2-C2) cell line. It was concluded that the cells expressed a novel transporter carrying 1 citrate3? together with 4 K+, primarily out of cells. In the present study, we aimed similarly to characterize the mechanism(s) of citrate transport in a <span class="hlt">strongly</span> metastatic human prostate cancer (PC-3M) cell line and to compare this with the previous data. Citrate transport in PC-3M cells was found to be both Na+ and K+ <span class="hlt">dependent</span>. Intracellular application of citrate produced an outward current that was primarily K+ <span class="hlt">dependent</span> whilst extracellular citrate elicited an inward current that was mainly Na+ <span class="hlt">dependent</span>. The electrophysiological and pharmacological characteristics of the citrate outward current were similar to the K+-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> citrate transporter found in the PNT2-C2 cells. On the other hand, the inward citrate current had a markedly different reversal potential, ionic characteristics, inhibitor profile and pH sensitivity. Preincubation of the PC-3M cells (24 or 48 h) with the voltage-gated Na+ channel (VGSC) blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX) significantly reduced the Na+ sensitivity of the citrate current, up-regulated VGSC mRNA expression but did not change the partial permeability of the membrane to Na+. It was concluded (a) that PC-3M cells express a K+-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> transporter (carrying citrate outward), similar to that found in normal prostate epithelial cells, as well as (b) a Na+-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> transporter (carrying citrate inward). The molecular nature of the latter was investigated by RT-PCR; the three known Na+-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> citrate/dicarboxylate transporters could not be detected. VGSC activity, which itself has been associated with metastatic prostate cancer, had a differential effect on the two citrate transporters, down-regulating the expression of the Na+-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> component whilst enhancing the K+-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> citrate transporter.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mycielska, Maria E; Palmer, Christopher P; Brackenbury, William J; Djamgoz, Mustafa BA</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17879942"> <span id="translatedtitle">Signaling of DNA damage is not sufficient to induce p53 response: (re)activation of wt p53 protein <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">depends</span> on cellular context.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is generally accepted that exposure of cells to a variety of DNA-damaging agents leads to up-regulation and activation of wild-type (wt) p53 protein. We investigated the (re)-activation of p53 protein in two human cancer cell lines in which the gene for this tumor suppressor is not mutated: HeLaS(3) cervix carcinoma and MCF-7 breast cancer cells, by induction via different genotoxic and cytotoxic stimuli. Treatment of human cells with the alkylating agent N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) or different anti-cancer drugs resulted in a <span class="hlt">strong</span> DNA damage as evidenced by Comet assay and a marked increase in site-specific phosphorylation of H2AX. Unlike in MCF-7 cells, in HeLaS(3) cells the expression of p53 protein did not increase after MNNG treatment despite a <span class="hlt">strong</span> DNA damage. However, other agents for example doxorubicin markedly induced p53 response in HeLaS(3) cells. After exposure of these cells to MNNG, the ATM-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> effector proteins Chk2 and NBS1 were phosphorylated, thereby evidencing that MNNG-induced DNA breakage was recognized and properly signaled. In HeLaS(3) cells wt p53 protein is not functional due to E6-mediated targeting for accelerated ubiquitylation and degradation. Therefore, the activation of a p53 response to genotoxic stress in HeLaS(3) cells seems to <span class="hlt">depend</span> on the status of E6 oncoprotein. Indeed, the induction of p53 protein in HeLaS(3) cells in response to distinct agents inversely correlates with the cellular level of E6 oncoprotein. This implicates that the capability of different agents to activate p53 in HeLaS(3) cells primarily <span class="hlt">depends</span> on their inhibitory effect on expression of E6 oncoprotein. PMID:17879942</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wesierska-Gadek, Józefa; Gueorguieva, Marieta; Komina, Oxana; Schmid, Gerald; Kramer, Matthias P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20372183"> <span id="translatedtitle">Low levels of realized seed and pollen gene flow and <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> genetic structure in a small, isolated and fragmented population of the tropical tree Copaifera langsdorffii Desf.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Over the past century, the Brazilian Atlantic forest has been reduced to small, isolated fragments of forest. Reproductive isolation theories predict a loss of genetic diversity and increases in inbreeding and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> genetic structure (SGS) in such populations. We analysed eight microsatellite loci to investigate the pollen and seed dispersal patterns, genetic diversity, inbreeding and SGS of the tropical tree Copaifera langsdorffii in a small (4.8?ha), isolated population. All 112 adult trees and 128 seedlings found in the stand were sampled, mapped and genotyped. Seedlings had significantly lower levels of genetic diversity (A=16.5±0.45, mean±95% s.e.; H(e)=0.838±0.006) than did adult trees (A=23.2±0.81; H(e)=0.893±0.030). Parentage analysis did not indicate any seed immigration (m(seeds)=0) and the pollen immigration rate was very low (m(pollen)=0.047). The average distance of realized pollen dispersal within the stand was 94?m, with 81% of the pollen travelling <150?m. A significant negative correlation was found between the frequency and distance of pollen dispersal (r=-0.79, P<0.01), indicating that short-distance pollinations were more frequent. A significant SGS for both adults (?50?m) and seedlings (?20?m) was also found, indicating that most of the seeds were dispersed over short distances. The results suggested that the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> isolation of populations by habitat fragmentation can restrict seed and pollen gene flow, increase SGS and affect the genetic diversity of future generations. PMID:20372183</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sebbenn, A M; Carvalho, A C M; Freitas, M L M; Moraes, S M B; Gaino, A P S C; da Silva, J M; Jolivet, C; Moraes, M L T</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1021792"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Min Oscillator Uses MinD-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Conformational Changes in MinE to <span class="hlt">Spatially</span> Regulate Cytokinesis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In E. coli, MinD recruits MinE to the membrane, leading to a coupled oscillation required for <span class="hlt">spatial</span> regulation of the cytokinetic Z ring. How these proteins interact, however, is not clear because the MinD-binding regions of MinE are sequestered within a six-stranded {beta} sheet and masked by N-terminal helices. minE mutations that restore interaction between some MinD and MinE mutants were isolated. These mutations alter the MinE structure leading to release of the MinD-binding regions and the N-terminal helices that bind the membrane. Crystallization of MinD-MinE complexes revealed a four-stranded {beta} sheet MinE dimer with the released {beta} strands (MinD-binding regions) converted to {alpha} helices bound to MinD dimers. These results identify the MinD-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> conformational changes in MinE that convert it from a latent to an active form and lead to a model of how MinE persists at the MinD-membrane surface.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Park, Kyung-Tase; Wu, Wei; Battaile, Kevin P.; Lovell, Scott; Holyoak, Todd; Lutkenhaus, Joe (Kansas); (HWMRI)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22258199"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> and temporal analysis of estuarine bacterioneuston and bacterioplankton using culture-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> and culture-independent methodologies.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bacterioneuston may play a key role in water-air exchange of gases and in processing organic matter and pollutants that accumulate at the sea-surface microlayer (SML). However, the phylogenetic diversity of bacterioneuston has been poorly characterized. We analyzed 24 samples each from the SML and underlying water (UW) at three sites in the Ria de Aveiro estuary, Portugal. Cultivation and culture-independent techniques were used to compare bacterioneuston and bacterioplankton. Culturable heterotrophic bacteria were enriched in the SML. The culturable community was dominated by Psychrobacter and Acinetobacter. The presence of high numbers of Psychrobacter was a notable result. Differences were confined to a few genera overrepresented in UW samples (Kocuria, Agrococcus and Vibrio). 16S rDNA DGGE profiles were highly stable in terms of number and position of bands between sampling sites and dates but cluster analysis revealed a slight tendency for grouping according to sampled layer. SML-specific DGGE bands affiliated with Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Low similarity between nucleotide sequences of DGGE-bands and previously reported sequences suggest the occurrence of SML-specific populations. Enrichment of SML for Pseudomonas and Aeromonas was questioned and the diversity of both communities was analyzed. Consistent differences between SML and UW aeromonads communities were not identified. In terms of Pseudomonas, a culturable operational taxonomic unit was consistently overrepresented within SML samples. Taken together, our results indicate that the similarity between SML and UW communities <span class="hlt">depends</span> on <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and temporal factors. PMID:22258199</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Azevedo, Juliana S N; Ramos, Isabel; Araújo, Susana; Oliveira, Cláudia S; Correia, António; Henriques, Isabel S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' 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id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a 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showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2859807"> <span id="translatedtitle">Involvement of Cyclin-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Kinase-Like 2 in Cognitive Function Required for Contextual and <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Learning in Mice</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cyclin-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> kinase-like 2 (Cdkl2) is a cdc2-related serine/threonine protein kinase that is postnatally expressed in various brain regions, including the cerebral cortex, entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and dorsal thalamus. The extremely high Cdkl2 expression in these regions suggests that it has a role in cognition and emotion. Recent genetic studies indicate that mutations of Cdkl family kinases are associated with neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders in humans. To elucidate the physiologic role of Cdkl2, we behaviorally analyzed Cdkl2LacZ/LacZ mice lacking Cdkl2. Cdkl2LacZ/LacZ mice had reduced latencies to enter the dark compartment after electric footshock in an inhibitory avoidance task and attenuated contextual fear responses when exposed to mild training conditions. Hippocampal <span class="hlt">spatial</span> learning in the Morris water maze was slightly anomalous with mice exhibiting an abnormal swimming pattern. The aversive response in a two-way avoidance task was slightly, but not significantly, enhanced. On the other hand, Cdkl2LacZ/LacZ mice did not exhibit altered sensitivity to aversive stimuli, such as electric footshock and heat, or deficits in the elevated plus maze or rotating rod test. These findings suggest that Cdkl2 is involved in cognitive function and provide in vivo evidence for the function of Cdkl family kinases expressed in terminally differentiated neurons in mice.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gomi, Hiroshi; Sassa, Takayuki; Thompson, Richard F.; Itohara, Shigeyoshi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22154851"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fine-scale genetic analysis of Daphnia host populations infected by two virulent parasites - <span class="hlt">strong</span> fluctuations in clonal structure at small temporal and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Numerous theoretical studies suggest that parasites impose a <span class="hlt">strong</span> selection pressure on their host, driving genetic changes within host populations. Yet evidence of this process in the wild is scarce. In the present study we surveyed, using high resolution microsatellite markers, the genetic structure of cyclically parthenogenetic Daphnia hosts within two different Daphnia communities belonging to the Daphnia longispina hybrid complex. One community, consisting of a single host species, was infected with the protozoan parasite Caullerya mesnili. The second community consisted of two parental Daphnia spp. and their hybrids, and was infected with the yeast parasite Metschnikowia. Significant differences in the clonal composition between random and infected sub-samples of Daphnia were detected on several occasions within both communities, indicating that host genotypes differ in resistance to both parasites. In addition, one parental species in the multi-taxon community was consistently under-infected, compared with the other taxa. Overall, our field data confirm that infection patterns are <span class="hlt">strongly</span> affected by host genetic composition in various Daphnia-microparasite systems. Thus, parasite-driven selection operates in natural Daphnia populations and microparasites influence the clonal structure of host populations. PMID:22154851</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yin, Mingbo; Petrusek, Adam; Seda, Jaromir; Wolinska, Justyna</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22102350"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> excitation intensity <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the photoluminescence line shape in GaAs{sub 1-x}Bi{sub x} single quantum well samples</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A set of high quality single quantum well samples of GaAs{sub 1-x}Bi{sub x} with bismuth concentrations not exceeding 6% and well widths ranging from 7.5 to 13 nm grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a GaAs substrate at low temperature is studied by means of photoluminescence (PL). It is shown that the PL line shape changes when the exciton reduced mass behavior changes from an anomalous increase (x < 5%) to a conventional decrease (x > 5%). <span class="hlt">Strongly</span> non-monotonous PL bandwidth <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on the excitation intensity is revealed and interpreted in terms of optically unresolved contributions from the saturable emission of bound free excitons.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mazur, Yu. I.; Dorogan, V. G.; Ware, M. E.; Salamo, G. J. [Department of Physics, University of Arkansas, 226 Physics Building, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 (United States); Schmidbauer, M. [Leibniz-Institute for Crystal Growth, Max-Born-Str. 2, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Tarasov, G. G. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences, pr. Nauki 45, Kiev 03028 (Ukraine); Johnson, S. R.; Lu, X. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-6206 (United States); Yu, S.-Q. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Arkansas, 3217 Bell Engineering, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 (United States); Tiedje, T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P6 (Canada)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/887251"> <span id="translatedtitle">Verification test problems for the calculation of probability of loss of assured safety in temperature-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> systems with multiple weak and <span class="hlt">strong</span> links.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Four verification test problems are presented for checking the conceptual development and computational implementation of calculations to determine the probability of loss of assured safety (PLOAS) in temperature-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> systems with multiple weak links (WLs) and <span class="hlt">strong</span> links (SLs). The problems are designed to test results obtained with the following definitions of loss of assured safety: (1) Failure of all SLs before failure of any WL, (2) Failure of any SL before failure of any WL, (3) Failure of all SLs before failure of all WLs, and (4) Failure of any SL before failure of all WLs. The test problems are based on assuming the same failure properties for all links, which results in problems that have the desirable properties of fully exercising the numerical integration procedures required in the evaluation of PLOAS and also possessing simple algebraic representations for PLOAS that can be used for verification of the analysis.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Johnson, Jay Dean (ProStat, Mesa, AZ); Oberkampf, William Louis; Helton, Jon Craig (Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21302281"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hyperosmotic stress <span class="hlt">strongly</span> potentiates serum response factor (SRF)-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> transcriptional activity in Ehrlich Lettré Ascites cells through a mechanism involving p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Long-term osmotic stress results in altered gene transcription, however, with the exception of the TonE/TonEBP system, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We previously showed that upon osmotic shrinkage of Ehrlich Lettré Ascites (ELA) fibroblasts, the MEK1-ERK1/2 pathway is transiently inhibited while p38 MAPK is activated, in turn impacting on cell survival (Pedersen et al., 2007, Cell Physiol Biochem 20: 735-750). Here, we show that downstream of these kinases, two transcription factors with major roles in control of cell proliferation and death, serum response factor (SRF) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) are differentially regulated in ELA cells. SRF Ser(103) phosphorylation and SRF-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> transcriptional activity were <span class="hlt">strongly</span> augmented 5-30?min and 24?h, respectively, after hyperosmotic stress (50% increase in extracellular ionic strength), in a p38 MAPK-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> manner. In contrast, CREB Ser(133) was transiently dephosphorylated upon osmotic shrinkage. The ERK1/2 effector ribosomal S kinase (RSK) and the ERK1/2- and p38 MAPK effector mitogen- stress-activated protein kinase 1 (MSK1) both phosphorylate CREB at Ser(133) . RSK and MSK1 were dephosphorylated within 5?min of shrinkage. MSK1 phosphorylation recovered within 30?min in a p38-MAPK-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> manner. CREB was transiently dephosphorylated after shrinkage in a manner exacerbated by p38 MAPK inhibition or MSK1 knockdown, but unaffected by inhibition of RSK. In conclusion, in ELA cells, hyperosmotic stress activates SRF in a p38 MAPK-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> manner and transiently inactivates CREB, likely due to MSK1 inactivation. We suggest that these events contribute to shrinkage-induced changes in gene transcription and death/survival balance. PMID:21302281</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gorbatenko, Andrej; Wiwel, Maria; Klingberg, Henrik; Nielsen, Anni Bech; Kapus, András; Pedersen, Stine Falsig</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CoPhC.185..398C"> <span id="translatedtitle">CLASSSTRONG: Classical simulations of <span class="hlt">strong</span> field processes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A set of Mathematica functions is presented to model classically two of the most important processes in <span class="hlt">strong</span> field physics, namely high-order harmonic generation (HHG) and above-threshold ionization (ATI). Our approach is based on the numerical solution of the Newton-Lorentz equation of an electron moving on an electric field and takes advantage of the symbolic languages features and graphical power of Mathematica. Like in the <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Field Approximation (SFA), the effects of atomic potential on the motion of electron in the laser field are neglected. The SFA was proven to be an essential tool in <span class="hlt">strong</span> field physics in the sense that it is able to predict with great precision the harmonic (in the HHG) and energy (in the ATI) limits. We have extended substantially the conventional classical simulations, where the electric field is only <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on time, including <span class="hlt">spatial</span> nonhomogeneous fields and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and temporal synthesized fields. <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> nonhomogeneous fields appear when metal nanosystems interact with <span class="hlt">strong</span> and short laser pulses and temporal synthesized fields are routinely generated in attosecond laboratories around the world. Temporal and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> synthesized fields have received special attention nowadays because they would allow to exceed considerably the conventional harmonic and electron energy frontiers. Classical simulations are an invaluable tool to explore exhaustively the parameters domain at a cheap computational cost, before massive quantum mechanical calculations, absolutely indispensable for the detailed analysis, are performed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ciappina, M. F.; Pérez-Hernández, J. A.; Lewenstein, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3642213"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantitative PCR Reveals <span class="hlt">Strong</span> <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> and Temporal Variation of the Wasting Disease Pathogen, Labyrinthula zosterae in Northern European Eelgrass (Zostera marina) Beds</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Seagrass beds are the foundation species of functionally important coastal ecosystems worldwide. The world’s largest losses of the widespread seagrass Zostera marina (eelgrass) have been reported as a consequence of wasting disease, an infection with the endophytic protist Labyrinthula zosterae. During one of the most extended epidemics in the marine realm, ?90% of East and Western Atlantic eelgrass beds died-off between 1932 and 1934. Today, small outbreaks continue to be reported, but the current extent of L. zosterae in European meadows is completely unknown. In this study we quantify the abundance and prevalence of the wasting disease pathogen among 19 Z. marina populations in northern European coastal waters, using quantitative PCR (QPCR) with primers targeting a species specific portion of the internally transcribed spacer (ITS1) of L. zosterae. <span class="hlt">Spatially</span>, we found marked variation among sites with abundances varying between 0 and 126 cells mg?1 Z. marina dry weight (mean: 5.7 L. zosterae cells mg?1 Z. marina dry weight ±1.9 SE) and prevalences ranged from 0–88.9%. Temporarily, abundances varied between 0 and 271 cells mg?1 Z. marina dry weight (mean: 8.5±2.6 SE), while prevalences ranged from zero in winter and early spring to 96% in summer. Field concentrations accessed via bulk DNA extraction and subsequent QPCR correlated well with prevalence data estimated via isolation and cultivation from live plant tissue. L. zosterae was not only detectable in black lesions, a sign of Labyrinthula-induced necrosis, but also occurred in green, apparently healthy tissue. We conclude that L. zosterae infection is common (84% infected populations) in (northern) European eelgrass populations with highest abundances during the summer months. In the light of global climate change and increasing rate of marine diseases our data provide a baseline for further studies on the causes of pathogenic outbreaks of L. zosterae.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bockelmann, Anna-Christina; Tams, Verena; Ploog, Jana; Schubert, Philipp R.; Reusch, Thorsten B. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/932161"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tuning magnetoresistance and magnetic-field-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> electroluminescence through mixing a <span class="hlt">strong</span>-spin-orbital-coupling molecule and a weak-spin-orbital-coupling polymer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report a tunable magnetoresistance by uniformly mixing <span class="hlt">strong</span>-spin-orbital-coupling molecule fac-tris (2-phenylpyridinato) iridium [Ir(ppy)3] and weak-spin-orbital-coupling polymer poly(N-vinyl carbazole) (PVK). Three possible mechanisms, namely charge transport distribution, energy transfer, and intermolecular spin-orbital interaction, are discussed to interpret the Ir(ppy)3 concentration-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> magnetoresistance in the PVK+Ir(ppy)3 composite. The comparison between the magnetic field effects measured from energy-transfer and non-energy-transfer Ir(ppy)3 doped polymer composites indicates that energy transfer and intermolecular spin-orbital interaction lead to rough and fine tuning for the magnetoresistance, respectively. Furthermore, the photocurrent <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of magnetic field implies that the excited states contribute to the magnetoresistance through dissociation. As a result, the modification of singlet or triplet ratio of excited states through energy transfer and intermolecular spin-orbital interaction form a mechanism to tune the magnetoresistance in organic semiconducting materials.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wu, Yue [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Xu, Zhihua [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hu, Bin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Howe, Jane Y [ORNL</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003APS..MARW32005M"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Modulation and Layer <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> of Electronic States in Bi_2Sr_2CaCu_2O_8+?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">High-resolution cryogenic scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) has been used to unravel a variety of nanoscale phenomena in the high-Tc supercounductor Bi_2Sr_2CaCu_2O_8+?. STM measurements, on BiO terminated surfaces, of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the electronic density of states (DOS) are shown to reveal the nature of quasiparticles and their scattering in these compounds. In the superconducting state, such measurements near step edges demonstrate the presence of a one-dimensional state at zero energy, which is a direct consequence of the Andreev scattering of the quasiparticles in a d wave pair potential.^1 Away from defects, our measurements show that the in-gap states form standing wave patterns, in agreement with recent reports by other groups.^2,3 The origin of these patterns is a matter of debate, as they have been associated with both quasi-particle interference^2 and charge ordering.^3 Our measurements of these standing waves and their sensitivity to temperature will provide additional constraints for current theoretical models. In addition to these results, which have been obtained on the BiO surface, we will also present STM data obtained on samples surfaces terminated by a single CuO2 plane. These experiments demonstrate the importance of the identity of the termination layer and the tunneling matrix elements in STM experiments.^4 ^1 S. Misra et al., PRB 66, 100510 (2002). ^2 J.E. Hoffman et al., Science 297, 1148 (2002). ^3 C. Howald et al., cond-mat/0201546 and cond-mat/0208442. ^4 S. Misra et al., PRL 89, 087002 (2002).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Misra, Shashank</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1004134"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> Interaction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We will give here an overview of our theory of the <span class="hlt">strong</span> interactions, Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD) and its properties. We will also briefly review the history of the study of the <span class="hlt">strong</span> interactions, and the discoveries that ultimately led to the formulation of QCD. The <span class="hlt">strong</span> force is one of the four known fundamental forces in nature, the others being the electromagnetic, the weak and the gravitational force. The <span class="hlt">strong</span> force, usually referred to by scientists as the '<span class="hlt">strong</span> interaction', is relevant at the subatomic level, where it is responsible for the binding of protons and neutrons to atomic nuclei. To do this, it must overcome the electric repulsion between the protons in an atomic nucleus and be the most powerful force over distances of a few fm (1fm=1 femtometer=1 fermi=10{sup -15}m), the typical size of a nucleus. This property gave the <span class="hlt">strong</span> force its name.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Karsch, F.; Vogelsang, V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-09-29</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3138012"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Pattern Analysis of Heavy Metals in Beijing Agricultural Soils Based on <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Autocorrelation Statistics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study explored the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> pattern of heavy metals in Beijing agricultural soils using Moran’s I statistic of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> autocorrelation. The global Moran’s I result showed that the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of Cr, Ni, Zn, and Hg changed with different <span class="hlt">spatial</span> weight matrixes, and they had significant and positive global <span class="hlt">spatial</span> correlations based on distance weight. The <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the four metals was scale-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> on distance, but these scale effects existed within a threshold distance of 13 km, 32 km, 50 km, and 29 km, respectively for Cr, Ni, Zn, and Hg. The maximal <span class="hlt">spatial</span> positive correlation range was 57 km, 70 km, 57 km, and 55 km for Cr, Ni, Zn, and Hg, respectively and these were not affected by sampling density. Local <span class="hlt">spatial</span> autocorrelation analysis detected the locations of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> clusters and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> outliers and revealed that the pollution of these four metals occurred in significant High-high <span class="hlt">spatial</span> clusters, Low-high, or even High-low <span class="hlt">spatial</span> outliers. Thus, three major areas were identified and should be receiving more attention: the first was the northeast region of Beijing, where Cr, Zn, Ni, and Hg had significant increases. The second was the southeast region of Beijing where wastewater irrigation had <span class="hlt">strongly</span> changed the content of metals, particularly of Cr and Zn, in soils. The third area was the urban fringe around city, where Hg showed a significant increase.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huo, Xiao-Ni; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Sun, Dan-Feng; Li, Hong; Zhou, Lian-Di; Li, Bao-Guo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24269653"> <span id="translatedtitle">?-Catenin-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> pathway activation by both promiscuous "canonical" WNT3a-, and specific "noncanonical" WNT4- and WNT5a-FZD receptor combinations with <span class="hlt">strong</span> differences in LRP5 and LRP6 <span class="hlt">dependency</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The WNT/?-catenin signalling cascade is the best-investigated frizzled receptor (FZD) pathway, however, whether and how specific combinations of WNT/FZD and co-receptors LRP5 and LRP6 differentially affect this pathway are not well understood. This is mostly due to the fact that there are 19 WNTs, 10 FZDs and at least two co-receptors. In our attempt to identify the signalling capabilities of specific WNT/FZD/LRP combinations we made use of our previously reported TCF/LEF Gaussia luciferase reporter gene HEK293 cell line (Ring et al., 2011). Generation of WNT/FZD fusion constructs - but not their separate transfection - without or with additional isogenic overexpression of LRP5 and LRP6 in our reporter cells permitted the investigation of specific WNT/FZD/LRP combinations. The canonical WNT3a in fusion to almost all FZDs was able to induce ?-catenin-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> signalling with <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">dependency</span> on LRP6 but not LRP5. Interestingly, noncanonical WNT ligands, WNT4 and WNT5a, were also able to act "canonically" but only in fusion with specific FZDs and with selective <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on LRP5 or LRP6. These data and extension of this experimental setup to the poorly characterized other WNTs should facilitate deeper insight into the complex WNT/FZD signalling system and its function. PMID:24269653</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ring, Larisa; Neth, Peter; Weber, Christian; Steffens, Sabine; Faussner, Alexander</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013998"> <span id="translatedtitle">DEFINITION OF MULTIVARIATE GEOCHEMICAL ASSOCIATIONS WITH POLYMETALLIC MINERAL OCCURRENCES USING A <span class="hlt">SPATIALLY</span> <span class="hlt">DEPENDENT</span> CLUSTERING TECHNIQUE AND RASTERIZED STREAM SEDIMENT DATA - AN ALASKAN EXAMPLE.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The application of an unsupervised, <span class="hlt">spatially</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> clustering technique (AMOEBA) to interpolated raster arrays of stream sediment data has been found to provide useful multivariate geochemical associations for modeling regional polymetallic resource potential. The technique is based on three assumptions regarding the compositional and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> relationships of stream sediment data and their regional significance. These assumptions are: (1) compositionally separable classes exist and can be statistically distinguished; (2) the classification of multivariate data should minimize the pair probability of misclustering to establish useful compositional associations; and (3) a compositionally defined class represented by three or more contiguous cells within an array is a more important descriptor of a terrane than a class represented by <span class="hlt">spatial</span> outliers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jenson, Susan, K.; Trautwein, C. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16236157"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hormonal regulation of gluconeogenesis in cereal aleurone is <span class="hlt">strongly</span> cultivar-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> and gibberellin action involves SLENDER1 but not GAMYB.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Storage oil is a major constituent in the cereal aleurone layer. The aim of this study was to investigate how gibberellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) regulate conversion of oil to sugar in barley aleurone. The activity of the glyoxylate cycle enzyme isocitrate lyase (ICL) was surveyed in eight barley cultivars. Surprisingly, some cultivars do not require GA for the induction of ICL (e.g. Himalaya), whereas some do (e.g. Golden Promise). Furthermore, in Golden Promise, GA also stimulates triacylglycerol breakdown and enhances the net flux of carbon from acetate to sugar. In contrast, ABA <span class="hlt">strongly</span> represses ICL activity and the flux of carbon from oil to sugar in both Golden Promise and Himalaya. Biolistics using a promoter reporter showed that GA and ABA regulate ICL at the level of transcription. Studies using barley and rice mutants and pharmacological agents show that GA-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> induction of ICL activity is mediated by SLENDER1 and requires cGMP, but does not involve the transcription factor GAMYB. Gibberellin and ABA therefore act antagonistically to regulate gluconeogenesis in the aleurone layer as well as controlling the production and secretion of hydrolases into the starchy endosperm. We suggest that the variation between different barley cultivars might be a result of selective breeding to alter seed dormancy. PMID:16236157</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eastmond, Peter J; Jones, Russell L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52156049"> <span id="translatedtitle">Soil water content and temperature induced <span class="hlt">spatial</span> structure of heterotrophic respiration at field scale</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Heterotrophic soil respiration is known to be highly variable in space and time. The <span class="hlt">spatial</span> structure of this carbon dioxide flux <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">depends</span> on the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> pattern of soil water content and energy fluxes at the boundary layer between soil and atmosphere. The goal of this study was to determine the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variability of soil respiration, soil water content and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Herbst; N. Prolingheuer; A. Graf; J. A. Huisman; L. Weihermueller; J. Vanderborght; H. Vereecken</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/28026706"> <span id="translatedtitle">Respective roles of scatter, attenuation, depth-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> collimator response and finite <span class="hlt">spatial</span> resolution in cardiac single-photon emission tomography quantitation: a Monte Carlo study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">.   The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative influence of scatter, attenuation, depth-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> collimator response\\u000a and finite <span class="hlt">spatial</span> resolution upon the image characteristics in cardiac single-photon emission tomography (SPET). An acquisition\\u000a of an anthropomorphic cardiac phantom was performed together with corresponding SPET Monte Carlo simulations. The cardiac\\u000a phantom and the Monte Carlo simulations were designed so that</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Georges N. El Fakhri; Irène Buvat; Mélanie Pélégrini; Habib Benali; Pedro Almeida; Bernard Bendriem; Andrew Todd-Pokropek; Robert Di Paola</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=brain&pg=6&id=EJ916447"> <span id="translatedtitle">Asymmetrical Brain Activity Induced by Voluntary <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Attention <span class="hlt">Depends</span> on the Visual Hemifield: A Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of the visual hemifield to which <span class="hlt">spatial</span> attention was oriented on the activities of the posterior parietal and occipital visual cortices was examined using functional near-infrared spectroscopy in order to investigate the neural substrates of voluntary visuospatial attention. Our brain imaging data support the theory put forth in a…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Harasawa, Masamitsu; Shioiri, Satoshi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23954668"> <span id="translatedtitle">Behavioral assessment of emotional and motivational appraisal during visual processing of emotional scenes <span class="hlt">depending</span> on <span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequencies.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Previous studies performed on visual processing of emotional stimuli have revealed preference for a specific type of visual <span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequencies (high <span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequency, HSF; low <span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequency, LSF) according to task demands. The majority of studies used a face and focused on the appraisal of the emotional state of others. The present behavioral study investigates the relative role of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> frequencies on processing emotional natural scenes during two explicit cognitive appraisal tasks, one emotional, based on the self-emotional experience and one motivational, based on the tendency to action. Our results suggest that HSF information was the most relevant to rapidly identify the self-emotional experience (unpleasant, pleasant, and neutral) while LSF was required to rapidly identify the tendency to action (avoidance, approach, and no action). The tendency to action based on LSF analysis showed a priority for unpleasant stimuli whereas the identification of emotional experience based on HSF analysis showed a priority for pleasant stimuli. The present study confirms the interest of considering both emotional and motivational characteristics of visual stimuli. PMID:23954668</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fradcourt, B; Peyrin, C; Baciu, M; Campagne, A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48798320"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> and bioavailability of metal fractions in paddy fields on metal concentrations in rice grain at a regional scale</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose  Although the bioavailability of heavy metals has been widely investigated, little information is available on the <span class="hlt">spatial</span>\\u000a correlations of heavy metals in soil–rice systems at a regional scale. A study of heavy metals in soil–rice systems at a present\\u000a rice production area could provide valuable information on the safety of rice production and provide guidelines beneficial\\u000a to agriculture management and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Keli Zhao; Xingmei Liu; Weiwen Zhang; Jianming Xu; Fan Wang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H11B1164W"> <span id="translatedtitle">An Efficient Sampling Technique for Observing Topographically-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Variability in Catchment-Scale Soil Moisture Patterns</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Catchment-scale variability in soil moisture plays an important role in many hydrologic applications. The magnitude of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variability in soil moisture patterns affects the catchment-scale evapotranspiration rate, while the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> structure of soil moisture patterns affects runoff production. In many cases, <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variations in soil moisture are associated with variations in topographic attributes such as drainage area, slope, and curvature. In the past, large soil moisture datasets have been collected on uniform grids at experimental catchments to characterize the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and temporal variability, but this approach is very time-consuming and expensive with most grids containing hundreds of locations monitored over several dates. Although many studies have focused on efficient strategies to observe the catchment-average soil moisture, few have advanced improved strategies to characterize the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variability. In this study, we propose a new stratified sampling technique that aims to reduce the number of observations that are required to observe the main variations in soil moisture. The method is applied to soil moisture patterns with topographically-induced variability, but it can be generalized to consider patterns with other sources of variation. In the method, topographic attributes that potentially introduce variability are preselected, and the observed range of values for each attribute is divided into sub-ranges or stratifications. Because multiple topographic attributes are considered, any given location in the catchment will fall into a joint stratification that corresponds to a particular combination of individual stratifications. The sampling locations are then randomly selected from the locations in each joint stratification. The method thus assures that all combinations of low and high terrain attribute values that exist in the catchment are represented in the dataset. The number of sampling locations can be controlled by changing the number of stratifications for each variable or the number of locations sampled in each joint stratification. The locations selected from the stratified sampling method can also be supplemented with random locations. The method is applied to three different catchments: Tarrawarra, Satellite Station, and Cache la Poudre. The observations are used to calibrate a conceptual model known as the Equilibrium Moisture from Topography (EMT) model and an empirical model based on empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis. The efficiency of the sampling method is evaluated by the models' ability to reproduce the soil moisture values at unobserved locations. The stratified method is also compared to a random sampling method. The results show that both the random and stratified sampling methods can characterize the soil moisture variation with many fewer locations than have been collected previously. In addition, the stratified sampling method exhibits much better performance than random sampling when relatively few observations are collected.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Werbylo, K. L.; Niemann, J. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://cognitrn.psych.indiana.edu/busey/n611q700/week603/eyding03.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Selective Elimination of Corticogeniculate Feedback Abolishes the Electroencephalogram <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> of Primary Visual Cortical Receptive Fields and Reduces Their <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Specificity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The role of corticogeniculate feedback in the organization, function, and state <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of visual responses and receptive fields (RFs) is not well understood. We investigated the contribution of the corticogeniculate loop to state-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> changes of characteristics of the primary visual cortex response by using a novel approach of eliminating corticogeniculate projection neurons with targeted neuronal apoptosis. Experiments were performed in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dirk Eyding; Jeffrey D. Macklis; Ute Neubacher; Klaus Funke; Florentin Worgotter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24732883"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> and temporal analysis of Air Pollution Index and its timescale-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> relationship with meteorological factors in Guangzhou, China, 2001-2011.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">There is an increasing interest in <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and temporal variation of air pollution and its association with weather conditions. We presented the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and temporal variation of Air Pollution Index (API) and examined the associations between API and meteorological factors during 2001-2011 in Guangzhou, China. A Seasonal-Trend Decomposition Procedure Based on Loess (STL) was used to decompose API. Wavelet analyses were performed to examine the relationships between API and several meteorological factors. Air quality has improved since 2005. APIs were highly correlated among five monitoring stations, and there were substantial temporal variations. Timescale-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> relationships were found between API and a variety of meteorological factors. Temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and wind speed were negatively correlated with API, while diurnal temperature range and atmospheric pressure were positively correlated with API in the annual cycle. Our findings should be taken into account when determining air quality forecasts and pollution control measures. PMID:24732883</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Li; Qian, Jun; Ou, Chun-Quan; Zhou, Ying-Xue; Guo, Cui; Guo, Yuming</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23825418"> <span id="translatedtitle">Contrast <span class="hlt">dependence</span> and differential contributions from somatostatin- and parvalbumin-expressing neurons to <span class="hlt">spatial</span> integration in mouse V1.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A characteristic feature in the primary visual cortex is that visual responses are suppressed as a stimulus extends beyond the classical receptive field. Here, we examined the role of inhibitory neurons expressing somatostatin (SOM?) or parvalbumin (PV?) on surround suppression and preferred receptive field size. We recorded multichannel extracellular activity in V1 of transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin in SOM? neurons or PV? neurons. Preferred size and surround suppression were measured using drifting square-wave gratings of varying radii and at two contrasts. Consistent with findings in primates, we found that the preferred size was larger for lower contrasts across all cortical depths, whereas the suppression index (SI) showed a trend to decrease with contrast. We then examined the effect of these metrics on units that were suppressed by photoactivation of either SOM? or PV? neurons. When activating SOM? neurons, we found a significant increase in SI at cortical depths >400 ?m, whereas activating PV? neurons caused a trend toward lower SIs regardless of cortical depth. Conversely, activating PV? neurons significantly increased preferred size across all cortical depths, similar to lowering contrast, whereas activating SOM? neurons had no systematic effect on preferred size across all depths. These data suggest that SOM? and PV? neurons contribute differently to <span class="hlt">spatial</span> integration. Our findings are compatible with the notion that SOM? neurons mediate surround suppression, particularly in deeper cortex, whereas PV? activation decreases the drive of the input to cortex and therefore resembles the effects on <span class="hlt">spatial</span> integration of lowering contrast. PMID:23825418</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nienborg, Hendrikje; Hasenstaub, Andrea; Nauhaus, Ian; Taniguchi, Hiroki; Huang, Z Josh; Callaway, Edward M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3718383"> <span id="translatedtitle">Contrast <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> and Differential Contributions from Somatostatin- and Parvalbumin-Expressing Neurons to <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Integration in Mouse V1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A characteristic feature in the primary visual cortex is that visual responses are suppressed as a stimulus extends beyond the classical receptive field. Here, we examined the role of inhibitory neurons expressing somatostatin (SOM+) or parvalbumin (PV+) on surround suppression and preferred receptive field size. We recorded multichannel extracellular activity in V1 of transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin in SOM+ neurons or PV+ neurons. Preferred size and surround suppression were measured using drifting square-wave gratings of varying radii and at two contrasts. Consistent with findings in primates, we found that the preferred size was larger for lower contrasts across all cortical depths, whereas the suppression index (SI) showed a trend to decrease with contrast. We then examined the effect of these metrics on units that were suppressed by photoactivation of either SOM+ or PV+ neurons. When activating SOM+ neurons, we found a significant increase in SI at cortical depths >400 ?m, whereas activating PV+ neurons caused a trend toward lower SIs regardless of cortical depth. Conversely, activating PV+ neurons significantly increased preferred size across all cortical depths, similar to lowering contrast, whereas activating SOM+ neurons had no systematic effect on preferred size across all depths. These data suggest that SOM+ and PV+ neurons contribute differently to <span class="hlt">spatial</span> integration. Our findings are compatible with the notion that SOM+ neurons mediate surround suppression, particularly in deeper cortex, whereas PV+ activation decreases the drive of the input to cortex and therefore resembles the effects on <span class="hlt">spatial</span> integration of lowering contrast.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nienborg, Hendrikje; Hasenstaub, Andrea; Nauhaus, Ian; Taniguchi, Hiroki; Huang, Z. Josh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NJPh...14g3021F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simple parameterization for the ground-state energy of the infinite Hubbard chain incorporating Mott physics, spin-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> phenomena and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> inhomogeneity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Simple analytical parameterizations for the ground-state energy of the one-dimensional repulsive Hubbard model are developed. The charge <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of energy is parameterized using exact results extracted from the Bethe-ansatz (BA). The resulting parameterization is shown to be in better agreement with highly precise data obtained from a fully numerical solution to the BA equations than previous expressions (Lima et al 2003 Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 146402). Unlike these earlier proposals, the present parameterization correctly predicts a positive Mott gap at half filling for any U > 0. The construction is extended to spin-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> phenomena by parameterizing the magnetization <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the ground-state energy using further exact results and numerical benchmarking. Lastly, the parameterizations developed for the <span class="hlt">spatially</span> uniform model are extended by means of a simple local-density-type approximation to <span class="hlt">spatially</span> inhomogeneous models, e.g. in the presence of impurities, external fields or trapping potentials. The results are shown to be in excellent agreement with independent many-body calculations, at a fraction of the computational cost.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">França, Vivian V.; Vieira, Daniel; Capelle, Klaus</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3583387"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bayesian <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Quantile Regression</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tropospheric ozone is one of the six criteria pollutants regulated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency under the Clean Air Act and has been linked with several adverse health effects, including mortality. Due to the <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on weather conditions, ozone may be sensitive to climate change and there is great interest in studying the potential effect of climate change on ozone, and how this change may affect public health. In this paper we develop a Bayesian <span class="hlt">spatial</span> model to predict ozone under different meteorological conditions, and use this model to study <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and temporal trends and to forecast ozone concentrations under different climate scenarios. We develop a <span class="hlt">spatial</span> quantile regression model that does not assume normality and allows the covariates to affect the entire conditional distribution, rather than just the mean. The conditional distribution is allowed to vary from site-to-site and is smoothed with a <span class="hlt">spatial</span> prior. For extremely large datasets our model is computationally infeasible, and we develop an approximate method. We apply the approximate version of our model to summer ozone from 1997–2005 in the Eastern U.S., and use deterministic climate models to project ozone under future climate conditions. Our analysis suggests that holding all other factors fixed, an increase in daily average temperature will lead to the largest increase in ozone in the Industrial Midwest and Northeast.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reich, Brian J.; Fuentes, Montserrat; Dunson, David B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23459794"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bayesian <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Quantile Regression.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tropospheric ozone is one of the six criteria pollutants regulated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency under the Clean Air Act and has been linked with several adverse health effects, including mortality. Due to the <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on weather conditions, ozone may be sensitive to climate change and there is great interest in studying the potential effect of climate change on ozone, and how this change may affect public health. In this paper we develop a Bayesian <span class="hlt">spatial</span> model to predict ozone under different meteorological conditions, and use this model to study <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and temporal trends and to forecast ozone concentrations under different climate scenarios. We develop a <span class="hlt">spatial</span> quantile regression model that does not assume normality and allows the covariates to affect the entire conditional distribution, rather than just the mean. The conditional distribution is allowed to vary from site-to-site and is smoothed with a <span class="hlt">spatial</span> prior. For extremely large datasets our model is computationally infeasible, and we develop an approximate method. We apply the approximate version of our model to summer ozone from 1997-2005 in the Eastern U.S., and use deterministic climate models to project ozone under future climate conditions. Our analysis suggests that holding all other factors fixed, an increase in daily average temperature will lead to the largest increase in ozone in the Industrial Midwest and Northeast. PMID:23459794</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reich, Brian J; Fuentes, Montserrat; Dunson, David B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50265720"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> correlation of UWB signals in a home environment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Measurements of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of UWB (2-8 GHz) channels were made for a residential propagation environment using a network analyzer. Measurements indicate <span class="hlt">spatial</span> correlation lengths ranging from about 2 to 6 inches for both LOS and NLOS geometries. The angle-of-arrival distribution showed discernible frequency-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> rays of scattered energy and a <span class="hlt">strong</span> component of narrow angle scatter energy. The LOS</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. Prettie; D. Cheung; L. Rusch; M. Ho</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014DSRII.104..267D"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> scale-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> habitat heterogeneity influences submarine canyon macrofaunal abundance and diversity off the Main and Northwest Hawaiian Islands</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The mapping of biodiversity on continental margins on landscape scales is highly relevant to marine <span class="hlt">spatial</span> planning and conservation. Submarine canyons are widespread topographic features on continental and island margins that enhance benthic biomass across a range of oceanic provinces and productivity regimes. However, it remains unclear whether canyons enhance faunal biodiversity on landscape scales relevant to marine protected area (MPA) design. Furthermore, it is not known which physical attributes and heterogeneity metrics can provide good surrogates for large-scale mapping of canyon benthic biodiversity. To test mechanistic hypotheses evaluating the role of different canyon-landscape attributes in enhancing benthic biodiversity at different <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales we conducted 34 submersible dives in six submarine canyons and nearby slopes in the Hawaiian archipelago, sampling infaunal macrobenthos in a depth-stratified sampling design. We employed multivariate multiple regression models to evaluate sediment and topographic heterogeneity, canyon transverse profiles, and overall water mass variability as potential drivers of macrobenthic community structure and species richness. We find that variables related to habitat heterogeneity at medium (0.13 km2) and large (15-33 km2) <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scales such as slope, backscatter reflectivity and canyon transverse profiles are often good predictors of macrobenthic biodiversity, explaining 16-30% of the variance. Particulate organic carbon (POC) flux and distance from shore are also important variables, implicating food supply as a major predictor of canyon biodiversity. Canyons off the high Main Hawaiian Islands (Oahu and Moloka'i) are significantly affected by organic enrichment, showing enhanced infaunal macrobenthos abundance, whereas this effect is imperceptible around the low Northwest Hawaiian Islands (Nihoa and Maro Reef). Variable canyon alpha-diversity and high rates of species turnover (beta-diversity), particularly for polychaetes, suggest that canyons play important roles in maintaining high levels of regional biodiversity in the extremely oligotrophic system of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. This information is of key importance to the process of MPA design, suggesting that canyon habitats be explicitly included in marine <span class="hlt">spatial</span> planning. The low-islands of Nihoa and Maro Reef in the NWHI showed a lack of sustained input of terrestrial and macrolagae detritus, likely having an influence on the observed low macrofaunal abundances (see further discussion of ‘canyon effects’ in Section 4.3), and showing the fundamental role of coastal landscape characteristics in determining the amount and nature of allochthonous organic matter entering the system. Total and highly-mobile invertebrate megafauna abundances were two to three times higher in the submarine canyons and slopes of the MHI contrasted with the NWHI (Vetter et al., 2010), also demonstrating the role of this larger contribution of terrestrial and coastal organic enrichment in the MHI contrasted with the NWHI.</ce:section></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">De Leo, Fabio C.; Vetter, Eric W.; Smith, Craig R.; Rowden, Ashley A.; McGranaghan, Matthew</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22928408"> <span id="translatedtitle">Prey-predator dynamics in rotifers: density-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> consequences of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> heterogeneity due to surface attachment.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Classical models of prey-predator interactions assume that per capita prey consumption is <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on prey density alone and that prey consumption (functional response) and consumer proliferation (numerical response) operate on the same timescales and without time lags. Several modifications have been proposed for resolving this timescale discrepancy, including variants where the functional response <span class="hlt">depends</span> on both prey and predator densities. A microcosm system with the rotifer Brachionus 'Nevada' feeding on the prasinophyte Tetraselmis sp. showed significant (P < 0.0005) increases in steady-state biomasses of both prey and predators with increasing carrying capacity (represented by total phosphorus of the growth medium), which is inconsistent with predictions based on the traditional prey-only-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> functional response. We provide data indicating that surfaces where the predator can attach provide a high-quality habitat for rotifers, which can result in a predator-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> functional response. We also show that partitioning between the attached and free-swimming habitats was fast compared to the timescale of the numerical response. When attached to surfaces, rotifers maximized net energy gain by avoiding the high cost of swimming and by increased food capture due to reduced viscous drag. A mathematical model with prey-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> functional response and wall-attached and free-swimming fractions of the population describes our data adequately. We discuss the implications of this finding for extrapolating microcosm experiments to systems with other surface-to-volume ratios, and to what extent our findings may apply to other popular model organisms for prey-predator interaction. PMID:22928408</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vadstein, Olav; Olsen, Lasse M; Andersen, Tom</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24726190"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temporal and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> gait parameters in patients <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on walking assistance after stroke: reliability and agreement between simple and advanced methods of assessment.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability of temporal and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> gait parameters in patients <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on walking assistance after severe stroke, and to examine agreement between simple and advanced methods. Twenty-one patients, admitted for in-patient multidisciplinary rehabilitation, were assessed repeatedly for walking function, both in a test corridor and a gait laboratory (3D camera system) before and after 11 weeks of rehabilitation. The test-retest reliability was examined using intraclass correlation (ICC1.1), and measurement error was reported by within-subject standard deviation (Sw). The agreement between different methods for assessing walking speed, cadence and step length was explored by Bland-Altman plots. High to excellent test-retest reliability was found between trials, both when assessed in the corridor (ICC: 0.93-0.99) and in the laboratory (ICC: 0.88-0.99). Agreement between methods was satisfactory at baseline and was higher after the rehabilitation period. Agreement was found to be slightly better at lower walking speeds and for shorter step lengths. The results implicate that temporal-<span class="hlt">spatial</span> gait parameters may be measured reliably by both simple and advanced methods in <span class="hlt">dependent</span> walkers after stroke. A high level of agreement was found between the two methods for walking speed, cadence and average step length at both test points. PMID:24726190</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Høyer, Ellen; Opheim, Arve; Strand, Liv Inger; Moe-Nilssen, Rolf</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3540128"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sex and Dose-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Effects of Developmental Exposure to Bisphenol A on Anxiety and <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Learning in Deer Mice (Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii) Offspring</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely produced, endocrine disrupting compound that is pervasive in the environment. Data suggest that developmental exposure to BPA during sexual differentiation of the brain leads to later behavioral consequences in offspring. Outbred deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii) are an excellent animal model for such studies as they exhibit well-defined sex- and steroid-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> behaviors. Here, dams during gestation and lactation were fed a phytoestrogen-free control diet, the same diet supplemented with either ethinyl estradiol (0.1 parts per billion), or one of three doses of BPA (50 mg, 5 mg, 50 ?g/kg feed weight). After weaning, pups were maintained on control diet until they reached sexually maturity and then assessed for both <span class="hlt">spatial</span> learning capabilities and anxiety-like and exploratory behaviors. Relative to controls, males exposed to the two upper but not the lowest dose of BPA demonstrated similar impairments in <span class="hlt">spatial</span> learning, increased anxiety and reduced exploratory behaviors as ethinyl estradiol-exposed males, while females exposed to ethinyl estradiol, but not to BPA, exhibited masculinized <span class="hlt">spatial</span> abilities. We also determined whether dams maintained chronically on the upper dose of BPA contained environmentally relevant concentrations of BPA in their blood. While serum concentrations of unconjugated BPA in controls were below the minimum level of detection, those from dams on the BPA diet were comparable (5.48 ± 2.07ng/ml) to concentrations observed that have been observed in humans. Together, these studies demonstrate that developmental exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of BPA can disrupt adult behaviors in a dose- and sex-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> manner.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jasarevic, Eldin; Williams, Scott A.; Vandas, Gregory M.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Liao, Chunyang; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Roberts, R. Michael; Geary, David C.; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40153861"> <span id="translatedtitle">Patchy recruitment patterns in marine invertebrates: a <span class="hlt">spatial</span> test of the density-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> hypothesis in the bivalve Spisula ovalis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Density-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> and density-independent processes have been shown to influence the population dynamics of marine invertebrates,\\u000a especially recruitment. However, their relative importance has not been evaluated in natural populations. High adult densities\\u000a have been suggested to inhibit recruitment, especially in suspension-feeders which may ingest incoming larvae. Age structure\\u000a and juvenile abundance were investigated in the bivalve Spisula ovalis in order to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Patric David; Patrick Berthou; Philippe Noel; Philippe Jarne</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/5698529"> <span id="translatedtitle">The change-of-variance function: a tool to explore the e'ects of <span class="hlt">dependencies</span> in <span class="hlt">spatial</span> statistics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents the computation of the change-of-variance function of M-estimators of scale under general contamination for <span class="hlt">dependent</span> observations. In this context, several results of robustness are established, and the links between B-robustness, V -robustness and V ?-robustness are studied. Some more speci2c properties are derived for Gaussian distributions. These results are then applied to variogram estimation, which is a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marc G. Genton</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-2407-6-214.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Histone deacetylase inhibitors <span class="hlt">strongly</span> sensitise neuroblastoma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by a caspases-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> increase of the pro- to anti-apoptotic proteins ratio</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">BACKGROUND: Neuroblastoma (NB) is the second most common solid childhood tumour, an aggressive disease for which new therapeutic strategies are <span class="hlt">strongly</span> needed. Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) selectively induces apoptosis in most tumour cells, but not in normal tissues and therefore represents a valuable candidate in apoptosis-inducing therapies. Caspase-8 is silenced in a subset of highly malignant NB cells,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Annick Mühlethaler-Mottet; Marjorie Flahaut; Katia Balmas Bourloud; Katya Auderset; Roland Meier; Jean-Marc Joseph; Nicole Gross</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20795776"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strongly</span> coupled quantum field theory</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">I analyze numerically a two-dimensional {lambda}{phi}{sup 4} theory showing that in the limit of a <span class="hlt">strong</span> coupling {lambda}{yields}{infinity} just the homogeneous solutions for time evolution are relevant in agreement with the duality principle in perturbation theory as presented in [M. Frasca, Phys. Rev. A 58, 3439 (1998)], being negligible the contribution of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> varying parts of the dynamical equations. A consequence is that the Green function method works for this nonlinear problem in the large coupling limit as in a linear theory. A numerical proof is given for this. With these results at hand, I built a <span class="hlt">strongly</span> coupled quantum field theory for a {lambda}{phi}{sup 4} interacting field computing the first order correction to the generating functional. Mass spectrum of the theory is obtained turning out to be that of a harmonic oscillator with no <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on the dimensionality of space-time. The agreement with the Lehmann-Kaellen representation of the perturbation series is then shown at the first order.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Frasca, Marco</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUSM.A21D..06R"> <span id="translatedtitle">CERES Ocean Validation Experiment - A Time <span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Characterization of the Solar and Terrestrial Radiation Environment at a Single <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Point in the Coastal Atlantic Ocean</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">NASA's CERES project has developed a surface radiation measurement site on a rigid ocean platform to obtain accurate measurements of atmospheric and ocean surface radiation parameters in the marine environment. The platform is located twenty-five kilometers off the coast of Virginia in the vicinity of the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay. The waters there sometimes are characteristic of optically clear waters (similar to the open ocean) and sometimes they are characteristic of more turbid coastal waters (characterized by higher concentrations of chlorophylls, colored dissolved organic matter and detritus). These variables effect the ocean optical properties which in turn effect the radiative coupling at the ocean/atmosphere interface. High temporal-resolution (1/minute) fundamental radiation parameters have been measured continuously at the site since September, 1999. Correlative parameters have been measured at lower sample rates (ocean wave spectra: 1/hour, ocean surface radiance fields: 2/hour, atmospheric optical properties: 4/hour - 1/day). These time <span class="hlt">dependent</span> measurements accurately characterize the solar and terrestrial radiation at the COVE site, a single <span class="hlt">spatial</span> point in the coastal marine environment. The Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites (CLAMS) intensive field operations period was conducted to determine the nature of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variability of spectral albedo near the CERES Ocean Validation Experiment (COVE) site and to determine if the COVE radiation measurements are representative of the open ocean. These results, are discussed in several companion presentations (see Charlock et al., Smith et al., Su et al.). We here present the time series data for the radiation parameters measured since the beginning of the COVE. These long time series allow the investigation of the radiation parameters as a function of numerous <span class="hlt">dependent</span> variables. Example <span class="hlt">dependencies</span> exhibiting various components of the archived data will be discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rutledge, K.; Denn, F.; Smith, B.; Charlock, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CPL...599...68H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Extremely <span class="hlt">strong</span> temperature-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> Davydow-splitting effects in the polarized IR spectra of the hydrogen bond: Pyrazole and quinolin-2(1H)-one crystals</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Polarized IR spectra were recorded in the spectral range of the ?N-H and ?N-D proton stretching vibration bands for the isotopically neat and isotopically diluted crystals of pyrazole (Pzl) and quinolin-2(1H)-one (2HQ). The spectra measured in the temperature range of 77-293 K have shown that temperature extremely <span class="hlt">strongly</span> influenced the magnitude of the Davydow-splitting effects in the crystalline spectra. Two different competing vibrational Davydow-coupling mechanisms involving hydrogen bonds, i.e., the ‘tail-to-head' and the ‘side-to-side', were responsible for the generation of the temperature effects in the polarized spectra.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hachu?a, Barbara; Flakus, Henryk T.; Tyl, Aleksandra; Polasz, Anna</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21525279"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impairment of select forms of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> memory and neurotrophin-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> synaptic plasticity by deletion of glial aquaporin-4.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the major water channel in the CNS and is primarily expressed in astrocytes. Little is known about the potential for AQP4 to influence synaptic plasticity, although many studies have shown that it regulates the response of the CNS to injury. Therefore, we evaluated long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) in AQP4 knock-out (KO) and wild-type mice. KO mice exhibited a selective defect in LTP and LTD without a change in basal transmission or short-term plasticity. Interestingly, the impairment in LTP in KO mice was specific for the type of LTP that <span class="hlt">depends</span> on the neurotrophin BDNF, which is induced by stimulation at theta rhythm [theta-burst stimulation (TBS)-LTP], but there was no impairment in a form of LTP that is BDNF independent, induced by high-frequency stimulation. LTD was also impaired in KO mice, which was rescued by a scavenger of BDNF or blockade of Trk receptors. TrkB receptors, which mediate effects of BDNF on TBS-LTP, were not altered in KO mice, but p75NTR, the receptor that binds all neurotrophins and has been implicated in some types of LTD, was decreased. The KO mice also exhibited a cognitive defect, which suggests a new role for AQP4 and astrocytes in normal cognitive function. This defect was evident using a test for location-specific object memory but not Morris water maze or contextual fear conditioning. The results suggest that AQP4 channels in astrocytes play an unanticipated role in neurotrophin-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> plasticity and influence behavior. PMID:21525279</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Skucas, Vanessa A; Mathews, Ian B; Yang, Jianmin; Cheng, Qi; Treister, Andrew; Duffy, Aine M; Verkman, Alan S; Hempstead, Barbara L; Wood, Marcelo A; Binder, Devin K; Scharfman, Helen E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-04-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3107562"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impairment of Select Forms of <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Memory and Neurotrophin-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Synaptic Plasticity by Deletion of Glial Aquaporin-4</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the major water channel in the central nervous system (CNS) and is primarily expressed in astrocytes. Little is known about the potential for AQP4 to influence synaptic plasticity, although many studies have shown that it regulates the response of the CNS to injury. Therefore, we evaluated long-term potentiation (LTP), and long-term depression (LTD) in AQP4 knockout (KO) and wild type (WT) mice. KO mice exhibited a selective defect in LTP and LTD without a change in basal transmission or short-term plasticity. Interestingly, the impairment in LTP in KO mice was specific for the type of LTP that <span class="hlt">depends</span> on the neurotrophin BDNF, which is induced by stimulation at theta rhythm (TBS-LTP), but there was no impairment in a form of LTP that is BDNF-independent, induced by high frequency stimulation (HFS-LTP). LTD was also impaired in KO mice, which was rescued by a scavenger of BDNF or blockade of Trk receptors. TrkB receptors, which mediate effects of BDNF on TBS-LTP, were not altered in KO mice, but p75NTR, the receptor that binds all neurotrophins and has been implicated in some types of LTD, was decreased. The KO mice also exhibited a cognitive defect, which suggests a new role for AQP4 and astrocytes in normal cognitive function. This defect was evident using a test for location-specific object memory but not Morris water maze or contextual fear conditioning. The results suggest that AQP4 channels in astrocytes play an unanticipated role in neurotrophin-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> plasticity and influence behavior.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Skucas, Vanessa A.; Mathews, Ian B.; Yang, Jianmin; Cheng, Qi; Treister, Andrew; Verkman, Alan S.; Hempstead, Barbara L.; Wood, Marcelo A.; Binder, Devin K.; Scharfman, Helen E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img 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href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006ApSS..252.7054G"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> composition-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> variation of MCs + calibration factors in TiO x and GeO x ( x ? 2) films</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The emission of MCs + secondary ions (M designates the analyte species) from TiO x (0.2 ? x ? 2) and GeO x (0.001 ? x ? 0.8) films under Cs + bombardment was examined. The relative calibration factors of OCs +/TiCs + and OCs +/GeCs + were determined and were found to <span class="hlt">depend</span> pronouncedly on the O/Ti and O/Ge atomic concentration ratios. Specifically, with increasing oxygen content OCs + ions form much more efficiently (as compared to TiCs + or GeCs + ions), an enhancement amounting to more than a factor of 10 for the highest oxygen concentrations. Concurrently, the formation of TiOCs + or GeOCs + ions increases drastically. For both oxide systems, an empirical relation for the oxygen-concentration <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the relative calibration factors could be established.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gnaser, Hubert; Le, Yongkang; Su, Weifeng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19180585"> <span id="translatedtitle">Outcome of treatment of human HeLa cervical cancer cells with roscovitine <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">depends</span> on the dosage and cell cycle status prior to the treatment.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Exposure of asynchronously growing human HeLa cervical carcinoma cells to roscovitine (ROSC), a selective cyclin-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> kinases (CDKs) inhibitor, arrests their progression at the transition between G(2)/M and/or induces apoptosis. The outcome <span class="hlt">depends</span> on the ROSC concentration. At higher dose ROSC represses HPV-encoded E7 oncoprotein and initiates caspase-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> apoptosis. Inhibition of the site-specific phosphorylation of survivin and Bad, occurring at high-dose ROSC treatment, precedes the onset of apoptosis and seems to be a prerequisite for cell death. Considering the fact that in HeLa cells the G(1)/S restriction checkpoint is abolished by E7, we addressed the question whether the inhibition of CDKs by pharmacological inhibitors in synchronized cells would be able to block the cell-cycle in G(1) phase. For this purpose, we attempted to synchronize cells by serum withdrawal or by blocking of the mitotic apparatus using nocodazole. Unlike human MCF-7 cells, HeLa cells do not undergo G(1) block after serum starvation, but respond with a slight increase of the ratio of G(1) population. Exposure of G(1)-enriched HeLa cells to ROSC after re-feeding does not block their cell-cycle progression at G(1)-phase, but increases the ratio of S- and G(2)-phase, thereby mimicking the effect on asynchronously growing cells. A quite different impact is observed after treatment of HeLa cells released from mitotic block. ROSC prevents their cell cycle progression and cells transiently accumulate in G(1)-phase. These results show that inhibition of CDKs by ROSC in cells lacking the G(1)/S restriction checkpoint has different outcomes <span class="hlt">depending</span> on the cell-cycle status prior to the onset of treatment. PMID:19180585</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wesierska-Gadek, Józefa; Borza, Andreea; Walzi, Eva; Krystof, Vladimir; Maurer, Margarita; Komina, Oxana; Wandl, Stefanie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37042539"> <span id="translatedtitle">Polymorphism of the 5HT1B Receptor Gene (HTR1B): <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Within-Locus Linkage Disequilibrium without Association to Antisocial Substance <span class="hlt">Dependence</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Serotonergic abnormalities may be present in individuals with either substance <span class="hlt">dependence</span> (SD) or antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), disorders that occur together commonly. Consequently, genes encoding serotonin (5-HT) receptors are candidates for genetic studies of both disorders. Lappalainen et al. (1998) found evidence for linkage of antisocial alcoholism to HTR1B (the locus encoding the 5-HT1B receptor) in both Finns and Southwestern</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Henry R Kranzler; Carlos A Hernandez-Avila; Joel Gelernter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52911690"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> growth orientation <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of strain relaxation in epitaxial (Ba,Sr)TiO3 films and the resulting dielectric properties</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The growth orientation <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of strain relaxation and the dielectric properties were investigated for (001)- and (111)-epitaxial (Ba,Sr)TiO3 films. The films were deposited on SrRuO3\\/SrTiO3 and SrTiO3 substrates using rf magnetron sputtering. The residual strain was found to be remarkably different between the two orientations, although these lattice mismatches are identical; the strain relaxation of the (001)-epitaxial films is significantly</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tomoaki Yamada; Takafumi Kamo; Hiroshi Funakubo; Dong Su; Takashi Iijima</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/qegq0ec2vbmxrng1.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Probabilistic <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Database Operations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> databases typically assume that the positional at- tributes of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> objects are precisely known. In practice, however, they are known only approximately, with the error <span class="hlt">depending</span> on the nature of the measurement and the source of data. In this paper, we address the problem how to perform <span class="hlt">spatial</span> database operations in the presence of uncertainty. We first discuss a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jinfeng Ni; Chinya V. Ravishankar; Bir Bhanu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvE..89e3318S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Self-intermediate scattering function of <span class="hlt">strongly</span> interacting three-dimensional lattice gases: Time- and wave-vector-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> tracer diffusion coefficient</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigate the self-intermediate scattering function (SISF) in a three-dimensional (3D) cubic lattice fluid (interacting lattice gas) with attractive nearest-neighbor interparticle interactions at a temperature slightly above the critical one by means of Monte Carlo simulations. A special representation of SISF as an exponent of the mean tracer diffusion coefficient multiplied by the geometrical factor and time is considered to highlight memory effects that are included in time and wave-vector <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the diffusion coefficient. An analytical expression for the diffusion coefficient is suggested to reproduce the simulation data. It is shown that the particles' mean-square displacement is equal to the time integral of the diffusion coefficient. We make a comparison with the previously considered 2D system on a square lattice. The main difference with the two-dimensional case is that the time <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of particular characteristics of the tracer diffusion coefficient in the 3D case cannot be described by exponentially decreasing functions, but requires using stretched exponentials with rather small values of exponents, of the order of 0.2. The hydrodynamic values of the tracer diffusion coefficient (in the limit of large times and small wave vectors) defined through SIFS simulation results agree well with the results of its direct determination by the mean-square displacement of the particles in the entire range of concentrations and temperatures.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Skarpalezos, Loukas; Argyrakis, Panos; Vikhrenko, Vyacheslav S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvB..87p5205G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analytical study of spin-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> transition rates within pairs of dipolar and <span class="hlt">strongly</span> exchange coupled spins with s = (1)/(2) during magnetic resonant excitation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study theoretically the spectrum F(s) of spin-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> transition rates within dipolar D and exchange J coupled pairs of two spins with S=(1)/(2) undergoing Rabi oscillations due to a coherent magnetic-resonant excitation. We show that the Rabi oscillation controlled rates exhibit a spectrum with three frequency components. When exchange J is stronger than the driving field ?R (in the frequency units), the frequency components of the Rabi oscillation do not <span class="hlt">depend</span> on J, rather they are determined by the relation between the ?R and D. We derive analytical expressions for the frequencies and the intensities of all three Rabi oscillation components as functions of ?R/D and ?/D, where ? is detuning of the driving ac field from the Larmor frequency. When ?R?D, the two lower frequencies approach s=?R, while the upper line approaches s=2?R. Disorder of the local Larmor frequencies leads to a Gaussian broadening of the spectral lines. We calculate corresponding widths for different ?R/D and ?/D. Unexpectedly, we find that one of the frequency components exhibits an unusual evolution with ?R: its frequency decreases with ?R at ?R<D. Upon further increase of ?R, this frequency then passes through a minimum and, eventually, approaches s=?R. Nonmonotonic behavior of the frequencies is accompanied by nonmonotonic behavior of the respective oscillation intensity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Glenn, R.; Limes, M. E.; Saam, B.; Boehme, C.; Raikh, M. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JAP...109i1605Y"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> growth orientation <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of strain relaxation in epitaxial (Ba,Sr)TiO3 films and the resulting dielectric properties</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The growth orientation <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of strain relaxation and the dielectric properties were investigated for (001)- and (111)-epitaxial (Ba,Sr)TiO3 films. The films were deposited on SrRuO3/SrTiO3 and SrTiO3 substrates using rf magnetron sputtering. The residual strain was found to be remarkably different between the two orientations, although these lattice mismatches are identical; the strain relaxation of the (001)-epitaxial films is significantly slower than that of the (111)-epitaxial films and is promoted only when the growth rate is very low (<=5 nm/h). The observed orientation <span class="hlt">dependence</span> is discussed with the surface energy for both growth orientations, which influences the growth mode of the films. Due to the large contrast of the strain in the (001)- and (111)-epitaxial films, the paraelectric to ferroelectric phase transition temperature of the (001)-epitaxial films is much higher than that of unstrained bulks, while the (111)-epitaxial films show a phase transition temperature corresponding to that of unstrained bulks regardless of the growth rates.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yamada, Tomoaki; Kamo, Takafumi; Funakubo, Hiroshi; Su, Dong; Iijima, Takashi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24759677"> <span id="translatedtitle">A single nucleotide polymorphism -35kb T>C (rs9264942) is <span class="hlt">strongly</span> associated with psoriasis vulgaris <span class="hlt">depending</span> on HLA-Cw(?)06.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">HLA class I molecules play a role both in viral infection control and in autoimmune diseases development. rs9264942T>C polymorphism in HLA-C gene was found to impact on HLA-C surface expression level and to be associated with HIV-1 control. It was found that these HLA alleles which protect against AIDS are associated with autoimmune disease e.g. psoriasis vulgaris (PsV). Whether rs9264942 SNP is associated with PsV was investigated here. rs9264942T>C was genotyped in 292 PsV patients, and 254 controls using TaqMan Genotyping Assay. PsV patients differed from controls in frequencies of rs9264942T>C alleles (p=3.62×10(-16)) and genotypes (5.67×10(-15)). However, rs9264942C allele was predisposing to PsV 3-fold weaker than HLA-Cw(?)06 (OR=5.04 vs. OR=15.61, respectively). In addition, this SNP was described earlier to be in <span class="hlt">strong</span> linkage disequilibrium (LD) with another SNP, rs67384697 ins/del, which by affecting a microRNA binding is responsible for regulating HLA-C expression. However, typing for is cheaper and simpler than that for rs67384697, therefore we think it may substitute for it to some extent. PMID:24759677</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Majorczyk, Edyta; Matusiak, Lukasz; Nowak, Izabela; Pietkiewicz-Sworowska, Aneta; Luszczek, Wioleta; Szepietowski, Jacek C; Ku?nierczyk, Piotr</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1222161"> <span id="translatedtitle">The result of equilibrium-constant calculations <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">depends</span> on the evaluation method used and on the type of experimental errors.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The determination of equilibrium constants is a widespread tool both to understand and to characterize protein-protein interactions. A variety of different methods, among them Scatchard analysis, is used to calculate these constants. Although more than 1000 articles dealing with equilibrium constants are published every year, the effects of experimental errors on the results are often disregarded when interpreting the data. In the present study we theoretically analysed the effect of various types of experimental errors on equilibrium constants derived by three different methods. A computer simulation clearly showed that certain experimental errors, namely inaccurate background correction, inexact calibration, saturation effects, slow kinetics and simple scattering, can adversely affect the result. The analysis further revealed that, for a given type of error, the same data set can produce different results <span class="hlt">depending</span> on the method used.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fuchs, H; Gessner, R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18712918"> <span id="translatedtitle">Light- and pH-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> conformational changes in protein structure induce <span class="hlt">strong</span> bending of purple membranes--active membranes studied by cryo-SEM.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) undergoes a conformational change during the photocycle and the proton transport through the membrane. For the first time, we could demonstrate by direct imaging of freely suspended native purple membranes (PMs) that the flat disk-like shape of PMs changes dramatically as soon as most of the BRs are in a state characterized by a deprotonated Schiff base. Light-induced shape changes are easily observed with mutated BRs of the BR-D96N type, i.e., all variants which show an increased M 2 lifetime. On the other hand, large-scale shape changes are induced by pH changes with PM containing mutated BRs of the BR-D85T type, where Asp85 is replaced for a neutral amino acid. In such PMs, all BRs are titrated simultaneously and the resulting shape of the membranes <span class="hlt">depends</span> on the initial shape only. As the majority of PMs in the "flat" state are more or less round disks, the bent membranes often comprise bowl-like and tube-like bent structures. The method presented here enables one to derive size changes of membrane-embedded BRs on the single molecule level from "macroscopic", easily accessible data like the curvature radii observed in cryo-SEM. The potential of BR as a pH-controlled and/or light-controlled microscaled biological actuator needs further consideration. PMID:18712918</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rhinow, Daniel; Hampp, Norbert A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-10-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56552974"> <span id="translatedtitle">Isolation by distance in a continuous population: reconciliation between <span class="hlt">spatial</span> autocorrelation analysis and population genetics models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Analysis of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> genetic structure within continuous populations in their natural habitat can reveal acting evolutionary processes. <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> autocorrelation statistics are often used for this purpose, but their relationships with population genetics models have not been thoroughly established. Moreover, it has been argued that the <span class="hlt">dependency</span> of these statistics on variation in mutation rates among loci <span class="hlt">strongly</span> limits their</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Olivier J Hardy; Xavier Vekemans</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/19194864"> <span id="translatedtitle">Random multiplicative processes and transport in structures with correlated <span class="hlt">spatial</span> disorder</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We show that <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> correlations in a random resistor network can dramatically alter its transport properties. We calculate the average logarithmic resistance of a topologically one-dimensional model characterized by a random multiplicative process. We find a transport exponent that <span class="hlt">depends</span> explicitly on the form of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> correlations; we also find that this problem is related to diffusion in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. Havlin; R. Blumberg Selinger; M. Schwartz; H. E. Stanley; A. Bunde</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/985925"> <span id="translatedtitle">HER2 signaling pathway activation and response of breast cancer cells to HER2-targeting agents is <span class="hlt">dependent</span> <span class="hlt">strongly</span> on the 3D microenvironment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Development of effective and durable breast cancer treatment strategies requires a mechanistic understanding of the influence of the microenvironment on response. Previous work has shown that cellular signaling pathways and cell morphology are dramatically influenced by three-dimensional (3D) cultures as opposed to traditional two-dimensional (2D) monolayers. Here, we compared 2D and 3D culture models to determine the impact of 3D architecture and extracellular matrix (ECM) on HER2 signaling and on the response of HER2-amplified breast cancer cell lines to the HER2-targeting agents Trastuzumab, Pertuzumab and Lapatinib. We show that the response of the HER2-amplified AU565, SKBR3 and HCC1569 cells to these anti-HER2 agents was highly <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on whether the cells were cultured in 2D monolayer or 3D laminin-rich ECM gels. Inhibition of {beta}1 integrin, a major cell-ECM receptor subunit, significantly increased the sensitivity of the HER2-amplified breast cancer cell lines to the humanized monoclonal antibodies Trastuzumab and Pertuzumab when grown in a 3D environment. Finally, in the absence of inhibitors, 3D cultures had substantial impact on HER2 downstream signaling and induced a switch between PI3K-AKT- and RAS-MAPKpathway activation in all cell lines studied, including cells lacking HER2 amplification and overexpression. Our data provide direct evidence that breast cancer cells are able to rapidly adapt to different environments and signaling cues by activating alternative pathways that regulate proliferation and cell survival, events that may play a significant role in the acquisition of resistance to targeted therapies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Weigelt, Britta; Lo, Alvin T; Park, Catherine C; Gray, Joe W; Bissell, Mina J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-07-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NW....100..541F"> <span id="translatedtitle">From repulsion to attraction: species- and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> context-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> threat sensitive response of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae to predatory mite cues</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Prey perceiving predation risk commonly change their behavior to avoid predation. However, antipredator strategies are costly. Therefore, according to the threat-sensitive predator avoidance hypothesis, prey should match the intensity of their antipredator behaviors to the degree of threat, which may <span class="hlt">depend</span> on the predator species and the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> context. We assessed threat sensitivity of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, to the cues of three predatory mites, Phytoseiulus persimilis, Neoseiulus californicus, and Amblyseius andersoni, posing different degrees of risk in two <span class="hlt">spatial</span> contexts. We first conducted a no-choice test measuring oviposition and activity of T. urticae exposed to chemical traces of predators or traces plus predator eggs. Then, we tested the site preference of T. urticae in choice tests, using artificial cages and leaves. In the no-choice test, T. urticae deposited their first egg later in the presence of cues of P. persimilis than of the other two predators and cue absence, indicating interspecific threat-sensitivity. T. urticae laid also fewer eggs in the presence of cues of P. persimilis and A. andersoni than of N. californicus and cue absence. In the artificial cage test, the spider mites preferred the site with predator traces, whereas in the leaf test, they preferentially resided on leaves without traces. We argue that in a nonplant environment, chemical predator traces do not indicate a risk for T. urticae, and instead, these traces function as indirect habitat cues. The spider mites were attracted to these cues because they associated them with the existence of a nearby host plant.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fernández Ferrari, M. Celeste; Schausberger, Peter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23644512"> <span id="translatedtitle">From repulsion to attraction: species- and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> context-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> threat sensitive response of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae to predatory mite cues.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Prey perceiving predation risk commonly change their behavior to avoid predation. However, antipredator strategies are costly. Therefore, according to the threat-sensitive predator avoidance hypothesis, prey should match the intensity of their antipredator behaviors to the degree of threat, which may <span class="hlt">depend</span> on the predator species and the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> context. We assessed threat sensitivity of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, to the cues of three predatory mites, Phytoseiulus persimilis, Neoseiulus californicus, and Amblyseius andersoni, posing different degrees of risk in two <span class="hlt">spatial</span> contexts. We first conducted a no-choice test measuring oviposition and activity of T. urticae exposed to chemical traces of predators or traces plus predator eggs. Then, we tested the site preference of T. urticae in choice tests, using artificial cages and leaves. In the no-choice test, T. urticae deposited their first egg later in the presence of cues of P. persimilis than of the other two predators and cue absence, indicating interspecific threat-sensitivity. T. urticae laid also fewer eggs in the presence of cues of P. persimilis and A. andersoni than of N. californicus and cue absence. In the artificial cage test, the spider mites preferred the site with predator traces, whereas in the leaf test, they preferentially resided on leaves without traces. We argue that in a nonplant environment, chemical predator traces do not indicate a risk for T. urticae, and instead, these traces function as indirect habitat cues. The spider mites were attracted to these cues because they associated them with the existence of a nearby host plant. PMID:23644512</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fernández Ferrari, M Celeste; Schausberger, Peter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26636549"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> patterns from EOF analysis of soil moisture at a large scale and their <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on soil, land-use, and topographic properties</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We hypothesize that the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and temporal variation in large-scale soil moisture patterns can be described by a small number of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> structures that are related to soil texture, land use, and topography. To test this hypothesis, an empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis is conducted using data from the 1997 Southern Great Plains field campaign. When considering the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> soil</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Summer D. Jawson; Jeffrey D. Niemann</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMOS13E..01N"> <span id="translatedtitle">The transition to <span class="hlt">strong</span> convection</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The transition to <span class="hlt">strong</span> tropical deep convection as seen in satellite precipitation estimates has recently been shown (Peters and Neelin, 2006, Nature Phys.) to exhibit a number of properties of a continuous phase transition and associated critical phenomena. This list includes a power law pick-up of precipitation above a critical value of column water vapor, a variance maximum near this critical point, and non-trivial scaling with <span class="hlt">spatial</span> averaging. Besides the intellectual interest of putting atmospheric moist convective phenomena into correspondence with critical phenomena in other fields, we argue here for some practical implications. For instance, the <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of ensemble average precipitation on water vapor for different temperatures (or regions) can be made to approximately collapse by appropriate rescaling using the critical values. These critical values can be used to map out the transition as a function water vapor and temperature, thus providing empirical constraints for convective parameterizations. The fraction of time that the system spends below, near or above critical has implications for how we think about convective quasi-equilibrium closures in these parameterizations, including extensions to stochastic convective parameterizations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Neelin, J. D.; Peters, O.; Hales, K.; Nesbitt, S. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvL.111v3601K"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Domain Interactions between Ultraweak Optical Beams</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have observed <span class="hlt">spatial</span> interactions between two ultraweak optical beams that are initially collinear and nonoverlapping. The weak beams are steered towards each other by a <span class="hlt">spatially</span> varying cross-Kerr refractive index waveguide written by a <span class="hlt">strong</span> laser beam in a three-level coherently prepared atomic medium. After fusing together, the combined beam shows controllable phase-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> behaviors. This is the first observation of solitonlike interactions between weak beams and can be useful for all-optically tunable beam combining, switching, and gating for weak photonic signals.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Khadka, Utsab; Sheng, Jiteng; Xiao, Min</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19808886"> <span id="translatedtitle">Myosin V <span class="hlt">spatially</span> regulates microtubule dynamics and promotes the ubiquitin-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> degradation of the fission yeast CLIP-170 homologue, Tip1.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Coordination between microtubule and actin cytoskeletons plays a crucial role during the establishment of cell polarity. In fission yeast, the microtubule cytoskeleton regulates the distribution of actin assembly at the new growing end during the monopolar-to-bipolar growth transition. Here, we describe a novel mechanism in which a myosin V modulates the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> coordination of proteolysis and microtubule dynamics. In cells lacking a functional copy of the class V myosin, Myo52, the plus ends of microtubules fail to undergo catastrophe on contacting the cell end and continue to grow, curling around the end of the cell. We show that this actin-associated motor regulates the efficient ubiquitin-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> proteolysis of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe CLIP-170 homologue, Tip1. Myo52 facilitates microtubule catastrophe by enhancing Tip1 removal from the plus end of growing microtubules at the cell tips. There, Myo52 and the ubiquitin receptor, Dph1, work in concert to target Tip1 for degradation. PMID:19808886</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martín-García, Rebeca; Mulvihill, Daniel P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a 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href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004ApPhL..84.1435O"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nonlinear emission in II-VI pillar microcavities: <span class="hlt">Strong</span> versus weak coupling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pillar microcavities based on CdMnTe/CdMgTe heterostructures have been investigated by means of <span class="hlt">spatially</span> resolved optical spectroscopy. <span class="hlt">Strong</span> coupling with a Rabi splitting of about 15.8 meV is demonstrated by performing microreflectivity measurements on a single pillar with three-dimensional optical confinement. Analyzing the temperature and the power <span class="hlt">dependent</span> photoluminescence signal after nonresonant excitation, clear evidence of <span class="hlt">strong</span> coupling in the nonlinear emission regime is obtained even at elevated temperatures.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Obert, M.; Renner, J.; Forchel, A.; Bacher, G.; André, R.; Le Si Dang, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30004102"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> contrast sensitivity and the diagnosis of amblyopia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The relationship was studied between <span class="hlt">spatial</span> contrast sensitivity function and type of pathology of the visual system. Two characteristics were found to be typical for amblyopia: there is a discrepancy between the high-frequency cut-off ('grating acuity') and the Snellen acuity; the contrast sensitivity is <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on the width of the stimulus. In optic nerve degeneration a decrease in contrast</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A C Volkers; K H Hagemans; G J van der Wildt; P I Schmitz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50538032"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Modulation - A New Low Complexity Spectral Efficiency Enhancing Technique</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The multiplexing gain of multiple antenna transmission <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">depends</span> on transmit and receive antenna spacing, transmit antenna synchronization, and the algorithm used to eliminate interchannel interference (ICI) at the receiver. In this paper, a new transmission approach, called <span class="hlt">spatial</span> modulation, that entirely avoids ICI and requires no synchronization between the transmitting antennas while maintaining high spectral efficiency is presented. A</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. Mesleh; H. Haas; Chang Wook Ahn; Sangboh Yun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=memory+AND+study&pg=7&id=EJ972516"> <span id="translatedtitle">Remaking Memories: Reconsolidation Updates Positively Motivated <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Memory in Rats</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">There is <span class="hlt">strong</span> evidence that reactivation of a memory returns it to a labile state, initiating a restabilization process termed reconsolidation, which allows for updating of the memory. In this study we investigated reactivation-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> updating using a new positively motivated <span class="hlt">spatial</span> task in rodents that was designed specifically to model a…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jones, Bethany; Bukoski, Elizabeth; Nadel, Lynn; Fellous, Jean-Marc</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/594/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatially</span> pooled depth-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> reservoir storage, elevation, and water-quality data for selected reservoirs in Texas, January 1965-January 2010</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Texas Tech University, constructed a dataset of selected reservoir storage (daily and instantaneous values), reservoir elevation (daily and instantaneous values), and water-quality data from 59 reservoirs throughout Texas. The period of record for the data is as large as January 1965-January 2010. Data were acquired from existing databases, spreadsheets, delimited text files, and hard-copy reports. The goal was to obtain as much data as possible; therefore, no data acquisition restrictions specifying a particular time window were used. Primary data sources include the USGS National Water Information System, the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality Surface Water-Quality Management Information System, and the Texas Water Development Board monthly Texas Water Condition Reports. Additional water-quality data for six reservoirs were obtained from USGS Texas Annual Water Data Reports. Data were combined from the multiple sources to create as complete a set of properties and constituents as the disparate databases allowed. By devising a unique per-reservoir short name to represent all sites on a reservoir regardless of their source, all sampling sites at a reservoir were <span class="hlt">spatially</span> pooled by reservoir and temporally combined by date. Reservoir selection was based on various criteria including the availability of water-quality properties and constituents that might affect the trophic status of the reservoir and could also be important for understanding possible effects of climate change in the future. Other considerations in the selection of reservoirs included the general reservoir-specific period of record, the availability of concurrent reservoir storage or elevation data to match with water-quality data, and the availability of sample depth measurements. Additional separate selection criteria included historic information pertaining to blooms of golden algae. Physical properties and constituents were water temperature, reservoir storage, reservoir elevation, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, pH, unfiltered salinity, unfiltered total nitrogen, filtered total nitrogen, unfiltered nitrate plus nitrite, unfiltered phosphorus, filtered phosphorus, unfiltered carbon, carbon in suspended sediment, total hardness, unfiltered noncarbonate hardness, filtered noncarbonate hardness, unfiltered calcium, filtered calcium, unfiltered magnesium, filtered magnesium, unfiltered sodium, filtered sodium, unfiltered potassium, filtered potassium, filtered chloride, filtered sulfate, unfiltered fluoride, and filtered fluoride. When possible, USGS and Texas Commission on Environmental Quality water-quality properties and constituents were matched using the database parameter codes for individual physical properties and constituents, descriptions of each physical property or constituent, and their reporting units. This report presents a collection of delimited text files of source-aggregated, <span class="hlt">spatially</span> pooled, depth-<span class="hlt">dependent</span>, instantaneous water-quality data as well as instantaneous, daily, and monthly storage and elevation reservoir data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Burley, Thomas E.; Asquith, William H.; Brooks, Donald L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40973427"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependency</span> of soil nutrient availability and microbial properties in a mixed forest of Tsuga heterophylla and Pseudotsuga menziesii, in coastal British Columbia, Canada</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> variations in nutrient concentrations and turnover may contribute to variations in productivity within forest ecosystems and be responsible for creating and maintaining diversity of plant species. The aim of this study was to relate <span class="hlt">spatial</span> patterns in soil nutrient availability and microbial properties in the forest floor and mineral soil in order to explore the controls on variations in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Per Bengtson; Nathan Basiliko; Cindy E. Prescott; Susan J. Grayston</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20669170"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temporal scaling properties and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> synchronization of spontaneous blood oxygenation level-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> (BOLD) signal fluctuations in rat sensorimotor network at different levels of isoflurane anesthesia.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygenation level-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> (BOLD) MRI signal during the resting state are increasingly being studied in healthy and diseased brain in humans and animal models. Yet, the relationship between functional brain status and the characteristics of spontaneous BOLD fluctuations remains poorly understood. In order to obtain more insights into this relationship and, in particular, the effects of anesthesia thereupon, we investigated the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and temporal correlations of spontaneous BOLD fluctuations in somatosensory and motor regions of rat brain at different inhalation levels of the frequently applied anesthetic isoflurane. We found that the temporal scaling, characterized by the Hurst exponent (H), showed persistent behavior (H?>?0.5) at 0.5-1.0% isoflurane. Furthermore, low-pass-filtered spontaneous BOLD oscillations were correlated significantly in bilateral somatosensory and bilateral motor cortices, reflective of interhemispheric functional connectivity. Under 2.9% isoflurane anesthesia, the temporal scaling characteristics approached those of Gaussian white noise (H?=?0.5), the relative amplitude of BOLD low-frequency fluctuations declined, and cross-correlations of these oscillations between functionally connected regions decreased significantly. Loss of interhemispheric functional connectivity at 2.9% isoflurane anesthesia was stronger between bilateral motor regions than between bilateral somatosensory regions, which points to distinct effects of anesthesia on differentially organized neuronal networks. Although we cannot completely rule out a possible contribution from hemodynamic signals with a non-neuronal origin, our results emphasize that spatiotemporal characteristics of spontaneous BOLD fluctuations are related to the brain's specific functional status and network organization, and demonstrate that these are largely preserved under light to mild anesthesia with isoflurane. PMID:20669170</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Kun; van Meer, Maurits P A; van der Marel, Kajo; van der Toorn, Annette; Xu, Lijuan; Liu, Yingjun; Viergever, Max A; Jiang, Tianzi; Dijkhuizen, Rick M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3631344"> <span id="translatedtitle">Diurnal pattern of stomatal conductance in the large-leaved temperate liana Aristolochia macrophylla <span class="hlt">depends</span> on <span class="hlt">spatial</span> position within the leaf lamina</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background and Aims The large distance between peripheral leaf regions and the petiole in large leaves is expected to cause stronger negative water potentials at the leaf apex and marginal zones compared with more central or basal leaf regions. Leaf zone-specific differences in water supply and/or gas exchange may therefore be anticipated. In this study, an investigation was made to see whether zonal differences in gas exchange regulation can be detected in large leaves. Methods The diurnal course of stomatal conductance, gs, was monitored at defined lamina zones during two consecutive vegetation periods in the liana Aristolochia macrophylla that has large leaves. Local climate and stem water potential were also monitored to include parameters involved in stomatal response. Additionally, leaf zonal vein densities were measured to assess possible trends in local hydraulic supply. Key Results It was found that the diurnal pattern of gs <span class="hlt">depends</span> on the position within a leaf in A. macrophylla. The highest values during the early morning were shown by the apical region, with subsequent decline later in the morning and a further gradual decline towards the evening. The diurnal pattern of gs at the marginal regions was similar to that of the leaf tip but showed a time lag of about 1 h. At the leaf base, the diurnal pattern of gs was similar to that of the margins but with lower maximum gs. At the the leaf centre regions, gs tended to show quite constant moderate values during most of the day. Densities of minor veins were lower at the margin and tip compared with the centre and base. Conclusions Gas exchange regulation appears to be zone specific in A. macrophylla leaves. It is suggested that the <span class="hlt">spatial</span>–diurnal pattern of gs expressed by A. macrophylla leaves represents a strategy to prevent leaf zonal water stress and subsequent vein embolism.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Miranda, Tatiana; Ebner, Martin; Traiser, Christopher; Roth-Nebelsick, Anita</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.S53A2251C"> <span id="translatedtitle">CISN ShakeAlert: Accounting for site amplification effects and quantifying time and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of uncertainty estimates in the Virtual Seismologist earthquake early warning algorithm</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Virtual Seismologist (VS) earthquake early warning (EEW) algorithm is one of 3 EEW approaches being incorporated into the California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) ShakeAlert system, a prototype EEW system being tested in real-time in California. The VS algorithm, implemented by the Swiss Seismological Service at ETH Zurich, is a Bayesian approach to EEW, wherein the most probable source estimate at any given time is a combination of contributions from a likehihood function that evolves in response to incoming data from the on-going earthquake, and selected prior information, which can include factors such as network topology, the Gutenberg-Richter relationship or previously observed seismicity. The VS codes have been running in real-time at the Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN) since July 2008, and at the Northern California Seismic Network (NCSN) since February 2009. With the aim of improving the convergence of real-time VS magnitude estimates to network magnitudes, we evaluate various empirical and Vs30-based approaches to accounting for site amplification. Empirical station corrections for SCSN stations are derived from M>3.0 events from 2005 through 2009. We evaluate the performance of the various approaches using an independent 2010 dataset. In addition, we analyze real-time VS performance from 2008 to the present to quantify the time and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of VS uncertainty estimates. We also summarize real-time VS performance for significant 2011 events in California. Improved magnitude and uncertainty estimates potentially increase the utility of EEW information for end-users, particularly those intending to automate damage-mitigating actions based on real-time information.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Caprio, M.; Cua, G. B.; Wiemer, S.; Fischer, M.; Heaton, T. H.; CISN EEW Team</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ERL.....8a4046F"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> decoupling of agricultural production and consumption: quantifying <span class="hlt">dependences</span> of countries on food imports due to domestic land and water constraints</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In our globalizing world, the geographical locations of food production and consumption are becoming increasingly disconnected, which increases reliance on external resources and their trade. We quantified to what extent water and land constraints limit countries’ capacities, at present and by 2050, to produce on their own territory the crop products that they currently import from other countries. Scenarios of increased crop productivity and water use, cropland expansion (excluding areas prioritized for other uses) and population change are accounted for. We found that currently 16% of the world population use the opportunities of international trade to cover their demand for agricultural products. Population change may <span class="hlt">strongly</span> increase the number of people <span class="hlt">depending</span> on ex situ land and water resources up to about 5.2 billion (51% of world population) in the SRES A2r scenario. International trade will thus have to intensify if population growth is not accompanied by dietary change towards less resource-intensive products, by cropland expansion, or by productivity improvements, mainly in Africa and the Middle East. Up to 1.3 billion people may be at risk of food insecurity in 2050 in present low-income economies (mainly in Africa), if their economic development does not allow them to afford productivity increases, cropland expansion and/or imports from other countries.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fader, Marianela; Gerten, Dieter; Krause, Michael; Lucht, Wolfgang; Cramer, Wolfgang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53137246"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">spatial</span> resolution threshold of land cover in estimating terrestrial carbon sequestration in four counties in Georgia and Alabama, USA</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Changes in carbon density (i.e., carbon stock per unit area) and land cover greatly affect carbon sequestration. Previous studies have shown that land cover change detection <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">depends</span> on <span class="hlt">spatial</span> scale. However, the influence of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> resolution of land cover change information on the estimated terrestrial carbon sequestration is not known. Here, we quantified and evaluated the impact of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. Q. Zhao; S. Liu; Z. Li; T. L. Sohl</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24752989"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impairments in experience-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> scaling and stability of hippocampal place fields limit <span class="hlt">spatial</span> learning in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Impaired <span class="hlt">spatial</span> memory characterizes many mouse models for Alzheimer's disease, but we understand little about how this trait arises. Here, we use a transgenic model of amyloidosis to examine the relationship between behavioral performance in tests of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> navigation and the function of hippocampal place cells. We find that amyloid precursor protein (APP) mice require considerably more training than controls to reach the same level of performance in a water maze task, and recall the trained location less well 24 h later. At a single cell level, place fields from control mice become more stable and <span class="hlt">spatially</span> restricted with repeated exposure to a new environment, while those in APP mice improve less over time, ultimately producing a <span class="hlt">spatial</span> code of lower resolution, accuracy, and reliability than controls. The limited refinement of place fields in APP mice likely contributes to their delayed water maze acquisition, and provides evidence for circuit dysfunction underlying cognitive impairment. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24752989</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhao, Rong; Fowler, Stephanie W; Chiang, Angie C A; Ji, Daoyun; Jankowsky, Joanna L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20991189"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solving the m-mixing problem for the three-dimensional time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> Schroedinger equation by rotations: Application to <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field ionization of H{sub 2}{sup +}</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a very efficient technique for solving the three-dimensional time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> Schroedinger equation. Our method is applicable to a wide range of problems where a fully three-dimensional solution is required, i.e., to cases where no symmetries exist that reduce the dimensionality of the problem. Examples include arbitrarily oriented molecules in external fields and atoms interacting with elliptically polarized light. We demonstrate that, even in such cases, the three-dimensional problem can be decomposed exactly into two two-dimensional problems at the cost of introducing a trivial rotation transformation. We supplement the theoretical framework with numerical results on <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field ionization of arbitrarily oriented H{sub 2}{sup +} molecules.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kjeldsen, T. K.; Nikolopoulos, L. A. A.; Madsen, L. B. [Lundbeck Foundation Theoretical Center for Quantum System Research, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-06-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JaJAP..45L1074O"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> <span class="hlt">Dependence</span> on Thickness of Room-Temperature Dielectric Constant of (100)-Oriented Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 Epitaxial Films Grown by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 films with film thickness as ranging from 100 to 2000 nm were grown on (100)cSrRuO3\\parallel(100)SrTiO3 substrates by pulsed metal organic chemical vapor deposition. (100)-oriented epitaxial films were grown regardless of film thickness. The tetragonal symmetry of 100-nm-thick films was found to have changed to an almost cubic symmetry having almost equal out-of-plane and in-plane lattice parameters with increasing film thickness. The room-temperature relative dielectric constant \\varepsilonr at 10 kHz increased almost linearly from 630 to 3100 with increasing film thickness, suggesting its <span class="hlt">strong</span> thickness <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on \\varepsilonr, which is different from that observed in the Pb(Zr0.65Ti0.35)O3 films with a rhombohedral symmetry.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Okamoto, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Shintaro; Okamoto, Shoji; Saito, Keisuke; Uchida, Hiroshi; Koda, Seiichiro; Funakubo, Hiroshi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19302127"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> and temporal variation in the relative contribution of density <span class="hlt">dependence</span>, climate variation and migration to fluctuations in the size of great tit populations.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">1. The aim of the present study is to model the stochastic variation in the size of five populations of great tit Parus major in the Netherlands, using a combination of individual-based demographic data and time series of population fluctuations. We will examine relative contribution of density-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> effects, and variation in climate and winter food on local dynamics as well as on number of immigrants. 2. Annual changes in population size were <span class="hlt">strongly</span> affected by temporal variation in number of recruits produced locally as well as by the number of immigrants. The number of individuals recruited from one breeding season to the next was mainly determined by the population size in year t, the beech crop index (BCI) in year t and the temperature during March-April in year t. The number of immigrating females in year t + 1 was also explained by the number of females present in the population in year t, the BCI in autumn year t and the temperature during April-May in year t. 3. By comparing predictions of the population model with the recorded number of females, the simultaneous modelling of local recruitment and immigration explained a large proportion of the annual variation in recorded population growth rates. 4. Environmental stochasticity especially caused by spring temperature and BCI did in general contribute more to annual fluctuations in population size than density-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> effects. Similar effects of climate on local recruitment and immigration also caused covariation in temporal fluctuations of immigration and local production of recruits. 5. The effects of various variables in explaining fluctuations in population size were not independent, and the combined effect of the variables were generally non-additive. Thus, the effects of variables causing fluctuations in population size should not be considered separately because the total effect will be influenced by covariances among the explanatory variables. 6. Our results show that fluctuations in the environment affect local recruitment as well as annual fluctuations in the number of immigrants. This effect of environment on the interchange of individuals among populations is important for predicting effects of global climate change on the pattern of population fluctuations. PMID:19302127</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grøtan, Vidar; Saether, Bernt-Erik; Engen, Steinar; van Balen, Johan H; Perdeck, Albert C; Visser, Marcel E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070010010&hterms=strong&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dstrong"> <span id="translatedtitle">Kinematics of <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Discontinuities</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) provides a detailed view of the Arctic ice cover. When processed with the RADARSAT Geophysical Processor System (RGPS), it provides estimates of sea ice motion and deformation over large regions of the Arctic for extended periods of time. The deformation is dominated by the appearance of linear kinematic features that have been associated with the presence of leads. The RGPS deformation products are based on the assumption that the displacement and velocity are smooth functions of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> coordinates. However, if the dominant deformation of multiyear ice results from the opening, closing and shearing of leads, then the displacement and velocity can be discontinuous. This presentation discusses the kinematics associated with <span class="hlt">strong</span> discontinuities that describe possible jumps in displacement or velocity. Ice motion from SAR data are analyzed using this framework. It is assumed that RGPS cells deform due to the presence of a lead. The lead orientation is calculated to optimally account for the observed deformation. It is shown that almost all observed deformation can be represented by lead opening and shearing. The procedure used to reprocess motion data to account for leads will be described and applied to regions of the Beaufort Sea. The procedure not only provides a new view of ice deformation, it can be used to obtain information about the presence of leads for initialization and/or validation of numerical simulations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peterson, K.; Nguyen, G.; Sulsky, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22307057"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dissecting the age-related decline on <span class="hlt">spatial</span> learning and memory tasks in rodent models: N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and voltage-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> Ca2+ channels in senescent synaptic plasticity.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In humans, heterogeneity in the decline of hippocampal-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> episodic memory is observed during aging. Rodents have been employed as models of age-related cognitive decline and the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> water maze has been used to show variability in the emergence and extent of impaired hippocampal-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> memory. Impairment in the consolidation of intermediate-term memory for rapidly acquired and flexible <span class="hlt">spatial</span> information emerges early, in middle-age. As aging proceeds, deficits may broaden to include impaired incremental learning of a <span class="hlt">spatial</span> reference memory. The extent and time course of impairment has been be linked to senescence of calcium (Ca²?) regulation and Ca²?-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> synaptic plasticity mechanisms in region CA1. Specifically, aging is associated with altered function of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), voltage-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> Ca²? channels (VDCCs), and ryanodine receptors (RyRs) linked to intracellular Ca²? stores (ICS). In young animals, NMDAR activation induces long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission (NMDAR-LTP), which is thought to mediate the rapid consolidation of intermediate-term memory. Oxidative stress, starting in middle-age, reduces NMDAR function. In addition, VDCCs and ICS can actively inhibit NMDAR-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> LTP and oxidative stress enhances the role of VDCC and RyR-ICS in regulating synaptic plasticity. Blockade of L-type VDCCs promotes NMDAR-LTP and memory in older animals. Interestingly, pharmacological or genetic manipulations to reduce hippocampal NMDAR function readily impair memory consolidation or rapid learning, generally leaving incremental learning intact. Finally, evidence is mounting to indicate a role for VDCC-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> synaptic plasticity in associative learning and the consolidation of remote memories. Thus, VDCC-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> synaptic plasticity and extrahippocampal systems may contribute to incremental learning deficits observed with advanced aging. PMID:22307057</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Foster, Thomas C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3448370"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatially</span> and Temporally Varying Associations between Temporary Outmigration and Natural Resource Availability in Resource-<span class="hlt">Dependent</span> Rural Communities in South Africa: A Modeling Framework</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Migration-environment models tend to be aspatial within chosen study regions, although associations between temporary outmigration and environmental explanatory variables likely vary across the study space. This research extends current approaches by developing migration models considering <span class="hlt">spatial</span> non-stationarity and temporal variation – through examination of the migration-environment association at nested geographic scales (i.e. whole-population, village, and subvillage) within a specific study site. Demographic survey data from rural South Africa, combined with indicators of natural resource availability from satellite imagery, are employed in a nested modeling approach that brings out distinct patterns of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variation in model associations derived at finer geographic scales. Given recent heightened public and policy concern with the human migratory implications of climate change, we argue that consideration of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variability adds important nuance to scientific understanding of the migration-environment association.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leyk, Stefan; Maclaurin, Galen J.; Hunter, Lori M.; Nawrotzki, Raphael; Twine, Wayne; Collinson, Mark; Erasmus, Barend</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/952751"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strongly</span> Driven Crystallization Processes in a Metallic Glass</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The crystallization of amorphous NiTi thin films was studied in situ using pulsed laser heating in a dynamic transmission electron microscope. A single pulse can crystallize small areas of the film within 2 {micro}s. The crystallized volume fraction and morphology <span class="hlt">depend</span> <span class="hlt">strongly</span> on the laser energy, the laser <span class="hlt">spatial</span> profile, and the heat transport in the film. As compared to slower furnace and continuous wave laser annealing, pulsed laser heating produces a dramatically different microstructure. Higher than expected crystallization rates were observed under pulsed irradiation that do not correlate with kinetic data obtained from the slow-heating crystallization experiments.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">LaGrange, T; Grummon, D S; Reed, B W; Browning, N D; King, W E; Campbell, G H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-02-09</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41224495"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> characterization of landscape functions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">There is little information available on the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> variation of landscape functions. We developed a methodological framework to map and quantify landscape functions <span class="hlt">depending</span> on the availability of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> information. In this framework three different methods were proposed (1) linking landscape functions to land cover or policy defined areas, (2) assessing landscape functions with empirical models using <span class="hlt">spatial</span> indicators and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Louise Willemen; Peter H. Verburg; Lars Hein; Martinus E. F. van Mensvoort</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return 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id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50522114"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Non-stationarity and Time-<span class="hlt">dependency</span> in the Relationship between NOAA-AVHRR NDVI and Climatic Determinants: Sensitivity to Landuse\\/Landcover Change</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">spatial</span> relationship between vegetation patterns and climatic variables and its trend over the period 1985-2001 in the shrubland, grassland, and cropland of Middle Kazakhstan was investigated with normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) images (1985-2000) derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), and climate records from weather stations located in the study area. A local regression technique known</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pavel A. Propastin; Nadiya R. Muratova</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/386505"> <span id="translatedtitle">Discovery of <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Association Rules in Geographic Information Databases</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">. <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> data mining, i.e., discovery of interesting, implicitknowledge in <span class="hlt">spatial</span> databases, is an important task for understandingand use of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> data- and knowledge-bases. In this paper, an efficientmethod for mining <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">spatial</span> association rules in geographic informationdatabases is proposed and studied. A <span class="hlt">spatial</span> association rule is arule indicating certain association relationship among a set of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> andpossibly some nonspatial</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Krzysztof Koperski; Jiawei Han</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19903505"> <span id="translatedtitle">A critical review of chronic stress effects on <span class="hlt">spatial</span> learning and memory.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this review is to evaluate the effects of chronic stress on hippocampal-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> function, based primarily upon studies using young, adult male rodents and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> navigation tasks. Despite this restriction, variability amongst the findings was evident and how or even whether chronic stress influenced <span class="hlt">spatial</span> ability <span class="hlt">depended</span> upon the type of task, the <span class="hlt">dependent</span> variable measured and how the task was implemented, the type and duration of the stressors, housing conditions of the animals that include accessibility to food and cage mates, and duration from the end of the stress to the start of behavioral assessment. Nonetheless, patterns emerged as follows: For <span class="hlt">spatial</span> memory, chronic stress impairs <span class="hlt">spatial</span> reference memory and has transient effects on <span class="hlt">spatial</span> working memory. For <span class="hlt">spatial</span> learning, however, chronic stress effects appear to be task-specific: chronic stress impairs <span class="hlt">spatial</span> learning on appetitively motivated tasks, such as the radial arm maze or holeboard, tasks that evoke relatively mild to low arousal components from fear. But under testing conditions that evoke moderate to <span class="hlt">strong</span> arousal components from fear, such as during radial arm water maze testing, chronic stress appears to have minimal impairing effects or may even facilitate <span class="hlt">spatial</span> learning. Chronic stress clearly impacts nearly every brain region and thus, how chronic stress alters hippocampal <span class="hlt">spatial</span> ability likely <span class="hlt">depends</span> upon the engagement of other brain structures during behavioral training and testing. PMID:19903505</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Conrad, Cheryl D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-06-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/13992364"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> intelligence with <span class="hlt">spatial</span> statistics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">With the advent of Web 2.0, new technologies for <span class="hlt">spatial</span> data service, and demanding needs in <span class="hlt">spatial</span> data sharing, and advanced analysis, both geographic information system and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> statistics are facing challenges from different disciplines never met before. Due to their mutual beneficial roles in highlevel decision making, it's quite essential to make research on the integration of Web 2.0</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xu Zhang; Shuming Bao; Xinyan Zhu; Kehua Su</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880014768&hterms=spatial+ability&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dspatial%2Bability"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> cognition</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> cognition is the ability to reason about geometric relationships in the real (or a metaphorical) world based on one or more internal representations of those relationships. The study of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> cognition is concerned with the representation of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> knowledge, and our ability to manipulate these representations to solve <span class="hlt">spatial</span> problems. <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> cognition is utilized most critically when direct perceptual cues are absent or impoverished. Examples are provided of how human <span class="hlt">spatial</span> cognitive abilities impact on three areas of space station operator performance: orientation, path planning, and data base management. A videotape provides demonstrations of relevant phenomena (e.g., the importance of orientation for recognition of complex, configural forms). The presentation is represented by abstract and overhead visuals only.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kaiser, Mary Kister; Remington, Roger</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21421191"> <span id="translatedtitle">Higgs-induced spectroscopic shifts near <span class="hlt">strong</span> gravity sources</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We explore the consequences of the mass generation due to the Higgs field in <span class="hlt">strong</span> gravity astrophysical environments. The vacuum expectation value of the Higgs field is predicted to <span class="hlt">depend</span> on the curvature of spacetime, potentially giving rise to peculiar spectroscopic shifts, named hereafter 'Higgs shifts'. Higgs shifts could be searched through dedicated multiwavelength and multispecies surveys with high <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and spectral resolution near <span class="hlt">strong</span> gravity sources such as Sagittarius A* or broad searches for signals due to primordial black holes. The possible absence of Higgs shifts in these surveys should provide limits to the coupling between the Higgs particle and the curvature of spacetime, a topic of interest for a recently proposed Higgs-driven inflationary model. We discuss some conceptual issues regarding the coexistence between the Higgs mechanism and gravity, especially for their different handling of fundamental and composite particles.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Onofrio, Roberto [Dipartimento di Fisica 'Galileo Galilei', Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, Padova 35131 (Italy) and ITAMP, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-09-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011A%26A...528A..73D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Abell 611. II. X-ray and <span class="hlt">strong</span> lensing analyses</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present the results of our analyses of the X-ray emission and of the <span class="hlt">strong</span> lensing systems in the galaxy cluster Abell 611 [z = 0.288]. This cluster is an optimal candidate for a comparison of the mass reconstructions obtained through X-ray and lensing techniques, because of its very relaxed dynamical appearance and its exceptional <span class="hlt">strong</span> lensing system. We infer the X-ray mass estimate deriving the density and temperature profile of the intra-cluster medium within the radius r ? 700 kpc through a non-parametric approach, taking advantage of the high <span class="hlt">spatial</span> resolution of a Chandra observation. Assuming that the cluster is in hydrostatic equilibrium and adopting a matter density profile, we can recover the total mass distribution of Abell 611 via the X-ray data. Moreover, we derive the total projected mass in the central regions of Abell 611 performing a parametric analysis of its <span class="hlt">strong</span> lensing features through the publicly available analysis software Lenstool. As a final step we compare the results obtained with both methods. We derive a good agreement between the X-ray and <span class="hlt">strong</span> lensing total mass estimates in the central regions where the <span class="hlt">strong</span> lensing constraints are present (i.e. within the radius r ? 100 kpc), while a marginal disagreement is found between the two mass estimates when extrapolating the <span class="hlt">strong</span> lensing results in the outer <span class="hlt">spatial</span> range. We suggest that in this case the X-ray/<span class="hlt">strong</span> lensing mass disagreement can be explained by an incorrect estimate of the relative contributions of the baryonic component and of the dark matter, caused by the intrinsic degeneracy between the different mass components in the <span class="hlt">strong</span> lensing analysis. We discuss the effect of some possible systematic errors that influence both mass estimates. We find a slight <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the measurements of the X-ray temperatures (and therefore of the X-ray total masses) on the background adopted in the spectral analysis, with total deviations on the value of M200 of the order of the 1? statistical error. The <span class="hlt">strong</span> lensing mass results are instead sensitive to the parameterisation of the galactic halo mass in the central regions, in particular to the modelling of the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) baryonic component, which induces a significant scatter in the <span class="hlt">strong</span> lensing mass results.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Donnarumma, A.; Ettori, S.; Meneghetti, M.; Gavazzi, R.; Fort, B.; Moscardini, L.; Romano, A.; Fu, L.; Giordano, F.; Radovich, M.; Maoli, R.; Scaramella, R.; Richard, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA067921"> <span id="translatedtitle">Calculational Procedure for Evaluating Time- and <span class="hlt">Spatial-Dependent</span> Energy Deposition in Air for Anisotropic Nuclear Sources: Volume IV. Secondary Gamma-Ray Data for Isotropic Neutron Sources.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This volume presents calculated time <span class="hlt">dependent</span> secondary gamma-ray energy deposition data for point isotropic neutron sources emitting radiation in the source energy intervals. The radial intervals used in storing the energy deposition data are given. The...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. B. Wells R. B. Livesay</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA067919"> <span id="translatedtitle">Calculational Procedure for Evaluating Time- and <span class="hlt">Spatial-Dependent</span> Energy Deposition in Air for Anisotropic Nuclear Sources: Volume II. Data for Isotropic Gamma-Ray Sources.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This volume presents calculated time <span class="hlt">dependent</span> energy deposition data for point isotropic gamma-ray sources emitting radiation in the source energy intervals. The radial intervals used in storing the energy deposition data are given. The delay time interv...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. B. Wells R. B. Livesay</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22069229"> <span id="translatedtitle">Phase states of a 2D easy-plane ferromagnet with <span class="hlt">strong</span> inclined anisotropy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigate the spin states of a 2D film exhibiting easy-axis anisotropy and a <span class="hlt">strong</span> single-ion inclined anisotropy whose axis forms a certain angle with the normal to the film surface. Such a system may have an angular ferromagnetic phase, a <span class="hlt">spatially</span> inhomogeneous state, and a quadrupole phase, whose realization <span class="hlt">depends</span> substantially on the inclined anisotropy and the orientation of the wavevector in the film plane.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fridman, Yu. A., E-mail: frid@tnu.crimea.ua; Klevets, F. N.; Gorelikov, G. A.; Meleshko, A. G. [Vernadskii Tavria National University (Ukraine)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22027884"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of tilted anisotropy on spin states of <span class="hlt">strongly</span> anisotropic 2D film</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The spin states of a 2D film with a <span class="hlt">strong</span> easy-plane anisotropy and single-ion tilted anisotropy, the axis of which forms a certain angle with the normal to the film plane are investigated. In this system, an angular ferromagnetic phase, a <span class="hlt">spatially</span> inhomogeneous state, and a quadrupole phase can be formed; the realization of these states noticeably <span class="hlt">depends</span> on the degree of tilted anisotropy.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fridman, Yu. A., E-mail: frid@tnu.crimea.ua; Klevets, F. N.; Gorelikov, G. A. [Vernadskii Tavria National University (Ukraine)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900013602&hterms=central+retinal+vein&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dcentral%2Bretinal%2Bvein"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Displays and <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Instruments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The conference proceedings topics are divided into two main areas: (1) issues of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> and picture perception raised by graphical electronic displays of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> information; and (2) design questions raised by the practical experience of designers actually defining new <span class="hlt">spatial</span> instruments for use in new aircraft and spacecraft. Each topic is considered from both a theoretical and an applied direction. Emphasis is placed on discussion of phenomena and determination of design principles.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ellis, Stephen R. (editor); Kaiser, Mary K. (editor); Grunwald, Arthur J. (editor)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=short+AND+term+AND+memory&pg=5&id=EJ688530"> <span id="translatedtitle">Double Dissociations in Visual and <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Short-Term Memory</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A visual short-term memory task was more <span class="hlt">strongly</span> disrupted by visual than <span class="hlt">spatial</span> interference, and a <span class="hlt">spatial</span> memory task was simultaneously more <span class="hlt">strongly</span> disrupted by <span class="hlt">spatial</span> than visual interference. This double dissociation supports a fractionation of visuospatial short-term memory into separate visual and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> components. In 6 experiments,…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Klauer, Karl Christoph; Zhao, Zengmei</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3078196"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Inhibition and the Visual Cortex: A Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Imaging Study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Introduction Deficits in processing <span class="hlt">spatial</span> information have been observed in clinical populations who have abnormalities within the dopamine (DA) system. As psychostimulants such as methamphetamine (MA) are particularly neurotoxic to the dopaminergic system it was of interest to examine the performance of MA-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> individuals on a task of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> attention. Method 51 MA-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> subjects and 22 age-matched non-substance abusing control subjects were tested on a <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> Stroop attention test. MR Spectroscopy (MRS) imaging data were analyzed from 32 MA abusers and 13 controls. Results No group differences in response time or accuracy emerged on the behavioral task with both groups exhibiting equivalent slowing when the word meaning and the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> location of the word were in conflict. MRS imaging data from the MA abusers revealed a <span class="hlt">strong</span> inverse correlation between NAA/Cr ratios in the primary visual cortex (PVC) and <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> interference (p=0.0001). Moderate inverse correlations were also seen in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) (p = 0.02). No significant correlations were observed in the controls, perhaps due to the small sample of imaging data available (n=13). Discussion The <span class="hlt">strong</span> correlation between <span class="hlt">spatial</span> conflict suppression and NAA/Cr levels within the PVC in the MA-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> individuals suggests that preserved neuronal integrity within the PVC of stimulant abusers may modulate cognitive mechanisms that process implicit <span class="hlt">spatial</span> information.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Salo, R; Nordahl, TE; Buonocore, MH; Natsuaki, YT; Moore, CD; Waters, C; Leamon, MH</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1135938"> <span id="translatedtitle">Flavin-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> alcohol oxidase from the yeast Pichia pinus. <span class="hlt">Spatial</span> localization of the coenzyme FAD in the protein structure: hot-tritium bombardment and ESR experiments.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">spatial</span> localization of the coenzyme FAD in the quaternary structure of the alcohol oxidase from the yeast Pichia pinus was studied by tritium planigraphy and ESR methods. In the present paper we measured the specific radioactivity of FAD labelled as a part of the alcohol oxidase complex. The specific-radioactivity ratio for two FAD portions (FMN and AMP) was calculated. ESR experiments show 4 A (0.4 nm) to be the depth of immersion of paramagnetic isoalloxazines into alcohol oxidase octamer molecules. It is suggested that FAD molecules are bound to the surface of the octamer, rather than to the subunit interfaces. The orientation of the prosthetic group FAD in the alcohol oxidase protein is discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Averbakh, A Z; Pekel, N D; Seredenko, V I; Kulikov, A V; Gvozdev, R I; Rudakova, I P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22136598"> <span id="translatedtitle">THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY DATA RELEASE 7 SPECTROSCOPIC M DWARF CATALOG. III. THE <span class="hlt">SPATIAL</span> <span class="hlt">DEPENDENCE</span> OF MAGNETIC ACTIVITY IN THE GALAXY</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We analyze the magnetic activity of 59,318 M dwarfs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. This analysis explores the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> distribution of M dwarf activity as a function of both vertical distance from the Galactic plane (Z) and planar distance from the Galactic center (R). We confirm the established trends of decreasing magnetic activity (as measured by H{alpha} emission) with increasing distance from the mid-plane of the disk and find evidence of a trend in Galactocentric radii. We measure a non-zero radial gradient in the activity fraction in our analysis of stars with spectral types dM3 and dM4. The activity fraction increases with R and can be explained by a decreasing mean stellar age with increasing distance from the Galactic center.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sebastian Pineda, J. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); West, Andrew A. [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Bochanski, John J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Haverford College, 370 Lancaster Avenue, Haverford, PA 19041 (United States); Burgasser, Adam J., E-mail: jspineda@astro.caltech.edu [Center of Astrophysics and Space Sciences, Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvA..89d3429G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multielectron effects in <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field dissociative ionization of molecules</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study triple-ionization-induced, <span class="hlt">spatially</span> asymmetric dissociation of N2 using angular streaking in an elliptically polarized laser pulse in conjunction with few-cycle pump-probe experiments. The kinetic-energy-release <span class="hlt">dependent</span> directional asymmetry in the ion sum-momentum distribution reflects the internuclear distance <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the fragmentation mechanism. Our results show that for 5-35-fs near-infrared laser pulses with intensities reaching 1015 W/cm2, charge exchange between nuclei plays a minor role in the triple ionization of N2. We demonstrate that angular streaking provides a powerful tool for probing multielectron effects in <span class="hlt">strong</span>-field dissociative ionization of small molecules.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gong, X.; Kunitski, M.; Betsch, K. J.; Song, Q.; Schmidt, L. Ph. H.; Jahnke, T.; Kling, Nora G.; Herrwerth, O.; Bergues, B.; Senftleben, A.; Ullrich, J.; Moshammer, R.; Paulus, G. G.; Ben-Itzhak, I.; Lezius, M.; Kling, M. F.; Zeng, H.; Jones, R. R.; Wu, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1651765"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of <span class="hlt">spatial</span> intrafield gate CD variability, its impact on circuit performance, and <span class="hlt">spatial</span> mask-level correction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors present a comprehensive characterization method applied to the study of the state-of-the-art 18-?m CMOS process. Statistical characterization of gate CD reveals a large <span class="hlt">spatial</span> intrafield component, <span class="hlt">strongly</span> <span class="hlt">dependent</span> on the local layout patterns. The authors describe the statistical analysis of this data and demonstrate the need for such comprehensive characterization. They describe the experimental setup of the novel</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michael Orshansky; Linda Milor; Chenming Hu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992PhDT.......234C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Studies on <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Interactions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Five studies, four in Quantum field theory and one in fermionic molecular dynamics are presented. In the first study, introduced in chapter one and developed in chapter two of this dissertation, we formulate an extension of QCD sum rules to Compton scattering of the pion at intermediate energy. The chapter is based on the research paper Fixed angle pion Compton scattering and QCD sum rules by Prof. George Sterman and the author, which has been submitted for publication as a regular article. In chapter 3 we discuss the relation between traditional bosonic exchange models of nuclear <span class="hlt">strong</span> interaction and soliton models, in the particular case of the sine-Gordon model. The chapter is based on the research paper "Scattering in soliton models and bosonic exchange descriptions", by R. R. Parwani, H. Yamagishi, I. Zahed and the author, and is published in Phys. Rev. D 45 (1992), 2542. A preprint of this paper (Preprint 1) has been included as an Appendix to the Chapter. In Chapter 4 we discuss aspects of the propagation of quantized fields in classical backgrounds, using the light-cone expansion of the propagator. The chapter is based on the research papers "Electrodynamics in the presence of an axion", published by the author in Modern Physics Letters A 7 (1992), 1253, and on the paper "Singularity of Green's function and the effective action in massive Yang Mills theories, by Prof. H. Yamagishi and the author. This last paper is published in Physical Review D 41 (1990), 3226 and its reprint appears in the final part of the Chapter (Reprint 1). In chapter 5, entitled "On the time <span class="hlt">dependent</span> Rayleigh-Ritz equations", we discuss aspects of the variational approach to fermionic molecular dynamics. This investigation by R. Parwani, H. Yamagishi and the author has been published in Nucl. Physics A 522 (1991), 591. A preprint of this research paper has been inserted in the final part of the Chapter (Preprint 2).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Coriano, Claudio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvA..85a3635S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Collective modes of a <span class="hlt">strongly</span> interacting Bose gas: Probing the Mott transition</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We analyze the collective modes of a harmonically trapped, <span class="hlt">strongly</span> interacting Bose gas in an optical lattice in the vicinity of the Mott-insulator transition. For that aim we employ the dynamical Gutzwiller mean-field method, by performing real-time evolution and by solving the equations in linear response. We find a <span class="hlt">strong</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> on the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> dimension of the system: while in one dimension the frequency of the dipole mode vanishes at the Mott transition, in higher dimensions the dominant dipole mode is featureless and we find a signature only in the breathing mode. We discuss implications for experiments with bosonic and fermionic atoms.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Snoek, Michiel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return 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class="result-summary">We report results from the Las Campanas IR Survey. The primary goal of our program is determining the clustering of early type galaxies at redshifts from one to two. We have surveyed one square degree to a 5? depth of H(Vega) = 20.5 and to appropriate depths in V,R,I, & z'. We have identified a sample of 335 very red galaxies in the first 700 square arc-minutes of the survey area. These red galaxies have an angular clustering amplitude that is an order of magnitude larger than that of the general field. We use three approaches to derive the redshift distribution of our I - H > 3, H < 20.5 sample and conclude that it spans the range from z = 1 to 1.4. We invert the angular clustering signal to derive a co-moving correlation length of 8 h-1Mpc for a ? = 0.7 cosmology. This is roughly three times larger than that of the Lyman Break galaxies at z = 3 and is in reasonable agreement with the expectation for massive early type galaxies. This program was made possible by support from the National Science Foundation under grant AST-9900806.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McCarthy, P.; Chen, H.; Wilson, J.; Oemler, A.; Persson, E.; Carlberg, R.; Abraham, R.; Marzke, R.; Firth, A.; McMahon, R.; Ellis, R.; Lahav, O.; Sabbey, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999PhRvE..59..874M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Magnetic-resonance determination of the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the droplet size distribution in the cream layer of oil-in-water emulsions: Evidence for the effects of depletion flocculation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is shown that a combination of pulsed-field-gradient spin-echo (PGSE) nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) restricted diffusion analysis and NMR imaging may be used to measure the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the droplet size distribution in the cream layer of turbid oil-in-water emulsions. 1H-13C cyclic J cross-polarization PGSE is introduced as a technique for this purpose in cases where selective observation of the oil component (or other carbohydrate constituent) is required. With this method, 13C nuclei are chemical shift selectively excited by cross-polarization from coupled 1H partners. An optimum detection sensitivity is ensured by transferring the polarization back to the coupled protons with which the combined imaging and diffusion experiment is then carried out. The <span class="hlt">spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependence</span> of the oil droplet size distribution was measured for a series of emulsions containing various fractions of gum xanthan thickener dissolved in the water. The experimental results are compared with a recent model of the creaming process due to Pinfield, Dickinson, and Povey [J. Colloid Interface Sci. 166, 363 (1994)]. When no gum xanthan is present, the experimental results are in good agreement with the model. However, the model fails to describe the droplet distribution for emulsions with a gum xanthan concentration of the order of 0.1 wt %. The discrepancy is discussed in terms of depletion flocculation and depletion stabilization.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McDonald, P. J.; Ciampi, E.; Keddie, J. L.; Heidenreich, M.; Kimmich, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/776655"> <span id="translatedtitle">Optical spectroscopy of <span class="hlt">strongly</span> correlated electron systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this thesis, both time-resolved, nonlinear optical spectroscopy and linear spectroscopy are used to investigate the interactions and dynamics of elementary excitations in <span class="hlt">strongly</span> correlated electron systems. In the first part, we investigate the renormalization of magnetic elementary excitations in the transition metal oxide Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. We have created a non-equilibrium population of antiferromagnetic spin waves and characterized its dynamics, using frequency- and time-resolved optical spectroscopy of the exciton-magnon transition. We observed a time-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> pump-probe line shape, which results from excitation induced renormalization of the spin wave band structure. We present a model that reproduces the basic characteristics of the data, in which we postulate the optical nonlinearity to be dominated by interactions with long-wavelength spin waves, and the dynamics due to spin wave thermalization. Using linear spectroscopy, coherent third-harmonic generation and pump-probe experiments, we measured the optical properties of the charge-transfer (CT) gap exciton in Sr{sub 2}CuO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}, an undoped model compound for high-temperature superconductors. A model is developed which explains the pronounced temperature <span class="hlt">dependence</span> and newly observed Urbach tail in the linear absorption spectrum by a <span class="hlt">strong</span>, phonon-mediated coupling between the charge-transfer exciton and ligand field excitations of the Cu atoms. The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility within the Cu-O plane of Sr{sub 2}CuO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} is fully characterized in both amplitude and phase, and symmetry based conclusions are made with respect to the <span class="hlt">spatial</span> arrangement of the underlying charge distribution. Theoretical considerations ascribe a newly reported resonance in the third-order nonlinear susceptibility at 0.7 eV to a three-photon transition from the ground state to the charge-transfer exciton. An even parity intermediate state of Cudd character, is found to contribute to the transition. Finally, preliminary results of time-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy confirm that the CT exciton or one of its constituent parts couples <span class="hlt">strongly</span> to phonons, and we suggest ultrafast thermalization with the lattice as the dominating mechanism underlying the dynamical properties.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schumacher, Andreas B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-02-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=522823"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spatial</span> <span class="hlt">dependency</span> of Buruli ulcer prevalence on arsenic-enriched domains in Amansie West District, Ghana: implications for arsenic mediation in Mycobacterium ulcerans infection</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background In 1998, the World Health Organization recognized Buruli ulcer (BU), a human skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU), as the third most prevalent mycobacterial disease. In Ghana, there have been more than 2000 reported cases in the last ten years; outbreaks have occurred in at least 90 of its 110 administrative districts. In one of the worst affected districts, Amansie West, there are arsenic-enriched surface environments resulting from the oxidation of arsenic-bearing minerals, occurring naturally in mineral deposits. Results Proximity analysis, carried out to determine <span class="hlt">spatial</span> relationships between BU-affected areas and arsenic-enriched farmlands and arsenic-enriched drainage channels in the Amansie West District, showed that mean BU prevalence in settlements along arsenic-enriched drainages and within arsenic-enriched farmlands is greater than elsewhere. Furthermore, mean BU prevalence is greater along arsenic-enriched drainages than within arsenic-enriched farmlands. Conclusion The results suggest that arsenic in the environment may play a contributory role in MU infection.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Duker, Alfred A; Carranza, Emmanuel JM; Hale, Martin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ822991.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> Navajo Marriages</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this qualitative study, conducted in two Navajo Nation chapters, was to learn what makes Navajo marriages <span class="hlt">strong</span> because no research has been done on this topic. Twenty-one Navajo couples (42 individuals) who felt they had <span class="hlt">strong</span> marriages volunteered to participate in the study. Couples identified the following marital strengths:…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Skogrand, Linda; Mueller, Mary Lou; Arrington, Rachel; LeBlanc, Heidi; Spotted Elk, Davina; Dayzie, Irene; Rosenbrand, Reva</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=strong&pg=2&id=EJ851282"> <span id="translatedtitle">What Is <span class="hlt">Strong</span> Correlation?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Interpretation of correlation is often based on rules of thumb in which some boundary values are given to help decide whether correlation is non-important, weak, <span class="hlt">strong</span> or very <span class="hlt">strong</span>. This article shows that such rules of thumb may do more harm than good, and instead of supporting interpretation of correlation--which is their aim--they teach a…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kozak, Marcin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.chemeddl.org/alfresco/service/org/chemeddl/nsdl/groups?id=chemeddl_1130&guest=true"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> Acids (GCMP)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Strong</span> Acids: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". This problem will explore the properties of common <span class="hlt">strong</span> acids. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23850603"> <span id="translatedtitle">Promoter-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> expression of the fungal transporter HcPT1.1 under Pi shortage and its <span class="hlt">spatial</span> localization in ectomycorrhiza.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mycorrhizal exchange of nutrients between fungi and host plants involves a specialization and polarization of the fungal plasma membrane adapted for the uptake from the soil and for secretion of nutrient ions towards root cells. In addition to the current progress in identification of membrane transport systems of both symbiotic partners, data concerning the transcriptional and translational regulation of these proteins are needed to elucidate their role for symbiotic functions. To answer whether the formerly described Pi-<span class="hlt">dependent</span> expression of the phosphate transporter HcPT1.1 from Hebeloma cylindrosporum is the result of its promoter activity, we introduced promoter-EGFP fusion constructs in the fungus by Agrotransformation. Indeed, HcPT1.1 expression in pure fungal culture