Note: This page contains sample records for the topic structure activity relationships from
While these samples are representative of the content of,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.

Structural Antitumoral Activity Relationships of Synthetic Chalcones  

PubMed Central

Relationships between the structural characteristic of synthetic chalcones and their antitumoral activity were studied. Treatment of HepG2 cells for 24 h with synthetic 2’-hydroxychalcones resulted in apoptosis induction and dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation. The calculated reactivity indexes and the adiabatic electron affinities using the DFT method including solvent effects, suggest a structure-activity relationship between the Chalcones structure and the apoptosis in HepG2 cells. The absence of methoxy substituents in the B ring of synthetic 2’-hydroxychalcones, showed the mayor structure-activity pattern along the series.

Echeverria, Cesar; Santibanez, Juan Francisco; Donoso-Tauda, Oscar; Escobar, Carlos A.; Ramirez-Tagle, Rodrigo



Structure--activity relationships for insecticidal carbamates*  

PubMed Central

Carbamate insecticides are biologically active because of their structural complementarity to the active site of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and their consequent action as substrates with very low turnover numbers. Carbamates behave as synthetic neurohormones that produce their toxic action by interrupting the normal action of AChE so that acetylcholine accumulates at synaptic junctions. The necessary properties for a suitable insecticidal carbamate are lipid solubility, suitable structural complementarity to AChE, and sufficient stability to multifunction-oxidase detoxification. The relationships between the structure and the activity of a large number of synthetic carbamates are analysed in detail, with particular attention to the second of these properties.

Metcalf, Robert L.



Structure–Activity Relationships of Classical Cannabinoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter an overview of the more recent developments in the structure–activity relationships (SARs) of classical cannabinoids\\u000a is discussed, especially the profound pharmacological effects produced by various chemical entities in the side chain at C-3,\\u000a the hydroxyl at C-1, C-11, and hydroxyalkyl chains at C-6. Also cardiovascular studies point to the presence of a novel cannabinoid\\u000a subtype receptor and

Raj K. Razdan


Structure-activity relationships of anthocyanidin glycosylation.  


This paper summarizes the main achievements about the structure-activity relationships of anthocyanidin glycosylation. Anthocyanidin glycosylation is the essential step of anthocyanin biosynthesis and also the prerequisite of the further modifications of anthocyanins, which is jointly characterized by the glycosylation site, the type and number of the glycosyl as well as the glycosidic bond type. It generally enhances the stability, results in the hypsochromic effect and blueing, decreases the bioavailability and anticancer activity, and decreases, increases, or does not change the antioxidant activity of the anthocyanidins or anthocyanins, which is synergetically determined by the glycosylation site and the type and number of the glycosyl. Thereinto, in nature, the blue hues caused by the glycosylation may also be reinforced by the formation of the anthocyanic vacuolar inclusions. This review could provide a reference for the research of the structure-optimizing and function-exploiting of anthocyanins. PMID:24792223

Zhao, Chang Ling; Chen, Zhong Jian; Bai, Xue Song; Ding, Can; Long, Ting Ju; Wei, Fu Gang; Miao, Kang Ru



Structural relationships and vasorelaxant activity of monoterpenes  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose of the study The hypotensive activity of the essential oil of Mentha x villosa and its main constituent, the monoterpene rotundifolone, have been reported. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate the vasorelaxant effect of monoterpenes found in medicinal plants and establish the structure-activity relationship of rotundifolone and its structural analogues on the rat superior mesenteric artery. Methods Contractions of the vessels were induced with 10??M of phenylephine (Phe) in rings with endothelium. During the tonic phase of the contraction, the monoterpenes (10-8 - 10-3, cumulatively) were added to the organ bath. The extent of relaxation was expressed as the percentage of Phe-induced contraction. Results The results from the present study showed that both oxygenated terpenes (rotundifolone, (+)-limonene epoxide, pulegone epoxide, carvone epoxide, and (+)-pulegone) and non-oxygenated terpene ((+)-limonene) exhibit relaxation activity. The absence of an oxygenated molecular structure was not a critical requirement for the molecule to be bioactive. Also it was found that the position of ketone and epoxide groups in the monoterpene structures influence the vasorelaxant potency and efficacy. Major conclusion The results suggest that the presence of functional groups in the chemical structure of rotundifolone is not essential for its vasorelaxant activity.



Structure-activity relationships of estrogens.  

PubMed Central

The last 50 years has seen an exponential rise in the published reports about estrogen action. The model to describe the early events in the mechanism of action of estrogens via the estrogen receptor is updated in this paper to incorporate some of the recent data on the subcellular localization of the receptor. New evidence suggests that the receptor is a nuclear protein, so it appears that estrogens must first diffuse into the nuclear compartment to initiate estrogen action via the receptor complex. This review traces the development of potent estrogenic compounds by the study of their structure-activity relationships. Studies of structure-activity relationships in vivo using Allen Doisy or 3-day uterine weight tests can provide much valuable information, but the assays suffer from the complex problems of pharmacokinetics and metabolic transformation. Studies in vitro using primary cultures of rat pituitary or uterine cells to assay the ability of a compound to induce prolactin synthesis or progesterone receptor synthesis, respectively, can provide essential information about the structural requirements for a compound to produce estrogenic effects. Nevertheless, it should be pointed out that studies in vivo are required to determine whether a compound is metabolically activated to an estrogen. Estrogen receptor binding models are presented to describe the changes in a molecule that will predict high affinity for the ligand and agonist, partial agonist and antagonist properties of the ligand-receptor complex. Most estrogenic pesticides and phytoestrogens comform to the predictions of the estrogen receptor binding model.

Jordan, V C; Mittal, S; Gosden, B; Koch, R; Lieberman, M E



Cationic phospholipids: structure?transfection activity relationships  

SciTech Connect

Synthetic cationic lipids are presently the most widely used non-viral gene carriers. Examined here is a particularly attractive cationic lipid class, triester phosphatidylcholines (PCs) exhibiting low toxicities and good transfection efficiency. Similarly to other cationic lipids, they form stable complexes (lipoplexes) with the polyanionic nucleic acids. A summary of studies on a set of {approx}30 cationic PCs reveals the existence of a strong, systematic dependence of their transfection efficiency on the lipid hydrocarbon chain structure: transfection activity increases with increase of chain unsaturation from 0 to 2 double bonds per lipid and decreases with increase of chain length in the range {approx}30-50 total number of chain carbon atoms. Maximum transfection was observed for ethyl phosphate PCs (EPCs) with monounsaturated 14:1 chains (total of 2 double bonds and 30 chain carbon atoms). Lipid phase behavior is known to depend strongly on the chain molecular structure and the above relationships thus substantiate a view that cationic PC phase propensities are an important determinant of their activity. Indeed, X-ray structural studies show that the rate of DNA release from lipoplexes as well as transfection activity well correlate with non-lamellar phase progressions observed in cationic PC mixtures with membrane lipids. These findings appear to be of considerable interest because, according to current views, key processes in lipid-mediated transfection such as lipoplex disassembly and DNA release within the cells are believed to take place upon cationic lipid mixing with cellular lipids.

Koynova, Rumiana; Tenchov, Boris; (NWU)



Structure-activity relationship study of anoplin.  


Anoplin is a decapeptide amide, GLLKRIKTLL-NH2 derived from the venom sac of the solitary spider wasp, Anoplius samariensis. It is active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and is not hemolytic towards human erythrocytes. The present paper reports a structure-activity study of anoplin based on 37 analogues including an Ala-scan, C- and N-truncations, and single and multiple residue substitutions with various amino acids. The analogues were tested for antibacterial activity against both S. aureus ATCC 25923 and E. coli ATCC 25922, and several potent antibacterial analogues were identified. The cytotoxicity of the analogues against human erythrocytes was assessed in a hemolytic activity assay. The antibacterial activity and selectivity of the analogues against S. aureus and E. coli varied considerably, depending on the hydrophobicity and position of the various substituted amino acids. In certain cases the selectivity for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria was either reversed or altogether eliminated. In addition, it was generally found that antibacterial activity coincided with hemolytic activity. PMID:15635634

Ifrah, Dan; Doisy, Xavier; Ryge, Trine S; Hansen, Paul R



Semisynthetic Coumermycins: Structure-Activity Relationships  

PubMed Central

The relative antimicrobial activity of a large series of semisynthetic coumermycins has been determined. Most of the derivatives, which were 3-substituted-4-hydroxy-8-methyl-7-[3-O-(5-methyl-2-pyrrolylcarbonyl) noviosyloxy] coumarins, had an in vitro antibacterial spectrum similar to that of the parent compound, coumermycin A1, but were generally less potent in minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) tests. Derivatives with an alkylcarboxamido, arylcarboxamido, or arylsulfonamido group in the 3 position had considerably greater in vitro activity than those possessing an amino-, aryl-, or alkyureido substituent. Efficacy in Staphylcoccous aureus Smith infections of mice was greater for those compounds with branched-chain alkylcarboxamido, unsubstituted, mono- or disubstituted aryl- and heteroaryl-carboxamido groups than for derivatives having an n-alkylcarboxamido, aralkyl-carboxamido, arylsulfonamido, or trisubstituted arylcarboxamido substituent. Significant in vitro activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae and other gram-negative species was restricted to those compounds having a 3-(3-n-alkyl-4-hydroxy-phenyl-carboxamido) group. Only the n-hexyl homologue demonstrated in vivo activity in a K. pneumoniae infection. Many derivatives were two- to threefold more active than coumermycin A1 in orally treated mouse infections, despite the fact that their MIC values were considerably higher. This result was undoubtedly a reflection of the markedly greater oral absorbability possessed by many of the derivatives. Although peak oral mouse blood levels of some compounds were > 25 times higher than those of coumermycin A1, their toxicity for the host was no greater. In addition, the semisynthetic coumermycins caused much less local irritation than coumermycin A1 when administered parenterally.

Price, K. E.; Chisholm, D. R.; Godfrey, J. C.; Misiek, M.; Gourevitch, A.



Partitioning and lipophilicity in quantitative structure-activity relationships.  

PubMed Central

The history of the relationship of biological activity to partition coefficient and related properties is briefly reviewed. The dominance of partition coefficient in quantitation of structure-activity relationships is emphasized, although the importance of other factors is also demonstrated. Various mathematical models of in vivo transport and binding are discussed; most of these involve partitioning as the primary mechanism of transport. The models describe observed quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) well on the whole, confirming that partitioning is of key importance in in vivo behavior of a xenobiotic. The partition coefficient is shown to correlate with numerous other parameters representing bulk, such as molecular weight, volume and surface area, parachor and calculated indices such as molecular connectivity; this is especially so for apolar molecules, because for polar molecules lipophilicity factors into both bulk and polar or hydrogen bonding components. The relationship of partition coefficient to chromatographic parameters is discussed, and it is shown that such parameters, which are often readily obtainable experimentally, can successfully supplant partition coefficient in QSARs. The relationship of aqueous solubility with partition coefficient is examined in detail. Correlations are observed, even with solid compounds, and these can be used to predict solubility. The additive/constitutive nature of partition coefficient is discussed extensively, as are the available schemes for the calculation of partition coefficient. Finally the use of partition coefficient to provide structural information is considered. It is shown that partition coefficient can be a valuable structural tool, especially if the enthalpy and entropy of partitioning are available.

Dearden, J C



Quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis of phenolic antioxidants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report, the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analyses of substituted phenols, vitamin E derivatives and flavonoids are presented. Two models have been derived using calculated parameters such as the heat of formation (Hf), the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of radicals (Elumo-r), the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital of the parent compounds (Ehomo) and the

Eric J. Lien; Shijun Ren; Huynh-Hoa Bui; Rubin Wang



Structure-cardiac activity relationship of C19-diterpenoid alkaloids.  


Thirty three C19-diterpenoid alkaloids, twenty-two prepared from known C19-diterpenoid alkaloids and eleven isolated from Aconitum and Delphinium spp. were evaluated for their cardiac activity in the isolated bullfrog heart assay. Among them, eleven compounds exhibited cardiac activity, with average rate of amplitude increase in the range of 16-118%. Compound 7, mesaconine (17), hypaconine (25), and beiwutinine (26) exhibited strong cardiac activities relative to the reference drug. The structure-activity relationship data acquired indicated that an alpha-hydroxyl group at C-15, a hydroxyl group at C-8, an alpha-methoxyl or hydroxyl group at C-1, and a secondary amine or N-methyl group in ring A are important structure features necessary for the cardiac activities of the aconitine-type C19-diterpenoid alkaloids without any ester groups. In addition, an alpha-hydroxyl group at C-3 is also helpful for the cardiac activity of these alkaloids. PMID:22816290

Jian, Xi-Xian; Tang, Pei; Liu, Xiu-Xiu; Chao, Ruo-Bing; Chen, Qiao-Hong; She, Xue-Ke; Chen, Dong-Lin; Wang, Feng-Peng



Quantitative structure-activity relationship study of antitubercular fluoroquinolones.  


Quantitative structure-activity relationship study on three diverse sets of structurally similar fluoroquinolones was performed using a comprehensive set of molecular descriptors. Multiple linear regression technique was applied as a preprocessing tool to find the set of relevant descriptors (10) which are subsequently used in the artificial neural networks approach (non-linear procedure). The biological activity in the series (minimal inhibitory concentration (?g/mL) was treated as negative decade logarithm, pMIC). Using the non-linear technique counter propagation artificial neural networks, we obtained good predictive models. All models were validated using cross validation leave-one-out procedure. The results (the best models: Assay1, R = 0.8108; Assay2, R = 0.8454, and Assay3, R = 0.9212) obtained on external, previously excluded test datasets show the ability of these models in providing structure-activity relationship of fluoroquinolones. Thus, we demonstrated the advantage of non-linear approach in prediction of biological activity in these series. Furthermore, these validated models could be proficiently used for the design of novel structurally similar fluoroquinolone analogues with potentially higher activity. PMID:20229318

Minovski, Nikola; Vra?ko, Marjan; Solmajer, Tom



Structure-Activity Relationships on Compounds Having Neuro-Muscular Activity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report deals with the biological activity of four different series of compounds which were developed to clarify the structure-activity relationships required for optimal biological activity. Three of the series were carbamates with potent antiesterase...

T. A. Loomis



(Quantitative structure-activity relationships in environmental toxicology)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler attended the Fourth International Workshop on QSAR (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships) in Environmental Toxicology. He was an author or co-author on one platform and two poster presentations. The subject of the workshop offers a framework for analyzing and predicting the fate of chemical pollutants in organisms and the environment. QSAR is highly relevant to the ORNL program on the physicochemical characterization of chemical pollutants for health protection.

Turner, J.E.



Resveratrol and Resveratrol Analogues—Structure—Activity Relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resveratrol (3,4?,5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a compound found in wine and is held responsible for a number of beneficial effects of red wine. Besides the\\u000a prevention of heart disease and significant anti-inflammatory effects, resveratrol might inhibit tumor cell growth and even\\u000a play a role in the aging process. We here describe the structure-activity relationship of resveratrol and analogues of resveratrol\\u000a regarding the

Thomas Szekeres; Monika Fritzer-Szekeres; Philipp Saiko; Walter Jäger



Structure-Activity Relationship of Fluoroquinolones Against K. pneumoniae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure-activity relationship of fluoroquinolones, which show anti-K. pneumoniae activity, was studied by using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). The PCA results showed that the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy, energy difference between the highest occupied and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, dipole moment, net atomic charge on atom I, molecular polarizability, partition coefficient and molecular refractivity of these compounds are responsible for the separation between high-activity and low-activity groups. The HCA results were similar to those obtained with PCA. By using the chemometric results, four synthetic compounds were analyzed through PCA and HCA, and three of them are proposed as active molecules against K. pneumoniae which is consistent with the results of clinical experiments. The methodologies of PCA and HCA provide a reliable rule for classifying new fluoroquinolones with anti-K. pneumoniae activity.

Li, Xiao-hong; Zhang, Rui-zhou; Cheng, Xin-lu; Yang, Xiang-dong



Activity profile relationships between structurally similar promiscuous compounds.  


Compound promiscuity results from specific interactions of a small molecule with multiple biological targets and is an emerging concept in medicinal chemistry and drug discovery as it provides the basis for polypharmacology. Recent studies have assessed the degree of promiscuity among drugs and bioactive compounds. On the basis of currently available data, many drugs and bioactive compounds have been found to interact with more than one target. Herein, we further extend the study of promiscuity by focusing on structurally similar promiscuous compounds, comparing their activity profiles, and determining multi-target activity patterns. The analysis revealed that most structurally similar promiscuous compounds have identical or similar activity profiles but also detected different types of structure-activity pattern relationships. In addition, the propensity of activity cliff formation among promiscuous compounds was determined. Activity cliffs were formed at a high rate among promiscuous compounds indicating that many structurally similar promiscuous compounds have greatly varying activity against one or more targets they share. Taken together, these findings show that compound promiscuity and target selectivity are not mutually exclusive and further refine current views of promiscuity. PMID:24077530

Hu, Ye; Bajorath, Jürgen



Structure-activity relationship observations for the bagworm moth pheromone.  


Structure-activity relationship (SAR) observations were made for the bagworm moth pheromone, (R)-2-pentyl decanoate, and a series of analogs with modifications in the alcohol portion of the molecule. Observed attractiveness of these analogs was related to molecular structure and their physical attributes using computational chemistry. Electrostatic potential and Van der Waals (VdW) electrostatic coded surface three-dimensional (3D) maps of the molecular mechanics (MM) minimized lowest energy conformation of the pheromone show that size, shape, charge distribution, and chirality of the molecule are related to attractiveness. PMID:24226087

Warthen, J D; Klun, J A; Devilbiss, E D



[Structure-activity relationships of histone deacetylase inhibitors].  


Among those enzymes that regulate gene expression, histone deacetylases (HDACs) play important roles in cell cycles. Extensive studies were carried out in the field of HDACs and the applications of HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs) as chemotherapeutic interventions for diverse diseases. HDACIs have moved from laboratories to clinic uses. Huge bodies of related research results were well documented and dispersed in literature. According to our understanding, HDACIs can be broadly classified as hydroxamic acids, cyclic tetrapeptides, short chain fatty acids, benzamides and electrophilic ketones. Herein, we are going to review the design and their structure-activity relationships of HDACIs and according to their structural catalogs. PMID:20055127

Tan, Yu-Mei; Huang, Wen-Yuan; Yu, Nie-Fang



Relationship between antimold activity and molecular structure of cinnamaldehyde analogues.  


A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling of the antimold activity of cinnamaldehyde analogues against of Aspergillus niger and Paecilomyces variotii was presented. The molecular descriptors of cinnamaldehyde analogues were calculated by the CODESSA program, and these descriptors were selected by best multi-linear regression method (BMLR). Satisfactory multilinear regression models of Aspergillus niger and Paecilomyces variotii were obtained with R(2)=0.9099 and 0.9444, respectively. The models were also satisfactorily validated using internal validation and leave one out validation. The QSAR models provide the guidance for further synthetic work. PMID:23374870

Zhang, Yuanyuan; Li, Shujun; Kong, Xianchao




EPA Science Inventory

Consideration of Reaction Intermediates in Structure- Activity Relationships: A Key to Understanding and Prediction A structure-activity relationship (SAR) represents an empirical means for generalizing chemical information relative to biological activity, and is frequent...



EPA Science Inventory

Structure-Activity Relationship Studies and their Role in Predicting and Investigating Chemical Toxicity Structure-activity relationships (SAR) represent attempts to generalize chemical information relative to biological activity for the twin purposes of generating insigh...


Truncated Orexin Peptides: Structure-Activity Relationship Studies  

PubMed Central

Orexin receptors are involved in many processes including energy homeostasis, wake/sleep cycle, metabolism and reward. Development of potent and selective ligands is an essential step for defining the mechanism(s) underlying such critical processes. The goal of this study was to further investigate the structure-activity relationships of these peptides and to identify truncated form of the orexin peptides active at OX1. Truncation studies have led to OXA (17-33) as the shortest active peptide known to date with a 23-fold selectivity for OX1 over OX2. Alanine, D-amino acid and proline scans have highlighted the particular importance of Tyr17, Leu20, Asn25 and His26 for agonist properties of OXA(17-33). The conformation of the C-terminus might also be a defining factor in agonist activity and selectivity of the orexin peptides for the OX1 receptor.

German, Nadezhda A.; Decker, Ann M.; Gilmour, Brian P.; Thomas, Brian F.; Zhang, Yanan



Structure-Activity Relationship Study of Platelet-Activating Factor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several analogues of platelet-activating factor (1-0-alkyl-2-0-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, PAF), an alkylglycerophospholipid that was found to be a mediator in Type I immediate hypersensitivity and also possessed potent hypotensive properties, wer...

J. R. Surles



Quantitative structure-activity relationships of cardiotonic agents.  


Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) of different cardiotonic agents are presented. A critical analysis of all QSARs provides a very vivid picture of the mechanisms of varying cardiotonic agents. The cardiotonics can be broadly put into 2 categories: cardiac glycosides and nonglycoside cardiotonics, which include phosphodiesterase of type III (PDE III) inhibitors, sympathomimetic (adrenergic) stimulants, A1-selective adenosine antagonists, Ca2+ channel activators and vasopressin antagonists. For cardiac glycosides, QSARs reveal that the position of carbonyl oxygen in their lactone moiety and shifting of the lactone ring from its original position or its replacement by another group would be crucial for their activity. The carbonyl group or its isostere like CN is indicated to be the sole binding entity and the hydrogen bonding through this group is considered to be the most likely binding force. For nonglycoside cardiotonics that include PDE III inhibitors and A1-selective antagonists, a five-point model has been established for their activity, the salient features of which are: (1) the presence of a strong dipole, (2) an adjacent acidic proton, (3) a methyl-sized lipophilic space, (4) a relatively flat overall topography and (5) a basic or hydrogen-bond acceptor site opposite to the dipole. For Ca2+ channel activators, the importance of steric, electrostatic, lipophilic and hydrogen-bonding properties of molecules is indicated, while for vasopressin antagonists the lipophilic and electronic properties are suggested to be the most important. PMID:11127965

Gupta, S P



Structure/activity relationships of M2 muscarinic allosteric modulators.  


Allosteric modulation of G protein-coupled receptors has been intensively studied at muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Findings made with archetypal allosteric agents such as gallamine, alcuronium, and bis(ammonio)alkane-type agents revealed that binding of orthosteric ligands that attach to the acetylcholine site can be allosterically decreased or increased or left unaltered in a subtype-selective fashion. Analyses of structure/activity relationships (SARs) help to elucidate the molecular events underlying the allosteric action and they may pilot the development of new allosteric agents with improved properties and therapeutic perspectives. With a focus on SARs, this review illustrates the principles of muscarinic allosteric interactions, gives an overview of SARs in congeners of archetypal allosteric agents, and considers the topology of M(2) muscarinic allosteric interactions that are characterized by divergent binding modes. PMID:12893536

Mohr, K; Tränkle, C; Holzgrabe, U



Quantitative structure-activity relationship studies of mushroom tyrosinase inhibitors.  


Here, we report our results from quantitative structure-activity relationship studies on tyrosinase inhibitors. Interactions between benzoic acid derivatives and tyrosinase active sites were also studied using a molecular docking method. These studies indicated that one possible mechanism for the interaction between benzoic acid derivatives and the tyrosinase active site is the formation of a hydrogen-bond between the hydroxyl (aOH) and carbonyl oxygen atoms of Tyr98, which stabilized the position of Tyr98 and prevented Tyr98 from participating in the interaction between tyrosinase and ORF378. Tyrosinase, also known as phenoloxidase, is a key enzyme in animals, plants and insects that is responsible for catalyzing the hydroxylation of tyrosine into o-diphenols and the oxidation of o-diphenols into o-quinones. In the present study, the bioactivities of 48 derivatives of benzaldehyde, benzoic acid, and cinnamic acid compounds were used to construct three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) models using comparative molecular field (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices (CoMSIA) analyses. After superimposition using common substructure-based alignments, robust and predictive 3D-QSAR models were obtained from CoMFA (q2 = 0.855, r2 = 0.978) and CoMSIA (q2 = 0.841, r2 = 0.946), with 6 optimum components. Chemical descriptors, including electronic (Hammett sigma), hydrophobic (pi), and steric (MR) parameters, hydrogen bond acceptor (H-acc), and indicator variable (I), were used to construct a 2D-QSAR model. The results of this QSAR indicated that pi, MR, and H-acc account for 34.9, 31.6, and 26.7% of the calculated biological variance, respectively. The molecular interactions between ligand and target were studied using a flexible docking method (FlexX). The best scored candidates were docked flexibly, and the interaction between the benzoic acid derivatives and the tyrosinase active site was elucidated in detail. We believe that the QSAR models built here provide important information necessary for the design of novel tyrosinase inhibitors. PMID:18256890

Xue, Chao-Bin; Luo, Wan-Chun; Ding, Qi; Liu, Shou-Zhu; Gao, Xing-Xiang



Cytotoxic triosmium carbonyl clusters: a structure-activity relationship study.  


A structure-activity relationship (SAR) study of the triosmium carbonyl cluster Os3 (CO)10 (NCCH3 )2 was carried out with a series of clusters of the general formula Os3 (CO)12-n Ln , cationic osmium clusters and a hemi-labile maltolato-Os cluster. The SAR results showed that good solubility in DMSO and at least one vacant site are required for cytotoxicity. In vitro evaluation of these new compounds showed that some are selectively active against estrogen receptor (ER)-independent MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines relative to ER-dependent MCF-7 breast cancer cells, suggesting that the compounds have a different biological target specific to MDA-MB-231 cells. In particular, the maltolato cluster exhibits strong antiproliferative activity, with an IC50 value of 3??M after only 24?h incubation. Additionally, biochemical assays conducted with the cationic cluster show that it induces apoptosis, although a biological target has not yet been identified. Further research to establish the molecular targets of these compounds and to develop improved organometallic clusters as potential breast cancer therapeutics is underway. PMID:24446332

Lee, Hui Zhi Shirley; Leong, Weng Kee; Top, Siden; Vessières, Anne



Polyploidy-Induction by Dihydroxylated Monochlorobiphenyls: Structure-Activity-Relationships  

PubMed Central

Recently semivolatile lower chlorinated biphenyls have been identified in inner city air, in public buildings like schools, and at many other sites. Inhalation exposure to these compounds, which are readily metabolized to mono- and dihydroxy-biphenyls and further to quinones, is of great concern in light of new studies revealing that at least one such compound, 4-monochlorobiphenyl (PCB3), has tumor initiating and mutagenic activity in rats. In vitro the quinone metabolites of PCB3 induced gene mutations, whereas its mono-and di-hydroxylated metabolites increased micronuclei frequency. To gain further insight into the genotoxicity and possible structure-activity relationships of the dihydroxy-metabolites, we measured the effects of the 2-chloro-, 3-chloro, and 4-chloro-2?,5?-dihydroxybiphenyl (PCB1-HQ, PCB2-HQ, and PCB3-HQ, respectively), and of 4-chloro-3?,4?-dihydroxybiphenyl (PCB3-Cat) on cytotoxicity, sister chromatid exchange (SCE), cellular proliferation and chromosome number. Notably only PCB3-Cat caused a significant increase in SCE levels. Cell cycle progression during exposure, which is indicated indirectly in this assay by the occurrence of metaphases with Harlequin stained chromosomes (cell underwent 2 S-phases) or uniformly dark stained chromosomes (underwent less than 2 S-phases) was inhibited by PCB2-HQ and PCB3-HQ. Most surprising was the finding that up to 96% of metaphases from cells treated with PCB2- or PCB3-HQ were tetraploid, some of which had dark and some Harlequin stained chromosomes. Neither PCB1-HQ nor PCB3-Cat or the negative (solvent) or positive control (ethylmethane sulfonate, EMS) induced this effect. The mechanism of this polyploidization is unknown. Nearly all cancer cells are hyperdiploid and polyploidization, followed by uneven chromosome loss, is hypothesized as one possible underlying mechanism of carcinogenesis. Thus different PCB metabolites may induce carcinogenesis by different mechanisms, including SCE induction or polyploidization. Understanding the mechanism(s) and structure-activity-relationships of these unexpected effects is needed before we can perform fully data-driven risk assessment of these compounds.

Flor, Susanne; Ludewig, Gabriele



Quantitative structure activity relationship modelling of peptides and proteins as a tool in food science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peptides and proteins contribute to physical properties, biological activities and sensory characteristics of foods. Studies on the isolation and characterisation of peptides and proteins allow compilation of data sets on their structures and properties\\/activities. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) modelling provides methodology to find mathematical expressions for such relationships which may then be useful for estimating activities of any related

Are Hugo Pripp; Tomas Isaksson; Leszek Stepaniak; Terje Sørhaug; Ylva Ardö



Quantum mechanical structure-activity relationship analyses for skin sensitization.  


Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) results in inflammation of the skin due to sensitization of the immunologic system to a particular substance. The sensitization process is limited by the compound's ability to both permeate and react with proteins in the integumentary system. Currently, only in vivo animal tests such as the local lymph node assay (LLNA) are recognized by regulatory authorities for risk assessment of ACD. A quantitative structure-activity relationship has been developed to predict relative potency, which allows for the prediction of relative sensitization potentials. The experimental values used in this study include EC3 values (the concentration at which the stimulation index equals 3) from LLNA tests. The predictions in this model enable categorization of the compounds into three groups on the basis of risk of sensitization and enable screening of candidate molecules using rapid SAM1 semiempirical calculations prior to animal testing. The model may also be used to reduce the number of animals subjected to testing by providing estimated concentrations required for useful data of risk assessment. The effect of averaging available literature values on predictive ability is also investigated. The model includes halogenated compounds, aromatic compounds, alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones. The computational investigation resulted in a two-descriptor model that is consistent with the assumed mechanism for sensitization. PMID:16045286

Miller, Matthew D; Yourtee, David M; Glaros, Alan G; Chappelow, Cecil C; Eick, J David; Holder, Andrew J



Structure-Activity Relationship of Nerve-Highlighting Fluorophores  

PubMed Central

Nerve damage is a major morbidity associated with numerous surgical interventions. Yet, nerve visualization continues to challenge even the most experienced surgeons. A nerve-specific fluorescent contrast agent, especially one with near-infrared (NIR) absorption and emission, would be of immediate benefit to patients and surgeons. Currently, there are only three classes of small molecule organic fluorophores that penetrate the blood nerve barrier and bind to nerve tissue when administered systemically. Of these three classes, the distyrylbenzenes (DSBs) are particularly attractive for further study. Although not presently in the NIR range, DSB fluorophores highlight all nerve tissue in mice, rats, and pigs after intravenous administration. The purpose of the current study was to define the pharmacophore responsible for nerve-specific uptake and retention, which would enable future molecules to be optimized for NIR optical properties. Structural analogs of the DSB class of small molecules were synthesized using combinatorial solid phase synthesis and commercially available building blocks, which yielded more than 200 unique DSB fluorophores. The nerve-specific properties of all DSB analogs were quantified using an ex vivo nerve-specific fluorescence assay on pig and human sciatic nerve. Results were used to perform quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling and to define the nerve-specific pharmacophore. All DSB analogs with positive ex vivo fluorescence were tested for in vivo nerve specificity in mice to assess the effect of biodistribution and clearance on nerve fluorescence signal. Two new DSB fluorophores with the highest nerve to muscle ratio were tested in pigs to confirm scalability.

Gibbs, Summer L.; Xie, Yang; Goodwill, Haley L.; Nasr, Khaled A.; Ashitate, Yoshitomo; Madigan, Victoria J.; Siclovan, Tiberiu M.; Zavodszky, Maria; Tan Hehir, Cristina A.; Frangioni, John V.



Development of structure-activity relationship for metal oxide nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanomaterial structure-activity relationships (nano-SARs) for metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) toxicity were investigated using metrics based on dose-response analysis and consensus self-organizing map clustering. The NP cellular toxicity dataset included toxicity profiles consisting of seven different assays for human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) and murine myeloid (RAW 264.7) cells, over a concentration range of 0.39-100 mg L-1 and exposure time up to 24 h, for twenty-four different metal oxide NPs. Various nano-SAR building models were evaluated, based on an initial pool of thirty NP descriptors. The conduction band energy and ionic index (often correlated with the hydration enthalpy) were identified as suitable NP descriptors that are consistent with suggested toxicity mechanisms for metal oxide NPs and metal ions. The best performing nano-SAR with the above two descriptors, built with support vector machine (SVM) model and of validated robustness, had a balanced classification accuracy of ~94%. An applicability domain for the present data was established with a reasonable confidence level of 80%. Given the potential role of nano-SARs in decision making, regarding the environmental impact of NPs, the class probabilities provided by the SVM nano-SAR enabled the construction of decision boundaries with respect to toxicity classification under different acceptance levels of false negative relative to false positive predictions.Nanomaterial structure-activity relationships (nano-SARs) for metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) toxicity were investigated using metrics based on dose-response analysis and consensus self-organizing map clustering. The NP cellular toxicity dataset included toxicity profiles consisting of seven different assays for human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) and murine myeloid (RAW 264.7) cells, over a concentration range of 0.39-100 mg L-1 and exposure time up to 24 h, for twenty-four different metal oxide NPs. Various nano-SAR building models were evaluated, based on an initial pool of thirty NP descriptors. The conduction band energy and ionic index (often correlated with the hydration enthalpy) were identified as suitable NP descriptors that are consistent with suggested toxicity mechanisms for metal oxide NPs and metal ions. The best performing nano-SAR with the above two descriptors, built with support vector machine (SVM) model and of validated robustness, had a balanced classification accuracy of ~94%. An applicability domain for the present data was established with a reasonable confidence level of 80%. Given the potential role of nano-SARs in decision making, regarding the environmental impact of NPs, the class probabilities provided by the SVM nano-SAR enabled the construction of decision boundaries with respect to toxicity classification under different acceptance levels of false negative relative to false positive predictions. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr01533e

Liu, Rong; Zhang, Hai Yuan; Ji, Zhao Xia; Rallo, Robert; Xia, Tian; Chang, Chong Hyun; Nel, Andre; Cohen, Yoram



Structure activity relationship of synaptic and junctional neurotransmission  

PubMed Central

Chemical neurotransmission may include transmission to local or remote sites. Locally, contact between ‘bare’ portions of the bulbous nerve terminal termed a varicosity and the effector cell may be in the form of either synapse or non-synaptic contact. Traditionally, all local transmissions between nerves and effector cells are considered synaptic in nature. This is particularly true for communication between neurons. However, communication between nerves and other effectors such as smooth muscles has been described as nonsynaptic or junctional in nature. Nonsynaptic neurotransmission is now also increasing recognized in the CNS. This review focuses on the relationship between structure and function that orchestrate synaptic and junctional neurotransmissions. A synapse is a specialized focal contact between the presynaptic active zone capable for ultrafast release of soluble transmitters and the postsynaptic density that cluster ionotropic receptors. The presynaptic and the postsynaptic areas are separated by the ‘closed’ synaptic cavity. The physiological hallmark of the synapse is ultrafast postsynaptic potentials lasting in milliseconds. In contrast, junctions are juxtapositions of nerve terminals and the effector cells without clear synaptic specializations and the junctional space is ‘open’ to the extracellular space. Based on the nature of the transmitters, postjunctional receptors and their separation from the release sites, the junctions can be divided into ‘close’ and ‘wide’ junctions. Functionally, the ‘close’ and the ‘wide’ junctions can be distinguished by postjunctional potentials lasting ~1 second and 10s of seconds, respectively. Both synaptic and junctional communications are common between neurons; however, junctional transmission is the rule at many neuro-non-neural effectors.

Goyal, Raj K; Chaudhury, Arun



Studies on the novel ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity and structure–activity relationships for andrographolide analogues  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of analogues of andrographolide were synthesized and evaluated as novel ?-glucosidase inhibitors. Among them compound 23, 15-p-methoxylbenzylidene 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide, was a potent inhibitor against ?-glucosidase whose IC50 value was 16?M. The structure–activity relationships were also discussed.

Gui-Fu Dai; Hai-Wei Xu; Jun-Feng Wang; Feng-Wu Liu; Hong-Min Liu



Cryptocaryol A and B: Total Syntheses, Stereochemical Revision, Structure Elucidation and Structure-Activity Relationship  

PubMed Central

The first total syntheses and structural elucidation of cryptocaryol A and cryptocaryol B were achieved in 23 and 25 linear steps, respectively. The synthesis relied on the use of a key pseudo-Cs symmetric pentaol intermediate, which in a stereo-chemically divergent manner was converted into either enantiomer as well as diastereomers. This synthetic effort enabled the first structure-activity relationships of this class of PDCD4 stabilizing natural products.

Wang, Yanping; O'Doherty, George A.



Initial Insights into Structure-Activity Relationships of Avian Defensins*  

PubMed Central

Numerous ?-defensins have been identified in birds, and the potential use of these peptides as alternatives to antibiotics has been proposed, in particular to fight antibiotic-resistant and zoonotic bacterial species. Little is known about the mechanism of antibacterial activity of avian ?-defensins, and this study was carried out to obtain initial insights into the involvement of structural features or specific residues in the antimicrobial activity of chicken AvBD2. Chicken AvBD2 and its enantiomeric counterpart were chemically synthesized. Peptide elongation and oxidative folding were both optimized. The similar antimicrobial activity measured for both l- and d-proteins clearly indicates that there is no chiral partner. Therefore, the bacterial membrane is in all likelihood the primary target. Moreover, this work indicates that the three-dimensional fold is required for an optimal antimicrobial activity, in particular for Gram-positive bacterial strains. The three-dimensional NMR structure of chicken AvBD2 defensin displays the structural three-stranded antiparallel ?-sheet characteristic of ?-defensins. The surface of the molecule does not display any amphipathic character. In light of this new structure and of the king penguin AvBD103b defensin structure, the consensus sequence of the avian ?-defensin family was analyzed. Well conserved residues were highlighted, and the potential strategic role of the lysine 31 residue of AvBD2 was emphasized. The synthetic AvBD2-K31A variant displayed substantial N-terminal structural modifications and a dramatic decrease in activity. Taken together, these results demonstrate the structural as well as the functional role of the critical lysine 31 residue in antimicrobial activity.

Derache, Chrystelle; Meudal, Herve; Aucagne, Vincent; Mark, Kevin J.; Cadene, Martine; Delmas, Agnes F.; Lalmanach, Anne-Christine; Landon, Celine



Antioxidant, prooxidant and cytotoxic activity of hydroxylated resveratrol analogues: structure–activity relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resveratrol (trans-3,4?,5-trihydroxystilbene), a naturally occurring hydroxystilbene, is considered an essential antioxidative constituent of red wine possessing chemopreventive properties. However, resveratrol and even more its metabolite piceatannol were reported to have also cytostatic activities. In order to find out whether this is related to antioxidative properties of those compounds, we synthesized five other polyhydroxylated resveratrol analogues and studied structure–activity relationships between

Marek Murias; Walter Jäger; Norbert Handler; Thomas Erker; Zsuzsanna Horvath; Thomas Szekeres; Hans Nohl; Lars Gille




EPA Science Inventory

Computer-assisted methods can be used to investigate the relationships between the molecular structures of compounds and their biological activity. A number of approaches have been reported in the literature, including correlations of activity with substituent constants, conforma...


Computer-Assisted Studies of Molecular Structure-Biological Activity Relationships.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Computer-assisted methods can be used to investigate the relationships between the molecular structures of compounds and their biological activity. A number of approaches have been reported in the literature, including correlations of activity with substi...

P. C. Jurs T. R. Stouch M. Czerwinski J. N. Narvaez



Structure-antimicrobial activity relationship between pleurocidin and its enantiomer  

PubMed Central

To develop novel antibiotic peptides useful as therapeutic drugs, the enantiomeric analogue of pleurocidin (Ple), which is a well known 25-mer antimicrobial peptide, was designed for proteolytic resistance by D-amino acids substitution. The proteolytic resistance was confirmed by using HPLC after the digestion with various proteases. To investigate the antibiotic effect of L- and D-Ple, the antibacterial activity and hemolytic effect were tested against human erythrocytes. The D-Ple showed a decreased antibacterial activity and a dramatically decreased hemolytic activity compared with L-Ple. The hemolytic effect of analogue was further confirmed by using calcein leakage measurement with liposome. To elucidate these results, the secondary structure of the peptides was investigated by using circular dichroism spectroscopy. The results revealed that D-Ple, as well as L-Ple, had typical ?-helical structures which were mirror images, with a different helicity. These results suggested that the discrepancy of the structure between the two peptides made their antibacterial activity distinct.

Lee, Juneyoung



Molecular structure and radiative efficiency of fluorinated ethers: A structure-activity relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorinated ethers are receiving attention as possible replacements for ozone-depleting substances. Accurate knowledge of their radiative forcing is required to assess the contribution of these compounds to climate change. Radiative efficiency is a metric used to determine the potential of long-lived greenhouse gases to impact climate. A structure-activity relationship (SAR) was derived that can estimate the majority of radiative efficiencies

Cora J. Young; Michael D. Hurley; Timothy J. Wallington; Scott A. Mabury



European corn borer sex pheromone : Structure-activity relationships.  


The biological activity of analogs of the pheromone components of the European corn borer,Ostrinia nubilalis, (Z)- and (E)-11-tetradecen1-ol acetate, in which modifications were made in the terminal alkyl portion were studied in the three pheromonal types of the insect. European corn borer males respond to pheromonal stimuli at three levels of behavioral activity, i.e., short-range sexual stimulation, activation in the flight tunnel, and response in the field. Structural requirements for elicitation of response at these levels were found to be increasingly restrictive, respectively. Flighttunnel activity was induced only by compounds that had a total chain length of 13 or 14 carbons and in which branching at carbon 13 was limited to one methyl group or a cyclopropyl group. Three new analogs were active in the flight tunnel, viz., (E and (Z)-13-methyl-11-tetradecen-1-ol acetate and (Z)-12-cyclopropyl-11-dodecen-1-ol acetate. The cyclopropyl analog was the most active analog against theZZ type of the European corn borer. TheE isomer, however, was pheromonally inactive in theEE type and was shown to be a pheromone antagonist. This dissimilarity is most likely due to differences in structure of the receptors in the European corn borer strains. Analogs that were biologically active against the European corn borer were tested against the redbanded leafroller,Argyrotaenia velutinana, which also uses (Z)- and (E)-11-tetradecen-1-ol acetate as part of its pheromone. Results showed that the redbanded leafroller pheromone acceptor system is different from that of the European com borer; marginal behavioral response was elicited by only one of the new analogs. Thus, although both species use 11-tetradecen-1-ol acetate isomers as their pheromone, the mechanisms by which they are perceived are different. PMID:24271802

Schwarz, M; Klun, J A; Fritz, G L; Uebel, E C; Raina, A K



Structure-activity relationships of aromadendranes in uterus-relaxant activity.  


Aromadendranes belong to a class of sesquiterpenes present in higher plant essential oils and marine animals. Although the biological activities include antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, plant growth regulatory, antifeedant, repellent and cytotoxic, there is only one precedent for spasmolytic effects. In a previous report we have shown that the aromadendrene molecule known as spathulenol, isolated from Lepechinia caulescens, efficiently relaxes rat uterus rings and therefore in the present work we describe structure-activity relationships of thirteen aromadendranes, most of them having the trans-fused perhydroazulene skeleton, with spasmolytic activity. PMID:20158155

Pérez-Hernández, Nury; Ponce-Monter, Hector; Ortiz, Mario I; Cariño-Cortés, Raquel; Joseph-Nathan, Pedro



Isolation, sequencing, and structure-activity relationships of cyclotides.  


Cyclotides are a topologically fascinating family of miniproteins discovered over the past decade that have expanded the diversity of plant-derived natural products. They are approximately 30 amino acids in size and occur in plants of the Violaceae, Rubiaceae, and Cucurbitaceae families. Despite their proteinaceous composition, cyclotides behave in much the same way as many nonpeptidic natural products in that they are resistant to degradation by enzymes or heat and can be extracted from plants using methanol. Their stability arises, in large part, due to their characteristic cyclic cystine knot (CCK) structural motif. Cystine knots are present in a variety of proteins of insect, plant, and animal origin, comprising a ring formed by two disulfide bonds and their connecting backbone segments that is threaded by a third disulfide bond. In cyclotides, the cystine knot is uniquely embedded within a head-to-tail cyclized peptide backbone, leading to the ultrastable CCK structural motif. Apart from the six absolutely conserved cysteine residues, the majority of amino acids in the six backbone loops of cyclotides are tolerant to variation. It has been predicted that the family might include up to 50,000 members; although, so far, sequences for only 140 have been reported. Cyclotides exhibit a variety of biological activities, including insecticidal, nematocidal, molluscicidal, antimicrobial, antibarnacle, anti-HIV, and antitumor activities. Due to their diverse activities and common structural core from which variable loops protrude, cyclotides can be thought of as combinatorial peptide templates capable of displaying a variety of amino acid sequences. They have thus attracted interest in drug design as well as in crop protection applications. PMID:20718473

Ireland, David C; Clark, Richard J; Daly, Norelle L; Craik, David J



Cytotoxicity and structure activity relationships of phytosterol from Phyllanthus emblica.  


Fourteen sterols (1-14), including two new sterols, trihydroxysitosterol (2) and 5?,6?,7?-7?-acetoxysitosterol (3), were isolated from the branches and leaves of Phyllanthus emblica L. The isolated compounds and a structurally related sterol 15 from Aphanamixis grandifolia were screened for cytotoxicity in two tumor cell lines (HL-60 and SMMC-7721) and a non-tumor cell line (HL-7702) using RSB assay. Within the series of phytosterol derivatives tested, compound 15 was the most active, displaying potent cytotoxicity against HL-60 with IC(50) of 5.10?mol/L, and most of the active compounds showed selective cytotoxicity against tumor and non-tumor cell lines, especially compound 10 with a safety index of 4.42. PMID:23266735

Qi, Wei-Yan; Li, Ya; Hua, Lei; Wang, Ke; Gao, Kun



Relationship between structure and anticoagulant activity of coumarin derivatives  

PubMed Central

Thirty-five coumarin derivatives have been examined for their anticoagulant activity in rabbits by determining the prothrombin time by a modification of Quick's onestage method, in order to find out the structural features eliciting the activity. The compounds include methoxylated dicoumarols, substituted 4-hydroxycoumarins, coumarins devoid of a 4-hydroxyl group, such as 3- and 4-phenylcoumarins and 4-methylcoumarins, and some complex coumarin derivatives having additional rings. The results show the complexity of the problem and the involvement of various factors. Among these the importance of molecular geometry is emphasized by the high activity of calophyllolide (31)* and a new synthetic compound, 4-methyl-2,5-dioxo-3-phenyl-2H,5H-pyrano[3,2-c][1]-benzopyran (30). The importance for the anticoagulant activity of a substituent in position 8 of the coumarin moiety, and the role of ability to ionize with regard to the vitamin-K-like property of some hydroxylated phenylcoumarins, are also indicated.

Arora, R. B.; Mathur, C. N.



Synthesis, biological evaluation and structure-activity relationships of new phthalazinedione derivatives with vasorelaxant activity.  


Five series of 1,4-phthalazinedione derivatives were synthesized in good yields. Vasorelaxant activity of these new derivatives was measured on either intact or endothelium-denuded isolated rat thoracic aortic rings pre-contracted with phenylephrine. Most of studied compounds, substituted in both nitrogen atoms, attained practically the total relaxation of the organ at low micromolar concentrations. The presence of functional endothelium significantly reduced the EC50 values for most of studied compounds. Some structure-activity relationships were established and compounds 2d and 5d can be considered as new leads for further modifications. PMID:24929291

Munín, Javier; Quezada, Elías; Cuiñas, Andrea; Campos-Toimil, Manuel; Uriarte, Eugenio; Santana, Lourdes; Viña, Dolores



Structure-activity relationship of aliphatic compounds for nematicidal activity against pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus).  


Nematicidal activity of aliphatic compounds was tested to determine a structure-activity relationship. There was a significant difference in nematicidal activity among functional groups. In a test with alkanols and 2E-alkenols, compounds with C(8)-C(11) chain length showed 100% nematicidal activity against pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus , at 0.5 mg/mL concentration. C(6)-C(10) 2E-alkenals exhibited >95% nematicidal activity, but the other compounds with C(11)-C(14) chain length showed weak activity. Nematicidal activity of alkyl acetates with C(7)-C(11) chain length was strong. Compounds belonging to hydrocarbons, alkanals, and alkanoic acetates showed weak activity at 0.5 mg/mL concentration. Nematicidal activity of active compounds was determined at lower concentrations. At 0.25 mg/mL concentration, whole compounds except C(8) alkanol, C(8) 2E-alkenol, and C(7) alkanoic acid showed >80% nematicidal activity. C(9)-C(11) alkanols, C(10)-C(11) 2E-alkenols, C(8)-C(9) 2E-alkenals, and C(9)-C(10) alkanoic acids showed >80% nematicidal activity at 0.125 mg/mL concentration. Only C(11) alkanol exhibited strong nematicidal activity at 0.0625 mg/mL concentration, the lowest concentration that was tested. PMID:20055406

Seo, Seon-Mi; Kim, Junheon; Kim, Eunae; Park, Hye-Mi; Kim, Young-Joon; Park, Il-Kwon



Structure-activity relationships of the vasopressor activity of canine peptide-A from fibrinogen.  


Canine peptide-A was demonstrated to be an active vasopressor substance. The effect of intravenous injection of canine peptide-A was a prolonged rhythmic vasoconstriction and is unlike any previously described vasopressor peptides. The intravenous administration of canine peptide-A resulted in a maximum increase in mean blood pressure of 19.0 mm of mercury at a dose level of 2.5-10-minus 2 mumol. This pressor effect exhibited a log proportionality to the injected dose of peptide. The duration of the vasopressor effect was 30 min or greater. A rhythmic variation in pressor response was also observed in all experiments. The canine AP and B peptides were inactive when tested under the same conditions. The relationship between structure and biological activity was investigated. Structural degradation of half of the peptide molecule was performed without loss of vasopressor activity. The canine peptide-A is postulated as assisting in local hemostasis by vasoconstriction. PMID:1138878

Osbahr, A J



Anti-dengue-virus activity and structure-activity relationship studies of lycorine derivatives.  


Dengue is a systemic viral infection that is transmitted to humans by Aedes mosquitoes. No vaccines or specific therapeutics are currently available for dengue. Lycorine, which is a natural plant alkaloid, has been shown to possess antiviral activities against flaviviruses. In this study, a series of novel lycorine derivatives were synthesized and assayed for their inhibition of dengue virus (DENV) in cell cultures. Among the lycorine analogues, 1-acetyllycorine exhibited the most potent anti-DENV activity (EC50 =0.4??M) with a reduced cytotoxicity (CC50 >300??M), which resulted in a selectivity index (CC50 /EC50 ) of more than 750. The ketones 1-acetyl-2-oxolycorine (EC50 =1.8??M) and 2-oxolycorine (EC50 =0.5??M) also exhibited excellent antiviral activities with low cytotoxicity. Structure-activity relationships for the lycorine derivatives against DENV are discussed. A three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship model was established by using a comparative molecular-field analysis protocol in order to rationalize the experimental results. Further modifications of the hydroxy group at the C1 position with retention of a ketone at the C2 position could potentially lead to inhibitors with improved overall properties. PMID:24574246

Wang, Peng; Li, Lin-Feng; Wang, Qing-Yin; Shang, Lu-Qing; Shi, Pei-Yong; Yin, Zheng




EPA Science Inventory

Determining the structure-activity relationships of aminobiphenyl and benzidine analogues Benzidine is a confirmed human carcinogen causing bladder and other types of cancer in humans and animals. Many of the benzidine and related aminobiphenyl compounds are mutagenic in t...



EPA Science Inventory

Abstract One reasonable approach to the analysis of the relationships between molecular structure and toxic activity is through the investigation of the forces and intermolecular interactions responsible for chemical toxicity. The interaction between the xenobiotic and the bio...


Quantitative Structure--Activity Relationship Modeling of Rat Acute Toxicity by Oral Exposure  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: Few Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) studies have successfully modeled large, diverse rodent toxicity endpoints. Objective: In this study, a combinatorial QSAR approach has been employed for the creation of robust and predictive models of acute toxi...


Estimating Toxicity of Industrial Chemicals to Aquatic Organisms Using Structure Activity Relationships. 2nd Edition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The second edition contains over 120 SAR equations (Structure Activity Relationships) which are in current use by the Environmental Effects Branch to estimate the toxicity of industrial organic chemicals to aquatic organisms. These SARs can be applied to ...

J. V. Nabholz M. Zeeman R. G. Clements



Structure-Activity Relationship for Thiohydantoin Androgen Receptor Antagonists for Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer (CRPC)  

PubMed Central

A structure-activity relationship study was carried out on a series of thiohydantoins and their analogues 14 which led to the discovery of 92 (MDV3100) as the clinical candidate for the treatment of hormone refractory prostate cancer.

Jung, Michael E.; Ouk, Samedy; Yoo, Dongwon; Sawyers, Charles L.; Chen, Charlie; Tran, Chris; Wongvipat, John



Antitrypanosomal and Antileishmanial Activities of Flavonoids and Their Analogues: In Vitro, In Vivo, Structure-Activity Relationship, and Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Studies  

PubMed Central

Trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis are important parasitic diseases affecting millions of people in Africa, Asia, and South America. In a previous study, we identified several flavonoid glycosides as antiprotozoal principles from a Turkish plant. Here we surveyed a large set of flavonoid aglycones and glycosides, as well as a panel of other related compounds of phenolic and phenylpropanoid nature, for their in vitro activities against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Leishmania donovani. The cytotoxicities of more than 100 compounds for mammalian L6 cells were also assessed and compared to their antiparasitic activities. Several compounds were investigated in vivo for their antileishmanial and antitrypanosomal efficacies in mouse models. Overall, the best in vitro trypanocidal activity for T. brucei rhodesiense was exerted by 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], 68 ng/ml), followed by 3-hydroxyflavone, rhamnetin, and 7,8,3?,4?-tetrahydroxyflavone (IC50s, 0.5 ?g/ml) and catechol (IC50, 0.8 ?g/ml). The activity against T. cruzi was moderate, and only chrysin dimethylether and 3-hydroxydaidzein had IC50s less than 5.0 ?g/ml. The majority of the metabolites tested possessed remarkable leishmanicidal potential. Fisetin, 3-hydroxyflavone, luteolin, and quercetin were the most potent, giving IC50s of 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, and 1.0 ?g/ml, respectively. 7,8-Dihydroxyflavone and quercetin appeared to ameliorate parasitic infections in mouse models. Generally, the test compounds lacked cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. By screening a large number of flavonoids and analogues, we were able to establish some general trends with respect to the structure-activity relationship, but it was not possible to draw clear and detailed quantitative structure-activity relationships for any of the bioactivities by two different approaches. However, our results can help in directing the rational design of 7,8-dihydroxyflavone and quercetin derivatives as potent and effective antiprotozoal agents.

Tasdemir, Deniz; Kaiser, Marcel; Brun, Reto; Yardley, Vanessa; Schmidt, Thomas J.; Tosun, Fatma; Ruedi, Peter



Antitrypanosomal and antileishmanial activities of flavonoids and their analogues: in vitro, in vivo, structure-activity relationship, and quantitative structure-activity relationship studies.  


Trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis are important parasitic diseases affecting millions of people in Africa, Asia, and South America. In a previous study, we identified several flavonoid glycosides as antiprotozoal principles from a Turkish plant. Here we surveyed a large set of flavonoid aglycones and glycosides, as well as a panel of other related compounds of phenolic and phenylpropanoid nature, for their in vitro activities against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Leishmania donovani. The cytotoxicities of more than 100 compounds for mammalian L6 cells were also assessed and compared to their antiparasitic activities. Several compounds were investigated in vivo for their antileishmanial and antitrypanosomal efficacies in mouse models. Overall, the best in vitro trypanocidal activity for T. brucei rhodesiense was exerted by 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], 68 ng/ml), followed by 3-hydroxyflavone, rhamnetin, and 7,8,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone (IC50s, 0.5 microg/ml) and catechol (IC50, 0.8 microg/ml). The activity against T. cruzi was moderate, and only chrysin dimethylether and 3-hydroxydaidzein had IC50s less than 5.0 microg/ml. The majority of the metabolites tested possessed remarkable leishmanicidal potential. Fisetin, 3-hydroxyflavone, luteolin, and quercetin were the most potent, giving IC50s of 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, and 1.0 microg/ml, respectively. 7,8-Dihydroxyflavone and quercetin appeared to ameliorate parasitic infections in mouse models. Generally, the test compounds lacked cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. By screening a large number of flavonoids and analogues, we were able to establish some general trends with respect to the structure-activity relationship, but it was not possible to draw clear and detailed quantitative structure-activity relationships for any of the bioactivities by two different approaches. However, our results can help in directing the rational design of 7,8-dihydroxyflavone and quercetin derivatives as potent and effective antiprotozoal agents. PMID:16569852

Tasdemir, Deniz; Kaiser, Marcel; Brun, Reto; Yardley, Vanessa; Schmidt, Thomas J; Tosun, Fatma; Rüedi, Peter



Synthetic and structure-activity relationship studies on bioactive natural products.  


This review summarizes our research into the synthesis and structure-activity relationships of epolactaene, neoechinulin A, plakevulin A, pseudodeflectusin and ustusorane C. These natural products are attractive in view of their apoptosis-inducing activity, cytoprotective activity against peroxynitrite, inhibitory activity against DNA polymerases, and cytotoxicity in cancer cells. PMID:23470748

Kuramochi, Kouji



Probing structure-antifouling activity relationships of polyacrylamides and polyacrylates.  


We have synthesized two different polyacrylamide polymers with amide groups (polySBAA and polyHEAA) and two corresponding polyacrylate polymers without amide groups (polySBMA and polyHEA), with particular attention to the evaluation of the effect of amide group on the hydration and antifouling ability of these systems using both computational and experimental approaches. The influence of polymer architectures of brushes, hydrogels, and nanogels, prepared by different polymerization methods, on antifouling performance is also studied. SPR and ELISA data reveal that all polymers exhibit excellent antifouling ability to repel proteins from undiluted human blood serum/plasma, and such antifouling ability can be further enhanced by presenting amide groups in polySBAA and polyHEAA as compared to polySBMA and polyHEA. The antifouling performance is positively correlated with the hydration properties. Simulations confirm that four polymers indeed have different hydration characteristics, while all presenting a strong hydration overall. Integration of amide group with pendant hydroxyl or sulfobetaine group in polymer backbones is found to increase their surface hydration of polymer chains and thus to improve their antifouling ability. Importantly, we present a proof-of-concept experiment to synthesize polySBAA nanogels, which show a switchable property between antifouling and pH-responsive functions driven by acid-base conditions, while still maintaining high stability in undiluted fetal bovine serum and minimal toxicity to cultured cells. This work provides important structural insights into how very subtle structural changes in polymers can yield great improvement in biological activity, specifically the inclusion of amide group in polymer backbone/sidechain enables to obtain antifouling materials with better performance for biomedical applications. PMID:23562049

Zhao, Chao; Zhao, Jun; Li, Xiaosi; Wu, Jiang; Chen, Shenfu; Chen, Qiang; Wang, Qiuming; Gong, Xiong; Li, Lingyan; Zheng, Jie



Synthesis, insecticidal activity, and structure-activity relationship (SAR) of anthranilic diamides analogs containing oxadiazole rings.  


A series of anthranilic diamides analogs (3–11, 16–24) containing 1,2,4- or 1,3,4-oxadiazole rings were synthesized and characterized by (1)H NMR, MS and elemental analyses. The structure of 3-bromo-N-(2-(3-(4-bromophenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)-4-chloro-6-methylphenyl)-1-(3-chloropyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide (18, CCDC-) was determined by X-ray diffraction crystallography. The insecticidal activities against Plutella xylostella and Spodoptera exigua were evaluated. The results showed that most of title compounds displayed good larvicidal activities against P. xylostella, especially compound 3-bromo-N-(4-chloro-2-methyl-6-(5-(methylthio)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)phenyl)-1-(3-chloropyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide (6), which displayed 71.43% activity against P. xylostella at 0.4 ?g mL(-1) and 33.33% against S. exigua at 1 ?g mL(-1). The structure-activity relationship showed that compounds decorated with a 1,3,4-oxadiazole were more potent than compounds decorated with a 1,2,4-oxadiazole, and different substituents attached to the oxadiazole ring also affected the insecticidal activity. This work provides some hints for further structure modification and the enhancement of insecticidal activity. PMID:23657615

Li, Yuhao; Zhu, Hongjun; Chen, Kai; Liu, Rui; Khallaf, Abdalla; Zhang, Xiangning; Ni, Jueping



Advance in dietary polyphenols as ?-glucosidases inhibitors: a review on structure-activity relationship aspect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dietary polyphenols as ?-glucosidases inhibitors have attracted great interest among researchers. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the research reports on the structure-activity relationship of dietary polyphenols inhibiting ?-glucosidases. The molecular structures influence the inhibition are the following: 1) The hydroxylation and galloylation of flavonoids including catechins improve the inhibitory activity. 2) The glycosylation

Jianbo Xiao; Guoyin Kai; Koichiro Yamamoto; Xiaoqing Chen



Structure–radical scavenging activity relationships of phenolic compounds from traditional Chinese medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer contain a wide variety of natural phenolic compounds with various structural features and possessing widely differing antioxidant activity. The structure–radical scavenging activity relationships of a large number of representative phenolic compounds (e.g., flavanols, flavonols, chalcones, flavones, flavanones, isoflavones, tannins, stilbenes, curcuminoids, phenolic acids, coumarins, lignans, and quinones) identified in the traditional Chinese medicinal

Yi-Zhong Cai; Mei Sun; Jie Xing; Qiong Luo; Harold Corke



Structure-Activity Relationships and Immunochemical Studies on Cobrotoxin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The status of free amino groups in cobrotoxin was studied by stepwise modification with trinitrobenzene sulfonate. Lys-27 was selectively modified without altering the activity of cobrotoxin. However, complete loss of the activity was observed when Lys-27...

C. Yang



Structure-activity relationships of 44 halogenated compounds for iodotyrosine deiodinase-inhibitory activity.  


The aim of this study was to investigate the possible influence of halogenated compounds on thyroid hormone metabolism via inhibition of iodotyrosine deiodinase (IYD) activity. The structure-activity relationships of 44 halogenated compounds for IYD-inhibitory activity were examined in vitro using microsomes of HEK-293 T cells expressing recombinant human IYD. The compounds examined were 17 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 15 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), two agrichemicals, five antiparasitics, two pharmaceuticals and three food colorants. Among them, 25 halogenated phenolic compounds inhibited IYD activity at the concentration of 1×10(-4)M or 6×10(-4)M. Rose bengal was the most potent inhibitor, followed by erythrosine B, phloxine B, benzbromarone, 4'-hydroxy-2,2',4-tribromodiphenyl ether, 4-hydroxy-2,3',3,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether, 4-hydroxy-2',3,4',5,6'-pentachlorobiphenyl, 4'-hydroxy-2,2',4,5'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether, triclosan, and 4-hydroxy-2,2',3,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether. However, among PCBs and PBDEs without a hydroxyl group, including their methoxylated metabolites, none inhibited IYD activity. These results suggest that halogenated compounds may disturb thyroid hormone homeostasis via inhibition of IYD, and that the structural requirements for IYD-inhibitory activity include halogen atom and hydroxyl group substitution on a phenyl ring. PMID:24012475

Shimizu, Ryo; Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Uramaru, Naoto; Kuroki, Hiroaki; Ohta, Shigeru; Kitamura, Shigeyuki; Sugihara, Kazumi



Rapid Scanning Structure-Activity Relationships in Combinatorial Data Sets: Identification of Activity Switches  

PubMed Central

We present a general approach to describe the structure-activity relationships (SAR) of combinatorial data sets with activity for two biological endpoints with emphasis on the rapid identification of substitutions that have a large impact on activity and selectivity. The approach uses Dual-Activity Difference (DAD) maps that represent a visual and quantitative analysis of all pairwise comparisons of one, two, or more substitutions around a molecular template. Scanning the SAR of data sets using DAD maps allows the visual and quantitative identification of activity switches defined as specific substitutions that have an opposite effect on the activity of the compounds against two targets. The approach also rapidly identifies single- and double-target R-cliffs, i.e., compounds where a single or double substitution around the central scaffold dramatically modifies the activity for one or two targets, respectively. The approach introduced in this report can be applied to any analogue series with two biological activity endpoints. To illustrate the approach, we discuss the SAR of 106 pyrrolidine bis-diketopiperazines tested against two formylpeptide receptors obtained from positional scanning deconvolution methods of mixture-based libraries.

Medina-Franco, Jose L.; Edwards, Bruce S.; Pinilla, Clemencia; Appel, Jon R.; Giulianotti, Marc A.; Santos, Radleigh G.; Yongye, Austin B.; Sklar, Larry A.; Houghten, Richard A.



Peptide deformylase inhibitors with retro-amide scaffold: synthesis and structure-activity relationships.  


Peptide deformylase (PDF) is a metalloprotease catalyzing the removal of a formyl group from newly synthesized proteins. Thus inhibition of PDF activity is considered to be one of the most effective antibiotic strategies. Reported herein are the synthesis and structure-activity relationship studies of retro-amide inhibitors based on actinonin, a naturally occurring PDF inhibitor. Analysis of the structure-activity relationships led to the discovery of 7a, which exhibits potent enzyme inhibition and antibacterial activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. PMID:20615695

Lee, Seung Kyu; Choi, Kwang Hyun; Lee, Sang Jae; Suh, Se Won; Kim, B Moon; Lee, Bong Jin



Photodynamic action of hypocrellin dyes: structure–activity relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypocrellin and its derivatives were compared for their photodynamic effects on human oral cavity epithelial carcinoma KB cell line. The amphiphilicity as well as the singlet oxygen generating quantum yield of the hypocrellin dyes affected their photodynamic activity. The most hydrophilic dyes exhibited the lowest phototoxic activity, whereas the hydrophobic and amphiphilic dyes with higher singlet oxygen-generating quantum yield, exhibited

Yu-Ying He; Hong-Yan Liu; Jing-Yi An; Rei Han; Li-Jin Jiang



Quantitative structure-activity relationship studies of TIBO derivatives using support vector machines.  


A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study is suggested for the prediction of anti-HIV activity of tetrahydroimidazo[4,5,1-jk][1,4]benzodiazepinone (TIBO) derivatives. The model was produced by using the support vector machine (SVM) technique to develop quantitative relationships between the anti-HIV activity and ten molecular descriptors of 89 TIBO derivatives. The performance and predictive capability of the SVM method were investigated and compared with other techniques such as artificial neural networks and multiple linear regression. The results obtained indicate that the SVM model with the kernel radial basis function can be successfully used to predict the anti-HIV activity of TIBO derivatives with only ten molecular descriptors that can be calculated directly from only molecular structure. The contribution of each descriptor to the structure-activity relationships was evaluated. Hydrophobicity of the molecule was thus found to take the most relevant part in the molecular description. PMID:20544549

Darnag, R; Schmitzer, A; Belmiloud, Y; Villemin, D; Jarid, A; Chait, A; Mazouz, E; Cherqaoui, D



Synthesis, Structure-Activity Relationships (SAR) and in Silico Studies of Coumarin Derivatives with Antifungal Activity  

PubMed Central

The increased incidence of opportunistic fungal infections, associated with greater resistance to the antifungal drugs currently in use has highlighted the need for new solutions. In this study twenty four coumarin derivatives were screened in vitro for antifungal activity against strains of Aspergillus. Some of the compounds exhibited significant antifungal activity with MICs values ranging between 16 and 32 ?g/mL. The structure-activity relationships (SAR) study demonstrated that O-substitutions are essential for antifungal activity. It also showed that the presence of a short aliphatic chain and/or electron withdrawing groups (NO2 and/or acetate) favor activity. These findings were confirmed using density functional theory (DFT), when calculating the LUMO density. In Principal Component Analysis (PCA), two significant principal components (PCs) explained more than 60% of the total variance. The best Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS) model showed an r2 of 0.86 and q2cv of 0.64 corroborating the SAR observations as well as demonstrating a greater probe N1 interaction for active compounds. Descriptors generated by TIP correlogram demonstrated the importance of the molecular shape for antifungal activity.

de Araujo, Rodrigo S. A.; Guerra, Felipe Q. S.; de O. Lima, Edeltrudes; de Simone, Carlos A.; Tavares, Josean F.; Scotti, Luciana; Scotti, Marcus T.; de Aquino, Thiago M.; de Moura, Ricardo O.; Mendonca, Francisco J. B.; Barbosa-Filho, Jose M.



Synthesis and structure activity relationships of schweinfurthin indoles.  


As part of a program to explore the biological activity of analogues of the natural schweinfurthins, a set of compounds has been prepared where an indole system can be viewed as a substitution for the resorcinol substructure of the schweinfurthin's D-ring. Twelve of these schweinfurthin indoles have been prepared and evaluated in the 60 cell line screen of the National Cancer Institute. While a range of activity has been observed, it is now clear that schweinfurthin indoles can demonstrate the intriguing pattern of activity associated with the natural stilbenes. In the best cases, these indole analogues display both potency and differential activity across the various cell lines comparable to the best resorcinol analogues. PMID:24656801

Kodet, John G; Beutler, John A; Wiemer, David F



Structure-Activity Relationships and Immunochemical Studies on Cobrotoxin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cobrotoxin, a neurotoxic crystalline protein, was isolated from the venom of Taiwan cobra (Naja naja atra) and was proved to be the main toxic protein in cobra venom. The two-dimensional structure of the toxin has recently been established, permits a stud...

C. C. Yang



Structure-activity relationships for in vitro diuretic activity of CAP2b in the housefly.  


A series of truncated and Ala-replacement analogs of the peptide Manse-CAP2b (pELYAFPRV-NH(2)) were assayed for diuretic activity on Malpighian tubules of the housefly Musca domestica (M. domestica). The C-terminal hexapeptide proved to be the active core, the minimum sequence required to retain significant diuretic activity. However, full activity required the C-terminal heptapeptide, which was equipotent with the most active of the native housefly CAP2b peptides. Replacement of Arg(7) and Val(8) with Ala led to inactivity and a large 70-fold drop in potency, respectively, indicating that these were critical residues. The Leu(2) was semicritical, where a six-fold loss in potency was observed. Conversely, the replacement of all other residues with Ala led to much smaller effects on potency and these positions were considered to be noncritical. This structure-activity relationship data can aid in the design of mimetic agonist/antagonist analogs of this diuretic peptide family with enhanced biostability and bioavailability, as tools for arthropod endocrinologists and as potential pest management agents capable of disrupting the water balance in pest flies. PMID:17161506

Nachman, Ronald J; Coast, Geoffrey M



Semisynthetic glycopeptides: chemistry, structure-activity relationships and prospects.  


Glycopeptides are a class of naturally occurring antibiotics produced by fermentation of microorganisms. They inhibit cell wall biosynthesis in bacteria by forming a complex with the C-terminal D-alanyl-D-alanine of growing peptidoglycan chains. Glycopeptides are active against Gram-positive bacteria including the major pathogens. Among all the glycopeptides that have been discovered, only vancomycin and teicoplanin are on the market for the clinical use. By modification of the natural glycopeptide it is possible to increase its activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci. Basic amides of teicoplanin aglycon have produced one compound endowed with interesting activity against Gram-negative bacteria because of its ability to cross the outer membrane of this last bacteria. Selective degradation of teicoplanin has given a tetrapeptide, a key intermediate that has been used as starting material for the synthesis of new non natural glycopeptides. One of them has shown a weak but promising activity against Van A Enterococci highly resistant to natural glycopeptides. PMID:9274002

Ciabatti, R; Malabarba, A



Structure–activity relationships of semisynthetic mumbaistatin analogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mumbaistatin (1), a new anthraquinone natural product, is one of the most potent known inhibitors of hepatic glucose-6-phosphate translocase, an important target for the treatment of type II diabetes. Its availability, however, has been limited due to its extremely low yield from the natural source. Starting from DMAC (5, 3,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid), a structurally related polyketide product of engineered biosynthesis, we

Taek Soon Lee; Abhirup Das; Chaitan Khosla



Structure-activity relationship of immunostimulatory effects of phthalates  

PubMed Central

Background Some chemicals, including some phthalate plasticizers, have been shown to have an adjuvant effect in mice. However, an adjuvant effect, defined as an inherent ability to stimulate the humoral immune response, was only observed after exposure to a limited number of the phthalates. An adjuvant effect may be due to the structure or physicochemical characteristics of the molecule. The scope of this study was to investigate which molecular characteristics that determine the observed adjuvant effect of the most widely used phthalate plasticizer, the di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), which is documented as having a strong adjuvant effect. To do so, a series of nine lipophilic compounds with structural and physicochemical relations to DEHP were investigated. Results Adjuvant effect of phthalates and related compounds were restricted to the IgG1 antibody formation. No effect was seen on IgE. It appears that lipophilicity plays a crucial role, but lipophilicity does not per se cause an adjuvant effect. In addition to lipophilicity, a phthalate must also possess specific stereochemical characteristics in order for it to have adjuvant effect. Conclusion The adjuvant effect of phthalates are highly influenced by both stereochemical and physico-chemical properties. This knowledge may be used in the rational development of plasticizers without adjuvant effect as well as in the design of new immunological adjuvants.

Larsen, S?ren T; Nielsen, Gunnar D



Synthesis of Ureido-Muraymycidine Derivatives for Structure Activity Relationship Studies of Muraymycins  

PubMed Central

One of the key constituents of the muraymycins is the 6-membered cyclic guanidine, (2S,3S)-muraymycidine (or epi-capreomycidine). In order to diversify the structure of the oligo-peptide moiety of the muraymycins for thorough structure activity relationship studies, we have developed a highly stereoselective synthesis of ureido-muraymycidine derivatives with the lactone 4a.

Aleiwi, Bilal A.; Schneider, Christopher M.



Structures and cytotoxic activity relationship of casearins, new clerodane diterpenes from Casearia sylvestris Sw.  


Casearins G-R, new cytotoxic clerodane diterpenes have been isolated from the leaves of Casearia sylvestris Sw. (Flacourtiaceae). Their structures have been elucidated by spectroscopic methods and chemical conversions, and their structure-activity relationships have been discussed. PMID:2070450

Morita, H; Nakayama, M; Kojima, H; Takeya, K; Itokawa, H; Schenkel, E P; Motidome, M



Butitaxel analogues: synthesis and structure-activity relationships.  


N-Acyl analogues 8, 9, and 12-26 of butitaxel (3) were prepared in one or two steps from amines 5 and 6 through Schotten-Baumann acylation. Seventeen novel analogues, consisting of aliphatic carbamates, alicyclic amides, and heteroaromatic amides, were synthesized. They were evaluated for their in vitro ability to stimulate the formation of microtubules, their cytotoxicity toward B16 melanoma cells, and their solubility in water. The most potent analogue found in this study was N-debenzoyl-N-(2-thenoyl)butitaxel (20), possessing ca. 2-fold better tubulin assembly properties and cytotoxic activity against B16 melanoma cells than paclitaxel. Compound 20 was ca. 25 times more water soluble than paclitaxel. PMID:9003522

Ali, S M; Hoemann, M Z; Aubé, J; Georg, G I; Mitscher, L A; Jayasinghe, L R



Synthesis and structure--activity relationships of aroylpyrrole alkylamide bradykinin (B2) antagonists.  


The synthesis and structure-activity relationships of a novel series of aroylpyrrole alkylamides as potent selective bradykinin B(2) receptor antagonists are described. Several members of this series display nanomolar affinity at the B(2) receptor and show activity in an animal model of antinociception. PMID:12657278

Youngman, Mark A; Carson, John R; Lee, Jung S; Dax, Scott L; Zhang, Sui-Po; Colburn, Ray W; Stone, Dennis J; Codd, Ellen E; Jetter, Michele C



Structure-Activity Relationship of Benzophenanthridine Alkaloids from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Having Antimicrobial Activity.  


Zanthoxylum rhoifolium (Rutaceae) is a plant alkaloid that grows in South America and has been used in Brazilian traditional medicine for the treatment of different health problems. The present study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the steam bark crude methanol extract, fractions, and pure alkaloids of Z. rhoifolium. Its stem bark extracts exhibited a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, ranging from 12.5 to 100 µg/mL using bioautography method, and from 125 to 500 µg/mL in the microdilution bioassay. From the dichloromethane basic fraction, three furoquinoline alkaloids (1-3), and nine benzophenanthridine alkaloids (4-12) were isolated and the antimicrobial activity of the benzophenanthridine alkaloids is discussed in terms of structure-activity relationships. The alkaloid with the widest spectrum of activity was chelerythrine (10), followed by avicine (12) and dihydrochelerythrine (4). The minimal inhibitory concentrations of chelerythrine, of 1.50 µg/mL for all bacteria tested, and between 3.12 and 6.25 µg/mL for the yeast tested, show this compound to be a more powerful antimicrobial agent when compared with the other active alkaloids isolated from Z. rhoifolium. To verify the potential importance of the methylenedioxy group (ring A) of these alkaloids, chelerythrine was selected to represent the remainder of the benzophenanthridine alkaloids isolated in this work and was subjected to a demethylation reaction giving derivative 14. Compared to chelerythrine, the derivative (14) was less active against the tested bacteria and fungi. Kinetic measurements of the bacteriolytic activities of chelerythrine against the bacteria Bacillus subtilis (Gram-positive) and Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) were determined by optical density based on real time assay, suggesting that its mechanism of action is not bacteriolytic. The present study did not detect hemolytic effects of chelerythrine on erythrocytes and found a protective effect considering the decrease in TBARS and AOPP (advanced oxidized protein products) levels when compared to the control group. PMID:24824737

Tavares, Luciana de C; Zanon, Graciane; Weber, Andréia D; Neto, Alexandre T; Mostardeiro, Clarice P; Da Cruz, Ivana B M; Oliveira, Raul M; Ilha, Vinicius; Dalcol, Ionara I; Morel, Ademir F



Structure-Activity Relationship of Benzophenanthridine Alkaloids from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Having Antimicrobial Activity  

PubMed Central

Zanthoxylum rhoifolium (Rutaceae) is a plant alkaloid that grows in South America and has been used in Brazilian traditional medicine for the treatment of different health problems. The present study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the steam bark crude methanol extract, fractions, and pure alkaloids of Z. rhoifolium. Its stem bark extracts exhibited a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, ranging from 12.5 to 100 µg/mL using bioautography method, and from 125 to 500 µg/mL in the microdilution bioassay. From the dichloromethane basic fraction, three furoquinoline alkaloids (1–3), and nine benzophenanthridine alkaloids (4–12) were isolated and the antimicrobial activity of the benzophenanthridine alkaloids is discussed in terms of structure-activity relationships. The alkaloid with the widest spectrum of activity was chelerythrine (10), followed by avicine (12) and dihydrochelerythrine (4). The minimal inhibitory concentrations of chelerythrine, of 1.50 µg/mL for all bacteria tested, and between 3.12 and 6.25 µg/mL for the yeast tested, show this compound to be a more powerful antimicrobial agent when compared with the other active alkaloids isolated from Z. rhoifolium. To verify the potential importance of the methylenedioxy group (ring A) of these alkaloids, chelerythrine was selected to represent the remainder of the benzophenanthridine alkaloids isolated in this work and was subjected to a demethylation reaction giving derivative 14. Compared to chelerythrine, the derivative (14) was less active against the tested bacteria and fungi. Kinetic measurements of the bacteriolytic activities of chelerythrine against the bacteria Bacillus subtilis (Gram-positive) and Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) were determined by optical density based on real time assay, suggesting that its mechanism of action is not bacteriolytic. The present study did not detect hemolytic effects of chelerythrine on erythrocytes and found a protective effect considering the decrease in TBARS and AOPP (advanced oxidized protein products) levels when compared to the control group.

Tavares, Luciana de C.; Zanon, Graciane; Weber, Andreia D.; Neto, Alexandre T.; Mostardeiro, Clarice P.; Da Cruz, Ivana B. M.; Oliveira, Raul M.; Ilha, Vinicius; Dalcol, Ionara I.; Morel, Ademir F.



Chromone-fused cytosine analogues: synthesis, biological activity, and structure-activity relationship.  


The preparation of a series of novel chromone-fused cytosine analogues, i.e., chromeno[2,3-d]pyrimidines has been carried out from substituted 2-amino-4-oxo-4H-chromene-3-carbonitriles with urea, thiourea, and guanidine under different reaction conditions. These chromone-fused cytosine analogues were evaluated for their in vitro activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv strain and different microbial pathogenic strains in cell culture for their structure-activity relationships, respectively. Among the synthesized compounds, 2d, 3a, and 4e showed better results against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. The compounds 2a, 2b, and 3a showed potential antibacterial activity against E. coli and P. aeruginosa, while the majority of compounds were found to be active against S. aureus as compared to ampicillin. The synthesized cytosine analogues having an imine (-C&dbnd;NH) have been less sensitive to the bacterial and fungal strains but have a more beneficial effect on Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. PMID:24660882

Haveliwala, Dhaval D; Kamdar, Nimesh R; Mistry, Prashant T; Patel, Saurabh K



Antileishmanial Structure-Activity Relationships of Synthetic Phospholipids: In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of Selected Derivatives? †  

PubMed Central

Antileishmanial activities of 91 synthetic phospholipids against Leishmania donovani were evaluated in vitro and cytotoxicity assessed against two mammalian cell lines. Promising compounds were tested further in vivo. In vitro structure-activity relationships showed a positive contribution of head groups bearing ring systems (N-methylpiperidino and N-methylmorpholino) to antileishmanial activity.

Seifert, Karin; Lemke, Andreas; Croft, Simon L.; Kayser, Oliver



A structure-activity relationship study of compounds with antihistamine activity.  


A structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis of H(1)-, H(2)- and H(3)-antihistamine activity was carried out and chromatographic data of 2-[2-(phenylamino)thiazol-4-yl]ethanamine, 2-(2-benzyl-4-thiazolyl)ethanamine, 2-(2-benzhydrylthiazol4-yl)ethanamine, 2-(1-piperazinyl- and 2-(hexahydro-1H-1,4-diazepin-1-yl)benzothiazole, 2-(1-piperazinyl)benzothiazole, 2-[4-(1-alkyl)piperidinyl]benzothiazole, 2-(N,N',N'-dimethylalkyl-1,2-ethanediamino)benzothiazole, 2[1-(4-aminopiperidinyl)]benzothiazole, 2-[2-phenyl-4-thiazolyl]ethanamine derivatives and selected H(1)- and H(2)-antihistamine drugs were obtained. NP TLC and RP2 TLC plates (silica gel NP 60F(254) and silica gel RP2 60F(254) silanized precoated), impregnated with a solution of aspartic acid (L-Asp) and a solution of an analogue of aspartic acid (propionic acid), were used in two developing solvents as H(1)-, H(2)- and H(3)-antihistaminic interaction models. The lipophilicity data of the examined compounds were obtained and used in the SAR assay. Biochromatographic tests using TLC plates impregnated with solutions of asparic acid or propionic acid were found to be a source of useful data for the qualitative analysis of compounds with different structures, demonstrating activity to histamine H(1)-, H(2)- and H(3)-receptors. The four presented discriminant models based on biochromatographic studies are an efficient tool in the SAR analysis for initial prediction of compound activity direction within histamine receptors. PMID:16506293

Brzezi?ska, Elzbieta; Ko?ka, Grazyna



Flavonoids promoting HaCaT migration: I. Hologram quantitative structure-activity relationships.  


Cell migration plays an important role in multicellular development and preservation. Because wound healing requires cell migration, compounds promoting cell migration can be used for wound repair therapy. Several plant-derived polyphenols are known to promote cell migration, which improves wound healing. Previous studies of flavonoids on cell lines have focused on their inhibitory effects and not on wound healing. In addition, studies of flavonoids on wound healing have been performed using mixtures. In this study, individual flavonoids were used for cellular migration measurements. Relationships between the cell migration effects of flavonoids and their structural properties have never been reported. Here, we investigated the migration of keratinocytes caused by 100 flavonoids and examined their relationships using hologram quantitative structure-activity relationships. The structural conditions responsible for efficient cell migration on keratinocyte cell lines determined from the current study will facilitate the design of flavonoids with improved activity. PMID:24252338

Cho, Moonjae; Yoon, Hyuk; Park, Mijoo; Kim, Young Hwa; Lim, Yoongho



Structure–activity relationship of cardiotonic flavonoids in guinea-pig papillary muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen flavonoids were tested for a positive inotropic effect (PIE) on guinea-pig papillary muscle paced at 0.2 Hz in a Krebs–Henseleit solution at 30°C. The structure–activity relationship was investigated by determining both the pD2 value and the intrinsic activity in the case of ten flavonols, three flavones, one flavanone and two catechins. Quercetin showed the most potent intrinsic activity, and

Masataka Itoigawa; Kazumi Takeya; Chihiro Ito; Hiroshi Furukawa



Structural alerts for predicting clastogenic activity of pro-oxidant flavonoid compounds: quantitative structure-activity relationship study.  


Flavonoids have been reported to exert multiple biological effects that include acting as pro-oxidants at very high doses. The authors determined a structural alert to identify the clastogenic activity of a series of flavonoids with pro-oxidant activity. The methodology was based on a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study. Specifically, the authors developed a virtual screening method for a clastogenic model using the topological substructural molecular design (TOPS-MODE) approach. It represents a useful platform for the automatic generation of structural alerts, based on the calculation of spectral moments of molecular bond matrices appropriately weighted, taking into account the hydrophobic, electronic, and steric molecular features. Therefore, it was possible to establish the structural criteria for maximal clastogenicity of pro-oxidant flavonoids: the presence of a 3-hydroxyl group and a 4-carbonyl group in ring C, the maximal number of hydroxyl groups in ring B, the presence of methoxyl and phenyl groups, the absence of a 2,3-double bond in ring C, and the presence of 5,7 hydroxyl groups in ring A. The presented clastogenic model may be useful for screening new pro-oxidant compounds. This alert could help in the design of new and efficient flavonoids, which could be used as bioactive compounds in nutraceuticals and functional food. PMID:21940715

Yordi, Estela Guardado; Pérez, Enrique Molina; Matos, Maria Joao; Villares, Eugenio Uriarte



Structure-antiviral activity relationships of cecropin A-magainin 2 hybrid peptide and its analogues.  


In order to elucidate the structure-antiviral activity relationship of cecropin A (1-8)-magainin 2 (1-12) (termed CA-MA) hybrid peptide, several analogues with amino acid substitutions were synthesized. In a previous study, it was shown that serine at position 16 in CA-MA hybrid peptide was very important for antimicrobial activity. Analogues were designed to increase the hydrophobic property by substituting a hydrophobic amino acid residue (S --> A, V, F or W, position 16) in the CA-MA hybrid peptide. In this study, the structure-antiviral activity relationships of CA-MA and its analogues were investigated. In particular, substitution of Ser with a hydrophobic amino acid, Val, Phe or Trp at position 16 caused a dramatic increase in the virus-cell fusion inhibitory activity. These results suggested that the hydrophobicity at position 16 in the hydrophobic region of CA-MA is important for potent antiviral activity. PMID:15160842

Lee, Dong Gun; Park, Yoonkyung; Jin, Ingnyol; Hahm, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Hyang-Hee; Moon, Young-Hee; Woo, Eun-Rhan



A Robust StructureActivity Relationship (SAR) Model for Esters that Cause Skin Irritation in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

A structure-activity relationship (SAR) model has been devel- oped to discriminate skin irritant from nonirritant esters. The model is based on the physicochemical properties of 42 esters that were tested in humans for skin irritation. Nineteen physicochem- ical parameters that represent transport, electronic, and steric properties were calculated for each chemical. Best subsets regres- sion analysis indicated candidate models for

Jeffrey S. Smith; Orest T. Macina; Nancy B. Sussman; Michael I. Luster; Meryl H. Karol



Structure-activity relationship investigations of a potent and selective benzodiazepine oxytocin antagonist.  


We have investigated the structure-activity relationships of the 1- and 3-substituents and replacements of the 5-phenyl group of GW405212X 1, a potent selective oxytocin antagonist. The effect of these modifications on oxytocin binding antagonism and on pharmacokinetic parameters is reported. PMID:11392542

Wyatt, P G; Allen, M J; Chilcott, J; Hickin, G; Miller, N D; Woollard, P M



FY91 EPSCOR Structure-Activity Relationships of Chlorinated Alicyclic Compounds in Catfish.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The scientific goal of this project has been to extend the quantitative structure-activity relationship study of the parent grant, 91-0338, to catfish brain membranes. The binding of 35St-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (TBPS) to the Y-aminobutyric acid (GA...

J. E. Chambers




EPA Science Inventory

The Current status of structure-activity relationships for the biodegradation of xenobiotics is reviewed. esults are presented of a pilot study on biodegradation Constants obtained from Computer databases. ew analyses for a relatively large number of anilines and phenols are pres...


Peptide deformylase inhibitors with non-peptide scaffold: synthesis and structure-activity relationships.  


Peptide deformylase (PDF), which removes the formyl group at the N-terminal methionine residue of nascent protein, has been recognized as a potent target for antibacterial therapy. We report herein the synthesis and structure-activity relationship studies of non-peptide PDF inhibitors. PMID:21146987

Lee, Seung Kyu; Choi, Kwang Hyun; Lee, Sang Jae; Lee, Jong Sun; Park, Ji Yun; Kim, B Moon; Lee, Bong Jin



Total Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationship of Glycoglycerolipids from Marine Organisms  

PubMed Central

Glycoglycerolipids occur widely in natural products, especially in the marine species. Glycoglycerolipids have been shown to possess a variety of bioactivities. This paper will review the different methodologies and strategies for the synthesis of biological glycoglycerolipids and their analogs for bioactivity assay. In addition, the bioactivities and structure-activity relationship of the glycoglycerolipids are also briefly outlined.

Zhang, Jun; Li, Chunxia; Yu, Guangli; Guan, Huashi




EPA Science Inventory

Results have been presented on the development of a structure-activity relationship for biodegradation using a group contribution approach. sing this approach, reported results of the kinetic rate constant agree within 20% with the predicted values. dditional compound studies are...


Application of Quantitative Structure–Activity Relationships for Assessing the Aquatic Toxicity of Phthalate Esters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phthalate esters (PEs) are an important class of industrial chemicals for which an extensive aquatic toxicity database is available. The objectives of this study were to use these data to develop quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSARs) that describe aquatic toxicity for different freshwater and marine species, gain insights into toxicity mechanisms, and calculate PE water quality criteria using statistical extrapolation procedures.

Thomas F. Parkerton; Wolfgang J. Konkel



Validation of Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) Model for Photosensitizer Activity Prediction  

PubMed Central

Photodynamic therapy is a relatively new treatment method for cancer which utilizes a combination of oxygen, a photosensitizer and light to generate reactive singlet oxygen that eradicates tumors via direct cell-killing, vasculature damage and engagement of the immune system. Most of photosensitizers that are in clinical and pre-clinical assessments, or those that are already approved for clinical use, are mainly based on cyclic tetrapyrroles. In an attempt to discover new effective photosensitizers, we report the use of the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) method to develop a model that could correlate the structural features of cyclic tetrapyrrole-based compounds with their photodynamic therapy (PDT) activity. In this study, a set of 36 porphyrin derivatives was used in the model development where 24 of these compounds were in the training set and the remaining 12 compounds were in the test set. The development of the QSAR model involved the use of the multiple linear regression analysis (MLRA) method. Based on the method, r2 value, r2 (CV) value and r2 prediction value of 0.87, 0.71 and 0.70 were obtained. The QSAR model was also employed to predict the experimental compounds in an external test set. This external test set comprises 20 porphyrin-based compounds with experimental IC50 values ranging from 0.39 ?M to 7.04 ?M. Thus the model showed good correlative and predictive ability, with a predictive correlation coefficient (r2 prediction for external test set) of 0.52. The developed QSAR model was used to discover some compounds as new lead photosensitizers from this external test set.

Frimayanti, Neni; Yam, Mun Li; Lee, Hong Boon; Othman, Rozana; Zain, Sharifuddin M.; Rahman, Noorsaadah Abd.



Structure-activity relationships of the glucuronidation of flavonoids by human glucuronosyltransferases.  


With the increasing intake of flavonoids in diet, supplements and herbal medicines, studies on the biotransformation and disposition have been dramatically expanded. The current review covers the findings on the relationships between flavonoid structural properties and their glucuronidation activities in in vivo trials and in vitro human UGTs or microsomes for the past 2 decades. Regioselectivity and substrate specificity on the glucuronidation of flavonoids are summarized. The findings reveal the inconsistency from different studies and indicate the importance of in silico modeling in the prediction of structure-glucuronidation relationship. PMID:19663742

Wong, Yin Cheong; Zhang, Li; Lin, Ge; Zuo, Zhong



Structure–activity relationships and enzyme inhibition of pantothenamide-type pantothenate kinase inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of novel pantothenamide-type analogues of the known Staphylococcus aureus pantothenate kinase (SaPanK) inhibitors, N-pentyl, and N-heptylpantothenamide, was synthesized in three series. The first series of analogues (1–3) were designed as molecular probes of the PanK binding site to elucidate important structure–activity relationships (SAR). The second series of analogues (4–16) were designed using structural information obtained from the Escherichia

Kristopher G. Virga; Yong-Mei Zhang; Roberta Leonardi; Robert A. Ivey; Kirk Hevener; Hee-Won Park; Suzanne Jackowski; Charles O. Rock; Richard E. Lee



Quantitative structure-activity relationships of antimicrobial fatty acids and derivatives against Staphylococcus aureus.  


Fatty acids and derivatives (FADs) are resources for natural antimicrobials. In order to screen for additional potent antimicrobial agents, the antimicrobial activities of FADs against Staphylococcus aureus were examined using a microplate assay. Monoglycerides of fatty acids were the most potent class of fatty acids, among which monotridecanoin possessed the most potent antimicrobial activity. The conventional quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) and comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) were performed to establish two statistically reliable models (conventional QSAR: R(2)=0.942, Q(2)(LOO)=0.910; CoMFA: R(2)=0.979, Q(2)=0.588, respectively). Improved forecasting can be achieved by the combination of these two models that provide a good insight into the structure-activity relationships of the FADs and that may be useful to design new FADs as antimicrobial agents. PMID:22302421

Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Lu; Peng, Li-juan; Dong, Xiao-wu; Wu, Di; Wu, Vivian Chi-Hua; Feng, Feng-Qin



Structure-activity relationship of citrus polymethoxylated flavones and their inhibitory effects on Aspergillus niger.  


Citrus peels are rich in polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs) and are potential sources of natural preservatives. Six PMFs extracts, isolated and purified from the peels of three mandarins (Citrus reticulata) and three sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis), were identified and quantitated. Their inhibitory effects on Aspergillus niger were evaluated using a microbroth dilution assay. The Red tangerine variety exhibited the greatest antifungal activity (MIC = 0.2 mg/mL), while Jincheng showed the lowest activity (MIC = 1.8 mg/mL). An analysis of principal components was applied to the results in order to elucidate the structure-activity relationships of the citrus PMFs. The structure-activity relationship analysis revealed that, for good inhibitory effect, the 5-OH, 3-OCH?, and 8-OCH? functionalities were essential, while the presence of 3-OH and 3'-OCH? greatly reduced inhibition. The findings of this study provide important information for the exploitation and utilization of citrus PMFs as natural biopreservatives. PMID:22500738

Liu, Li; Xu, Xiaoyun; Cheng, Dan; Yao, Xiaolin; Pan, Siyi



The sedative effect of inhaled terpinolene in mice and its structure-activity relationships.  


Terpinolene is a cyclic monoterpene compound found in some Labiatae herbs. In our previous study, we evaluated the sedative effect of inhaled essential oils of Microtoena patchoulii leaves in mice and isolated terpinolene as an active ingredient. We investigated the structure-activity relationships of terpinolene to identify the structural part essential to its sedative effect. Comparison of terpinolene analog activities showed that a double bond in the side-chain or pi bonds in the six-membered ring play important roles in the sedative effect. In another experiment using olfactory impaired mice, we further revealed that inhaled terpinolene exerted the effect after nasal absorption into the body. PMID:23339024

Ito, Ken; Ito, Michiho



On the interpretation and interpretability of quantitative structure-activity relationship models.  


The goal of a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model is to encode the relationship between molecular structure and biological activity or physical property. Based on this encoding, such models can be used for predictive purposes. Assuming the use of relevant and meaningful descriptors, and a statistically significant model, extraction of the encoded structure-activity relationships (SARs) can provide insight into what makes a molecule active or inactive. Such analyses by QSAR models are useful in a number of scenarios, such as suggesting structural modifications to enhance activity, explanation of outliers and exploratory analysis of novel SARs. In this paper we discuss the need for interpretation and an overview of the factors that affect interpretability of QSAR models. We then describe interpretation protocols for different types of models, highlighting the different types of interpretations, ranging from very broad, global, trends to very specific, case-by-case, descriptions of the SAR, using examples from the training set. Finally, we discuss a number of case studies where workers have provide some form of interpretation of a QSAR model. PMID:18784976

Guha, Rajarshi



StructureActivity Relationships of Retinoids in Hamster Trachea! Organ Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structure-activity relationships are summarized for 87 reti- noids, using reversal of keratinization in the hamster trachéal organ culture system to measure biological activity. Classes of compounds evaluated include all-frans-retinoic acid and its esters, ring-modified analogs of all-frans-retinoic acid and its esters, side-chain-modified analogs of all-frans-retinoic acid and its esters, analogs in which both ring and side chain have been modified,

Dianne L. Newton; William R. Henderson; Michael B. Sporn


Structure–activity relationship analysis of antioxidant ability and neuroprotective effect of gallic acid derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gallic acid and its derivatives are a group of naturally occurring polyphenol antioxidants which have recently been shown to have potential healthy effects. In order to understand the relationship between the structures of gallic acid derivatives, their antioxidant activities, and neuroprotective effects, we examined their free radical scavenging effects in liposome and anti-apoptotic activities in human SH-SY5Y cell induced by

Zhongbing Lu; Guangjun Nie; Peter S. Belton; Huiru Tang; Baolu Zhao



Structural Relationships Between Social Activities and Longitudinal Trajectories of Depression Among Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Purpose: This study examines the structural relationships between social activities and trajectories of late-life depression. Design and Methods: Latent class analysis was used with a nationally representative sample of older adults (N?=?5,294) from the Longitudinal Study on Aging II to classify patterns of social activities. A latent growth curve model captured longitudinal changes in depression and tested the impact of social activities while controlling for residential relocation, health status, insurance, and sociodemographics. Results: We found 3 different patterns of participation across 8 social activities. Specific activities of volunteering and exercise, self-perception of social activity level as “enough,” and a higher participation level pattern were associated with lower initial status and longitudinal changes in depression. Implications: Assessing involvement in multiple social activities is important when using social activities to prevent and treat depression. Future work with improved measures can further clarify how specific activities may reduce risk for depression.

Hong, Song-Iee; Hasche, Leslie; Bowland, Sharon



4-Aminoquinolines Active against Chloroquine-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum: Basis of Antiparasite Activity and Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Analyses?  

PubMed Central

Chloroquine (CQ) is a safe and economical 4-aminoquinoline (AQ) antimalarial. However, its value has been severely compromised by the increasing prevalence of CQ resistance. This study examined 108 AQs, including 68 newly synthesized compounds. Of these 108 AQs, 32 (30%) were active only against CQ-susceptible Plasmodium falciparum strains and 59 (55%) were active against both CQ-susceptible and CQ-resistant P. falciparum strains (50% inhibitory concentrations [IC50s], ?25 nM). All AQs active against both CQ-susceptible and CQ-resistant P. falciparum strains shared four structural features: (i) an AQ ring without alkyl substitution, (ii) a halogen at position 7 (Cl, Br, or I but not F), (iii) a protonatable nitrogen at position 1, and (iv) a second protonatable nitrogen at the end of the side chain distal from the point of attachment to the AQ ring via the nitrogen at position 4. For activity against CQ-resistant parasites, side chain lengths of ?3 or ?10 carbons were necessary but not sufficient; they were identified as essential factors by visual comparison of 2-dimensional (2-D) structures in relation to the antiparasite activities of the AQs and were confirmed by computer-based 3-D comparisons and differential contour plots of activity against P. falciparum. The advantage of the method reported here (refinement of quantitative structure-activity relationship [QSAR] descriptors by random assignment of compounds to multiple training and test sets) is that it retains QSAR descriptors according to their abilities to predict the activities of unknown test compounds rather than according to how well they fit the activities of the compounds in the training sets.

Hocart, Simon J.; Liu, Huayin; Deng, Haiyan; De, Dibyendu; Krogstad, Frances M.; Krogstad, Donald J.



Structure-function relationship of working memory activity with hippocampal and prefrontal cortex volumes.  


A rapidly increasing number of studies are quantifying the system-level network architecture of the human brain based on structural-to-structural and functional-to-functional relationships. However, a largely unexplored area is the nature and existence of "cross-modal" structural-functional relationships, in which, for example, the volume (or other morphological property) of one brain region is related to the functional response to a given task either in that same brain region, or another brain region. The present study investigated whether the gray matter volume of a selected group of structures (superior, middle, and inferior frontal gyri, thalamus, and hippocampus) was correlated with the fMRI response to a working memory task, within a mask of regions previously identified as involved with working memory. The subjects included individuals with schizophrenia, their siblings, and healthy controls (n = 154 total). Using rigorous permutation testing to define the null distribution, we found that the volume of the superior and middle frontal gyri was correlated with working memory activity within clusters in the intraparietal sulcus (i.e., dorsal parietal cortex) and that the volume of the hippocampus was correlated with working memory activity within clusters in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and left inferior frontal gyrus. However, we did not find evidence that the identified structure-function relationships differed between subject groups. These results show that long-distance structural-functional relationships exist within the human brain. The study of such cross-modal relationships represents an additional approach for studying systems-level interregional brain networks. PMID:22362200

Harms, Michael P; Wang, Lei; Csernansky, John G; Barch, Deanna M



Inhibitors of the Interaction of Thyroid Hormone Receptor and Coactivators: Preliminary Structure-Activity Relationships  

PubMed Central

The modulation of gene regulation by blocking the interaction between the thyroid receptor (TR) and obligate coregulators (CoRs) has been reported recently with discovery of the lead compound 3-(dimethylamino)-1-(4-hexylphenyl)propan-1-one). Herein we report studies aimed at optimization of this initial hit to determine the basic parameters of the structure–activity relationships (SAR) and clarify the mechanism of action. These studies provided new insights, showing that activity and TR? isoform selectivity is highly correlated with the structural composition of these covalent inhibitors.

Arnold, Leggy A.; Kosinski, Aaron; Estebanez-Perpina, Eva; Guy, R. Kiplin



A series of natural flavonoids as thrombin inhibitors: structure-activity relationships.  


A series of natural flavonoids has been evaluated as potential inhibitors of thrombin using the optimized method of thrombin time. Myricetin and quercetin have shown to be the best thrombin inhibitors tested. In order to investigate the thrombin recognition of the most active and selective compounds, a molecular modeling study has been performed using available Protein Data Bank (PDB) structures as receptor models for docking experiments. Structure-activity relationships of flavonoids (SARs) on thrombin would facilitate the design of chemical compounds with higher potency to serve as potential thrombin inhibitors, and provide information for the exploitation and utilization of flavonoids as thrombin inhibitors for thrombotic disease treatment. PMID:20828797

Liu, Li; Ma, Hongyue; Yang, Nianyun; Tang, Yuping; Guo, Jianming; Tao, Weiwei; Duan, Jin'ao



Structure-activity relationships of pyrrole hydrazones as new anti-tuberculosis agents.  


Preliminary investigations of our research team have shown that some pyrrole hydrazones posses strong inhibitory activity against the tuberculosis bacilli, and thus represent a new perspective for development of anti-tuberculosis agents. In this work the anti-tuberculosis activity of an in-house series of pyrrole hydrazones was investigated by quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) analysis and by pharmacophore modelling. Different constitutional, topological, physicochemical, and quantum-mechanical descriptors of the chemical structure were calculated. The QSAR models included the number of chlorine, fluorine and nitrogen atoms, molecular flexibility and shape indexes, and magnitudes of charged molecular surfaces areas and hydrophobic volumes, suggesting importance of these structural characteristics for the activity. Next, a pharmacophore analysis was applied. A possible pharmacophore responsible for the compound interactions with their biological target in the 3D space consisted of five features, including hydrophobic centres, a potential H-bond acceptor and a potential metal ligator. PMID:22530903

Lessigiarska, Iglika; Pajeva, Ilza; Prodanova, Penka; Georgieva, Maya; Bijev, Atanas



Application of the rough sets theory in structure activity relationship of antielectrostatic ammonium compounds.  


The relationships between the chemical structure and the antielectrostatic effect of 112 ammonium compounds were analysed using the method of rough sets. The antielectrostatic activity was determined by measurements of the maximum voltage induced. Using the rough sets approach the smallest set of condition attributes significant for high quality of classification has been found. The resulting decision rules describe relations between the structure and the antielectrostatic properties of ammonium chlorides in terms of significant condition attributes. This may be helpful in predicting the structures of the new antielectrostatic compounds to be synthesized. PMID:13678321

Krysi?ski, Jerzy; Skrzypczak, Andrzej; Demski, Grzegorz



Quantitative structure-activity relationships and docking studies of calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonists.  


Defining the role of calcitonin gene-related peptide in migraine pathogenesis could lead to the application of calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonists as novel migraine therapeutics. In this work, quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling of biological activities of a large range of calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonists was performed using a panel of physicochemical descriptors. The computational studies evaluated different variable selection techniques and demonstrated shuffling stepwise multiple linear regression to be superior over genetic algorithm-multiple linear regression. The linear quantitative structure-activity relationship model revealed better statistical parameters of cross-validation in comparison with the non-linear support vector regression technique. Implementing only five peptide descriptors into this linear quantitative structure-activity relationship model resulted in an extremely robust and highly predictive model with calibration, leave-one-out and leave-20-out validation R(2) of 0.9194, 0.9103, and 0.9214, respectively. We performed docking of the most potent calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonists with the calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor and demonstrated that peptide antagonists act by blocking access to the peptide-binding cleft. We also demonstrated the direct contact of residues 28-37 of the calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonists with the receptor. These results are in agreement with the conclusions drawn from the quantitative structure-activity relationship model, indicating that both electrostatic and steric factors should be taken into account when designing novel calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonists. PMID:21974743

Kyani, Anahita; Mehrabian, Mohadeseh; Jenssen, Håvard



Synthesis and quantitative structure-antifungal activity relationships of clovane derivatives against Botrytis cinerea.  


Twenty-three clovane derivatives, nine described here for the first time, bearing substituents on carbon C-2, have been synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antifungal activity against the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea. The results showed that compounds 9, 14, 16, and 18 bearing nitrogen atoms in the chain attached at C-2 displayed potent antifungal activity, whereas mercapto derivatives 13, 19, and 22 displayed low activity. The antifungal activity showed a clear structure-activity relationship (SAR) trend, which confirmed the importance of the nature of the C-2 chain on the antifungal activity. On the basis of these observations, the metabolism of compounds 8 and 14 by the fungus B. cinerea, and the metabolism of other clovanes by this fungus, described previously, a pro-drug action mechanism for 2-alkoxyclovane compounds is proposed. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies were performed to rationalize the results and to suggest further optimization, using a topological sub-structural molecular design (TOPS-MODE) approach. The model displayed good fit and predictive capability, describing 85.5% of the experimental variance, with a standard deviation of 9.502 and yielding high values of cross-validation determination coefficients (q2CV-LOO = 0.784 and q2boot = 0.673). The most significant variables were the spectral moments weighted by bond dipole moment (Dip), hydrophobicity (Hyd), and the combined dipolarity/polarizability Abraham molecular descriptor (Ab-pi2H). PMID:19220016

Saiz-Urra, Liane; Racero, Juan C; Macías-Sáchez, Antonio J; Hernández-Galán, Rosario; Hanson, James R; Perez-Gonzalez, Maykel; Collado, Isidro G



Dual structure-activity relationship of osteoclastogenesis inhibitor methyl gerfelin based on TEG scanning.  


Methyl gerfelin derivatives, each having an amine-terminated tri(ethylene glycol) linker at the peripheral position, were designed and systematically synthesized. These "TEGylated" derivatives were then subjected to a structure-activity relationship (SAR) study to examine their glyoxalase 1-inhibition activity and binding affinity toward the three binding proteins identified. Among the derivatives synthesized, that with a NH(2)-TEG linker at the C6-methyl group showed the most potent glyoxalase 1-inhibiting activity and glyoxalase 1 selectivity. These results indicated that derivatization at the C6-methyl group would be suitable for the further development of selective glyoxalase 1 inhibitors. PMID:23270365

Kanoh, Naoki; Suzuki, Takahiro; Kawatani, Makoto; Katou, Yasuhiro; Osada, Hiroyuki; Iwabuchi, Yoshiharu



Relative potency and structure activity relationships of aldosterone antagonists in healthy man: correlation with animal experience.  

PubMed Central

1 The renal antimineralocorticoid potency of single doses of thirteen compounds with properties in animals compatible with competitive aldosterone antagonism was compared to that of spironolactone in healthy men. 2 Twelve compounds showed significant activity when compared to placebo but only one, prorenoate potassium, was significantly more potent than spironolactone on a weight basis. 3 The results allowed ranking of the compounds in order of potency relative to spironolactone and general observations on structure activity relationships in man. 4 Animal bioassays and in vitro aldosterone binding studies are unreliable predictors of the human activity of competitive mineralocorticoid antagonists.

McInnes, G T; Shelton, J R; Ramsay, L E; Harrison, I R; Asbury, M J; Clarke, J M; Perkins, R M; Venning, G R



Structure-activity relationship study on benzoic acid part of diphenylamine-based retinoids.  


Based on structure-activity relationship studies of the benzoic acid part of diphenylamine-based retinoids, the potent RXR agonist 4 was derivatized to obtain retinoid agonists, synergists, and an antagonist. Cinnamic acid derivatives 5 and phenylpropionic acid derivatives 6 showed retinoid agonistic and synergistic activities, respectively. The difference of the activities is considered to be due to differences in the flexibility of the carboxylic acid-containing substituent on the diphenylamine skeleton. Compound 7, bearing a methyl group at the meta position to the carboxyl group, was an antagonist, dose-dependently inhibiting HL-60 cell differentiation induced by 3.3 × 10(-10)M Am80. PMID:23217961

Ohta, Kiminori; Kawachi, Emiko; Shudo, Koichi; Kagechika, Hiroyuki



Antioxidant protection of low density lipoprotein by procyanidins: structure\\/activity relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant activity of catechins and oligomeric procyanidins against low density lipoproteins peroxidation was studied by means of three distinct methods: cis-parinaric acid fluorescence decay, conjugated-dienes detection, and oxygen consumption. A relationship between the radical trapping efficiency of procyanidins and their structure was investigated. The results indicated that: (i) interflavan linkage type (C4?C6 or C4?C8) exerts a significant effect upon

Patr??cia Andréia Leite da Silva Porto; João António Nave Laranjinha; Victor Armando Pereira de Freitas



Multivariate quantitative structure-activity relationships for the aquatic toxicity of technical nonionic surfactants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aquatic toxicity of 36 technical nonionic surfactants (ethoxylated fatty alcohols) was examined toward two freshwater\\u000a animal species, the fairy shrimp Thamnocephalus playtyurus and the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus. Responses of the two species to the surfactants were generally similar. A multivariate-quantitative structure-activity relationship\\u000a (M-QSAR) model was developed from the data. The M-QSAR model consisted of a partial least squares model

Lise-Lott Uppgård; Åsa Lindgren; Michael Sjöström; Svante Wold



HomoSAR: bridging comparative protein modeling with quantitative structural activity relationship to design new peptides.  


Peptides play significant roles in the biological world. To optimize activity for a specific therapeutic target, peptide library synthesis is inevitable; which is a time consuming and expensive. Computational approaches provide a promising way to simply elucidate the structural basis in the design of new peptides. Earlier, we proposed a novel methodology termed HomoSAR to gain insight into the structure activity relationships underlying peptides. Based on an integrated approach, HomoSAR uses the principles of homology modeling in conjunction with the quantitative structural activity relationship formalism to predict and design new peptide sequences with the optimum activity. In the present study, we establish that the HomoSAR methodology can be universally applied to all classes of peptides irrespective of sequence length by studying HomoSAR on three peptide datasets viz., angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides, CAMEL-s antibiotic peptides, and hAmphiphysin-1 SH3 domain binding peptides, using a set of descriptors related to the hydrophobic, steric, and electronic properties of the 20 natural amino acids. Models generated for all three datasets have statistically significant correlation coefficients (r(2)) and predictive r2 (r(pred)2) and cross validated coefficient ( q(LOO)2). The daintiness of this technique lies in its simplicity and ability to extract all the information contained in the peptides to elucidate the underlying structure activity relationships. The difficulties of correlating both sequence diversity and variation in length of the peptides with their biological activity can be addressed. The study has been able to identify the preferred or detrimental nature of amino acids at specific positions in the peptide sequences. PMID:24105965

Borkar, Mahesh R; Pissurlenkar, Raghuvir R S; Coutinho, Evans C



Structure-Activity Relationship for Fe(III)-Salen-Like Complexes as Potent Anticancer Agents  

PubMed Central

Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) for the anticancer activity of Fe(III)-salen and salen-like complexes was studied. The methods of density function theory (B3LYP/LANL2DZ) were used to optimize the structures. A pool of descriptors was calculated: 1497 theoretical descriptors and quantum-chemical parameters, shielding NMR, and electronic descriptors. The study of structure and activity relationship was performed with multiple linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural network (ANN). In nonlinear method, the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was applied in order to choose the most effective descriptors. The ANN-ANFIS model with high statistical significance (R2train = 0.99, RMSE = 0.138, and Q2LOO = 0.82) has better capability to predict the anticancer activity of the new compounds series of this family. Based on this study, anticancer activity of this compound is mainly dependent on the geometrical parameters, position, and the nature of the substituent of salen ligand.

Ghanbari, Zahra; Housaindokht, Mohammad R.; Izadyar, Mohammad; Bozorgmehr, Mohammad R.; Eshtiagh-Hosseini, Hossein; Bahrami, Ahmad R.; Matin, Maryam M.; Khoshkholgh, Maliheh Javan



Structure-Activity Relationship for Fe(III)-Salen-Like Complexes as Potent Anticancer Agents.  


Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) for the anticancer activity of Fe(III)-salen and salen-like complexes was studied. The methods of density function theory (B3LYP/LANL2DZ) were used to optimize the structures. A pool of descriptors was calculated: 1497 theoretical descriptors and quantum-chemical parameters, shielding NMR, and electronic descriptors. The study of structure and activity relationship was performed with multiple linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural network (ANN). In nonlinear method, the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was applied in order to choose the most effective descriptors. The ANN-ANFIS model with high statistical significance (R (2) train = 0.99, RMSE = 0.138, and Q (2) LOO = 0.82) has better capability to predict the anticancer activity of the new compounds series of this family. Based on this study, anticancer activity of this compound is mainly dependent on the geometrical parameters, position, and the nature of the substituent of salen ligand. PMID:24955417

Ghanbari, Zahra; Housaindokht, Mohammad R; Izadyar, Mohammad; Bozorgmehr, Mohammad R; Eshtiagh-Hosseini, Hossein; Bahrami, Ahmad R; Matin, Maryam M; Khoshkholgh, Maliheh Javan



Structure-activity relationships of retro-dihydrochalcones isolated from Tacca sp.  


Several biologically active compounds have been identified from Tacca species, including glycosides, diarylheptanoids, saponins, withanolides, and the taccalonolide class of microtubule stabilizers. More recently, two cytotoxic retro-dihydrochalcones named evelynin A (7) and taccabulin A (6) were isolated and their biological activities characterized, including the finding that taccabulin has microtubule destabilizing effects. Here we describe the identification and characterization of five new retro-chalcones, named taccabulins B-E (1-4) and evelynin B (5) from Tacca sp. extracts. Their structures were determined using 1D and 2D NMR as well as mass spectroscopic data and modeled into the colchicine binding site of tubulin. The antiproliferative and microtubule effects of each compound were determined experimentally and found to be well correlated with modeling studies. The isolation and biological characterization of several retro-dihydrochalcones facilitated preliminary structure-activity relationships for this compound class concerning its antiproliferative and microtubule depolymerizing activities. PMID:24303844

Peng, Jiangnan; Risinger, April L; Da, Chenxiao; Fest, Gary A; Kellogg, Glen E; Mooberry, Susan L



Structure-Activity Relationships for Side Chain Oxysterol Agonists of the Hedgehog Signaling Pathway  

PubMed Central

Oxysterols (OHCs) are byproducts of cholesterol oxidation that are known to activate the Hedeghog (Hh) signaling pathway. While OHCs that incorporate hydroxyl groups throughout the scaffold are known, those that act as agonists of Hh signaling primarily contain a single hydroxyl on the alkyl side chain. We sought to further explore how side chain hydroxylation patterns affect oxysterol-mediated Hh activation, by performing a structure–activity relationship study on a series of synthetic OHCs. The most active analogue, 23(R)-OHC (35), demonstrated potent activation of Hh signaling in two Hh-dependent cell lines (EC50 values 0.54–0.65 ?M). In addition, OHC 35 was approximately 3-fold selective for the Hh pathway as compared to the liver X receptor, a nuclear receptor that is also activated by endogenous OHCs. Finally, 35 induced osteogenic differentiation and osteoblast formation in cultured cells, indicating functional agonism of the Hh pathway.



Quantitative structure-activity relationships of purines II: Prediction of activity against adenocarcinoma CA755 and toxicity in mice.  


Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) were derived for a number of 2,6-mono- and disubstituted purines. The derived equations relate the anticancer activity in murine Adenocarcinoma CA755 to the molar refractivity of substituents at position 2 and electron-withdrawing effects of substituents at position 6. A QSAR was also derived for the acute toxicity (LD50) of substituents at position 6. The results suggest that toxicity is relatively independent of the nature of the substituent. PMID:7097521

Neiman, Z; Quinn, F R



Structure-activity relationships in non-ligand binding pocket (non-LBP) diarylhydrazide antiandrogens.  


We report the synthesis and a study of the structure-activity relationships of a new series of diarylhydrazides as potential selective non-ligand binding pocket androgen receptor antagonists. Their biological activity as antiandrogens in the context of the development of treatments for castration resistant prostate cancer was evaluated using in vitro time resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer and fluorescence polarization on target assays. Additionally, a theoretical study combining docking and molecular dynamics methods was performed to provide insight into their mechanism of action as a basis for further lead optimization studies. PMID:23834240

Caboni, Laura; Egan, Billy; Kelly, Brendan; Blanco, Fernando; Fayne, Darren; Meegan, Mary J; Lloyd, David G



Structure-activity relationship studies of the aromatic positions in cyclopentapeptide CXCR4 antagonists.  


The cyclopentapeptide CXCR4 antagonist FC131 (cyclo(-Arg(1)-Arg(2)-2-Nal(3)-Gly(4)-D-Tyr(5)-), 2; 2-Nal = 3-(2-naphthyl)alanine) represents an excellent starting point for development of novel drug-like ligands with therapeutic potential in HIV, cancer, stem-cell mobilization, inflammation, and autoimmune diseases. While the structure-activity relationships for Arg(1), Arg(2), and Gly(4) are well established, less is understood about the roles of the aromatic residues 2-Nal(3) and D-Tyr(5). Here we report further structure-activity relationship studies of these two positions, which showed that (i) the distal aromatic ring of the 2-Nal(3) side chain is required in order to maintain high potency and (ii) replacement of D-Tyr(5) with conformationally constrained analogues results in significantly reduced activity. However, a simplified analogue that contained Gly instead of D-Tyr(5) was only 13-fold less potent than 2, which means that the D-Tyr(5) side chain is dispensable. These findings were rationalized based on molecular docking, and the collective structure-activity data for the cyclopentapeptides suggest that appropriately designed Arg(2)-2-Nal(3) dipeptidomimetics have potential as CXCR4 antagonists. PMID:24150741

Mungalpara, Jignesh; Zachariassen, Zack G; Thiele, Stefanie; Rosenkilde, Mette M; Våbenø, Jon



Structure-activity relationship of the pro- and anticoagulant effects of Fucus vesiculosus fucoidan.  


Fucoidan is a highly complex sulfated polysaccharide commonly extracted from brown seaweed. In addition to their many biological activities, fucoidans have recently been demonstrated to inhibit or increase coagulation at different concentration ranges. Their structural features, i.e. molecular weight (Mw), Mw distribution, degree of sulfation, monosaccharide composition, and different linkages, are known to affect these activities. Therefore, structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis of fucoidan is crucial for its potential use as a procoagulant. In this study, Fucus vesiculosus (F.v.) fucoidan was fractionated by charge and size as well as over- and desulfated to different degrees to yield preparations with various structural properties. The fractions' pro- and anticoagulant activities were assessed by calibrated automated thrombography (CAT) and activated partial thromboplastin time(aPTT) assays. Binding to and inhibition of the anticoagulant protein tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) and the ability to activate coagulation via the contact pathway were also investigated. This paper discusses the impact of charge density, size, and sugar composition on fucoidan's pro- and anticoagulant activities. Fucoidan requires a minimal charge density of 0.5 sulfates per sugar unit and a size of 70 sugar units to demonstrate desired procoagulant activities for improvement of haemostasis in factor VIII/factor IX-deficient plasma. PMID:24285223

Zhang, Z; Till, S; Jiang, C; Knappe, S; Reutterer, S; Scheiflinger, F; Szabo, C M; Dockal, M



Structure-activity relationships of lanostane-type triterpenoids from Ganoderma lingzhi as ?-glucosidase inhibitors.  


A series of lanostane-type triterpenoids, identified as ganoderma alcohols and ganoderma acids, were isolated from the fruiting body of Ganoderma lingzhi. Some of these compounds were confirmed as active inhibitors of the in vitro human recombinant aldose reductase. This paper aims to explain the structural requirement for ?-glucosidase inhibition. Our structure-activity studies of ganoderma alcohols showed that the OH substituent at C-3 and the double-bond moiety at C-24 and C-25 are necessary to increase ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity. The structure-activity relationships of ganoderma acids revealed that the OH substituent at C-11 is an important feature and that the carboxylic group in the side chain is essential for the recognition of ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Moreover, the double-bond moiety at C-20 and C-22 in the side chain and the OH substituent at C-3 of ganoderma acids improve ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity. These results provide an approach with which to consider the structural requirements of lanostane-type triterpenoids from G. lingzhi. An understanding of these requirements is considered necessary in order to improve a new type of ?-glucosidase inhibitor. PMID:24070782

Fatmawati, Sri; Kondo, Ryuichiro; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi



Pyrazolone derivatives: synthesis, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, quantitative structure-activity relationship and in vitro studies.  


Some 1-(4-chlorophenyl or benzenesulfonamide)-2,3- and/or 4-substituted-1H-pyrazol-5(4H)-one derivatives were synthesized and screened for their anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities, in addition to their ulcerogenic liability. They were found to be active as anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents. Compound 6b was found to be the most active as anti-inflammatory agent and compound 9b was found to be the most active one as anti-inflammatory and analgesic agent. On the other hand, cyclooxygenase-1/-2 (COX-1)/COX-2 isozyme selectivity was also done and the tested compounds showed equal inhibition to both isoforms. Moreover, 2D-quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies revealed well predictive and statistically significant and cross validated QSAR model that helps to explore some expectedly potent compounds. PMID:23902866

Ragab, Fatma Abdel-Fattah; Abdel-Gawad, Nagwa Mohamed; Georgey, Hanan Hanna; Said, Mona Fikry



Structure-activity relationships of tanshinones in activating Nrf2. A DFT study and implications for multifunctional antioxidant discovery.  


A series of recent studies reveal that tanshinones, derived from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, are promising multifunctional antioxidants by activating nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2) - like 2 (Nrf2). It is thus of great interest to elucidate their structure-activity relationships (SAR) for Nrf2 activation. In this study, two theoretical parameters characterizing the electron-abstracting potential, namely, electron affinity (EA) and energy level of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (ELUMO), are calculated by a density functional theory (DFT) method. By these parameters, we provide a satisfactory explanation to the SAR oftanshinones for activating Nrf2, which is helpful to find new multifunctional antioxidants. PMID:24868852

Sun, You-Min; Xiao, Zheng-Tao; Zhang, Hong-Yu



Synthesis, Structure-Activity Relationship, & Mode-of-Action Studies of Antimalarial Reversed Chloroquine Compounds  

PubMed Central

We have previously shown that a 'reversed chloroquine (RCQ)' molecule, composed of a chloroquine-like moiety and a resistance reversal-like moiety, can overcome chloroquine resistance in P. falciparum (Burgess, S. J.; Selzer, A.; Kelly, J. X.; Smilkstein, M. J.; Riscoe, M. K.; Peyton, D. H. J. Med. Chem. 2006, 49, 5623; Andrews, S.; Burgess, S. J.; Skaalrud, D.; Kelly, J. X.; Peyton, D. H. J. Med. Chem. 2010, 53, 916). Here, we present an investigation into the structure-activity relationship of the RCQ structures, resulting in an orally active molecule with good in vitro and in vivo antimalarial activity. We also present evidence of the mode of action, indicating that the RCQ molecules inhibit hemozoin formation in the parasite’s digestive vacuole in a manner similar to that of chloroquine.

Burgess, Steven J.; Kelly, Jane X.; Shomloo, Shawheen; Wittlin, Sergio; Brun, Reto; Liebmann, Katherine; Peyton, David H.



Prostaglandin prodrugs VI: structure-thermodynamic activity and structure-aqueous solubility relationships.  


Solubilities in isoctane and water were determined for several C1-phenolic esters of prostaglandin F2 alpha and prostaglandin E2 and acetates having the same phenol moiety. Linear free energy relationships for solubility among the series were observed with slopes of approximately 1. These results suggest that the contributions of the phenyl substituent to the free energies of these processes are similar in the three series, even though the structure of the acyl moiety is varied. In addition, aqueous solubility was separated into two thermodynamic components, reflecting transfer from the solid phase to an inert solvent and transfer from the inert solvent to water, to evaluate the relative effects of various substituents on the escaping tendency of the drug from the solid phase and on solution interactions. It was found that polar, hydrogen-bonding functional groups in many cases do not bring about increased water solubility because of a corresponding increase in intermolecular interaction in the solid phase. PMID:7373540

Anderson, B D; Conradi, R A



Structure-activity relationships for withanolides as inducers of the cellular heat-shock response.  


To understand the relationship between the structure and the remarkably diverse bioactivities reported for withanolides, we obtained withaferin A (WA; 1) and 36 analogues (2-37) and compared their cytotoxicity to cytoprotective heat-shock-inducing activity (HSA). By analyzing structure-activity relationships for the series, we found that the ring A enone is essential for both bioactivities. Acetylation of 27-OH of 4-epi-WA (28) to 33 enhanced both activities, whereas introduction of ?-OH to WA at C-12 (29) and C-15 (30) decreased both activities. Introduction of ?-OAc to 4,27-diacetyl-WA (16) at C-15 (37) decreased HSA without affecting cytotoxicity, but at C-12 (36), it had minimal effect. Importantly, acetylation of 27-OH, yielding 15 from 1, 16 from 14, and 35 from 34, enhanced HSA without increasing cytotoxicity. Our findings demonstrate that the withanolide scaffold can be modified to enhance HSA selectively, thereby assisting development of natural product-inspired drugs to combat protein aggregation-associated diseases by stimulating cellular defense mechanisms. PMID:24625088

Wijeratne, E M Kithsiri; Xu, Ya-Ming; Scherz-Shouval, Ruth; Marron, Marilyn T; Rocha, Danilo D; Liu, Manping X; Costa-Lotufo, Leticia V; Santagata, Sandro; Lindquist, Susan; Whitesell, Luke; Gunatilaka, A A Leslie



Structure-activity relationship of fenamates as Slo2.1 channel activators.  


Niflumic acid, 2-{[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]amino}pyridine-3-carboxylic acid (NFA), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that blocks cyclooxygenase (COX), was shown previously to activate [Na(+)](i)-regulated Slo2.1 channels. In this study, we report that other fenamates, including flufenamic acid, mefenamic acid, tolfenamic acid, meclofenamic acid, and a phenyl acetic acid derivative, diclofenac, also are low-potency (EC(50) = 80 ?M to 2.1 mM), partial agonists of human Slo2.1 channels heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Substituent analysis determined that N-phenylanthranilic acid was the minimal pharmacophore for fenamate activation of Slo2.1 channels. The effects of fenamates were biphasic, with an initial rapid activation phase followed by a slow phase of current inhibition. Ibuprofen, a structurally dissimilar COX inhibitor, did not activate Slo2.1. Preincubation of oocytes with ibuprofen did not significantly alter the effects of NFA, suggesting that neither channel activation nor inhibition is associated with COX activity. A point mutation (A278R) in the pore-lining S6 segment of Slo2.1 increased the sensitivity to activation and reduced the inhibition induced by NFA. Together, our results suggest that fenamates bind to two sites on Slo2.1 channels: an extracellular accessible site to activate and a cytoplasmic accessible site in the pore to inhibit currents. PMID:22851714

Garg, Priyanka; Sanguinetti, Michael C



Structure-Activity Relationship of Fenamates as Slo2.1 Channel Activators  

PubMed Central

Niflumic acid, 2-{[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]amino}pyridine-3-carboxylic acid (NFA), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that blocks cyclooxygenase (COX), was shown previously to activate [Na+]i-regulated Slo2.1 channels. In this study, we report that other fenamates, including flufenamic acid, mefenamic acid, tolfenamic acid, meclofenamic acid, and a phenyl acetic acid derivative, diclofenac, also are low-potency (EC50 = 80 ?M to 2.1 mM), partial agonists of human Slo2.1 channels heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Substituent analysis determined that N-phenylanthranilic acid was the minimal pharmacophore for fenamate activation of Slo2.1 channels. The effects of fenamates were biphasic, with an initial rapid activation phase followed by a slow phase of current inhibition. Ibuprofen, a structurally dissimilar COX inhibitor, did not activate Slo2.1. Preincubation of oocytes with ibuprofen did not significantly alter the effects of NFA, suggesting that neither channel activation nor inhibition is associated with COX activity. A point mutation (A278R) in the pore-lining S6 segment of Slo2.1 increased the sensitivity to activation and reduced the inhibition induced by NFA. Together, our results suggest that fenamates bind to two sites on Slo2.1 channels: an extracellular accessible site to activate and a cytoplasmic accessible site in the pore to inhibit currents.

Garg, Priyanka



Antiserotoninergic activity of 2-aminoethylbenzocyclanones in rat aorta: structure-activity relationships.  


The antiserotoninergic activity at the serotonin receptor subtype 2 (5-HT2) of seven new 2-aminoethylbenzocyclanones was determined with respect to serotonin-induced contractions in rat aorta and compared with that of ketanserine (pA2 = 8.87). Competitive antagonism was observed in six compounds (6.72 < or = pA2 < or = 8.12). Three-dimensional structures and molecular electrostatic potential distributions of ketanserine and 2-aminoethylbenzocyclanones were analyzed. Several molecular features correlated with the rank of antiserotoninergic activity. In the case of the cyclanone fragment, the rank of activity was associated with the degree of planarity of the bicyclic system. The steric and electrostatic effects due to the loss of planarity were analyzed. In the case of the amino moiety, activity was associated with a particular spatial pattern defined by the amino nitrogen, the aromatic system, and molecular electrostatic potential minima generated by the oxygen atom. PMID:8360829

Loza, M I; Ferreiro, T G; Sanz, F; Lozoya, E; Rodriguez, J; Manaut, F; Verde, I; Castro, E; Fontenla, J A; Cadavid, I



Quantitative structure-activity relationships of selective antagonists of glucagon receptor using QuaSAR descriptors.  


In the present paper, quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) approach was applied to understand the affinity and selectivity of a novel series of triaryl imidazole derivatives towards glucagon receptor. Statistically significant and highly predictive QSARs were derived for glucagon receptor inhibition by triaryl imidazoles using QuaSAR descriptors of molecular operating environment (MOE) employing computer-assisted multiple regression procedure. The generated QSAR models revealed that factors related to hydrophobicity, molecular shape and geometry predominantly influences glucagon receptor binding affinity of the triaryl imidazoles indicating the relevance of shape specific steric interactions between the molecule and the receptor. Further, QSAR models formulated for selective inhibition of glucagon receptor over p38 mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase of the compounds in the series highlights that the same structural features, which influence the glucagon receptor affinity, also contribute to their selective inhibition. PMID:17077558

Manoj Kumar, Palanivelu; Karthikeyan, Chandrabose; Hari Narayana Moorthy, Narayana Subbiah; Trivedi, Piyush



Design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationship studies of conformationally restricted mutilin 14-carbamates.  


We report herein the design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationship studies of conformationally restricted mutilin 14-carbamates based on the structure of SB-222734. The antibacterial activities of these newly synthesized compounds were also evaluated and compared with linezolid and retapamulin. Results showed that most of the target compounds exhibit good potency in inhibiting the growth of Gram-positive bacteria including Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus MSSA (MIC: 0.0625-2?g/mL), Methicillin-resistant S. aureus MRSA (MIC: 0.0625-2?g/mL), Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus epidermidis MSSE (MIC: 0.0625-2?g/mL), Methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis MRSE (MIC: 0.0625-2?g/mL), and Streptococcus pneumonia (MIC: 0.0625-4?g/mL). In particular, three remarkable compounds of this series (12l, 12m, and 21l) exhibited comparable in vitro antibacterial profiles to that of retapamulin. PMID:22209487

Fu, Liqiang; Liu, Xin; Ling, Chenyu; Cheng, Jianjun; Guo, Xingsheng; He, Huili; Ding, Shi; Yang, Yushe



In vivo structure-activity relationship studies support allosteric targeting of a dual specificity phosphatase.  


Dual specificity phosphatase 6 (DUSP6) functions as a feedback attenuator of fibroblast growth factor signaling during development. In vitro high throughput chemical screening attempts to discover DUSP6 inhibitors have yielded limited success. However, in vivo whole-organism screens of zebrafish identified compound 1 (BCI) as an allosteric inhibitor of DUSP6. Here we designed and synthesized a panel of analogues to define the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of DUSP6 inhibition. In vivo high-content analysis in transgenic zebrafish, coupled with cell-based chemical complementation assays, identified structural features of the pharmacophore of 1 that were essential for biological activity. In vitro assays of DUSP hyperactivation corroborated the results from in vivo and cellular SAR. The results reinforce the notion that DUSPs are druggable through allosteric mechanisms and illustrate the utility of zebrafish as a model organism for in vivo SAR analyses. PMID:24909879

Korotchenko, Vasiliy N; Saydmohammed, Manush; Vollmer, Laura L; Bakan, Ahmet; Sheetz, Kyle; Debiec, Karl T; Greene, Kristina A; Agliori, Christine S; Bahar, Ivet; Day, Billy W; Vogt, Andreas; Tsang, Michael



Structure-antifungal activity relationships of polyene antibiotics of the amphotericin B group.  


A comprehensive comparative analysis of the structure-antifungal activity relationships for the series of biosynthetically engineered nystatin analogues and their novel semisynthetic derivatives, as well as amphotericin B (AMB) and its semisynthetic derivatives, was performed. The data obtained revealed the significant influence of the structure of the C-7 to C-10 polyol region on the antifungal activity of these polyene antibiotics. Comparison of positions of hydroxyl groups in the antibiotics and in vitro antifungal activity data showed that the most active are the compounds in which hydroxyl groups are in positions C-8 and C-9 or positions C-7 and C-10. Antibiotics with OH groups at both C-7 and C-9 had the lowest activity. The replacement of the C-16 carboxyl with methyl group did not significantly affect the in vitro antifungal activity of antibiotics without modifications at the amino group of mycosamine. In contrast, the activity of the N-modified derivatives was modulated both by the presence of CH3 or COOH group in the position C-16 and by the structure of the modifying substituent. The most active compounds were tested in vivo to determine the maximum tolerated doses and antifungal activity on the model of candidosis sepsis in leukopenic mice (cyclophosphamide-induced). Study of our library of semisynthetic polyene antibiotics led to the discovery of compounds, namely, N-(L-lysyl)-BSG005 (compound 3n) and, especially, L-glutamate of 2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethyl amide of S44HP (compound 2j), with high antifungal activity that were comparable in in vitro and in vivo tests to AMB and that have better toxicological properties. PMID:23716057

Tevyashova, Anna N; Olsufyeva, Evgenia N; Solovieva, Svetlana E; Printsevskaya, Svetlana S; Reznikova, Marina I; Trenin, Aleksei S; Galatenko, Olga A; Treshalin, Ivan D; Pereverzeva, Eleonora R; Mirchink, Elena P; Isakova, Elena B; Zotchev, Sergey B; Preobrazhenskaya, Maria N



Synthesis and biological evaluation of a unique heparin mimetic hexasaccharide for structure-activity relationship studies.  


To date, the structure-activity relationship studies of heparin/heparan sulfate with their diverse binding partners such as growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, and extracellular matrix proteins have been limited yet provide early insight that specific sequences contribute to this manifold biological role. This has led to an impetus for the chemical synthesis of oligosaccharide fragments of these complex polysaccharides, which can provide an effective tool for this goal. The synthesis of three heparin mimetic hexasaccharides with distinct structural patterns is described herein, and the influence of the targeted substitution on their bioactivity profiles is studied using in vitro affinity and/or inhibition toward different growth factors and proteins. Additionally, the particularly challenging synthesis of an irregular hexasaccharide is reported, which, interestingly, in spite of being considerably structurally similar with its two counterparts, displayed a unique and remarkably distinct profile in the test assays. PMID:24786387

Roy, Sucharita; El Hadri, Ahmed; Richard, Sebastien; Denis, Fanny; Holte, Kimberly; Duffner, Jay; Yu, Fei; Galcheva-Gargova, Zoya; Capila, Ishan; Schultes, Birgit; Petitou, Maurice; Kaundinya, Ganesh V



Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of novel ecdysteroid dioxolanes as MDR modulators in cancer.  


Ecdysteroids, molting hormones of insects, can exert several mild, non-hormonal bioactivities in mammals, including humans. In a previous study, we have found a significant effect of certain derivatives on the ABCB1 transporter mediated multi-drug resistance of a transfected murine leukemia cell line. In this paper, we present a structure-activity relationship study focused on the apolar dioxolane derivatives of 20-hydroxyecdysone. Semi-synthesis and bioactivity of a total of 32 ecdysteroids, including 20 new compounds, is presented, supplemented with their complete 1H- and 13C-NMR signal assignment. PMID:24335576

Martins, Ana; Csábi, József; Balázs, Attila; Kitka, Diána; Amaral, Leonard; Molnár, József; Simon, András; Tóth, Gábor; Hunyadi, Attila



Discovery and structure-activity relationships of urea derivatives as potent and novel CCR3 antagonists.  


The synthesis and structure-activity relationships of ureas as CCR3 antagonists are described. Optimization starting with lead compound 2 (IC(50)=190 nM) derived from initial screening hit compound 1 (IC(50)=600 nM) led to the identification of (S)-N-((1R,3S,5S)-8-((6-fluoronaphthalen-2-yl)methyl)-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-3-yl)-N-(2-nitrophenyl)pyrrolidine-1,2-dicarboxamide 27 (IC(50)=4.9 nM) as a potent CCR3 antagonist. PMID:22749826

Nitta, Aiko; Iura, Yosuke; Tomioka, Hiroki; Sato, Ippei; Morihira, Koichiro; Kubota, Hirokazu; Morokata, Tatsuaki; Takeuchi, Makoto; Ohta, Mitsuaki; Tsukamoto, Shin-ichi; Imaoka, Takayuki; Takahashi, Toshiya



Application of Hansch's model to guaianolide ester derivatives: a quantitative structure-activity relationship study.  


A quantitative structure-activity study to evaluate the effect of lipophilia/aqueous solubility on etiolated wheat coleoptiles elongation has been carried out with 34 guaianolides having different numbers of hydroxyl groups and ester side chains of variable length and structure: linear, branched, aromatic, and unsaturated. Compounds have been tested in a range of concentrations between 10 and 1000 microM. Data show a strong influence of lipophilia, expressed as logP values. Specially, data from alkylic side chain ester derivatives adjust to the mathematical model based on Hansch's transport theory; hence, a quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) correlation with a high degree of reliance is provided. Moreover, all active compounds fit the Lipinski's rule of five. Also, the presence of additional hydroxyl groups and their derivatives in the basic skeleton does not affect the mode of action but greatly influences the activity, as they modify the transport through membranes and aqueous phases. Finally, a second hydroxyl group enhances differences of activity between alkylic side chain derivatives by increasing differences in van der Waals interactions. PMID:15853398

Macías, Francisco A; Velasco, Raúl F; Castellano, Diego; Galindo, Juan C G



Synthesis and anticancer structure activity relationship investigation of cationic anthraquinone analogs.  


We have synthesized a series of novel 4,9-dioxo-4,9-dihydro-1H-naphtho[2,3-d][1,2,3]triazol-3-ium salts, which can be viewed as analogs of cationic anthraquinones. Unlike the similar analogs that we have reported previously, these compounds show relatively weak antibacterial activities but exert strong anticancer activities (low ?M to nM GI50), in particular, against melanoma, colon cancer, non-small cell lung cancer and central nervous system (CNS) cancer. These compounds are structurally different from their predecessors by having the aromatic group, instead of alkyl chains, directly attached to the cationic anthraquinone scaffold. Further investigation in the structure-activity relationship (SAR) reveals the significant role of electron donating substituents on the aromatic ring in enhancing the anticancer activities via resonance effect. Steric hindrance of these groups is disadvantageous but is less influential than the resonance effect. The difference in the attached groups at N-1 position of the cationic anthraquinone analog is the main structural factor for the switching of biological activity from antibacterial to anticancer. The discovery of these compounds may lead to the development of novel cancer chemotherapeutics. PMID:24631728

Shrestha, Jaya P; Fosso, Marina Y; Bearss, Jeremiah; Chang, Cheng-Wei Tom



Synthesis and structure-activity relationships studies of brartemicin analogs as anti-invasive agents.  


Brartemicin is a trehalose-based inhibitor of tumor cell invasion produced by the actinomycete of the genus Nonomuraea. In order to find more potent anti-invasive agents and study the structure-activity relationships, a series of 19 brartemicin analogs were prepared via two synthetic routes from ?,?-D-trehalose and evaluated for their anti-invasive activities. Compound 4f, 6,6'-bis(2,3-dimethoxybenzoyl)-?,?-D-trehalose, was more potent than the natural brartemicin. It inhibited the invasion of murine colon 26-L5, colon carcinoma SW620, melanoma B16-BL6 and breast MDA-MB-231 cells with IC50 values of 0.15, 2.35, 4.12 and 2.61 ?M, respectively. Analog 4p, 6,6'-bis(3,4-dimethoxycinnamoyl)-?,?-D-trehalose, was as potent as brartemicin against invasion of murine colon 26-L5 carcinoma cells in vitro. The structure-activity relationships of these novel trehalose-based compounds were summarized. PMID:23652604

Jiang, Yong-Li; Miyanaga, Satoshi; Han, Xiu-Zhen; Tang, Long-Qiang; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Saiki, Ikuo; Liu, Zhao-Peng




EPA Science Inventory

The attempt to rationalize the connections between the molecular structures of organic compounds and their biological activities comprises the field of structure-activity relations (SAR) studies. Correlations between structure and activity are important for the understanding and ...


Applying quantitative structure-activity relationship approaches to nanotoxicology: current status and future potential.  


The potential (eco)toxicological hazard posed by engineered nanoparticles is a major scientific and societal concern since several industrial sectors (e.g. electronics, biomedicine, and cosmetics) are exploiting the innovative properties of nanostructures resulting in their large-scale production. Many consumer products contain nanomaterials and, given their complex life-cycle, it is essential to anticipate their (eco)toxicological properties in a fast and inexpensive way in order to mitigate adverse effects on human health and the environment. In this context, the application of the structure-toxicity paradigm to nanomaterials represents a promising approach. Indeed, according to this paradigm, it is possible to predict toxicological effects induced by chemicals on the basis of their structural similarity with chemicals for which toxicological endpoints have been previously measured. These structure-toxicity relationships can be quantitative or qualitative in nature and they can predict toxicological effects directly from the physicochemical properties of the entities (e.g. nanoparticles) of interest. Therefore, this approach can aid in prioritizing resources in toxicological investigations while reducing the ethical and monetary costs that are related to animal testing. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of recent key advances in the field of QSAR modelling of nanomaterial toxicity, to identify the major gaps in research required to accelerate the use of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) methods, and to provide a roadmap for future research needed to achieve QSAR models useful for regulatory purposes. PMID:23165187

Winkler, David A; Mombelli, Enrico; Pietroiusti, Antonio; Tran, Lang; Worth, Andrew; Fadeel, Bengt; McCall, Maxine J



Isoxazole analogues bind the System xc? Transporter: Structure-activity Relationship and Pharmacophore Model  

PubMed Central

Analogues of amino methylisoxazole propionic acid (AMPA), were prepared from a common intermediate 12, including lipophilic analogues using lateral metalation and electrophilic quenching, and were evaluated at System xc?. Both the 5-naphthylethyl-(16) and 5-naphthylmethoxymethyl-(17) analogues adopt an E-conformation in the solid state, yet while the former has robust binding at System xc?, the latter is virtually devoid of activity. The most potent analogues were amino acid naphthyl-ACPA 7g, and hydrazone carboxylic acid, 11e Y=Y?=3,5-(CF3)2, which both inhibited glutamate up-take by the System xc? transporter with comparable potency to the endogenous substrate cystine, whereas in contrast the closed isoxazolo[3,4-d] pyridazinones 13 have significantly lower activity. A preliminary pharmacophore model has been constructed to provide insight into the analogue structure-activity relationships.

Patel, Sarjubhai A.; Rajale, Trideep; O'Brien, Erin; Burkhart, David J.; Nelson, Jared K.; Twamley, Brendan; Blumenfeld, Alex; Szabon-Watola, Monika I.; Gerdes, John M.; Bridges, Richard J.; Natale, Nicholas R.



Antimalarial alkoxylated and hydroxylated chalcones [corrected]: structure-activity relationship analysis.  


Chalcones with 2',3',4'-trimethoxy, 2',4'-dimethoxy, 4'-methoxy, 4'-ethoxy, 2',4'-dihydroxy, and 4'-hydroxy groups on ring B were synthesized and evaluated in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum (K1) in a [3H] hypoxanthine uptake assay. The other ring A was quinoline, pyridine, naphthalene, or phenyl rings with electron-donating or electron-withdrawing substituents of varying lipophilicities. Trimethoxy 6 and 27, dimethoxy 7, 8, 29, and methoxy 31 analogues had good in vitro activities (IC(50) < 5 microM). 3-Quinolinyl ring A derivatives were well represented among the active compounds. Hydroxylated chalcones were less active than the corresponding alkoxylated analogues. When evaluated in vivo, 8 and 208 were comparable to chloroquine in extending the lifespan of infected mice. Multivariate data analysis showed that in vitro activity was mainly determined by the properties of ring B. Quantitative structure-activity relationship models with satisfactory predictive ability were obtained for various B ring chalcones using projections to latent structures. A model with good predictability was proposed for 19 active chalcones. Size and hydrophobicity were identified as critical parameters. PMID:11728189

Liu, M; Wilairat, P; Go, M L



Cytotoxic Activity and Structure Activity Relationship of Ceramide Analogues in Caki-2 and HL-60 Cells.  


B13, a ceramide analogue, is a ceramidase inhibitor and induces apoptosis to give potent anticancer activity. A series of thiourea B13 analogues was evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxic activities against human renal cancer Caki-2 and leukemic cancer HL-60 in the MTT assay. Some compounds (12, 15, and 16) showed stronger cytotoxicity than B13 and C6-ceramide against both tumor cell lines, and compound (12) gave the most potent activity with IC(50) values of 36 and 9 µM, respectively. Molecular modeling of thiourea B13 analogues was carried out by comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA). We obtained highly reliable and predictive CoMSIA models with cross-validated q(2) values of 0.707 and 0.753 and CoMSIA contour maps to show the structural requirements for potent activity. These data suggest that the amide group of B13 could be replaced by thiourea, that the stereochemistry of 1,3-propandiol may not be essential for activity and that long alkyl chains increase cytotoxicity. PMID:21311687

Kim, Yong Jin; Kim, Eun Ae; Sohn, Uy Dong; Yim, Chul Bu; Im, Chaeuk



Fish Acute Toxicity Syndromes: Application to the Development of Mechanism-Specific QSARS (Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships),  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Predictive models based on quantitative structure activity relationships (QSARs), are used as rapid screening tools to identify potentially hazardous chemicals. Several QSARs are now available that predict the acute toxicity of narcotic-industrial chemica...

S. P. Bradbury



Development of a Structure-Activity Relationship for the Reduction of Halogenated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons in Anaerobic Water-Sediment Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) is developed that relates the disappearance rate constants of halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons in anoxic sediments to readily available molecular descriptors. The correlation is based on disappearanc...

W. J. G. M. Peijnenburg H. A. den Hollander D. van de Meent J. H. Verboom N. L. Wolfe



Phomentrioloxin, a fungal phytotoxin with potential herbicidal activity, and its derivatives: a structure-activity relationship study.  


Phomentrioloxin is a phytotoxic geranylcyclohexenetriol produced in liquid culture by Phomopsis sp. (teleomorph: Diaporthe gulyae), a potential mycoherbicide proposed for the control of the annual weed Carthamus lanatus. In this study, seven derivatives obtained by chemical modifications of the toxin were assayed for phytotoxic, antimicrobial, and zootoxic activities, and the structure-activity relationships were examined. Each compound was tested on nonhost weedy and agrarian plants, fungi, Gram+ and Gram- bacteria, and on brine shrimp larvae. The results provide insights into an investigation of the structural requirements for activity. The hydroxy groups at C-2 and C-4 appeared to be important features for the phytotoxicity, as well as an unchanged cyclohexentriol ring. A role seemed also to be played by the unsaturations of the geranyl side chain. These findings could be useful for understanding the mechanisms of action of new natural products, for identifying the active sites, and possibly in devising new herbicides of natural origin. PMID:24083323

Cimmino, Alessio; Andolfi, Anna; Zonno, Maria Chiara; Boari, Angela; Troise, Ciro; Motta, Andrea; Vurro, Maurizio; Ash, Gavin; Evidente, Antonio



Chemical graphs, molecular matrices and topological indices in chemoinformatics and quantitative structure-activity relationships.  


Chemical and molecular graphs have fundamental applications in chemoinformatics, quantitative structureproperty relationships (QSPR), quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR), virtual screening of chemical libraries, and computational drug design. Chemoinformatics applications of graphs include chemical structure representation and coding, database search and retrieval, and physicochemical property prediction. QSPR, QSAR and virtual screening are based on the structure-property principle, which states that the physicochemical and biological properties of chemical compounds can be predicted from their chemical structure. Such structure-property correlations are usually developed from topological indices and fingerprints computed from the molecular graph and from molecular descriptors computed from the three-dimensional chemical structure. We present here a selection of the most important graph descriptors and topological indices, including molecular matrices, graph spectra, spectral moments, graph polynomials, and vertex topological indices. These graph descriptors are used to define several topological indices based on molecular connectivity, graph distance, reciprocal distance, distance-degree, distance-valency, spectra, polynomials, and information theory concepts. The molecular descriptors and topological indices can be developed with a more general approach, based on molecular graph operators, which define a family of graph indices related by a common formula. Graph descriptors and topological indices for molecules containing heteroatoms and multiple bonds are computed with weighting schemes based on atomic properties, such as the atomic number, covalent radius, or electronegativity. The correlation in QSPR and QSAR models can be improved by optimizing some parameters in the formula of topological indices, as demonstrated for structural descriptors based on atomic connectivity and graph distance. PMID:23701000

Ivanciuc, Ovidiu



Synthesis and biological activities of neoechinulin A derivatives: new aspects of structure-activity relationships for neoechinulin A.  


We synthesized a series of neoechinulin A derivatives and examined the structure-activity relationships in terms of their anti-nitration and anti-oxidant activities as well as their cytoprotective activity against peroxynitrite from SIN-1 (3-(4-morpholinyl)sydnonimine hydrochloride) using PC12 cells. Our results showed that the C-8/C-9 double bond, which constitutes a conjugate system with indole and diketopiperazine moieties of neoechinulin A is essential for anti-nitration and anti-oxidant activities as well as protection against SIN-1 cytotoxicity. The presence of an intact diketopiperazine moiety is an additional requirement for anti-nitration activity but not for the cytoprotective action. Our results suggest that the antioxidant activity or electrophilic nature of the C-8 carbon, both of which are afforded by the C-8/C-9 double bond, may play a role in the cytoprotective properties of this alkaloid. PMID:19043251

Kuramochi, Kouji; Ohnishi, Kensuke; Fujieda, Satoshi; Nakajima, Mitsuhiro; Saitoh, Yoshihiko; Watanabe, Nobuo; Takeuchi, Toshifumi; Nakazaki, Atsuo; Sugawara, Fumio; Arai, Takao; Kobayashi, Susumu



Progress and perspectives of quantitative structure-activity relationships used for ecological risk assessment of toxic organic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structure-activity relationship (SAR) and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR), collectively referred to as\\u000a (Q)SARs, play an important role in ecological risk assessment (ERA) of organic chemicals. (Q)SARs can fill the data gap for\\u000a physical-chemical, environmental behavioral and ecotoxicological parameters of organic compounds; they can decrease experimental\\u000a expenses and reduce the extent of experimental testing (especially animal testing); they can also be

JingWen Chen; Xuehua Li; Haiying Yu; YaNan Wang; XianLiang Qiao



Chemical Sensor Array Response Modeling Using Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR) based approach to correlate the response of chemical sensors in an array with molecular descriptors. A novel molecular descriptor set has been developed; this set combines descriptors of sensing film-analyte interactions, representing sensor response, with a basic analyte descriptor set commonly used in QSAR studies. The descriptors are obtained using a combination of molecular modeling tools and empirical and semi-empirical Quantitative Structure-Property Relationships (QSPR) methods. The sensors under investigation are polymer-carbon sensing films which have been exposed to analyte vapors at parts-per-million (ppm) concentrations; response is measured as change in film resistance. Statistically validated QSAR models have been developed using Genetic Function Approximations (GFA) for a sensor array for a given training data set. The applicability of the sensor response models has been tested by using it to predict the sensor activities for test analytes not considered in the training set for the model development. The validated QSAR sensor response models show good predictive ability. The QSAR approach is a promising computational tool for sensing materials evaluation and selection. It can also be used to predict response of an existing sensing film to new target analytes.

Shevade, Abhijit V.; Ryan, Margaret A.; Homer, Margie L.; Zhou, Hanying; Manfreda, Allison M.; Lara, Liana M.; Yen, Shiao-Pin S.; Jewell, April D.; Manatt, Kenneth S.; Kisor, Adam K.


Development and validation of a quantitative structure-activity relationship for chronic narcosis to fish.  


Vertebrate testing under the European Union's regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemical substances (REACH) is discouraged, and the use of alternative nontesting approaches such as quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) is encouraged. However, robust QSARs predicting chronic ecotoxicity of organic compounds to fish are not available. The Ecological Structure Activity Relationships (ECOSAR) Class Program is a computerized predictive system that estimates the acute and chronic toxicity of organic compounds for several chemical classes based on their log octanol-water partition coefficient (K(OW)). For those chemical classes for which chronic training data sets are lacking, acute to chronic ratios are used to predict chronic toxicity to aquatic organisms. Although ECOSAR reaches a high score against the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) principles for QSAR validation, the chronic QSARs in ECOSAR are not fully compliant with OECD criteria in the framework of REACH or CLP (classification, labeling, and packaging) regulation. The objective of the present study was to develop a chronic ecotoxicity QSAR for fish for compounds acting via nonpolar and polar narcosis. These QSARs were built using a database of quality screened toxicity values, considering only chronic exposure durations and relevant end points. After statistical multivariate diagnostic analysis, literature-based, mechanistically relevant descriptors were selected to develop a multivariate regression model. Finally, these QSARs were tested for their acceptance for regulatory purposes and were found to be compliant with the OECD principles for the validation of a QSAR. PMID:23775559

Claeys, Lieve; Iaccino, Federica; Janssen, Colin R; Van Sprang, Patrick; Verdonck, Frederik



Structure-activity relationship studies on cholecystokinin: Analogues with partial agonist activity  

SciTech Connect

In the present study, hepta- and octapeptide analogues of the C-terminal part of cholecystokinin, modified on the C-terminal phenylalanine residue, were synthesized. CCK analogues were prepared in which the peptide bond between aspartic acid and phenylalanine had or had not been modified and were lacking the C-terminal primary amide function. These CCK derivatives were able to cause full stimulation of amylase release from rat pancreatic acini but without a decrease in amylase release at supramaximal concentrations. There was a close relationship between the abilities of these derivatives to stimulate amylase release and their abilities to inhibit binding of {sup 125}I-BH-CCK-9 to CCK receptors on rat and guinea pig pancreatic acini. These CCK analogues were also able to recognize the guinea pig brain CCK receptors, some of them being particularly potent. The findings indicate that the aromatic ring of phenylalanine is important for the binding to brain and pancreatic CCK receptors, whereas the C-terminal primary amide function is not essential for the binding to pancreatic CCK receptors but is crucial for biological activity of rat pancreatic acini.

Galas, M.C.; Lignon, M.F.; Rodriguez, M.; Mendre, C.; Fulcrand, P.; Laur, J.; Martinez, J. (Centre de Pharmacologie-Endocrinologie, Montpellier (France))



Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) of competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glutamic acid is an excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system and the NMDA molecule binds to NMDA-type glutamic acid receptors as a glutamic acid analogue, in vitro. The NMDA-type glutamic acid receptors are known for their function in many neural processes, such as neural plasticity, learning and memory. In addition, excessive NMDA receptor activity has been shown to be related to neurodegenerative diseases like epilepsy so the design of new NMDA antagonists has extra importance as potent drugs for various neural diseases. Potential antagonist molecules are usually synthesized and their activity is measured by experimental techniques. Here, computational chemistry methods are applied to develop a model, which allows one to predict the activity of potent competitive NMDA antagonists. First, various molecular parameters are calculated for a series of competitive NMDA antagonists with known activity values and those parameters are used to make a regression analysis which provides a model that relates the computationally calculated parameters to experimentally determined activity values. By the quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) model developed here, it is possible to predict the activity of a potent drug before its synthesis since only theoretically determined molecular parameters are used for the prediction.

Korkut, Anil; Varnali, Tereza


Structure activity relationships of cycloalkylamide derivatives as inhibitors of the soluble epoxide hydrolase  

PubMed Central

Structure activity relationships of cycloalkylamide compounds as inhibitors of human sEH were investigated. When the left side of amide function was modified by a variety of cycloalkanes, at least a C6 like cyclohexane was necessary to yield reasonable inhibition potency on the target enzyme. In compounds with a smaller cycloalkane or with a polar group on the left side of amide function, no inhibition was observed. On the other hand, increased hydrophobicity dramatically improved inhibition potency. Especially, a tetrahydronaphthalene (20) effectively increased the potency. When a series of alkyl or aryl derivatives of cycloalkylamide were investigated to continuously optimize the right side of the amide pharmacophore, a benzyl moiety functionalized with a polar group produced highly potent inhibition. Non-substituted benzyl, alkyl, aryl, or biaryl structure present in the right side of cycloalkylamide function induced a big decrease in inhibition potency. Also, a resulting potent cycloalkylamide (32) showed reasonable physical properties.

Kim, In-Hae; Park, Yong-Gyu; Hammock, Bruce D.; Nishi, Kosuke



Bioisosterism of urea-based GCPII inhibitors: Synthesis and structure?activity relationship studies  

SciTech Connect

We report a strategy based on bioisosterism to improve the physicochemical properties of existing hydrophilic, urea-based GCPII inhibitors. Comprehensive structure-activity relationship studies of the P1{prime} site of ZJ-43- and DCIBzL-based compounds identified several glutamate-free inhibitors with K{sub i} values below 20 nM. Among them, compound 32d (K{sub i} = 11 nM) exhibited selective uptake in GCPII-expressing tumors by SPECT-CT imaging in mice. A novel conformational change of amino acids in the S1{prime} pharmacophore pocket was observed in the X-ray crystal structure of GCPII complexed with 32d.

Wang, Haofan; Byun, Youngjoo; Barinka, Cyril; Pullambhatla, Mrudula; Bhang, Hyo-eun C.; Fox, James J.; Lubkowski, Jacek; Mease, Ronnie C.; Pomper, Martin G. (NCI); (JHMI)



Quantitative structure-activity relationships: sulfonate esters in the local lymph node assay.  


The biological activity of skin-sensitizing chemicals is related to their ability to react, either directly or after metabolic activation, with appropriate skin proteins. For direct acting electrophilic compounds, this ability can be modelled, using the RAI (relative alkylation index) approach, by a combination of electrophilicity and hydrophobicity parameters. The development of predictive quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) models of skin sensitization, using mechanism-based physicochemical parameters, has been greatly facilitated by the introduction of the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA), which is able to describe the extent of the biological response in objective and quantitative terms. In the present work, sensitization response data in the LLNA is generated for a series of 6 sulfonate esters. An RAI-based hybrid QSAR/dose-response relationship is derived using a negative hydrophobicity coefficient in the RAI expression, to model the effect of retention of the hydrophobic test chemicals in the stratum corneum. Dose-response analyses are used to estimate EC3 and EC20 values as quantitative indices of skin sensitization potential for each compound, and regression analysis is applied to develop QSARs correlating these EC3 and EC20 values with an RAI-based parameter. The high statistical quality of these QSARs demonstrates both the consistency of the LLNA method for generating high quality skin sensitization data, and the value of the RAI approach in development of mathematical models for skin sensitization. PMID:10727166

Roberts, D W; Basketter, D A



Pyrazole derivatives as photosynthetic electron transport inhibitors: new leads and structure-activity relationship.  


Four series of new pyrazoles, namely, 5 4-carboxypyrazolo-3-tert-butylcarboxamide and 6 4-carboxypyrazolo-3-cyclopropylcarboxamide derivatives and 10 pyrazolo[3,4-d][1,3]thiazine-4-one and 9 pyrazolo[3,4-d][1,3]thiazine-4-thione derivatives, were synthesized and screened as potential inhibitors of photosynthetic electron transport. The structures were confirmed by 1H NMR, elemental, and IR analyses. Their biological activity was evaluated in vitro as the ability to interfere with the light-driven reduction of ferricyanide by isolated spinach chloroplasts. Only a few compounds exhibited excellent inhibitory properties in the micromolar range, comparable to those of commercial herbicides sharing the same target, such as diuron, lenacil, and hexazinone. Nevertheless, most of the remaining molecules exerted a remarkable inhibition in the millimolar range. Combined with previous results on 6 pyrazolo[1,5-a][1,3,5]triazine-2,4-dione and 4 pyrazolo[1,5-c][1,3,5]thiadiazine-2-one derivatives, these data allowed a comprehensive analysis of structure-activity relationship. Molecular modeling studies were undertaken to rationalize the structural determinants of activity in terms of shape, size, and molecular fields. Results suggested that the inhibitory potential of these compounds is associated mainly with their electrostatic properties. PMID:15884806

Vicentini, Chiara B; Guccione, Salvatore; Giurato, Laura; Ciaccio, Rebecca; Mares, Donatella; Forlani, Giuseppe



Structure-activity relationships and in silico models of P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) inhibitors.  


1. The efflux pump p-glycoprotein (P-gp/ABCB1) has received enormous attention in drug (xenobiotic) disposition due to its role in modulation of the drug availability and in protection of sensitive organs. 2. P-gp mediated efflux is one of main mechanisms for multidrug resistance in cancer cells. A main approach to reverse the resistance and restore the drug efficacy is to use specific inhibitors of P-gp that suppress the efflux activity. 3. This review summarizes the binding capabilities of known chemical inhibitors based on the analyses of structure-activity relationships, and computational modeling of the inhibitors as well as the binding site of P-gp protein. 4. The molecular models will facilitate the design of lead inhibitors as drug candidates. Also, it helps scientists in early drug discovery phase to synthesize chemical series with better understanding of their P-gp binding liabilities. PMID:23617855

Liu, Hongming; Ma, Zhiguo; Wu, Baojian



[Structure-activity relationship in the enzymatic hydrolysis of dipeptide aryl amides by dipeptidyl peptidase IV].  


Quantitative structure activity analysis of the substrate types Ala-Ala-AR and Ala-Pro-AR containing different substituents in the aryl ring showed that the rate-limiting step in the hydrolysis of the alanine substrates by dipeptidyl peptidase IV occurs in th acylation reaction (kcat approximately k2). Probably, the tetrahedral intermediate of the acylation process has a real life time. The positive q-value of the Hammett-equation in k'cat suggests that the N-atom of the arylamide is charged more negatively in the transition state TI not equal to than in the original state TI. The analysis of the quantitative conformation activity relationship (QCAR) gives information on the steric situation in the tetrahedral intermediate of the acylation step near the transition state. The rate limiting step in the hydrolysis of the substrates of the proline type occurs in the deacylation reaction. PMID:7018141

Barth, A; Mager, H; Fischer, G; Neubert, K; Schwarz, G



Discovery and structure-activity relationship analysis of Staphylococcus aureus sortase A inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major health problem that has created a pressing need for new antibiotics. Compounds that inhibit the S. aureus SrtA sortase may function as potent anti-infective agents as this enzyme attaches virulence factors to the cell wall. Using high-throughput screening, we have identified several compounds that inhibit the enzymatic activity of the SrtA. A structureactivity relationship (SAR) analysis led to the identification of several pyridazinone and pyrazolethione analogs that inhibit SrtA with IC50 values in the sub-micromolar range. Many of these molecules also inhibit the sortase enzyme from Bacillus anthracis suggesting that they may be generalized sortase inhibitors.

Suree, Nuttee; Yi, Sung Wook; Thieu, William; Marohn, Melanie; Damoiseaux, Robert; Chan, Albert; Jung, Michael E.; Clubb, Robert T.



Structure-Activity Relationship Studies of HIV-1 Integrase Oligonucleotide Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Integration of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 DNA into an infected cell genome is one of the key steps of the viral replication cycle. Therefore, viral enzyme integrase, which realizes the integration, represents an attractive and validated target for the development of new antiviral drugs. In this paper, the anti-integrase activity of a series of conjugates of single-stranded oligonucleotides with hydrophobic molecules was tested, and the structure–activity relationships were also analyzed. Both oligonucleotide and hydrophobic parts of the conjugates influenced the inhibitory potency. Conjugates of 11-mer phosphorothioate oligonucleotides with 6-carboxy-4,7,2?,4?,5?,7?-hexachlorofluorescein (HEX) were found to be the most efficient inhibitors (IC50 = 20 nM) and might be considered as lead compounds for further development of integrase inhibitors.



Synthesis, fungicidal activity, and structure-activity relationship of 2-oxo- and 2-hydroxycycloalkylsulfonamides.  


To explore new potential fungicides, a series of novel compounds, including 11 2-oxocycloalkylsulfonamide (3) and 21 2-hydroxycycloalkylsulfonamide (4) derivatives, were synthesized and their structures were confirmed by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), infrared (IR), and elemental analysis. The results of the bioassay showed that the compounds 3 and 4 possessed excellent fungicidal activity against Botrytis cinerea Pers. both in vitro and in vivo. The fungicidal activity of the compounds with 7- or 8-membered rings is better than those with 5-, 6-, or 12-membered rings. According to the results of the mycelium growth rate test, the EC50 values of the compounds 3C, 4C, 3D, and 4D were 0.80, 0.85, 1.22, and 1.09 ?g/mL, respectively, and similar to or better than commercial fungicide procymidone. The bioassay results of spore germination indicated that most of the compounds exhibited obvious inhibitory effects against B. cinerea and the inhibition rates of 2-oxocycloalkylsulfonamides were higher than 2-hydroxycycloalkylsulfonamides, among them. The EC50 values of compounds 3A, 3B17, 3E, and 4A were 4.21, 4.21 3.24, and 5.29 ?g/mL, respectively. Those compounds containing 5- or 6-membered rings showed better activity than those containing 7-, 8-, or 12-membered rings. Furthermore, the results of the pot culture test showed that almost all of the compounds had effective control activity in vivo and 2-hydroxycycloalkylsulfonamides were obviously superior to 2-oxocycloalkylsulfonamides. The compounds 3E, 4C and 4D presented higher control efficacy than procymidone and pyrimethanil against gray mold disease on cucumber plants. PMID:20929233

Li, Xing-Hai; Wu, De-Cai; Qi, Zhi-Qiu; Li, Xiu-Wei; Gu, Zu-Min; Wei, Song-Hong; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Ying-Zi; Ji, Ming-Shan



Phosphodiesterase type IV inhibition. Structure-activity relationships of 1,3-disubstituted pyrrolidines.  


The synthesis of 1,3-disubstituted pyrrolidines 2 and their activities as type IV phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors are described. Various groups were appended to the nitrogen of the pyrrolidine nucleus to enable structure-activity relationships to be assessed. Groups which render the pyrrolidine nitrogen of 2 nonbasic yielded potent PDE-IV inhibitors. Analogs of amides, carbamates, and ureas of 2 were synthesized to determine the effects that substitution on these functional groups had on PDE-IV inhibitor potency. The structural requirements for PDE-IV inhibitor potency differed among the three classes. A representative amide, carbamate, and urea (2c,d,h) were shown to be > 50-fold selective for inhibiting PDE-IV versus representative PDEs from families I-III and V. Furthermore, these same three inhibitors demonstrated potent functional activity (IC50 < 1 microM) by inhibiting tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) release from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated purified human peripheral blood monocytes and mouse peritoneal macrophages. These compounds were also tested orally in LPS-injected mice and demonstrated dose-dependent inhibition of serum TNF-alpha levels. PMID:7739009

Feldman, P L; Brackeen, M F; Cowan, D J; Marron, B E; Schoenen, F J; Stafford, J A; Suh, E M; Domanico, P L; Rose, D; Leesnitzer, M A



Percutaneous absorption of herbicides derived from 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacid: Structure-activity relationship.  


Ethyl to octyl esters of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy-acetic acids (2,4DAA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxy-propionic acids (2,4DPA) or 2,4-dichlorophenoxy-butyric acids (2,4DBA) are present in the most commonly used herbicides. Their use involves a significant risk of skin exposure, but little is known about the percutaneous flux of these substances. Studies have shown that percutaneous transition of esters may be dependent on their hydrolysis by esterases present in the skin. In this study, we describe ex vivo percutaneous absorption of seven pure esters (methyl to decyl) with a 2,4DA structure for rats (n=6) and humans (n=7). Esters were applied at 50?Lcm(-2) to dermatomed skin (approximately 0.5mm thick) for 24h. The enzymatic constants for hydrolysis of each ester by skin esterases were determined in vitro using skin homogenates from both species. Structure-activity relationships linking the evolution of the ex vivo percutaneous flux of esters and the 2,4D structure with enzymatic (Vmax; Km) and/or physical parameters (molecular weight, molecular volume, size of the ester, log(kow)) were examined to develop a good flux estimation model. Although the percutaneous penetration of all of the esters of the 2,4D family are "esterase-dependent", the decreasing linear relationship between percutaneous penetration and hyrophobicity defined by the logarithm for the octanol-water partition coefficient (log(kow)) is the most pertinent model for estimating the percutaneous absorption of esters for both species. The mean flux of the free acid production by the esterases of the skin is not the limiting factor for percutaneous penetration. The rate of hydrolysis of the esters in the skin decreases linearly with log(kow), which would suggest that either the solubility of the esters in the zones of the skin that are rich in esterases or the accessibility to the active sites of the enzyme is the key factor. The structure-activity relationship resulting from this study makes it possible, in humans and in rats, to make a good estimate of the ex vivo percutaneous fluxes for all pure esters of this family of herbicides. PMID:24803314

Beydon, Dominique; Payan, Jean-Paul; Ferrari, Elisabeth; Grandclaude, Marie-Christine



Structure-activity relationships for xenobiotic transport substrates and inhibitory ligands of P-glycoprotein.  

PubMed Central

The multixenobiotic resistance phenotype is characterized by the reduced accumulation of xenobiotics by cells or organisms due to increased efflux of the compounds by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) or related transporters. An extensive xenobiotic database, consisting primarily of pesticides, was utilized in this study to identify molecular characteristics that render a xenobiotic susceptible to transport by or inhibition of P-gp. Transport substrates were differentiated by several molecular size/shape parameters, lipophilicity, and hydrogen bonding potential. Electrostatic features differentiated inhibitory ligands from compounds not catagorized as transport substrates and that did no interact with P-gp. A two-tiered system was developed using the derived structure-activity relationships to identify P-gp transport substrates and inhibitory ligands. Prediction accuracy of the approach was 82%. We then validated the system using six additional pesticides of which tow were predicted to be P-gp inhibitors and four were predicted to be noninteractors, based upon the structure-activity analyses. Experimental determinations using cells transfected with the human MDR1 gene demonstrated that five of the six pesticides were properly catagorized by the structure-activity analyses (83% accuracy). Finally, structure-activity analyses revealed that among P-gp inhibitors, relative inhibitory potency can be predicted based upon the surface area or volume of the compound. These results demonstrate that P-gp transport substrates and inhibitory ligands can be distinguished using molecular characteristics. Molecular characteristics of transport substrates suggest that P-gp may function in the elimination of hydroxylated metabolites of xenobiotics. Images Figure 1. A Figure 1. B Figure 1. C Figure 1. D Figure 1. E Figure 1. F Figure 1. G Figure 1. H Figure 2. Figure 2. Figure 2. Figure 2. Figure 2. Figure 2. Figure 3. A Figure 3. B

Bain, L J; McLachlan, J B; LeBlanc, G A



Antiproliferative and apoptotic activities of triterpenoid saponins from the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum and their structure-activity relationships.  


The present study was undertaken to investigate the antiproliferative and apoptotic activities of Platycodon saponins, including platycodin D, 2''-O-acetylplatycodin D, 3''-O-acetylplatycodin D, polygalacin D, 2''-O-acetylpolygalacin D, and 3''-O-acetylpolygalacin D, isolated from Platycodon grandiflorum, and prosapogenins which lack the C-3 or C-28 sugar residues, obtained from hydrolysis of platycodin D. We also clarified the structure-activity relationships of these molecules to define structural features that are crucial for the biological activity of Platycodon saponins and prosapogenins. The results showed that all Platycodon saponins had antiproliferative effects on the seven types of cancer cell lines tested. In particular, O-acetylation at the C-2 or C-3 position of rhamnose and dehydroxylation at C-24 increase the compound's cytotoxicity, while the loss of sugar residues linked to C-3 or C-28 dramatically reduced cytotoxicity. This cytotoxicity was associated with apoptosis, which was indicated by DNA fragmentation, phosphatidylserine externalization, and the activation of caspases in AGS cells. Furthermore, Platycodon saponins suppressed the phosphorylation of Akt, which resulted in the inhibition of mTOR and NF-?B signaling following the inhibition of their downstream proteins. In conclusion, six Platycodon saponins have antiproliferative activity, and the presence of sugar residues, an O-acetyl group on the rhamnose, and a methyl group at C-4 contributes to their cytotoxicity and apoptotic activity. These findings may be useful in evaluating the structure-activity relationships of Platycodon saponins and modifying them as a potent apoptosis-inducing agent. PMID:23576176

Chun, Jaemoo; Ha, In Jin; Kim, Yeong Shik



Toxicity of ionic liquids: Database and prediction via quantitative structure-activity relationship method.  


A comprehensive database on toxicity of ionic liquids (ILs) is established. The database includes over 4000 pieces of data. Based on the database, the relationship between IL's structure and its toxicity has been analyzed qualitatively. Furthermore, Quantitative Structure-Activity relationships (QSAR) model is conducted to predict the toxicities (EC50 values) of various ILs toward the Leukemia rat cell line IPC-81. Four parameters selected by the heuristic method (HM) are used to perform the studies of multiple linear regression (MLR) and support vector machine (SVM). The squared correlation coefficient (R(2)) and the root mean square error (RMSE) of training sets by two QSAR models are 0.918 and 0.959, 0.258 and 0.179, respectively. The prediction R(2) and RMSE of QSAR test sets by MLR model are 0.892 and 0.329, by SVM model are 0.958 and 0.234, respectively. The nonlinear model developed by SVM algorithm is much outperformed MLR, which indicates that SVM model is more reliable in the prediction of toxicity of ILs. This study shows that increasing the relative number of O atoms of molecules leads to decrease in the toxicity of ILs. PMID:24996150

Zhao, Yongsheng; Zhao, Jihong; Huang, Ying; Zhou, Qing; Zhang, Xiangping; Zhang, Suojiang



Synthesis, biological evaluation and structure-activity relationships of new quinoxaline derivatives as anti-Plasmodium falciparum agents.  


We report the synthesis and antimalarial activities of eighteen quinoxaline and quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxide derivatives, eight of which are completely novel. Compounds 1a and 2a were the most active against Plasmodium falciparum strains. Structure-activity relationships demonstrated the importance of an enone moiety linked to the quinoxaline ring. PMID:24552985

Gil, Ana; Pabón, Adriana; Galiano, Silvia; Burguete, Asunción; Pérez-Silanes, Silvia; Deharo, Eric; Monge, Antonio; Aldana, Ignacio



Development and validation of quantitative structure-activity relationship models for compounds acting on serotoninergic receptors.  


A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study has been made on 20 compounds with serotonin (5-HT) receptor affinity. Thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) data and physicochemical parameters were applied in this study. RP2 TLC 60F(254) plates (silanized) impregnated with solutions of propionic acid, ethylbenzene, 4-ethylphenol, and propionamide (used as analogues of the key receptor amino acids) and their mixtures (denoted as S1-S7 biochromatographic models) were used in two developing phases as a model of drug-5-HT receptor interaction. The semiempirical method AM1 (HyperChem v. 7.0 program) and ACD/Labs v. 8.0 program were employed to calculate a set of physicochemical parameters for the investigated compounds. Correlation and multiple linear regression analysis were used to search for the best QSAR equations. The correlations obtained for the compounds studied represent their interactions with the proposed biochromatographic models. The good multivariate relationships (R(2) = 0.78-0.84) obtained by means of regression analysis can be used for predicting the quantitative effect of biological activity of different compounds with 5-HT receptor affinity. "Leave-one-out" (LOO) and "leave-N-out" (LNO) cross-validation methods were used to judge the predictive power of final regression equations. PMID:22619602

Zydek, Gra?yna; Brzezi?ska, El?bieta



Targeted mutations of Bacillus anthracis dihydrofolate reductase condense complex structure?activity relationships.  


Several antifolates, including trimethoprim (TMP) and a series of propargyl-linked analogues, bind dihydrofolate reductase from Bacillus anthracis (BaDHFR) with lower affinity than is typical in other bacterial species. To guide lead optimization for BaDHFR, we explored a new approach to determine structure-activity relationships whereby the enzyme is altered and the analogues remain constant, essentially reversing the standard experimental design. Active site mutants of the enzyme, Ba(F96I)DHFR and Ba(Y102F)DHFR, were created and evaluated with enzyme inhibition assays and crystal structures. The affinities of the antifolates increase up to 60-fold with the Y102F mutant, suggesting that interactions with Tyr 102 are critical for affinity. Crystal structures of the enzymes bound to TMP and propargyl-linked inhibitors reveal the basis of TMP resistance and illuminate the influence of Tyr 102 on the lipophilic linker between the pyrimidine and aryl rings. Two new inhibitors test and validate these conclusions and show the value of the technique for providing new directions during lead optimization. PMID:20882962

Beierlein, Jennifer M; Karri, Nanda G; Anderson, Amy C



Targeted Mutations of Bacillus anthracis Dihydrofolate Reductase Condense Complex Structure-Activity Relationships  

PubMed Central

Several antifolates, including trimethoprim (TMP) and a series of propargyl-linked analogs, bind dihydrofolate reductase from Bacillus anthracis (BaDHFR) with lower affinity than is typical in other bacterial species. To guide lead optimization for BaDHFR, we explored a new approach to determine structure-activity relationships whereby the enzyme is altered and the analogs remain constant, essentially reversing the standard experimental design. Active site mutants of the enzyme, Ba(F96I)DHFR and Ba(Y102F)DHFR, were created and evaluated with enzyme inhibition assays and crystal structures. The affinities of the antifolates increase up to 60-fold with the Y102F mutant, suggesting that interactions with Tyr 102 are critical for affinity. Crystal structures of the enzymes bound to TMP and propargyl-linked inhibitors reveal the basis of TMP resistance and illuminate the influence of Tyr 102 on the lipophilic linker between the pyrimidine and aryl rings. Two new inhibitors test and validate these conclusions and show the value of the technique for providing new directions during lead optimization.

Beierlein, Jennifer M.; Karri, Nanda G.; Anderson, Amy C.



Drug-receptor interaction-based quantitative structure-activity relationship of tetrahydroimidazodiazepinone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Log P, solvent-accessible surface area (SASA), total energy, bond length, and bond strain of the most favorable H-bond formed between drug and receptor; and quantum chemical descriptor ?E nm‡-based quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study of tetrahydroimidazodiazepinone derivatives have been done. For QSAR study, the 3D modeling and geometry optimization of all the derivatives and receptor's amino acid have been carried out on CAChe software by applying semiempirical method using MOPAC 2002. Softness Calculator using semiempirical PM3 methods has done the atomic softness of every atom of the derivatives and receptor's amino acids. The biological activities of tetrahydroimidazodiazepinone derivatives have been taken from the literature. The predicted values of biological activity with the help of multiple linear regression analysis are close to observed activity. The cross-validation coefficient and correlation coefficient also indicate that the QSAR model is valuable. Regression analysis shows that hydrophobic interaction is predominant and made major contribution, whereas hydrogen bonding and polar interactions help in proper orientation of the compound (or its functional groups) to make maximum interaction. With the help of these descriptors, prediction of the biological activity of new derivative is possible.

Sahu, V. K.; Khan, A. K. R.; Singh, R. K.; Singh, P. P.


Structure-hepatoprotective activity relationship study of sesquiterpene lactones: A QSAR analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study has been carried out using quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis (QSAR) for 22 sesquiterpene lactones to correlate and predict their hepatoprotective activity. Sesquiterpenoids, the largest class of terpenoids, are a widespread group of substances occurring in various plant organisms. QSAR analysis was carried out using methods such as genetic algorithm for variables selection among generated and calculated descriptors and multiple linear regression analysis. Quantum-chemical calculations have been performed by density functional theory at B3LYP/6-311G(d, p) level for evaluation of electronic properties using reference geometries optimized by semi-empirical AM1 approach. Three models describing hepatoprotective activity values for series of sesquiterpene lactones are proposed. The obtained models are useful for description of sesquiterpene lactones hepatoprotective activity and can be used to estimate the hepatoprotective activity of new substituted sesquiterpene lactones. The models obtained in our study show not only statistical significance, but also good predictive ability. The estimated predictive ability (rtest2) of these models lies within 0.942-0.969.

Paukku, Yuliya; Rasulev, Bakhtiyor; Syrov, Vladimir; Khushbaktova, Zainab; Leszczynski, Jerzy


Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs). Structure--activity relationships: history and new QSAR perspectives.  


Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition is a recent, clinically validated therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment. HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs) block angiogenesis, arrest cell growth, and lead to differentiation and apoptosis in tumor cells. In this article, a survey of published quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) studies are presented and discussed in the hope of identifying the structural determinants for anticancer activity. Secondly a two-dimensional QSAR study was carried out on biological results derived from various types of HDACIs and from different assays using the C-QSAR program of Biobyte. The QSAR analysis presented here is an attempt to organize the knowledge on the HDACIs with the purpose of designing new chemical entities with enhanced inhibitory potencies and to study the mechanism of action of the compounds. This study revealed that lipophilicity is one of the most important determinants of activity. Additionally, steric factors such as the overall molar refractivity (CMR), molar volume (MgVol), the substituent's molar refractivity (MR) (linear or parabola), or the sterimol parameters B(1) and L are important. Electronic parameters indicated as ?(p), are found to be present only in one case. PMID:20162725

Pontiki, Eleni; Hadjipavlou-Litina, Dimitra



Structure-activity relationships for a new family of sulfonylurea herbicides.  


Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS; EC catalyzes the first common step in branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis. The enzyme is inhibited by several chemical classes of compounds and this inhibition is the basis of action of the sulfonylurea and imidazolinone herbicides. The commercial sulfonylureas contain a pyrimidine or a triazine ring that is substituted at both meta positions, thus obeying the initial rules proposed by Levitt. Here we assess the activity of 69 monosubstituted sulfonylurea analogs and related compounds as inhibitors of pure recombinant Arabidopsis thaliana AHAS and show that disubstitution is not absolutely essential as exemplified by our novel herbicide, monosulfuron (2-nitro-N-(4'-methyl-pyrimidin-2'-yl) phenyl-sulfonylurea), which has a pyrimidine ring with a single meta substituent. A subset of these compounds was tested for herbicidal activity and it was shown that their effect in vivo correlates well with their potency in vitro as AHAS inhibitors. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships were developed using comparative molecular field analysis and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis. For the latter, the best result was obtained when steric, electrostatic, hydrophobic and H-bond acceptor factors were taken into consideration. The resulting fields were mapped on to the published crystal structure of the yeast enzyme and it was shown that the steric and hydrophobic fields are in good agreement with sulfonylurea-AHAS interaction geometry. PMID:16374672

Wang, Jian-Guo; Li, Zheng-Ming; Ma, Ning; Wang, Bao-Lei; Jiang, Lin; Pang, Siew Siew; Lee, Yu-Ting; Guddat, Luke W; Duggleby, Ronald G



A Ligand-Based Approach To Identify Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships for the Androgen Receptor  

PubMed Central

We examined the three-dimensional quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) of a group of endogenous and synthetic compounds for the androgen receptor (AR) using comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA). The goal of these studies was to identify structural features necessary for high binding affinity and optimization of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). A homology model of the AR was used as a scaffold to align six lead compounds that served as templates for alignment of the remaining 116 structures prior to CoMFA modeling. The conventional r2 and cross-validated q2 relating observed and predicted relative binding affinity (RBA) were 0.949 and 0.593, respectively. Comparison of predicted and observed RBA for a test set of 10 compounds resulted in an r2 of 0.954, demonstrating the excellent predictive ability of the model. These integrated homology modeling and CoMFA studies identified critical amino acids for SARM interactions and provided QSAR data as the basis for mechanistic studies of AR structure, function, and design of optimized SARMs.

Bohl, Casey E.; Chang, Cheng; Mohler, Michael L.; Chen, Jiyun; Miller, Duane D.; Swaan, Peter W.; Dalton, James T.



A quantitative structure-activity relationship and molecular graphics study of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors.  


A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) (log K = 1.55 alpha + 0.64 log P - 2.07I1 - 3.28I2 + 6.94) has been formulated for the binding of a set of substituted benzenesulfonamides to human carbonic anhydrase. The binding constant (K) are from the studies of King and Burgen [Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B. 193:107-125 (1976)], sigma is the Hammett electronic substituent constant, P is the octanol/water partition coefficient, and I1 and I2 are indicator variables for meta and ortho substituents, respectively. The negative coefficients with the indicator variables suggest steric hindrance by these substituents in contrast to para substituents. Qualitative features of the QSAR are correlated with a color stereomolecular graphics model of the enzyme-inhibitor complex which was constructed from the X-ray crystallographic coordinates of the enzyme. PMID:3990676

Hansch, C; McClarin, J; Klein, T; Langridge, R



Design, Synthesis, and Structure-Activity Relationships of Highly Potent 5-HT3 Receptor Ligands  

PubMed Central

The 5-HT3 receptor, a pentameric ligand-gated ion channel (pLGIC), is an important therapeutic target. During a recent fragment screen, 6-chloro-N-methyl-2-(4-methyl-1,4-diazepan-1-yl)quinazolin-4-amine (1) was identified as a 5-HT3R hit fragment. Here we describe the synthesis and structure–activity relationships (SAR) of a series of (iso)quinoline and quinazoline compounds that were synthesized and screened for 5-HT3R affinity using a [3H]granisetron displacement assay. These studies resulted in the discovery of several high affinity ligands of which compound 22 showed the highest affinity (pKi > 10) for the 5-HT3 receptor. The observed SAR is in agreement with established pharmacophore models for 5-HT3 ligands and is used for ligand–receptor binding mode prediction using homology modeling and in silico docking approaches.



Structure-Activity Relationship of Semicarbazone EGA Furnishes Photoaffinity Inhibitors of Anthrax Toxin Cellular Entry.  


EGA, 1, prevents the entry of multiple viruses and bacterial toxins into mammalian cells by inhibiting vesicular trafficking. The cellular target of 1 is unknown, and a structure-activity relationship study was conducted in order to develop a strategy for target identification. A compound with midnanomolar potency was identified (2), and three photoaffinity labels were synthesized (3-5). For this series, the expected photochemistry of the phenyl azide moiety is a more important factor than the IC50 of the photoprobe in obtaining a successful photolabeling event. While 3 was the most effective reversible inhibitor of the series, it provided no protection to cells against anthrax lethal toxin (LT) following UV irradiation. Conversely, 5, which possessed weak bioactivity in the standard assay, conferred robust irreversible protection vs LT to cells upon UV photolysis. PMID:24900841

Jung, Michael E; Chamberlain, Brian T; Ho, Chi-Lee C; Gillespie, Eugene J; Bradley, Kenneth A



Design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationships of pyridoquinazolinecarboxamides as RNA polymerase I inhibitors.  


RNA polymerase I (Pol I) is a dedicated polymerase that transcribes the 45S ribosomal (r) RNA precursor. The 45S rRNA precursor is subsequently processed into the mature 5.8S, 18S, and 28S rRNAs and assembled into ribosomes in the nucleolus. Pol I activity is commonly deregulated in human cancers. On the basis of the discovery of lead molecule BMH-21, a series of pyridoquinazolinecarboxamides have been evaluated as inhibitors of Pol I and activators of the destruction of RPA194, the Pol I large catalytic subunit protein. Structure-activity relationships in assays of nucleolar stress and cell viability demonstrate key pharmacophores and their physicochemical properties required for potent activation of Pol I stress and cytotoxicity. This work identifies a set of bioactive compounds that potently cause RPA194 degradation that function in a tightly constrained chemical space. This work has yielded novel derivatives that contribute to the development of Pol I inhibitory cancer therapeutic strategies. PMID:24847734

Colis, Laureen; Ernst, Glen; Sanders, Sara; Liu, Hester; Sirajuddin, Paul; Peltonen, Karita; DePasquale, Michael; Barrow, James C; Laiho, Marikki



The Structure Activity Relationship of Urea Derivatives as Anti-Tuberculosis Agents  

PubMed Central

The treatment of tuberculosis is becoming more difficult due to the ever increasing prevalence of drug resistance. Thus, it is imperative that novel anti-tuberculosis agents, with unique mechanisms of action, be discovered and developed. The direct anti-tubercular testing of a small compound library led to discovery of adamantyl urea hit compound 1. In this study, the hit was followed up through the synthesis of an optimization library. This library was generated by systematically replacing each section of the molecule with a similar moiety until a clear structure activity relationship was obtained with respect to anti-tubercular activity. The best compounds in this series contained a 1-adamantyl-3-phenyl urea core and had potent activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis plus an acceptable therapeutic index. It was noted that the compounds identified and the pharmacophore developed is consistent with inhibitors of epoxide hydrolase family of enzymes. Consequently, the compounds were tested for inhibition of representative epoxide hydrolases: M. tuberculosis EphB and EphE; and human soluble epoxide hydrolase. Many of the optimized inhibitors showed both potent EphB and EphE inhibition suggesting the antitubercular activity is through inhibition of multiple epoxide hydrolyase enzymes. The inhibitors also showed potent inhibition of humans soluble expoxide hydrolyase, but limited cytotoxicity suggesting that future studies must be towards increasing the selectivity of epoxide hydrolyase inhibition towards the M. tuberculosis enzymes.

Brown, Joshua R.; North, Elton J.; Hurdle, Julian G.; Morisseau, Christophe; Scarborough, Jerrod S.; Sun, Dianqing; Kordulakova, Jana; Scherman, Michael S.; Jones, Victoria; Grzegorzewicz, Anna; Crew, Rebecca M.; Jackson, Mary; McNeil, Michael R.; Lee, Richard E.



Olfactory Sensitivity and Odor Structure-Activity Relationships for Aliphatic Ketones in CD-1 Mice.  


Using a conditioning paradigm, the olfactory sensitivity of CD-1 mice for a homologous series of aliphatic 2-ketones (2-butanone to 2-nonanone) and several of their isomeric forms was investigated. With all 11 odorants, the animals significantly discriminated concentrations as low as 0.01 ppm (parts per million) from the solvent, and with two odorants (2-octanone and 5-nonanone), the best-scoring animals even detected concentrations as low as 3 ppt (parts per trillion). Analysis of odor structure-activity relationships showed that the correlation between olfactory detection thresholds of the mice for the 2-ketones and carbon chain length can best be described as a U-shaped function with the lowest threshold values at 2-octanone. Similarly, the correlation between olfactory sensitivity and carbon chain length of symmetrical ketones (3-pentanone to 6-undecanone) can best be described as a U-shaped function. In contrast, no significant correlation was found between olfactory detection thresholds of the mice and position of the functional carbonyl group attached to a C7 backbone. A comparison between the olfactory detection thresholds obtained here with those obtained in earlier studies suggests that mice are significantly more sensitive for 2-ketones than for n-carboxylic acids of the same carbon chain length. Across-species comparisons suggest that mice are significantly more sensitive for aliphatic ketones than squirrel monkeys and pigtail macaques, whereas the ranges of human olfactory detection threshold values overlap with those of the mice with seven of the 11 ketones tested. Further comparisons suggest that odor structure-activity relationships are both substance class and species specific. PMID:24621664

Laska, Matthias



Investigation of 5-nitrofuran derivatives: synthesis, antibacterial activity, and quantitative structure-activity relationships.  


Three sets of antibacterial nitrofuran derivatives [set I, 5-R-substituted (Z)-2-(5-nitrofuran-2-ylmethylene)-3(2H)-benzofuranones (R = OCH(3), H, CH(3), C(2)H(5), nC(3)H(7), Cl, Br, CN, and NO(2)) and their 2-hydroxyphenyl and 2-acetoxyphenyl analogues; set II, 5-R-substituted (E)-1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-3-(5-nitrofuryl)-2-propen-1-ones (R = H, CH(3), C(2)H(5), Cl, and NO(2)); and set III, 5-R-substituted (E)-1-(2-acetoxyphenyl)-3-(5-nitrofuryl)-2-propen-1-ones (R = H, CH(3); C(2)H(5), Cl, and NO(2))] were prepared and tested against a Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, strain ATCC-25923) and a Gram-negative bacterium (Caulobacter crescentus, strain NA 1000). QSAR equations derived for the IC(50) values against both bacteria show negative contributions of two terms: an electronic one, expressed either by sigma, the Hammett substituent constant, or by E, the cyclic voltametric reduction potential. Another term described by an indicator variable, I(abs), is assigned the value of 0 for set I compounds and the value of 1 for sets II and III. No important contribution of the hydrophobic factor was found. For the three sets, the QSAR regressions suggest that the same structural features describe the activities for both bacteria and that, although reduction is a necessary step, it should not be the determining one. These results agree with those found for the QSAR of 5-nitroimidazole analogues. PMID:11606132

Pires, J R; Saito, C; Gomes, S L; Giesbrecht, A M; Amaral, A T



Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of thiobarbituric acid derivatives as potent inhibitors of urease.  


A series of thiobarbituric acid derivatives 1-27 were synthesized and evaluated for their urease inhibitory potential. Exciting results were obtained from the screening of these compounds 1-27. Compounds 5, 7, 8, 11, 16, 17, 22, 23 and 24 showed excellent urease inhibition with IC50 values 18.1±0.52, 16.0±0.45, 16.0±0.22, 14.3±0.27, 6.7±0.27, 10.6±0.17, 19.2±0.29, 18.2±0.76 and 1.61±0.18?M, respectively, much better than the standard urease inhibitor thiourea (IC50=21±0.11?M). Compound 3, 4, 10, and 26 exhibited comparable activities to the standard with IC50 values 21.4±1.04 and 21.5±0.61?M, 22.8±0.32, 25.2±0.63, respectively. However the remaining compounds also showed prominent inhibitory potential The structure-activity relationship was established for these compounds. This study identified a novel class of urease inhibitors. The structures of all compounds were confirmed through spectroscopic techniques such as EI-MS and (1)H NMR. PMID:24986232

Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Rahim, Fazal; Khan, Ajmal; Shabeer, Muhammad; Hussain, Shafqat; Rehman, Wajid; Taha, Muhammad; Khan, Momin; Perveen, Shahnaz; Choudhary, M Iqbal



Structure-activity analysis of anandamide analogs: relationship to a cannabinoid pharmacophore.  


Anandamides are endogenous fatty acid ethanolamides that have been shown to bind to the cannabinoid receptor and possess cannabimimetic activity yet are structurally dissimilar from the classical cannabinoids found in Cannabis sativa. We have employed molecular dynamics studies of a variety of anandamides to characterize their conformational mobility and determine whether there are pharmacophoric similarities with delta 9-THC. We have found that a looped conformation of these arachidonyl compounds is energetically favorable and that a structural correlation between this low-energy conformation and the classical cannabinoids can be obtained with the superposition of (1) the oxygen of the carboxyamide with the pyran oxygen in delta 9-THC, (2) the hydroxyl group of the ethanol with the phenolic hydroxyl group of delta 9-THC, (3) the five terminal carbons and the pentyl side chain of delta9-THC, and (4) the polyolefin loop overlaying with the cannabinoid tricyclic ring. The shape similarity is extended to show that other fatty acid ethanolamides that possess varying degrees of unsaturation also vary in their conformational mobility, which affects their ability to overlay with delta 9-THC as described above. Within this series of compounds, the most potent analog, the tetraene (arachidonyl) analog (i.e., anandamide itself), was determined to have restricted conformational mobility that favored an optimal pharmacophore overlay with delta9-THC. Eight pharmacologically active anandamide analogs are shown to have similar conformational mobility and pharmacophore alignments that are conformationally accessible. Furthermore, when these compounds are aligned to delta 9-THC according to the proposed pharmacophore overlay, their potencies are predicted by a quantitative model of cannabinoid structure--activity relationships based solely on classical and nonclassical cannabinoids with a reasonable degree of accuracy. The ability to incorporate the pharmacological potency of these anandamides into the cannabinoid pharmacophore model is also shown to support the relevance of the proposed pharmacophore model. PMID:8558515

Thomas, B F; Adams, I B; Mascarella, S W; Martin, B R; Razdan, R K



Quantitative structure-activity relationship models for ready biodegradability of chemicals.  


The European REACH regulation requires information on ready biodegradation, which is a screening test to assess the biodegradability of chemicals. At the same time REACH encourages the use of alternatives to animal testing which includes predictions from quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models. The aim of this study was to build QSAR models to predict ready biodegradation of chemicals by using different modeling methods and types of molecular descriptors. Particular attention was given to data screening and validation procedures in order to build predictive models. Experimental values of 1055 chemicals were collected from the webpage of the National Institute of Technology and Evaluation of Japan (NITE): 837 and 218 molecules were used for calibration and testing purposes, respectively. In addition, models were further evaluated using an external validation set consisting of 670 molecules. Classification models were produced in order to discriminate biodegradable and nonbiodegradable chemicals by means of different mathematical methods: k nearest neighbors, partial least squares discriminant analysis, and support vector machines, as well as their consensus models. The proposed models and the derived consensus analysis demonstrated good classification performances with respect to already published QSAR models on biodegradation. Relationships between the molecular descriptors selected in each QSAR model and biodegradability were evaluated. PMID:23469921

Mansouri, Kamel; Ringsted, Tine; Ballabio, Davide; Todeschini, Roberto; Consonni, Viviana



Quantitative structure-activity relationships for kinetic parameters of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biotransformation.  


Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) were developed for three Monod-type parameters--qmax, Ks, and qmax/Ks--that express the kinetics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) biotransformation by Sphingomonas paucimobilis strain EPA505. The training sets contained high-quality experimental values of the kinetic parameters for 20 unsubstituted and methylated PAHs as well as values of 41 meaningful molecular descriptors. A genetic function approximation algorithm was used to develop the QSARs. Statistical evaluation of the developed QSARs showed that the relationships are statistically significant and satisfy the assumptions of linear-regression analysis. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development principles for (Q)SAR validation were followed to evaluate the developed QSARs, which showed that the QSARs are valid. The QSARs contain spatial, spatial and electronic, topological, and thermodynamic molecular descriptors. Whereas spatial descriptors were essential in explaining biotransformation kinetics, electronic descriptors were not. Mechanistic interpretation of the QSARs resulted in evidence that is consistent with the hypothesis of membrane transport as being the rate-limiting process in PAH biotransformation by strain EPA505. The present study demonstrates the value of QSAR not only as a predictive tool but also as a framework for understanding the mechanisms governing biodegradation at the molecular level. PMID:18366261

Dimitriou-Christidis, Petros; Autenrieth, Robin L; Abraham, Michael H



Quantitative structure-activity relationship for aromatic hydrocarbons on freshwater fish.  


A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) was determined, according to Hansch's approach. The acute toxicity of nine aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, m-xylene, p-xylene, isopropylbenzene, n-propylbenzene, butylbenzene) was evaluated in an Argentinean freshwater fish species. Solubility, molecular weight, and the octanol-water coefficient of partition (K(ow)) were taken as macroscopic molecular descriptors. Slopes obtained from regression analysis were similar with respect to those of the standard fish, Pimephales promelas. A potential nonpolar narcosis power (NP) concept was defined on the basis of the mode of toxic action of the assayed chemicals. Following Ferguson's principle and the critical volume doctrine for nonpolar narcosis, NP was defined as log MW*K(ow). Experimental data fitted better than regression analysis did only with log K(ow). NP improves the quantitative relationship between nonpolar narcotic compounds and their toxicity. It was more suitable to describe the physiological aspects relative to the mode of action of the chemicals assayed. PMID:15327885

Di Marzio, Walter; Saenz, Maria Elena



Quantitative structure-activity relationship studies on inhibition of HERG potassium channels.  


The human ether-a-go-go-related gene (HERG) protein forms the ion channel responsible for the rapidly acting delayed rectifier potassium current, I(Kr), and its blockade is a significant contributor to prolongation of the QT interval. Using descriptors which have clear physicochemical meanings and are familiar to medicinal chemists, we have carried out 2D-quantitative structure-activity relationship (2D-QSAR) studies on 104 HERG channel blockers with diverse structures collected from the literature, and we have formulated interpretable models to guide chemical-modification studies and virtual screening. Statistically significant descriptors were selected by a genetic algorithm, and the final model included the octanol/water partition coefficient, topological polar surface area, diameter, summed surface area of atoms with partial charges from -0.25 to -0.20, and an indicator variable representing the experimental conditions. The statistics were r = 0.839, r2 = 0.704, q2 = 0.671, s = 0.763, and F = 46.6. The correspondence of the molecular determinants derived from the 2D-QSAR models with the 3D structural characteristics of the putative binding site in a homology-modeled HERG channel is also discussed. PMID:16711756

Yoshida, Katsumi; Niwa, Tomoko



Structure-activity relationships of substituted oxyoxalamides as inhibitors of the human soluble epoxide hydrolase.  


We explored both structure-activity relationships among substituted oxyoxalamides used as the primary pharmacophore of inhibitors of the human sEH and as a secondary pharmacophore to improve water solubility of inhibitors. When the oxyoxalamide function was modified with a variety of alkyls or substituted alkyls, compound 6 with a 2-adamantyl group and a benzyl group was found to be a potent sEH inhibitor, suggesting that the substituted oxyoxalamide function is a promising primary pharmacophore for the human sEH, and compound 6 can be a novel lead structure for the development of further improved oxyoxalamide or other related derivatives. In addition, introduction of substituted oxyoxalamide to inhibitors with an amide or urea primary pharmacophore produced significant improvements in inhibition potency and water solubility. In particular, the N,N,O-trimethyloxyoxalamide group in amide or urea inhibitors (26 and 31) was most effective among those tested for both inhibition and solubility. The results indicate that substituted oxyoxalamide function incorporated into amide or urea inhibitors is a useful secondary pharmacophore, and the resulting structures will be an important basis for the development of bioavailable sEH inhibitors. PMID:24433964

Kim, In-Hae; Lee, In-Hee; Nishiwaki, Hisashi; Hammock, Bruce D; Nishi, Kosuke



Improved Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Models to Predict Antioxidant Activity of Flavonoids in Chemical, Enzymatic, and Cellular Systems  

PubMed Central

Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models are useful in understanding how chemical structure relates to the biological activity of natural and synthetic chemicals and for design of newer and better therapeutics. In the present study, 46 flavonoids and related polyphenols were evaluated for direct/indirect antioxidant activity in three different assay systems of increasing complexity (chemical, enzymatic, and intact phagocytes). Based on these data, two different QSAR models were developed using i) physicochemical and structural (PC&S) descriptors to generate multiparameter partial least squares (PLS) regression equations derived from optimized molecular structures of the tested compounds and ii) a partial 3D comparison of the 46 compounds with local fingerprints obtained from fragments of the molecules by the frontal polygon (FP) method. We obtained much higher QSAR correlation coefficients (r) for flavonoid end-point antioxidant activity in all 3 assay systems using the FP method (0.966, 0.948, and 0.965 for datasets in evaluated in the biochemical, enzymatic, and whole cells assay systems, respectively). Furthermore, high leave-one-out cross-validation coefficients (q2) of 0.907, 0.821, and 0.897 for these datasets, respectively, indicated enhanced predictive ability and robustness of the model. Using the FP method, structural fragments (submolecules) responsible for the end-point antioxidant activity in the three assay systems were also identified. To our knowledge, this is the first QSAR model derived for description of flavonoid direct/indirect antioxidant effects in a cellular system, and this model could form the basis for further drug development of flavonoid-like antioxidant compounds with therapeutic potential.

Khlebnikov, Andrei I.; Schepetkin, Igor A.; Domina, Nina G.; Kirpotina, Liliya N.; Quinn, Mark T.



Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Studies of 4-Imidazolyl- 1,4-dihydropyridines as Calcium Channel Blockers  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): The structure- activity relationship of a series of 36 molecules, showing L-type calcium channel blocking was studied using a QSAR (quantitative structure–activity relationship) method. Materials and Methods: Structures were optimized by the semi-empirical AM1 quantum-chemical method which was also used to find structure-calcium channel blocking activity trends. Several types of descriptors, including electrotopological, structural and thermodynamics were used to derive a quantitative relationship between L-type calcium channel blocking activity and structural properties. The developed QSAR model contributed to a mechanistic understanding of the investigated biological effects. Results: Multiple linear regressions (MLR) was employed to model the relationships between molecular descriptors and biological activities of molecules using stepwise method and genetic algorithm as variable selection tools. The accuracy of the proposed MLR model was illustrated using cross-validation, and Y-randomisation -as the evaluation techniques. Conclusion: The predictive ability of the model was found to be satisfactory and could be used for designing a similar group of 1,4- dihydropyridines , based on a pyridine structure core which can block calcium channels.

Hadizadeh, Farzin; Vahdani, Saadat; Jafarpour, Mehrnaz



Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) for 9-anilinoacridines: a comparative analysis.  


A new analysis of the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) of the antitumor activity of anilinoacridines against L1210 leukemia in mice and mouse toxicity is reported. QSAR have also been derived for the inhibitory activity of the anilinoacridines with tumor cells and their binding to DNA. These results are compared with reactivity with simple nucleophiles. The comparative analysis shows the importance of electron releasing substituents (in general negative coefficients with the Hammett parameter sigma+) throughout the various systems and the complete lack of hydrophobic interactions from DNA to cells to mice. The presence of steric terms suggests that a protein receptor is involved. The study shows that QSAR has an important role to play in improving the efficiency in the design of bioactive compounds and that care must be taken in the design of a set of congeners so that the necessary parameters are available to do the QSAR analysis. Our study illustrates the value of comparative QSAR in generalizing our understanding of chemical-biological interactions. PMID:9920460

Gao, H; Denny, W A; Garg, R; Hansch, C



Discovery and Preliminary Structure-Activity Relationship of Arylpiperazines as Novel, Brain-Penetrant Antiprion Compounds  

PubMed Central

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and kuru in humans, BSE in cattle, and scrapie in sheep are fatal neurodegenerative disorders. Such illnesses are caused by the conversion and accumulation of a misfolded pathogenic isoform (termed PrPSc) of a normally benign, host cellular protein, denoted PrPC. We employed high-throughput screening enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to evaluate compounds for their ability to reduce the level of PrPSc in Rocky Mountain Laboratory prion-infected mouse neuroblastoma cells (ScN2a-cl3). Arylpiperazines were among the active compounds identified, but the initial hits suffered from low potency and poor drug-likeness. The best of those hits, such as 1, 7, 13, and 19, displayed moderate antiprion activity with EC50 values in the micromolar range. Key analogues were designed and synthesized on the basis of the structure–activity relationship, with analogues 41, 44, 46, and 47 found to have submicromolar potency. Analogues 41 and 44 were able to penetrate the blood–brain barrier and achieved excellent drug concentrations in the brains of mice after oral dosing. These compounds represent good starting points for further lead optimization in our pursuit of potential drug candidates for the treatment of prion diseases.



Molecular-orbital analysis of the electronic structure and determination of quantitative structure-activity and structure-toxicity relationships for water-soluble ionol derivatives  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the authors attempt to establish a quantitative relationship between experimental data on antitumor activity and the toxicity of ionol and its derivatives on the one hand, and on the other hand the electronic structure parameters of the compounds obtained as a result of the quantum chemical calculation.

Bushelev, S.N.



Structure–activity relationship studies on unifiram (DM232) and sunifiram (DM235), two novel and potent cognition enhancing drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structure–activity relationships on two novel potent cognition enhancing drugs, unifiram (DM232, 1) and sunifiram (DM235, 2), are reported. Although none of the compounds synthesised reached the potency of the parent drugs, some fairly active compounds have been identified that may represent new leads to develop other cognition enhancing drugs. An interesting result of this research is the identification of two

Serena Scapecchi; Elisabetta Martini; Dina Manetti; Carla Ghelardini; Cecilia Martelli; Silvia Dei; Nicoletta Galeotti; Luca Guandalini; Maria Novella Romanelli; Elisabetta Teodori



Structure-Activity Relationships for in vitro Diuretic Activity of CAP2b in the Housefly.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of truncated and Ala-replacement analogs of the peptide Manse-CAP2b (pELYAFPRV-NH2) were assayed for diuretic activity on Malpighian tubules of the housefly Musca domestica (M. domestica). The C-terminal hexapeptide proved to be the active core, ...

G. M. Coast R. J. Nachman



Structure-activity relationship study of WSS25 derivatives with anti-angiogenesis effects.  


WGEW, an ?(1-4) linked glucan with an ?(1-4) linked branch attached to C-6, was isolated from the rhizoma of Gastrodia elata Bl. WSS25, a sulfated derivative of WGEW, was reported to inhibit angiogenesis by disrupting BMP2/Smad/Id1 signaling pathway. However, the structure-activity relationship (SAR) for WSS25 is not known. To study the SAR, seven sulfated saccharides derived from WGEW degradation products, six sulfated polysaccharides with varying degrees of substitution, and four aminopropylated, carboxymethylated, phosphorylated, and acetylated derivatives of WGEW were prepared. A sulfated, unbranched product of polysaccharide was also obtained. The structural features of these derivatives were characterized by infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. An HMEC-1 cell tube formation assay was employed to measure the antiangiogenic effect of the derivatives. The results indicated that only sulfated polysaccharides with molecular weights of more than 41,000 Da could inhibit HMEC-1 cell tube formation. The inhibition effect was dependent on the presence of a sulfate group, since the tube formation was not blocked by aminopropylated, carboxymethylated, phosphorylated, or acetylated WGEW. A higher degree of sulfate substitution on the polysaccharide led to a stronger inhibitory effect, and the degree of sulfate substitution between 0.173 and 0.194 was found to be optimal. Interestingly, the WGEW side chain was not required for anti-tube formation activity. All these preliminary results may provide a clue for further modification of the core structure of WSS25 to discover polysaccharide derivatives as novel anti-angiogenic inhibitors. PMID:22847113

Chen, Xia; Xiao, Fei; Wang, Ying; Fang, Jianping; Ding, Kan



Inhibitory effects of caffeine analogues on neoplastic transformation: structure-activity relationship  

PubMed Central

Some xanthine analogues, including 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine (caffeine) and 1,3-dimethylxanthine (theophylline), have been shown to exert anticancer activities in both cell culture and animal models. The present study focused on the relationship of structure and activity of 50 different caffeine analogues in preventing epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced malignant transformation of mouse epidermal JB6 promotion-sensitive (P+) Cl41 (JB6 P+) cells. Results indicated that the inhibition of cell transformation by the 1,3,7-trialkylxanthines depends on the number of carbons at the alkyl groups R1 and R3, but not R7. Notably, 1-ethyl-3-hexylxanthine (xanthine 70) was the most effective compound for inhibiting EGF-induced neoplastic transformation among the 50 xanthine analogues tested. The 50% inhibition of cell transformation (ICT50) value for xanthine 70 was 48- or 75-fold less than the ICT50 value of caffeine or theophylline, respectively. Further study revealed that xanthine 70 (5–40 ?M) dose dependently inhibited EGF-induced transactivation of activator protein 1 (AP-1), whereas theophylline or caffeine (up to 500 ?M) had no effect on AP-1 activity. In addition, xanthine 70 (10 ?M) inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate- or H-Ras-induced neoplastic transformation in JB6 P+ cells by 78.2 or 62.0%, respectively. Collectively, these results indicated that the number of carbons at R1 and R3 is important for the antitumor-promoting activity of the trialkylxanthines and xanthine 70 might be a promising anticancer agent.

Rogozin, Evgeny A.; Lee, Ki Won; Kang, Nam Joo; Yu, Haoyu; Nomura, Masaaki; Miyamoto, Ken-Ichi; Conney, Allan H.; Bode, Ann M.; Dong, Zigang



Structure-activity relationship of trifluoromethyl-containing metallocenes: electrochemistry, lipophilicity, cytotoxicity, and ROS production.  


We report the synthesis of trifluoromethylated metallocenes (M=Fe, Ru) and related metal-free compounds for comparison of their biological properties with the aim to establish structure-activity relationships toward the anti-proliferative activity of this compound class. All new compounds were comprehensively characterized by NMR spectroscopy ((1) H, (13) C, (19) F), mass spectrometry, IR spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. A single-crystal X-ray structure was obtained on the Ru derivative, 1-(1-hydroxy-1-hexafluoromethylethyl)ruthenocene (3). The cytotoxicity of all compounds was tested on MCF-7, HT-29, and PT-45 cells, and IC50 values as low as 12 ?M were observed. Both the metallocene moiety and the hydroxy function are crucial for cytotoxicity. In addition, the activity decreased sharply even if only one trifluoromethyl group was replaced with a methyl group. Electrochemical investigations by cyclic voltammetry revealed that all CF3 -containing compounds are harder to oxidize than the unsubstituted metallocenes. Moreover, log?P determination by RP-HPLC showed the fluorinated derivatives to have higher lipophilicity, with log?P values up to 4.6. At the same time, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Jurkat cells by these compounds was investigated by flow cytometry. Strong ROS production was shown exclusively for the bis-CF3 derivative 1-(1-hydroxy-1-hexafluoromethylethyl)ferrocene (1) after 6 and 24 h. Also on the Jurkat cell line, only compound 1 strongly induces necrosis after 24 and 48 h, as shown by annexin V/propidium iodide staining. No induction of apoptosis was observed. We propose that compound 1 is more efficiently incorporated into cancer cells relative to all other derivatives, causing significant induction of oxidative stress within the cell, which ultimately leads to cell death. PMID:24838930

Maschke, Marcus; Alborzinia, Hamed; Lieb, Max; Wölfl, Stefan; Metzler-Nolte, Nils



Muscarinic allosteric modulators: atypical structure-activity-relationships in bispyridinium-type compounds.  


Allosteric modulators of receptor binding are known for a variety of membrane receptors. In case of muscarinic receptors, a considerable number of structurally divergent modulators have been described. For the M2 receptor subtype which has a high sensitivity to allosteric modulation most of the allosteric agents bind to the common allosteric binding site of the receptor protein. In this study, a series of DUO compounds characterized by a bispyridinium middle chain and lateral benzyloximeether moieties of a systematically varied substitution pattern has been evaluated with regard to their allosteric potency to affect M2 receptors, whose orthosteric site was blocked by [3H]N-methylscopolamine. The variations in potency were found to be surprisingly small and the structure-activity relationships of the DUO compounds diverged from those of correspondingly substituted hexamethonio-type allosteric modulators. One has to conclude that DUO compounds bind in an "atypical" manner which is in agreement with recently reported side-directed mutagenesis and molecular modeling studies. PMID:16572483

Sürig, Ulf; Gaal, Klaudia; Kostenis, Evi; Tränkle, Christian; Mohr, Klaus; Holzgrabe, Ulrike



Epothilones as lead structures for new anticancer drugs — pharmacology, fermentation, and structure-activity-relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epothilones (Epo’s) A and B are naturally occurring microtubule-stabilizers, which inhibit the growth of human cancer cells\\u000a in vitro at low nM or sub-nM concentrations. In contrast to taxol (paclitaxel, Taxol®) epothilones are also active against different\\u000a types of multidrug-resistant cancer cell lines in vitro and against multidrug-resistant tumors in vivo. Their attractive preclinical profile has made epothilones important lead

Karl-Heinz Altmann; Klaus Memmert


Structure-activity relationships and blood distribution of antiplasmodial aminopeptidase-1 inhibitors.  


Malaria is a severe infectious disease that causes between 655,000 and 1.2 million deaths annually. To overcome the resistance to current drugs, new biological targets are needed for drug development. Aminopeptidase M1 (PfAM1), a zinc metalloprotease, has been proposed as a new drug target to fight malaria. Herein, we disclosed the structure-activity relationships of a selective family of hydroxamate PfAM1 inhibitors based on the malonic template. In particular, we performed a "fluoro-scanning" around hit 1 that enlightened the key positions of the halogen for activity. The docking of the best inhibitor 2 is consistent with in vitro results. The stability of 2 was evaluated in microsomes, in plasma, and toward glutathione. The in vivo distribution study performed with the nanomolar hydroxamate inhibitor 2 (BDM14471) revealed that it reaches its site of action. However, it fails to kill the parasite at concentrations relevant to the enzymatic inhibitory potency, suggesting that killing the parasite remains a challenge for potent and druglike catalytic-site binding PfAM1 inhibitors. In all, this study provides important insights for the design of inhibitors of PfAM1 and the validity of this target. PMID:23176597

Deprez-Poulain, Rebecca; Flipo, Marion; Piveteau, Catherine; Leroux, Florence; Dassonneville, Sandrine; Florent, Isabelle; Maes, Louis; Cos, Paul; Deprez, Benoit



Design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationship studies of a potent PACE4 inhibitor.  


PACE4 plays an important role in the progression of prostate cancer and is an attractive target for the development of novel inhibitor-based tumor therapies. We previously reported the design and synthesis of a novel, potent, and relatively selective PACE4 inhibitor known as a Multi-Leu (ML) peptide. In the present work, we examined the ML peptide through detailed structure-activity relationship studies. A variety of ML-peptide analogues modified at the P8-P5 positions with leucine isomers (Nle, DLeu, and DNle) or substituted at the P1 position with arginine mimetics were tested for their inhibitory activity, specificity, stability, and antiproliferative effect. By incorporating d isomers at the P8 position or a decarboxylated arginine mimetic, we obtained analogues with an improved stability profile and excellent antiproliferative properties. The DLeu or DNle residue also has improved specificity toward PACE4, whereas specificity was reduced for a peptide modified with the arginine mimetic, such as 4-amidinobenzylamide. PMID:24350995

Kwiatkowska, Anna; Couture, Frédéric; Levesque, Christine; Ly, Kévin; Desjardins, Roxane; Beauchemin, Sophie; Prahl, Adam; Lammek, Bernard; Neugebauer, Witold; Dory, Yves L; Day, Robert



Structure-activity relationships of pyrazole derivatives as potential therapeutics for immune thrombocytopenias.  


Idiopathic or immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a serious clinical disorder involving the destruction of platelets by macrophages. Small molecule therapeutics are highly sought after to ease the burden on current therapies derived from human sources. Earlier, we discovered that dimers of five-membered heterocycles exhibited potential to inhibit phagocytosis of human RBCs by macrophages. Here, we reveal a structure-activity relationship of the bis-pyrazole class of molecules with -C-C-, -C-N- and -C-O- linkers, and their evaluation as inhibitors of phagocytosis of antibody-opsonized human RBCs as potential therapeutics for ITP. We have uncovered three potential candidates, 37, 47 and 50, all carrying a different linker connecting the two pyrazole moieties. Among these compounds, hydroxypyrazole derivative 50 is the most potent compound with an IC50 of 14 ± 9 ?M for inhibiting the phagocytosis of antibody-opsonized human RBCs by macrophages. None of the compounds exhibited significant potential to induce apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Current study has revealed specific functional features, such as up to 2-atom spacer arm and alkyl substitution at one of the N(1) positions of the bivalent pyrazole core to be important for the inhibitory activity. PMID:24685704

Purohit, Meena K; Chakka, Sai Kumar; Scovell, Iain; Neschadim, Anton; Bello, Angelica M; Salum, Noruê; Katsman, Yulia; Bareau, Madeleine C; Branch, Donald R; Kotra, Lakshmi P



Syntheses and Structure-Activity Relationships of Novel 3?-Difluoromethyl and 3?-Trifluoromethyl-Taxoids  

PubMed Central

A series of novel 3?-difluoromethyl-taxoids and 3?-trifluoromethyl-taxoids with modifications at the C2 and C10 positions were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicities against human breast carcinoma (MCF7-S, MCF7-R, LCC6-WT, LCC6-MDR), non-small cell lung carcinoma (H460) and colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29) cell lines. These second-generation fluoro-taxoids exhibited several times to more than 20 times better potency than paclitaxel against drug-sensitive cancer cell lines, MCF7-S, LCC6-WT, H460, and HT-29. These fluoro-taxoids also possess two orders of magnitude higher potency than paclitaxel against drug-resistant cancer cell lines, MCF7-R and LCC6-MDR. Structure-activity relationship study shows the importance of the C10 modification for increasing the activity against multidrug-resistant cancer cell lines. Effects of the C2-benzoate modifications on the potency in the 3-difluoromethyl-taxoid series are very clear (i.e., F < MeO < Cl < N3), while those in the 3-trifluoromethyl-taxoid series are less obvious. Also, different trends in the sensitivity to the C2-substitution are observed between drug-sensitive cell lines and drug-resistant cancer cell lines that overexpress efflux pumps.

Kuznetsova, Larissa V.; Pepe, Antonella; Ungureanu, Ioana M.; Pera, Paula; Bernacki, Ralph J.; Ojima, Iwao



In vitro mammalian cytotoxicological study of PAMAM dendrimers - towards quantitative structure activity relationships.  


Dendritic polymer nanoparticles such as polyamidoamine dendrimers (PAMAM) show exciting potential for biomedical applications. While the potential commercial applications of such dendrimers have received considerable attention, little is known about their possible adverse effects on both humans and the environment. In this study, the in vitro cytotoxicocity of full generation PAMAM dendrimers to two mammalian cell lines was investigated. Generations G4, G5 and G6 were chosen. Metabolic, lysosomal and mitochondrial activities were evaluated after 24h exposure. Long term toxicity was evaluated using the clonogenic assay. Particle size and zeta potential were measured in all media. In culture medium, the particle size was largely unchanged from that observed in phosphate buffer. The zeta potential changed significantly, however, from positive in deionized water to negative in culture medium. A linear correlation was found between the change in zeta potential of the dendrimers in media and their surface area measured in phosphate buffer. The interaction of the dendrimer nanoparticles with 5% FBS supplemented media was also studied using UV/visible spectroscopy. The data suggest significant interaction of nanoparticles with FBS and other media components which increased with dendrimer generation. The toxicity also correlated linearly with the zeta potential and notably the change in zeta potential in the media, further pointing towards indirect toxic mechanisms. A trend of generation dependent toxic response and interaction of the dendrimers with the cell culture media was observed which may lay the basis of structure activity relationships. PMID:19778601

Mukherjee, Sourav Prasanna; Davoren, Maria; Byrne, Hugh J



Structure-activity relationship studies of orally active antimalarial 3,5-substituted 2-aminopyridines.  


In an effort to address potential cardiotoxicity liabilities identified with earlier frontrunner compounds, a number of new 3,5-diaryl-2-aminopyridine derivatives were synthesized. Several compounds exhibited potent antiplasmodial activity against both the multidrug resistant (K1) and sensitive (NF54) strains in the low nanomolar range. Some compounds displayed a significant reduction in potency in the hERG channel inhibition assay compared to previously reported frontrunner analogues. Several of these new analogues demonstrated promising in vivo efficacy in the Plasmodium berghei mouse model and will be further evaluated as potential clinical candidates. The SAR for in vitro antiplasmodial and hERG activity was delineated. PMID:23189922

González Cabrera, Diego; Douelle, Frederic; Younis, Yassir; Feng, Tzu-Shean; Le Manach, Claire; Nchinda, Aloysius T; Street, Leslie J; Scheurer, Christian; Kamber, Jolanda; White, Karen L; Montagnat, Oliver D; Ryan, Eileen; Katneni, Kasiram; Zabiulla, K Mohammed; Joseph, Jayan T; Bashyam, Sridevi; Waterson, David; Witty, Michael J; Charman, Susan A; Wittlin, Sergio; Chibale, Kelly



Structure activity relationship of uridine 5?-diphosphate analogues at the human P2Y6 receptor  

PubMed Central

The structure activity relationships and molecular modeling of the uracil nucleotide-activated P2Y6 receptor have been studied. A series of UDP analogues bearing substitutions of the ribose moiety, the uracil ring, and the diphosphate group was synthesized and assayed for activity at the human P2Y6 receptor. The uracil ring was modified at the 4-position, with the synthesis of 4-substituted-thiouridine-5?-diphosphate analogues, as well as at positions 3 and 5. The effect of modifications at the level of the phosphate chain was studied by preparing a cyclic 3?,5?-diphosphate analogue, a 3?-diphosphate analogue and several dinucleotide diphosphates. 5-Iodo-UDP 32 (EC50 0.15 ?M) was equipotent to UDP, while substitutions of the 2?-hydroxyl (amino, azido) greatly reduce potency. 2- and 4-Thio analogues, 20 and 21, respectively, were also relatively potent in comparison to UDP. However, most other modifications greatly reduced potency. Molecular modeling indicates that the ?-phosphate of 5?-UDP and analogs is essential for the establishment of electrostatic interactions with two of the three conserved cationic residues of the receptor. Among 4-thioether derivatives, a 4-ethylthio analogue 23 displayed an EC50 of 0.28 ?M, indicative of favorable interactions predicted for a small 4-alkylthio moiety with the aromatic ring of Y33 in TM1. The activity of analogue 19 in which the ribose was substituted with a 2-oxabicyclohexane ring in a rigid (S) conformation (P= 126°, 1?-exo) was consistent with molecular modeling. These results provide a better understanding of molecular recognition at the P2Y6 receptor and will be helpful in designing selective and potent P2Y6 receptor ligands

Besada, Pedro; Shin, Dae Hong; Costanzi, Stefano; Ko, Hyojin; Mathe, Christophe; Gagneron, Julien; Gosselin, Gilles; Maddileti, Savitri; Harden, T. Kendall; Jacobsona, Kenneth A.



Structural and molecular characteristics of lichenysin and its relationship with surface activity.  


Lichenysins are most potent anionic cyclic lipoheptapeptide biosurfactants produced by Bacillus licheniformis on hydrocarbonless medium with mainly glucose as carbon source. They have the capacity to lower the surface tension of water from 72 to 27 mN/m. Based on species specific variations they are named lichenysin A, B, C, D, G and surfactant BL86. The lowest ever interfacial tension against decane of 0.006 mN/m is obtained with acid precipitated lichenysin B. Surfactant BL86 and lichenysin B have recorded lowest ever CMC of 10 mg/L by any surfactant under optimal conditions. Surface and interfacial tension lowering ability bears significance in the context of oil recovery from oil reservoir. Similarity exists between structure and biosynthesis of surfactin and lichenysin. Surfactin being the most studied of the two, understanding its structure and biosynthesis gives an insight into the structure and biosynthesis of lichenysin. Lichenysin is synthesized by a multienzyme complex, lichenysin synthetase (LchA/Lic) encoded by 32.4 (26.6 kb) lichenysin operon lchA (lic). The structure of lichenysin and its operon indicate the nonribosomal biosynthesis with the same multifunctional modular arrangement as seen in surfactin synthetase SrfA. The lchA operon consists of lchAA-AC (lic A-C) and lchA TE (licTE) genes encoding the proteins LchAA, LchAB, LchAC and thioesterase LchA-TE. The licA (lchAA) gene is 10,746 bp and codes for a 3,582 amino acids protein, licB (lchAB) gene is 10,764 bp and codes for a similar sized protein, while licC (lchAC) gene is 3,864 bp and codes for protein containing 1,288 amino acid. The biotechnological potential of lichenysin in MEOR has triggered research on structure-activity relationship. Both the nature of peptide and fatty acid dictate the activity of the biosurfactant. Tailormade biosurfactant with desired attributes can be obtained from engineered synthetases. Basic studies are lacking on mechanism of biosynthesis by lichenysin synthetase however, studies on various aspects of lichenysin including regulation are expected to swell in coming years. PMID:20545292

Nerurkar, Anuradha S



Structure-Activity Relationships of Constrained Phenylethylamine Ligands for the Serotonin 5-HT2 Receptors  

PubMed Central

Serotonergic ligands have proven effective drugs in the treatment of migraine, pain, obesity, and a wide range of psychiatric and neurological disorders. There is a clinical need for more highly 5-HT2 receptor subtype-selective ligands and the most attention has been given to the phenethylamine class. Conformationally constrained phenethylamine analogs have demonstrated that for optimal activity the free lone pair electrons of the 2-oxygen must be oriented syn and the 5-oxygen lone pairs anti relative to the ethylamine moiety. Also the ethyl linker has been constrained providing information about the bioactive conformation of the amine functionality. However, combined 1,2-constriction by cyclization has only been tested with one compound. Here, we present three new 1,2-cyclized phenylethylamines, 9–11, and describe their synthetic routes. Ligand docking in the 5-HT2B crystal structure showed that the 1,2-heterocyclized compounds can be accommodated in the binding site. Conformational analysis showed that 11 can only bind in a higher-energy conformation, which would explain its absent or low affinity. The amine and 2-oxygen interactions with D3.32 and S3.36, respectively, can form but shift the placement of the core scaffold. The constraints in 9–11 resulted in docking poses with the 4-bromine in closer vicinity to 5.46, which is polar only in the human 5-HT2A subtype, for which 9–11 have the lowest affinity. The new ligands, conformational analysis and docking expand the structure-activity relationships of constrained phenethylamines and contributes towards the development of 5-HT2 receptor subtype-selective ligands.

Isberg, Vignir; Paine, James; Leth-Petersen, Sebastian; Kristensen, Jesper L.; Gloriam, David E.



Rational approaches, design strategies, structure activity relationship and mechanistic insights for anticancer hybrids.  


A Hybrid drug which comprises the incorporation of two drug pharmacophores in one single molecule are basically designed to interact with multiple targets or to amplify its effect through action on another bio target as one single molecule or to counterbalance the known side effects associated with the other hybrid part(.) The present review article offers a detailed account of the design strategies employed for the synthesis of anticancer agents via molecular hybridization techniques. Over the years, the researchers have employed this technique to discover some promising chemical architectures displaying significant anticancer profiles. Molecular hybridization as a tool has been particularly utilized for targeting tubulin protein as exemplified through the number of research papers. The microtubule inhibitors such as taxol, colchicine, chalcones, combretasatin, phenstatins and vinca alkaloids have been utilized as one of the functionality of the hybrids and promising results have been obtained in most of the cases with some of the tubulin based hybrids exhibiting anticancer activity at nanomolar level. Linkage with steroids as biological carrier vector for anticancer drugs and the inclusion of pyrrolo [2,1-c] [1,4]benzodiazepines (PBDs), a family of DNA interactive antitumor antibiotics derived from Streptomyces species in hybrid structure based drug design has also emerged as a potential strategy. Various heteroaryl based hybrids in particular isatin and coumarins have also been designed and reported to posses' remarkable inhibitory potential. Apart from presenting the design strategies, the article also highlights the structure activity relationship along with mechanistic insights revealed during the biological evaluation of the hybrids. PMID:24685980

Nepali, Kunal; Sharma, Sahil; Sharma, Manmohan; Bedi, P M S; Dhar, K L



In-situ Environmental TEM Studies For Developing Structure-Activity Relationship in Supported Metal Catalyst  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-situ environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM) is a powerful tool for following the evolution of supported metal nanoparticles under different reacting gas conditions at elevated temperatures. The ability to observe the events in real time under reacting gas conditions can provide significant information on the fundamental processes taking place in catalytic materials, from which the performance of the catalyst can be understood. The first part of this dissertation presents the application of in-situ ETEM studies in developing structure-activity relationship in supported metal nanoparticles. In-situ ETEM studies on nanostructures in parallel with ex-situ reactor studies of conversions and selectivities were performed for partial oxidation of methane (POM) to syngas (CO+H2) on Ni/SiO2, Ru/SiO2 and NiRu/SiO2 catalysts. During POM, the gas composition varies along the catalyst bed with increasing temperature. It is important to consider these variations in gas composition in order to design experiments for in-situ ETEM. In-situ ETEM experiments were performed under three different reacting gas conditions. First in the presence of H2, this represents the state of the fresh catalyst for the catalytic reaction. Later in the presence of CH4 and O2 in 2:1 ratio, this is the composition of the reacting gases for the POM reaction and this composition acts as an oxidizing environment. Finally in the presence of CH4, this is the reducing gas. Oxidation and reduction behavior of Ni, Ru and NiRu nanoparticles were followed in an in-situ ETEM under reacting gas conditions and the observations were correlated with the performance of the catalyst for POM. The later part of the dissertation presents a technique for determining the gas compositional analysis inside the in-situ ETEM using electron energy-loss spectroscopy. Techniques were developed to identify the gas composition using both inner-shell and low-loss spectroscopy of EELS. Using EELS, an "operando TEM" technique was successfully developed for detecting the gas phase catalysis inside the ETEM. Overall this research demonstrates the importance of in-situ ETEM studies in understanding the structure-activity relationship in supported-metal catalysts for heterogeneous catalysis application.

Chenna, Santhosh


Mechanistic study of the structure-activity relationship for the free radical scavenging activity of baicalein.  


Density functional theory calculations were performed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of baicalein. The conformational behaviors of both the isolated and the aqueous-solvated species (simulated with the conductor-like polarizable continuum solvation model) were analyzed at the M052X/6-311?+?G(d,p) level. The most stable tautomers of various forms of baicalein displayed three IHBs between O4 and OH5, O5 and OH6, and O6 and OH7. The most stable tautomer of the baicalein radical was obtained by dehydrogenating the hydroxyl at C6, while the most stable anion tautomer was obtained by deprotonating the C7 hydroxyl in gaseous and aqueous phases. The expected antioxidant activity of baicalein was explained by its ionization potentials (IPs) and homolytic O-H bond dissociation enthalpies (BDEs), which were obtained via the UM052X optimization level of the corresponding radical species. Heterolytic O-H bond cleavages (proton dissociation enthalpies, PDEs) were also computed. The calculated IP, BDE, and PDE values suggested that one-step H-atom transfer, rather than sequential proton loss-electron transfer or electron transfer-proton transfer, would be the most favorable mechanism for explaining the antioxidant activity of baicalein in the gas phase and in nonpolar solvents. In aqueous solution, the SPLET mechanism was more important. PMID:21229369

Markovi?, Zoran S; Dimitri? Markovi?, Jasmina M; Milenkovi?, Dejan; Filipovi?, Nenad



Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships of inhibitors of P-glycoprotein.  


P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an efflux transporter involved in limiting the oral bioavailability and tissue penetration of a variety of structurally divergent molecules. A better understanding of the structural requirements of modulators of P-gp function will aid in the design of therapeutic agents. Toward this goal, three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) models were generated using in vitro data associated with inhibition of P-gp function. Several approaches were undertaken with multiple iterations, yielding Catalyst 3D-QSAR models being able to qualitatively rank-order and predict IC(50) values for P-gp inhibitors excluded from the model in question. The success of these validations suggests that a P-gp pharmacophore for 27 inhibitors of digoxin transport in Caco-2 cells consisted of four hydrophobes and one hydrogen bond acceptor. A second pharmacophore generated with 21 inhibitors of vinblastine binding to plasma membrane vesicles derived from CEM/VLB(100) cells contained three ring aromatic features and one hydrophobic feature. A third pharmacophore generated with 17 inhibitors of vinblastine accumulation in P-gp expressing LLC-PK1 cells contained four hydrophobes and one hydrogen bond acceptor. A final pharmacophore was generated for inhibition of calcein accumulation in P-gp expressing LLC-PK1 cells and found to contain two hydrophobes, a ring aromatic feature, and a hydrogen bond donor. The similarity of features for the pharmacophores of P-gp inhibitors of digoxin transport and vinblastine binding suggest some commonality in their binding sites. Utilization of such models may prove to be of value for prediction of molecules that may modulate one or more P-gp binding sites. PMID:11961113

Ekins, Sean; Kim, Richard B; Leake, Brenda F; Dantzig, Anne H; Schuetz, Erin G; Lan, Lu-Bin; Yasuda, Kazuto; Shepard, Robert L; Winter, Mark A; Schuetz, John D; Wikel, James H; Wrighton, Steven A



Structure-activity relationships of sandalwood odorants: synthesis and odor of tricyclo beta-santalol.  


In a series of structure-odor relationship investigations the synthesis of a new tricyclic beta-santalol derivative is described. The product of a multistep synthesis appears in an olfactive evaluation more or less odorless, may be slightly creamy but definitely with no sandalwood odor. This modification with a bulky aliphatic bridge in the neighborhood of the quaternary C3-atom demonstrated the sensitivity of sandalwood odor on the structure of beta-santalol analogues. PMID:15571865

Buchbauer, Gerhard; Stappen, Iris; Pretterklieber, Claudia; Wolschann, Peter



Quantitative Structure Antitumoral- Activity Relationships of Thiadiazinthione Derivatives Using the Novel Hybrid Molecular Index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. The recently defined molar- refractivity-partition index was applied to a family of 1,3,5- thiadiazin-2-thione derivatives in order to establish quantitative structure-antitumoral models. The goal of this effort is to establish the relationships between the structure and biological response of these compounds. Method. After the splitting of the sample in two sets, their indices were correlated against the measured biological

Ramón Carrasco; Juan A. Padrón; Rolando Pérez; Hortensia Rodríguez; Margarita Suárez




EPA Science Inventory

Study of the relationship between mutagenicity and molecular structure for a data set of nitrogenous cyclic compounds is reported. A computerized SAR system (ADAPT) was utilized to classify a data set of 114 nitrogenous cyclic compounds with 19 molecular descriptors. All of the d...


Immunomodulation by the new synthetic thiazole derivative tiprotimod. 1st communication: synthesis and structure-activity relationships.  


A series of carboxyalkylthio-substituted thiazole-carboxylic acids was synthesized and examined for macrophage activation and stimulation of the DTH (delayed type of hypersensitivity)-reaction. The structure-activity relationship in this series of new immunomodulators is discussed. Broadest immunological activity was seen for [2-(3-carboxy-1-propylthio)-4-methyl-1,3-thiazole]acetic acid (tiprotimod, HBW 538) which was selected for further studies. PMID:2783178

Fleischmann, K; Scheunemann, K H; Schorlemmer, H U; Dickneite, G; Blumbach, J; Fischer, G; Dürckheimer, W; Sedlacek, H H



Discovery and Structure Activity Relationship of Small Molecule Inhibitors of Toxic ?-Amyloid-42 Fibril Formation*  

PubMed Central

Increasing evidence implicates A? peptides self-assembly and fibril formation as crucial events in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. Thus, inhibiting A? aggregation, among others, has emerged as a potential therapeutic intervention for this disorder. Herein, we employed 3-aminopyrazole as a key fragment in our design of non-dye compounds capable of interacting with A?42 via a donor-acceptor-donor hydrogen bond pattern complementary to that of the ?-sheet conformation of A?42. The initial design of the compounds was based on connecting two 3-aminopyrazole moieties via a linker to identify suitable scaffold molecules. Additional aryl substitutions on the two 3-aminopyrazole moieties were also explored to enhance ?-? stacking/hydrophobic interactions with amino acids of A?42. The efficacy of these compounds on inhibiting A? fibril formation and toxicity in vitro was assessed using a combination of biophysical techniques and viability assays. Using structure activity relationship data from the in vitro assays, we identified compounds capable of preventing pathological self-assembly of A?42 leading to decreased cell toxicity.

Kroth, Heiko; Ansaloni, Annalisa; Varisco, Yvan; Jan, Asad; Sreenivasachary, Nampally; Rezaei-Ghaleh, Nasrollah; Giriens, Valerie; Lohmann, Sophie; Lopez-Deber, Maria Pilar; Adolfsson, Oskar; Pihlgren, Maria; Paganetti, Paolo; Froestl, Wolfgang; Nagel-Steger, Luitgard; Willbold, Dieter; Schrader, Thomas; Zweckstetter, Markus; Pfeifer, Andrea; Lashuel, Hilal A.; Muhs, Andreas



Structure-Activity Relationships of ?-Keto Oxazole Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase  

PubMed Central

A systematic study of the structure–activity relationships (SAR) of 2b (OL-135), a potent inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), is detailed targeting the C2 acyl side chain. A series of aryl replacements or substituents for the terminal phenyl group provided effective inhibitors (e.g., 5c, aryl = 1-napthyl, Ki = 2.6 nM) with 5hh (aryl = 3-Cl-Ph, Ki = 900 pM) being 5-fold more potent than 2b. Conformationally-restricted C2 side chains were examined and many provided exceptionally potent inhibitors of which 11j (ethylbiphenyl side chain) was established to be a 750 pM inhibitor. A systematic series of heteroatoms (O, NMe, S), electron-withdrawing groups (SO, SO2), and amides positioned within and hydroxyl substitutions on the linking side chain were investigated which typically led to a loss in potency. The most tolerant positions provided effective inhibitors (12p, 6-position S, Ki = 3 nM or 13d, 2-position OH, Ki = 8 nM) comparable in potency to 2b. Proteomic-wide screening of selected inhibitors from the systematic series of >100 candidates prepared revealed that they are selective for FAAH over all other mammalian serine proteases.

Hardouin, Christophe; Kelso, Michael J.; Romero, F. Anthony; Rayl, Thomas J.; Leung, Donmienne; Hwang, Inkyu; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Boger, Dale L.



Structure-activity relationships of alpha-ketooxazole inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase.  


A systematic study of the structure-activity relationships of 2b (OL-135), a potent inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), is detailed targeting the C2 acyl side chain. A series of aryl replacements or substituents for the terminal phenyl group provided effective inhibitors (e.g., 5c, aryl = 1-napthyl, Ki = 2.6 nM), with 5hh (aryl = 3-ClPh, Ki = 900 pM) being 5-fold more potent than 2b. Conformationally restricted C2 side chains were examined, and many provided exceptionally potent inhibitors, of which 11j (ethylbiphenyl side chain) was established to be a 750 pM inhibitor. A systematic series of heteroatoms (O, NMe, S), electron-withdrawing groups (SO, SO2), and amides positioned within and hydroxyl substitutions on the linking side chain were investigated, which typically led to a loss in potency. The most tolerant positions provided effective inhibitors (12p, 6-position S, Ki = 3 nM, or 13d, 2-position OH, Ki = 8 nM) comparable in potency to 2b. Proteome-wide screening of selected inhibitors from the systematic series of >100 candidates prepared revealed that they are selective for FAAH over all other mammalian serine proteases. PMID:17559203

Hardouin, Christophe; Kelso, Michael J; Romero, F Anthony; Rayl, Thomas J; Leung, Donmienne; Hwang, Inkyu; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Boger, Dale L



Discovery and structure activity relationship of small molecule inhibitors of toxic ?-amyloid-42 fibril formation.  


Increasing evidence implicates A? peptides self-assembly and fibril formation as crucial events in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. Thus, inhibiting A? aggregation, among others, has emerged as a potential therapeutic intervention for this disorder. Herein, we employed 3-aminopyrazole as a key fragment in our design of non-dye compounds capable of interacting with A?42 via a donor-acceptor-donor hydrogen bond pattern complementary to that of the ?-sheet conformation of A?42. The initial design of the compounds was based on connecting two 3-aminopyrazole moieties via a linker to identify suitable scaffold molecules. Additional aryl substitutions on the two 3-aminopyrazole moieties were also explored to enhance ?-? stacking/hydrophobic interactions with amino acids of A?42. The efficacy of these compounds on inhibiting A? fibril formation and toxicity in vitro was assessed using a combination of biophysical techniques and viability assays. Using structure activity relationship data from the in vitro assays, we identified compounds capable of preventing pathological self-assembly of A?42 leading to decreased cell toxicity. PMID:22891248

Kroth, Heiko; Ansaloni, Annalisa; Varisco, Yvan; Jan, Asad; Sreenivasachary, Nampally; Rezaei-Ghaleh, Nasrollah; Giriens, Valérie; Lohmann, Sophie; López-Deber, María Pilar; Adolfsson, Oskar; Pihlgren, Maria; Paganetti, Paolo; Froestl, Wolfgang; Nagel-Steger, Luitgard; Willbold, Dieter; Schrader, Thomas; Zweckstetter, Markus; Pfeifer, Andrea; Lashuel, Hilal A; Muhs, Andreas



Selective depletion of mutant p53 by cancer chemopreventive isothiocyanates and its structure-activity relationships  

PubMed Central

Isothiocyanates (ITCs) derived from cruciferous vegetables induce apoptosis in cancer cells. We demonstrate that certain naturally-occurring ITCs selectively deplete mutant p53, but not the wild type, and do so via a transcription-independent mechanism. Direct p53 binding followed by conformational changes appears to be a mechanism by which mutant p53 is depleted. Structure-activity relationship studies (SARs) using naturally-occurring and synthetic ITCs show that depletion is influenced by the ITC side chain moiety. Furthermore, we show that cells with p53 mutations are more sensitive to cytotoxicity induced by phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) than those with the wild type. 2,2-diphenylethyl ITC, a synthetic ITC and one of the most potent depletors of mutant p53 studied, induces apoptosis to the greatest extent in mutant p53 breast cancer cells. Collectively, this study shows that mutant p53 depletion may be an important novel target for cancer chemoprevention and therapy by natural and synthetic ITCs.

Wang, Xiantao; Di Pasqua, Anthony J.; Govind, Sudha; McCracken, Erin; Hong, Charles; Mi, Lixin; Mao, Yuehua; Wu, Jessie Yu-Chieh; Tomita, York; Woodrick, Jordan C.; Fine, Robert L.; Chung, Fung-Lung



Chiral dioxolane inhibitors of leukotriene biosynthesis: structure-activity relationships and syntheses using asymmetric dihydroxylation.  


1,3-Dioxolanes have been described as chiral inhibitors of 5-lipoxygenase (5LO). In the present work, this series has been developed further to provide agents which showed comparable or superior potency in vivo to ZD2138, a methoxytetrahydropyran inhibitor of 5LO, which is currently undergoing clinical evaluation. An asymmetric synthesis was developed to these dioxolanes based on asymmetric dihydroxylation. (S)-N-Methyl-4'-[[4-(2,2,4- trimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl)thien-2-yl]thio]acetanilide ((S)-10d) inhibited leukotriene B4 (LTB4) synthesis in A23187-stimulated human whole blood in vitro with IC50 0.039 microM, 25-fold more potent than (R)-10d. In vivo, (S)-10d inhibited LTB4 synthesis by 70% in zymosan-inflamed air pouch exudate in rat 10 h after an oral dose of 1.5 mg/kg. Structure-activity relationship considerations suggested that the dioxolane and methoxytetrahydropyran series are related, a conclusion which can be supported by molecular modeling. PMID:7562928

Crawley, G C; Briggs, M T



Structure/activity relationships in lysophosphatidic acid: the 2-hydroxyl moiety.  


Although lipid phosphoric acid mediators such as lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) are now recognized widely as intercellular signaling molecules, the medicinal chemistry of these mediators is poorly developed. With the goal of achieving a better understanding of the structure activity relationships in LPA, we have synthesized and tested a series of LPA analogs that lack the 2-hydroxyl moiety. Our series consisted of compounds with 2, 3, or 4 carbon diol or amino alcohol backbones and oleoyl or palmitoleoyl acyl groups. These molecules cannot be acylated further to form phosphatidic acids, nor do they have chiral centers. The rank order potency of these compounds in mobilization of calcium in MDA MB-231 cells suggested a maximum optimal chain length of 24-25 atoms. However, high potency for the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase in these cells was achieved only by one compound that also contained a dissociable proton five bond lengths from the phosphorus atom. That compound, N-oleoyl-2-hydroxyethyl-1-phosphate, was nearly equipotent to 1-oleoyl LPA in both assays. The striking mimicry of LPA by the ethanolamine-based compound and the presence of fatty acid amides in tissue prompts us to propose that phosphorylated N-acyl ethanolamides occur naturally. PMID:9224815

Lynch, K R; Hopper, D W; Carlisle, S J; Catalano, J G; Zhang, M; MacDonald, T L



Endocannabinoid structure-activity relationships for interaction at the cannabinoid receptors.  


Anandamide (N -arachidonoylethanolamine) was the first ligand to be identified as an endogenous ligand of the G-protein coupled cannabinoid CB1 receptor. Subsequently, two other fatty acid ethanolamides, N -homo- gamma -linolenylethanolamine and N -7,10,13,16-docosatetraenylethanolamine were identified as endogenous cannabinoid ligands. A fatty acid ester, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), and a fatty acid ether, 2-arachidonyl glyceryl ether also have been isolated and shown to be endogenous cannabinoid ligands. Recent studies have postulated the existence of carrier-mediated anandamide transport that is essential for termination of the biological effects of anandamide. A membrane bound amidohydrolase (fatty acid amide hydrolase, FAAH), located intracellularly, hydrolyzes and inactivates anandamide and other endogenous cannabinoids such as 2-AG. 2-AG has also been proposed to be an endogenous CB2 ligand. Structure-activity relationships (SARs) for endocannabinoid interaction with the CB receptors are currently emerging in the literature. This review considers cannabinoid receptor SAR developed to date for the endocannabinoids with emphasis upon the conformational implications for endocannabinoid recognition at the cannabinoid receptors. PMID:12052032

Reggio, Patricia H



Compound toxicity screening and structure-activity relationship modeling in Escherichia coli.  


Synthetic biology and metabolic engineering are used to develop new strategies for producing valuable compounds ranging from therapeutics to biofuels in engineered microorganisms. When developing methods for high-titer production cells, toxicity is an important element to consider. Indeed the production rate can be limited due to toxic intermediates or accumulation of byproducts of the heterologous biosynthetic pathway of interest. Conversely, highly toxic molecules are desired when designing antimicrobials. Compound toxicity in bacteria plays a major role in metabolic engineering as well as in the development of new antibacterial agents. Here, we screened a diversified chemical library of 166 compounds for toxicity in Escherichia coli. The dataset was built using a clustering algorithm maximizing the chemical diversity in the library. The resulting assay data was used to develop a toxicity predictor that we used to assess the toxicity of metabolites throughout the metabolome. This new tool for predicting toxicity can thus be used for fine-tuning heterologous expression and can be integrated in a computational-framework for metabolic pathway design. Many structure-activity relationship tools have been developed for toxicology studies in eukaryotes [Valerio (2009), Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 241(3): 356-370], however, to the best of our knowledge we present here the first E. coli toxicity prediction web server based on QSAR models (EcoliTox server: PMID:22038678

Planson, Anne-Gaëlle; Carbonell, Pablo; Paillard, Elodie; Pollet, Nicolas; Faulon, Jean-Loup



Design, synthesis and structure-activity relationship of rhenium 2-arylbenzothiazoles as ?-amyloid plaque binding agents  

PubMed Central

To continue our efforts toward the development of 99mTc PiB analogs, we have synthesized twenty-four neutral and lipophilic Re (as a surrogate of 99mTc) 2-arylbenzothiazoles, and explored their structure-activity relationship for binding to A?1–40fibrils. These Re complexes were designed and synthesized via the integrated approach, so their 99mTc analogs would have a greater chance of crossing the blood-brain barrier. While the lipophilicities (logPC18= 1.59–3.53) of these Re 2-arylbenzothiazoles were all within suitable range, their binding affinities (Ki= 30–617 nM) to A?1–40 fibrils varied widely depending on the selection and integration of the tetradentate chelator into the 2-phenylbenzothiazole pharmacophore. For potential clinical applications, further refinement to obtain Re 2-arylbenzothiazoles with better binding affinities (< 10 nM) will likely be needed. The integrated approach reported here to generate compact, neutral and lipophilic Re 2-arylbenzothiazoles could be applied to other potent pharmacophores as well to convert other current A? PET tracers to their 99mTc analogs for more widespread application via the use of SPECT scanners.

Pan, Jinhe; Mason, Neale S.; Debnath, Manik L.; Mathis, Chester A.; Klunk, William E.; Lin, Kuo-Shyan



[Perspective of predictive toxicity assessment of in vivo repeated dose toxicity using structural activity relationship].  


Tens of thousands of existing chemicals have been widely used for manufacture, agriculture, household and other purposes in worldwide. Only approximately 10% of chemicals have been assessed for human health hazard. The health hazard assessment of residual large number of chemicals for which little or no information of their toxicity is available is urgently needed for public health. However, the conduct of traditional toxicity tests which involves using animals for all of these chemicals would be economically impractical and ethically unacceptable. (Quantitative) Structure-Activity Relationships [(Q)SARs] are expected as method to have the potential to estimate hazards of chemicals from their structure, while reducing time, cost and animal testing currently needed. Therefore, our studies have been focused on evaluation of available (Q)SAR systems for estimating in vivo repeated toxicity on the liver. The results from our preliminary analysis showed the distribution for LogP of the chemicals which have potential to induce liver toxicity was bell-shape and indicating the possibility to estimate liver toxicity of chemicals from their physicochemical property. We have developed (Q)SAR models to in vivo liver toxicity using three commercially available systems (DEREK, ADMEWorks and MultiCASE) as well as combinatorial use of publically available chemoinformatic tools (CDK, MOSS and WEKA). Distinct data-sets of the 28-day repeated dose toxicity test of new and existing chemicals evaluated in Japan were used for model development and performance test. The results that concordances of commercial systems and public tools were almost same which below 70% may suggest currently attainable knowledge of in silico estimation of complex biological process, though it possible to obtain complementary and enhanced performance by combining predictions from different programs. In future, the combinatorial application of in silico and in vitro tests might provide more accurate information which support regulatory decisions. At the same time, an appropriate strategy to use (Q)SAR for of the efficiency and accuracy in chemical management is necessary. PMID:21381395

Ono, Atsushi



Structure-function relationships affecting the insecticidal and miticidal activity of sugar esters.  


Synthetic sugar esters are a relatively new class of insecticidal compounds that are produced by reacting sugars with fatty acids. The objective of this research was to determine how systematic alterations in sugar or fatty acid components of sugar ester compounds influenced their insecticidal properties. Sucrose octanoate, sorbitol octanoate, sorbitol decanoate, sorbitol caproate, xylitol octanoate, xylitol decanoate and xylitol dodecanoate were synthesized and evaluated against a range of arthropod pests. Dosage-mortality studies were conducted on pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyricola Foerster) on pear, tobacco aphid (Myzus nicotianae) Blackman and tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta [Johannson]) on tobacco, and twospotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) on apple in laboratory bioassays. These sugar esters were compared with insecticidal soap (M-Pede, Dow AgroSciences L.L.C., San Diego, CA), to determine how toxicologically similar these materials were against the arthropod pests. Substitutions in either the sugar or fatty acid component led to significant changes in the physical properties and insecticidal activity of these compounds. The sugar esters varied in their solubility in water and in emulsion stability, yet, droplet spread upon pear leaves occurred at low concentrations of 80-160 ppm and was strongly correlated with psylla mortalities (R2 = 0.73). Sequentially altering the sugar or fatty acid components from lower to higher numbers of carbon chains, or whether the sugar was a monosaccharide or disaccharide did not follow a predictable relationship to insecticidal activity. Intuitively, changing the hydrophile from sorbitol (C6) to xylitol (C5) would require a decrease in lipophile chain length to maintain hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) relationships, yet an increase in lipophile chain length was unexpectedly needed for increasing insecticidal activity. Thus, the HLB of these materials did not correlate with pear psylla mortalities. Initial insect bioassays and dosage-mortality data found significant differences among sugar ester compounds' toxicity to the range of arthropod species. Sucrose octanoate high in monoester content had the highest activity against the range of arthropod pests at low concentrations of 1200-2400 ppm. No single chemical structure for the xylitol or sorbitol esters were optimally effective against the range of arthropods we tested and sorbitol octanoate and xylitol decanoate had the highest insecticidal activity of this group. All of the sugar ester materials produced high T. urticae mortalities on apple at very low concentrations of 400 ppm. Overall, most of the sugar esters that were examined had superior insecticidal activity compared with insecticidal soap. Sugar ester chemistry offers a unique opportunity to design an insecticide or miticide specific to certain arthropod pests which would be valuable in crop integrated pest management (IPM) programs. Sucrose esters are currently used as additives in the food industry which makes them especially attractive as safe and effective insecticides. PMID:12852599

Puterka, Gary J; Farone, William; Palmer, Tracy; Barrington, Anthony



The new chemicals process at the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): structure-activity relationships for hazard identification and risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Section 5 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) does not require any toxicity testing as a prerequisite for submission of a Premanufacturing Notice (PMN) for a new chemical. In order to compensate for the lack of actual test data, a process involving structure-activity relationships (SAR) for assessing hazard potential was constructed. The hazard assessment is then coupled with an

P. M. Wagner; J. V. Nabholz; R. J. Kent



Antiparasitic activity of natural and semi-synthetic tirucallane triterpenoids from Schinus terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae): structure/activity relationships.  


Leishmaniasis and Chagas are diseases caused by parasitic protozoans that affect the poorest population in the World, causing a high mortality and morbidity. As a result of highly toxic and long-term treatments, the discovery of novel, safe and more efficacious drugs is essential. In this work, the in vitro antiparasitic activity and mammalian cytotoxicity of three natural tirucallane triterpenoids, isolated from leaves of Schinus terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae), and nine semi-synthetic derivatives were investigated against Leishmania (L.) infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi. Trypomastigotes of T. cruzi were the most susceptible parasites and seven compounds demonstrated a trypanocidal activity with IC50 values in the range between 15 and 58 µg/mL. Four compounds demonstrated selectivity towards the intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania, with IC50 values in the range between 28 and 97 µg/mL. The complete characterization of triterpenoids was afforded after thorough analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data as well as electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Additionally, structure-activity relationships were performed using Decision Trees. PMID:24802987

Morais, Thiago R; da Costa-Silva, Thais A; Tempone, Andre G; Borborema, Samanta Etel T; Scotti, Marcus T; de Sousa, Raquel Maria F; Araujo, Ana Carolina C; de Oliveira, Alberto; de Morais, Sérgio Antônio L; Sartorelli, Patricia; Lago, João Henrique G



The relationship between molecular structure and biological activity of alkali metal salts of vanillic acid: Spectroscopic, theoretical and microbiological studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we investigate the relationship between molecular structure of alkali metal vanillate molecules and their antimicrobial activity. To this end FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV absorption and 1H, 13C NMR spectra for lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium vanillates in solid state were registered, assigned and analyzed. Microbial activity of studied compounds was tested against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans. In order to evaluate the dependence between chemical structure and biological activity of alkali metal vanillates the statistical analysis was performed for selected wavenumbers from FT-IR spectra and parameters describing microbial activity of vanillates. The geometrical structures of the compounds studied were optimized and the structural characteristics were determined by density functional theory (DFT) using at B3LYP method with 6-311++G** as basis set. The obtained statistical equations show the existence of correlation between molecular structure of vanillates and their biological properties.

?wis?ocka, Renata; Piekut, Jolanta; Lewandowski, W?odzimierz


Discovery, structure-activity relationship studies, and crystal structure of nonpeptide inhibitors bound to the Shank3 PDZ domain.  


Shank is the central scaffolding protein of the postsynaptic density (PSD) protein complex found in cells of the central nervous system. Cellular studies indicate a prominent role of the protein in the organization of the PSD, in the development of neuronal morphology, in neuronal signaling, and in synaptic plasticity, thus linking Shank functions to the molecular basis of learning and memory. Mutations in the Shank gene have been found in several neuronal disorders including mental retardation, typical autism, and Asperger syndrome. Shank is linked to the PSD complex via its PDZ domain that binds to the C-terminus of guanylate-kinase-associated protein (GKAP). Here, small-molecule inhibitors of Shank3 PDZ domain are developed. A fluorescence polarization assay based on an identified high-affinity peptide is established, and tetrahydroquinoline carboxylates are identified as inhibitors of this protein-protein interaction. Chemical synthesis via a hetero-Diels-Alder strategy is employed for hit optimization, and structure-activity relationship studies are performed. Best hits possess K(i) values in the 10 ?M range, and binding to the PDZ domain is confirmed by ¹H,¹?N HSQC?NMR experiments. One of the hits crystallizes with the Shank3 PDZ domain. The structure, analyzed at a resolution of 1.85 Å, reveals details of the binding mode. Finally, binding to PDZ domains of PSD-95, syntrophin, and DVL3 was studied using ¹H,¹?N HSQC?NMR spectroscopy. PMID:21626699

Saupe, Jörn; Roske, Yvette; Schillinger, Christian; Kamdem, Nestor; Radetzki, Silke; Diehl, Anne; Oschkinat, Hartmut; Krause, Gerd; Heinemann, Udo; Rademann, Jörg



Synthesis, biological evaluation, and structure-activity relationships of dithiolethiones as inducers of cytoprotective phase 2 enzymes.  


Dithiolethiones are a family of promising cancer chemopreventive agents, and induction of phase 2 enzymes is key to their chemopreventive activities. Two dithiolethiones have been evaluated in humans for cancer prevention. While some chemopreventive activities were detected in several human studies, potential side effects are a concern. Herein, we report structure-activity relationships of 25 dithiolethiones. Several compounds show exceedingly potent and bladder specific activity in phase 2 enzyme induction. Structural features responsible for such activity, as well as those inhibiting the activity, are discussed. Moreover, the compounds activate and depend on Nrf2 for their inductive activities. Nrf2 is a major transcriptional stimulator of cytoprotective genes and is critical for cancer prevention. Thus, several new dithiolethiones that are highly promising for bladder cancer prevention have been identified. Because the compounds act specifically in the bladder, the likelihood of potential systemic toxicity may be low. PMID:20481594

Munday, Rex; Zhang, Yuesheng; Paonessa, Joseph D; Munday, Christine M; Wilkins, Alistair L; Babu, Jacob



Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and Structure-Activity Relationships of Dithiolethiones as Inducers of Cytoprotective Phase 2 Enzymes  

PubMed Central

Dithiolethiones are a family of promising cancer chemopreventive agents, and induction of Phase 2 enzymes is key to their chemopreventive activities. Two dithiolethiones have been evaluated in humans for cancer prevention. While some chemopreventive activities were detected in several human studies, potential side effects are a concern. Herein, we report structure-activity relationships of 25 dithiolethiones. Several compounds show exceedingly potent and bladder specific activity in Phase 2 enzyme induction. Structural features responsible for such activity, as well as those inhibiting the activity, are discussed. Moreover, the compounds activate and depend on Nrf2 for their inductive activities. Nrf2 is a major transcriptional stimulator of cytoprotective genes and is critical for cancer prevention. Thus, several new dithiolethiones that are highly promising for bladder cancer prevention have been identified. Because the compounds act specifically in the bladder, the likelihood of potential systemic toxicity may be low.

Munday, Rex; Zhang, Yuesheng; Paonessa, Joseph D.; Munday, Christine M.; Wilkins, Alistair L.; Babu, Jacob



Discovery of 4-Substituted Methoxybenzoyl-Aryl-Thiazole as Novel Anticancer Agents: Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and Structure-Activity Relationships  

PubMed Central

A series of 4-substituted methoxylbenzoyl-aryl-thiazoles (SMART) have been discovered and synthesized as a result of structural modifications of the lead compound 2-arylthiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid amides (ATCAA). The antiproliferative activity of the SMART agents against melanoma and prostate cancer cells was improved from ?M to low nM range compared with ATCAA series. The structure-activity relationship was discussed from modifications of “A”, “B” “C” rings and the linker. Preliminary mechanism of action studies indicated that these compounds exert their anticancer activity through inhibition of tubulin polymerization.

Lu, Yan; Li, Chien-Ming; Wang, Zhao; Ross, Charles R.; Chen, Jianjun; Dalton, James; Li, Wei; Miller, Duane.D.



Application of quantitative structure--activity relationships for assessing the aquatic toxicity of phthalate esters.  


Phthalate esters (PEs) are an important class of industrial chemicals for which an extensive aquatic toxicity database is available. The objectives of this study were to use these data to develop quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) that describe aquatic toxicity for different freshwater and marine species, gain insights into toxicity mechanisms, and calculate PE water quality criteria using statistical extrapolation procedures. Results for low-molecular-weight PEs with log Kow<6 indicate that toxicity data conform to a simple log Kow-dependent QSAR. Fish were found to be more sensitive than algae while invertebrates spanned a wide range in toxicological response. Freshwater and marine species demonstrated a similar distribution of sensitivities. Comparison of species-dependent QSARs supports the hypothesis that biotransformation plays an important role in explaining toxicity differences observed between species. Estimated critical body residues (CBRs) for parent PE in fish were in the range reported for other polar organic chemicals while CBRs for parent PE plus associated metabolites were in the range reported for nonpolar narcotics (i.e., baseline toxicity) suggesting a possible putative role of PE metabolites. Depending on extrapolation procedure and assumptions, predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) for dimethyl, diethyl, dibutyl, and butybenzyl phthalate ranged from 3109 to 4780, 865 to 1173, 43 to 62, and 38 to 60 microg l(-1), respectively. PNECs derived using this approach provide a transparent technical basis to support aquatic risk assessment for low-molecular-weight PEs. Results for high-molecular-weight PEs (log Kow>6) indicate that these chemicals are not acutely or chronically toxic to freshwater or marine organisms due to the combined role of low water solubility and limited bioconcentration potential which precludes attainment of internal concentrations that are required to elicit adverse effects. It is concluded that attempts to establish aquatic PNECs for high-molecular-weight PEs are not scientifically defensible. PMID:10677269

Parkerton, T F; Konkel, W J



Multiobjective optimization in quantitative structure-activity relationships: deriving accurate and interpretable QSARs.  


Deriving quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models that are accurate, reliable, and easily interpretable is a difficult task. In this study, two new methods have been developed that aim to find useful QSAR models that represent an appropriate balance between model accuracy and complexity. Both methods are based on genetic programming (GP). The first method, referred to as genetic QSAR (or GPQSAR), uses a penalty function to control model complexity. GPQSAR is designed to derive a single linear model that represents an appropriate balance between the variance and the number of descriptors selected for the model. The second method, referred to as multiobjective genetic QSAR (MoQSAR), is based on multiobjective GP and represents a new way of thinking of QSAR. Specifically, QSAR is considered as a multiobjective optimization problem that comprises a number of competitive objectives. Typical objectives include model fitting, the total number of terms, and the occurrence of nonlinear terms. MoQSAR results in a family of equivalent QSAR models where each QSAR represents a different tradeoff in the objectives. A practical consideration often overlooked in QSAR studies is the need for the model to promote an understanding of the biochemical response under investigation. To accomplish this, chemically intuitive descriptors are needed but do not always give rise to statistically robust models. This problem is addressed by the addition of a further objective, called chemical desirability, that aims to reward models that consist of descriptors that are easily interpretable by chemists. GPQSAR and MoQSAR have been tested on various data sets including the Selwood data set and two different solubility data sets. The study demonstrates that the MoQSAR method is able to find models that are at least as good as models derived using standard statistical approaches and also yields models that allow a medicinal chemist to trade statistical robustness for chemical interpretability. PMID:12408718

Nicolotti, Orazio; Gillet, Valerie J; Fleming, Peter J; Green, Darren V S



Quantitative structure activity relationship and risk analysis of some pesticides in the goat milk.  


The detection and quantification of different pesticides in the goat milk samples collected from different localities of Faisalabad, Pakistan was performed by HPLC using solid phase microextraction. The analysis showed that about 50% milk samples were contaminated with pesticides. The mean±SEM levels (ppm) of cyhalothrin, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin were 0.34±0.007, 0.063±0.002, 0.034±0.002 and 0.092±0.002, respectively; whereas, methyl parathion was not detected in any of the analyzed samples. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models were suggested to predict the residues of unknown pesticides in the goat milk using their known physicochemical characteristics including molecular weight (MW), melting point (MP), and log octanol to water partition coefficient (Ko/w) in relation to the characteristics such as pH, % fat, specific gravity and refractive index of goat milk. The analysis revealed good correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.985) for goat QSAR model. The coefficients for Ko/w and refractive index for the studied pesticides were higher in goat milk. This suggests that these are better determinants for pesticide residue prediction in the milk of these animals. Based upon the determined pesticide residues and their provisional tolerable daily intakes, risk analysis was also conducted which showed that daily intake levels of pesticide residues including cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin in present study are 2.68, 5.19 and 2.71 times higher, respectively in the goat milk. This intake of pesticide contaminated milk might pose health hazards to humans in this locality. PMID:23369514

Muhammad, Faqir; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Akhtar, Masood; Anwar, Muhammad Irfan



Ginsenosides as Anticancer Agents: In vitro and in vivo Activities, Structure-Activity Relationships, and Molecular Mechanisms of Action  

PubMed Central

Conventional chemotherapeutic agents are often toxic not only to tumor cells but also to normal cells, limiting their therapeutic use in the clinic. Novel natural product anticancer compounds present an attractive alternative to synthetic compounds, based on their favorable safety and efficacy profiles. Several pre-clinical and clinical studies have demonstrated the anticancer potential of Panax ginseng, a widely used traditional Chinese medicine. The anti-tumor efficacy of ginseng is attributed mainly to the presence of saponins, known as ginsenosides. In this review, we focus on how ginsenosides exert their anticancer effects by modulation of diverse signaling pathways, including regulation of cell proliferation mediators (CDKs and cyclins), growth factors (c-myc, EGFR, and vascular endothelial growth factor), tumor suppressors (p53 and p21), oncogenes (MDM2), cell death mediators (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, XIAP, caspases, and death receptors), inflammatory response molecules (NF-?B and COX-2), and protein kinases (JNK, Akt, and AMP-activated protein kinase). We also discuss the structure–activity relationship of various ginsenosides and their potentials in the treatment of various human cancers. In summary, recent advances in the discovery and evaluation of ginsenosides as cancer therapeutic agents support further pre-clinical and clinical development of these agents for the treatment of primary and metastatic tumors.

Nag, Subhasree Ashok; Qin, Jiang-Jiang; Wang, Wei; Wang, Ming-Hai; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Ruiwen



Clotrimazole scaffold as an innovative pharmacophore towards potent antimalarial agents: design, synthesis, and biological and structure-activity relationship studies.  


We describe herein the design, synthesis, biological evaluation, and structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of an innovative class of antimalarial agents based on a polyaromatic pharmacophore structurally related to clotrimazole and easy to synthesize by low-cost synthetic procedures. SAR studies delineated a number of structural features able to modulate the in vitro and in vivo antimalarial activity. A selected set of antimalarials was further biologically investigated and displayed low in vitro toxicity on a panel of human and murine cell lines. In vitro, the novel compounds proved to be selective for free heme, as demonstrated in the beta-hematin inhibitory activity assay, and did not show inhibitory activity against 14-alpha-lanosterol demethylase (a fungal P450 cytochrome). Compounds 2, 4e, and 4n exhibited in vivo activity against P. chabaudi after oral administration and thus represent promising antimalarial agents for further preclinical development. PMID:18278860

Gemma, Sandra; Campiani, Giuseppe; Butini, Stefania; Kukreja, Gagan; Coccone, Salvatore Sanna; Joshi, Bhupendra P; Persico, Marco; Nacci, Vito; Fiorini, Isabella; Novellino, Ettore; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Savini, Luisa; Taramelli, Donatella; Basilico, Nicoletta; Parapini, Silvia; Morace, Giulia; Yardley, Vanessa; Croft, Simon; Coletta, Massimiliano; Marini, Stefano; Fattorusso, Caterina



Molecular basis of structure-activity relationships between salphen metal complexes and human telomeric DNA quadruplexes.  


The first X-ray crystal structures of nickel(II) and copper(II) salphen metal complexes bound to a quadruplex DNA are presented. Two structures have been determined and show that these salphen-metal complexes bind to human telomeric quadruplexes by end-stacking, with the metal in each case almost in line with the potassium ion channel. Quadruplex and duplex DNA binding is presented for these two and other related salphen complexes, all with side-chains terminating in pyrrolidino end-groups and differing patterns of substitution on the salphen core. The crystal structures are able to provide rationalizations for the structure-activity data, and in particular for the superior quadruplex-binding of the nickel complexes compared to that of the copper-containing ones. The complexes show significant antiproliferative activity for the compounds in a panel of cancer cell lines. They also show telomerase inhibitory activity in the telomerase TRAP-LIG assay. PMID:22112241

Campbell, Nancy H; Karim, Nurul H Abd; Parkinson, Gary N; Gunaratnam, Mekala; Petrucci, Vanessa; Todd, Alan K; Vilar, Ramon; Neidle, Stephen



Assessment of Prediction Confidence and Domain Extrapolation of Two Structure-Activity Relationship Models for Predicting Estrogen Receptor Binding Activity  

PubMed Central

Quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) methods have been widely applied in drug discovery, lead optimization, toxicity prediction, and regulatory decisions. Despite major advances in algorithms and software, QSAR models have inherent limitations associated with a size and chemical-structure diversity of the training set, experimental error, and many characteristics of structure representation and correlation algorithms. Whereas excellent fit to the training data may be readily attainable, often models fail to predict accurately chemicals that are outside their domain of applicability. A QSAR’s utility and, in the case of regulatory decisions, justification for usage increasingly depend on the ability to quantify a model’s potential for predicting unknown chemicals with some known degree of certainty. It is never possible to predict an unknown chemical with absolute certainty. Here we report on two QSAR models based on different data sets for classification of chemicals according to their ability to bind to the estrogen receptor. The models were developed by using a novel QSAR method, Decision Forest, which combines the results of multiple heterogeneous but comparable Decision Tree models to produce a consensus prediction. We used an extensive cross-validation process to define an applicability domain for model predictions based on two quantitative measures: prediction confidence and domain extrapolation. Together, these measures quantify the accuracy of each prediction within and outside of the training domain. Despite being based on large and diverse training sets, both QSAR models had poor accuracy for chemicals within the domain of low confidence, whereas good accuracy was obtained for those within the domain of high confidence. For prediction in the high confidence domain, accuracy was inversely proportional to the degree of domain extrapolation. The model with a larger training set of 1,092, compared with 232 for the other, was more accurate in predicting chemicals at larger domain extrapolation, and could be particularly useful for rapidly prioritizing potential endocrine disruptors from large chemical universe.

Tong, Weida; Xie, Qian; Hong, Huixiao; Shi, Leming; Fang, Hong; Perkins, Roger



Assessment of prediction confidence and domain extrapolation of two structure-activity relationship models for predicting estrogen receptor binding activity.  


Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) methods have been widely applied in drug discovery, lead optimization, toxicity prediction, and regulatory decisions. Despite major advances in algorithms and software, QSAR models have inherent limitations associated with a size and chemical-structure diversity of the training set, experimental error, and many characteristics of structure representation and correlation algorithms. Whereas excellent fit to the training data may be readily attainable, often models fail to predict accurately chemicals that are outside their domain of applicability. A QSAR's utility and, in the case of regulatory decisions, justification for usage increasingly depend on the ability to quantify a model's potential for predicting unknown chemicals with some known degree of certainty. It is never possible to predict an unknown chemical with absolute certainty. Here we report on two QSAR models based on different data sets for classification of chemicals according to their ability to bind to the estrogen receptor. The models were developed by using a novel QSAR method, Decision Forest, which combines the results of multiple heterogeneous but comparable Decision Tree models to produce a consensus prediction. We used an extensive cross-validation process to define an applicability domain for model predictions based on two quantitative measures: prediction confidence and domain extrapolation. Together, these measures quantify the accuracy of each prediction within and outside of the training domain. Despite being based on large and diverse training sets, both QSAR models had poor accuracy for chemicals within the domain of low confidence, whereas good accuracy was obtained for those within the domain of high confidence. For prediction in the high confidence domain, accuracy was inversely proportional to the degree of domain extrapolation. The model with a larger training set of 1,092, compared with 232 for the other, was more accurate in predicting chemicals at larger domain extrapolation, and could be particularly useful for rapidly prioritizing potential endocrine disruptors from large chemical universe. PMID:15345371

Tong, Weida; Xie, Qian; Hong, Huixiao; Shi, Leming; Fang, Hong; Perkins, Roger



Structure-activity relationships studies of quinoxalinone derivatives as aldose reductase inhibitors.  


Novel quinoxalinone derivatives were synthesized and tested for their inhibitory activity against aldose reductase. Among them, N1-acetate derivatives had significant activity in a range of IC50 values from low micromolar to submicromolar, and compound 15a bearing a C3-phenethyl side chain was identified as the most potent inhibitor with an IC50 value of 0.143 ?M. The structure-activity studies suggested that both C3-phenethyl and C6-NO2 groups play an important role in enhancing the activity and selectivity of the quinoxalinone based inhibitors. PMID:24793885

Hussain, Saghir; Parveen, Shagufta; Hao, Xin; Zhang, Shuzhen; Wang, Wei; Qin, Xiangyu; Yang, Yanchun; Chen, Xin; Zhu, Shaojuan; Zhu, Changjin; Ma, Bing



Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of carboxyflavones as structurally rigid CysLT1 (LTD4) receptor antagonists.  


The synthesis and CysLT1 receptor affinities of a new series of highly rigid 3'- and 4'-(2-quinolinylmethoxy)- or 3'- and 4'-[2-(2-quinolinyl)ethenyl]-substituted, 6-, 7-, or 8-carboxylated flavones are described. CysLT1 receptor affinities of the flavones (down to 11 nM) were determined by their ability to displace [3H]LTD4 from its receptor in guinea pig lung membranes. Structure-affinity relationship studies showed that the relative positions of the carboxylic acid and the quinoline moiety were critical for CysLT1 affinities. While the carboxyl is optimal in the 8 position but tolerated in the 6 position, only the 6- and not the 8-tetrazole has significant activity. The quinoline moiety may be connected to the flavone skeleton by an ethenyl or a methoxy linker, but the substitution position is important for high affinity, especially in the 6-carboxylated flavones. 4'-Substituted 6-carboxyflavones are essentially inactive, whereas the 3'-substituted analogues have submicromolar CysLT1 affinity. Replacement of the quinoline by other heteroaromates generally leads to decreased affinities, with the phenyl and naphthyl analogues displaying only little or no affinity, while the 7-chloroquinoline analogue is comparable in activity to the quinoline. Flavones having CysLT1 receptor affinities of 10-30 nM were selected for determination of their inhibitory effects on the LTD4-induced contraction of guinea pig ileum in vitro. The IC50 values ranged between 15 and 100 nM. Compound 5d (8-carboxy-6-chloro-3'-(2-quinolinylmethoxy)flavone, VUF 5087) was selected for further research because of its high potency in the functional assay. This series contains the most rigid CysLT1 receptor antagonists known to date, and they are useful in the development of a CysLT1 antagonist model, which is discussed in the companion paper. PMID:9554876

Zwaagstra, M E; Timmerman, H; van de Stolpe, A C; de Kanter, F J; Tamura, M; Wada, Y; Zhang, M Q



Structure-activity relationships of oligo-beta-glucoside elicitors of phytoalexin accumulation in soybean.  

PubMed Central

The abilities of a family of chemically synthesized oligo-beta-glucosides, ranging in size from hexamer to decamer, to induce phytoalexin accumulation in soybean cotyledons were investigated to determine which structural elements of the oligoglucosides are important for their biological activity. The results of the biological assays established that the following structural motif is necessary for the oligo-beta-glucosides to have high elicitor activity: [formula; see text] The branched trisaccharide at the nonreducing end of the oligoglucosides was found to be essential for maximum elicitor activity. Substitution of either the nonreducing terminal backbone glucosyl residue or the side-chain glucosyl residue closest to the nonreducing end with glucosaminyl or N-acetylglucosaminyl residues reduced the elicitor activity of the oligoglucosides between 10-fold and 10,000-fold. Elicitor activity was also reduced 1000-fold if the two side-chain glucosyl residues were attached to adjacent backbone glucosyl residues rather than to glucosyl residues separated by an unbranched residue. In contrast, modifications of the reducing terminal glucosyl residue of an elicitor-active hepta-beta-glucoside by conjugation with tyramine and subsequent iodination had no significant effect on the elicitor activity of the hepta-beta-glucoside. These results demonstrate that oligo-beta-glucosides must have a specific structure to trigger the signal transduction pathway, which ultimately leads to the de novo synthesis of phytoalexins in soybean.

Cheong, J J; Birberg, W; Fugedi, P; Pilotti, A; Garegg, P J; Hong, N; Ogawa, T; Hahn, M G



Oximes: inhibitors of human recombinant acetylcholinesterase. A structure-activity relationship (SAR) study.  


Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivators were developed for the treatment of organophosphate intoxication. Standard care involves the use of anticonvulsants (e.g., diazepam), parasympatolytics (e.g., atropine) and oximes that restore AChE activity. However, oximes also bind to the active site of AChE, simultaneously acting as reversible inhibitors. The goal of the present study is to determine how oxime structure influences the inhibition of human recombinant AChE (hrAChE). Therefore, 24 structurally different oximes were tested and the results compared to the previous eel AChE (EeAChE) experiments. Structural factors that were tested included the number of pyridinium rings, the length and structural features of the linker, and the number and position of the oxime group on the pyridinium ring. PMID:23959117

Sepsova, Vendula; Karasova, Jana Zdarova; Korabecny, Jan; Dolezal, Rafael; Zemek, Filip; Bennion, Brian J; Kuca, Kamil



Quantitative structure activity relationships of some pyridine derivatives as corrosion inhibitors of steel in acidic medium.  


Quantum chemical calculations using the density functional theory (B3LYP/6-31G DFT) and semi-empirical AM1 methods were performed on ten pyridine derivatives used as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in acidic medium to determine the relationship between molecular structure and their inhibition efficiencies. Quantum chemical parameters such as total negative charge (TNC) on the molecule, energy of highest occupied molecular orbital (E (HOMO)), energy of lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (E (LUMO)) and dipole moment (?) as well as linear solvation energy terms, molecular volume (Vi) and dipolar-polarization (?) were correlated to corrosion inhibition efficiency of ten pyridine derivatives. A possible correlation between corrosion inhibition efficiencies and structural properties was searched to reduce the number of compounds to be selected for testing from a library of compounds. It was found that theoretical data support the experimental results. The results were used to predict the corrosion inhibition of 24 related pyridine derivatives. PMID:21695505

El Ashry, El Sayed H; El Nemr, Ahmed; Ragab, Safaa



Diarylquinolines, synthesis pathways and quantitative structure--activity relationship studies leading to the discovery of TMC207.  


The emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and resistance to current anti-TB drugs call for the discovery and development of new effective anti-TB drugs. TMC207 is the lead candidate of a novel class of antimycobacterial agents, the diarylquinolines, which specifically inhibit mycobacterial ATP synthase and displays high activity against both drug-susceptible and multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This article covers both synthesis pathways as well as qualitative and quantitative analyses of the structure-activity relationships of the diarylquinoline series on Mycobacterium smegmatis activity. PMID:21879841

Guillemont, Jerome; Meyer, Christophe; Poncelet, Alain; Bourdrez, Xavier; Andries, Koen



Studies on the Synthesis of Derivatives of Marine-Derived Bostrycin and Their Structure-Activity Relationship against Tumor Cells  

PubMed Central

A series of new derivatives (5–29) of marine-derived bostrycin (1) were synthesized. The in vitro cytotoxic activities of all compounds were evaluated against MCF-7, MDA-MB-435, A549, HepG2, HCT-116 and MCF-10A cells using the MTT method. The compounds 7, 8, 22, 23, 25, 28 and 29 of the total showed comparable activity to epirubicin, the positive control, against the tested cancer cell lines. However, these compounds also exhibited cytotoxicity towards MCF-10A cells. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) of bostrycin derivatives was also discussed based on the obtained experimental data.

Chen, Hong; Zhong, Lili; Long, Yuhua; Li, Jia; Wu, Jueheng; Liu, Lan; Chen, Shengping; Lin, Yongcheng; Li, Mengfeng; Zhu, Xun; She, Zhigang



Structure-activity relationship of isolated avenanthramide alkaloids and synthesized related compounds as oviposition deterrents for Pieris brassicae.  


The structure-activity relationship was investigated of compounds isolated from the eggs of Pieris brassicae, the large white cabbage butterfly, and eight synthesized related compounds as oviposition deterrents for this insect. The activity of all compounds was tested in a dual-choice bioassay. The two most active oviposition deterrents for P. brassicae were trans-2- [3-(4-hydroxyphenylpropenoyl)amino]-3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid [8] and trans-2-[3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropenoyl)amino]-3,5-dihydroxybenzo ic acid [2]. Among members of this compound class, alteration of the substituents of the cinnamic acid part of the molecule affected the oviposition deterrent activity more profoundly than other structural changes. Modification of the anthranilic acid part of the molecule resulted in lower activity. PMID:7964796

Blaakmeer, A; van der Wal, D; Stork, A; van Beek, T A; de Groot, A; van Loon, J J



The development of structure-activity relationships for mitochondrial dysfunction: uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation.  


Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated as an important factor in the development of idiosyncratic organ toxicity. An ability to predict mitochondrial dysfunction early in the drug development process enables the deselection of those drug candidates with potential safety liabilities, allowing resources to be focused on those compounds with the highest chance of success to the market. A database of greater than 2000 compounds was analyzed to identify structural and physicochemical features associated with the uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation (herein defined as an increase in basal respiration). Many toxicophores associated with potent uncoupling activity were identified, and these could be divided into two main mechanistic classes, protonophores and redox cyclers. For the protonophores, potent uncoupling activity was often promoted by high lipophilicity and apparent stabilization of the anionic charge resulting from deprotonation of the protonophore. The potency of redox cyclers did not appear to be prone to variations in lipophilicity. Only 11 toxicophores were of sufficient predictive performance that they could be incorporated into a structural-alert model. Each alert was associated with one of three confidence levels (high, medium, and low) depending upon the lipophilicity-activity profile of the structural class. The final model identified over 68% of those compounds with potent uncoupling activity and with a value for specificity above 99%. We discuss the advantages and limitations of this approach and conclude that although structural alert methodology is useful for identifying toxicophores associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, they are not a replacement for the mitochondrial dysfunction assays in early screening paradigms. PMID:22977170

Naven, Russell T; Swiss, Rachel; Klug-McLeod, Jacquelyn; Will, Yvonne; Greene, Nigel



A segmented principal component analysis-regression approach to quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling.  


The major problem associated with application of principal component regression (PCR) in QSAR studies is that this model extracts the eigenvectors solely from the matrix of descriptors, which might not have essentially good relationship with the biological activity. This article describes a novel segmentation approach to PCR (SPCAR), in which the descriptors are firstly segmented to different blocks and then principal component analysis (PCA) is applied on each segment to extract significant principal components (PCs). In this way, the PCs having useful and redundant information are separated. A linear regression analysis based on stepwise selection of variables is then employed to connect a relationship between the informative extracted PCs and biological activity. The proposed method was first applied to model the aqueous toxicity of aliphatic compounds. The effect of the number of segments on the prediction ability of the method was investigated. Finally, a correlation analysis was achieved to identify those descriptors having significant contribution in the selected PCs and in aqueous toxicity. The proposed method was further validated by the analysis of Selwood data set consisting of 31 compounds and 53 descriptors. A comparison between the conventional PCR algorithm and SPCAR reveals the superiority of the latter. For external prediction set, SPCAR represented all requirements to be considered as predicted model whereas PCR did not. In addition, a comparison was made between the models obtained by SPCAR and those reported previously. PMID:19523553

Hemmateenejad, Bahram; Elyasi, Maryam



A quantitative reexamination of structure-activity relationships in the delta6-6-substituted progesterone series.  


14 6-substituted-Delta6-16-methylene-17alpha-hydroxy-4,6-prenadiene-3, 20-dione 17-acetate derivatives were analyzed by multiparameter regression techniques for quantitative structure-activity relationships. The parameters were published values for hydrophobic bonding power (pi), inductive effect (F), resonance effect (R), and molar refraction of the substituent (MR); the activity was progestational activity by Clauberg test. Least squares analysis showed that pi gave the best fit with single parameters. With 2 parameters, pi and F accounted for 69% of the variance. F and pi squared gave the best 3-term results, suggesting that pi values up to .50 permit the maximum progestational activity, but perhaps larger substituents decrease activity. The 6-methyl derivative was an exception, having 4 standard deviations' higher activity than computed by the 3-term equation, pointing to unusual metabolism. PMID:4845383

Wolff, M E




EPA Science Inventory

The demonstrated ability of a variety of structurally diverse chemicals to bind to the estrogen receptor has raised the concern that chemicals in the environment may be causing adverse effects through interference with nuclear receptor pathways. Many structure-activity relationsh...


Design and structure-activity relationship analysis of ligands of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid receptors.  


With the use of [3H]gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, binding experiments allowed the screening of new compounds as ligands of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid receptors. Starting from the acid-alcohol gamma-hydroxybutyric acid structure, structure-activity relation analysis and lead optimization highlighted gamma-hydroxybutyric acid derivatives with significantly increased affinities, when compared with the affinity of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid. Further pharmacological studies with the use of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid derivatives allowed the characterization of the first competitive antagonist acting at gamma-hydroxybutyric acid receptors (NCS 382). PMID:10869864

Bourguignon, J J; Schmitt, M; Didier, B



Evaluation and Structure-Activity Relationship Analysis of a New Series of Arylnaphthalene lignans as Potential Anti-Tumor Agents  

PubMed Central

Arylnaphthalene lignan lactones have attracted considerable interest because of their anti-tumor and anti-hyperlipidimic activities. However, to our knowledge, few studies have explored the effects of these compounds on human leukemia cell lines. In this study, five arylnaphthalene lignans including 6?-hydroxy justicidin A (HJA), 6?-hydroxy justicidin B (HJB), justicidin B (JB), chinensinaphthol methyl ether (CME) and Taiwanin E methyl ether (TEME) were isolated from Justicia procumbens and their effects on the proliferation and apoptosis of the human leukemia K562 cell line were investigated then used to assess structure-activity relationships. To achieve these aims, cytotoxicity was assayed using the MTT assay, while intracellular SOD activity was detected using the SOD Activity Assay kit. Apoptosis was measured by both the using a cycle TEST PLUS DNA reagent kit as well as the FITC Annexin V apoptosis detection kit in combination with flow cytometry. Activation of caspase-mediated apoptosis was evaluated using a FITC active Caspase-3 apoptosis kit and flow cytometry. The results indicated that HJB, HJA and JB significantly inhibited the growth of K562 cells by decreasing both proliferation and SOD activity and inducing apoptosis. The sequence of anti-proliferative activity induced by the five tested arylnaphthalenes by decreasing strength was HJB > HJA > JB > CME > TEME. HJB, HJA and JB also decreased SOD activity and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Activation of caspase-3 further indicated that HJB, HJA and JB induced caspase-dependent intrinsic and/or extrinsic apoptosis pathways. Together, these assays suggest that arylnaphthalene lignans derived from Justicia procumbens induce apoptosis to varying degrees, through a caspase-dependent pathway in human leukemia K562 cells. Furthermore, analysis of structure-activity relationships suggest that hydroxyl substitution at C-1 and C-6? significantly increased the antiproliferative activity of arylnaphthalene lignans while a methoxyl at C-1 significantly decreased the effect.

Luo, Jiaoyang; Hu, Yichen; Kong, Weijun; Yang, Meihua



Structure-activity relationship study of phenylpyrazole derivatives as a novel class of anti-HIV agents.  


The structure-activity relationship of phenylpyrazole derivative 1 was investigated for the development of novel anti-HIV agents. Initial efforts revealed that the diazenyl group can be replaced by an aminomethylene group. In addition, we synthesized various derivatives by the reductive amination of benzaldehydes with 5-aminopyrazoles and carried out parallel structural optimization on the benzyl group and the pyrazole ring. This optimization led to a six-fold more potent derivative 32j than the lead compound 1, and this derivative has a 3',4'-dichloro-(1,1'-biphenyl)-3-yl group. PMID:23845222

Mizuhara, Tsukasa; Kato, Takayuki; Hirai, Atsushi; Kurihara, Hideki; Shimada, Yasuhiro; Taniguchi, Masahiko; Maeta, Hideki; Togami, Hiroaki; Shimura, Kazuya; Matsuoka, Masao; Okazaki, Shiho; Takeuchi, Tomoki; Ohno, Hiroaki; Oishi, Shinya; Fujii, Nobutaka



Structure activity relationship of plumbagin in BRCA1 related cancer cells.  


It has been shown earlier that plumbagin, a naturally occurring naphthaquinone has specific anticancer activity in BRCA1 blocked ovarian cancer cells. Plumbagin can induce estrogen dependent cell signaling and apoptosis in BRCA1 blocked ovarian cancer cells. Being a reactive oxygen species (ROS) generator and apoptosis inducing agent, plumbagin has immense potential as a promising anticancer agent. In this study we analyzed whether there would be increased anticancer activity if the positions of the functional groups on plumbagin were altered and further to analyze the detailed molecular mechanism of action of the lead molecule. Methods like MTT assay, apoptosis analysis by flow cytometry, assessment of mitochondrial membrane potential-??m , suppression subtractive hybridization, microarray, molecular docking and estrogen receptor-DNA binding activity by electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA) were adopted for assessing the anticancer activity. Consequently we found that, plumbagin was the most potent anticancer agent when compared to structurally related compounds. The anti-cancer activities were in the order plumbagin > 1,4-naphthaquinone > juglone > lawsone > menadione. Molecular docking studies showed that plumbagin could be well docked in the receptor ligand complex of TRAIL-DR5 complexes to activate the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Since the antiproliferative activity of plumbagin could be reduced by inhibiting ER?, we speculated that plumbagin interferes with the binding of ER? to ERE and we confirmed this by EMSA. This study clearly indicates that plumbagin can induce multiple pathways of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in BRCA1 blocked cells compared to unblocked cells. PMID:22290577

K A, Thasni; T, Ratheeshkumar; G, Rojini; K C, Sivakumar; Nair, Rakesh Sathish; G, Srinivas; Banerji, Asoke; Somasundaram, Veena; Srinivas, Priya



Hydroxylated Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) as Estrogens and Antiestrogens: Structure–Activity Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of structure on the estrogenicity and antiestrogenicity of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls were investigated using the following estrogen-sensitive assays: competitive binding to the rat and mouse cytosolic estrogen receptor (ER); immature rat and mouse uterine wet weight, peroxidase and progesterone receptor (PR) levels; induction of luciferase activity in HeLa cells stably transfected with a Gal4:human ER chimera and a

K. Connor; K. Ramamoorthy; M. Moore; M. Mustain; I. Chen; S. Safe; T. Zacharewski; B. Gillesby; A. Joyeux; P. Balaguer



Structure-inhibitory activity relationships of pyrrolnitrin analogues on its biosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyrrolnitrin is a bacterial metabolite, served as a natural lead of agricultural fungicides. In a previous study, fenpiclonil\\u000a was proven to inhibit the oxidative transformation of aminopyrrolnitrin to pyrrolnitrin, catalyzed by aminopyrrolnitrin oxidase\\u000a (PrnD). This monooxygenase has an interesting catalytic activity of selective oxidation of aromatic amines, rather than aliphatic\\u000a amines. However, its structural details are not well understood. In

Young Soo Keum; Yong-Zhe Zhu; Jeong-Han Kim



Antifeedant activity of neo-clerodane diterpenes from Baccharis flabellata Hook & Arn var. flabellata toward Tribolium castaneum Herbst: structure-activity relationships.  


In order to establish structure-activity relationships, nine neo-clerodane diterpenes isolated from the acetone extract of aerial parts of Baccharis flabellata Hook & Arn var. fabellata were assayed for antifeedant activity against Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Compounds exhibiting maximal antifeedant activities showed an alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl group on the decalin portion and a furan ring at the side chain. Stereoelectronic studies indicate that the distance between the furan heteroatom and the more electrophilic carbon of the decaline moiety, as well as the electrostatic charge on that atom, were important features for antifeedant activity. Compounds possesing an alpha,beta,gamma,delta-unsaturated carbonyl group or an acetoxyl group at C-2, were inactive. Theoretical calculations were performed in order to find some structure-activity relationships. PMID:16753918

Juan Hikawczuk, Virgina E; López Verrilli, María A; Borkowski, Eduardo J; Sosa, Marta E; Giordano, Oscar S; Saad, José R; Tonn, Carlos E



Folate-vinca alkaloid conjugates for cancer therapy: a structure-activity relationship.  


Vintafolide is a potent folate-targeted vinca alkaloid small molecule drug conjugate (SMDC) that has shown promising results in multiple clinical oncology studies. Structurally, vintafolide consists of 4 essential modules: (1) folic acid, (2) a hydrophilic peptide spacer, (3) a disulfide-containing, self-immolative linker, and (4) the cytotoxic drug, desacetylvinblastine hydrazide (DAVLBH). Here, we report a structure-activity study evaluating the biological impact of (i) substituting DAVLBH within the vintafolide molecule with other vinca alkaloid analogues such as vincristine, vindesine, vinflunine, or vinorelbine; (ii) substituting the naturally (S)-configured Asp-Arg-Asp-Asp-Cys peptide with alternative hydrophilic spacers of varied composition; and (iii) varying the composition of the linker module. A series of vinca alkaloid-containing SMDCs were synthesized and purified by HPLC and LCMS. The SMDCs were screened in vitro against folate receptor (FR)-positive cells, and anti-tumor activity was tested against well-established subcutaneous FR-positive tumor xenografts. The cytotoxic and anti-tumor activity was directly compared to that produced by vintafolide. Among all the folate vinca alkaloid SMDCs tested, DAVLBH-containing SMDCs were active, while those constructed with vincristine, vindesine, or vinorelbine analogues failed to produce meaningful biological activity. Within the DAVLBH series, having a bioreleasable, self-immolative linker system was found to be critical for activity since multiple analogues constructed with thioether-based linkers all failed to produce meaningful activity both in vitro and in vivo. Substitutions of some or all of the natural amino acids within vintafolide's hydrophilic spacer module did not significantly change the in vitro or in vivo potency of the SMDCs. Vintafolide remains one of the most potent folate-vinca alkaloid SMDCs produced to date, and continued clinical development is warranted. PMID:24564229

Leamon, Christopher P; Vlahov, Iontcho R; Reddy, Joseph A; Vetzel, Marilynn; Santhapuram, Hari Krishna R; You, Fei; Bloomfield, Alicia; Dorton, Ryan; Nelson, Melissa; Kleindl, Paul; Vaughn, Jeremy F; Westrick, Elaine



Prediction of environmental degradation rates for High Production Volume Chemicals (HPVC) using Quantitative StructureActivity Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates of (bio)degradation kinetics for 1073 compounds in various\\u000aenvironmental compartments have been made as a part of the EU-project\\u000a'Fate and Activity Modelling of Environmental Pollutants using\\u000aStructure-Activity Relationships' (FAME). These estimates have been made\\u000afor all single compounds on the High Production Volume Chemicals (HPVC)\\u000alist of the European Union (as of June 4th 1995). No predictions can

Rorije E; Muller M; Peijnenburg WJGM



A distinct atomic structure-catalytic activity relationship in 3-10 nm supported Au particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bulk Au is very inert but Au nanoparticles less than 5 nm in size have been found to be catalytically active for several reactions, in particular for low-temperature oxidation of CO. Using high-energy X-ray diffraction coupled with atomic pair distribution function analysis and computer simulations we determine the structure of 3 nm and 10 nm Au particles supported on titania and silica as typical representatives of reducible and irreducible supports, respectively. We find that the synthesis protocol adopted in our work affects strongly and differently the structure of the Au nanoparticles on the different supports. This leads to clearly distinct dependences of the catalytic activity of the nanoparticles on their size. In the case of the silica support the catalytic activity of Au nanoparticles increases and in the case of the titania support it decreases with decreasing nanoparticle size. The experimental results are considered in terms of current theoretical predictions and found to be in good accord with them.Bulk Au is very inert but Au nanoparticles less than 5 nm in size have been found to be catalytically active for several reactions, in particular for low-temperature oxidation of CO. Using high-energy X-ray diffraction coupled with atomic pair distribution function analysis and computer simulations we determine the structure of 3 nm and 10 nm Au particles supported on titania and silica as typical representatives of reducible and irreducible supports, respectively. We find that the synthesis protocol adopted in our work affects strongly and differently the structure of the Au nanoparticles on the different supports. This leads to clearly distinct dependences of the catalytic activity of the nanoparticles on their size. In the case of the silica support the catalytic activity of Au nanoparticles increases and in the case of the titania support it decreases with decreasing nanoparticle size. The experimental results are considered in terms of current theoretical predictions and found to be in good accord with them. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: XRD patterns, and TEM and catalytic activity data. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05362h

Petkov, Valeri; Ren, Yang; Shan, Shiyao; Luo, Jin; Zhong, Chuan-Jian



Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy with Functionalized Fullerenes: Quantitative Structure-activity Relationships  

PubMed Central

Photosensitive dyes or photo sensitizers (PS) in combination with visible light and oxygen produce reactive oxygen species that kill cells in the process known as photodynamic therapy (PDT). Antimicrobial PDT employs PS that is selective for microbial cells and is a new treatment for infections. Most antimicrobial PS is based on tetrapyrrole or phenothiazinium structures that have been synthesized to carry quaternary cationic charges or basic amino groups. However we recently showed that cationic-substituted fullerene derivative were highly effective in killing a broad spectrum of microbial cells after illumination with white light. In the present report we compared a new group of synthetic fullerene derivatives that possessed either basic or quaternary amino groups as antimicrobial PS against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus), Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) and fungi (Candida albicans). Quantitative structure-function relationships were derived with LogP and hydrophilic lipophilic balance parameters. Compounds with non-quaternary amino groups tended to form nanoaggregates in water and were only effective against S. aureus. The most important determinant of effectiveness was an increased number of quaternary cationic groups that were widely dispersed around the fullerene cage to minimize aggregation. S. aureus was most susceptible; E. coli was intermediate, while C. albicans was the most resistant species tested. The high effectiveness of antimicrobial PDT with quaternized fullerenes suggest they may have applications in treatment of superficial infections (for instance in wounds and burns) where light penetration into tissue is not problematic.

Mizuno, Kazue; Zhiyentayev, Timur; Huang, Liyi; Khalil, Sarwat; Nasim, Faria; Tegos, George P; Gali, Hariprasad; Jahnke, Ashlee; Wharton, Tim; Hamblin, Michael R



Polycyclic aromatic compounds as anticancer agents: structure-activity relationships of chrysene and pyrene derivatives.  


A large number of diamides and diamines were synthesized using 6-amino chrysene and 1-amino pyrene as starting materials. A structure activity study with cis-platinum as internal control against animal and human tumor lines was carried out in vitro. This study indicated that the in vitro cytotoxicity toward these lines depends on the functionality present in the molecules. The diamino compounds were found to be more potent than the diamides, and these were equally active irrespective of the end heterocyclic group, whereas the activity of the diamides was strongly dependent on the terminal unit. In general, the diamides containing chrysene as the chromophore were more active than those with a pyrene ring. The size of the end heterocyclic ring, along with the nature of the spacer connecting the polycyclic ring to the heterocyclic ring, seemed to affect the biological activity in certain cell lines. Hemolysis experiments on a lead compound established that it had activities similar to those described for membrane-stabilizing agents. This agent also demonstrated the capacity to produce differentiation in leukemia cell lines. PMID:11310593

Banik, B K; Becker, F F



A class of promising acaricidal tetrahydroisoquinoline derivatives: synthesis, biological evaluation and structure-activity relationships.  


As part of our continuing research on isoquinoline acaricidal drugs, this paper reports the preparation of a series of the 2-aryl-1-cyano-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines with various substituents on the N-phenyl ring, their in vitro acaricidal activities against Psoroptes cuniculi, a mange mite, and discusses their SAR as well. The structures of all compounds, including 12 new ones, were elucidated by analysis of UV, IR, NMR, ESI-MS, HR-MS spectra and X-ray diffraction experiments. All target compounds showed varying degrees of activity at 0.4 mg/mL. Compound 1 showed the strongest activity, with a 50% lethal concentration value (LC50) of 0.2421 ?g/mL and 50% lethal time value (LT50) of 7.79 h, comparable to the standard drug ivermectin (LC50 = 0.2474 ?g/mL; LT50 = 20.9 h). The SAR showed that the substitution pattern on the N-aromatic ring exerted a significant effect on the activity. The substituents 2'-F, 3'-F, 2'-Cl, 2'-Br and 2'-CF3 remarkably enhanced the activity. Generally, for the isomers with the same substituents at different positions, the order of the activity was ortho > meta > para. It was concluded that the target compounds represent a class of novel promising candidates or lead compounds for the development of new tetrahydroisoquinoline acaricidal agents. PMID:24936707

Yang, Rui; Ruan, Qiao; Zhang, Bing-Yu; Zheng, Zuo-Lue; Miao, Fang; Zhou, Le; Geng, Hui-Ling



The Structure-Activity Relationship of an Ozonide Carboxylic Acid (OZ78) Against Fasciola hepatica  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we describe the SAR of ozonide carboxylic acid OZ78 (1) as the first part of our search for a trematocidal synthetic peroxide drug development candidate. We found that relatively small structural changes to 1 resulted most commonly in loss of activity against Fasciola hepatica in vivo. A spiroadamantane substructure and acidic functional group (or ester prodrug) were required for activity. Of twenty-six new compounds administered at single 100 mg/kg oral doses to F. hepatica-infected rats, eight had statistically significant worm burden reductions, seven were partially curative, and one (acyl sulfonamide 6) was completely curative and comparable to 1 in flukicidal efficacy. This study also showed that the activity of 1 is peroxide bond-dependent suggesting that its flukicidal efficacy depends upon hemoglobin digestion in F. hepatica.

Zhao, Qingjie; Vargas, Mireille; Dong, Yuxiang; Zhou, Lin; Wang, Xiaofang; Sriraghavan, Kamaraj; Keiser, Jennifer; Vennerstrom, Jonathan L.



Study of structure-activity relationship of enantiomeric, protonated and deprotonated forms of warfarin via vibrational spectroscopy and DFT calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure-activity relationship of the anticoagulant drug warfarin were studied by studying two enantiomeric forms (S-form and R-form) of warfarin and its protonated as well as deprotonated structures in aqueous media using density functional theory (DFT). Theoretically computed Raman and IR spectra of all the computed structures were compared and their specific vibrational spectroscopic signatures were discussed. The percentage contributions of individual normal modes of warfarin, which provides direct evidence of the different molecular activity due to change in relative atomic position of atoms in molecule, were investigated through potential energy distribution (PED). The optimized energy and molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) maps show that the S-form of the drug molecules warfarin is energetically more stable than R-form and provides higher docking opportunity for the molecular binding with the receptors in the bio-systems.

Mishra, Alok; Srivastava, Sunil Kumar; Swati, D.



Structure-activity relationship studies on unifiram (DM232) and sunifiram (DM235), two novel and potent cognition enhancing drugs.  


Structure-activity relationships on two novel potent cognition enhancing drugs, unifiram (DM232, 1) and sunifiram (DM235, 2), are reported. Although none of the compounds synthesised reached the potency of the parent drugs, some fairly active compounds have been identified that may represent new leads to develop other cognition enhancing drugs. An interesting result of this research is the identification of two compounds (13 and 14) that are endowed with amnesing activity (the opposite of the activity of the original molecules) and are nearly equipotent to scopolamine. Moreover, two compounds of the series (5 and 6) were found endowed with analgesic activity on a rat model of neuropathic pain at the dose of 1 mg/kg. PMID:14697772

Scapecchi, Serena; Martini, Elisabetta; Manetti, Dina; Ghelardini, Carla; Martelli, Cecilia; Dei, Silvia; Galeotti, Nicoletta; Guandalini, Luca; Novella Romanelli, Maria; Teodori, Elisabetta



Quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling of renin-inhibiting dipeptides.  


Partial least squares regression method was used to analyze a peptide dataset and construct inhibitory models for renin-inhibitory natural dipeptides. The models were computed with the renin-inhibitory activity as dependent variable (Y) and the peptide structural properties as predictors (X); validation was conducted using cross-validation and permutation tests. The amino acid descriptors were based on the 3- and 5-z scales of 20 coded amino acids to produce models that explained 71.6% of Y with a 33.8% predictive ability and 75.2% of Y with a predictive power of 50.8%, respectively. In both models, low molecular size amino acids with hydrophobic side chains were preferred at the N-terminus, while amino acids with bulky side chains were preferred at the C-terminus for potency. Based on the 5-z model, four Trp (W)-containing antihypertensive dipeptides (IW, LW, VW and AW) were predicted as the most potent renin inhibitors. The peptides were synthesized and in vitro inhibition assay showed that IW and LW inhibited 70% (IC(50), 2.3 mM) and 37% renin activity at 3.2 mM, respectively, whereas VW and AW were inactive. There was no correlation between the observed renin-inhibitory activities and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activities of the dipeptides. We concluded that the structural similarities between isoleucine and leucine could have contributed to their distinct inhibitory activity when compared to alanine and valine. Therefore, IW may be a useful template for the development of advanced forms of highly active low molecular size antihypertensive peptides and peptidomimetics. PMID:21246225

Udenigwe, Chibuike C; Li, Huan; Aluko, Rotimi E



Synthesis and structure-activity relationship study of 8-hydroxyquinoline-derived Mannich bases as anticancer agents.  


To continue our early study on the structural modifications of clioquinol, more 8-hydroxyquinoline-derived Mannich bases were synthesized and examined for growth-inhibitory effect. Taken Mannich base 1 as our lead compound, upon replacement of either sulfonyl group with methylene group or piperazine ring with ethylenediamine group resulted in an appreciable increase in potency. On the other hand, as 8-hydroxyquinoline was replaced with phenol, 3-hydroxypyridine and 1-naphthol, a dramatic decrease in activity was observed, indicating that 8-hydroxyquinoline is a crucial scaffold for activity. Further 3D-QSAR analysis on HeLa cells revealed that both steric and electronic effects contributed equally to growth inhibition. Taken together, the structure-activity relationships obtained from both in vitro data and CoMFA model warrant a valuable reference for further study. PMID:20359788

Shaw, Arthur Y; Chang, Chun-Yi; Hsu, Mei-Yuan; Lu, Pei-Jung; Yang, Chia-Ning; Chen, Hui-Ling; Lo, Cheng-Wei; Shiau, Chung-Wai; Chern, Ming-Kai



Structure-activity relationships of neuropeptide FF: role of C-terminal regions.  


A structure-activity study was carried out to determine the importance of the C-terminal amino acids of the octapeptide Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) in binding and agonistic activity. Affinities of NPFF analogues were tested toward NPFF receptors of the rat spinal cord and the human NPFF2 receptors transfected in CHO cells. The activities of these analogues were evaluated by their ability to both inhibit adenylate cyclase in NPFF2 receptor transfected CHO cells and to reverse the effect of nociceptin on acutely dissociated rat dorsal raphe neurons. The substitutions of Phenylalanine8 by a tyrosine, phenylglycine or homophenylalanine were deleterious for high affinity. Similarly, the replacement of Arginine7 by a lysine or D. Arginine induces a loss in affinity. The pharmacological characterization showed that the presence of the amidated Phe8 and Arg7 residues are also extremely critical for activation of anti-opioid effects on dorsal raphe neurons. The sequence of the C-terminal dipeptide seems also to be responsible for the high affinity and the activity on human NPFF2 receptors. The results support the view that a code messaging the molecular interaction toward NPFF-receptors is expressed in the C-terminal region of these peptides but the N-terminal segment is important to gain very high affinity. PMID:11514031

Mazarguil, H; Gouardères, C; Tafani, J A; Marcus, D; Kotani, M; Mollereau, C; Roumy, M; Zajac, J M



Gate-dependent blockade of sodium channels by phenothiazine derivatives: structure-activity relationships.  


Voltage-clamp studies of myelinated nerve fibers that are designed to determine structural criteria regarding selective drug blocking of open and inactive states of the sodium channel are described. A series of phenothiazines were studied. It was shown that two of these drugs (ethmozine and ethacizine, at 5 microM) require open channels for blocking action and the other two (chlorpromazine and chloracizine, at 5 microM) can effectively block inactive channels. A size criterion, which looks at the spanning width at the aromatic end of these molecules, can explain this qualitative difference in drug action. Other important differences in the action of these four drugs are described, including their rates of development of drug block and removal of drug block. Relevant critiques of proposed structure-activity hypotheses are given. PMID:1328843

Bolotina, V; Courtney, K R; Khodorov, B



Structure-Activity Relationship in Nanostructured Copper-Ceria-Based Preferential CO Oxidation Catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Two series of nanostructured oxidized copper-cerium catalysts with varying copper loadings, and prepared, respectively, by impregnation of ceria and by coprecipitation of the two components within reverse microemulsions, have been characterized in detail at structural and electronic levels by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) (including Ar{sup +}-sputtering), and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). These results have been correlated with analysis of their catalytic properties for preferential oxidation of CO in a H{sub 2}-rich stream (CO-PROX), complemented by Operando-DRIFTS. A relevant difference between the two series of catalysts concerns the nature of the support for the surface-dispersed copper oxide entities, which is essentially ceria for the samples prepared by impregnation and a Ce-Cu mixed oxide for those prepared by microemulsion-coprecipitation. The existence of copper segregation in the form of copper oxide or copper-enriched Cu-Ce mixed oxides for the latter type of samples is uniquely revealed by nanoprobe XEDS and XPS Ar{sup +}-sputtering experiments. The CO oxidation activity under CO-PROX conditions is correlated to the degree of support-promoted reduction achieved by the dispersed copper oxide particles under reaction conditions. Nevertheless, catalysts which display higher CO oxidation activity are generally more efficient also for the undesired H{sub 2} oxidation reaction. The balance between both reactions results in differences in the CO-PROX activity between the two series of catalysts which are examined on the basis of the structural differences found.

Gamarra,D.; Munuera, G.; Hungria, A.; Fernandez-Garcia, M.; Conesa, J.; Midgley, P.; Wang, X.; Hanson, J.; Rodriguez, J.; Martinez-Arias, A.



Cytocompatibility and P-glycoprotein inhibition of block copolymers: structure-activity relationship.  


Amphiphilic polymeric micelles greatly improve the solubilization and sustained release of hydrophobic drugs and provide a protective environment for the cargo molecules in aqueous media, which favors lower drug administration doses, reduces adverse side effects, and increases blood circulation times and passive targeting to specific cells. These capabilities depend, among other variables, on the structure and composition of the polymer chains. Composition and, in particular, block length have been shown to play an important role in the modification of cellular responses such as drug internalization processes or transduction pathways when polymeric unimer/micelles are in close contact with cells. Here we present a detailed study about the role copolymer structure and composition play on cell viability and cellular response of several cell lines. To do that, more than 30 structurally related copolymers with diblock and triblock architectures containing different hydrophobic blocks and poly(ethylene oxide) as the common hydrophilic unit have been analyzed regarding cytocompatibility and potential as "active" cell response modifiers by testing their influence on the P-gp pump efflux mechanism responsible of multidrug resistance in cancerous cells. An empirical threshold for cell viability could be established at a copolymer EO/POeffective value above ca. 1.5 for copolymers with triblock structure, whereas no empirical rule could be observed for diblocks. Moreover, some of the tested copolymers (e.g., BO12EO227BO12 and EO57PO46EO57 that notably increased and C16EO455C16 that decreased the P-gp ATPase activity) were observed to act as efficient inhibitors of the P-gp efflux pump promoting an enhanced doxorubicin (DOXO) accumulation inside multidrug resistant (MDR) NCI-ADR-RES cells. PMID:23763603

Cambón, A; Brea, J; Loza, M I; Alvarez-Lorenzo, C; Concheiro, A; Barbosa, S; Taboada, P; Mosquera, V



Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of dihydrobenzofuran derivatives as novel human GPR119 agonists.  


Through appropriate medicinal chemistry design tactics and computer-assisted conformational modeling, the initial lead A was evolved into a series of dihydrobenzofuran derivatives 3 as potent GPR119 agonists. This Letter describes the optimization of general structure 3, including the substituent(s) on dihydrobenzofuran, the R(1) attachment on right-hand piperidine nitrogen, and the left-hand piperidine/piperazine and its attachment R(2). The efforts led to the identification of compounds 13c and 24 as potent human GPR119 modulators with favorable metabolic stability, ion channel activity, and PXR profiles. PMID:24755425

Ye, Xiang-Yang; Morales, Christian L; Wang, Ying; Rossi, Karen A; Malmstrom, Sarah E; Abousleiman, Mojgan; Sereda, Larisa; Apedo, Atsu; Robl, Jeffrey A; Miller, Keith J; Krupinski, John; Wacker, Dean A



Macrobenthos community structure and trophic relationships within active and inactive Pacific hydrothermal sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrothermal fluids passing through sediments create a habitat hypothesized to influence the community structure of infaunal macrobenthos. Here we characterize the density, biomass, species composition, diversity, distributions, lifestyle, and nutritional sources of macroinfauna in hydrothermal sediments in NE and SW Pacific settings, and draw comparisons in search of faunal attributes characteristic of this habitat. There is increasing likelihood that seafloor massive sulfide deposits, associated with active and inactive hydrothermal venting, will be mined commercially. This creates a growing imperative for a more thorough understanding of the structure, dynamics, and resilience of the associated sediment faunas, and has stimulated the research presented here. Macrobenthic assemblages were studied at Manus Basin (1430-1634 m, Papua New Guinea [PNG]) as a function of location (South Su vs. Solwara 1), and hydrothermal activity (active vs. inactive), and at Middle Valley (2406-2411 m, near Juan de Fuca Ridge) as a function of habitat (active clam bed, microbial mat, hot mud, inactive background sediment). The studies conducted in PNG formed part of the environmental impact assessment work for the Solwara 1 Project of Nautilus Minerals Niugini Limited. We hypothesized that hydrothermally active sites should support (a) higher densities and biomass, (b) greater dominance and lower diversity, (c) a higher fraction of deposit feeders, and (d) greater isotopic evidence for chemosynthetic food sources than inactive sites. Manus Basin macrofauna generally had low density (<1000 ind. m -2) and low biomass (0.1-1.07 g m -2), except for the South Su active site, which had higher density (3494 ind. m -2) and biomass (11.94 g m -2), greater dominance (R1D=76%), lower diversity and more spatial (between-core) homogeneity than the Solwara 1 and South Su inactive sites. Dominant taxa at Manus Basin were Spionidae ( Prionospio sp.) in active sediments, and tanaids and deposit-feeding nuculanoid bivalves in active and inactive sediments. At Middle Valley, hot mud sediments supported few animals (1011 ind m -2) and low biomass (1.34 g m -2), while active clam bed sediments supported a high-density (19,984 ind m -2), high-biomass (4.46 g m -2), low-diversity assemblage comprised of largely orbiniid and syllid polychaetes. Microbial mat sediments had the most diverse assemblage (mainly orbiniid, syllid, dorvilleid, and ampharetid polychaetes) with intermediate densities (8191 ind m -2) and high biomass (4.23 g m -2). Fauna at both Manus Basin active sites had heavy ? 13C signatures (-17‰ to -13‰) indicative of chemosynthetic, TCA-cycle microbes at the base of the food chain. In contrast, photosynthesis and sulfide oxidation appear to fuel most of the fauna at Manus Basin inactive sites (? 13C=-29‰ to -20‰) and Middle Valley active clam beds and microbial mats (? 13C=-36‰ to -20‰). The two hydrothermal regions, located at opposite ends of the Pacific Ocean, supported different habitats, sharing few taxa at the generic or family level, but both exhibited elevated infaunal density and high dominance at selected sites. Subsurface-deposit feeding and bacterivory were prevalent feeding modes. Both the Manus Basin and Middle Valley assemblages exhibit significant within-region heterogeneity, apparently conferred by variations in hydrothermal activity and associated biogenic habitats.

Levin, Lisa A.; Mendoza, Guillermo F.; Konotchick, Talina; Lee, Raymond



Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies for predicting activation of the ryanodine receptor type 1 channel complex (RyR1) by polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) was developed to predict the congener specific ryanodine receptor type RyR1 activity of all 209 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. A three-variable QSAR equation was obtained via stepwise forward linear regression on an unsupervised forward selection reduced data set from an initial database. Application of the QSAR towards predicting EC2x values for all 209 PCB congeners

Sierra Rayne; Kaya Forest



Summary and recommendations for session B: activity classification and structure-activity relationship modeling for human health risk assessment of toxic substances  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major theme of Session B explored and assessed the current status of activity-classification (AC)1 and structure-activity-relationship (SAR) methods developed to model adverse health effects that can result when biological systems are exposed to various chemical substances. The output from such models is intended to be used as information that supports risk assessments performed on toxic substances. Speakers gave special

Douglas W. Bristol



A quantitative structure-activity relationship study on a few series of anti-hepatitis C virus agents.  


A 2-Dimensional Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship study has been performed on 2 series of hepatitis C virus (HCV) inhibitors, i.e., Isothiazoles and Thiazolones. In each case significant correlations are found between the anti-HCV potencies and some physicochemical, electronic and steric properties of the compounds, indicating that for the first series the activity is controlled by density and two indicator parameters (one for halogen and other for methyl), while for the second series density, Hammett constant and Kier's first order valence molecular connectivity index are important for anti-HCV activity. The validity of the correlation has been judged by leave-one-out jackknife procedure and predicting the activity of some test compounds. Using the correlations obtained, some new compounds of high potency have been predicted in each series. PMID:22530896

Varshney, Jonish; Sharma, Anjana; Gupta, Satya P



Trimethoxy-chalcone derivatives inhibit growth of Leishmania braziliensis: synthesis, biological evaluation, molecular modeling and structure-activity relationship (SAR).  


In this work we described the synthesis, the antileishmanial activity and the molecular modeling and structure-activity relationship (SAR) evaluations of a series of chalcone derivatives. Among these compounds, the methoxychalcones 2h, 2i, 2j, 2k and 2l showed significant antileishmanial activity (IC(50)<10 ?M). Interestingly 2i (IC(50)=2.7 ?M), 2j (IC(50)=3.9 ?M) and 2k (IC(50)=4.6 ?M) derivatives presented better antileishmanial activity than the control drug pentamidine (IC(50)=6.0 ?M). Our SAR study showed the importance of methoxy di-ortho substitution at phenyl ring A and the relationship between the frontier orbital HOMO coefficients distribution of these molecules and their activity. The most active compounds 2h, 2i, 2j, 2k, and 2l fulfilled the Lipinski rule-of-five which theoretically is important for good drug absorption and permeation through biological membranes. The potential profile of 2j (IC(50)=3.9 ?M and CC(50)=216 ?M) pointed this chalcone derivative as a hit compound to be further explored in antileishmanial drug design. PMID:21757358

Bello, Murilo Lamim; Chiaradia, Louise Domeneghini; Dias, Luiza Rosaria Sousa; Pacheco, Letícia Kramer; Stumpf, Taisa Regina; Mascarello, Alessandra; Steindel, Mário; Yunes, Rosendo Augusto; Castro, Helena Carla; Nunes, Ricardo José; Rodrigues, Carlos Rangel



Cellular localization of dieldrin and structure-activity relationship of dieldrin analogues in dopaminergic cells.  


The incidence of Parkinson's disease (PD) correlates with environmental exposure to pesticides, such as the organochlorine insecticide, dieldrin. Previous studies found an increased concentration of the pesticide in the striatal region of the brains of PD patients and also that dieldrin adversely affects cellular processes associated with PD. These processes include mitochondrial function and reactive oxygen species production. However, the mechanism and specific cellular targets responsible for dieldrin-mediated cellular dysfunction and the structural components of dieldrin contributing to its toxicity (toxicophore) have not been fully defined. In order to identify the toxicophore of dieldrin, a structure-activity approach was used, with the toxicity profiles of numerous analogues of dieldrin (including aldrin, endrin, and cis-aldrin diol) assessed in PC6-3 cells. The MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays were used to monitor cell viability and membrane permeability after treatment with each compound. Cellular assays monitoring ROS production and extracellular dopamine metabolite levels were also used. Structure and stereochemistry for dieldrin were found to be very important for toxicity and other end points measured. Small changes in structure for dieldrin (e.g., comparison to the stereoisomer endrin) yielded significant differences in toxicity. Interestingly, the cis-diol metabolite of dieldrin was found to be significantly more toxic than the parent compound. Disruption of dopamine catabolism yielded elevated levels of the neurotoxin, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde, for many organochlorines. Comparisons of the toxicity profiles for each dieldrin analogue indicated a structure-specific effect important for elucidating the mechanisms of dieldrin neurotoxicity. PMID:23763672

Allen, Erin M G; Florang, Virginia R; Davenport, Laurie L; Jinsmaa, Yunden; Doorn, Jonathan A



Structure-activity relationship of Trp-containing analogs of the antimicrobial peptide gomesin.  


Gomesin (Gm) has a broad antimicrobial activity making it of great interest for development of drugs. In this study, we analyzed three Gm analogs, [Trp(1) ]-Gm, [Trp(7) ]-Gm, and [Trp(9) ]-Gm, in an attempt to gain insight into the contributions of different regions of the peptide sequence to its activity. The incorporation of the tryptophan residue in different positions has no effect on the antimicrobial and hemolytic activities of the Gm analogs in relation to Gm. Spectroscopic studies (circular dichroism, fluorescence and absorbance) of Gm and its analogs were performed in the presence of SDS, below and above its critical micelle concentration (CMC) (~8?mM), in order to monitor structural changes induced by the interaction with this anionic surfactant (0-15?mM). Interestingly, we found that the analogs interact more strongly with SDS at low concentrations (0.3-6.0?mM) than close to or above its CMC. This suggests that SDS monomers are able to cover the whole peptide, forming large detergent-peptide aggregates. On the other hand, the peptides interact differently with SDS micelles, inserting partially into the micelle core. Among the peptides, Trp in position 1 becomes more motionally-restricted in the presence of SDS, probably because this residue is located at the N-terminal region, which presents higher conformational freedom to interact stronger with SDS molecules. Trp residues in positions 7 and 9, close to and in the region of the turn of the molecule, respectively, induced a more constrained structure and the compounds cannot insert deeper into the micelle core or be completely buried by SDS monomers. Copyright © 2014 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24706599

Domingues, Tatiana M; Buri, Marcus V; Daffre, Sirlei; Campana, Patricia T; Riske, Karin A; Miranda, Antonio



Design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationship studies of 4-quinolinyl- and 9-acrydinylhydrazones as potent antimalarial agents.  


Malaria is a major health problem in poverty-stricken regions where new antiparasitic drugs are urgently required at an affordable price. We report herein the design, synthesis, and biological investigation of novel antimalarial agents with low potential to develop resistance and structurally based on a highly conjugated scaffold. Starting from a new hit, the designed modifications were performed hypothesizing a specific interaction with free heme and generation of radical intermediates. This approach provided antimalarials with improved potency against chloroquine-resistant plasmodia over known drugs. A number of structure-activity relationship (SAR) trends were identified and among the analogues synthesized, the pyrrolidinylmethylarylidene and the imidazole derivatives 5r, 5t, and 8b were found as the most potent antimalarial agents of the new series. The mechanism of action of the novel compounds was investigated and their in vivo activity was assessed. PMID:18278859

Fattorusso, Caterina; Campiani, Giuseppe; Kukreja, Gagan; Persico, Marco; Butini, Stefania; Romano, Maria Pia; Altarelli, Maria; Ros, Sindu; Brindisi, Margherita; Savini, Luisa; Novellino, Ettore; Nacci, Vito; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Parapini, Silvia; Basilico, Nicoletta; Taramelli, Donatella; Yardley, Vanessa; Croft, Simon; Borriello, Marianna; Gemma, Sandra



Phenylpropiophenone derivatives as potential anticancer agents: synthesis, biological evaluation and quantitative structure-activity relationship study.  


Series of twelve chalcone and propafenone derivatives has been synthesized and evaluated for anticancer activities against HeLa, Fem-X, PC-3, MCF-7, LS174 and K562 cell lines. The 2D-QSAR and 3D-QSAR studies were performed for all compounds with cytotoxic activities against each cancer cell line. Partial least squares (PLS) regression has been applied for selection of the most relevant molecular descriptors and QSAR models building. Predictive potentials of the created 2D-QSAR and 3D-QSAR models for each cell line were compared, by use of leave-one-out cross-validation and external validation, and optimal QSAR models for each cancer cell line were selected. The QSAR studies have selected the most significant molecular descriptors and pharmacophores of the chalcone and propafenone derivatives and proposed structures of novel chalcone and propafenone derivatives with enhanced anticancer activity on the HeLa, Fem-X, PC-3, MCF-7, LS174 and K562 cells. PMID:23501110

Ivkovi?, Branka M; Nikolic, Katarina; Ili?, Bojana B; Žižak, Željko S; Novakovi?, Radmila B; ?udina, Olivera A; Vladimirov, Sote M



Structural relationship between the active sites of ?-lactam-recognizing and amidase signature enzymes: convergent evolution?  


The ?-lactam-recognizing enzymes (BLRE) make up a superfamily of largely bacterial proteins that include, principally, the dd-peptidases and ?-lactamases. The former enzymes catalyze the final step in bacterial cell wall biosynthesis and are inhibited by ?-lactam antibiotics, while the latter enzymes catalyze the hydrolytic destruction of ?-lactams and represent a major source of bacterial resistance to these antibiotics. The active site of this superfamily of enzymes includes a Ser1/Ser2(Tyr)/Lys1(His)/Lys2 tetrad in which Ser1 is a nucleophilic catalyst that becomes acylated in the formation of an acyl-enzyme intermediate. An oxyanion hole is also present. The amidase signature (AS) enzymes represent another serine amidohydrolase superfamily with no overall structural resemblance to the BLRE. The active site is characterized by a Ser1/Ser2/Lys1/NH tetrad and an oxyanion hole. We point out that there is a close spatial overlap between the two tetrads and speculate that this has arisen from a process of convergent evolution driven by a mechanistic imperative. Conversion of the backbone NH group of the AS tetrad into Lys2 of the BLRE is rationalized and leads to another mechanistic possibility that may dominate BLRE catalysis. The active site triads of other serine amidohydrolases are also briefly and comparatively discussed. PMID:20977193

Pratt, R F; McLeish, Michael J



Structure-activity relationship studies on the mosquito toxicity and biting deterrency of callicarpenal derivatives.  


Callicarpenal (=13,14,15,16-tetranorclerod-3-en-12-al=[(1S,2R,4aR,8aR)-1,2,3,4,4a,7,8,8a-octahydro-1,2,4a,5-tetramethylnaphthalen-1-yl]acetaldehyde; 1) has previously demonstrated significant mosquito bite-deterring activity against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi in addition to repellent activity against host-seeking nymphs of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis. In the present study, structural modifications were performed on callicarpenal (1) in an effort to understand the functional groups necessary for maintaining and/or increasing its activity and to possibly lead to more effective insect control agents. All modifications in this study targeted the C(12) aldehyde or the C(3) alkene functionalities or combinations thereof. Mosquito biting deterrency appeared to be influenced most by C(3) alkene modification as evidenced by catalytic hydrogenation that resulted in a compound having significantly less effectiveness than 1 at a test amount of 25 nmol/cm2. Oxidation and/or reduction of the C(12) aldehyde did not diminish mosquito biting deterrency, but, at the same time, none of the modifications were more effective than 1 in deterring mosquito biting. Toxicities of synthesized compounds towards Ae. aegypti ranged from an LD50 value of 2.36 to 40.11 microg per mosquito. Similarly, LD95 values ranged from a low of 5.59 to a high of 104.9 microg. PMID:19353538

Cantrell, Charles L; Klun, Jerome A; Pridgeon, Julia; Becnel, James; Green, Solomon; Fronczek, Frank R



Using quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling to quantitatively predict the developmental toxicity of halogenated azole compounds.  


Developmental toxicity is a relevant endpoint for the comprehensive assessment of human health risk from chemical exposure. However, animal developmental toxicity data remain unavailable for many environmental contaminants due to the complexity and cost of these types of analyses. Here we describe an approach that uses quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling as an alternative methodology to fill data gaps in the developmental toxicity profile of certain halogenated compounds. Chemical information was obtained and curated using the OECD Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Toolbox, version 3.0. Data from 35 curated compounds were analyzed via linear regression to build the predictive model, which has an R(2) of 0.79 and a Q(2) of 0.77. The applicability domain (AD) was defined by chemical category and structural similarity. Seven halogenated chemicals that fit the AD but are not part of the training set were employed for external validation purposes. Our model predicted lowest observed adverse effect level values with a maximal threefold deviation from the observed experimental values for all chemicals that fit the AD. The good predictability of our model suggests that this method may be applicable to the analysis of qualifying compounds whenever developmental toxicity information is lacking or incomplete for risk assessment considerations. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24122872

Craig, Evisabel A; Wang, Nina Ching; Zhao, Q Jay



Computer-aided study of the relationship between structure and antituberculosis activity of a series of isoniazid derivatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Multiple Computer Automated Structure Evaluation (MultiCASE) program was used to analyze the relationship between the structure and antituberculous activity of a series of 136 hydrazides, most of them isoniazid related. The structural features revealed by this analysis are discussed. The most significant one seemed to be the distance between the pyridinic nitrogen and the terminal nitrogen of the hydrazido group. Given the affiliation of these two heteroatoms with a planar conjugated system, we suggest that Schiff base chemistry similar to that of vitamin B 6 may be involved in the mode of action of isoniazid and its related compounds. A mechanism of action of isoniazid is proposed and suggestions for the design of new isoniazid-type drugs are made.

Klopman, Gilles; Fercu, Dan; Jacob, Jason



Design, synthesis and structure-activity relationships of novel benzoxazolone derivatives as 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) ligands.  


Selective 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) ligands are expected to be therapeutic agents with a wide spectrum of action on psychiatric disorders and fewer side effects. We designed novel benzoxazolone derivatives and examined the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of a series of compounds with various substituents at the amide part and C-5 position. Although a number of the synthesized compounds showed high TSPO binding affinity, these compounds had poor drug-like properties. Further optimization of pharmacokinetic properties of these compounds led to discovery of compound 74, which exhibited anxiolytic effect in the rat Vogel conflict model. PMID:22884355

Fukaya, Takayuki; Kodo, Toru; Ishiyama, Takeo; Kakuyama, Hiroyoshi; Nishikawa, Hiroyuki; Baba, Satoko; Masumoto, Shuji



Structure-activity relationship observations for European corn borer moth pheromone and fluoro analogs via computer molecular modeling.  


Structure-activity relationship (SAR) observations were made for theZ-type European corn borer moth pheromone, (Z)-11-tetradecen-1-ol acetate, and a series of analogs with fluorination in the alcohol portion of the molecule. The attractiveness of these analogs and the pheromone was compared to the electrostatic potential map of the molecular mechanics (MM) minimized lowest energy conformation for each compound. A critical range of electrostatic potential on the protons of the double-bond appears to be essential for optimal acceptor fit and attractiveness. PMID:24233896

Warthen, J D; Klun, J A; Schwarz, M; Wakabayashi, N



Molecular docking, kinetics study, and structure-activity relationship analysis of quercetin and its analogous as Helicobacter pylori urease inhibitors.  


It was disclosed in our group for the first time that the flavonoids in Lonicera japonica Thunb. are related to its therapy for gastric ulcer. Based on this finding, 20 flavonoids were selected for Helicobacter pylori urease inhibitory activity evaluation, and quercetin showed excellent potency with IC(50) of 11.2 ± 0.9 ?M. Structure-activity relationship analysis revealed that removal of the 5-, 3-, or 3'-OH in quercetin led to a sharp decrease in activity. Thus, 3- and 5-OH as well as 3',4'-dihydroxyl groups are believed to be the key structural characteristics for active compounds, which was supported by the molecular docking study. Meanwhile, the results obtained from molecular docking and enzymatic kinetics research strongly suggested that quercetin is a noncompetitive urease inhibitor, indicating that quercetin may be able to tolerate extensive structural modification irrespective of the shape of the active site cavity and could be used as a lead candidate for the development of novel urease inhibitors. PMID:23067328

Xiao, Zhu-Ping; Wang, Xu-Dong; Peng, Zhi-Yun; Huang, Shen; Yang, Pan; Li, Qing-Shan; Zhou, Li-Hu; Hu, Xiao-Jun; Wu, Li-Jun; Zhou, Yin; Zhu, Hai-Liang



Structure-activity relationships of pentamidine-affected ion channel trafficking and dofetilide mediated rescue  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Drug interference with normal hERG protein trafficking substantially reduces the channel density in the plasma membrane and thereby poses an arrhythmic threat. The chemical substructures important for hERG trafficking inhibition were investigated using pentamidine as a model drug. Furthermore, the relationship between acute ion channel block and correction of trafficking by dofetilide was studied. Experimental Approach hERG and KIR2.1 trafficking in HEK293 cells was evaluated by Western blot and immunofluorescence microscopy after treatment with pentamidine and six pentamidine analogues, and correction with dofetilide and four dofetilide analogues that displayed different abilities to inhibit IKr. Molecular dynamics simulations were used to address mode, number and type of interactions between hERG and dofetilide analogues. Key Results Structural modifications of pentamidine differentially affected plasma membrane levels of hERG and KIR2.1. Modification of the phenyl ring or substituents directly attached to it had the largest effect, affirming the importance of these chemical residues in ion channel binding. PA-4 had the mildest effects on both ion channels. Dofetilide corrected pentamidine-induced hERG, but not KIR2.1 trafficking defects. Dofetilide analogues that displayed high channel affinity, mediated by pi-pi stacks and hydrophobic interactions, also restored hERG protein levels, whereas analogues with low affinity were ineffective. Conclusions and Implications Drug-induced trafficking defects can be minimized if certain chemical features are avoided or ‘synthesized out’; this could influence the design and development of future drugs. Further analysis of such features in hERG trafficking correctors may facilitate the design of a non-blocking corrector for trafficking defective hERG proteins in both congenital and acquired LQTS.

Varkevisser, R; Houtman, M J C; Linder, T; de Git, K C G; Beekman, H D M; Tidwell, R R; IJzerman, A P; Stary-Weinzinger, A; Vos, M A; van der Heyden, M A G



Structure-activity relationships of organic acid anhydrides as antigens in an animal model.  


Relationships between chemical structure and immunogenicity have been studied in 13 dicarboxylic acid anhydrides. Guinea-pigs were immunized intradermally by a single dose of 0.3 M solutions of succinic anhydride (SA), maleic anhydride (MA), methylmaleic anhydride (MMA), cis-cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic anhydride (cis-HHPA), trans-cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic anhydride (trans-HHPA), 4-methylcyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic anhydride (MHHPA), cis-1,2,3,6-tetrahydrophthalic anhydride (THPA1236), cis-3,4,5,6-tetrahydrophthalic anhydride (THPA3456), cis-3-methylcyclohex-4-ene-1,2-dicarboxylic anhydride (MTHPA34), cis-4-methylcyclohex-4-ene-1,2-dicarboxylic anhydride (MTHPA44), phthalic anhydride (PA), 4-methylphthalic anhydride (MPA), and trimellitic anhydride (TMA) in olive oil. Specific IgE, IgG, IgG1, and IgG2 antibodies against guinea-pig serum albumin conjugates of the anhydrides were determined by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) tests and enzyme-linked immunoabsorbant assay (ELISA). Specific IgG was significantly increased in all animals, except those immunized with THPA3456 and SA, which sensitized only 3/9 and 7/9 animals, respectively. Furthermore, the specific IgG values were very low in the SA group. The titers of specific IgG1 and IgG2 were increased in the IgG-positive animals. Specific IgE was positive in all animals immunized with MA, MHHPA, MTHPA (both isomers), and MPA, and in 6/9 and 5/9 guinea pigs immunized with TMA and MMA, respectively. The IgE titers were generally very low; PCA was negative after dilutions to 1:32, or less. The results indicate a considerable variation in the sensitizing potential between different organic acid anhydrides. The most marked general effect of the chemical structure on immunogenicity was the enhancement of antibody formation when a hydrogen atom in the anhydride was substituted with a methyl group. PMID:8545845

Welinder, H; Zhang, X; Gustavsson, C; Björk, B; Skerfving, S



Structure-activity relationships of alkylphosphocholine derivatives: antineoplastic action on brain tumor cell lines in vitro.  


Erucylphosphocholine (ErPC) is a promising candidate for the treatment of human brain tumors. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether structural modifications of ErPC would improve its antineoplastic activity in vitro. The novel alkylphosphocholine (APC) derivatives docosenyl-( cis-10,11)-phosphocholine, tricosenyl-( cis-12,13)-phosphocholine, heneicosenyl-( cis-12,13)-phosphocholine and erucyl- N, N, N-trimethylpropanolaminophosphate all reduced cell growth and viability of rat and human astrocytoma/glioblastoma (AC/GBM) cell lines (C6, T98G, U87MG, A172) and had improved antineoplastic activity when compared to the prototypical APC hexadecylphosphocholine (HePC). However, the four cell lines differed in their sensitivity to the APC derivatives. A172 cells were most sensitive to their cytostatic action and T98G cells to their cytotoxic action. The LC(50) values for T98G cells after a 72-h exposure to the novel derivatives varied between 25 and 54 microM compared to 45+/-8.1 microM for ErPC. Complete killing of T98G cells was obtained with all derivatives at 90 microM. Structural modifications of the chain length of the alcohol moiety as well as changing the position of the double bond within the alkyl chain improved cytotoxicity of the APC in C6 and A172 cells and to a lesser extent in T98G cells, whereas U87MG cells showed almost similar sensitivities to the novel drugs and ErPC. Increasing the distance between the phosphorus and nitrogen atoms within the polar phosphocholine group did not alter antineoplastic activity but modified physicochemical characteristics, e.g. increased the solubility in water. In a similar manner to ErPC, all derivatives induced growth arrest in the G(2)/M phase of the cell cycle and apoptotic cell death. Importantly, none of the derivatives showed hemolytic activity. As there was no clear superiority of any of the novel derivatives, ErPC remains the leading APC derivative for future clinical trials in brain tumor chemotherapy. PMID:12111115

Jendrossek, Verena; Hammersen, Kerstin; Erdlenbruch, Bernhard; Kugler, Wilfried; Krügener, Regina; Eibl, Hansjörg; Lakomek, Max



Structure-activity relationships of melanocortin agonists containing the benzimidazole scaffold.  


The melanocortin system has been implicated in regulating various physiological processes including pigmentation, energy homeostasis, obesity, steroidogenesis cardiovascular, and exocrine gland function. The five melanocortin receptors that belong to the super family of G protein-coupled receptors are stimulated by naturally occurring agonists. The aim of this research was focused on the design, synthesis, and pharmacological characterization of melanocortin ligands that contain the 1,2,5-trisubstituted benzimidazole scaffold. A series of benzimidazole analogues, with three points of diversity at positions 1, 2, and 5, were designed, synthesized, pharmacologically assayed at the mouse melanocortin receptors MC1R, MC3R, MC4R, and MC5R and resulted in ligands possessing a range of agonist activity from nm to no stimulation at up to 100 microM concentrations. This study demonstrates that the benzimidazole structure template can be appended with key melanocortin agonist amino acids for the design melanocortin receptor agonist ligands. PMID:17539826

Todorovic, Aleksandar; Joseph, Christine G; Sorensen, Nicholas B; Wood, Michael S; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie



Use of a (quantitative) structure-activity relationship [(Q)SAR] model to predict the toxicity of naphthenic acids.  


Naphthenic acids (NA) are a complex mixture of carboxylic acids that are natural constituents of oil sand found in north-eastern Alberta, Canada. NA are released and concentrated in the alkaline water used in the extraction of bitumen from oil sand sediment. NA have been identified as the principal toxic components of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), and microbial degradation of lower molecular weight (MW) NA decreases the toxicity of NA mixtures in OSPW. Analysis by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy indicated that larger, more cyclic NA contain greater carboxylic acid content, thereby decreasing their hydrophobicity and acute toxicity in comparison to lower MW NA. The relationship between the acute toxicity of NA and hydrophobicity suggests that narcosis is the probable mode of acute toxic action. The applicability of a (quantitative) structure-activity relationship [(Q)SAR] model to accurately predict the toxicity of NA-like surrogates was investigated. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ECOSAR model predicted the toxicity of NA-like surrogates with acceptable accuracy in comparison to observed toxicity values from Vibrio fischeri and Daphnia magna assays, indicating that the model has potential to serve as a prioritization tool for identifying NA structures likely to produce an increased toxicity. Investigating NA of equal MW, the ECOSAR model predicted increased toxic potency for NA containing fewer carbon rings. Furthermore, NA structures with a linear grouping of carbon rings had a greater predicted toxic potency than structures containing carbon rings in a clustered grouping. PMID:20077300

Frank, Richard A; Sanderson, Hans; Kavanagh, Richard; Burnison, B Kent; Headley, John V; Solomon, Keith R



Design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationship studies of novel thioether pleuromutilin derivatives as potent antibacterial agents.  


A series of novel thioether pleuromutilin derivatives incorporating various heteroaromatic substituents into the C14 side chain have been reported. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies resulted in compounds 52 and 55 with the most potent in vitro antibacterial activity among the series (MIC = 0.031-0.063 ?g/mL). Further optimization to overcome the poor water solubility of compound 55 resulted in compounds 87, 91, 109, and 110 possessing good in vitro antibacterial activity with increased hydrophilicity. Compound 114, the water-soluble phosphate prodrug of compound 52, was also prepared and evaluated. Among the derivatives, compound 110 showed moderate pharmacokinetic profiles and good in vivo efficacy in both MSSA and MRSA systemic infection models. Compound 110 was further evaluated in CYP450 inhibition assay and displayed intermediate in vitro inhibition of CYP3A4. PMID:24874438

Ling, Chenyu; Fu, Liqiang; Gao, Suo; Chu, Wenjing; Wang, Hui; Huang, Yanqin; Chen, Xiaoyan; Yang, Yushe



Structure-Activity Relationships of Antitubercular Salicylanilides Consistent with Disruption of the Proton Gradient via Proton Shuttling  

PubMed Central

A series of salicylanilides was synthesized based on a high-throughput screening hit against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A free phenolic hydroxyl on the salicylic acid moeity is required for activity, and the structure-activity relationship of the aniline ring is largely driven by the presence of electron withdrawing groups. We synthesized 94 analogs exploring substitutions of both rings and the linker region in this series and we have identified multiple compounds with low micromolar potency. Unfortunately, cytotoxicity in a murine macrophage cell line trends with antimicrobial activity, suggesting a similar mechanism of action. We propose that salicylanilides function as proton shuttles that kill cells by destroying the cellular proton gradient, limiting their utility as potential therapeutics.

Lee, Ill-Young; Gruber, Todd D.; Samuels, Amanda; Yun, Minhan; Nam, Bora; Kang, Minseo; Crowley, Kathryn; Winterroth, Benjamin; Boshoff, Helena I.; Barry, Clifton E.



Discovery and structure-activity relationships of modified salicylanilides as cell permeable inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG)  

PubMed Central

The metabolism of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) in response to DNA strand breaks, which involves the concerted activities of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) and poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG), modulates cell recovery or cell death depending upon the level of DNA damage. While PARP inhibitors show high promise in clinical trials due to their low toxicity and selectivity for BRCA related cancers, evaluation of the therapeutic potential of PARG is limited by the lack of well-validated cell permeable inhibitors. In this study, Target-related Affinity Profiling (TRAP), an alternative to high-throughput screening, was used to identify a number of drug-like compounds from several chemical classes that demonstrated PARG inhibition in the low-micromolar range. A number of analogs of one of the most active chemotypes were synthesized to explore structure-activity relationship (SAR) for that series. This led to the discovery of a putative pharmacophore for PARG inhibition that contains a modified salicylanilide structure. Interestingly, these compounds also inhibit PARP-1, indicating strong homology in the active sites of PARG and PARP-1, and raising a new challenge for development of PARG specific inhibitors. The cellular activity of a lead inhibitor was demonstrated by the inhibition of both PARP and PARG activity in squamous cell carcinoma cells, although preferential inhibition of PARG relative to PARP was observed. The ability of inhibitors to modulate PAR metabolism via simultaneous effects on PARPs and PARG may represent a new approach for therapeutic development.

Steffen, Jamin D.; Coyle, Donna L.; Damodaran, Komath; Beroza, Paul; Jacobson, Myron K.



Structure-activity relationship of CuO/MnO2 catalysts in CO oxidation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of CuO/MnO2 catalysts with different CuO loadings were synthesized by the incipient wetness impregnation method. The catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, H2-temperature programmed reduction, CO-temperature programmed reduction and scanning electron microscope. The CuO/MnO2 catalysts with CuO loading of 1-40% exhibit almost the same catalytic performance toward CO oxidation while those with higher CuO loadings exhibit a much poorer catalytic activity. The structural characterization results demonstrate that the CuO-MnO2 interface is the active site for CO oxidation in CuO/MnO2 catalysts and CO oxidation over CuO/MnO2 probably follows the interfacial reaction mechanism in which CO chemisorbed on CuO reacts with oxygen species on MnO2 at the CuO-MnO2 interface.

Qian, Kun; Qian, Zhaoxia; Hua, Qing; Jiang, Zhiquan; Huang, Weixin



Structure-activity relationships of the inhibition of human placental aromatase by imidazole drugs including ketoconazole.  


The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of several imidazole drugs to inhibit human placental aromatase compared with the known inhibitors of aromatase, 4-hydroxyandrostenedione (4-OHA) and aminoglutethimide (AG). Inhibition was similar with both androstenedione and testosterone as substrates. The order of decreasing inhibitory effect (determined from ID50 values) was: 4-OHA greater than tioconazole greater than econazole greater than bifonazole greater than clotrimazole greater than micomazole greater than isoconazole greater than ketoconazole greater than AG greater than nimorazole. The imidazole drugs and AG were reversible inhibitors of aromatase activity, in contrast 4-OHA was an irreversible inhibitor. Astemizole inhibited less than 40% whereas metronidazole, carbimazole, mebendazole, tinidazole and thiabendazole inhibited less than 20% of aromatase activity at 100 mumol/l. The imidazole drugs and AG were without effect on 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-isomerase (3 beta-HSD-I) and 17 beta-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase activity. In contrast 4-OHA was found to be a potent, reversible inhibitor of 3 beta-HSD-I with an ID50 value of 2.15 mumol/l. A common structural feature of the imidazole drugs having an inhibitory effect was the presence of one or more aromatic rings on the N-1 substituent. In contrast, the imidazole drugs having the imidazole ring fused to a benzene ring, i.e. benzimidazoles (astemizole, mebendazole, thiabendazole) and those having an aliphatic side chain on the N-1 of the imidazole ring (carbimazole, metronidazole, nimorazole, tinidazole) were only weak inhibitors of aromatase. PMID:3398530

Ayub, M; Levell, M J



Thermodynamics of engineered gold binding peptides: establishing the structure-activity relationships.  


Adsorption behavior of a gold binding peptide was experimentally studied to achieve kinetics and thermodynamics parameters toward understanding of the binding of an engineered peptide onto a solid metal surface. The gold-binding peptide, GBP1, was originally selected using a cell surface display library and contains 14 amino acid residues. In this work, single- and three-repeats of GBP1 were used to assess the effects of two parameters: molecular architecture versus secondary structure on adsorption on to gold substrate. The adsorption measurements were carried out using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy at temperatures ranging from 10 to 55 °C. At all temperatures, two different regimes of peptide adsorption were observed, which, based on the model, correspond to two sets of thermodynamics values. The values of enthalpy, ?Hads, and entropy, ?Sads, in these two regimes were determined using the van't Hoff approach and Gibbs-Helmholtz relationship. In general, the values of enthalpy for both peptides are negative indicating GBP1 binding to gold is an exothermic phenomenon and that the binding of three repeat gold binding peptide (3l-GBP1) is almost 5 times tighter than that for the single repeat (l-GBP1). More intriguing result is that the entropy of adsorption for the 3l-GBP1 is negative (-43.4 ± 8.5 cal/(mol K)), while that for the l-GBP1 is positive (10.90 ± 1.3 cal/(mol K)). Among a number of factors that synergistically contribute to the decrease of entropy, long-range ordered self-assembly of the 3l-GBP1 on gold surface is the most effective, probably through both peptide-solid and peptide-peptide intermolecular interactions. Additional adsorption experiments were conducted in the presence of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) to determine how the conformational structures of the biomolecules responded to the environmental perturbation. We found that the peptides differ in their conformational responses to the change in solution conditions; while l-GBP does not fold in the presence of TFE, 3l-GBP1 adopted two types of secondary structure (?-strand, ?-helix) and that peptide's binding to the solid is enhanced by the presence of low percentages of TFE solvent. Not only do these kinetics and thermodynamics results provide adsorption behavior and binding of genetically engineered peptides for inorganics (GEPI), but they could also provide considerable insights into fundamental understanding peptide molecular recognition and their selective specificity for the solids. Moreover, comprehensive work described herein suggests that multiple repeat forms of the solid binding peptides possess a conformational component that can be exploited to further tailor affinity and binding of a given sequence to a solid material followed by ordered assembly as a convenient tool in future practical applications. PMID:24892212

Seker, Urartu Ozgur Safak; Wilson, Brandon; Kulp, John L; Evans, John S; Tamerler, Candan; Sarikaya, Mehmet



Structure-Activity Relationships in Predictive Toxicology. A Report of the CAAT Technical Workshop. Held in Baltimore, Maryland on June 21-22, 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Workshop on Structure-Activity Relationships in Predictive Toxicology conducted at the Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health was the third in the series of scientific workshops held under the auspices of the Johns Hopkins Center...

S. S. Sehnert



Structure-activity relationship and comparative docking studies for cycloguanil analogs as PfDHFR-TS inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Drug resistance acquired by Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) is a major problem in the treatment and control of malaria. One of the major examples of drug resistance is that caused by mutations in the active site of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) of Pf (PfDHFR-TS). A double mutation, A16V+S108T, is specific for resistance to the marketed drug cycloguanil. In this study, we used 58 cycloguanil (2,4-diamino-1,6-dihydro-1,3,5-triazine) derivatives to explore the relationship between various physico-chemical properties and reported binding affinity data on wild type and A16V+S108T mutant type. Using the Hansch 2D-QSAR method, we obtained a parabolic relationship of hydrophobicity of substituents at the N1-phenyl ring with the wild type binding affinity data. Hydrophobicity being a key property for wild type binding affinity data, we found steric factors to be crucial for A16V+S108T mutant resistance. We investigated FlexX, GOLD, Glide and Molegro virtual docking programs and 13 different scoring functions on 10 of the cycloguanil derivatives to evaluate which program was best for reproducing the experimental binding mode and correlating the docking scores with the reported binding affinity data. We identified GOLD using its GoldScore fitness function as the most accurate docking program for predicting binding affinity data of cycloguanil derivatives to DHFR and Molegro virtual docker with its template docking algorithm and MolDock [GRID] scoring function as most accurate for reproducing the experimental binding mode of a reference ligand that is structurally similar to the cycloguanil derivatives studied. We also report an interaction index which best describes the structure-activity relationships exhibited by these analogs in terms of PfDHFR-TS active site interactions.

Sivaprakasam, Prasanna; Tosso, Perrer N.; Doerksen, Robert J.



Synthesis, fungicidal activity, and structure-activity relationship of spiro-compounds containing macrolactam (macrolactone) and thiadiazoline rings.  


Two series of novel spiro-compounds containing macrolactam or macrolactone and thiadiazoline rings, 1-thia-2-alkylimino-3,4,9-triaza-10-oxospiro[4.15]eicosyl-3-ene (4F) and 1-thia-2-alkylimino-3,4-diaza-9-oxa-10-oxospiro[4.15]eicosyl-3-ene (4G), were synthesized from 12-oxo-1,15-pentadecanlactam and 12-oxo-1,15-pentadecanlactone, respectively. Their structures were confirmed by elemental analysis, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR. The conformation of compounds 4F was determined via the crystal structure of a representative compound (4F(6)). The bioassay showed that compounds 4F have much better fungicidal activity against five fungi ( Botrytis cinerea Pers., Sclerotinia sclerotiorum , Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn., Phomopsis asparagi Sacc., and Pyricularia oryzae Cav.) than compounds 4G. The fact above showed that the presence of a hydrogen-bonding donor for the fungicidal activity of macrocyclic compounds is very important. 4F(6) showed excellent fungicidal activity against P. oryzae, which is much better than the commercial fungicide isoprothiolane, and 4F(13) showed excellent fungicidal activity against P. oryzae and good fungicidal activity against P. asparagi. PMID:20041703

Li, Jian-Jun; Liang, Xiao-Mei; Jin, Shu-Hui; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Yuan, Hui-Zhu; Qi, Shu-Hua; Chen, Fu-Heng; Wang, Dao-Quan



Estrogen receptor modulators: identification and structure-activity relationships of potent ERalpha-selective tetrahydroisoquinoline ligands.  


As part of a program aimed at the development of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), tetrahydroisoquinoline derivative 27 was discovered by high throughput screening. Successive replacements of the p-F substituent of 27 by an aminoethoxy side chain and of the 1-H of the tetrahydroisoquinoline core by a 1-Me group provided analogues 19 and 20. These compounds showed potencies in a cell-based reporter gene assay (ERE assay) varying between 0.6 and 20 nM and displayed antagonist behaviors in the MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cell line with IC(50)s in the range of 2-36 nM. The effect of N-phenyl substituents on the activity and pharmacokinetic properties of tetrahydroisoquinoline analogues was explored. As a result of this investigation, two potent derivatives bearing a p-F N-aryl group, 19c and 20c, were discovered as candidates suitable for further profiling. To gain insight into the ligand-receptor interaction, the X-ray crystallographic structure of the 1-H tetrahydroisoquinoline derivative (R)-18a in complex with ERalpha-ligand binding domain (LBD)(301)(-)(553)/C-->S triple mutant was solved to 2.28 A. An overlay of this X-ray crystal structure with that reported for the complex of ERalpha-LBD(301)(-)(553)/carboxymethylated C and raloxifene (5) shows that both compounds bind to the same cleft of the receptor and display comparable binding modes, with differences being observed in the conformation of their "D-ring" phenyl groups. PMID:12825935

Renaud, Johanne; Bischoff, Serge François; Buhl, Thomas; Floersheim, Philipp; Fournier, Brigitte; Halleux, Christine; Kallen, Joerg; Keller, Hansjoerg; Schlaeppi, Jean-Marc; Stark, Wilhelm



A Systematic Investigation of Quaternary Ammonium Ions as Asymmetric Phase Transfer Catalysts. Application of Quantitative Structure Activity/Selectivity Relationships  

PubMed Central

While the synthetic utility of asymmetric phase transfer catalysis continues to expand, the number of proven catalyst types and design criteria remains limited. At the origin of this scarcity is a lack in understanding of how catalyst structural features affect the rate and enantioselectivity of phase transfer catalyzed reactions. Described in this paper is the development of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) and -selectivity relationships (QSSR) for the alkylation of a protected glycine imine with libraries of quaternary ammonium ion catalysts. Catalyst descriptors including ammonium ion accessibility, interfacial adsorption affinity, and partition coefficient were found to correlate meaningfully with catalyst activity. The physical nature of the descriptors was rationalized through differing contributions of the interfacial and extraction mechanisms to the reaction under study. The variation in the observed enantioselectivity was rationalized employing a comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) using both the steric and electrostatic fields of the catalysts. A qualitative analysis of the developed model reveals preferred regions for catalyst binding to afford both configurations of the alkylated product.

Denmark, Scott E.; Gould, Nathan D.; Wolf, Larry M.



Structure-activity relationship and metabolic stability studies of backbone cyclization and N-methylation of melanocortin peptides.  


Backbone cyclization (BC) and N-methylation have been shown to enhance the activity and/or selectivity of biologically active peptides and improve metabolic stability and intestinal permeability. In this study, we describe the synthesis, structure-activity relationship (SAR) and intestinal metabolic stability of a backbone cyclic peptide library, BL3020, based on the linear alpha-Melanocyte stimulating hormone analog Phe-D-Phe-Arg-Trp-Gly. The drug lead, BL3020-1, selected from the BL3020 library (compound 1) has been shown to inhibit weight gain in mice following oral administration. Another member of the BL3020 library, BL3020-17, showed improved biological activity towards the mMC4R, in comparison to BL3020-1, although neither were selective for MC4R or MC5R. N-methylation, which restrains conformational freedom while increasing metabolic stability beyond that which is imparted by BC, was used to find analogs with increased selectivity. N-methylated backbone cyclic libraries were synthesized based on the BL3020 library. SAR studies showed that all the N-methylated backbone cyclic peptides demonstrated reduced biological activity and selectivity for all the analyzed receptors. N-methylation of active backbone cyclic peptides destabilized the active conformation or stabilized an inactive conformation, rendering the peptides biologically inactive. N-methylation of backbone cyclic peptides maintained stability to degradation by intestinal enzymes. PMID:18655141

Linde, Yaniv; Ovadia, Oded; Safrai, Eli; Xiang, Zhimin; Portillo, Federico P; Shalev, Deborah E; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie; Hoffman, Amnon; Gilon, Chaim



Effects of flavonoids on nonenzymatic lipid peroxidation: structure-activity relationship.  


The in vitro effects of several flavonoids on nonenzymatic lipid peroxidation in the rat brain mitochondria was studied. The lipid peroxidation was indexed by measuring the MDA production using the 2-thiobarbituric acid TBA test. The flavonoids, apigenin, flavone, flavanone, hesperidin, naringin, and tangeretin promoted the ascorbic acid-induced lipid peroxidation, the extent of which depended upon the concentration of the flavonoid and ascorbic acid. The other flavonoids studied, viz., quercetin, quercetrin, rutin, taxifolin, myricetin, myricetrin, phloretin, phloridzin, diosmetin, diosmin, apiin, hesperetin, naringenin, (+)-catechin, morin, fisetin, chrysin, and 3-hydroxyflavone, all showed varying extents of inhibition of the nonenzymatic lipid peroxidation, induced by either ascorbic acid or ferrous sulfate. The flavonoid aglycones were more potent in their antiperoxidative action than their corresponding glycosides. Structure-activity analysis revealed that the flavonoid molecule with polyhydroxylated substitutions on rings A and B, a 2,3-double bond, a free 3-hydroxyl substitution and a 4-keto moiety, would confer upon the compound potent antiperoxidative properties. PMID:3355718

Ratty, A K; Das, N P



Dinuclear alkyldiamine platinum antitumor compounds: a structure-activity relationship study.  


Six related dinuclear trans-platinum complexes, with the formula [[trans-PtCl(2)(NH(3))(L)](2)(mu-H(2)N(CH(2))(n)NH(2))](2+) (L = pyridine, 2-picoline, 4-picoline; n = 4, 6) and chloride or nitrate anions, are compared with known cytotoxic dinuclear compounds (L = NH(3); n = 4, 6) that overcome cisplatin resistance. The cytotoxicity of the compounds was determined in L1210 murine leukemia and L1210/2, a cisplatin-resistant derivative. Unlike the L = NH(3) compounds, the substituted n = 4 compounds are more susceptible toward the resistance mechanisms in L1201/2. The n = 6 compounds, however, have comparable IC(50) values in both cell lines. In general, the substituted compounds are less cytotoxic than their NH(3) counterparts. After incubation with equimolar concentrations, the amount of platinum bound to cellular DNA was determined. The compounds show comparable binding, except for the sterically hindered 2-picoline compounds that bind significantly less. The amounts of platinum bound to DNA do not correlate with the cytotoxicity data. As DNA is considered to be the cellular target of platinum antitumor drugs, structural details of the DNA adducts probably account for the differences in cytotoxic activity. PMID:11170634

Jansen, B A; van der Zwan, J; den Dulk, H; Brouwer, J; Reedijk, J



Quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mutagenicity by classification methods based on holistic theoretical molecular descriptors.  


Various polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), ubiquitous environmental pollutants, are recognized mutagens and carcinogens. A homogeneous set of mutagenicity data (TA98 and TA100,+S9) for 32 benzocyclopentaphenanthrenes/chrysenes was modeled by the quantitative structure-activity relationship classification methods k-nearest neighbor and classification and regression tree, using theoretical holistic molecular descriptors. Genetic algorithm provided the selection of the best subset of variables for modeling mutagenicity. The models were validated by leave-one-out and leave-50%-out approaches and have good performance, with sensitivity and specificity ranges of 90-100%. Mutagenicity assessment for these PAHs requires only a few theoretical descriptors of their molecular structure. PMID:16616369

Gramatica, Paola; Papa, Ester; Marrocchi, Assunta; Minuti, Lucio; Taticchi, Aldo



Theoretical Investigations and Density Functional Theory Based Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships Model for Novel Cytotoxic Platinum(IV) Complexes  

PubMed Central

Octahedral platinum(IV) complexes are promising candidates in the fight against cancer. In order to rationalize the further development of this class of compounds, detailed studies on their mechanisms of action, toxicity, and resistance must be provided and structure–activity relationships must be drawn. Herein, we report on theoretical and QSAR investigations of a series of 53 novel bis-, tris-, and tetrakis(carboxylato)platinum(IV) complexes, synthesized and tested for cytotoxicity in our laboratories. The hybrid DFT functional wb97x was used for optimization of the structure geometry and calculation of the descriptors. Reliable and robust QSAR models with good explanatory and predictive properties were obtained for both the cisplatin sensitive cell line CH1 and the intrinsically cisplatin resistant cell line SW480, with a set of four descriptors.



Application of thin-layer chromatographic data in quantitative structure-activity relationship assay of thiazole and benzothiazole derivatives with H1-antihistamine activity. I.  


A quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis of H1-antihistamine activity and chromatographic data of 2-[2-(phenylamino)thiazol-4-yl]ethanamine; 2-(2-benzyl-4-thiazolyl)ethanamine; 2-(2-benzhydrylthiazol-4-yl)ethylamine derivative; 2-(1-piperazinyl- and 2-(hexahydro-1H-1,4-diazepin-1-yl)benzothiazole derivatives was made. The RP2 thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates (silica gel RP2 60F254 silanised precoated), impregnated with solutions of selected amino acid mixtures (L-Asp, L-Asn, L-Thr and L-Lys), were used in two developing solvents as hH1R antagonistic interaction models. Using regression analysis, the relationships between chromatographic and biological activity data were found. The correlations obtained in regression analysis for the examined thiazole and benzothiazole derivatives with H1-antihistamine activity [pA2(H1)] represent their interaction with all the proposed biochromatographic models (S1-S7). Some of the calculated equations can be applied to predict the pharmacological activity of new drug candidates. The best multivariate relationships useful in predicting the pharmacological activity of thiazole and benzothiazole derivatives were obtained under the condition of experiment with RP2 TLC plates using the developing solvent acetonitrile-methanol-buffer (40:40:20, v/v). The log P values of particular compounds are extremely important for this kind of activity. PMID:12924560

Brzezi?ska, Elzbieta; Ko?ka, Grazyna; Walczy?ski, Krzysztof



Type AII lantibiotic bovicin HJ50 with a rare disulfide bond: structure, structure-activity relationships and mode of action.  


Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides containing unusual amino acids. As promising alternatives to conventional antibiotics, they have a high potential for alleviating the problem of emergent antibiotic resistance, with possible applications in many industries that have antibacterial demand. Bovicin HJ50 is a type AII lantibiotic, the largest group of lantibiotics, comprising a linear N-terminal region and a globular C-terminal region. Interestingly, bovicin H50 has a disulfide bond that is rare in this group. Owing to limited information about the spatial structures of type AII lantibiotics, the functional regions of this type and the role of the disulfide bond are still unknown. In the present study, we resolved the solution structure of bovicin HJ50 using NMR spectroscopy. This is the first spatial structure of a type AII lantibiotic. Bovicin HJ50 exhibited high flexibility in aqueous solution, whereas varied rigidities were observed in the different rings with the conserved ring A being the most rigid. The charged residues Lys11, Asp12 and Lys30, as well as the essential disulfide bond were critical for antimicrobial activity. Importantly, bovicin HJ50 showed not only peptidoglycan precursor lipid II-binding ability, but also pore-forming activity, which is significantly different from other bacteriostatic type AII lantibiotics, suggesting a novel antimicrobial mechanism. PMID:24814218

Zhang, Jie; Feng, Yingang; Teng, Kunling; Lin, Yuheng; Gao, Yong; Wang, Jinfeng; Zhong, Jin



Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of 2-amino-3-carboxy-4-phenylthiophenes as novel atypical protein kinase C inhibitors.  


Recent evidence suggests atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) isoforms are required for both TNF- and VEGF-induced breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) and endothelial permeability to 70kDa dextran or albumin. A chemical library screen revealed a series of novel small molecule phenylthiophene based inhibitors of aPKC isoforms that effectively block permeability in cell culture and in vivo. In an effort to further elucidate the structural requirements of this series of inhibitors, we detail in this study a structure-activity relationship (SAR) built on screening hit 1, which expands on our initial pharmacophore model. The biological activity of our analogues was evaluated in models of bona fide aPKC-dependent signaling including NF?B driven-gene transcription as a marker for an inflammatory response and VEGF/TNF-induced vascular endothelial permeability. The EC50 for the most efficacious inhibitors (6, 32) was in the low nanomolar range in these two cellular assays. Our study demonstrates the key structural elements that confer inhibitory activity and highlights the requirement for electron-donating moieties off the C-4 aryl moiety of the 2-amino-3-carboxy-4-phenylthiophene backbone. These studies suggest that this class has potential for further development into small molecule aPKC inhibitors with therapeutic efficacy in a host of diseases involving increased vascular permeability and inflammation. PMID:23566515

Titchenell, Paul M; Showalter, H D; Pons, Jean-François; Barber, Alistair J; Jin, Yafei; Antonetti, David A



Structure-Activity Relationship Studies for the Peptide Portion of the Bladder Epithelial Cell Antiproliferative Factor from Interstitial Cystitis Patients  

PubMed Central

We performed comprehensive structure–activity relationship (SAR) studies on the peptide portion of antiproliferative factor (APF), a sialylated frizzled-8 related glycopeptide that inhibits normal bladder epithelial and urothelial carcinoma cell proliferation. Glycopeptide derivatives were synthesized by solid-phase methods using standard Fmoc chemistry and purified by RP-HPLC; all intermediate and final products were verified by HPLC-MS and NMR analyses. Antiproliferative activity of each derivative was determined by inhibition of 3H-thymidine incorporation in primary normal human bladder epithelial cells. Structural components of the peptide segment of APF that proved to be important for biological activity included the presence of at least eight of the nine N-terminal amino acids, a negative charge in the C-terminal amino acid, a free amino group at the N-terminus, maintenance of a specific amino acid sequence in the C-terminal tail, and trans conformation for the peptide bonds. These data provide critical guidelines for optimization of structure in design of APF analogues as potential therapeutic agents.

Kaczmarek, Piotr; Keay, Susan K.; Tocci, Gillian M.; Koch, Kristopher R.; Zhang, Chen-Ou; Barchi, Joseph J.; Grkovic, David; Guo, Li; Michejda, Christopher J.



Structure-activity relationships in a series of bisquaternary bisphthalimidine derivatives modulating the muscarinic M(2)-receptor allosterically.  


Hexane-bisammonium-type compounds containing lateral phthalimide moieties are well-established ligands of the common allosteric binding site of muscarinic M(2) receptors. Previous structure-activity relationships (SAR) revealed two positively charged centers and two lateral phthalimide moieties in a defined arrangement to be essential of a high allosteric potency. The purpose of this study was to replace one carbonyl group of the phthalimides with hydrogens, hydroxy, alkoxy, phenyl, benzyl, and benzylidene groups in order to check the influence of these substituents on the allosteric activity in antagonist-linked receptors. The analysis of the quantitative SAR indicated that a high allosteric potency is related to a certain amount of rigidity as well as polarizibility and the ability to form hydrophobic interactions. PMID:10841794

Botero Cid, H M; Tränkle, C; Baumann, K; Pick, R; Mies-Klomfass, E; Kostenis, E; Mohr, K; Holzgrabe, U



Synthesis, structure-activity relationship analysis and kinetics study of reductive derivatives of flavonoids as Helicobacter pylori urease inhibitors.  


In a continuing study for discovering urease inhibitors based on flavonoids, nineteen reductive derivatives of flavonoids were synthesized and evaluated against Helicobacter pylori urease. Analysis of structure-activity relationship disclosed that 4-deoxy analogues are more potent than other reductive products. Out of them, 4',7,8-trihydroxyl-2-isoflavene (13) was found to be the most active with IC50 of 0.85 ?M, being over 20-fold more potent than the commercial available urease inhibitor, acetohydroxamic acid (AHA). Kinetics study revealed that 13 is a competitive inhibitor of H. pylori urease with a Ki value of 0.641 ?M, which is well matched with the results of molecular docking. Biological evaluation and mechanism study of 13 suggest that it is a good candidate for discovering novel anti-gastritis and anti-gastric ulcer agent. PMID:23567958

Xiao, Zhu-Ping; Peng, Zhi-Yun; Dong, Jing-Jun; He, Juan; Ouyang, Hui; Feng, Yu-Ting; Lu, Chun-Lei; Lin, Wan-Qiang; Wang, Jin-Xiang; Xiang, Yin-Ping; Zhu, Hai-Liang



Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of 2-acylamino-4,6-diphenylpyridine derivatives as novel antagonists of GPR54.  


GPR54 is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) which was formerly an orphan receptor. Recent functional study of GPR54 revealed that the receptor has an essential role to modulate sex-hormones including GnRH. Though antagonists of GPR54 are expected to be novel drugs for sex-hormone dependent diseases such as prostate cancer or endometriosis, small molecule GPR54 antagonists have not been reported. We have synthesized a series of 2-acylamino-4,6-diphenylpyridines to identify potent GPR54 antagonists. Detailed structure-activity relationship studies led to compound 9l with an IC(50) value of 3.7nM in a GPR54 binding assay, and apparent antagonistic activity in a cellular functional assay. PMID:20457527

Kobayashi, Toshitake; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tomita, Naoki; Fukui, Seiji; Kuroda, Noritaka; Nakayama, Masaharu; Kiba, Atsushi; Takatsu, Yoshihiro; Ohtaki, Tetsuya; Itoh, Fumio; Baba, Atsuo



Drug structure-transport relationships  

PubMed Central

Malcolm Rowland has greatly facilitated an understanding of drug structure–pharmacokinetic relationships using a physiological perspective. His view points, covering a wide range of activities, have impacted on my own work and on my appreciation and understanding of our science. This overview summarises some of our parallel activities, beginning with Malcolm’s work on the pH control of amphetamine excretion, his work on the disposition of aspirin and on the application of clearance concepts in describing the disposition of lidocaine. Malcolm also spent a considerable amount of time developing principles that define solute structure and transport/pharmacokinetic relationships using in situ organ studies, which he then extended to involve the whole body. Together, we developed a physiological approach to studying hepatic clearance, introducing the convection–dispersion model in which there was a spread in blood transit times through the liver accompanied by permeation into hepatocytes and removal by metabolism or excretion into the bile. With a range of colleagues, we then further developed the model and applied it to various organs in the body. One of Malcolm’s special interests was in being able to apply this knowledge, together with an understanding of physiological differences in scaling up pharmacokinetics from animals to man. The description of his many other activities, such as the development of clearance concepts, application of pharmacokinetics to the clinical situation and using pharmacokinetics to develop new compounds and delivery systems, has been left to others.



Structure-activity relationships for hepatocyte toxicity and electrophilic reactivity of alpha,beta-unsaturated esters, acrylates and methacrylates.  


Covalent binding of reactive electrophiles to cellular targets is a molecular interaction that has the potential to initiate severe adverse biological effects. Therefore, electrophile reactivity towards biological nucleophiles could serve as an important correlate for toxic effects such as hepatocyte death. To determine if reactivity correlates with rat hepatotoxicity, alpha,beta-unsaturated esters, consisting of acrylates and methacrylates, that are inherently electrophilic and exhibit widely varying degrees of reactivity were investigated. Reactivity was measured using simple assays with glutathione and butylamine as surrogates for soft thiol and hard amino biological nucleophile targets. A linear relationship was observed between hepatotoxicity and thiol reactivity only, while no amine reactivity was observed. Structure-activity relationships were also investigated, with results showing toxicity was well modeled by electronic parameters E(LUMO) and partial charge of the carbon atoms in the reactive center. No relationship was observed between toxicity and logP. These results suggest that differences in hepatocyte toxicity of acrylates and methacrylates can be related to their electrophilic reactivity which corresponds to their ability to deplete GSH and protein thiols. PMID:18615533

Chan, Katie; O'Brien, Peter J



Design, synthesis and investigation on the structure-activity relationships of N-substituted 2-aminothiazole derivatives as antitubercular agents.  


Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the deadliest infectious diseases of all times, and its recent resurgence is a supreme matter of concern. Co-infection with HIV and, in particular, the continuous isolation of new resistant strains, makes the discovery of novel anti-TB agents a strategic priority. The research of novel agents should be driven by the accessibility of the synthetic procedure and, in particular, by the lack of cross-resistance with the drugs already marketed. Moreover, in order to shorten the duration of the therapy, and therefore decrease the rate of resistance, these molecules should be active also against the nonreplicating persistent form (NRP-TB) of the infection. The availability of an in-house small library of compounds prompted us to investigate their anti-TB activity. Two compounds, embodying a 2-aminothiazole scaffold, were found to possess a certain inhibitory activity toward Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, and therefore a medicinal chemistry campaign was initiated in order to increase the activity of the hit compounds and, especially, construct a plausible body of structure-activity relationships. The potency of the hit compound was successfully improved, and, much more importantly, some of the molecules synthesized were found to be active toward the persistent phenotype, and, also, toward a panel of resistant strains. These findings encourage further investigations around this interesting antitubercular chemotype. PMID:24333612

Pieroni, Marco; Wan, Baojie; Cho, Sanghyun; Franzblau, Scott G; Costantino, Gabriele



Cyclotide Structure-Activity Relationships: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches Linking Cytotoxic and Anthelmintic Activity to the Clustering of Physicochemical Forces  

PubMed Central

Cyclotides are a family of plant-derived proteins that are characterized by a cyclic backbone and a knotted disulfide topology. Their cyclic cystine knot (CCK) motif makes them exceptionally resistant to thermal, chemical, and enzymatic degradation. Cyclotides exert much of their biological activity via interactions with cell membranes. In this work, we qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the cytotoxic and anthelmintic membrane activities of cyclotides. The qualitative and quantitative models describe the potency of cyclotides using four simple physicochemical terms relevant to membrane contact. Specifically, surface areas of the cyclotides representing lipophilic and hydrogen bond donating properties were quantified and their distribution across the molecular surface was determined. The resulting quantitative structure-activity relation (QSAR) models suggest that the activity of the cyclotides is proportional to their lipophilic and positively charged surface areas, provided that the distribution of these surfaces is asymmetric. In addition, we qualitatively analyzed the physicochemical differences between the various cyclotide subfamilies and their effects on the cyclotides' orientation on the membrane and membrane activity.

Park, Sungkyu; Stromstedt, Adam A.; Goransson, Ulf



Cyclotide structure-activity relationships: qualitative and quantitative approaches linking cytotoxic and anthelmintic activity to the clustering of physicochemical forces.  


Cyclotides are a family of plant-derived proteins that are characterized by a cyclic backbone and a knotted disulfide topology. Their cyclic cystine knot (CCK) motif makes them exceptionally resistant to thermal, chemical, and enzymatic degradation. Cyclotides exert much of their biological activity via interactions with cell membranes. In this work, we qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the cytotoxic and anthelmintic membrane activities of cyclotides. The qualitative and quantitative models describe the potency of cyclotides using four simple physicochemical terms relevant to membrane contact. Specifically, surface areas of the cyclotides representing lipophilic and hydrogen bond donating properties were quantified and their distribution across the molecular surface was determined. The resulting quantitative structure-activity relation (QSAR) models suggest that the activity of the cyclotides is proportional to their lipophilic and positively charged surface areas, provided that the distribution of these surfaces is asymmetric. In addition, we qualitatively analyzed the physicochemical differences between the various cyclotide subfamilies and their effects on the cyclotides' orientation on the membrane and membrane activity. PMID:24682019

Park, Sungkyu; Strömstedt, Adam A; Göransson, Ulf



Designing Anti-Influenza Aptamers: Novel Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship Approach Gives Insights into Aptamer - Virus Interaction  

PubMed Central

This study describes the development of aptamers as a therapy against influenza virus infection. Aptamers are oligonucleotides (like ssDNA or RNA) that are capable of binding to a variety of molecular targets with high affinity and specificity. We have studied the ssDNA aptamer BV02, which was designed to inhibit influenza infection by targeting the hemagglutinin viral protein, a protein that facilitates the first stage of the virus’ infection. While testing other aptamers and during lead optimization, we realized that the dominant characteristics that determine the aptamer’s binding to the influenza virus may not necessarily be sequence-specific, as with other known aptamers, but rather depend on general 2D structural motifs. We adopted QSAR (quantitative structure activity relationship) tool and developed computational algorithm that correlate six calculated structural and physicochemical properties to the aptamers’ binding affinity to the virus. The QSAR study provided us with a predictive tool of the binding potential of an aptamer to the influenza virus. The correlation between the calculated and actual binding was R2?=?0.702 for the training set, and R2?=?0.66 for the independent test set. Moreover, in the test set the model’s sensitivity was 89%, and the specificity was 87%, in selecting aptamers with enhanced viral binding. The most important properties that positively correlated with the aptamer’s binding were the aptamer length, 2D-loops and repeating sequences of C nucleotides. Based on the structure-activity study, we have managed to produce aptamers having viral affinity that was more than 20 times higher than that of the original BV02 aptamer. Further testing of influenza infection in cell culture and animal models yielded aptamers with 10 to 15 times greater anti-viral activity than the BV02 aptamer. Our insights concerning the mechanism of action and the structural and physicochemical properties that govern the interaction with the influenza virus are discussed.

Musafia, Boaz; Oren-Banaroya, Rony; Noiman, Silvia



Designing anti-influenza aptamers: novel quantitative structure activity relationship approach gives insights into aptamer - virus interaction.  


This study describes the development of aptamers as a therapy against influenza virus infection. Aptamers are oligonucleotides (like ssDNA or RNA) that are capable of binding to a variety of molecular targets with high affinity and specificity. We have studied the ssDNA aptamer BV02, which was designed to inhibit influenza infection by targeting the hemagglutinin viral protein, a protein that facilitates the first stage of the virus' infection. While testing other aptamers and during lead optimization, we realized that the dominant characteristics that determine the aptamer's binding to the influenza virus may not necessarily be sequence-specific, as with other known aptamers, but rather depend on general 2D structural motifs. We adopted QSAR (quantitative structure activity relationship) tool and developed computational algorithm that correlate six calculated structural and physicochemical properties to the aptamers' binding affinity to the virus. The QSAR study provided us with a predictive tool of the binding potential of an aptamer to the influenza virus. The correlation between the calculated and actual binding was R2?=?0.702 for the training set, and R2?=?0.66 for the independent test set. Moreover, in the test set the model's sensitivity was 89%, and the specificity was 87%, in selecting aptamers with enhanced viral binding. The most important properties that positively correlated with the aptamer's binding were the aptamer length, 2D-loops and repeating sequences of C nucleotides. Based on the structure-activity study, we have managed to produce aptamers having viral affinity that was more than 20 times higher than that of the original BV02 aptamer. Further testing of influenza infection in cell culture and animal models yielded aptamers with 10 to 15 times greater anti-viral activity than the BV02 aptamer. Our insights concerning the mechanism of action and the structural and physicochemical properties that govern the interaction with the influenza virus are discussed. PMID:24846127

Musafia, Boaz; Oren-Banaroya, Rony; Noiman, Silvia



Virulence Factor-activity Relationships: Workshop Summary  

EPA Science Inventory

The concept or notion of virulence factor?activity relationships (VFAR) is an approach for identifying an analogous process to the use of qualitative structure?activity relationships (QSAR) for identifying new microbial contaminants. In QSAR, it is hypothesized that, for new chem...


Potent anti-HIV (type 1 and type 2) activity of polyoxometalates: structure-activity relationship and mechanism of action.  


A series of polyoxometalates have been synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory effects on HIV-1(III(B)) and HIV-1(ROD) replication in MT-4 cells. All compounds showed activity against HIV-1 and HIV-2, but the antiviral potency of the heteropolytungstates varied considerably depending on their chemical structure. The antiviral activity of single, double, and triple Keggin-type of compounds against HIV-1(III(B)) replication was comparable (IC(50): 0.4-0.5 microgram/mL), whereas HIV-2(ROD) appeared to become less sensitive with the increasing number of Keggin structures per compound. The same trend was observed for single and double Dawson structures. Some of these compounds were examined for their inhibitory effect on the replication of HIV-1(RF) and SIV(MAC(251)) in MT-4 cells. Their anti-HIV-1(RF) and anti-SIV(MAC(251)) potencies were comparable to those for the HIV-1(III(B)) or HIV-2(ROD) strain, respectively. The polyoxometalates represent a class of polyanionic compounds, which block the binding of the envelope glycoprotein gp120 of HIV to CD4(+) cells. The compounds interfered with the binding of anti-CD4 mAb to the OKT4A/Leu3a epitope of the CD4 receptor, compound 24 being the most active in this regard, and inhibited the binding of anti-gp120 mAb to infected MT-4 cells. None of the polyoxometalates inhibited the binding of a specific CXCR4 mAb to SUP-T1 cells, suggesting that they do not interact with CXCR4, the main co-receptor for T-tropic HIV strains, and thus act as virus binding, and not as fusion, inhibitors. PMID:10715146

Witvrouw, M; Weigold, H; Pannecouque, C; Schols, D; De Clercq, E; Holan, G



Synthesis, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities, and structure-activity relationships of gypsogenin derivatives against human cancer cells.  


A series of gypsogenin (1) derivatives (1a-i) was synthesized in good yields, and the derivatives' structures were established using UV, IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and LCMS spectroscopic data. Among the tested compounds, 1a, 1b, 1d, 1e, and gypsogenin (1) showed antimicrobial activities against Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus thrungiensis, with inhibition zones of 10-14 mm. In addition, compounds 1b, 1d, and 1e showed antimicrobial activities against Bacillus cereus, with inhibition zones of 9-14 mm. Using six human cancer cell lines in vitro, the cytotoxic activities of all tested compounds were determined by calculating the IC50 values. Doxorubicin and paclitaxel were used as controls. Among the tested compounds, 1a, 1c, and 1d had inhibitory effects with IC50 values of 3.9 ?M (HL-60 cells), 5.15 ?M (MCF-7 cells), and 5.978 ?M (HL-60), respectively. To determine the type of cell death, Hoechst 33258 (HO) and propidium iodide (PI) double staining was used. Especially, gypsogenin (1) and compound 1a triggered the apoptotic mechanism at a concentration of 20 ?M. Thus, gypsogenin (1) and compounds 1a, 1c, and 1d possess varying degrees of biological activities and can be considered as potential antitumor agents. PMID:24941130

Emirda?-Öztürk, Safiye; Karay?ld?r?m, Tamer; Capc?-Karagöz, Aysun; Alanku?-Çal??kan, Ozgen; Ozmen, Ali; Poyrazo?lu-Çoban, Esin



Substituted 4-(Thiazol-5-yl)-2-(phenylamino)pyrimidines Are Highly Active CDK9 Inhibitors: Synthesis, X-ray Crystal Structures, Structure-Activity Relationship, and Anticancer Activities  

PubMed Central

Cancer cells often have a high demand for antiapoptotic proteins in order to resist programmed cell death. CDK9 inhibition selectively targets survival proteins and reinstates apoptosis in cancer cells. We designed a series of 4-thiazol-2-anilinopyrimidine derivatives with functional groups attached to the C5-position of the pyrimidine or to the C4-thiazol moiety and investigated their effects on CDK9 potency and selectivity. One of the most selective compounds, 12u inhibits CDK9 with IC50 = 7 nM and shows over 80-fold selectivity for CDK9 versus CDK2. X-ray crystal structures of 12u bound to CDK9 and CDK2 provide insights into the binding modes. This work, together with crystal structures of selected inhibitors in complex with both enzymes described in a companion paper,34 provides a rationale for the observed SAR. 12u demonstrates potent anticancer activity against primary chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells with a therapeutic window 31- and 107-fold over those of normal B- and T-cells.



Structure-Activity Relationship Study Reveals ML240 and ML241 as Potent and Selective Inhibitors of p97 ATPase  

PubMed Central

To discover more potent p97 inhibitors, we carried out a structure–activity relationship study of the quinazoline scaffold previously identified from our HTS campaigns. Two improved inhibitors, ML240 and ML241, inhibit p97 ATPase with IC50 values of 100 nm. Both compounds inhibited degradation of a p97-dependent but not a p97-independent proteasome substrate in a dual-reporter cell line. They also impaired the endoplasmic-reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. Unexpectedly, ML240 potently stimulated accumulation of LC3-II within minutes, inhibited cancer cell growth, and rapidly mobilized the executioner caspases 3 and 7, whereas ML241 did not. The behavior of ML240 suggests that disruption of the protein homeostasis function of p97 leads to more rapid activation of apoptosis than is observed with a proteasome inhibitor. Further characterization revealed that ML240 has broad antiproliferative activity toward the NCI-60 panel of cancer cell lines, but slightly lower activity toward normal cells. ML240 also synergizes with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 to kill multiple colon cancer cell lines. Meanwhile, both probes have low off-target activity toward a panel of protein kinases and central nervous system targets. Our results nominate ML240 as a promising starting point for the development of a novel agent for the chemotherapy of cancer, and provide a rationale for developing pathway-specific p97 inhibitors.

Chou, Tsui-Fen; Li, Kelin; Frankowski, Kevin J; Schoenen, Frank J; Deshaies, Raymond J



Structure Activity Relationship and Mechanism of Action Studies of Manzamine Analogues for the Control of Neuroinflammation and Cerebral Infections  

PubMed Central

Structure-activity relationship studies were carried out by chemical modification of manzamine A (1), 8-hydroxymanzamine A (2), manzamine F (14), and ircinol isolated from the sponge Acanthostrongylophora. The derived analogues were evaluated for antimalarial, antimicrobial, and antineuroinflammatory activities. Several modified products exhibited potent and improved in vitro antineuroinflammatory, antimicrobial, and antimalarial activity. 1 showed improved activity against malaria compared to chloroquine in both multi- and single-dose in vivo experiments. The significant antimalarial potential was revealed by a 100% cure rate of malaria in mice with one administration of 100 mg/kg of 1. The potent antineuroinflammatory activity of the manzamines will provide great benefit for the prevention and treatment of cerebral infections (e.g. Cryptococcus and Plasmodium). In addition, 1 was shown to permeate across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in an in vitro model using a MDR-MDCK monolayer. Docking studies support that 2 binds to the ATP-noncompetitive pocket of glycogen synthesis kinase-3? (GSK-3?), which is a putative target of manzamines. Based on the results presented here it will be possible to initiate rational drug design efforts around this natural product scaffold for the treatment of several different diseases.

Peng, Jiangnan; Kudrimoti, Sucheta; Prasanna, Sivaprakasam; Odde, Srinivas; Doerksen, Robert J.; Pennaka, Hari K; Choo, Yeun-Mun; Rao, Karumanchi V.; Tekwani, Babu L.; Madgula, Vamsi; Khan, Shabana I.; Wang, Bin; Mayer, Alejandro M. S.; Jacob, Melissa R.; Tu, Lan Chun; Gertsch, Jurg; Hamann, Mark T.



Structure-activity relationships of neoechinulin A analogues with cytoprotection against peroxynitrite-induced PC12 cell death.  


Neoechinulin A, an alkaloid from Eurotium rubrum Hiji025, protected neuronal PC12 cells against cell death induced by peroxynitrite derived from SIN-1 (3-(4-morpholinyl)sydnonimine hydrochloride). In this study, we investigated the structure-activity relationships of neoechinulin A and a set of its analogues by using assays to measure anti-nitration and antioxidant activities and cytoprotection against SIN-1-induced PC12 cell death. The presence of the diketopiperazine ring was essential for both the antioxidant and anti-nitration activities of neoechinulin A derivatives. Nevertheless, a derivative lacking the diketopiperazine ring could still protect PC12 cells against SIN-1 cytotoxicity. An acyclic analogue completely lost the cytoprotective effect while retaining its antioxidant/anti-nitration activities. Pre-incubation of the cells with neoechinulin A for at least 12 hours was essential for the cells to gain SIN-1 resistance. These results suggest that neoechinulin A endows the cells with cytoprotection through a biological effect different from the apparent antioxidant/anti-nitration activities. PMID:17965477

Kimoto, Kuniaki; Aoki, Toshiaki; Shibata, Yasushi; Kamisuki, Shinji; Sugawara, Fumio; Kuramochi, Kouji; Nakazaki, Atsuo; Kobayashi, Susumu; Kuroiwa, Kenji; Watanabe, Nobuo; Arai, Takao



Synthesis and structure–activity relationships of andrographolide analogues as novel cytotoxic agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Andrographolide 1, the cytotoxic agent of the plant Andrographis paniculata was subjected to semi-synthetic studies leading to the preparation of a number of potent and novel analogues. Of the analogues synthesized, while 8,17-epoxy andrographolide 6 retained the cytotoxic activity of 1, ester derivatives of 6 exhibited considerable improvement in activity. Lower activity was observed when the epoxy moiety in the

Srinivas Nanduri; Vijay Kumar Nyavanandi; Siva Sanjeeva Rao Thunuguntla; Sridevi Kasu; Mahesh Kumar Pallerla; P. Sai Ram; Sriram Rajagopal; R. Ajaya Kumar; Rajagopalan Ramanujam; J. Moses Babu; Krishnamurthi Vyas; A. Sivalakshmi Devi; G. Om Reddy; Venkateswarlu Akella



Thiazolidione derivatives as novel antibiofilm agents: Design, synthesis, biological evaluation, and structure–activity relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rational designed novel thiazolidiones were synthesized and evaluated for antibiofilm activity. The active derivatives were not only potent inhibitors of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm growth but also efficient antibacterial agents. 3f showed 4-fold higher activity (6.25 ?M) in the biofilms dispersal assay and significantly higher antibacterial activity (MIC 3.125 ?M) in comparison to the 3-(5-((6- (ethoxycarbonyl)-5-(benzo[1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-3-oxo-7-phenyl- thiazolo[3,2-a]pyrimidin-2(5H)-ylidene)methyl)furan-2-yl)benzoic acid (1).

Bin Pan; Renzheng Huang; Likang Zheng; Chen Chen; Shiqing Han; Di Qu; Mingli Zhu; Ping Wei



Jatrophane diterpenes as inhibitors of chikungunya virus replication: structure-activity relationship and discovery of a potent lead.  


Bioassay-guided purification of an EtOAc extract of the whole plant of Euphorbia amygdaloides ssp. semiperfoliata using a chikungunya virus-cell-based assay led to the isolation of six new (1-4, 9, and 10) and six known (5-7, 8, 11, and 12) jatrophane esters. Their planar structures and relative configurations were determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis, and their absolute configurations by X-ray analysis. These compounds were investigated for selective antiviral activity against chikungunya virus (CHIKV), Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus, and HIV-1 and HIV-2 viruses. Compound 3 was found to be the most potent and selective inhibitor of the replication of CHIKV and of HIV-1 and HIV-2 (EC50 = 0.76, IC50 = 0.34 and 0.043 ?M, respectively). A preliminary structure-activity relationship study demonstrated that potency and selectivity are very sensitive to the substitution pattern on the jatrophane skeleton. Although replication strategies of CHIK and HIV viruses are quite different, the mechanism of action by which these compounds act may involve a similar target for both viruses. The present results provide additional support for a previous hypothesis that the anti-CHIKV activity could involve a PKC-dependent mechanism. PMID:24926807

Nothias-Scaglia, Louis-Félix; Retailleau, Pascal; Paolini, Julien; Pannecouque, Christophe; Neyts, Johan; Dumontet, Vincent; Roussi, Fanny; Leyssen, Pieter; Costa, Jean; Litaudon, Marc



Rational Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (RQSAR) Screen for PXR and CAR Isoform-Specific Nuclear Receptor Ligands  

PubMed Central

Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) are closely related orphan nuclear receptor proteins that share several ligands and target overlapping sets of genes involved in homeostasis and all phases of drug metabolism. CAR and PXR are involved in the development of certain diseases, including diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity. Ligand screens for these receptors so far have typically focused on steroid hormone analogs with pharmacophore-based approaches, only to find relatively few new hits. Multiple CAR isoforms have been detected in human liver, with the most abundant being the constitutively active reference, CAR1, and the ligand-dependent isoform CAR3. It has been assumed that any compound that binds CAR1 should also activate CAR3, and so CAR3 can be used as a ligand-activated surrogate for CAR1 studies. The possibility of CAR3-specific ligands has not, so far, been addressed. To investigate the differences between CAR1, CAR3 and PXR, and to look for more CAR ligands that may be of use in quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies, we performed a luciferase transactivation assay screen of 60 mostly non-steroid compounds. Known active compounds with different core chemistries were chosen as starting points and structural variants were rationally selected for screening. Distinct differences in agonist versus inverse agonist/antagonist effects were seen in 49 compounds that had some ligand effect on at least one receptor and 18 that had effects on all three receptors; eight were CAR1 ligands only, three were CAR3 only ligands and four affected PXR only. This work provides evidence for new CAR ligands, some of which have CAR3-specific effects, and provides observational data on CAR and PXR ligands with which to inform in silico strategies. Compounds that demonstrated unique activity on any one receptor are potentially valuable diagnostic tools for the investigation of in vivo molecular targets.

Dring, Ann M.; Anderson, Linnea E.; Qamar, Saima; Stoner, Matthew A.



Structure-activity relationships of sandalwood odorants: synthesis of a new campholene derivative.  


Structural modifications of natural (-)-(Z)-beta-santalol have shown that the sandalwood odor impression is highly sensitive, even to small structural changes. Particularly, the substitution of the quaternary carbon is of great influence on the scent. Epi-compounds with side chains in the endo-position possess sandalwood odor in only a few derivatives, whereas modifications at this side chain, as well as modification at the bicyclic ring systems mostly lead to a complete loss of sandalwood fragrance. PMID:20922988

Stappen, Iris; Höfinghoff, Joris; Buchbauer, Gerhard; Wolschann, Peter



Application of PCA and HCA to the Structure-Activity Relationship Study of Fluoroquinolones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Density functional theory (DFT) was used to calculate molecular descriptors (properties) for 12 fluoroquinolone with anti-S.pneumoniae activity. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were employed to reduce dimensionality and investigate in which variables should be more effective for classifying fluoroquinolones according to their degree of an-S.pneumoniae activity. The PCA results showed that the variables ELUMO, Q3, Q5, QA, logP, MR, VOL and ?EHL of these compounds were responsible for the anti-S.pneumoniae activity. The HCA results were similar to those obtained with PCA. The methodologies of PCA and HCA provide a reliable rule for classifying new fluoroquinolones with anti-S.pneumoniae activity. By using the chemometric results, 6 synthetic compounds were analyzed through the PCA and HCA and two of them are proposed as active molecules with anti-S.pneumoniae, which is consistent with the results of clinic experiments.

Li, Xiao-hong; Zhang, Xian-zhou; Cheng, Xin-lu; Yang, Xiang-dong; Zhu, Zun-lue



Synthesis, antimicrobial evaluation, and structure-activity relationship of ?-pinene derivatives.  


Several (+)- and (-)-?-pinene derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their antimicrobial activity toward Gram-positive bacteria Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus aureus, Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli, and the unicellular fungus Candida albicans using bioautographic assays. (+)-?-Pinene 1a showed modest activity against the test organisms, whereas (-)-?-pinene 1b showed no activity at the tested concentration. Of all the ?-pinene derivatives evaluated, the ?-lactam derivatives (10a and 10b) were the most antimicrobial. The increase in the antimicrobial activity of 10a compared to 1a ranged from nearly 3.5-fold (C. albicans) to 43-fold (S. aureus). The mean ± standard deviation for the zone of inhibition (mm) for 10a (C. albicans) was 31.9 ± 4.3 and that for S. aureus was 51.1 ± 2.9. Although (-)-?-pinene 1b was not active toward the test microorganisms, the corresponding ?-lactam 10b, amino ester 13b, and amino alcohol 14b showed antimicrobial activity toward the test microorganisms. The increase in the antimicrobial activity of 10b compared to 1b ranged from 32-fold (S. aureus) to 73-fold (M. luteus). The mean ± standard deviation for the zone of inhibition (mm) for 10b (S. aureus) was 32.0 ± 0.60 and that for M. luteus was 73.2 ± 0.30. PMID:24716724

Dhar, Preeti; Chan, PuiYee; Cohen, Daniel T; Khawam, Fadi; Gibbons, Sarah; Snyder-Leiby, Teresa; Dickstein, Ellen; Rai, Prashant Kumar; Watal, Geeta



Structure-Based Design, Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationship Studies of HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors Incorporating Phenyloxazolidinones  

PubMed Central

A series of new HIV-1 protease inhibitors with the hydroxyethylamine core and different phenyloxazolidinone P2 ligands were designed and synthesized. Variation of phenyl substitutions at the P2 and P2? moieties significantly affected the inhibitors’ binding affinity and antiviral potency. In general, compounds with 2- and 4-substituted phenyloxazolidinones at P2 exhibited lower binding affinities than 3-substituted analogues. Crystal structure analyses of ligand-enzyme complexes revealed different binding modes for 2- and 3-substituted P2 moieties in the protease S2 binding pocket, which may explain the compounds’ different binding affinities. Several compounds with 3-substituted P2 moieties demonstrated pM binding affinity, low nM antiviral potency against patient-derived viruses from HIV-1 clades A, B and C, and most retained potency against drug-resistant viruses. Further optimization of these compounds using structure-based design may lead to the development of novel protease inhibitors with improved activity against drug-resistant strains of HIV-1.

Ali, Akbar; Kiran Kumar Reddy, G. S.; Nalam, Madhavi N. L.; Anjum, Saima Ghafoor; Cao, Hong; Schiffer, Celia A.; Rana, Tariq M.



Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship study on antioxidant capacity of curcumin analogues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) was performed on a set of 27 curcumin-like diarylpentanoid analogues with the radical scavenging activities. A significant cross-validated correlation coefficient Q2 (0.784), SEP (0.042) for CoMSIA were obtained, indicating the statistical significance of the correlation. Further we adopt a rational approach toward the selection of substituents at various positions in our scaffold,and finally find the favored and disfavoured regions for the enhanced antioxidative activity. The results have been used as a guide to design compounds that, potentially, have better activity against oxidative damage.

Chen, Bohong; Zhu, Zhibo; Chen, Min; Dong, Wenqi; Li, Zhen



3D-Quantitative structure-activity relationships of synthetic antileishmanial ring-substituted ether phospholipids.  


The application of 2D-NMR spectroscopy and Molecular Modeling in determining the active conformation of flexible molecules in 3D-QSAR was demonstrated in the present study. In particular, a series of 33 flexible synthetic phospholipids, either 2-(4-alkylidene-cyclohexyloxy)ethyl- or omega-cycloalkylidene-substituted ether phospholipids were systematically evaluated for their in vitro antileishmanial activity against the promastigote forms of Leishmania infantum and Leishmania donovani by CoMFA and CoMSIA 3D-QSAR studies. Steric and hydrophobic properties of the phospholipids under study appear to govern their antileishmanial activity against both strains, while the electrostatic properties have no significant contribution. The acknowledgment of these important properties of the pharmacophore will aid in the rational design of new analogues with higher activity. PMID:17158053

Kapou, Agnes; Benetis, Nikolas P; Avlonitis, Nikos; Calogeropoulou, Theodora; Koufaki, Maria; Scoulica, Efi; Nikolaropoulos, Sotiris S; Mavromoustakos, Thomas



Gedunin, a novel hsp90 inhibitor: semisynthesis of derivatives and preliminary structure-activity relationships.  


Gedunin (1), a tetranortriterpenoid isolated from the Indian neem tree ( Azadirachta indica), was recently shown to manifest anticancer activity via inhibition of the 90 kDa heat shock protein (Hsp90) folding machinery and to induce the degradation of Hsp90-dependent client proteins similar to other Hsp90 inhibitors. The mechanism of action by which gedunin induces client protein degradation remains undetermined, however, prior studies have demonstrated that it does not bind competitively versus ATP. In an effort to further probe the mechanism of action, 19 semisynthetic derivatives of gedunin were prepared and their antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 and SkBr3 breast cancer cells determined. Although no compound was found to exhibit antiproliferative activity more effective than the natural product, functionalities critical for antiproliferative activity have been identified. PMID:18816111

Brandt, Gary E L; Schmidt, Matthew D; Prisinzano, Thomas E; Blagg, Brian S J



On the interpretation of quantitative structure-function activity relationship data for lactate oxidase  

PubMed Central

The native flavin, FMN, has been removed from the l-lactate oxidase of Aerococcus viridans, and the apoprotein reconstituted with 12 FMN derivatives with various substituents at the flavin 6- and 8-positions. Impressive linear relationships are exhibited between the sum of the Hammett ?para and ?ortho parameters and the redox potentials of the free flavins, and between the redox potentials of the free and enzyme-bound flavins. Rapid reaction kinetics studies of the reconstituted enzymes with the substrates l-lactate and l-mandelate show an increase in the reduction rate constant with increasing redox potential, except that, with lactate, a limiting rate constant of ?700 s?1 is obtained with flavins of high potential. Similar breakpoints are found in plots of the rate constants for flavin N5-sulfite adduct formation and for the reaction of the reduced enzymes with molecular oxygen. These results are interpreted in terms of a two-step equilibrium preceding the chemical reaction step, in which the second equilibrium step provides an upper limit to the rate with which the particular substrate or ligand is positioned with the flavin in the correct fashion for the observed chemical reaction to occur. The relationship of rate constants for flavin reduction and N5-sulfite adduct formation with flavin redox potential below the observed breakpoint indicate development of significant negative charge in the transition states of the reactions. In the case of reduction by substrate, the results are consistent either with a hydride transfer mechanism or with the so called “carbanion” mechanism, in which the substrate ?-proton is abstracted by an enzyme base protected from exchange with solvent. These conclusions are supported by substrate ?-deuterium isotope effects and by solvent viscosity effects on sulfite binding.

Yorita, Kazuko; Misaki, Hideo; Palfey, Bruce A.; Massey, Vincent



3D-Quantitative structure–activity relationships of synthetic antileishmanial ring-substituted ether phospholipids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of 2D-NMR spectroscopy and Molecular Modeling in determining the active conformation of flexible molecules in 3D-QSAR was demonstrated in the present study. In particular, a series of 33 flexible synthetic phospholipids, either 2-(4-alkylidene-cyclohexyloxy)ethyl- or ?-cycloalkylidene-substituted ether phospholipids were systematically evaluated for their in vitro antileishmanial activity against the promastigote forms of Leishmania infantum and Leishmania donovani by CoMFA

Agnes Kapou; Nikolas P. Benetis; Nikos Avlonitis; Theodora Calogeropoulou; Maria Koufaki; Efi Scoulica; Sotiris S. Nikolaropoulos; Thomas Mavromoustakos



Synthesis and quantitative structure-activity relationships of analeptic agents related to dimefline.  


Some new dimefline-type derivatives have been synthesized and their pharmacological activity, as well as their distribution coefficients have been determined. The distribution coefficients of a number of previously published analogue compounds have also been measured and the QSAR analysis of the whole set has been carried out. The results of such analysis allow to point out which factors are influencing the biological activity of this group of compounds. PMID:2569302

Recanatini, M; Valenti, P; Da Re, P; Giusti, P



Oxidative stress and structure-activity relationship in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) under exposure to paclobutrazol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acute toxicity and changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the zebrafish Danio rerio were measured when the fish was exposed to paclobutrazol (PBZ) under laboratory conditions. The median lethal concentration value at 96 h post-exposure (LC50 (96 h)) was determined to be 20.55 mg\\/L. In addition, the SOD activities in

Feng Ding; Wen H. Song; Jing Guo; Min L. Gao; Wei X. Hu



Design, synthesis and structure?activity relationships of novel biarylamine-based Met kinase inhibitors  

SciTech Connect

Biarylamine-based inhibitors of Met kinase have been identified. Lead compounds demonstrate nanomolar potency in Met kinase biochemical assays and significant activity in the Met-driven GTL-16 human gastric carcinoma cell line. X-ray crystallography revealed that these compounds adopt a bioactive conformation, in the kinase domain, consistent with that previously seen with 2-pyridone-based Met kinase inhibitors. Compound 9b demonstrated potent in vivo antitumor activity in the GTL-16 human tumor xenograft model.

Williams, David K.; Chen, Xiao-Tao; Tarby, Christine; Kaltenbach, Robert; Cai, Zhen-Wei; Tokarski, John S.; An, Yongmi; Sack, John S.; Wautlet, Barri; Gullo-Brown, Johnni; Henley, Benjamin J.; Jeyaseelan, Robert; Kellar, Kristen; Manne, Veeraswamy; Trainor, George L.; Lombardo, Louis J.; Fargnoli, Joseph; Borzilleri, Robert M. (BMS)



Discovery and structure-activity relationships of phenyl benzenesulfonylhydrazides as novel indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase inhibitors.  


A novel class of phenyl benzenesulfonylhydrazides has been identified as potent inhibitors of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), and their structure-activity relationship was explored. Coupling reactions between various benzenesulfonyl chlorides and phenylhydrazides were utilized to synthesize the sulfonylhydrazides bearing various substituents. Compound 3i exhibited 61nM of IC50 in enzymatic assay and 172nM of EC50 in the HeLa cell. The computational study of 3i suggested that the major interactions between 3i and IDO protein are the coordination of sulfone and heme iron, the hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions between 3i and IDO. This novel class of IDO inhibitor provides a new direction to discover effective anti-cancer agents. PMID:24939758

Cheng, Ming-Fu; Hung, Ming-Shiu; Song, Jen-Shin; Lin, Shu-Yu; Liao, Fang-Yu; Wu, Mine-Hsine; Hsiao, Wenchi; Hsieh, Chia-Ling; Wu, Jian-Sung; Chao, Yu-Sheng; Shih, Chuan; Wu, Su-Ying; Ueng, Shau-Hua



Structure-activity relationships of oxysterol-derived pharmacological chaperones for Niemann-Pick type C1 protein.  


Niemann-Pick disease type C is a fatal neurodegenerative disease, and its major cause is mutations in NPC1 gene. This gene encodes NPC1 protein, a late endosomal polytopic membrane protein required for intracellular cholesterol trafficking. One prevalent mutation (I1061T) has been shown to cause a folding defect, which results in failure of endosomal localization of the protein, leading to loss-of-function phenotype. We have previously demonstrated that several oxysterols and their derivatives act as pharmacological chaperones; binding of these compounds to NPC1(I1061T) mutant protein corrects the localization/maturation defect of the mutant protein. Here, we disclose detailed structure-activity relationships of oxysterol derivatives as pharmacological chaperones for NPC1(I1061T) mutant. PMID:24928400

Ohgane, Kenji; Karaki, Fumika; Noguchi-Yachide, Tomomi; Dodo, Kosuke; Hashimoto, Yuichi



Structure-activity relationship studies of sulfonylpiperazine analogs as novel negative allosteric modulators of human neuronal nicotinic receptors  

PubMed Central

Neuronal nicotinic receptors have been implicated in several diseases and disorders such as: autism, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy, and various forms of addiction. To understand the role of nicotinic receptors in these conditions, it would be beneficial to have selective molecules that target specific nicotinic receptors in vitro and in vivo. Our laboratory has previously identified novel negative allosteric modulators of human ?4?2 (H?4?2) and human ?3?4 (H?3?4) nicotinic receptors. In the following studies, the effects of novel sulfonylpiperazine analogs that act as negative allosteric modulators on both H?4?2 nAChRs and H?3?4 nAChRs were investigated. This work, through structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies, describes the chemical features of these molecules that are important for both potency and selectivity on H?4?2 nAChRs.

Henderson, Brandon J.; Carper, Daniel J.; Gonzaez-Cestari, Tatiana F.; Yi, Bitna; Mahasenan, Kiran; Pavlovicz, Ryan E.; Dalefield, Martin L.; Coleman, Robert S.; Li, Chenglong; McKay, Dennis B.



Design, synthesis and structure-activity relationships of novel 4-phenoxyquinoline derivatives containing pyridazinone moiety as potential antitumor agents.  


A series of novel 4-phenoxyquinoline derivatives containing pyridazinone moiety were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxic activity against five cancer cell lines (HT-29, H460, A549, MKN-45, and U87MG). Most of the compounds exhibited moderate-to-significant cytotoxicity and high selectivity against one or more cell lines. Compounds 15a, 20a, 15b, 15c, 20d, and 16e were further examined for their inhibitory activity against c-Met kinase. The most promising compound 15a (c-Met half-maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50] = 2.15 nM) showed remarkable cytotoxicity against HT-29, H460, and A549 cell lines with IC50 values of 0.10 ?M, 0.13 ?M, and 0.05 ?M, respectively, and thus it was 1.5- to 2.3-fold more potent than foretinib. Their preliminary structure-activity relationships (SARs) studies indicate that electron-withdrawing groups on the terminal phenyl rings are beneficial for improving the antitumor activity. PMID:24996144

Zhou, Shunguang; Liao, Huimin; He, Chao; Dou, Yanan; Jiang, Mingyan; Ren, Lixiang; Zhao, Yanfang; Gong, Ping



Structure-In Vitro Activity Relationships of Pentamidine Analogues and Dication-Substituted Bis-Benzimidazoles as New Antifungal Agents  

PubMed Central

Twenty analogues of pentamidine, 7 primary metabolites of pentamidine, and 30 dicationic substituted bis-benzimidazoles were screened for their inhibitory and fungicidal activities against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. A majority of the compounds had MICs at which 80% of the strains were inhibited (MIC80s) comparable to those of amphotericin B and fluconazole. Unlike fluconazole, many of these compounds were found to have potent fungicidal activity. The most potent compound against C. albicans had an MIC80 of ?0.09 ?g/ml, and the most potent compound against C. neoformans had an MIC80 of 0.19 ?g/ml. Selected compounds were also found to be active against Aspergillus fumigatus, Fusarium solani, Candida species other than C. albicans, and fluconazole-resistant strains of C. albicans and C. neoformans. It is clear from the data presented here that further studies on the structure-activity relationships, mechanisms of action and toxicities, and in vivo efficacies of these compounds are warranted to determine their clinical potential.

Del Poeta, Maurizio; Schell, Wiley A.; Dykstra, Christine C.; Jones, Susan; Tidwell, Richard R.; Czarny, Agnieszka; Bajic, Miroslav; Bajic, Marina; Kumar, Arvind; Boykin, David; Perfect, John R.



Dietary flavonoids modulate CYP2C to improve drug oral bioavailability and their qualitative/quantitative structure-activity relationship.  


This study aims to improve the drug oral bioavailability by co-administration with flavonoid inhibitors of the CYP2C isozyme and to establish qualitative and quantitative (QSAR) structure-activity relationships (SAR) between flavonoids and CYP2C. A total of 40 naturally occurring flavonoids were screened in vitro for CYP2C inhibition. Enzyme activity was determined by measuring conversion of tolbutamide to 4-hydroxytolbutamide by rat liver microsomes. The percent inhibition and IC50 of each flavonoid were calculated and used to develop SAR and QSAR. The most effective flavonoid was orally co-administered in vivo with a cholesterol-reducing drug, fluvastatin, which is normally metabolized by CYP2C. The most potent CYP2C inhibitor identified in vitro was tamarixetin (IC50 = 1.4 ?M). This flavonoid enhanced the oral bioavailability of fluvastatin in vivo, producing a >2-fold increase in the area under the concentration-time curve and in the peak plasma concentration. SAR analysis indicated that the presence of a 2,3-double bond in the C ring, hydroxylation at positions 5, 6, and 7, and glycosylation had important effects on flavonoid-CYP2C interactions. These findings should prove useful for predicting the inhibition of CYP2C activity by other untested flavonoid-like compounds. In the present study, tamarixetin significantly inhibited CYP2C activity in vitro and in vivo. Thus, the use of tamarixetin could improve the therapeutic efficacy of drugs with low bioavailability. PMID:24431079

Wang, Hong-Jaan; Pao, Li-Heng; Hsiong, Cheng-Huei; Shih, Tung-Yuan; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Hu, Oliver Yoa-Pu



Asymmetrically substituted ethylenediamine platinum(II) complexes as antitumor agents: synthesis and structure-activity relationships.  


A series of platinum dichloroethylenediamine complexes [PtCl2(R-en)] bearing a side chain on one carbon atom of the ethylenediamine ligand, with or without a functional group on the side chain, have been prepared and investigated for antitumor activity against L1210 leukemia. They were tested both in vitro, with cisplatin-sensitive and resistant cell lines, and in vivo, with cisplatin-sensitive and resistant tumors grafted i.p. in B6D2F1 mice. The rationale for this study was to test how charge, polarity and shape of the R side chain influence antitumor activity. Complexes carrying one or more ammonium groups on the side chain were all inactive. Derivatives with a carbamate function attached by the nitrogen atom, via a methylene group, to the ethylenediamine moiety ('N-bound' carbamate) were highly active in vitro and in vivo. The best results were obtained with these carbamates bearing hydrophobic substituents of intermediate size. Replacement of N-bound by O-bound carbamate or by urea groups led to decreased in vivo activity. Sulfonamide derivatives were all inactive. Good to excellent activities were also recorded for complexes bearing bulky bicycloalkyl substituents, without any functional group, attached to one ethylenediamine carbon atom. Thus, it is the steric features of the side chain rather than its polarity that appear to favor the antitumor activity of the complex. Compared to cisplatin and oxaliplatin, the present complexes do not exhibit advantages in terms of experimental antitumor activities in solid tumor models. PMID:7695813

Mailliet, P; Segal-Bendirdjian, E; Kozelka, J; Barreau, M; Baudoin, B; Bissery, M C; Gontier, S; Laoui, A; Lavelle, F; Le Pecq, J B



Quantitative retention–structure and retention–activity relationships of barbiturates by micellar liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on the structural requirements of chromatographic surfaces to emulate in vitro the partitioning process in biomembranes are of great interest. The use of micellar mobile phases in RPLC modifies the hydrophobicity of the stationary phase and provides hydrophobic and electrostatic sites of interaction as a consequence of the adsorption of surfactant monomers to the chromatographic surface. Modified stationary phases

M Cuenca-Benito; S Sagrado; R. M Villanueva-Camañas; M. J Medina-Hernández



Structure-activity relationship studies of illudins: analogues possessing a spiro-cyclobutane ring.  


Bicyclic and tricyclic analogues of anticancer sesquiterpene illudin S have been synthesized. These contain a spiro-cyclobutane instead of spiro-cyclopropane structure. The cytotoxicity of the former is less than that of the corresponding cyclopropane-containing compounds. PMID:14656090

McMorris, Trevor C; Cong, Qiang; Kelner, Michael J



Structure-activity relationships in nucleotide oligomerization domain 1 (Nod1) agonistic ?-glutamyldiaminopimelic acid derivatives.  


N-acyl-?-glutamyldiaminopimelic acid is a prototype ligand for Nod1. We report a detailed SAR of C(12)-?-D-Glu-DAP. Analogues with glutaric or ?-aminobutyric acid replacing the glutamic acid show greatly attenuated Nod1-agonistic activity. Substitution of the meso-diaminopimelic (DAP) acid component with monoaminopimelic acid, L- or D-lysine, or cadaverine also results in reduced activity. The free amine on DAP is crucial. However, the N-acyl group on the D-glutamyl residue can be substituted with N-alkyl groups with full preservation of activity. The free carboxylates on the DAP and Glu components can also be esterified, resulting in more lipophilic but active analogues. Transcriptomal profiling showed a dominant up-regulation of IL-19, IL-20, IL-22, and IL-24, which may explain the pronounced Th2-polarizing activity of these compounds and also implicate cell signaling mediated by TREM-1. These results may explain the hitherto unknown mechanism of synergy between Nod1 and TLR agonists and are likely to be useful in designing vaccine adjuvants. PMID:21299227

Agnihotri, Geetanjali; Ukani, Rehman; Malladi, Subbalakshmi S; Warshakoon, Hemamali J; Balakrishna, Rajalakshmi; Wang, Xinkun; David, Sunil A



Structure-activity relationships of analogs of pentamidine against Plasmodium falciparum and Leishmania mexicana amazonensis.  

PubMed Central

The antiprotozoal compound 1,5-di(4-amidinophenoxy)pentane (pentamidine) and 36 of its analogs were screened for in vitro activity against Leishmania mexicana amazonensis clone 669 C4S (MHOM/BR/73/M2269) and Plasmodium falciparum clones W2 (Indochina III/CDC) and D6 (Sierra Leone I/CDC). Pentamidine and each of the analogs tested exhibited activity in vitro against L. m. amazonensis and P. falciparum. The pentamidine analogs were more effective against the P. falciparum clones than against L. m. amazonensis. P. falciparum was extremely susceptible to these compounds, with 50% inhibitory concentrations as low as 0.03 microM. While none of the analogs exhibited marked improvement in antileishmanial activity compared with pentamidine, 12 of the pentamidine analogs showed activity approximately equal to or greater than that of the parent compound. From the promising activity exhibited by the pentamidine analogs in this in vitro study and their potential for reduced toxicity relative to the parent drug, pentamidine-related compounds hold promise as new agents for the treatment of protozoal infections.

Bell, C A; Hall, J E; Kyle, D E; Grogl, M; Ohemeng, K A; Allen, M A; Tidwell, R R



Antileishmanial chalcones: statistical design, synthesis, and three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis.  


A large number of substituted chalcones have been synthesized and tested for antileishmanial and lymphocyte-suppressing activities. A subset of the chalcones was designed by using statistical methods. 3D-QSAR analyses using 67 (antileishmanial activity) and 63 (lymphocyte-suppressing activity) of the compounds for the training sets and 9 compounds as an external validation set were performed by using the GRID/GOLPE methodology. The Smart Region Definition procedure with subsequent region selection as implemented in GOLPE reduced the number of variables to approximately 1300 yielding 3D-QSAR models of high quality (lymphocyte-suppressing model, R2 = 0. 90, Q2 = 0.80; antileishmanial model, R2 = 0.73, Q2 = 0.63). The coefficient plots indicate that steric interactions between the chalcones and the target are of major importance for the potencies of the compounds. A comparison of the coefficient plots for the antileishmanial effect and the lymphocyte-suppressing activity discloses significant differences which should make it possible to design chalcones having a high antileishmanial activity without suppressing the proliferation of lymphocytes. PMID:9822551

Nielsen, S F; Christensen, S B; Cruciani, G; Kharazmi, A; Liljefors, T



Synthesis, structure-activity relationships, and biological studies of chromenochalcones as potential antileishmanial agents.  


Antileishmanial activities of a library of synthetic chalcone analogues have been examined. Among them, five compounds (11, 14, 16, 17, 22, and 24) exhibited better activity than the marketed drug miltefosine in in vitro studies against the intracellular amastigotes form of Leishmania donovani. Three promising compounds, 16, 17, and 22, were tested in a L. donovani/hamster model. Oral administration of chalcone 16, at a concentration of 100 mg/kg of body weight per day for 5 consecutive days, resulted in >84% parasite inhibition at day 7 post-treatment and it retained the activity until day 28. The molecular and immunological studies revealed that compound 16 has a dual nature to act as a direct parasite killing agent and as a host immunostimulant. Pharmacokinetics and serum albumin binding studies also suggest that compound 16 has the potential to be a candidate for the treatment of the nonhealing form of leishmaniasis. PMID:24635539

Shivahare, Rahul; Korthikunta, Venkateswarlu; Chandasana, Hardik; Suthar, Manish K; Agnihotri, Pragati; Vishwakarma, Preeti; Chaitanya, Telaprolu K; Kancharla, Papireddy; Khaliq, Tanvir; Gupta, Shweta; Bhatta, Rabi Sankar; Pratap, J Venkatesh; Saxena, Jitendra K; Gupta, Suman; Tadigoppula, Narender



Design, synthesis and structure-activity relationship of novel Relacin analogs as inhibitors of Rel proteins.  


Rel proteins in bacteria synthesize the signal molecules (p)ppGpp that trigger the Stringent Response, responsible for bacterial survival. Inhibiting the activity of such enzymes prevents the Stringent Response, resulting in the inactivation of long-term bacterial survival strategies, leading to bacterial cell death. Herein, we describe a series of deoxyguanosine-based analogs of the Relacin molecule that inhibit in vitro the synthetic activity of Rel proteins from Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, providing a deeper insight on the SAR for a better understanding of their potential interactions and inhibitory activity. Among the inhibitors evaluated, compound 2d was found to be more effective and potent than our previously reported Relacin. PMID:24189495

Wexselblatt, Ezequiel; Kaspy, Ilana; Glaser, Gad; Katzhendler, Joshua; Yavin, Eylon



Design, synthesis and structure-activity relationship of novel semi-synthetic flavonoids as antiproliferative agents.  


Various flavonoid scaffold based derivatives viz furochalcones (3a-e, 6a-d and 9a-d), furoflavones (10a-d, 11a-d, 12a-d, 18a&b), flavones (21a-d), furoaurones (13a,b, 14a-d and 15a-d) and 7-styrylfurochromones (22a-d and 25a-e) were designed and synthesized. The novel compounds were evaluated for their antiproliferative activity against a panel of 60 cancer cell lines comprising 9 types of tumors. Ten compounds belonging to the major subgroups of flavonoids viz furochalcones (3a, 3d, 6b, 9a and 9b), furoflavones (12a and 12c), furoaurones (15d), styrylfurochromones (25b and 25e) showed very promising activity. These active compounds were also evaluated in vitro as kinase inhibitors against CDK2/cyclin E1, CDK4/cyclin D1 and GSK-3? and the best inhibition was displayed against GSK-3? with the allylfurochalcone derivative 9b exhibiting 80% decrease in GSK-3? catalytic activity. On the other hand, the styrylfurochromone 25e interestingly showed a 13% enhancement of GSK-3? catalytic power and a 12% reduction in CDK4/cyclin D1 activity. Finally, the in vivo anti-tumor activity of 25e was evaluated against breast cancer induced in mice. The results showed a profound anti-tumor effect of 25e that accompanies a significant increase and decrease in the levels of GSK-3? and cyclin D1, respectively. PMID:24937184

Ragab, F A; Yahya, T A A; El-Naa, M M; Arafa, R K



Synthesis, structure-activity relationships, and characterization of novel nonsteroidal and selective androgen receptor modulators.  


Herein we describe the discovery of ACP-105 (1), a novel and potent nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) with partial agonist activity relative to the natural androgen testosterone. Compound 1 was developed from a series of compounds found in a HTS screen using the receptor selection and amplification technology (R-SAT). In vivo, 1 improved anabolic parameters in a 2-week chronic study in castrated male rats. In addition to compound 1, a number of potent antiandrogens were discovered from the same series of compounds whereof one compound, 13, had antagonist activity at the AR T877A mutant involved in prostate cancer. PMID:19856921

Schlienger, Nathalie; Lund, Birgitte W; Pawlas, Jan; Badalassi, Fabrizio; Bertozzi, Fabio; Lewinsky, Rasmus; Fejzic, Alma; Thygesen, Mikkel B; Tabatabaei, Ali; Bradley, Stefania Risso; Gardell, Luis R; Piu, Fabrice; Olsson, Roger



Design, diversity-oriented synthesis and structure activity relationship studies of quinolinyl heterocycles as antimycobacterial agents.  


The current study reports design and diversity oriented synthesis of novel bis heterocycles with a common 2-methyl, C-4 unsubstituted quinoline moiety as the central key heterocycle. Employing reagent based skeletal diversity approach; a facile synthesis of bis heterocycles with different heterocyclic rings at C-3 position of the quinoline moiety has been accomplished. A broad range of heterocyclic frameworks thus obtained were evaluated for their antimycobacterial activity. The active scaffolds were further explored by a parallel library generation in order to establish SAR. Further, low cytotoxicity against A549 cell line enhances the potential of the synthesized molecules as promising antimycobacterial agents. PMID:24189497

Rachakonda, Venkatesham; Alla, Manjula; Kotipalli, Sudha Sravanti; Ummani, Ramesh



Relationship between structure and antiplaque and antimicrobial activities for a series of bispyridines.  

PubMed Central

A series of bispyridines were examined for their bactericidal activities against in vitro, preformed, pure-culture plaques of selected oral plaque-forming bacteria. The antimicrobial activities of these agents were examined in relation to their molecular configurations. These studies demonstrated that the length of the interpyridine polymethylene group bridge and the length of the alkyl side chain were important determinants of antiplaque and antimicrobial efficacy. The most potent compounds of the bispyridine series were studied to determine the minimal conditions (concentration, duration, and frequency) of treatment required for likely clinical efficacy.

Slee, A M; O'Connor, J R; Bailey, D M



Dechlorination of chlorinated compounds by Trametes versicolor ATCC 200801 crude laccase and quantitative structure-activity relationship of toxicity.  


Chlorinated compounds constitute an important class of xenobiotics. Crude laccase was produced using Trametes versicolor ATCC (200801) in potato dextrose broth, with wheat bran as an inducing medium, and its ability to dechlorinate eight compounds was determined. The compounds were 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,6-dichlorophenol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, heptachlor and pentachlorophenol. A range of parameters for the dechlorination of some compounds was tested, including incubation period, pH, initial substrate concentration, temperature, and enzyme quantity. The oxygen consumption was determined during each dechlorination process, under pre-determined optimum conditions. The changes in chemical structure of the compounds were also determined, by using FTIR analysis, following dechlorination of test chlorophenolics. Strong interactions were found to lead to the reactivity of hydroxyl groups in some cases and chlorine atoms were released from the benzene ring. The changes in compound toxicity were monitored before and after enzymatic treatment, using Microtox. Quantitative structure-activity relationships for the toxicity of the chlorinated compounds were developed. Consequently, the toxic activity of the test compounds was controlled by electrophilic index and electronic properties. PMID:22755541

Çabuk, Ahmet; Sidir, Yadigar G; Aytar, Pinar; Gedikli, Serap; Sidir, ?sa



Structure-activity relationship of S-trityl-L-cysteine analogues as inhibitors of the human mitotic kinesin Eg5.  


The human kinesin Eg5 is a potential drug target for cancer chemotherapy. Eg5 specific inhibitors cause cells to block in mitosis with a characteristic monoastral spindle phenotype. Prolonged metaphase block eventually leads to apoptotic cell death. S-trityl-L-cysteine (STLC) is a tight-binding inhibitor of Eg5 that prevents mitotic progression. It has proven antitumor activity as shown in the NCI 60 tumor cell line screen. It is of considerable interest to define the minimum chemical structure that is essential for Eg5 inhibition and to develop more potent STLC analogues. An initial structure-activity relationship study on a series of STLC analogues reveals the minimal skeleton necessary for Eg5 inhibition as well as indications of how to obtain more potent analogues. The most effective compounds investigated with substitutions at the para-position of one phenyl ring have an estimated K i (app) of 100 nM in vitro and induce mitotic arrest with an EC 50 of 200 nM. PMID:18266314

Debonis, Salvatore; Skoufias, Dimitrios A; Indorato, Rose-Laure; Liger, François; Marquet, Bernard; Laggner, Christian; Joseph, Benoît; Kozielski, Frank



Synthesis, Pharmacological Characterization, and Structure-Activity Relationship Studies of Small Molecular Agonists for the Orphan GPR88 Receptor.  


GPR88 is an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) enriched in the striatum. Genetic deletion and gene expression studies have suggested that GPR88 plays an important role in the regulation of striatal functions and is implicated in psychiatric disorders. The signal transduction pathway and receptor functions of GPR88, however, are still largely unknown due to the lack of endogenous and synthetic ligands. In this paper, we report the synthesis of a GPR88 agonist 2-PCCA and its pure diastereomers, which were functionally characterized in both transiently and stably expressing GPR88 HEK293 cells. 2-PCCA inhibited isoproterenol-stimulated cAMP accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner in cells expressing GPR88 but not in the control cells, suggesting that the observed cAMP inhibition is mediated through GPR88 and that GPR88 is coupled to G?i. 2-PCCA did not induce calcium mobilization in GPR88 cells, indicating no G?q-mediated response. A structure-activity relationship (SAR) study of 2-PCCA was also conducted to explore the key structural features for GPR88 agonist activity. PMID:24793972

Jin, Chunyang; Decker, Ann M; Huang, Xi-Ping; Gilmour, Brian P; Blough, Bruce E; Roth, Bryan L; Hu, Yang; Gill, Joseph B; Zhang, X Peter



Quantitative structure-activity relationships for skin sensitization potential of urushiol analogues.  


The relative alkylation index (RAI), a theoretically derived parameter intended to quantify the relative extent of carrier haptenation resulting from a given dose of a given sensitizer, has previously been successfully applied to the analysis of relative sensitization potential and dose-response data for a variety of contact allergens which are directly electrophilic. Here the RAI concept is applied to analysis of data on compounds related to urushiol (i.e., 3-substituted catechols), the naturally occurring mixture of allergens responsible for contact allergy to poison ivy and poison oak. These allergens are believed to act as pro-electrophiles, being oxidized to electrophilic orthoquinones in vivo. It is found that the various types of urushiol derivatives fit the same sort of RAI-sensitization relationships as expected theoretically and as found previously with direct acting electrophiles. There is evidence that in many cases, the test conditions were such that overload effects, whereby the degree of sensitization induced decreases with increasing carrier haptenation, applied. It is also concluded that the question as to the relative sensitization potencies of the naturally occurring urushiols remains open. The commonly held view that with these materials, sensitization potential increases with increasing unsaturation in the 3-hydrocarbyl chain of the 3-hydrocarbyl catechols, is based on evidence that is capable of alternative interpretation. PMID:8365181

Roberts, D W; Benezra, C



Spatio-temporal relationship match: Video structure comparison for recognition of complex human activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human activity recognition is a challenging task, es- pecially when its background is unknown or changing, and when scale or illumination differs in each video. Approaches utilizing spatio-temporal local features have proved that they are able to cope with such difficulties, but they mainly focused on classifying short videos of simple periodic actions. In this paper, we present a new

Michael S. Ryoo; Jake K. Aggarwal



Insights into structure-activity relationship of GABAA receptor modulating coumarins and furanocoumarins  

PubMed Central

The coumarins imperatorin and osthole are known to exert anticonvulsant activity. We have therefore analyzed the modulation of GABA-induced chloride currents (IGABA) by a selection of 18 coumarin derivatives on recombinant ?1?2?2S GABAA receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes by means of the two-microelectrode voltage clamp technique. Osthole (EC50=14±1 ?M) and oxypeucedanin (EC50=25±8 ?M) displayed the highest efficiency with IGABA potentiation of 116±4% and 547±56%, respectively. IGABA enhance