These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Ecological Structure Activity Relationships  

EPA Science Inventory

Ecological Structure Activity Relationships, v1.00a, February 2009 ECOSAR (Ecological Structure Activity Relationships) is a personal computer software program that is used to estimate the toxicity of chemicals used in industry and discharged into water. The program predicts...

2

Structural Antitumoral Activity Relationships of Synthetic Chalcones  

PubMed Central

Relationships between the structural characteristic of synthetic chalcones and their antitumoral activity were studied. Treatment of HepG2 cells for 24 h with synthetic 2’-hydroxychalcones resulted in apoptosis induction and dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation. The calculated reactivity indexes and the adiabatic electron affinities using the DFT method including solvent effects, suggest a structure-activity relationship between the Chalcones structure and the apoptosis in HepG2 cells. The absence of methoxy substituents in the B ring of synthetic 2’-hydroxychalcones, showed the mayor structure-activity pattern along the series. PMID:19333443

Echeverria, Cesar; Santibañez, Juan Francisco; Donoso-Tauda, Oscar; Escobar, Carlos A.; Ramirez-Tagle, Rodrigo

2009-01-01

3

Structure—activity relationships for insecticidal carbamates*  

PubMed Central

Carbamate insecticides are biologically active because of their structural complementarity to the active site of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and their consequent action as substrates with very low turnover numbers. Carbamates behave as synthetic neurohormones that produce their toxic action by interrupting the normal action of AChE so that acetylcholine accumulates at synaptic junctions. The necessary properties for a suitable insecticidal carbamate are lipid solubility, suitable structural complementarity to AChE, and sufficient stability to multifunction-oxidase detoxification. The relationships between the structure and the activity of a large number of synthetic carbamates are analysed in detail, with particular attention to the second of these properties. PMID:5315358

Metcalf, Robert L.

1971-01-01

4

Structure-Activity Relationships in Nitro-Aromatic Compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many nitro-aromatic compounds show mutagenic and carcinogenic properties, posing a potential human health risk. Despite this potential health hazard, nitro-aromatic compounds continue to be emitted into ambient air from municipal incinerators, motor vehicles, and industrial power plants. As a result, understanding the structural and electronic factors that influence mutagenicity in nitro-aromatic compounds has been a long standing objective. Progress toward this goal has accelerated over the years, in large part due to the synergistic efforts among toxicology, computational chemistry, and statistical modeling of toxicological data. The concerted influence of several structural and electronic factors in nitro-aromatic compounds makes the development of structure-activity relationships (SARs) a paramount challenge. Mathematical models that include a regression analysis show promise in predicting the mutagenic activity of nitro-aromatic compounds as well as in prioritizing compounds for which experimental data should be pursued. A major challenge of the structure-activity models developed thus far is their failure to apply beyond a subset of nitro-aromatic compounds. Most quantitative structure-activity relationship papers point to statistics as the most important confirmation of the validity of a model. However, the experimental evidence shows the importance of the chemical knowledge in the process of generating models with reasonable applicability. This chapter will concisely summarize the structural and electronic factors that influence the mutagenicity in nitro-aromatic compounds and the recent efforts to use quantitative structure-activity relationships to predict those physicochemical properties.

Vogt, R. A.; Rahman, S.; Crespo-Hernández, C. E.

5

CONSIDERATION OF REACTION INTERMEDIATES IN STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS: A KEY TO UNDERSTANDING AND PREDICTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Consideration of Reaction Intermediates in Structure- Activity Relationships: A Key to Understanding and Prediction A structure-activity relationship (SAR) represents an empirical means for generalizing chemical information relative to biological activity, and is frequent...

6

STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIP STUIDES AND THEIR ROLE IN PREDICTING AND INVESTIGATING CHEMICAL TOXICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Structure-Activity Relationship Studies and their Role in Predicting and Investigating Chemical Toxicity Structure-activity relationships (SAR) represent attempts to generalize chemical information relative to biological activity for the twin purposes of generating insigh...

7

Structure-activity relationship for the oxadiazole class of antibiotics.  

PubMed

The structure-activity relationship (SAR) for the newly discovered oxadiazole class of antibiotics is described with evaluation of 120 derivatives of the lead structure. This class of antibiotics was discovered by in silico docking and scoring against the crystal structure of a penicillin-binding protein. They impair cell-wall biosynthesis and exhibit activities against the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant and linezolid-resistant S. aureus. 5-(1H-Indol-5-yl)-3-(4-(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy)phenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazole (antibiotic 75b) was efficacious in a mouse model of MRSA infection, exhibiting a long half-life, a high volume of distribution, and low clearance. This antibiotic is bactericidal and is orally bioavailable in mice. This class of antibiotics holds great promise in recourse against infections by MRSA. PMID:25590813

Spink, Edward; Ding, Derong; Peng, Zhihong; Boudreau, Marc A; Leemans, Erika; Lastochkin, Elena; Song, Wei; Lichtenwalter, Katerina; O'Daniel, Peter I; Testero, Sebastian A; Pi, Hualiang; Schroeder, Valerie A; Wolter, William R; Antunes, Nuno T; Suckow, Mark A; Vakulenko, Sergei; Chang, Mayland; Mobashery, Shahriar

2015-02-12

8

Structure–Activity Relationship Studies of Pyrrolone Antimalarial Agents  

PubMed Central

Previously reported pyrrolones, such as TDR32570, exhibited potential as antimalarial agents; however, while these compounds have potent antimalarial activity, they suffer from poor aqueous solubility and metabolic instability. Here, further structure–activity relationship studies are described that aimed to solve the developability issues associated with this series of compounds. In particular, further modifications to the lead pyrrolone, involving replacement of a phenyl ring with a piperidine and removal of a potentially metabolically labile ester by a scaffold hop, gave rise to derivatives with improved in vitro antimalarial activities against Plasmodium falciparum K1, a chloroquine-and pyrimethamine-resistant parasite strain, with some derivatives exhibiting good selectivity for parasite over mammalian (L6) cells. Three representative compounds were selected for evaluation in a rodent model of malaria infection, and the best compound showed improved ability to decrease parasitaemia and a slight increase in survival. PMID:23918316

Murugesan, Dinakaran; Kaiser, Marcel; White, Karen L; Norval, Suzanne; Riley, Jennifer; Wyatt, Paul G; Charman, Susan A; Read, Kevin D; Yeates, Clive; Gilbert, Ian H

2013-01-01

9

Synthesis and Structural Activity Relationship Study of Antitubercular Carboxamides  

PubMed Central

The unusual structure and chemical composition of the mycobacterial cell wall, the tedious duration of therapy, and resistance developed by the microorganism have made the recurrence of the disease multidrug resistance and extensive or extreme drug resistance. The prevalence of tuberculosis in synergy with HIV/AIDS epidemic augments the risk of developing the disease by 100-fold. The need to synthesize new drugs that will shorten the total duration of effective treatment and/or significantly reduce the dosage taken under DOTS supervision, improve on the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis which defies the treatment with isoniazid and rifampicin, and provide effective treatment for latent TB infections which is essential for eliminating tuberculosis prompted this review. In this review, we considered the synthesis and structure activity relationship study of carboxamide derivatives with antitubercular potential. PMID:25610646

Ugwu, D. I.; Ezema, B. E.; Eze, F. U.; Ugwuja, D. I.

2014-01-01

10

Antioxidant activity of eugenol: a structure-activity relationship study.  

PubMed

Eugenol (4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol), a major phenolic component from clove oil (Eugenia caryophyllata), has several biological activities. To estimate the capacity of eugenol to act as an antioxidant, the following were studied: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl-, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)-, and N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine-scavenging activity; total antioxidant activity; and ability to reduce ferric ions and cupric ions. Eugenol inhibited 96.7% (r(2)=0.9319) lipid peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion at a 15-?g/mL concentration. Butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, ?-tocopherol, and Trolox(®) displayed 95.4% (r(2)=0.8482), 99.7% (r(2)=0.7798), 84.6% (r(2)=0.9272), and 95.6% (r(2)=0.8511) inhibition of peroxidation, respectively, at the 15-?g/mL concentration. According to the results of this study, eugenol had the most powerful antioxidant activity and radical-scavenging activity. This study should prompt further studies of the antioxidant properties of eugenol. PMID:21554120

Gülçin, ?lhami

2011-09-01

11

The structure?activity relationship in herbicidal monosubstituted sulfonylureas  

SciTech Connect

The herbicide sulfonylurea (SU) belongs to one of the most important class of herbicides worldwide. It is well known for its ecofriendly, extreme low toxicity towards mammals and ultralow dosage application. The original inventor, G Levitt, set out structure-activity relationship (SAR) guidelines for SU structural design to attain superhigh bioactivity. A new approach to SU molecular design has been developed. After the analysis of scores of SU products by X-ray diffraction methodology and after greenhouse herbicidal screening of 900 novel SU structures synthesized in the authors laboratory, it was found that several SU structures containing a monosubstituted pyrimidine moiety retain excellent herbicidal characteristics, which has led to partial revision of the Levitt guidelines. Among the novel SU molecules, monosulfuron and monosulfuron-ester have been developed into two new herbicides that have been officially approved for field application and applied in millet and wheat fields in China. A systematic structural study of the new substrate-target complex and the relative mode of action in comparison with conventional SU has been carried out. A new mode of action has been postulated.

Li, Zheng-Ming; Ma, Yi; Guddat, Luke; Cheng, Pei-Quan; Wang, Jian-Guo; Pang, Siew S; Dong, Yu-Hui; Lai, Cheng-Ming; Wang, Ling-Xiu; Jia, Guo-Feng; Li, Yong-Hong; Wang, Su-Hua; Liu, Jie; Zhao, Wei-Guang; Wang, Bao-Lei (Nankai); (Queens); (Chinese Aca. Sci.)

2012-05-24

12

Structure-activity relationship of cyanine tau aggregation inhibitors.  

PubMed

A structure-activity relationship for symmetrical cyanine inhibitors of human tau aggregation was elaborated using a filter trap assay. Antagonist activity depended on cyanine heterocycle, polymethine bridge length, and the nature of meso- and N-substituents. One potent member of the series, 3,3'-diethyl-9-methylthiacarbocyanine iodide (compound 11), retained submicromolar potency and had calculated physical properties consistent with blood-brain barrier and cell membrane penetration. Exposure of organotypic slices prepared from JNPL3 transgenic mice (which express human tau harboring the aggregation prone P301L tauopathy mutation) to compound 11 for one week revealed a biphasic dose response relationship. Low nanomolar concentrations decreased insoluble tau aggregates to half those observed in slices treated with vehicle alone. In contrast, high concentrations (> or =300 nM) augmented tau aggregation and produced abnormalities in tissue tubulin levels. These data suggest that certain symmetrical carbocyanine dyes can modulate tau aggregation in the slice biological model at concentrations well below those associated with toxicity. PMID:19432420

Chang, Edward; Congdon, Erin E; Honson, Nicolette S; Duff, Karen E; Kuret, Jeff

2009-06-11

13

Quantitative structure-activity relationships for organophosphates binding to acetylcholinesterase.  

PubMed

Organophosphates are a group of pesticides and chemical warfare nerve agents that inhibit acetylcholinesterase, the enzyme responsible for hydrolysis of the excitatory neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Numerous structural variants exist for this chemical class, and data regarding their toxicity can be difficult to obtain in a timely fashion. At the same time, their use as pesticides and military weapons is widespread, which presents a major concern and challenge in evaluating human toxicity. To address this concern, a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) was developed to predict pentavalent organophosphate oxon human acetylcholinesterase bimolecular rate constants. A database of 278 three-dimensional structures and their bimolecular rates was developed from 15 peer-reviewed publications. A database of simplified molecular input line entry notations and their respective acetylcholinesterase bimolecular rate constants are listed in Supplementary Material, Table I. The database was quite diverse, spanning 7 log units of activity. In order to describe their structure, 675 molecular descriptors were calculated using AMPAC 8.0 and CODESSA 2.7.10. Orthogonal projection to latent structures regression, bootstrap leave-random-many-out cross-validation and y-randomization were used to develop an externally validated consensus QSAR model. The domain of applicability was assessed by the William's plot. Six external compounds were outside the warning leverage indicating potential model extrapolation. A number of compounds had residuals >2 or <-2, indicating potential outliers or activity cliffs. The results show that the HOMO-LUMO energy gap contributed most significantly to the binding affinity. A mean training R (2) of 0.80, a mean test set R (2) of 0.76 and a consensus external test set R (2) of 0.66 were achieved using the QSAR. The training and external test set RMSE values were found to be 0.76 and 0.88. The results suggest that this QSAR model can be used in physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models of organophosphate toxicity to determine the rate of acetylcholinesterase inhibition. PMID:22990135

Ruark, Christopher D; Hack, C Eric; Robinson, Peter J; Anderson, Paul E; Gearhart, Jeffery M

2013-02-01

14

Structure activity relationships to assess new chemicals under TSCA  

SciTech Connect

Under Section 5 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), manufacturers must notify the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 90 days before manufacturing, processing, or importing a new chemical substance. This is referred to as a premanufacture notice (PMN). The PMN must contain certain information including chemical identity, production volume, proposed uses, estimates of exposure and release, and any health or environmental test data that are available to the submitter. Because there is no explicit statutory authority that requires testing of new chemicals prior to their entry into the market, most PMNs are submitted with little or no data. As a result, EPA has developed special techniques for hazard assessment of PMN chemicals. These include (1) evaluation of available data on the chemical itself, (2) evaluation of data on analogues of the PMN, or evaluation of data on metabolites or analogues of metabolites of the PMN, (3) use of quantitative structure activity relationships (QSARs), and (4) knowledge and judgement of scientific assessors in the interpretation and integration of the information developed in the course of the assessment. This approach to evaluating potential hazards of new chemicals is used to identify those that are most in need of addition review of further testing. It should not be viewed as a replacement for testing. 4 tabs.

Auletta, A.E. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

1990-12-31

15

Development of structure-activity relationship for metal oxide nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanomaterial structure-activity relationships (nano-SARs) for metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) toxicity were investigated using metrics based on dose-response analysis and consensus self-organizing map clustering. The NP cellular toxicity dataset included toxicity profiles consisting of seven different assays for human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) and murine myeloid (RAW 264.7) cells, over a concentration range of 0.39-100 mg L-1 and exposure time up to 24 h, for twenty-four different metal oxide NPs. Various nano-SAR building models were evaluated, based on an initial pool of thirty NP descriptors. The conduction band energy and ionic index (often correlated with the hydration enthalpy) were identified as suitable NP descriptors that are consistent with suggested toxicity mechanisms for metal oxide NPs and metal ions. The best performing nano-SAR with the above two descriptors, built with support vector machine (SVM) model and of validated robustness, had a balanced classification accuracy of ~94%. An applicability domain for the present data was established with a reasonable confidence level of 80%. Given the potential role of nano-SARs in decision making, regarding the environmental impact of NPs, the class probabilities provided by the SVM nano-SAR enabled the construction of decision boundaries with respect to toxicity classification under different acceptance levels of false negative relative to false positive predictions.Nanomaterial structure-activity relationships (nano-SARs) for metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) toxicity were investigated using metrics based on dose-response analysis and consensus self-organizing map clustering. The NP cellular toxicity dataset included toxicity profiles consisting of seven different assays for human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) and murine myeloid (RAW 264.7) cells, over a concentration range of 0.39-100 mg L-1 and exposure time up to 24 h, for twenty-four different metal oxide NPs. Various nano-SAR building models were evaluated, based on an initial pool of thirty NP descriptors. The conduction band energy and ionic index (often correlated with the hydration enthalpy) were identified as suitable NP descriptors that are consistent with suggested toxicity mechanisms for metal oxide NPs and metal ions. The best performing nano-SAR with the above two descriptors, built with support vector machine (SVM) model and of validated robustness, had a balanced classification accuracy of ~94%. An applicability domain for the present data was established with a reasonable confidence level of 80%. Given the potential role of nano-SARs in decision making, regarding the environmental impact of NPs, the class probabilities provided by the SVM nano-SAR enabled the construction of decision boundaries with respect to toxicity classification under different acceptance levels of false negative relative to false positive predictions. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr01533e

Liu, Rong; Zhang, Hai Yuan; Ji, Zhao Xia; Rallo, Robert; Xia, Tian; Chang, Chong Hyun; Nel, Andre; Cohen, Yoram

2013-05-01

16

Structure activity relationship of synaptic and junctional neurotransmission  

PubMed Central

Chemical neurotransmission may include transmission to local or remote sites. Locally, contact between ‘bare’ portions of the bulbous nerve terminal termed a varicosity and the effector cell may be in the form of either synapse or non-synaptic contact. Traditionally, all local transmissions between nerves and effector cells are considered synaptic in nature. This is particularly true for communication between neurons. However, communication between nerves and other effectors such as smooth muscles has been described as nonsynaptic or junctional in nature. Nonsynaptic neurotransmission is now also increasing recognized in the CNS. This review focuses on the relationship between structure and function that orchestrate synaptic and junctional neurotransmissions. A synapse is a specialized focal contact between the presynaptic active zone capable for ultrafast release of soluble transmitters and the postsynaptic density that cluster ionotropic receptors. The presynaptic and the postsynaptic areas are separated by the ‘closed’ synaptic cavity. The physiological hallmark of the synapse is ultrafast postsynaptic potentials lasting in milliseconds. In contrast, junctions are juxtapositions of nerve terminals and the effector cells without clear synaptic specializations and the junctional space is ‘open’ to the extracellular space. Based on the nature of the transmitters, postjunctional receptors and their separation from the release sites, the junctions can be divided into ‘close’ and ‘wide’ junctions. Functionally, the ‘close’ and the ‘wide’ junctions can be distinguished by postjunctional potentials lasting ~1 second and 10s of seconds, respectively. Both synaptic and junctional communications are common between neurons; however, junctional transmission is the rule at many neuro-non-neural effectors. PMID:23535140

Goyal, Raj K; Chaudhury, Arun

2013-01-01

17

Antioxidant, prooxidant and cytotoxic activity of hydroxylated resveratrol analogues: structure–activity relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resveratrol (trans-3,4?,5-trihydroxystilbene), a naturally occurring hydroxystilbene, is considered an essential antioxidative constituent of red wine possessing chemopreventive properties. However, resveratrol and even more its metabolite piceatannol were reported to have also cytostatic activities. In order to find out whether this is related to antioxidative properties of those compounds, we synthesized five other polyhydroxylated resveratrol analogues and studied structure–activity relationships between

Marek Murias; Walter Jäger; Norbert Handler; Thomas Erker; Zsuzsanna Horvath; Thomas Szekeres; Hans Nohl; Lars Gille

2005-01-01

18

Music in minor activates limbic structures: a relationship with dissonance?  

PubMed

Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we contrasted major and minor mode melodies controlled for liking to study the neural basis of musical mode perception. To examine the influence of the larger dissonance in minor melodies on neural activation differences, we further introduced a strongly dissonant stimulus, in the form of a chromatic scale. Minor mode melodies were evaluated as sadder than major melodies, and in comparison they caused increased activity in limbic structures, namely left parahippocampal gyrus, bilateral ventral anterior cingulate, and in left medial prefrontal cortex. Dissonance explained some, but not all, of the heightened activity in the limbic structures when listening to minor mode music. PMID:18418244

Green, Anders C; Baerentsen, Klaus B; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans; Wallentin, Mikkel; Roepstorff, Andreas; Vuust, Peter

2008-05-01

19

Initial Insights into Structure-Activity Relationships of Avian Defensins*  

PubMed Central

Numerous ?-defensins have been identified in birds, and the potential use of these peptides as alternatives to antibiotics has been proposed, in particular to fight antibiotic-resistant and zoonotic bacterial species. Little is known about the mechanism of antibacterial activity of avian ?-defensins, and this study was carried out to obtain initial insights into the involvement of structural features or specific residues in the antimicrobial activity of chicken AvBD2. Chicken AvBD2 and its enantiomeric counterpart were chemically synthesized. Peptide elongation and oxidative folding were both optimized. The similar antimicrobial activity measured for both l- and d-proteins clearly indicates that there is no chiral partner. Therefore, the bacterial membrane is in all likelihood the primary target. Moreover, this work indicates that the three-dimensional fold is required for an optimal antimicrobial activity, in particular for Gram-positive bacterial strains. The three-dimensional NMR structure of chicken AvBD2 defensin displays the structural three-stranded antiparallel ?-sheet characteristic of ?-defensins. The surface of the molecule does not display any amphipathic character. In light of this new structure and of the king penguin AvBD103b defensin structure, the consensus sequence of the avian ?-defensin family was analyzed. Well conserved residues were highlighted, and the potential strategic role of the lysine 31 residue of AvBD2 was emphasized. The synthetic AvBD2-K31A variant displayed substantial N-terminal structural modifications and a dramatic decrease in activity. Taken together, these results demonstrate the structural as well as the functional role of the critical lysine 31 residue in antimicrobial activity. PMID:22205704

Derache, Chrystelle; Meudal, Hervé; Aucagne, Vincent; Mark, Kevin J.; Cadène, Martine; Delmas, Agnès F.; Lalmanach, Anne-Christine; Landon, Céline

2012-01-01

20

PREDICTING TOXICOLOGICAL ENDPOINTS OF CHEMICALS USING QUANTITATIVE STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS (QSARS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) are being developed to predict the toxicological endpoints for untested chemicals similar in structure to chemicals that have known experimental toxicological data. Based on a very large number of predetermined descriptors, a...

21

COMPUTER-ASSISTED STUDIES OF MOLECULAR STRUCTURE-BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS  

EPA Science Inventory

Computer-assisted methods can be used to investigate the relationships between the molecular structures of compounds and their biological activity. A number of approaches have been reported in the literature, including correlations of activity with substituent constants, conforma...

22

Structure-activity relationships of the cycloalkyl ring of phencyclidine.  

PubMed

In order to investigate the structural requirements for a cycloalkyl moiety in the potent hallucinogen 1-(1-phenylcyclohexyl)piperidine (PCP, 1), a series of structural analogues was synthesized in which the size of the cycloalkyl ring was varied from three carbons to eight carbons. Biological activities of these compounds were assessed in an in vitro assay (phencyclidine binding assay) and an in vivo assay (discriminative stimulus assay). As the cycloalkyl ring size decreased from that of cyclohexane (PCP), PCP-like activity declined in both assays, but as the cycloalkyl ring size became larger than cyclohexane, a sharp decline in PCP-like activity was observed in the in vivo assay, while activity in the in vitro assay was only slightly less than that of PCP. 1-(1-Phenylcyclooctyl)piperidine (8) had potent competitive binding properties in the in vitro binding assay but produced no observable PCP-like effects in the in vivo assay. The importance of the cycloalkyl ring in the structure of PCP was demonstrated by testing benzylpiperidine (2), which had almost no measurable activity in either assay. PMID:7310819

McQuinn, R L; Cone, E J; Shannon, H E; Su, T P

1981-12-01

23

Synthesis, cytotoxic activity and structure-activity relationships of hedychenone analogues.  

PubMed

Hedychenone, a plant-derived labdane diterpenoid, showed potent in vitro cytotoxic activity against cancerous cells. In the present study, a series of analogues have been synthesized by modification of the furanoid ring, double bond and the vinylic methyl functionality of this natural product lead and evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against human cancer cell lines. The structures of the target compounds were established by IR, (1)H NMR and mass spectral analysis. Majority of the analogues displayed potent activity than the parent compound, hedychenone. Preliminary structure-activity relationship studies indicated that furanoid ring has a greater impact on cytotoxicity than that of the decalone nucleus. However, dimerization through C-8 significantly enhanced the cytotoxic activity of the hedychenone. PMID:20303755

Prabhakar Reddy, P; Lavekar, Aditya G; Suresh Babu, K; Ranga Rao, R; Shashidhar, J; Shashikiran, G; Madhusudana Rao, J

2010-04-15

24

Structure-activity relationship of immunomodulating pectins from elderberries.  

PubMed

The berries of Sambucus nigra have traditionally been used and are still used to treat respiratory illnesses such as cold and flu in Europe, Asia and America. The aim of this paper was to elucidate the structures and the immunomodulating properties of the pectic polymers from elderberries. All the purified fractions obtained from 50% ethanol, 50°C water and 100°C water extracts showed potent dose-dependent complement fixating activity and macrophage stimulating activity. The isolated fractions consisted of long homogalacturonan regions, in addition to arabinogalactan-I and arabinogalactan-II probably linked to a rhamnogalacturonan backbone. Reduced bioactivity was observed after reduction of Araf residues and 1?3,6 Gal by weak acid hydrolysis. The rhamnogalacturonan region in SnBe50-I-S3-I and SnBe50-I-S3-II showed higher activity compared to the native polymer, SnBe50-S3, after enzymatic treatment with endo-?-d-(1?4)-polygalacturonase. These results indicated that elderberries contained immunomodulating polysaccharides, where the ramified regions express the activities observed. PMID:25857988

Ho, Giang Thanh Thi; Ahmed, Abeeda; Zou, Yuan-Feng; Aslaksen, Torun; Wangensteen, Helle; Barsett, Hilde

2015-07-10

25

DETERMINING THE STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS OF AMINOBIPHENYL AND BENZIDINE ANALOGS  

EPA Science Inventory

Determining the structure-activity relationships of aminobiphenyl and benzidine analogues Benzidine is a confirmed human carcinogen causing bladder and other types of cancer in humans and animals. Many of the benzidine and related aminobiphenyl compounds are mutagenic in t...

26

Quantitative Structure--Activity Relationship Modeling of Rat Acute Toxicity by Oral Exposure  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: Few Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) studies have successfully modeled large, diverse rodent toxicity endpoints. Objective: In this study, a combinatorial QSAR approach has been employed for the creation of robust and predictive models of acute toxi...

27

MOLECULAR INTERACTION POTENTIALS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract One reasonable approach to the analysis of the relationships between molecular structure and toxic activity is through the investigation of the forces and intermolecular interactions responsible for chemical toxicity. The interaction between the xenobiotic and the bio...

28

SIMPLIFYING COMPLEX QSAR'S (QUANTITATIVE STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS) IN TOXICITY STUDIES WITH MULTIVARIATE STATISTICS  

EPA Science Inventory

During the past several decades many quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR's) have been derived from relatively small data sets of chemicals in a homologous series and selected empirical observations. An alternative approach is to analyze large data sets consisting ...

29

Structure-activity relationship analysis of curcumin analogues on anti-influenza virus activity.  

PubMed

Curcumin (Cur) is a commonly used colouring agent and spice in food. Previously, we reported that Cur inhibits type A influenza virus (IAV) infection by interfering with viral haemagglutination (HA) activity. To search for a stable Cur analogue with potent anti-IAV activity and to investigate the structure contributing to its anti-IAV activity, a comparative analysis of structural and functional analogues of Cur, such as tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) and petasiphenol (Pet), was performed. The result of time-of-drug addition tests indicated that these curcuminoids were able to inhibit IAV production in cell cultures. Noticeably, Pet and THC inhibit IAV to a lesser extent than Cur, which is in line with their effect on reducing plaque formation when IAV was treated with Cur analogues before infection. Unexpectedly, both THC and Pet did not harbour any HA inhibitory effect. It should be noted that the structure of Pet and THC differs from Cur with respect to the number of double bonds present in the central seven-carbon chain, and structure modelling of Cur analogues indicates that the conformations of THC and Pet are distinct from that of Cur. Moreover, simulation docking of Cur with the HA structure revealed that Cur binds to the region constituting sialic acid anchoring residues, supporting the results obtained by the inhibition of HA activity assay. Collectively, structure-activity relationship analyses indicate that the presence of the double bonds in the central seven-carbon chain enhanced the Cur -dependent anti-IAV activity and also that Cur might interfere with IAV entry by its interaction with the receptor binding region of viral HA protein. PMID:24034558

Ou, Jun-Lin; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Chuang, Duen-Yau; Nadar, Muthukumar; Hsu, Wei-Li

2013-11-01

30

Structure and radical scavenging activity relationships of pyrolytic lignins.  

PubMed

This work deals with antioxidant properties of pyrolytic lignins against two free radicals, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid). Pyrolytic lignins produced by the thermal pyrolysis of the Etek lignin were extracted from the liquid pyrolysis product and fractionated using solvents of different polarities. The main functional groups linked to the lignin skeleton have been characterized by (1)H NMR and (19)F NMR upon acetylation and trifluoromethylation, respectively. Their radical scavenging activity against targeted free radicals was evaluated in vitro, and it was correlated to the content of studied functional groups. In contrast to the extracted Etek lignin, thermal pyrolysis produces lignin adducts that have higher scavenging efficacy than the nonthermally altered lignin and even higher than that of quercetin, a well-known phenolic antioxidant. The phenyl hydroxyl and methoxyl groups appear to be the main lignin structural factors contributing to the overall scavenging properties against the DPPH and ABTS free radicals. Also, these results show that there is no correlation between the content of aliphatic hydroxyl and carbonyl groups and the antioxidant activity. PMID:23199120

Nsimba, Robert Y; West, Nathan; Boateng, Akwasi A

2012-12-26

31

Structure–radical scavenging activity relationships of phenolic compounds from traditional Chinese medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer contain a wide variety of natural phenolic compounds with various structural features and possessing widely differing antioxidant activity. The structure–radical scavenging activity relationships of a large number of representative phenolic compounds (e.g., flavanols, flavonols, chalcones, flavones, flavanones, isoflavones, tannins, stilbenes, curcuminoids, phenolic acids, coumarins, lignans, and quinones) identified in the traditional Chinese medicinal

Yi-Zhong Cai; Mei Sun; Jie Xing; Qiong Luo; Harold Corke

2006-01-01

32

Advance in dietary polyphenols as ?-glucosidases inhibitors: a review on structure-activity relationship aspect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dietary polyphenols as ?-glucosidases inhibitors have attracted great interest among researchers. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the research reports on the structure-activity relationship of dietary polyphenols inhibiting ?-glucosidases. The molecular structures influence the inhibition are the following: 1) The hydroxylation and galloylation of flavonoids including catechins improve the inhibitory activity. 2) The glycosylation

Jianbo Xiao; Guoyin Kai; Koichiro Yamamoto; Xiaoqing Chen

2012-01-01

33

Inhibition of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Activity by Flavonoids: Structure-Activity Relationship Studies  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have demonstrated that certain flavonoids can have an inhibitory effect on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity, which plays a key role in the regulation of arterial blood pressure. In the present study, 17 flavonoids belonging to five structural subtypes were evaluated in vitro for their ability to inhibit ACE in order to establish the structural basis of their bioactivity. The ACE inhibitory (ACEI) activity of these 17 flavonoids was determined by fluorimetric method at two concentrations (500 µM and 100 µM). Their inhibitory potencies ranged from 17 to 95% at 500 µM and from 0 to 57% at 100 µM. In both cases, the highest ACEI activity was obtained for luteolin. Following the determination of ACEI activity, the flavonoids with higher ACEI activity (i.e., ACEI >60% at 500 µM) were selected for further IC50 determination. The IC50 values for luteolin, quercetin, rutin, kaempferol, rhoifolin and apigenin K were 23, 43, 64, 178, 183 and 196 µM, respectively. Our results suggest that flavonoids are an excellent source of functional antihypertensive products. Furthermore, our structure-activity relationship studies show that the combination of sub-structures on the flavonoid skeleton that increase ACEI activity is made up of the following elements: (a) the catechol group in the B-ring, (b) the double bond between C2 and C3 at the C-ring, and (c) the cetone group in C4 at the C-ring. Protein-ligand docking studies are used to understand the molecular basis for these results. PMID:23185345

Guerrero, Ligia; Castillo, Julián; Quiñones, Mar; Garcia-Vallvé, Santiago; Arola, Lluis; Pujadas, Gerard; Muguerza, Begoña

2012-01-01

34

Probing structure-antifouling activity relationships of polyacrylamides and polyacrylates.  

PubMed

We have synthesized two different polyacrylamide polymers with amide groups (polySBAA and polyHEAA) and two corresponding polyacrylate polymers without amide groups (polySBMA and polyHEA), with particular attention to the evaluation of the effect of amide group on the hydration and antifouling ability of these systems using both computational and experimental approaches. The influence of polymer architectures of brushes, hydrogels, and nanogels, prepared by different polymerization methods, on antifouling performance is also studied. SPR and ELISA data reveal that all polymers exhibit excellent antifouling ability to repel proteins from undiluted human blood serum/plasma, and such antifouling ability can be further enhanced by presenting amide groups in polySBAA and polyHEAA as compared to polySBMA and polyHEA. The antifouling performance is positively correlated with the hydration properties. Simulations confirm that four polymers indeed have different hydration characteristics, while all presenting a strong hydration overall. Integration of amide group with pendant hydroxyl or sulfobetaine group in polymer backbones is found to increase their surface hydration of polymer chains and thus to improve their antifouling ability. Importantly, we present a proof-of-concept experiment to synthesize polySBAA nanogels, which show a switchable property between antifouling and pH-responsive functions driven by acid-base conditions, while still maintaining high stability in undiluted fetal bovine serum and minimal toxicity to cultured cells. This work provides important structural insights into how very subtle structural changes in polymers can yield great improvement in biological activity, specifically the inclusion of amide group in polymer backbone/sidechain enables to obtain antifouling materials with better performance for biomedical applications. PMID:23562049

Zhao, Chao; Zhao, Jun; Li, Xiaosi; Wu, Jiang; Chen, Shenfu; Chen, Qiang; Wang, Qiuming; Gong, Xiong; Li, Lingyan; Zheng, Jie

2013-07-01

35

Activity cliff clusters as a source of structure-activity relationship information.  

PubMed

The activity cliff (AC) concept is widely applied in medicinal chemistry. ACs are formed by compounds with small structural changes having large differences in potency. Accordingly, ACs are a primary source of structure-activity relationship (SAR) information. Through large-scale compound data mining it has been shown that the vast majority of ACs are formed in a coordinated manner by groups of structurally analogous compounds with significant potency variations. In network representations coordinated ACs form clusters of varying size but frequently recurrent topology. Recently, computational methods have been introduced to systematically organize AC clusters and extract SAR information from them. AC clusters are widely distributed over compound activity classes and represent a rich source of SAR information. These clusters can be visualized in AC networks and isolated. However, it is challenging to extract SAR information from such clusters and make this information available to the practice of medicinal chemistry. Therefore, it is essential to go beyond subjective case-by-case analysis and design computational approaches to systematically access SAR information associated with AC clusters. PMID:25715967

Dimova, Dilyana; Stumpfe, Dagmar; Hu, Ye; Bajorath, Jürgen

2015-05-01

36

Quantitative structure-activity relationship of antifungal activity of rosin derivatives.  

PubMed

To develop new rosin-based wood preservatives with good antifungal activity, 24 rosin derivatives were synthesized, bioassay tested with Trametes versicolor and Gloeophyllum trabeum, and subjected to analysis of their quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR). A QSAR analysis using Ampac 9.2.1 and Codessa 2.7.16 software built two QSAR models of antifungal ratio for T. versicolor and G. trabeum with values of R(2)=0.9740 and 0.9692, respectively. Based on the models, tri-N-(3-hydroabietoxy-2-hydroxy) propyl-triethyl ammonium chloride was designed and the bioassay test result proved its better inhibitory effect against the two selected fungi as expected. PMID:25466709

Wang, Hui; Nguyen, Thi Thanh Hien; Li, Shujun; Liang, Tao; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Li, Jian

2015-01-15

37

ESTIMATION OF ELECTRON AFFINITY BASED ON STRUCTURE ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS  

EPA Science Inventory

Electron affinity for a wide range of organic molecules was calculated from molecular structure using the chemical reactivity models developed in SPARC. hese models are based on fundamental chemical structure theory applied to the prediction of chemical reactivities for organic m...

38

Gramicidin S: Relationship of Cyclic Structure to Antibiotic Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

GRAMICIDIN S is a polypeptide antibiotic elaborated by a strain of Bacillus brevis1. Its postulated structure, well substantiated by experimental results2, is that of a cyclic decapeptide of the following nature3:

Bernard F. Erlanger; Louise Goode

1954-01-01

39

/SETA~1niEssl MECHANISTIC QUANTITATIVE STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIP MODEL FOR  

E-print Network

/SETA~1niEssl MECHANISTIC QUANTITATIVE STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIP MODEL FOR THE PHOTOINDUCED* Departmentof Biology.Universityof Waterloo.Waterloo,OntarioN2L 3Gl, Canada Abstrad-A quantitative structure becausetoxicity could be considered in two compartments: water column and leaf tissue. Modeling of photoinduced

Krylov, Sergey

40

Large compound databases for structure-activity relationships studies in drug discovery.  

PubMed

Large libraries of chemical compounds reflect the exponentially growing data-enrichment in drug discovery that trends towards fully automated informatics solutions to study structure - activity relationships by screening docked ligand candidates to biological target structures. We review otherwise disseminated user descriptions of mainly public databases with free access and also our integrated data mining tool GPDBnet for phyto-pharmacology. PMID:17692047

Scior, Thomas; Bernard, Philippe; Medina-Franco, José Luis; Maggiora, Gerald M

2007-08-01

41

STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS FOR SCREENING ORGANIC CHEMICALS FOR POTENTIAL ECOTOXICITY EFFECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper presents structure-activity relationships (QSAR) for estimating the bioconcentration factor and acute toxicity of some classes of industrial chemicals using only the n-octanol/water partition coefficient (Log P) which is derived from chemical structure. The bioconcentra...

42

Tyrosinase inhibition studies of cycloartane and cucurbitane glycosides and their structure–activity relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper, tyrosinase inhibition studies and structure–activity relationship of eight cycloartane glycosides and one cucurbitane glycoside and its genin, which were isolated from Astragalus (Leguminoseae) and Bryonia (Cucurbitaceae) plants, have been discussed. The activities are compared with two reference tyrosinase inhibitors, kojic acid and l-mimosine. These studies and the SAR showed that the askendoside B which exhibited highly

Mahmud Tareq Hassan Khan; M. Iqbal Choudhary; Atta-ur-Rahman; Reyhan P. Mamedova; Manzura A. Agzamova; Mukhlis N. Sultankhodzhaev; Mahamed I. Isaev

2006-01-01

43

Structural Relationships between Social Activities and Longitudinal Trajectories of Depression among Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study examines the structural relationships between social activities and trajectories of late-life depression. Design and Methods: Latent class analysis was used with a nationally representative sample of older adults (N = 5,294) from the Longitudinal Study on Aging II to classify patterns of social activities. A latent growth curve…

Hong, Song-Iee; Hasche, Leslie; Bowland, Sharon

2009-01-01

44

Structure-activity relationship of synthetic branched-chain distearoylglycerol (distearin) as protein kinase C activators  

SciTech Connect

Several representative branched-chain analogues of distearin (DS) were synthesized and tested for their abilities to activate protein kinase C (PKC) and to compete for the binding of ({sup 3}H)phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) to the enzyme. Substitutions of stearoyl moieties at sn-1 and sn-2 with 8-methylstearate decreased activities on these parameters, relative to those of the parental diacylglycerol DS, a weak PKC activator. Substitutions with 8-butyl, 4-butyl, or 8-phenyl derivatives, on the other hand, increased activities of the resulting analogues to levels comparable to those seen for diolein (DO), a diacylglycerol prototype shown to be a potent PKC activator. Kinetic analysis indicated that 8-methyldistearin (8-MeDS) acted by decreasing, whereas 8-butyldistearin (8-BuDS) and 8-phenyldistearin (8-PhDS) acted by increasing, the affinities of PKC for phosphatidylserine (PS, a phospholipid cofactor) and Ca{sup 2+} compared to the values seen in the absence or presence of DS. The stimulatory effect of 8-BuDS and 8-PhDS on PKC, as DO, was additive to that of 1,2-(8-butyl)distearoylphosphatidylcholine (1,2(8-Bu)DSPC) and, moreover, they abolished the marked inhibition of the enzyme activity caused by high concentrations of 1,2(8-Bu)DSPC. The present findings demonstrated a structure-activity relationship of the branched-chain DS analogues in the regulation of PKC, perhaps related to their abilities to specifically modify interactions of PKC with PS and/or Ca{sup 2+} critically involved in enzyme activation/inactivation.

Zhou, Qingzhong; Raynor, R.L.; Wood, M.G. Jr.; Menger, F.M.; Kuo, J.F. (Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (USA))

1988-09-20

45

Structure-Activity Relationship of Benzophenanthridine Alkaloids from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Having Antimicrobial Activity  

PubMed Central

Zanthoxylum rhoifolium (Rutaceae) is a plant alkaloid that grows in South America and has been used in Brazilian traditional medicine for the treatment of different health problems. The present study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the steam bark crude methanol extract, fractions, and pure alkaloids of Z. rhoifolium. Its stem bark extracts exhibited a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, ranging from 12.5 to 100 µg/mL using bioautography method, and from 125 to 500 µg/mL in the microdilution bioassay. From the dichloromethane basic fraction, three furoquinoline alkaloids (1–3), and nine benzophenanthridine alkaloids (4–12) were isolated and the antimicrobial activity of the benzophenanthridine alkaloids is discussed in terms of structure-activity relationships. The alkaloid with the widest spectrum of activity was chelerythrine (10), followed by avicine (12) and dihydrochelerythrine (4). The minimal inhibitory concentrations of chelerythrine, of 1.50 µg/mL for all bacteria tested, and between 3.12 and 6.25 µg/mL for the yeast tested, show this compound to be a more powerful antimicrobial agent when compared with the other active alkaloids isolated from Z. rhoifolium. To verify the potential importance of the methylenedioxy group (ring A) of these alkaloids, chelerythrine was selected to represent the remainder of the benzophenanthridine alkaloids isolated in this work and was subjected to a demethylation reaction giving derivative 14. Compared to chelerythrine, the derivative (14) was less active against the tested bacteria and fungi. Kinetic measurements of the bacteriolytic activities of chelerythrine against the bacteria Bacillus subtilis (Gram-positive) and Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) were determined by optical density based on real time assay, suggesting that its mechanism of action is not bacteriolytic. The present study did not detect hemolytic effects of chelerythrine on erythrocytes and found a protective effect considering the decrease in TBARS and AOPP (advanced oxidized protein products) levels when compared to the control group. PMID:24824737

Tavares, Luciana de C.; Zanon, Graciane; Weber, Andréia D.; Neto, Alexandre T.; Mostardeiro, Clarice P.; Da Cruz, Ivana B. M.; Oliveira, Raul M.; Ilha, Vinicius; Dalcol, Ionara I.; Morel, Ademir F.

2014-01-01

46

Structure–activity relationships for ?-calcitonin gene-related peptide  

PubMed Central

Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a member of the calcitonin (CT) family of peptides. It is a widely distributed neuropeptide implicated in conditions such as neurogenic inflammation. With other members of the CT family, it shares an N-terminal disulphide-bonded ring which is essential for biological activity, an area of potential ?-helix, and a C-terminal amide. CGRP binds to the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) in complex with receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1), a member of the family B (or secretin-like) GPCRs. It can also activate other CLR or calcitonin-receptor/RAMP complexes. This 37 amino acid peptide comprises the N-terminal ring that is required for receptor activation (residues 1–7); an ?-helix (residues 8–18), a region incorporating a ?-bend (residues 19–26) and the C-terminal portion (residues 27–37), that is characterized by bends between residues 28–30 and 33–34. A few residues have been identified that seem to make major contributions to receptor binding and activation, with a larger number contributing either to minor interactions (which collectively may be significant), or to maintaining the conformation of the bound peptide. It is not clear if CGRP follows the pattern of other family B GPCRs in binding largely as an ?-helix. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Neuropeptides. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2013.170.issue-7 PMID:23186257

Watkins, Harriet A; Rathbone, Dan L; Barwell, James; Hay, Debbie L; Poyner, David R

2013-01-01

47

A mechanistic structure-activity relationship for hepatic polysubstrate monooxygenase  

SciTech Connect

The polysubstrate monooxygenase (PSMO) system response to hydrophobic xenobiotics is both intensive in oxidizing power and extensive in enzyme quantity. Under in vitro pseudo-first-order rate conditions the extensive properties become irrelevant, and the intensive rate-determining step depends on chemical structure. Xenobiotics react with PSMO either as inducers (adaptation domain) or as substrates (reaction domain) to produce intended hydroxylation, but accidental oxidations may also occur. Both the induction of intensive oxidizing power in the adaptation domain and the efficiency of reaction in the reaction domain depend on the strength of the weakest C-H bond in the xenobiotic, consistent with either a free radical or an ionic S[sub E]2 reaction process. Only the ionic S[sub E]2 mechanism is sensitive to the electrical charge on the carbon atom of the weakest C-H bond. In this study systematic treatment of simple hydrocarbon structures by adjacent polarizing heteroatoms N, Cl, and O inhibited substrate metabolism in direct proportion to their polarizing power. With this evidence of preferential S[sub E]2 behavior, a QSAR is proposed that allows prediction of four types of disease end points. These arise as combination of conditions of intended or accidental oxidations combined with release of metabolites into cytosolic or lipid media.

Hollebone, B.R.; Davis, D.; Michelin, N.; Purdy, D. (Carleton Univ., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Chemistry Dept.); Brownlee, L.J. (Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

1995-01-01

48

Structure-activity relationship of immunostimulatory effects of phthalates  

PubMed Central

Background Some chemicals, including some phthalate plasticizers, have been shown to have an adjuvant effect in mice. However, an adjuvant effect, defined as an inherent ability to stimulate the humoral immune response, was only observed after exposure to a limited number of the phthalates. An adjuvant effect may be due to the structure or physicochemical characteristics of the molecule. The scope of this study was to investigate which molecular characteristics that determine the observed adjuvant effect of the most widely used phthalate plasticizer, the di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), which is documented as having a strong adjuvant effect. To do so, a series of nine lipophilic compounds with structural and physicochemical relations to DEHP were investigated. Results Adjuvant effect of phthalates and related compounds were restricted to the IgG1 antibody formation. No effect was seen on IgE. It appears that lipophilicity plays a crucial role, but lipophilicity does not per se cause an adjuvant effect. In addition to lipophilicity, a phthalate must also possess specific stereochemical characteristics in order for it to have adjuvant effect. Conclusion The adjuvant effect of phthalates are highly influenced by both stereochemical and physico-chemical properties. This knowledge may be used in the rational development of plasticizers without adjuvant effect as well as in the design of new immunological adjuvants. PMID:18976460

Larsen, Søren T; Nielsen, Gunnar D

2008-01-01

49

Structure-activity relationships of unsaturated analogues of valproic acid.  

PubMed

The principal metabolite of valproic acid (VPA), 2-ene VPA, appears to share most of VPA's pharmacological and therapeutic properties while lacking its hepatotoxicity and teratogenicity, thus making it a useful lead compound for the development of safer antiepileptic drugs. Analogues of 2-ene VPA were evaluated for anticonvulsant activity in mice using the subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole test. Cyclooctylideneacetic acid exhibited a potency markedly exceeding that of VPA itself with only modest levels of sedation. Potency, as either ED50 or brain concentration, was highly correlated (r > 0.85) with volume and lipophilicity rather than with one of the shape parameters calculated by molecular modeling techniques, arguing against the existence of a specific receptor site. Instead, a role for the plasma membrane in mediating the anticonvulsant effect is suggested. PMID:7650693

Palaty, J; Abbott, F S

1995-08-18

50

Strong Nonadditivity as a Key Structure–Activity Relationship Feature: Distinguishing Structural Changes from Assay Artifacts  

PubMed Central

Nonadditivity in protein–ligand affinity data represents highly instructive structure–activity relationship (SAR) features that indicate structural changes and have the potential to guide rational drug design. At the same time, nonadditivity is a challenge for both basic SAR analysis as well as many ligand-based data analysis techniques such as Free-Wilson Analysis and Matched Molecular Pair analysis, since linear substituent contribution models inherently assume additivity and thus do not work in such cases. While structural causes for nonadditivity have been analyzed anecdotally, no systematic approaches to interpret and use nonadditivity prospectively have been developed yet. In this contribution, we lay the statistical framework for systematic analysis of nonadditivity in a SAR series. First, we develop a general metric to quantify nonadditivity. Then, we demonstrate the non-negligible impact of experimental uncertainty that creates apparent nonadditivity, and we introduce techniques to handle experimental uncertainty. Finally, we analyze public SAR data sets for strong nonadditivity and use recourse to the original publications and available X-ray structures to find structural explanations for the nonadditivity observed. We find that all cases of strong nonadditivity (??pKi and ??pIC50 > 2.0 log units) with sufficient structural information to generate reasonable hypothesis involve changes in binding mode. With the appropriate statistical basis, nonadditivity analysis offers a variety of new attempts for various areas in computer-aided drug design, including the validation of scoring functions and free energy perturbation approaches, binding pocket classification, and novel features in SAR analysis tools. PMID:25760829

2015-01-01

51

Strong nonadditivity as a key structure-activity relationship feature: distinguishing structural changes from assay artifacts.  

PubMed

Nonadditivity in protein-ligand affinity data represents highly instructive structure-activity relationship (SAR) features that indicate structural changes and have the potential to guide rational drug design. At the same time, nonadditivity is a challenge for both basic SAR analysis as well as many ligand-based data analysis techniques such as Free-Wilson Analysis and Matched Molecular Pair analysis, since linear substituent contribution models inherently assume additivity and thus do not work in such cases. While structural causes for nonadditivity have been analyzed anecdotally, no systematic approaches to interpret and use nonadditivity prospectively have been developed yet. In this contribution, we lay the statistical framework for systematic analysis of nonadditivity in a SAR series. First, we develop a general metric to quantify nonadditivity. Then, we demonstrate the non-negligible impact of experimental uncertainty that creates apparent nonadditivity, and we introduce techniques to handle experimental uncertainty. Finally, we analyze public SAR data sets for strong nonadditivity and use recourse to the original publications and available X-ray structures to find structural explanations for the nonadditivity observed. We find that all cases of strong nonadditivity (??pKi and ??pIC50 > 2.0 log units) with sufficient structural information to generate reasonable hypothesis involve changes in binding mode. With the appropriate statistical basis, nonadditivity analysis offers a variety of new attempts for various areas in computer-aided drug design, including the validation of scoring functions and free energy perturbation approaches, binding pocket classification, and novel features in SAR analysis tools. PMID:25760829

Kramer, Christian; Fuchs, Julian E; Liedl, Klaus R

2015-03-23

52

Derivatives of Ergot-alkaloids: Molecular structure, physical properties, and structure-activity relationships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive screening of fifteen functionalized Ergot-alkaloids, containing bulk aliphatic cyclic substituents at D-ring of the ergoline molecular skeleton was performed, studying their structure-active relationships and model interactions with ?2A-adreno-, serotonin (5HT2A) and dopamine D3 (D3A) receptors. The accounted high affinity to the receptors binding loops and unusual bonding situations, joined with the molecular flexibility of the substituents and the presence of proton accepting/donating functional groups in the studied alkaloids, may contribute to further understanding the mechanisms of biological activity in vivo and in predicting their therapeutic potential in central nervous system (CNS), including those related the Schizophrenia. Since the presented correlation between the molecular structure and properties, was based on the comprehensively theoretical computational and experimental physical study on the successfully isolated derivatives, through using routine synthetic pathways in a relatively high yields, marked these derivatives as 'treasure' for further experimental and theoretical studied in areas such as: (a) pharmacological and clinical testing; (b) molecular-drugs design of novel psychoactive substances; (c) development of the analytical protocols for determination of Ergot-alkaloids through a functionalization of the ergoline-skeleton, and more.

Ivanova, Bojidarka B.; Spiteller, Michael

2012-09-01

53

Macrolide-Based Microtubule-Stabilizing Agents - Chemistry and Structure-Activity Relationships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article provides an overview on the chemistry and structure-activity relationships of macrolide-based microtubule-stabilizing agents. The primary focus will be on the total synthesis or examples thereof, but a brief summary of the current state of knowledge on the structure-activity relationships of epothilones, laulimalide, dictyostatin, and peloruside A will also be given. This macrolide class of compounds, over the last decade, has become the subject of growing interest due to their ability to inhibit human cancer cell proliferation through a taxol-like mechanism of action.

Pfeiffer, B.; Kuzniewski, C. N.; Wullschleger, C.; Altmann, K.-H.

54

Synthesis and Structure activity relationships of EGCG Analogues, A Recently Identified Hsp90 Inhibitor  

PubMed Central

Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the principal polyphenol isolated from green tea, was recently shown to inhibit Hsp90, however structure-activity relationships for this natural product have not yet been produced. Herein, we report the synthesis and biological evaluation of EGCG analogues to establish structure-activity relationships between EGCG and Hsp90. All four rings as well as the linker connecting the C- and the D-rings were systematically investigated, which led to the discovery of compounds that inhibit Hs90 and display improvement in efficacy over EGCG. Anti-proliferative activity of all the analogues was determined against MCF-7 and SKBr3 cell lines and Hsp90 inhibitory activity of four most potent analogues was further evaluated by western blot analyses and degradation of Hsp90-dependent client proteins. Prenyl substituted aryl ester of 3,5-dihydroxychroman-3-ol ring system was identified as novel scaffold that exhibit Hsp90 inhibitory activity. PMID:23834230

Khandelwal, Anuj; Hall, Jessica

2014-01-01

55

A Robust StructureActivity Relationship (SAR) Model for Esters that Cause Skin Irritation in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

A structure-activity relationship (SAR) model has been devel- oped to discriminate skin irritant from nonirritant esters. The model is based on the physicochemical properties of 42 esters that were tested in humans for skin irritation. Nineteen physicochem- ical parameters that represent transport, electronic, and steric properties were calculated for each chemical. Best subsets regres- sion analysis indicated candidate models for

Jeffrey S. Smith; Orest T. Macina; Nancy B. Sussman; Michael I. Luster; Meryl H. Karol

2000-01-01

56

Acute and chronic aquatic toxicity structure–activity relationships for alcohol ethoxylates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute and chronic toxicity tests using the cladoceran Daphnia magna were conducted on several alcohol ethoxylate surfactants. Exposure and homologue distributions were confirmed using specific analytical methods. These data were used to test currently available acute structure–activity relationships (SARs) and to develop a new chronic SAR to extrapolate test data to effluent or receiving water mixtures. Existing acute SARs adequately

D. D Morrall; S. E Belanger; J. C Dunphy

2003-01-01

57

Structure-activity relationships of SERMs optimized for uterine antagonism and ovarian safety.  

PubMed

Structure-activity relationship studies are described, which led to the discovery of novel selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) for the potential treatment of uterine fibroids. The SAR studies focused on limiting brain exposure and were guided by computational properties. Compounds with limited impact on the HPO axis were selected using serum estrogen levels as a biomarker for ovarian stimulation. PMID:17482463

Richardson, Timothy I; Frank, Scott A; Wang, Minmin; Clarke, Christian A; Jones, Scott A; Ying, Bai-Ping; Kohlman, Dan T; Wallace, Owen B; Shepherd, Timothy A; Dally, Robert D; Palkowitz, Alan D; Geiser, Andrew G; Bryant, Henry U; Henck, Judith W; Cohen, Ilene R; Rudmann, Daniel G; McCann, Denis J; Coutant, David E; Oldham, Samuel W; Hummel, Conrad W; Fong, Kin C; Hinklin, Ronald; Lewis, George; Tian, Hongqi; Dodge, Jeffrey A

2007-07-01

58

Indolo[3,2-b]quinolines: Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and Structure Activity-Relationships  

PubMed Central

The tetracyclic indolo[3,2-b]quinoline ring system constitutes an important structural moiety in natural products exhibiting numerous biological activities. In particular, indolo [3, 2-b]quinoline, commonly known as linear quindo-line is of particular interest, because of its rigid structure and scope of derivatization. Although the core linear quindoline skeleton shows little or no activity in several biological systems, introduction of a methyl group on the N-5 atom leading to cryptolepine induces remarkable activity against a broad spectrum of biological targets. A number of analogs of quindoline and cryptolepine have been synthesized, incorporating various functional groups on the core quindoline skeleton leading to improved biological activities. In this review, we describe various synthetic methodologies leading to the quindoline scaffold, the biological activities and the structure activity relationships (SAR) of quindoline derivatives toward different disease states to give a better picture of the importance of this moiety in medicinal chemistry. PMID:18537709

Kumar, Eyunni V.K. Suresh; Etukala, Jagan R.; Ablordeppey, Seth Y.

2013-01-01

59

Structure-activity relationships for saponins from Allium hirtifolium and Allium elburzense and their antispasmodic activity.  

PubMed

A phytochemical study of Allium hirtifolium Boiss flowers has led to the isolation of high amounts of six new furostanol and spirostanol saponins, named hirtifoliosides A1/A2 (1a/ 1b), B (2), C1/C2 ( 3a/ 3b), and D(4) along with three known spirostanol saponins, alliogenin 3- O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, gitogenin 3- O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)- O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and agapanthagenin 3- O-beta-D-glucopyranoside. High concentrations of the following known flavonol glycosides have been isolated from both flowers and bulbs: kaempferol 3- O-beta-D-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 3- O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 7-O-glucopyranoside. The isolated saponins along with the four saponins elburzensosides A1/A2 and C1/C2 and the sapogenin agapanthagenin, previously described from A. elburzense, have been subjected to biological assays for evaluating possible antispasmodic activity in the guinea-pig isolated ileum. The obtained results served as a basis for the establishment of structure-activity relationships within this class of antispasmodic agents. They highlight the positive effects of a hydroxyl group at position 5 and of a glucose unit at position 26 and demonstrate the detrimental effects of both a hydroxyl group at position 6 and of a glucose unit at position 3. Among the tested compounds, elburzensosides C1/C2 and agapanthagenin showed the highest activity in reducing induced contractions as measured by the reduction of histamine release by about 50 %. The observed effect therefore contributes to the explanation of the traditional use of onion and garlic in the treatment of disturbances of the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:16320201

Barile, Elisa; Capasso, Raffaele; Izzo, Angelo A; Lanzotti, Virginia; Sajjadi, S Ebrahim; Zolfaghari, Behzad

2005-11-01

60

Quantitative structure-activity relationships of antimicrobial fatty acids and derivatives against Staphylococcus aureus *  

PubMed Central

Fatty acids and derivatives (FADs) are resources for natural antimicrobials. In order to screen for additional potent antimicrobial agents, the antimicrobial activities of FADs against Staphylococcus aureus were examined using a microplate assay. Monoglycerides of fatty acids were the most potent class of fatty acids, among which monotridecanoin possessed the most potent antimicrobial activity. The conventional quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) and comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) were performed to establish two statistically reliable models (conventional QSAR: R 2=0.942, Q 2 LOO=0.910; CoMFA: R 2=0.979, Q 2=0.588, respectively). Improved forecasting can be achieved by the combination of these two models that provide a good insight into the structure-activity relationships of the FADs and that may be useful to design new FADs as antimicrobial agents. PMID:22302421

Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Lu; Peng, Li-juan; Dong, Xiao-wu; Wu, Di; Wu, Vivian Chi-Hua; Feng, Feng-qin

2012-01-01

61

Quantitative structure-activity relationships within a series of melatonin analogs and related indolealkylamines.  

PubMed

The results of molecular orbital calculations by the complete neglect of differential overlap, 2nd version on 10 indolealkylamines and amides related to melatonin are reported. Quantitative structure-activity relationships have been derived by regression analysis of electronic structural parameters and biological data in the form of melatonin receptor affinities. On the basis of these results, together with electrostatic potential energy calculations, a possible receptor binding site model is proposed. PMID:2153808

Lewis, D F; Arendt, J; English, J

1990-01-01

62

Structure-activity relationships of phenylcyclohexene and biphenyl antitubulin compounds against plant and mammalian cells.  

PubMed

Phenylcyclohexenes (PCHs) [e.g., trans-4-nitro-5-(2,3,4-trimethoxyphenyl)cyclohexene, 2d] were found to bind weakly to the colchicine site of bovine tubulin, but are the first mimics of colchicine found to have high activity towards plant cells. Structure-activity relationships for PCHs and biphenyl AC-ring analogues of colchicine (e.g., 2,3,4,4'-tetramethoxy-2'-methyl-1,1'-biphenyl, 3e) are discussed. PMID:11378362

Young, D H; Tice, C M; Michelotti, E L; Roemmele, R C; Slawecki, R A; Rubio, F M; Rolling, J A

2001-06-01

63

Structure Property Relationships for Dirhodium Antitumor Active Compounds: Reactions with Biomolecules and In Cellulo Studies  

E-print Network

Paul Ehrlich, known as the father of chemotherapy, was the first scientist to establish structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies, a method that is widely used in modern pharmacology.7, 11 Early on, Ehrlich realized that certain dyes were able... to This dissertation follows the style and format of the Journal of the American Chemical Society . 2 stain specific microbes. He then proposed that they could be chemically modified to be pharmacologically active for killing harmful microbes without...

Aguirre-Flores, Jessica Dafhne

2011-02-22

64

Structure-antioxidant activity relationships of flavonoids isolated from the resinous exudate of Heliotropium sinuatum.  

PubMed

Relationships between the structural characteristics of flavonoids isolated from the resinous exudate of Heliotropium sinuatum and their antioxidant activity were studied. Radical formation energies, DeltaH of dehydrogenation and spin densities were calculated using DFT methods (B3LYP/6-31G*). Results show that studied flavonoids can be divided into two sets according to their activity. It has been found that antioxidant activity depends both on substitution pattern of hydroxyl groups of the flavonoid skeleton and the presence of an unsaturation at the C2-C3 bond. A good tendency between DeltaH of dehydrogenation and antioxidant activity was established. PMID:15603945

Modak, Brenda; Contreras, M Leonor; González-Nilo, Fernando; Torres, René

2005-01-17

65

Aziridinyldinitrobenzamides: synthesis and structure-activity relationships for activation by E. coli nitroreductase.  

PubMed

The 5-aziridinyl-2,4-dinitrobenzamide CB 1954 is a substrate for the oxygen-insensitive nitroreductase (NTR) from E. coli and is in clinical trial in combination with NTR-armed adenoviral vectors in a GDEPT protocol; CB 1954 is also of interest for selective deletion of NTR-marked cells in normal tissues. Since little further drug development has been carried out around this lead, we report here the synthesis of more soluble variants and regioisomers and structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies. The compounds were primarily prepared from the corresponding chloro(di)nitroacids through amide side chain elaboration and subsequent aziridine formation. One-electron reduction potentials [E(1)], determined by pulse radiolysis, were around -400 mV, varying little for aziridinyldinitrobenzamide regioisomers. Cytotoxicity in a panel of NTR-transfected cell lines showed that in the CB 1954 series there was considerable tolerance of substituted CONHR side chains. The isomeric 2-aziridinyl-3,5-dinitrobenzamide was also selective toward NTR+ve lines but was approximately 10-fold less potent than CB 1954. Other regioisomers were too insoluble to evaluate. While CB 1954 gave both 2- and 4-hydroxylamine metabolites in NTR+ve cells, related analogues with substituted carboxamides gave only a single hydroxylamine metabolite possibly because the steric bulk in the side chain constrains binding within the active site. CB 1954 is also a substrate for the two-electron reductase DT-diaphorase, but all of the other aziridines (regioisomers and close analogues) were poorer substrates with resulting improved specificity for NTR. Bystander effects were determined in multicellular layer cocultures and showed that the more hydrophilic side chains resulted in a modest reduction in bystander killing efficiency. A limited number of analogues were tested for in vivo activity, using a single ip dose to CD-1 nude mice bearing WiDr-NTR(neo) tumors. The most active of the CB 1954 analogues was a diol derivative, which showed a substantial median tumor growth delay (59 days compared with >85 days for CB 1954) in WiDr xenografts comprising 50% NTR+ve cells. The diol is much more soluble and can be formulated in saline for administration. The results suggest there may be advantages with carefully selected analogues of CB 1954; the weaker bystander effect of its diol derivative may be an advantage in the selective cell ablation of NTR-tagged cells in normal tissues. PMID:15163209

Helsby, Nuala A; Atwell, Graham J; Yang, Shangjin; Palmer, Brian D; Anderson, Robert F; Pullen, Susan M; Ferry, Dianne M; Hogg, Alison; Wilson, William R; Denny, William A

2004-06-01

66

Structure-activity relationships of 11 new congeners of the SMTP plasminogen modulator.  

PubMed

The fungal metabolite Stachybotrys microspora triprenyl phenols (SMTPs) are small-molecule plasminogen modulators that enhance plasminogen activation. The SMTP molecule consists of a tricyclic ?-lactam moiety, an isoprene side-chain and an N-linked side-chain. Previous investigations have demonstrated that the N-linked side-chain is crucial for its activity. In this study, we have isolated 11 new SMTP congeners with a variety of N-linked side-chain structures, to investigate structure-activity relationships. Active compounds included congeners with a carboxyl or a sulfonic acid group in the N-linked side-chain, whereas not all the congeners with a carboxyl group were active. Of these congeners, that with methionine or tyrosine as the N-linked side-chain moiety was more active than that with an aliphatic amino acid. Congeners without ionizable group in the N-linked side-chain were essentially inactive. PMID:20842143

Hasegawa, Keiko; Koide, Haruki; Hu, Weimin; Nishimura, Naoko; Narasaki, Ritsuko; Kitano, Yoshikazu; Hasumi, Keiji

2010-10-01

67

Effects of non-neural mechanisms on pyrethroid structure-activity relationships.  

PubMed

Structural requirements for high insecticidal activity in pyrethroid insecticides are very stringent. Observed structure-activity relationships may arise either from specificity at the site of pyrethroid action in the nervous system, from selectivity in the pharmacokinetic processes governing the appearance and persistence of compounds at that site, or from a combination of these mechanisms. Recent studies of the metabolism of trans and cis isomers of pyrethroids in insect tissue preparations in vitro and of their pharmacokinetic behavior in insects in vivo permit an assessment of the impact of non-neural mechanisms on the toxicity differences observed between these isomers. PMID:6833714

Soderlund, D M

1983-01-01

68

Structure-activity relationships of pyrrole hydrazones as new anti-tuberculosis agents.  

PubMed

Preliminary investigations of our research team have shown that some pyrrole hydrazones posses strong inhibitory activity against the tuberculosis bacilli, and thus represent a new perspective for development of anti-tuberculosis agents. In this work the anti-tuberculosis activity of an in-house series of pyrrole hydrazones was investigated by quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) analysis and by pharmacophore modelling. Different constitutional, topological, physicochemical, and quantum-mechanical descriptors of the chemical structure were calculated. The QSAR models included the number of chlorine, fluorine and nitrogen atoms, molecular flexibility and shape indexes, and magnitudes of charged molecular surfaces areas and hydrophobic volumes, suggesting importance of these structural characteristics for the activity. Next, a pharmacophore analysis was applied. A possible pharmacophore responsible for the compound interactions with their biological target in the 3D space consisted of five features, including hydrophobic centres, a potential H-bond acceptor and a potential metal ligator. PMID:22530903

Lessigiarska, Iglika; Pajeva, Ilza; Prodanova, Penka; Georgieva, Maya; Bijev, Atanas

2012-05-01

69

Nonenolides and cytochalasins with phytotoxic activity against Cirsium arvense and Sonchus arvensis: A structure–activity relationships study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A structure–activity relationships study was conducted assaying 15 natural analogues and derivatives belonging to two groups of organic compounds, nonenolides and cytochalasins, for their toxicity against the composite perennial weeds Cirsium arvense and Sonchus arvensis occurring through the temperate region of world. The toxic nonenolides (stagonolide, putaminoxin, pinolidoxin) and cytochalasins (deoxaphomin, cytochalasins A, B, F, T, Z2 and Z3) were

Alexander Berestetskiy; Andrey Dmitriev; Galina Mitina; Iosif Lisker; Anna Andolfi; Antonio Evidente

2008-01-01

70

Quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) methodology in forensic toxicology: Modeling postmortem redistribution of structurally diverse drugs using multivariate statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postmortem redistribution (PMR) constitutes a multifaceted process, which renders the analytical results of drug concentrations inaccurate to be interpreted by forensic toxicologists. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) methodology could serve as an effective tool to estimate the ability of drugs to redistribute across tissue barriers during postmortem period on the basis

Costas Giaginis; Anna Tsantili-Kakoulidou; Stamatios Theocharis

2009-01-01

71

The Investigation of Structure-Activity Relationships of Tacrine Analogues: Electronic-Topological Method  

PubMed Central

In this study we investigated the structure-activity relationships by using the Electron- Topological Method (ETM) for a class of AChE inhibitors related to tacrine (9-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridine) and 11 H-Indeno-[1,2-b]-quinolin-10-ylamine that tetracyclic tacrine analogues, a drug currently in use for the treatment of the AD. Molecular fragments being specific for active and inactive compounds were revealed by using ETM. The result of testing showed the high ability of ETM in predicting the activity and inactivity in investigated series. PMID:19662147

Saracoglu, Murat; Kandemirli, Fatma

2008-01-01

72

Catechol O-methyltransferase. 8. Structure-activity relationships for inhibtion by 8-hydroxyquinolines.  

PubMed

A series of 5- and 7-substituted 8-hydroxyquinolines was evaluated as inhibitors of catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT, E.C. 2.1.1.6). The electronic character of the substituents in the 5 position appeared to have only a small effect if any on the inhibitory activity of these compounds. A significant factor which contributes to the inhibitory activity of these compounds appears to be the nature of the 7-substituent. The structure-activity relationship for this series of inhibitors is discussed relative to the nature of the enzymatic binding site. PMID:817025

Borchardt, R T; Thakker, D R; Warner, V D; Mirth, D B; Sane, J N

1976-04-01

73

Computational Methods in Developing Quantitative StructureActivity Relationships (QSAR): A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual filtering and screening of combinatorial libraries have recently gained attention as methods complementing the high-throughput screening and combinatorial chemistry. These chemoinformatic techniques rely heavily on quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis, a field with established methodology and successful history. In this review, we discuss the computational methods for building QSAR models. We start with outlining their usefulness in high-throughput screening

Arkadiusz Z. Dudek; Tomasz Arodz; Jorge Galvez

2006-01-01

74

A new series of antibacterial nitrosopyrimidines: synthesis and structure-activity relationship.  

PubMed

New nitrosopyrimidines were synthesized and evaluated as potential antibacterial agents. Different compounds structurally related with 4,6-bis(alkyl or arylamino)-5-nitrosopyrimidines were evaluated. Some of these nitrosopyrimidines displayed significant antibacterial activity against human pathogenic bacteria. Among them compounds 1c, 2a-c, and 9a-c exhibited remarkable activity against methicillin-sensitive and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Salmonella enteritidis. A detailed structure-activity relationship study, supported by theoretical calculations, aided us to identify and understand the minimal structural requirements for the antibacterial action of the nitrosopyrimidines reported here. Thus, our results have led us to identify a topographical template that provides a guide for the design of new nitrosopyrimidines with antibacterial effects. PMID:25413501

Olivella, Monica; Marchal, Antonio; Nogueras, Manuel; Melguizo, Manuel; Lima, Beatriz; Tapia, Alejandro; Feresin, Gabriela E; Parravicini, Oscar; Giannini, Fernando; Andujar, Sebastián A; Cobo, Justo; Enriz, Ricardo D

2015-01-01

75

Structure-Activity Relationship for Fe(III)-Salen-Like Complexes as Potent Anticancer Agents  

PubMed Central

Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) for the anticancer activity of Fe(III)-salen and salen-like complexes was studied. The methods of density function theory (B3LYP/LANL2DZ) were used to optimize the structures. A pool of descriptors was calculated: 1497 theoretical descriptors and quantum-chemical parameters, shielding NMR, and electronic descriptors. The study of structure and activity relationship was performed with multiple linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural network (ANN). In nonlinear method, the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was applied in order to choose the most effective descriptors. The ANN-ANFIS model with high statistical significance (R2train = 0.99, RMSE = 0.138, and Q2LOO = 0.82) has better capability to predict the anticancer activity of the new compounds series of this family. Based on this study, anticancer activity of this compound is mainly dependent on the geometrical parameters, position, and the nature of the substituent of salen ligand. PMID:24955417

Ghanbari, Zahra; Housaindokht, Mohammad R.; Izadyar, Mohammad; Bozorgmehr, Mohammad R.; Eshtiagh-Hosseini, Hossein; Bahrami, Ahmad R.; Matin, Maryam M.; Khoshkholgh, Maliheh Javan

2014-01-01

76

Identification and structure-activity relationship study of carvacrol derivatives as Mycobacterium tuberculosis chorismate mutase inhibitors.  

PubMed

In the present study, we identified carvacrol, a major phenolic component of oregano oil as a novel small molecule inhibitor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) chorismate mutase (CM) enzyme with IC50 of 1.06 ± 0.4 µM. Virtual screening of the BITS-Pilani in-house database using the crystal structure of the MTB CM bound transition state intermediate (PDB: 2FP2) as framework identified carvacrol as a potential lead. Further various carvacrol derivatives were evaluated in vitro for their ability to inhibit MTB CM enzyme, whole cell MTB and cytotoxicity as steps toward the derivation of structure-activity relationships (SAR) and lead optimization. PMID:24090423

Alokam, Reshma; Jeankumar, Variam Ullas; Sridevi, Jonnalagadda Padma; Matikonda, Siddharth Sai; Peddi, Santosh; Alvala, Mallika; Yogeeswari, Perumal; Sriram, Dharmarajan

2014-08-01

77

Structure-activity relationships of novel P2-receptor antagonists structurally related to Reactive Blue 2.  

PubMed

P2 membrane receptors for nucleotides represent significant targets for experimental pharmacology and drug research. In earlier publications, we have shown that Reactive Blue 2 (RB 2), one of the most widely used P2-receptor antagonists, displays only moderate affinity and does not discriminate between native P2X- and P2Y-receptor subtypes. In the present study we have pharmacologically evaluated a series of 15 synthesized and re-evaluated four commercially obtained and chromatographically purified RB 2 type anthraquinone derivatives on contractions of the rat vas deferens (RVD) elicited by alpha,beta-methylene ATP (alpha,beta-meATP), mediated by P2X1-receptors, and relaxations of the carbachol-precontracted guinea-pig taenia coli (GPTC) elicited by adenosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) (ADPbetaS), mediated by P2Y1-like receptors. Based on the structure-activity relationships (SAR) it is concluded that hydrophobic interactions of aromatic pi-electron systems, hydrogen bonds with nitrogen as donor and acceptor atoms, and, particularly, position, conformational distance and number of anionic sulfonate groups are of great importance for the blockade of the two native P2-receptor subtypes. We have also identified novel, for the most part reversible antagonists that bind with higher affinity and improved subtype selectivity in comparison to RB 2. In particular, 1-amino-4-{4-[4-chloro-6-(2-sulfonatophenylamino)-[1,3,5]triazine-2-ylamino]-2-sulfonatophenylamino}-9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracene-2-sulfonic acid trisodium salt (MG 50-3-1) is the most potent antagonist at the P2Y1-like-receptors of the GPTC reported so far (IC50=4.6 nM). It is significantly less potent as reversible antagonist at the P2X1-receptors of the RVD (IC50=2.8 microM). Thus, MG 50-3-1 represents a selective pharmacological tool and may be a lead compound for future investigations. PMID:16153748

Glänzel, Markus; Bültmann, Ralph; Starke, Klaus; Frahm, August W

2005-12-01

78

Structure-activity relationships of 6-(aminomethylphenoxy)-benzoxaborole derivatives as anti-inflammatory agent.  

PubMed

A series of novel 6-(aminomethylphenoxy)benzoxaborole analogs was synthesized for the investigation of the structure-activity relationship of the inhibition of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6, from lipopolysaccharide stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Compounds 9d and 9e showed potent activity against all three cytokines with IC50 values between 33 and 83nM. Chloro substituted analog 9e (AN3485) is considered to be a promising lead for novel anti-inflammatory agent with a favorable pharmacokinetic profile. PMID:23411072

Akama, Tsutomu; Virtucio, Charlotte; Dong, Chen; Kimura, Richard; Zhang, Yong-Kang; Nieman, James A; Sharma, Rashmi; Lu, Xiaosong; Sales, Marcelo; Singh, Rajeshwar; Wu, Anne; Fan, Xiao-Qing; Liu, Liang; Plattner, Jacob J; Jarnagin, Kurt; Freund, Yvonne R

2013-03-15

79

Structure–Activity Relationship Studies of the Tricyclic Indoline Resistance-Modifying Agent  

PubMed Central

Previously we discovered a tricyclic indoline, N-[2-(6-bromo-4-methylidene-2,3,4,4a,9,9a-hexahydro-1H-carbazol-4a-yl)ethyl]-4-chlorobenzene-1-sulfonamide (1, Of1), from bioinspired synthesis of a highly diverse polycyclic indoline alkaloid library, that selectively resensitizes methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains to ?-lactam antibiotics. Herein, we report a thorough structure–activity relationship investigation of 1, which identified regions of 1 that tolerate modifications without compromising activity and afforded the discovery of a more potent analogue with reduced mammalian toxicity. PMID:24694192

2015-01-01

80

Mechanisms of toxic action and structure-activity relationships for organochlorine and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides.  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms and sites of action of organochlorine (DDT-types and chlorinated alicyclics) and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides are presented with discussion of symptoms, physiological effects, and selectivity. The structural requirements for toxicity are assessed, and structure-activity relationships are considered for each subclass. Lipophilicity is important for all the groups because it facilitates delivery of these neurotoxicants to the site of action in the nerve. Steric factors including molecular volume, shape, and isomeric configuration greatly influence toxicity. Electronic parameters also have been demonstrated to affect biological activity in some of the groups of insecticides, e.g., Hammett's sigma and Taft's sigma * as indicators of electronegativity. New synthetic pyrethroids continue to be developed, with varied structures and different physicochemical and biological properties. PMID:2176589

Coats, J R

1990-01-01

81

Flavonolignan and flavone inhibitors of a Staphylococcus aureus multidrug resistance pump: structure-activity relationships.  

PubMed

Although some progress has been reported on structure-activity relationships (SARs) for inhibitors of mammalian P-glycoprotein MDR efflux pumps, there is almost nothing in the literature regarding SARs for inhibitors of any bacterial efflux pump. Indeed, only a few of these have been described. Our discovery of a potent naturally occurring flavonolignan inhibitor of the NorA MDR pump of Staphylococcus aureus provided a structural foundation upon which SARs could be assessed via synthetic analogues. Several flavonolignans were prepared which proved to have greater potency than the natural isolate, 5'-methoxyhydnocarpin-D, while others showed decreased potency. Surprisingly, some simple alkylated flavones also were quite active MDR pump inhibitors. Variability of activity among the compounds tested was sufficient so that at least some SARs could be postulated and compared with those known for P-glycoprotein. PMID:11170636

Guz, N R; Stermitz, F R; Johnson, J B; Beeson, T D; Willen, S; Hsiang, J; Lewis, K

2001-01-18

82

Antioxidant properties of hydroxycinnamic acids: a review of structure- activity relationships.  

PubMed

Hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) are important phytochemicals possessing significant biological properties. Several investigators have studied in vitro antioxidant activity of HCAs in detail. In this review, we have gathered the studies focused on the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of these compounds that have used medicinal chemistry to generate more potent antioxidant molecules. Most of the reports indicated that the presence of an unsaturated bond on the side chain of HCAs is vital to their activity. The structural features that were reported to be of importance to the antioxidant activity were categorized as follows: modifications of the aromatic ring, which include alterations in the number and position of hydroxy groups and insertion of electron donating or withdrawing moieties as well as modifications of the carboxylic function that include esterification and amidation process. Furthermore, reports that have addressed the influence of physicochemical properties including redox potential, lipid solubility and dissociation constant on the antioxidant activity were also summarized. Finally, the pro-oxidant effect of HCAs in some test systems was addressed. Most of the investigations concluded that the presence of ortho-dihydroxy phenyl group (catechol moiety) is of significant importance to the antioxidant activity, while, the presence of three hydroxy groups does not necessarily improve the activity. Optimization of the structure of molecular leads is an important task of modern medicinal chemistry and its accomplishment relies on the careful assessment of SARs. SAR studies on HCAs can identify the most successful antioxidants that could be useful for management of oxidative stress-related diseases. PMID:23834166

Razzaghi-Asl, N; Garrido, J; Khazraei, H; Borges, F; Firuzi, O

2013-01-01

83

Synthesis and Structure Activity Relationship of 3-Hydroxypyridin-2-thione Based Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

We have previously identified 3-hydroxypyridin-2-thione (3HPT) as a novel zinc binding group for histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition. Early structure activity relationship (SAR) studies led to various small molecules possessing selective inhibitory activity against HDAC6 or HDAC8 but are devoid of HDAC1 inhibition. To further delineate the depth of the SAR of 3HPT-derived HDAC inhibitors (HDACi), we have extended the SAR studies to include the linker region and the surface recognition group to optimize the HDAC inhibition. The current efforts resulted in the identification of two lead compounds 10d and 14e with potent HDAC6 and HDAC8 activities, but that are inactive against HDAC1. These new HDACi possess anti-cancer activities against various cancer cell lines including Jurkat J-?1 against which SAHA and the previously disclosed 3HPT-derived HDACi were inactive. PMID:24304348

Sodji, Quaovi H.; Patil, Vishal; Kornacki, James R.; Mrksich, Milan; Oyelere, Adegboyega K.

2014-01-01

84

Advance in dietary polyphenols as ?-glucosidases inhibitors: a review on structure-activity relationship aspect.  

PubMed

The dietary polyphenols as ?-glucosidases inhibitors have attracted great interest among researchers. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the research reports on the structure-activity relationship of dietary polyphenols inhibiting ?-glucosidases. The molecular structures that influence the inhibition are the following: (1) The hydroxylation and galloylation of flavonoids including catechins improve the inhibitory activity. (2) The glycosylation of hyroxyl group and hydrogenation of the C2=C3 double bond on flavonoids weaken the inhibition. (3) However, cyaniding glycosides show higher inhibition against than cyanidin. Proanthocyanidins oligomers exhibit a stronger inhibitory activity than their polymers. (4) The hydroxylation on B ring and the glycosylation of stilbenes reduce the inhibitory activity. (5) Caffeoylquinic acids display strong inhibition against ?-glucosidases. However, hydroxycinnamic acid, ferulic acid, and gallic acid hardly inhibited ?-glucosidases. (6) The coupled galloyl structures attached to C-3 and C-6 of the 4C(1) glucose core of ellagitanin gave basic inhibitory activity. (7) The mono-glycosylation of chalcones slightly lowers the inhibition. However, the diglycosylation of chalcones significantly decreased the activity. PMID:23768145

Xiao, Jianbo; Kai, Guoyin; Yamamoto, Koichiro; Chen, Xiaoqing

2013-01-01

85

Computational methods in developing quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR): a review.  

PubMed

Virtual filtering and screening of combinatorial libraries have recently gained attention as methods complementing the high-throughput screening and combinatorial chemistry. These chemoinformatic techniques rely heavily on quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis, a field with established methodology and successful history. In this review, we discuss the computational methods for building QSAR models. We start with outlining their usefulness in high-throughput screening and identifying the general scheme of a QSAR model. Following, we focus on the methodologies in constructing three main components of QSAR model, namely the methods for describing the molecular structure of compounds, for selection of informative descriptors and for activity prediction. We present both the well-established methods as well as techniques recently introduced into the QSAR domain. PMID:16533155

Dudek, Arkadiusz Z; Arodz, Tomasz; Gálvez, Jorge

2006-03-01

86

STUDIES OF RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN MOLECULAR STRUCTURE AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY BY PATTERN RECOGNITION METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

The attempt to rationalize the connections between the molecular structures of organic compounds and their biological activities comprises the field of structure-activity relations (SAR) studies. Correlations between structure and activity are important for the understanding and ...

87

Identification of Structure-Activity Relationships from Screening a Structurally Compact DNA-Encoded Chemical Library.  

PubMed

Methods for the rapid and inexpensive discovery of hit compounds are essential for pharmaceutical research and DNA-encoded chemical libraries represent promising tools for this purpose. We here report on the design and synthesis of DAL-100K, a DNA-encoded chemical library containing 103?200 structurally compact compounds. Affinity screening experiments and DNA-sequencing analysis provided ligands with nanomolar affinities to several proteins, including prostate-specific membrane antigen and tankyrase?1. Correlations of sequence counts with binding affinities and potencies of enzyme inhibition were observed and enabled the identification of structural features critical for activity. These results indicate that libraries of this type represent a useful source of small-molecule binders for target proteins of pharmaceutical interest and information on structural features important for binding. PMID:25650139

Franzini, Raphael M; Ekblad, Torun; Zhong, Nan; Wichert, Moreno; Decurtins, Willy; Nauer, Angela; Zimmermann, Mauro; Samain, Florent; Scheuermann, Jörg; Brown, Peter J; Hall, Jonathan; Gräslund, Susanne; Schüler, Herwig; Neri, Dario

2015-03-23

88

Application of Hansch's model to guaianolide ester derivatives: a quantitative structure-activity relationship study.  

PubMed

A quantitative structure-activity study to evaluate the effect of lipophilia/aqueous solubility on etiolated wheat coleoptiles elongation has been carried out with 34 guaianolides having different numbers of hydroxyl groups and ester side chains of variable length and structure: linear, branched, aromatic, and unsaturated. Compounds have been tested in a range of concentrations between 10 and 1000 microM. Data show a strong influence of lipophilia, expressed as logP values. Specially, data from alkylic side chain ester derivatives adjust to the mathematical model based on Hansch's transport theory; hence, a quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) correlation with a high degree of reliance is provided. Moreover, all active compounds fit the Lipinski's rule of five. Also, the presence of additional hydroxyl groups and their derivatives in the basic skeleton does not affect the mode of action but greatly influences the activity, as they modify the transport through membranes and aqueous phases. Finally, a second hydroxyl group enhances differences of activity between alkylic side chain derivatives by increasing differences in van der Waals interactions. PMID:15853398

Macías, Francisco A; Velasco, Raúl F; Castellano, Diego; Galindo, Juan C G

2005-05-01

89

Discovery of novel glitazones incorporated with phenylalanine and tyrosine: synthesis, antidiabetic activity and structure-activity relationships.  

PubMed

We report a series of new glitazones incorporated with phenylalanine and tyrosine. All the compounds were tested for their in vitro glucose uptake activity using rat-hemidiaphragm, both in presence and absence of insulin. Six of the most active compounds from the in vitro screening were taken forward for their in vivo triglyceride and glucose lowering activity against dexamethazone induced hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance in Wistar rats. The liver samples of rats that received the most active compounds, 23 and 24, in the in vivo studies, were subjected to histopathological examination to assess their short term hepatotoxicity. The investigations on the in vitro glucose uptake, in vivo triglyceride and glucose lowering activity are described here along with the quantitative structure-activity relationships. PMID:23064124

Prashantha Kumar, B R; Baig, Nasir R; Sudhir, Sai; Kar, Koyal; Kiranmai, M; Pankaj, M; Joghee, Nanjan M

2012-12-01

90

Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of novel benzoxaboroles as a new class of antimalarial agents.  

PubMed

A series of boron-containing benzoxaborole compounds was designed and synthesized for a structure-activity relationship investigation surrounding 7-(HOOCCH(2)CH(2))-1,3-dihydro-1-hydroxy-2,1-benzoxaborole (1) with the goal of discovering a new antimalarial treatment. Compound 1 demonstrates the best potency (IC(50)=26nM) against Plasmodium falciparum and has good drug-like properties, with low molecular weight (206.00), low ClogP (0.86) and high water solubility (750?g/mL at pH 7). PMID:21195617

Zhang, Yong-Kang; Plattner, Jacob J; Freund, Yvonne R; Easom, Eric E; Zhou, Yasheen; Gut, Jiri; Rosenthal, Philip J; Waterson, David; Gamo, Francisco-Javier; Angulo-Barturen, Inigo; Ge, Min; Li, Zhiya; Li, Lingchao; Jian, Yong; Cui, Han; Wang, Hailong; Yang, Jian

2011-01-15

91

Synthesis and structure–activity relationships of novel benzoxaboroles as a new class of antimalarial agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of boron-containing benzoxaborole compounds was designed and synthesized for a structure–activity relationship investigation surrounding 7-(HOOCCH2CH2)-1,3-dihydro-1-hydroxy-2,1-benzoxaborole (1) with the goal of discovering a new antimalarial treatment. Compound 1 demonstrates the best potency (IC50=26nM) against Plasmodium falciparum and has good drug-like properties, with low molecular weight (206.00), low ClogP (0.86) and high water solubility (750?g\\/mL at pH 7).

Yong-Kang Zhang; Jacob J. Plattner; Yvonne R. Freund; Eric E. Easom; Yasheen Zhou; Jiri Gut; Philip J. Rosenthal; David Waterson; Francisco-Javier Gamo; Inigo Angulo-Barturen; Min Ge; Zhiya Li; Lingchao Li; Yong Jian; Han Cui; Hailong Wang; Jian Yang

2011-01-01

92

Cytochrome P450 Family 1 Inhibitors and Structure-Activity Relationships  

PubMed Central

With the widespread use of O-alkoxyresorufin dealkylation assays since the 1990’s, thousands of inhibitors of cytochrome P450 family 1 enzymes (P450s 1A1, 1A2, and 1B1) have been identified and studied. Generally, planar polycyclic molecules such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, stilbenoids, and flavonoids are considered to potentially be effective inhibitors of these enzymes. However, the details of structure-activity relationships and selectivity of these inhibitors are still ambiguous. In this review, we thoroughly discuss the selectivity of many representative P450 family 1 inhibitors reported in the past 20 years through a meta-analysis. PMID:24287985

Liu, Jiawang; Sridhar, Jayalakshmi; Foroozesh, Maryam

2014-01-01

93

Synthesis and biological evaluation of a unique heparin mimetic hexasaccharide for structure-activity relationship studies.  

PubMed

To date, the structure-activity relationship studies of heparin/heparan sulfate with their diverse binding partners such as growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, and extracellular matrix proteins have been limited yet provide early insight that specific sequences contribute to this manifold biological role. This has led to an impetus for the chemical synthesis of oligosaccharide fragments of these complex polysaccharides, which can provide an effective tool for this goal. The synthesis of three heparin mimetic hexasaccharides with distinct structural patterns is described herein, and the influence of the targeted substitution on their bioactivity profiles is studied using in vitro affinity and/or inhibition toward different growth factors and proteins. Additionally, the particularly challenging synthesis of an irregular hexasaccharide is reported, which, interestingly, in spite of being considerably structurally similar with its two counterparts, displayed a unique and remarkably distinct profile in the test assays. PMID:24786387

Roy, Sucharita; El Hadri, Ahmed; Richard, Sebastien; Denis, Fanny; Holte, Kimberly; Duffner, Jay; Yu, Fei; Galcheva-Gargova, Zoya; Capila, Ishan; Schultes, Birgit; Petitou, Maurice; Kaundinya, Ganesh V

2014-06-12

94

ESTIMATION OF MICROBIAL REDUCTIVE TRANSFORMATION RATES FOR CHLORINATED BENZENES AND PHENOLS USING A QUANTITATIVE STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIP APPROACH  

EPA Science Inventory

A set of literature data was used to derive several quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) to predict the rate constants for the microbial reductive dehalogenation of chlorinated aromatics. Dechlorination rate constants for 25 chloroaromatics were corrected for th...

95

FISH ACUTE TOXICITY SYNDROMES: APPLICATION TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF MECHANISM-SPECIFIC QSARS (QUANTITATIVE STRUCTURE ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Predictive models based on quantitative structure activity relationships (QSARs), are used as rapid screening tools to identify potentially hazardous chemicals. Several QSARs are now available that predict the acute toxicity of narcotic-industrial chemicals. Predictions for compo...

96

Structure-activity relationships of phenylalkylamines as agonist ligands for 5-HT(2A) receptors.  

PubMed

Agonist activation of central 5-HT(2A) receptors results in diverse effects, such as hallucinations and changes of consciousness. Recent findings indicate that activation of the 5-HT(2A) receptor also leads to interesting physiological responses, possibly holding therapeutic value. Selective agonists are needed to study the full therapeutic potential of this receptor. 5-HT(2A) ligands with agonist profiles are primarily derived from phenylalkylamines, indolealkylamines, and certain piperazines. Of these, phenylalkylamines, most notably substituted phenylisopropylamines, are considered the most selective agonists for 5-HT(2) receptors. This review summarizes the structure-activity relationships (SAR) of phenylalkylamines as agonist ligands for 5-HT(2A) receptors. Selectivity is a central theme, as is selectivity for the 5-HT(2A) receptor and for its specific signaling pathways. SAR data from receptor affinity studies, functional assays, behavioral drug discrimination as well as human studies are discussed. PMID:18666267

Blaazer, Antoni R; Smid, Pieter; Kruse, Chris G

2008-09-01

97

Synthesis, antifungal activity and structure-activity relationships of vanillin oxime-N-O-alkanoates.  

PubMed

Vanillin oxime-N-O-alkanoates were synthesized following reaction of vanillin with hydroxylamine hydrochloride, followed by reaction of the resultant oxime with acyl chlorides. The structures of the compounds were confirmed by IR, 1H, 13C NMR and mass spectral data. The test compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antifungal activity against three phytopathogenic fungi Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii by the poisoned food technique. The moderate antifungal activity of vanillin was slightly increased following its conversion to vanillin oxime, but significantly increased after conversion of the oxime to oxime-N-O-alkanoates. While vanillin oxime-N-O-dodecanoate with an EC50 value 73.1 microg/mL was most active against M. phaseolina, vanillin oxime-N-O-nonanoate with EC50 of value 66.7 microg/mL was most active against R. solani. The activity increased with increases in the acyl chain length and was maximal with an acyl chain length of nine carbons. PMID:23413571

Ahluwalia, Vivek; Garg, Nandini; Kumar, Birendra; Walia, Suresh; Sati, Om P

2012-12-01

98

A review on structure-activity relationship of dietary polyphenols inhibiting ?-amylase.  

PubMed

The inhibitory effects of dietary polyphenols against ?-amylase have attracted great interest among researchers. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the research reports on the structure-activity relationship of polyphenols inhibiting ?-amylase. The molecular structures that influence the inhibition are the following: (1) The hydroxylation of flavonoids improved the inhibitory effect on ?-amylase; (2) Presence of an unsaturated 2,3-bond in conjugation with a 4-carbonyl group has been associated with stronger inhibition; (3) The glycosylation of flavonoids decreased the inhibitory effect on ?-amylase depending on the conjugation site and the class of sugar moiety; (4) The methylation and methoxylation of flavonoids obviously weakened the inhibitory effect; (5) The galloylated catechins have higher inhibition than nongalloylated catechins; the catechol-type catechins were stronger than the pyrogallol-type catechins; the inhibition activities of the catechins with 2,3-trans structure were higher than those of the catechins with 2,3-cis structure; (6) Cyanidin-3-glucoside showed higher inhibition against than cyanidin and cyanidin-3-galactoside and cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside had no inhibitory activity; (7) Ellagitannins with ?-galloyl groups at glucose C-1 positions have higher inhibitory effect than the ?-galloyl and nongalloyl compounds and the molecular weight of ellagitannins is not an important element. PMID:23391016

Xiao, Jianbo; Ni, Xiaoling; Kai, Guoyin; Chen, Xiaoqing

2013-01-01

99

Discovery and structure-activity relationships of 6-(benzoylamino)benzoxaboroles as orally active anti-inflammatory agents.  

PubMed

Structure-activity relationships of 6-(benzoylamino)benzoxaborole analogs were investigated for the inhibition of TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 from lipopolysaccharide stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Compound 1q showed potent activity against all three cytokines with IC50 values between 0.19 and 0.50?M, inhibited LPS-induced TNF-? and IL-6 elevation in mice and improved collagen-induced arthritis in mice. Compound 1q (AN4161) is considered to be a promising lead for novel anti-inflammatory agent with an excellent pharmacokinetic profile. PMID:24075731

Akama, Tsutomu; Dong, Chen; Virtucio, Charlotte; Freund, Yvonne R; Chen, Daitao; Orr, Matthew D; Jacobs, Robert T; Zhang, Yong-Kang; Hernandez, Vincent; Liu, Yang; Wu, Anne; Bu, Wei; Liu, Liang; Jarnagin, Kurt; Plattner, Jacob J

2013-11-01

100

Fundamental Structure-Activity Relationships of Titanium Dioxide-Based Photocatalysts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heterogeneous photocatalysis has been identified as a means of using renewable solar energy to produce the sustainable, non-carbon fuel H 2 and a variety of useful chemical intermediates. Currently, however, heterogeneous photocatalytic reactions are too inefficient to be industrially relevant and a deeper understanding of the effect of fundamental photocatalytic material properties on photoactivity is needed to further enhance the yields of desired products. In the general field of heterogeneous catalysis, structure-activity relationships aid in the rational design of improved catalysts and this ideology was applied to photocatalytic reactions over TiO2 based photocatalysts and model supported TiO2/SiO2 catalysts in this study. The model supported TiO2/SiO2 catalysts contain well-defined TiOx nanodomain structures that vary in domain size and electronic structure and greatly facilitate the determination of structure-photoactivity relationships. These catalysts were used in reactor studies during photocatalytic water splitting and cyclohexane photo-oxidation, and were monitored for production of H2 and cyclohexanone, respectively. It was found that for both reactions the trend in photoactivity for the TiOx nanodomains proceeded as: pure TiO2 (anatase) (24 nm) > TiO2 (anatase) nanoparticles (4--11 nm) > polymeric surface TiO5 (˜1 nm) > surface isolated TiO4 (˜0.4 nm). Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy was employed to yield insight into how exciton generation and recombination are related to TiOx domain size and, thus, to the photoactivity of the examined reactions. Transient PL decay studies determined that the larger bulk structure found in TiO 2 (anatase) nanoparticles (NPs) acts as a reservoir for excitons exhibiting slow recombination kinetics, which have an increased opportunity to participate in photochemistry at the surface active sites. The reactions were also studied using in situ attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to observe the formation of adsorbed intermediates and products. For cyclohexane photo-oxidation, cyclohexanone intermediates and products were identified and the high photoactivity of the unsupported TiO2 (anatase) NPs was attributed to improved product desorption characteristics. The identification of intermediates during water splitting is made difficult by the extremely high absorption of infrared wavelengths by H2O. ATR-FTIR and Raman spectroscopy measurements were performed during photocatalytic splitting of water in an attempt to confirm the surface reaction intermediates currently identified in the literature and evidence for both superoxide (O2-) and peroxide (O2 2-) adsorbed species were found by ATR-FTIR, but no surface Ti-OOH was detected by Raman. Finally, alternate Ti-containing structures, titanate and TiO2 (anatase) nanotubes, were characterized with Raman spectroscopy and screened for their photocatalytic activity. Depending on the photo-reaction (4-chlorophenol decomposition or water splitting), thermal treatment to form the anatase phase in the nanotubular structure is a benefit to photoactivity due to the increased crystallinity. For water splitting, however, the structure-activity relationship found for supported TiO 2/SiO2 holds, and the presence of a larger bulk structure yields the best H2 production photoactivity. The structure-photoactivity relationship in this dissertation exists for two different photo-reactions and is expected to be a beneficial aid to future studies on the rational design of new and novel photocatalysts.

Roberts, Charles A.

101

Quantitative structure-activation barrier relationship modeling for Diels-Alder ligations utilizing quantum chemical structural descriptors  

PubMed Central

Background In the present study, we show the correlation of quantum chemical structural descriptors with the activation barriers of the Diels-Alder ligations. A set of 72 non-catalysed Diels-Alder reactions were subjected to quantitative structure-activation barrier relationship (QSABR) under the framework of theoretical quantum chemical descriptors calculated solely from the structures of diene and dienophile reactants. Experimental activation barrier data were obtained from literature. Descriptors were computed using Hartree-Fock theory using 6-31G(d) basis set as implemented in Gaussian 09 software. Results Variable selection and model development were carried out by stepwise multiple linear regression methodology. Predictive performance of the quantitative structure-activation barrier relationship (QSABR) model was assessed by training and test set concept and by calculating leave-one-out cross-validated Q2 and predictive R2 values. The QSABR model can explain and predict 86.5% and 80% of the variances, respectively, in the activation energy barrier training data. Alternatively, a neural network model based on back propagation of errors was developed to assess the nonlinearity of the sought correlations between theoretical descriptors and experimental reaction barriers. Conclusions A reasonable predictability for the activation barrier of the test set reactions was obtained, which enabled an exploration and interpretation of the significant variables responsible for Diels-Alder interaction between dienes and dienophiles. Thus, studies in the direction of QSABR modelling that provide efficient and fast prediction of activation barriers of the Diels-Alder reactions turn out to be a meaningful alternative to transition state theory based computation. PMID:24171724

2013-01-01

102

The effect of leverage and/or influential on structure-activity relationships.  

PubMed

In the spirit of reporting valid and reliable Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) models, the aim of our research was to assess how the leverage (analysis with Hat matrix, h(i)) and the influential (analysis with Cook's distance, D(i)) of QSAR models may reflect the models reliability and their characteristics. The datasets included in this research were collected from previously published papers. Seven datasets which accomplished the imposed inclusion criteria were analyzed. Three models were obtained for each dataset (full-model, h(i)-model and D(i)-model) and several statistical validation criteria were applied to the models. In 5 out of 7 sets the correlation coefficient increased when compounds with either h(i) or D(i) higher than the threshold were removed. Withdrawn compounds varied from 2 to 4 for h(i)-models and from 1 to 13 for D(i)-models. Validation statistics showed that D(i)-models possess systematically better agreement than both full-models and h(i)-models. Removal of influential compounds from training set significantly improves the model and is recommended to be conducted in the process of quantitative structure-activity relationships developing. Cook's distance approach should be combined with hat matrix analysis in order to identify the compounds candidates for removal. PMID:23305142

Bolboac?, Sorana D; Jäntschi, Lorentz

2013-05-01

103

Chemical Sensor Array Response Modeling Using Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR) based approach to correlate the response of chemical sensors in an array with molecular descriptors. A novel molecular descriptor set has been developed; this set combines descriptors of sensing film-analyte interactions, representing sensor response, with a basic analyte descriptor set commonly used in QSAR studies. The descriptors are obtained using a combination of molecular modeling tools and empirical and semi-empirical Quantitative Structure-Property Relationships (QSPR) methods. The sensors under investigation are polymer-carbon sensing films which have been exposed to analyte vapors at parts-per-million (ppm) concentrations; response is measured as change in film resistance. Statistically validated QSAR models have been developed using Genetic Function Approximations (GFA) for a sensor array for a given training data set. The applicability of the sensor response models has been tested by using it to predict the sensor activities for test analytes not considered in the training set for the model development. The validated QSAR sensor response models show good predictive ability. The QSAR approach is a promising computational tool for sensing materials evaluation and selection. It can also be used to predict response of an existing sensing film to new target analytes.

Shevade, Abhijit V.; Ryan, Margaret A.; Homer, Margie L.; Zhou, Hanying; Manfreda, Allison M.; Lara, Liana M.; Yen, Shiao-Pin S.; Jewell, April D.; Manatt, Kenneth S.; Kisor, Adam K.

104

Structure–Activity Relationships and Molecular Modeling of Sphingosine Kinase Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

The design, synthesis, and evaluation of the potency of new isoform-selective inhibitors of sphingosine kinases 1 and 2 (SK1 and SK2), the enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of d-erythro-sphingosine to produce the key signaling lipid, sphingosine 1-phosphate, are described. Recently, we reported that 1-(4-octylphenethyl)piperidin-4-ol (RB-005) is a selective inhibitor of SK1. Here we report the synthesis of 43 new analogues of RB-005, in which the lipophilic tail, polar headgroup, and linker region were modified to extend the structure–activity relationship profile for this lead compound, which we explain using modeling studies with the recently published crystal structure of SK1. We provide a basis for the key residues targeted by our profiled series and provide further evidence for the ability to discriminate between the two isoforms using pharmacological intervention. PMID:24164513

2013-01-01

105

Structure–activity relationship studies of SYA 013, a homopiperazine analog of haloperidol  

PubMed Central

Structure–activity relationship studies on 4-(4-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,4-diazepan-1-yl)-1-(4-fluorophenyl) butan-1-one (SYA 013), a homopiperazine analog of haloperidol has resulted in an understanding of the effect of structural modifications on binding affinity at dopamine and serotonin receptor subtypes. Further exploration, using bioisosteric replacement strategies has led to the identification of several new agents including compounds 7, 8, 11 and 12 which satisfy the initial criteria for further exploration as new antipsychotic agents. In addition, compound 18, a D3 selective tropanol, has been identified as having the potential for further optimization into a useful drug which may combat neuropsychiatric diseases. PMID:22336245

Peprah, Kwakye; Zhu, Xue Y.; Eyunni, Suresh V.K.; Etukala, Jagan R.; Setola, Vincent; Roth, Bryan L.; Ablordeppey, Seth Y.

2012-01-01

106

Discovery and structure–activity relationship analysis of Staphylococcus aureus sortase A inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major health problem that has created a pressing need for new antibiotics. Compounds that inhibit the S. aureus SrtA sortase may function as potent anti-infective agents as this enzyme attaches virulence factors to the cell wall. Using high-throughput screening, we have identified several compounds that inhibit the enzymatic activity of the SrtA. A structureactivity relationship (SAR) analysis led to the identification of several pyridazinone and pyrazolethione analogs that inhibit SrtA with IC50 values in the sub-micromolar range. Many of these molecules also inhibit the sortase enzyme from Bacillus anthracis suggesting that they may be generalized sortase inhibitors. PMID:19781950

Suree, Nuttee; Yi, Sung Wook; Thieu, William; Marohn, Melanie; Damoiseaux, Robert; Chan, Albert; Jung, Michael E.; Clubb, Robert T.

2010-01-01

107

Structure-activity relationships of tulipalines, tuliposides, and related compounds as inhibitors of MurA.  

PubMed

The enzyme MurA performs an essential step in peptidoglycan biosynthesis and is therefore a target for the discovery of novel antibacterial compounds. We report here the inhibition of MurA by natural products from tulips (tulipalines and tuliposides), and the structure-activity relationships of various derivatives. The inhibition of MurA can be related to antibacterial activity, and MurA is probably one of the relevant molecular targets of the tulipaline derivatives. MurA inhibition by this class of compounds depends on the presence of the substrate UNAG, which indicates non-covalent suicide inhibition as observed previously for cnicin. With respect to selectivity, however, the reactivity against arbitrary sulfhydryl groups, such as in glutathione, could not yet be sufficiently separated from MurA inhibition in the present dataset. PMID:20729083

Mendgen, Thomas; Scholz, Therese; Klein, Christian D

2010-10-01

108

Ecotoxicity quantitative structure–activity relationships for alcohol ethoxylate mixtures based on substance-specific toxicity predictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, ecotoxicity quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSARs) for alcohol ethoxylate (AE) surfactants have been developed by assigning the measured ecotoxicity for commercial products to the average structures (alkyl chain length and ethoxylate chain length) of these materials. Acute Daphnia magna toxicity tests for binary mixtures indicate that mixtures are more toxic than the individual AE substances corresponding with their average structures

G. M. Boeijea; M. L. Canob; S. J. Marshallc; S. E. Belanger; R. Van Compernolle; P. B. Dorn; H. Gümbel; R. Toy; T. Wind

2006-01-01

109

Synthesis, fungicidal activity, and structure-activity relationship of 2-oxo- and 2-hydroxycycloalkylsulfonamides.  

PubMed

To explore new potential fungicides, a series of novel compounds, including 11 2-oxocycloalkylsulfonamide (3) and 21 2-hydroxycycloalkylsulfonamide (4) derivatives, were synthesized and their structures were confirmed by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), infrared (IR), and elemental analysis. The results of the bioassay showed that the compounds 3 and 4 possessed excellent fungicidal activity against Botrytis cinerea Pers. both in vitro and in vivo. The fungicidal activity of the compounds with 7- or 8-membered rings is better than those with 5-, 6-, or 12-membered rings. According to the results of the mycelium growth rate test, the EC50 values of the compounds 3C, 4C, 3D, and 4D were 0.80, 0.85, 1.22, and 1.09 ?g/mL, respectively, and similar to or better than commercial fungicide procymidone. The bioassay results of spore germination indicated that most of the compounds exhibited obvious inhibitory effects against B. cinerea and the inhibition rates of 2-oxocycloalkylsulfonamides were higher than 2-hydroxycycloalkylsulfonamides, among them. The EC50 values of compounds 3A, 3B17, 3E, and 4A were 4.21, 4.21 3.24, and 5.29 ?g/mL, respectively. Those compounds containing 5- or 6-membered rings showed better activity than those containing 7-, 8-, or 12-membered rings. Furthermore, the results of the pot culture test showed that almost all of the compounds had effective control activity in vivo and 2-hydroxycycloalkylsulfonamides were obviously superior to 2-oxocycloalkylsulfonamides. The compounds 3E, 4C and 4D presented higher control efficacy than procymidone and pyrimethanil against gray mold disease on cucumber plants. PMID:20929233

Li, Xing-Hai; Wu, De-Cai; Qi, Zhi-Qiu; Li, Xiu-Wei; Gu, Zu-Min; Wei, Song-Hong; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Ying-Zi; Ji, Ming-Shan

2010-11-10

110

Investigations on Inhibitors of Hedgehog Signal Pathway: A Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Study  

PubMed Central

The hedgehog signal pathway is an essential agent in developmental patterning, wherein the local concentration of the Hedgehog morphogens directs cellular differentiation and expansion. Furthermore, the Hedgehog pathway has been implicated in tumor/stromal interaction and cancer stem cell. Nowadays searching novel inhibitors for Hedgehog Signal Pathway is drawing much more attention by biological, chemical and pharmological scientists. In our study, a solid computational model is proposed which incorporates various statistical analysis methods to perform a Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) study on the inhibitors of Hedgehog signaling. The whole QSAR data contain 93 cyclopamine derivatives as well as their activities against four different cell lines (NCI-H446, BxPC-3, SW1990 and NCI-H157). Our extensive testing indicated that the binary classification model is a better choice for building the QSAR model of inhibitors of Hedgehog signaling compared with other statistical methods and the corresponding in silico analysis provides three possible ways to improve the activity of inhibitors by demethylation, methylation and hydroxylation at specific positions of the compound scaffold respectively. From these, demethylation is the best choice for inhibitor structure modifications. Our investigation also revealed that NCI-H466 served as the best cell line for testing the activities of inhibitors of Hedgehog signal pathway among others. PMID:21686166

Zhu, Ruixin; Liu, Qi; Tang, Jian; Li, Huiliang; Cao, Zhiwei

2011-01-01

111

Hologram quantitative structure activity relationship, docking, and molecular dynamics studies of inhibitors for CXCR4.  

PubMed

CXCR4 plays a crucial role as a co-receptor with CCR5 for HIV-1 anchoring to mammalian cell membrane and is implicated in cancer metastasis and inflammation. In the current work, we study the relationship of structure and activity of AMD11070 derivatives and other inhibitors of CXCR4 using HQSAR, docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We obtain an HQSAR model (q(2) = 0.779), and the HQSAR result illustrates that AMD11070 shows a high antiretroviral activity. As HQSAR only provides 2D information, we perform docking and MD to study the interaction of It1t, AMD3100, and AMD3465 with CXCR4. Our results illustrate that the binding are affected by two crucial residues Asp97 and Glu288. The butyl amine moiety of AMD11070 contributes to its high antiretroviral activity. Without a butyl amine moiety, (2,7a-Dihydro-1H-benzoimidazol-2-ylmethyl)-methyl-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-quinolin-8-yl)-amine (compound 5a) shows low antiretroviral activity. Our results provide structural details about the interactions between the inhibitors and CXCR4, which are useful for rational drug design of CXCR4. PMID:24923360

Zhang, Chongqian; Du, Chunmiao; Feng, Zhiwei; Zhu, Jingyu; Li, Youyong

2015-02-01

112

The Effect of Nano Confinement on the C–H Activation and its Corresponding Structure-Activity Relationship  

PubMed Central

The C–H activation of methane, ethane, and t-butane on inner and outer surfaces of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube (NCNTs) are investigated using density functional theory. It includes NCNTs with different diameters, different N and O concentrations, and different types (armchair and zigzag). A universal structure-reactivity relationship is proposed to characterize the C–H activation occurring both on the inner and outer surfaces of the nano channel. The C–O bond distance, spin density and charge carried by active oxygen are found to be highly related to the C–H activation barriers. Based on these theoretical results, some useful strategies are suggested to guide the rational design of more effective catalysts by nano channel confinement. PMID:25428459

Shao, Jing; Yuan, Linghua; Hu, Xingbang; Wu, Youting; Zhang, Zhibing

2014-01-01

113

The Effect of Nano Confinement on the C-H Activation and its Corresponding Structure-Activity Relationship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The C-H activation of methane, ethane, and t-butane on inner and outer surfaces of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube (NCNTs) are investigated using density functional theory. It includes NCNTs with different diameters, different N and O concentrations, and different types (armchair and zigzag). A universal structure-reactivity relationship is proposed to characterize the C-H activation occurring both on the inner and outer surfaces of the nano channel. The C-O bond distance, spin density and charge carried by active oxygen are found to be highly related to the C-H activation barriers. Based on these theoretical results, some useful strategies are suggested to guide the rational design of more effective catalysts by nano channel confinement.

Shao, Jing; Yuan, Linghua; Hu, Xingbang; Wu, Youting; Zhang, Zhibing

2014-11-01

114

Percutaneous absorption of herbicides derived from 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacid: structure-activity relationship.  

PubMed

Ethyl to octyl esters of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy-acetic acids (2,4DAA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxy-propionic acids (2,4DPA) or 2,4-dichlorophenoxy-butyric acids (2,4DBA) are present in the most commonly used herbicides. Their use involves a significant risk of skin exposure, but little is known about the percutaneous flux of these substances. Studies have shown that percutaneous transition of esters may be dependent on their hydrolysis by esterases present in the skin. In this study, we describe ex vivo percutaneous absorption of seven pure esters (methyl to decyl) with a 2,4DA structure for rats (n=6) and humans (n=7). Esters were applied at 50 ?L cm(-2) to dermatomed skin (approximately 0.5 mm thick) for 24 h. The enzymatic constants for hydrolysis of each ester by skin esterases were determined in vitro using skin homogenates from both species. Structure-activity relationships linking the evolution of the ex vivo percutaneous flux of esters and the 2,4D structure with enzymatic (Vmax; Km) and/or physical parameters (molecular weight, molecular volume, size of the ester, log(kow)) were examined to develop a good flux estimation model. Although the percutaneous penetration of all of the esters of the 2,4D family are "esterase-dependent", the decreasing linear relationship between percutaneous penetration and hyrophobicity defined by the logarithm for the octanol-water partition coefficient (log(kow)) is the most pertinent model for estimating the percutaneous absorption of esters for both species. The mean flux of the free acid production by the esterases of the skin is not the limiting factor for percutaneous penetration. The rate of hydrolysis of the esters in the skin decreases linearly with log(kow), which would suggest that either the solubility of the esters in the zones of the skin that are rich in esterases or the accessibility to the active sites of the enzyme is the key factor. The structure-activity relationship resulting from this study makes it possible, in humans and in rats, to make a good estimate of the ex vivo percutaneous fluxes for all pure esters of this family of herbicides. PMID:24803314

Beydon, Dominique; Payan, Jean-Paul; Ferrari, Elisabeth; Grandclaude, Marie-Christine

2014-08-01

115

Toxicity and quantitative structure-activity relationships of nitriles based on Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata.  

PubMed

This study presents the toxicity data of various nitriles to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata using a closed algal toxicity testing technique with no headspace. Two different response endpoints, i.e., dissolved oxygen (DO) production and algal growth rate, were used to evaluate the toxicity of nitriles. In general, the DO endpoint revealed higher inhibitory effects than that from algal growth rate. Furthermore, halogen-substituted nitriles were found to be extremely toxic to P. subcapitata. With increasing numbers of the halogen atoms, stronger toxicity was observed. The bromine substitutent also seems to be more toxic than chlorine substitutent. Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) were established based on the chemicals' Elumo values and hydrophobicity (logK(ow)). Such relationships may thus be useful in predicting the toxicity of other compounds of the same mode of toxic action. Furthermore, for various aquatic organisms, the relative sensitivity relationship is: Pimephales promelas > or = P. subcapitata> Tetrahymena Pyriformis>Daphnia magna>luminescent bacteria (Microtox). The alga, P. subcapitata, was found to be quite sensitive to nitriles compared to other organisms. PMID:16875732

Huang, Chun-Pin; Wang, Yun-Ju; Chen, Chung-Yuan

2007-07-01

116

Structure-composition-activity relationships in transition-metal oxide and oxyhydroxide oxygen-evolution electrocatalysts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar water-splitting is a potentially transformative renewable energy technology. Slow kinetics of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) limit the efficiency of solar-watersplitting devices, thus constituting a hurdle to widespread implementation of this technology. Catalysts must be stable under highly oxidizing conditions in aqueous electrolyte and minimally absorb light. A grand goal of OER catalysis research is the design of new materials with higher efficiencies enabled by comprehensive understanding of the fundamental chemistry behind catalyst activity. However, little progress has been made towards this goal to date. This dissertation details work addressing major challenges in the field of OER catalysis. Chapter I introduces the current state-of-the-art and challenges in the field. Chapter II highlights work using ultra-thin films as a platform for fundamental study and comparison of catalyst activity. Key results of this work are (1) the identification of a Ni0.9Fe0.1OOH catalyst displaying the highest OER activity in base to date and (2) that in base, many transition-metal oxides transform to layered oxyhydroxide materials which are the active catalysts. The latter result is critical in the context of understanding structure-activity relationships in OER catalysts. Chapter III explores the optical properties of these catalysts, using in situ spectroelectrochemistry to quantify their optical absorption. A new figure-of-merit for catalyst performance is developed which considers both optical and kinetic losses due to the catalyst and describes how these factors together affect the efficiency of composite semiconductor/catalyst photoanodes. In Chapter IV, the fundamental structure-composition-activity relationships in Ni1--xFexOOH catalysts are systematically investigated. This work shows that nearly all previous studies of Ni-based catalysts were likely affected by the presence of Fe impurities, a realization which holds significant weight for future study of Ni-based catalyst materials. Chapter V discusses the synthesis of tin-titanium oxide nanoparticles with tunable lattice constants. These materials could be used to make high-surface-area supports for thin layers of OER catalysts, which is important for maximizing catalyst surface area, minimizing the use of precious-metal catalysts, and optimizing 3D structure for enhanced mass/bubble transport. Finally, Chapter VI summarizes this work and outlines directions for future research.

Trotochaud, Lena

117

Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study of a series of benzimidazole derivatives as inhibitors of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

A quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) has been carried out on a series of benzimidazole derivatives to identify the structural requirements for their inhibitory activity against yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A multiple linear regression (MLR) procedure was used to model the relationships between various physicochemical, steric, electronic, and structural molecular descriptors and antifungal activity of benzimidazole derivatives. The QSAR expressions were generated using a training set of 16 compounds and the predictive ability of the resulting models was evaluated against a test set of 8 compounds. The best QSAR models were further validated by leave one out technique as well as by the calculation of statistical parameters for the established theoretical models. Therefore, satisfactory relationships between antifungal activity and molecular descriptors were found. QSAR analysis reveals that lipophilicity descriptor (logP), dipole moment (DM) and surface area grid (SAG) govern the inhibitory activity of compounds studied against Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:23841329

Podunavac-Kuzmanovi?, Sonja O; Cvetkovi?, Dragoljub D; Jevri?, Lidija R; Uzelac, Natasa J

2013-01-01

118

Peptide inhibitors of botulinum neurotoxin serotype A: design, inhibition, cocrystal structures, structure-activity relationship and pharmacophore modeling  

SciTech Connect

Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins are classified as Category A bioterrorism agents by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The seven serotypes (A-G) of the botulinum neurotoxin, the causative agent of the disease botulism, block neurotransmitter release by specifically cleaving one of the three SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) proteins and induce flaccid paralysis. Using a structure-based drug-design approach, a number of peptide inhibitors were designed and their inhibitory activity against botulinum serotype A (BoNT/A) protease was determined. The most potent peptide, RRGF, inhibited BoNT/A protease with an IC{sub 50} of 0.9 {micro}M and a K{sub i} of 358 nM. High-resolution crystal structures of various peptide inhibitors in complex with the BoNT/A protease domain were also determined. Based on the inhibitory activities and the atomic interactions deduced from the cocrystal structures, the structure-activity relationship was analyzed and a pharmacophore model was developed. Unlike the currently available models, this pharmacophore model is based on a number of enzyme-inhibitor peptide cocrystal structures and improved the existing models significantly, incorporating new features.

Kumar G.; Swaminathan S.; Kumaran, D.; Ahmed, S. A.

2012-05-01

119

Structure-activity relationships of a novel capsid targeted inhibitor of HIV-1 replication.  

PubMed

Despite the considerable successes of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for the treatment of HIV/AIDS, cumulative drug toxicities and the development of multidrug-resistant virus necessitate the search for new classes of antiretroviral agents with novel modes of action. The HIV-1 capsid (CA) protein has been structurally and functionally characterized as a druggable target. We have recently designed a novel small molecule inhibitor I-XW-053 using the hybrid structure based method to block the interface between CA N-terminal domains (NTD-NTD interface) with micromolar affinity. In an effort to optimize and improve the efficacy of I-XW-053, we have developed the structure activity relationship of I-XW-053 compound series using ligand efficiency methods. Fifty-six analogues of I-XW-053 were designed that could be subclassified into four different core domains based on their ligand efficiency values computed as the ratio of binding efficiency (BEI) and surface efficiency (SEI) indices. Compound 34 belonging to subcore-3 showed an 11-fold improvement over I-XW-053 in blocking HIV-1 replication in primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Surface plasmon resonance experiments confirmed the binding of compound 34 to purified HIV-1 CA protein. Molecular docking studies on compound 34 and I-XW-053 to HIV-1 CA protein suggested that they both bind to NTD-NTD interface region but with different binding modes, which was further validated using site-directed mutagenesis studies. PMID:25302989

Kortagere, Sandhya; Xu, Jimmy P; Mankowski, Marie K; Ptak, Roger G; Cocklin, Simon

2014-11-24

120

Introducing Spectral Structure Activity Relationship (S-SAR) Analysis. Application to Ecotoxicology  

PubMed Central

A novel quantitative structure-activity (property) relationship model, namely Spectral-SAR, is presented in an exclusive algebraic way replacing the old-fashioned multi-regression one. The actual S-SAR method interprets structural descriptors as vectors in a generic data space that is further mapped into a full orthogonal space by means of the Gram-Schmidt algorithm. Then, by coordinated transformation between the data and orthogonal spaces, the S-SAR equation is given under simple determinant form for any chemical-biological interactions under study. While proving to give the same analytical equation and correlation results with standard multivariate statistics, the actual S-SAR frame allows the introduction of the spectral norm as a valid substitute for the correlation factor, while also having the advantage to design the various related SAR models through the introduced “minimal spectral path” rule. An application is given performing a complete S-SAR analysis upon the Tetrahymena pyriformis ciliate species employing its reported eco-toxicity activities among relevant classes of xenobiotics. By representing the spectral norm of the endpoint models against the concerned structural coordinates, the obtained S-SAR endpoints hierarchy scheme opens the perspective to further design the ecotoxicological test batteries with organisms from different species.

Putz, Mihai V.; Lacr?m?, Ana-Maria

2007-01-01

121

Structure-activity relationships for chloro- and nitrophenol toxicity in the pollen tube growth test  

SciTech Connect

Acute toxicity of 10 chlorophenols and 10 nitrophenols with identical substitution patterns is analyzed with the pollen tube growth (PTG) test. Concentration values of 50% growth inhibition (IC50) between 0.1 and 300 mg/L indicate that the absolute sensitivity of this alternative biotest is comparable to conventional aquatic test systems. Analysis of quantitative structure-activity relationships using lipophilicity (log K{sub ow}), acidity (pK{sub a}), and quantum chemical parameters to model intrinsic acidity, solvation interactions, and nucleophilicity reveals substantial differences between the intraseries trends of log IC50. With chlorophenols, a narcotic-type relationship is derived, which, however, shows marked differences in slope and intercept when compared to reference regression equations for polar narcosis. Regression analysis of nitrophenol toxicity suggests interpretation in terms of two modes of action: oxidative uncoupling activity is associated with a pK{sub a} window from 3.8 to 8.5, and more acidic congeners with diortho-substitution show a transition from uncoupling to a narcotic mode of action with decreasing pK{sub a} and log K{sub ow}. Model calculations for phenol nucleophilicity suggest that differences in the phenol readiness for glucuronic acid conjugation as a major phase-II detoxication pathway have no direct influence on acute PTG toxicity of the compounds.

Schueuermann, G. [UFZ Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Chemical Ecotoxicology; Somashekar, R.K. [Bangalore Univ. (India). Dept. of Botany; Kristen, U. [Univ. Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Botanik

1996-10-01

122

Quantitative structure-activity relationships for toxicity of nonpolar narcotic chemicals to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata.  

PubMed

This study presents data for 27 nonpolar narcotic compounds regarding toxicity to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata as evaluated using a closed-system algal toxicity test with an exposure time of 48 h. Two test endpoints, dissolved oxygen production and algal growth rate, were used to assess the toxicity of nonpolar narcotic chemicals on algae. Hydrophobicity (1-octanol-water partition coefficient [K(OW)]) provided satisfactory descriptions for the toxicity of nonpolar narcotic compounds, and quantitative structure-activity relationships based on log K(OW) were established. The relative sensitivity of various aquatic organisms to nonpolar chemicals was as follows: P. subcapitata > Vibriofischeri > or = Nitrosomonas sp. > fathead minnow > Daphnia magna > polytox > activated sludge. In addition, linear relationships were found between the toxicity observed in P. subcapitata and other aquatic organisms, except in the case of Nitrosomonas sp. Therefore, for nonpolar toxicants, the closed-system technique applied in the present study can be an ideal surrogate for other tests, such as fathead minnow and D. magna, that are either time-consuming or labor-intensive. However, because the current toxicity database is based primarily on the conventional batch tests, it cannot provide adequate assessment regarding the effects of various organic toxicants. Therefore, more extensive research is needed to revise the database for the toxicity of organic compounds on phytoplankton using the closed-system technique. PMID:17089715

Hsieh, Shih-Hung; Hsu, Chih-Hsiung; Tsai, Din-Yu; Chen, Chung-Yuan

2006-11-01

123

Quantitative structure-activity relationship of phenoxy and benzyloxy acid derivatives as antisickling agents.  

PubMed

Quantitative structure activity relationship of Hansch-type has been applied to develop correlation between the calculated physicochemical properties and the in vitro activities of phenoxy and benzyloxyacetic acid derivatives as antisickling agents. The antisickling effect of these compounds was first reported by Abraham et al., and is used as a database of this study. QSAR for these compounds was generated in order to provide more information about the structure requirements for the design of more active antisickling analogs. The solubility ratio A/Ao for 22 phenoxyacetic acids and 15 benzyloxyacetic acids were used to develop equations using hydrophobic (pi), electronic (sigma) and molar refraction (MR) parameters. Equations 1 and 2 with correlation coefficients of 0.872 and 0.894 respectively, were obtained for phenoxy and benzyloxy acetic. Potencies were correlated positively with pi values of ortho, meta and/or para substituents. Positive correlations were also obtained for sigma constants of para and/or meta substituents. Negative correlations, on the other hand, were obtained with the MR values of para substituents in the benzenic ring of the benzyloxy acid series. Using the generated correlation equation 2, three potent antigelling benzyloxyacetic acid derivatives were proposed and reported. These compounds are expected to be very promising antisickling agents having A/A. values of 1.016, 1.124 and 1.138. PMID:10920532

Mahran, M A

2000-01-01

124

In vitro anti-cancer activity and structure–activity relationships of natural products isolated from fruits of Panax ginseng  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  \\u000a Panax ginseng and its extracts have long been used for medical purposes; there is increasing interest in developing ginseng products as\\u000a cancer preventive or therapeutic agents. The present study was designed to determine biological structure–activity relationships\\u000a (SAR) for saponins present in Panax ginseng fruits.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Eleven saponins were extracted from P. ginseng fruits and purified by use of D101 resin

Wei Wang; Yuqing Zhao; Elizabeth R. Rayburn; Donald L. Hill; Hui Wang; Ruiwen Zhang

2007-01-01

125

Immunostimulation by Synthetic Lipopeptide-Based Vaccine Candidates: Structure-Activity Relationships  

PubMed Central

Peptide-based vaccines offer several advantages over conventional whole organism or protein approaches by offering improved purity and specificity in inducing immune response. However, peptides alone are generally non-immunogenic. Concerns remain about the toxicity of adjuvants which are critical for immunogenicity of synthetic peptides. The use of lipopeptides in peptide vaccines is currently under intensive investigation because potent immune responses can be generated without the use of adjuvant (thus are self-adjuvanting). Several lipopeptides derived from microbial origin, and their synthetic versions or simpler fatty acid moieties impart this self-adjuvanting activity by signaling via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). Engagement of this innate immune receptor on antigen-presenting cell leads to the initiation and development of potent immune responses. Therefore optimization of lipopeptides to enhance TLR2-mediated activation is a promising strategy for vaccine development. Considerable structure-activity relationships that determine TLR2 binding and consequent stimulation of innate immune responses have been investigated for a range of lipopeptides. In this mini review we address the development of lipopeptide vaccines, mechanism of TLR2 recognition, and immune activation. An overview is provided of the best studied lipopeptide vaccine systems. PMID:24130558

Zaman, Mehfuz; Toth, Istvan

2013-01-01

126

The Structure Activity Relationship of Urea Derivatives as Anti-Tuberculosis Agents  

PubMed Central

The treatment of tuberculosis is becoming more difficult due to the ever increasing prevalence of drug resistance. Thus, it is imperative that novel anti-tuberculosis agents, with unique mechanisms of action, be discovered and developed. The direct anti-tubercular testing of a small compound library led to discovery of adamantyl urea hit compound 1. In this study, the hit was followed up through the synthesis of an optimization library. This library was generated by systematically replacing each section of the molecule with a similar moiety until a clear structure activity relationship was obtained with respect to anti-tubercular activity. The best compounds in this series contained a 1-adamantyl-3-phenyl urea core and had potent activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis plus an acceptable therapeutic index. It was noted that the compounds identified and the pharmacophore developed is consistent with inhibitors of epoxide hydrolase family of enzymes. Consequently, the compounds were tested for inhibition of representative epoxide hydrolases: M. tuberculosis EphB and EphE; and human soluble epoxide hydrolase. Many of the optimized inhibitors showed both potent EphB and EphE inhibition suggesting the antitubercular activity is through inhibition of multiple epoxide hydrolyase enzymes. The inhibitors also showed potent inhibition of humans soluble expoxide hydrolyase, but limited cytotoxicity suggesting that future studies must be towards increasing the selectivity of epoxide hydrolyase inhibition towards the M. tuberculosis enzymes. PMID:21840723

Brown, Joshua R.; North, Elton J.; Hurdle, Julian G.; Morisseau, Christophe; Scarborough, Jerrod S.; Sun, Dianqing; Korduláková, Jana; Scherman, Michael S.; Jones, Victoria; Grzegorzewicz, Anna; Crew, Rebecca M.; Jackson, Mary; McNeil, Michael R.; Lee, Richard E.

2011-01-01

127

Design, Synthesis, and Structure–Activity Relationships of Highly Potent 5-HT3 Receptor Ligands  

PubMed Central

The 5-HT3 receptor, a pentameric ligand-gated ion channel (pLGIC), is an important therapeutic target. During a recent fragment screen, 6-chloro-N-methyl-2-(4-methyl-1,4-diazepan-1-yl)quinazolin-4-amine (1) was identified as a 5-HT3R hit fragment. Here we describe the synthesis and structure–activity relationships (SAR) of a series of (iso)quinoline and quinazoline compounds that were synthesized and screened for 5-HT3R affinity using a [3H]granisetron displacement assay. These studies resulted in the discovery of several high affinity ligands of which compound 22 showed the highest affinity (pKi > 10) for the 5-HT3 receptor. The observed SAR is in agreement with established pharmacophore models for 5-HT3 ligands and is used for ligand–receptor binding mode prediction using homology modeling and in silico docking approaches. PMID:23006041

2012-01-01

128

Amyloid-? probes: Review of structure–activity and brain-kinetics relationships  

PubMed Central

Summary The number of people suffering from Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is expected to increase dramatically in the coming years, placing a huge burden on society. Current treatments for AD leave much to be desired, and numerous research efforts around the globe are focused on developing improved therapeutics. In addition, current diagnostic tools for AD rely largely on subjective cognitive assessment rather than on identification of pathophysiological changes associated with disease onset and progression. These facts have led to numerous efforts to develop chemical probes to detect pathophysiological hallmarks of AD, such as amyloid-? plaques, for diagnosis and monitoring of therapeutic efficacy. This review provides a survey of chemical probes developed to date for AD with emphasis on synthetic methodologies and structure–activity relationships with regards to affinity for target and brain kinetics. Several probes discussed herein show particularly promising results and will be of immense value moving forward in the fight against AD. PMID:23766818

Eckroat, Todd J; Mayhoub, Abdelrahman S

2013-01-01

129

Structure-activity relationships for perfluoroalkane-induced in vitro interference with rat liver mitochondrial respiration.  

PubMed

Perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) represent a broad class of commercial products designed primarily for the coatings industry. However, detection of residues globally in a variety of species led to the discontinuation of production in the U.S. Although PFAAs cause activation of the PPAR? and CAR nuclear receptors, interference with mitochondrial bioenergetics has been implicated as an alternative mechanism of cytotoxicity. Although the mechanisms by which the eight carbon chain PFAAs interfere with mitochondrial bioenergetics are fairly well described, the activities of the more highly substituted or shorter chain PFAAs are far less well characterized. The current investigation was designed to explore structure-activity relationships by which PFAAs interfere with mitochondrial respiration in vitro. Freshly isolated rat liver mitochondria were incubated with one of 16 different PFAAs, including perfluorinated carboxylic, acetic, and sulfonic acids, sulfonamides and sulfamido acetates, and alcohols. The effect on mitochondrial respiration was measured at five concentrations and dose-response curves were generated to describe the effects on state 3 and 4 respiration and respiratory control. With the exception of PFOS, all PFAAs at sufficiently high concentrations (>20?M) stimulated state 4 and inhibited state 3 respiration. Stimulation of state 4 respiration was most pronounced for the carboxylic acids and the sulfonamides, which supports prior evidence that the perfluorinated carboxylic and acetic acids induce the mitochondrial permeability transition, whereas the sulfonamides are protonophoric uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. In both cases, potency increased with increasing carbon number, with a prominent inflection point between the six and eight carbon congeners. The results provide a foundation for classifying PFAAs according to specific modes of mitochondrial activity and, in combination with toxicokinetic considerations, establishing structure-activity-based boundaries for initial estimates of risk for noncancer endpoints for PFAAs for which minimal in vivo toxicity testing currently exists. PMID:23954199

Wallace, K B; Kissling, G E; Melnick, R L; Blystone, C R

2013-10-01

130

Improved Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Models to Predict Antioxidant Activity of Flavonoids in Chemical, Enzymatic, and Cellular Systems  

PubMed Central

Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models are useful in understanding how chemical structure relates to the biological activity of natural and synthetic chemicals and for design of newer and better therapeutics. In the present study, 46 flavonoids and related polyphenols were evaluated for direct/indirect antioxidant activity in three different assay systems of increasing complexity (chemical, enzymatic, and intact phagocytes). Based on these data, two different QSAR models were developed using i) physicochemical and structural (PC&S) descriptors to generate multiparameter partial least squares (PLS) regression equations derived from optimized molecular structures of the tested compounds and ii) a partial 3D comparison of the 46 compounds with local fingerprints obtained from fragments of the molecules by the frontal polygon (FP) method. We obtained much higher QSAR correlation coefficients (r) for flavonoid end-point antioxidant activity in all 3 assay systems using the FP method (0.966, 0.948, and 0.965 for datasets in evaluated in the biochemical, enzymatic, and whole cells assay systems, respectively). Furthermore, high leave-one-out cross-validation coefficients (q2) of 0.907, 0.821, and 0.897 for these datasets, respectively, indicated enhanced predictive ability and robustness of the model. Using the FP method, structural fragments (submolecules) responsible for the end-point antioxidant activity in the three assay systems were also identified. To our knowledge, this is the first QSAR model derived for description of flavonoid direct/indirect antioxidant effects in a cellular system, and this model could form the basis for further drug development of flavonoid-like antioxidant compounds with therapeutic potential. PMID:17166721

Khlebnikov, Andrei I.; Schepetkin, Igor A.; Domina, Nina G.; Kirpotina, Liliya N.; Quinn, Mark T.

2007-01-01

131

Propofol in anesthesia. Mechanism of action, structure-activity relationships, and drug delivery.  

PubMed

Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) is becoming the intravenous anesthetic of choice for ambulatory surgery in outpatients. It is extensively metabolized, with most of the administered dose appearing in the urine as glucuronide conjugates. Favorable operating conditions and rapid recovery are claimed as the main advantages in using propofol, whereas disadvantages include a relatively high incidence of apnea, and blood pressure reductions. Besides a literature summary of the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, toxicology, and clinical use, this review provides a deeper discussion on the current understanding of mechanism of action and structure-activity relationships, and recent findings on drug delivery technologies as applied to the improvement of propofol formulations. The action of propofol involves a positive modulation of the inhibitory function of the neurotransmitter gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA) through GABAA receptors. Recent results from recombinant human GABAA receptor experiments and findings from the work exploring the effects at other receptors (e.g., glycine, nicotinic, and M1 muscarinic receptors) are reviewed. Studies showing its antiepileptic and anxiolytic properties are also discussed. The structure-activity relationships (SAR) of series of alkylphenols and p-X-substituted congeners have been reinvestigated. Interestingly, unlike the other congeners tested sofar, p-iodo-2,6-diisopropylphenol displayed anticonvulsant and anticonflict effects, but not sedative-hypnotic and anesthetic properties. Due to its high lipid-solubility, propofol was initially formulated as a solution with the surfactant Cremophor EL, but the occurrence of pain on injection and anaphylactoid reactions prompted to search for alternative formulations. Results from using cyclodextrins, water-soluble prodrugs, and adopting Bodor's approach to the site-specific chemical delivery system (CDS), as well as the advantages provided by computer-controlled infusion systems, are examined in some detail. PMID:10637364

Trapani, G; Altomare, C; Liso, G; Sanna, E; Biggio, G

2000-02-01

132

Structural similarity based kriging for quantitative structure activity and property relationship modeling.  

PubMed

Structurally similar molecules tend to have similar properties, i.e. closer molecules in the molecular space are more likely to yield similar property values while distant molecules are more likely to yield different values. Based on this principle, we propose the use of a new method that takes into account the high dimensionality of the molecular space, predicting chemical, physical, or biological properties based on the most similar compounds with measured properties. This methodology uses ordinary kriging coupled with three different molecular similarity approaches (based on molecular descriptors, fingerprints, and atom matching) which creates an interpolation map over the molecular space that is capable of predicting properties/activities for diverse chemical data sets. The proposed method was tested in two data sets of diverse chemical compounds collected from the literature and preprocessed. One of the data sets contained dihydrofolate reductase inhibition activity data, and the second molecules for which aqueous solubility was known. The overall predictive results using kriging for both data sets comply with the results obtained in the literature using typical QSPR/QSAR approaches. However, the procedure did not involve any type of descriptor selection or even minimal information about each problem, suggesting that this approach is directly applicable to a large spectrum of problems in QSAR/QSPR. Furthermore, the predictive results improve significantly with the similarity threshold between the training and testing compounds, allowing the definition of a confidence threshold of similarity and error estimation for each case inferred. The use of kriging for interpolation over the molecular metric space is independent of the training data set size, and no reparametrizations are necessary when more compounds are added or removed from the set, and increasing the size of the database will consequentially improve the quality of the estimations. Finally it is shown that this model can be used for checking the consistency of measured data and for guiding an extension of the training set by determining the regions of the molecular space for which new experimental measurements could be used to maximize the model's predictive performance. PMID:24897621

Teixeira, Ana L; Falcao, Andre O

2014-07-28

133

Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Studies of 4-Imidazolyl- 1,4-dihydropyridines as Calcium Channel Blockers  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): The structure- activity relationship of a series of 36 molecules, showing L-type calcium channel blocking was studied using a QSAR (quantitative structure–activity relationship) method. Materials and Methods: Structures were optimized by the semi-empirical AM1 quantum-chemical method which was also used to find structure-calcium channel blocking activity trends. Several types of descriptors, including electrotopological, structural and thermodynamics were used to derive a quantitative relationship between L-type calcium channel blocking activity and structural properties. The developed QSAR model contributed to a mechanistic understanding of the investigated biological effects. Results: Multiple linear regressions (MLR) was employed to model the relationships between molecular descriptors and biological activities of molecules using stepwise method and genetic algorithm as variable selection tools. The accuracy of the proposed MLR model was illustrated using cross-validation, and Y-randomisation -as the evaluation techniques. Conclusion: The predictive ability of the model was found to be satisfactory and could be used for designing a similar group of 1,4- dihydropyridines , based on a pyridine structure core which can block calcium channels. PMID:24106595

Hadizadeh, Farzin; Vahdani, Saadat; Jafarpour, Mehrnaz

2013-01-01

134

Structure–activity relationship study of acridine analogs as haspin and DYRK2 kinase inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Haspin is a serine/threonine kinase required for completion of normal mitosis that is highly expressed during cell proliferation, including in a number of neoplasms. Consequently, it has emerged as a potential therapeutic target in oncology. A high throughput screen of approximately 140,000 compounds identified an acridine analog as a potent haspin kinase inhibitor. Profiling against a panel of 270 kinases revealed that the compound also exhibited potent inhibitory activity for DYRK2, another serine/threonine kinase. An optimization study of the acridine series revealed that the structure–activity relationship (SAR) of the acridine series for haspin and DYRK2 inhibition had many similarities. However, several structural differences were noted that allowed generation of a potent haspin kinase inhibitor (33, IC50 <60 nM) with 180-fold selectivity over DYRK2. In addition, a moderately potent DYRK2 inhibitor (41, IC50 <400 nM) with a 5.4-fold selectivity over haspin was also identified. PMID:20836251

Cuny, Gregory D.; Robin, Maxime; Ulyanova, Natalia P.; Patnaik, Debasis; Pique, Valerie; Casano, Gilles; Liu, Ji-Feng; Lin, Xiangjie; Xian, Jun; Glicksman, Marcie A.; Stein, Ross L.; Higgins, Jonathan M. G.

2011-01-01

135

Structure-activity relationship study of acridine analogs as haspin and DYRK2 kinase inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Haspin is a serine/threonine kinase required for completion of normal mitosis that is highly expressed during cell proliferation, including in a number of neoplasms. Consequently, it has emerged as a potential therapeutic target in oncology. A high throughput screen of approximately 140,000 compounds identified an acridine analog as a potent haspin kinase inhibitor. Profiling against a panel of 270 kinases revealed that the compound also exhibited potent inhibitory activity for DYRK2, another serine/threonine kinase. An optimization study of the acridine series revealed that the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of the acridine series for haspin and DYRK2 inhibition had many similarities. However, several structural differences were noted that allowed generation of a potent haspin kinase inhibitor (33, IC50 < 60 nM) with 180-fold selectivity over DYRK2. In addition, a moderately potent DYRK2 inhibitor (41, IC50 < 400 nM) with a 5.4-fold selectivity over haspin was also identified. PMID:20529681

Cuny, Gregory D.; Robin, Maxime; Ulyanova, Natalia P.; Patnaik, Debasis; Pique, Valerie; Casano, Gilles; Liu, Ji-Feng; Lin, Xiangjie; Xian, Jun; Glicksman, Marcie A.; Stein, Ross L.; Higgins, Jonathan M.G.

2010-01-01

136

Structure–activity relationships of substituted oxyoxalamides as inhibitors of the human soluble epoxide hydrolase  

PubMed Central

We explored both structure–activity relationships among substituted oxyoxalamides used as the primary pharmacophore of inhibitors of the human sEH and as a secondary pharmacophore to improve water solubility of inhibitors. When the oxyoxalamide function was modified with a variety of alkyls or substituted alkyls, compound 6 with a 2-adamantyl group and a benzyl group was found to be a potent sEH inhibitor, suggesting that the substituted oxyoxalamide function is a promising primary pharmacophore for the human sEH, and compound 6 can be a novel lead structure for the development of further improved oxyoxalamide or other related derivatives. In addition, introduction of substituted oxyoxalamide to inhibitors with an amide or urea primary pharmacophore produced significant improvements in inhibition potency and water solubility. In particular, the N,N,O-trimethyloxyoxalamide group in amide or urea inhibitors (26 and 31) was most effective among those tested for both inhibition and solubility. The results indicate that substituted oxyoxalamide function incorporated into amide or urea inhibitors is a useful secondary pharmacophore, and the resulting structures will be an important basis for the development of bioavailable sEH inhibitors. PMID:24433964

Kim, In-Hae; Lee, In-Hee; Nishiwaki, Hisashi; Hammock, Bruce D.; Nishi, Kosuke

2014-01-01

137

Structure–activity relationship studies on unifiram (DM232) and sunifiram (DM235), two novel and potent cognition enhancing drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structure–activity relationships on two novel potent cognition enhancing drugs, unifiram (DM232, 1) and sunifiram (DM235, 2), are reported. Although none of the compounds synthesised reached the potency of the parent drugs, some fairly active compounds have been identified that may represent new leads to develop other cognition enhancing drugs. An interesting result of this research is the identification of two

Serena Scapecchi; Elisabetta Martini; Dina Manetti; Carla Ghelardini; Cecilia Martelli; Silvia Dei; Nicoletta Galeotti; Luca Guandalini; Maria Novella Romanelli; Elisabetta Teodori

2004-01-01

138

Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis of human CYP51 inhibitors.  

PubMed

CYP51 fulfills an essential requirement for all cells, by catalyzing three sequential mono-oxidations within the cholesterol biosynthesis cascade. Inhibition of fungal CYP51 is used as a therapy for treating fungal infections, whereas inhibition of human CYP51 has been considered as a pharmacological approach to treat dyslipidemia and some forms of cancer. To predict the interaction of inhibitors with the active site of human CYP51, a three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship model was constructed. This pharmacophore model of the common structural features of CYP51 inhibitors was built using the program Catalyst from multiple inhibitors (n = 26) of recombinant human CYP51-mediated lanosterol 14alpha-demethylation. The pharmacophore, which consisted of one hydrophobe, one hydrogen bond acceptor, and two ring aromatic features, demonstrated a high correlation between observed and predicted IC(50) values (r = 0.92). Validation of this pharmacophore was performed by predicting the IC(50) of a test set of commercially available (n = 19) and CP-320626-related (n = 48) CYP51 inhibitors. Using predictions below 10 microM as a cutoff indicative of active inhibitors, 16 of 19 commercially available inhibitors (84%) and 38 of 48 CP-320626-related inhibitors (79.2%) were predicted correctly. To better understand how inhibitors fit into the enzyme, potent CYP51 inhibitors were used to build a Cerius(2) receptor surface model representing the volume of the active site. This study has demonstrated the potential for ligand-based computational pharmacophore modeling of human CYP51 and enables a high-throughput screening system for drug discovery and data base mining. PMID:17194716

Ekins, Sean; Mankowski, Dayna C; Hoover, Dennis J; Lawton, Michael P; Treadway, Judith L; Harwood, H James

2007-03-01

139

Quantitative structure-activity relationships for kinetic parameters of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biotransformation.  

PubMed

Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) were developed for three Monod-type parameters--qmax, Ks, and qmax/Ks--that express the kinetics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) biotransformation by Sphingomonas paucimobilis strain EPA505. The training sets contained high-quality experimental values of the kinetic parameters for 20 unsubstituted and methylated PAHs as well as values of 41 meaningful molecular descriptors. A genetic function approximation algorithm was used to develop the QSARs. Statistical evaluation of the developed QSARs showed that the relationships are statistically significant and satisfy the assumptions of linear-regression analysis. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development principles for (Q)SAR validation were followed to evaluate the developed QSARs, which showed that the QSARs are valid. The QSARs contain spatial, spatial and electronic, topological, and thermodynamic molecular descriptors. Whereas spatial descriptors were essential in explaining biotransformation kinetics, electronic descriptors were not. Mechanistic interpretation of the QSARs resulted in evidence that is consistent with the hypothesis of membrane transport as being the rate-limiting process in PAH biotransformation by strain EPA505. The present study demonstrates the value of QSAR not only as a predictive tool but also as a framework for understanding the mechanisms governing biodegradation at the molecular level. PMID:18366261

Dimitriou-Christidis, Petros; Autenrieth, Robin L; Abraham, Michael H

2008-07-01

140

Quantitative structure-activity relationship models for ready biodegradability of chemicals.  

PubMed

The European REACH regulation requires information on ready biodegradation, which is a screening test to assess the biodegradability of chemicals. At the same time REACH encourages the use of alternatives to animal testing which includes predictions from quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models. The aim of this study was to build QSAR models to predict ready biodegradation of chemicals by using different modeling methods and types of molecular descriptors. Particular attention was given to data screening and validation procedures in order to build predictive models. Experimental values of 1055 chemicals were collected from the webpage of the National Institute of Technology and Evaluation of Japan (NITE): 837 and 218 molecules were used for calibration and testing purposes, respectively. In addition, models were further evaluated using an external validation set consisting of 670 molecules. Classification models were produced in order to discriminate biodegradable and nonbiodegradable chemicals by means of different mathematical methods: k nearest neighbors, partial least squares discriminant analysis, and support vector machines, as well as their consensus models. The proposed models and the derived consensus analysis demonstrated good classification performances with respect to already published QSAR models on biodegradation. Relationships between the molecular descriptors selected in each QSAR model and biodegradability were evaluated. PMID:23469921

Mansouri, Kamel; Ringsted, Tine; Ballabio, Davide; Todeschini, Roberto; Consonni, Viviana

2013-04-22

141

A new consistent model explaining structure (conformation)-activity relationships of opiates with mu-selectivity.  

PubMed

Several different classes of opiates such as PET (7-alpha-(1-Hydroxy-1-methyl-3-phenylpropyl)-6,14-endo-ethenotetra - hydronorthebaine), phenazocine, fentanyl, carfentanil, ohmefentanyl, prodine derivatives, methadone and etonitazene have been investigated using the molecular modelling program package SYBYL and the TRIPOS empirical force field. Comparison of the energetically optimized structures and their corresponding molecular electrostatic potentials was used for the development of a new model of conformation-activity relationships of mu-selective opiates. We considered six important spatial positions of these molecules which were assumed to be directly implicated in the interaction with the opiate receptor. We found that these opiates may bind to the receptor with their protonated nitrogen atom assuming one or the other of two different orientations. The obtained results offer new insights into important receptor interactions and the diverse opiate activities of all the compounds examined can be explained in a unified manner. For example, the most active ohmefentanyl stereo-isomer was predicted on the basis of the proposed model. PMID:8148469

Brandt, W; Barth, A; Höltje, H D

1993-01-01

142

Structure–Activity Relationship Study of the Cleistriosides and Cleistetrosides for Antibacterial/Anticancer Activity  

PubMed Central

Two known cleistriosides and six known cleistetrosides were synthesized and evaluated for anticancer and antibacterial activities. This study, for the first time, reports anticancer activity and comprehensively the antibacterial activity for these oligosaccharide natural products. In addition, two new unnatural cleistetroside analogues were synthesized and tested. Biological activities for the 10 oligosaccharides against B. subtilis were found to range between 4 and >64 ?M and for NCI-H460 human lung cancer epithelial cells between 7.5 and 90.9 ?M. Similar activities were found for seven of the oligosaccharides against the NCI panel of 60 cell lines. The degree of acylation and location of the specific acetate groups had significant effects on the anticancer and antibacterial activity of both the cleistriosides and the cleistetrosides. PMID:23543830

2012-01-01

143

Inhibitory effects of caffeine analogues on neoplastic transformation: structure-activity relationship.  

PubMed

Some xanthine analogues, including 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine (caffeine) and 1,3-dimethylxanthine (theophylline), have been shown to exert anticancer activities in both cell culture and animal models. The present study focused on the relationship of structure and activity of 50 different caffeine analogues in preventing epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced malignant transformation of mouse epidermal JB6 promotion-sensitive (P+) Cl41 (JB6 P+) cells. Results indicated that the inhibition of cell transformation by the 1,3,7-trialkylxanthines depends on the number of carbons at the alkyl groups R1 and R3, but not R7. Notably, 1-ethyl-3-hexylxanthine (xanthine 70) was the most effective compound for inhibiting EGF-induced neoplastic transformation among the 50 xanthine analogues tested. The 50% inhibition of cell transformation (ICT(50)) value for xanthine 70 was 48- or 75-fold less than the ICT(50) value of caffeine or theophylline, respectively. Further study revealed that xanthine 70 (5-40 muM) dose dependently inhibited EGF-induced transactivation of activator protein 1 (AP-1), whereas theophylline or caffeine (up to 500 muM) had no effect on AP-1 activity. In addition, xanthine 70 (10 muM) inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate- or H-Ras-induced neoplastic transformation in JB6 P+ cells by 78.2 or 62.0%, respectively. Collectively, these results indicated that the number of carbons at R1 and R3 is important for the antitumor-promoting activity of the trialkylxanthines and xanthine 70 might be a promising anticancer agent. PMID:18195054

Rogozin, Evgeny A; Lee, Ki Won; Kang, Nam Joo; Yu, Haoyu; Nomura, Masaaki; Miyamoto, Ken-Ichi; Conney, Allan H; Bode, Ann M; Dong, Zigang

2008-06-01

144

Synthesis, Antifungal Activities and Qualitative Structure Activity Relationship of Carabrone Hydrazone Derivatives as Potential Antifungal Agents  

PubMed Central

Aimed at developing novel fungicides for relieving the ever-increasing pressure of agricultural production caused by phytopathogenic fungi, 28 new hydrazone derivatives of carabrone, a natural bioactive sesquisterpene, in three types were designed, synthesized and their antifungal activities against Botrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum lagenarium were evaluated. The result revealed that all the derivatives synthesized exhibited considerable antifungal activities in vitro and in vivo, which led to the improved activities for carabrone and its analogues and further confirmed their potential as antifungal agents. PMID:24619221

Wang, Hao; Ren, Shuang-Xi; He, Ze-Yu; Wang, De-Long; Yan, Xiao-Nan; Feng, Jun-Tao; Zhang, Xing

2014-01-01

145

Synthesis, antifungal activities and qualitative structure activity relationship of carabrone hydrazone derivatives as potential antifungal agents.  

PubMed

Aimed at developing novel fungicides for relieving the ever-increasing pressure of agricultural production caused by phytopathogenic fungi, 28 new hydrazone derivatives of carabrone, a natural bioactive sesquisterpene, in three types were designed, synthesized and their antifungal activities against Botrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum lagenarium were evaluated. The result revealed that all the derivatives synthesized exhibited considerable antifungal activities in vitro and in vivo, which led to the improved activities for carabrone and its analogues and further confirmed their potential as antifungal agents. PMID:24619221

Wang, Hao; Ren, Shuang-Xi; He, Ze-Yu; Wang, De-Long; Yan, Xiao-Nan; Feng, Jun-Tao; Zhang, Xing

2014-01-01

146

Structure-activity relationships of pentacycloundecylamines at the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor.  

PubMed

Prompted by our interest in neuroprotective agents with multiple mechanisms of action, we assessed the structure-activity relationship of a series of pentacycloundecylamine derivatives previously shown to have both L-type calcium channel blocking activity and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonistic activity. We utilized a functional assay to measure NMDAR channel block using (45)Ca(2+) influx into synaptoneurosomes. The cage amine 8-benzylamino-8,11-oxapentacyclo[5.4.0.0(2,6). 0(3,10).0(5,9)]undecane (NPG1-01) proved to be the most potent experimental compound with an IC(50) of 2.98microM, while 8-amino-pentacyclo[5.4.0.0(2,6).0(3,10).0(5,9)]undecane had the next most potent IC(50) of 4.06microM. Increasing the polycyclic cage size of NGP1-01 from a pentacycloundecane to a tridecane cage structure, but retaining the N-benzyl moiety decreased potency 10-fold, indicating a limitation on the volume of the cage that can be accommodated in the channel binding site. In the presence of NGP1-01, NMDA/glycine-induced maximal (45)Ca(2+) influx was attenuated by 34% with an insignificant effect on agonist potency. These results are consistent with uncompetitive antagonism for this group of compounds. Radioligand binding studies with [(3)H]MK-801 or [(3)H]TCP showed little or no displacement of these ligands by pentacycloundecylamines, suggesting that the latter compounds bind to a unique site in the NMDAR channel. The pentacycloundecylamines tested represent a novel group of NMDAR antagonists that have potential as therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:17157509

Geldenhuys, Werner J; Malan, Sarel F; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R; Van der Schyf, Cornelis J

2007-02-01

147

Non-linear quantitative structure–activity relationship for adenine derivatives as competitive inhibitors of adenosine deaminase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Logistic regression and artificial neural networks have been developed as two non-linear models to establish quantitative structure–activity relationships between structural descriptors and biochemical activity of adenosine based competitive inhibitors, toward adenosine deaminase. The training set included 24 compounds with known ki values. The models were trained to solve two-class problems. Unlike the previous work in which multiple linear regression was

Sayyed Hamed Sadat Hayatshahi; Parviz Abdolmaleki; Shahrokh Safarian; Khosro Khajeh

2005-01-01

148

Blood-brain barrier permeability mechanisms in view of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR).  

PubMed

The goal of the present paper was to develop a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) method using a simple statistical approach, such as multiple linear regression (MLR) for predicting the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability of chemical compounds. The "best" MLR models, comprised logP and either molecular mass (M) or isolated atomic energy (Eisol), tested on a structurally diverse set of 66 compounds, is characterized the by correlation coefficients (R) around 0.8. The obtained models were validated using leave-one-out (LOO) cross-validation technique and the correlation coefficient of leave-one-out- RLOO(2) (Q(2)) was at least 0.6. Analysis of a case from legal medicine demonstrated informative value of our QSAR model. To best authors' knowledge the present study is a first application of the developed QSAR models of BBB permeability to case from the legal medicine. Our data indicate that molecular energy-related descriptors, in combination with the well-known descriptors of lipophilicity may have a supportive value in predicting blood-brain distribution, which is of utmost importance in drug development and toxicological studies. PMID:25703237

Bujak, Renata; Struck-Lewicka, Wiktoria; Kaliszan, Micha?; Kaliszan, Roman; Markuszewski, Micha? J

2015-04-10

149

Structure-activity relationships of phenylpropanoids as antifeedants for the pine weevil Hylobius abietis.  

PubMed

Ethyl cinnamate has been isolated from the bark of Pinus contorta in the search for antifeedants for the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis. Based on this lead compound, a number of structurally related compounds were synthesized and tested. The usability of the Topliss scheme, a flow diagram previously used in numerous structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies, was evaluated in an attempt to find the most potent antifeedants. The scheme was initially followed stepwise; subsequently, all compounds found in the scheme were compared. In total, 51 phenylpropanoids were tested and analyzed for SARs by using arguments from the field of medicinal chemistry (rational drug design). Individual Hansch parameters based on hydrophobicity, steric, and electronic properties were examined. The effects of position and numbers of substituents on the aromatic ring, the effects of conjugation in the molecules, and the effects of the properties of the parent alcohol part of the esters were also evaluated. It proved difficult to find strong SARs derived from single physicochemical descriptors, but our study led to numerous new, potent, phenylpropanoid antifeedants for the pine weevil. Among the most potent were methyl 3-phenylpropanoates monosubstituted with chloro, fluoro, or methyl groups and the 3,4-dichlorinated methyl 3-phenylpropanoate. PMID:18311506

Bohman, B; Nordlander, G; Nordenhem, H; Sunnerheim, K; Borg-Karlson, A-K; Unelius, C R

2008-03-01

150

Antiproliferative terpenoids from almond hulls (Prunus dulcis): identification and structure-activity relationships.  

PubMed

Bioassay-guided fractionation of the EtOAc crude extract from Sicilian almond hulls, a waste material from Prunus dulcis crop, allowed identification of 10 constituents, isolated as pure compounds (1-5, 7, and 10) or unseparable mixtures (5 + 6 and 8 + 9). All compounds were subjected to spectroscopic analysis and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide bioassay on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. In addition to the main components oleanolic (1), ursolic (2), and betulinic (3) acids, the 2-hydroxy analogues alphitolic (4), corosolic (5), and maslinic (6) acids, as well as the related aldehydes, namely, betulinic (7), oleanolic (8), and ursolic (9), were identified. From a more polar fraction, the beta-sitosterol 3-O-glucoside (10) was also identified. A sample of commercially available betulin (11) was also included in bioassays as further support to a structure-activity relationship study. Betulinic acid showed antiproliferative activity toward MCF-7 cells (GI50 = 0.27 microM), higher than the anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil. PMID:16448187

Amico, Vincenzo; Barresi, Vincenza; Condorelli, Daniele; Spatafora, Carmela; Tringali, Corrado

2006-02-01

151

Structure-activity relationship studies of argiotoxins: selective and potent inhibitors of ionotropic glutamate receptors.  

PubMed

Argiotoxin-636 (ArgTX-636), a natural product from the spider Argiope lobata, is a potent but nonselective open-channel blocker of ionotropic glutamate (iGlu) receptors. Here, three series of analogues were designed to exploit selectivity among iGlu receptors, taking advantage of a recently developed solid-phase synthetic methodology for the synthesis of ArgTX-636 and analogues. Initially, the importance of secondary amino groups in the polyamine chain was studied by the synthesis of systematically modified ArgTX-636 analogues, which were evaluated for pharmacological activity at NMDA and AMPA receptors. This led to the identification of two compounds with preference for NMDA and AMPA receptors, respectively. These were further elaborated by systematically changing the aromatic headgroup and linker amino acid leading to compounds with increased potency and selectivity for NMDA and AMPA receptors, respectively. Thus, the first structure-activity relationship study of ArgTX-636 has been carried out and has provided lead compounds for probing the ion channel region of iGlu receptors. PMID:23320429

Poulsen, Mette H; Lucas, Simon; Bach, Tinna B; Barslund, Anne F; Wenzler, Claudius; Jensen, Christel B; Kristensen, Anders S; Strømgaard, Kristian

2013-02-14

152

Structure-Thermodynamics-Antioxidant Activity Relationships of Selected Natural Phenolic Acids and Derivatives: An Experimental and Theoretical Evaluation  

PubMed Central

Phenolic acids and derivatives have potential biological functions, however, little is known about the structure-activity relationships and the underlying action mechanisms of these phenolic acids to date. Herein we investigate the structure-thermodynamics-antioxidant relationships of 20 natural phenolic acids and derivatives using DPPH• scavenging assay, density functional theory calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) levels of theory, and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling. Three main working mechanisms (HAT, SETPT and SPLET) are explored in four micro-environments (gas-phase, benzene, water and ethanol). Computed thermodynamics parameters (BDE, IP, PDE, PA and ETE) are compared with the experimental radical scavenging activities against DPPH•. Available theoretical and experimental investigations have demonstrated that the extended delocalization and intra-molecular hydrogen bonds are the two main contributions to the stability of the radicals. The C = O or C = C in COOH, COOR, C = CCOOH and C = CCOOR groups, and orthodiphenolic functionalities are shown to favorably stabilize the specific radical species to enhance the radical scavenging activities, while the presence of the single OH in the ortho position of the COOH group disfavors the activities. HAT is the thermodynamically preferred mechanism in the gas phase and benzene, whereas SPLET in water and ethanol. Furthermore, our QSAR models robustly represent the structure-activity relationships of these explored compounds in polar media. PMID:25803685

Zheng, Jie; Liang, Guizhao

2015-01-01

153

Structure-activity relationship studies of carboxamido-biaryl ethers as opioid receptor antagonists (OpRAs). Part 1.  

PubMed

A structurally unique and new class of opioid receptor antagonists (OpRAs) that bear no structural resemblance with morphine or endogenous opioid peptides has been discovered. A series of carboxamido-biaryl ethers were identified as potent receptor antagonists against mu, kappa and delta opioid receptors. The structure-activity relationship indicated para-substituted aryloxyaryl primary carboxamide bearing an amine tether on the distal phenyl ring was optimal for potent in vitro functional antagonism against three opioid receptor subtypes. PMID:17720493

Takeuchi, Kumiko; Holloway, William G; McKinzie, Jamie H; Suter, Todd M; Statnick, Michael A; Surface, Peggy L; Emmerson, Paul J; Thomas, Elizabeth M; Siegel, Miles G; Matt, James E; Wolfe, Chad N; Mitch, Charles H

2007-10-01

154

Structure-Activity Relationships of Constrained Phenylethylamine Ligands for the Serotonin 5-HT2 Receptors  

PubMed Central

Serotonergic ligands have proven effective drugs in the treatment of migraine, pain, obesity, and a wide range of psychiatric and neurological disorders. There is a clinical need for more highly 5-HT2 receptor subtype-selective ligands and the most attention has been given to the phenethylamine class. Conformationally constrained phenethylamine analogs have demonstrated that for optimal activity the free lone pair electrons of the 2-oxygen must be oriented syn and the 5-oxygen lone pairs anti relative to the ethylamine moiety. Also the ethyl linker has been constrained providing information about the bioactive conformation of the amine functionality. However, combined 1,2-constriction by cyclization has only been tested with one compound. Here, we present three new 1,2-cyclized phenylethylamines, 9–11, and describe their synthetic routes. Ligand docking in the 5-HT2B crystal structure showed that the 1,2-heterocyclized compounds can be accommodated in the binding site. Conformational analysis showed that 11 can only bind in a higher-energy conformation, which would explain its absent or low affinity. The amine and 2-oxygen interactions with D3.32 and S3.36, respectively, can form but shift the placement of the core scaffold. The constraints in 9–11 resulted in docking poses with the 4-bromine in closer vicinity to 5.46, which is polar only in the human 5-HT2A subtype, for which 9–11 have the lowest affinity. The new ligands, conformational analysis and docking expand the structure-activity relationships of constrained phenethylamines and contributes towards the development of 5-HT2 receptor subtype-selective ligands. PMID:24244317

Isberg, Vignir; Paine, James; Leth-Petersen, Sebastian; Kristensen, Jesper L.; Gloriam, David E.

2013-01-01

155

Structure activity relationship of phenolic acid inhibitors of ?-synuclein fibril formation and toxicity.  

PubMed

The aggregation of ?-synuclein (?-syn) is considered the key pathogenic event in many neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies and multiple system atrophy, giving rise to a whole category of neurodegenerative diseases known as synucleinopathies. Although the molecular basis of ?-syn toxicity has not been precisely elucidated, a great deal of effort has been put into identifying compounds that could inhibit or even reverse the aggregation process. Previous reports indicated that many phenolic compounds are potent inhibitors of ?-syn aggregation. The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-aggregating effect of gallic acid (GA) (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid), a benzoic acid derivative that belongs to a group of phenolic compounds known as phenolic acids. By employing an array of biophysical and biochemical techniques and a cell-viability assay, GA was shown not only to inhibit ?-syn fibrillation and toxicity but also to disaggregate preformed ?-syn amyloid fibrils. Interestingly, GA was found to bind to soluble, non-toxic oligomers with no ?-sheet content, and to stabilize their structure. The binding of GA to the oligomers may represent a potential mechanism of action. Additionally, by using structure activity relationship data obtained from fourteen structurally similar benzoic acid derivatives, it was determined that the inhibition of ?-syn fibrillation by GA is related to the number of hydroxyl moieties and their position on the phenyl ring. GA may represent the starting point for designing new molecules that could be used for the treatment of PD and related disorders. PMID:25140150

Ardah, Mustafa T; Paleologou, Katerina E; Lv, Guohua; Abul Khair, Salema B; Kazim, Abdulla S; Minhas, Saeed T; Al-Tel, Taleb H; Al-Hayani, Abdulmonem A; Haque, Mohammed E; Eliezer, David; El-Agnaf, Omar M A

2014-01-01

156

Structure activity relationship of phenolic acid inhibitors of ?-synuclein fibril formation and toxicity  

PubMed Central

The aggregation of ?-synuclein (?-syn) is considered the key pathogenic event in many neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies and multiple system atrophy, giving rise to a whole category of neurodegenerative diseases known as synucleinopathies. Although the molecular basis of ?-syn toxicity has not been precisely elucidated, a great deal of effort has been put into identifying compounds that could inhibit or even reverse the aggregation process. Previous reports indicated that many phenolic compounds are potent inhibitors of ?-syn aggregation. The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-aggregating effect of gallic acid (GA) (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid), a benzoic acid derivative that belongs to a group of phenolic compounds known as phenolic acids. By employing an array of biophysical and biochemical techniques and a cell-viability assay, GA was shown not only to inhibit ?-syn fibrillation and toxicity but also to disaggregate preformed ?-syn amyloid fibrils. Interestingly, GA was found to bind to soluble, non-toxic oligomers with no ?-sheet content, and to stabilize their structure. The binding of GA to the oligomers may represent a potential mechanism of action. Additionally, by using structure activity relationship data obtained from fourteen structurally similar benzoic acid derivatives, it was determined that the inhibition of ?-syn fibrillation by GA is related to the number of hydroxyl moieties and their position on the phenyl ring. GA may represent the starting point for designing new molecules that could be used for the treatment of PD and related disorders. PMID:25140150

Ardah, Mustafa T.; Paleologou, Katerina E.; Lv, Guohua; Abul Khair, Salema B.; Kazim, Abdulla S.; Minhas, Saeed T.; Al-Tel, Taleb H.; Al-Hayani, Abdulmonem A.; Haque, Mohammed E.; Eliezer, David; El-Agnaf, Omar M. A.

2014-01-01

157

Aquatic toxicity of acrylates and methacrylates: quantitative structure-activity relationships based on Kow and LC50  

SciTech Connect

Recent EPA scrutiny of acrylate and methacrylate monomers has resulted in restrictive consent orders and Significant New Use Rules under the Toxic Substances Control Act, based on structure-activity relationships using mouse skin painting studies. The concern is centered on human health issues regarding worker and consumer exposure. Environmental issues, such as aquatic toxicity, are still of concern. Understanding the relationships and environmental risks to aquatic organisms may improve the understanding of the potential risks to human health. This study evaluates the quantitative structure-activity relationships from measured log Kow's and log LC50's for Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) and Carassius auratus (goldfish). Scientific support of the current regulations is also addressed. Two monomer classes were designated: acrylates and methacrylates. Spearman rank correlation and linear regression were run. Based on this study, an ecotoxicological difference exists between acrylates and methacrylates. Regulatory activities and scientific study should reflect this difference.

Reinert, K.H.

1987-12-01

158

Phytotoxic activity and metabolism of Botrytis cinerea and structure-activity relationships of isocaryolane derivatives.  

PubMed

Research has been conducted on the biotransformation of (8S,9R)-isocaryolan-9-ol (4a) and (1S,2S,5R,8S)-8-methylene-1,4,4-trimethyltricyclo[6.2.1.0(2,5)]undecan-12-ol (5a) by the fungal phytopathogen Botrytis cinerea. The biotransformation of compound 4a yielded compounds 6-9, while the biotransformation of compound 5a yielded compounds 10-13. The activity of compounds 4a and 5a against B. cinerea has been evaluated. (8R,9R)-Isocaryolane-8,9-diol (6), a major metabolite of compound 4a, shows activity compared to its parent compound 4a, which is inactive. The effect of isocaryolanes 3, 4a, and 5a, together with their biotransformation products 6-8, 10, and 14-17, on the germination and radicle and shoot growth of Lactuca sativa (lettuce) has also been determined. Compounds 7-13 are described for the first time. PMID:23730968

Ascari, Jociani; Boaventura, Maria Amélia Diamantino; Takahashi, Jacqueline Aparecida; Durán-Patrón, Rosa; Hernández-Galán, Rosario; Macías-Sánchez, Antonio J; Collado, Isidro G

2013-06-28

159

Structure-activity relationship of flavonoids as potent inhibitors of carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1).  

PubMed

Human carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1), a member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily, reduces a variety of carbonyl compounds including therapeutic drugs. CBR1 is involved in the reduction of the anthracycline anticancer drugs to their less anticancer C-13 hydroxy metabolites, which are cardiotoxic. CBR1 inhibitors are thought to be promising agents for adjuvant therapy with twofold beneficial effect in prolonging the anticancer efficacy of the anthracyclines while decreasing cardiotoxicity, a side effect of the drugs. In this study, we evaluated 27 flavonoids for their inhibitory activities of CBR1 in order to explore the structure-activity relationship (SAR). Among them, luteolin (2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5,7-dihydroxy-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one) showed the most potent inhibition (IC5095nM), which is also more potent compared to all known classes of CBR1 inhibitors. The inhibition of luteolin was noncompetitive with respect to the substrate in the NADPH-dependent reduction direction, but CBR1 exhibited moderate NADP(+)-dependent dehydrogenase activity for some alicyclic alcohols, in which the luteolin inhibition was competitive with respect to the alcohol substrate (Ki59nM). The SAR of the flavonoids indicated that the 7-hydroxy group of luteolin was responsible for the potent inhibition of CBR1. The molecular docking of luteolin in CBR1-NADPH complex showed that theflavonoid binds to the substrate-binding cleft, in which its 7-hydroxy group formed a H-bond with main-chain oxygen of Met234, in addition to H-bond interactions (of its 5-hydroxy and 4-carbonyl groups with catalytically important residues Tyr193 and/or Ser139) and a ?-stacking interaction (between its phenyl ring and Trp229). PMID:25549925

Arai, Yuki; Endo, Satoshi; Miyagi, Namiki; Abe, Naohito; Miura, Takeshi; Nishinaka, Toru; Terada, Tomoyuki; Oyama, Masayoshi; Goda, Hiroaki; El-Kabbani, Ossama; Hara, Akira; Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Ikari, Akira

2015-03-01

160

Synthesis and Structure?Activity Relationships of Benzothienothiazepinone Inhibitors of Protein Kinase D  

PubMed Central

Protein kinase D (PKD) is a member of a novel family of serine/threonine kinases that regulate fundamental cellular processes. PKD is implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including cancer. Progress in understanding the biological functions and therapeutic potential of PKD has been hampered by the lack of specific inhibitors. The benzoxoloazepinolone CID755673 was recently identified as the first potent and selective PKD inhibitor. The study of structure?activity relationships (SAR) of this lead compound led to further improvements in PKD1 potency. We describe herein the synthesis and biological evaluation of novel benzothienothiazepinone analogues. We achieved a 10-fold increase in the in vitro PKD1 inhibitory potency for the second generation lead kb-NB142-70 and accomplished a transition to an almost equally potent novel pyrimidine scaffold, while maintaining excellent target selectivity. These promising results will guide the design of pharmacological tools to dissect PKD function and pave the way for the development of potential anticancer agents. PMID:21617763

2010-01-01

161

Design, synthesis and structure-activity relationship of rhenium 2-arylbenzothiazoles as ?-amyloid plaque binding agents  

PubMed Central

To continue our efforts toward the development of 99mTc PiB analogs, we have synthesized twenty-four neutral and lipophilic Re (as a surrogate of 99mTc) 2-arylbenzothiazoles, and explored their structure-activity relationship for binding to A?1–40fibrils. These Re complexes were designed and synthesized via the integrated approach, so their 99mTc analogs would have a greater chance of crossing the blood-brain barrier. While the lipophilicities (logPC18= 1.59–3.53) of these Re 2-arylbenzothiazoles were all within suitable range, their binding affinities (Ki= 30–617 nM) to A?1–40 fibrils varied widely depending on the selection and integration of the tetradentate chelator into the 2-phenylbenzothiazole pharmacophore. For potential clinical applications, further refinement to obtain Re 2-arylbenzothiazoles with better binding affinities (< 10 nM) will likely be needed. The integrated approach reported here to generate compact, neutral and lipophilic Re 2-arylbenzothiazoles could be applied to other potent pharmacophores as well to convert other current A? PET tracers to their 99mTc analogs for more widespread application via the use of SPECT scanners. PMID:23411076

Pan, Jinhe; Mason, Neale S.; Debnath, Manik L.; Mathis, Chester A.; Klunk, William E.; Lin, Kuo-Shyan

2013-01-01

162

Utilization of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) in risk assessment: Alkylphenols  

SciTech Connect

Alkylphenols are a class of environmentally pervasive compounds, found both in natural (e.g., crude oils) and in anthropogenic (e.g., wood tar, coal gasification waste) materials. Despite the frequent environmental occurrence of these chemicals, there is a limited toxicity database on alkylphenols. The authors have therefore developed a 'toxicity equivalence approach' for alkylphenols which is based on their ability to inhibit, in a specific manner, the enzyme cyclooxygenase. Enzyme-inhibiting ability for individual alkylphenols can be estimated based on the quantitative structure-activity relationship developed by Dewhirst (1980) and is a function of the free hydroxyl group, electron-donating ring substituents, and hydrophobic aromatic ring substituents. The authors evaluated the toxicological significance of cyclooxygenase inhibition by comparison of the inhibitory capacity of alkylphenols with the inhibitory capacity of acetylsalicylic acid, or aspirin, a compound whose low-level effects are due to cyclooxygenase inhibition. Since nearly complete absorption for alkylphenols and aspirin is predicted, based on estimates of hydrophobicity and fraction of charged molecules at gastrointestinal pHs, risks from alkylphenols can be expressed directly in terms of 'milligram aspirin equivalence,' without correction for absorption differences. They recommend this method for assessing risks of mixtures of alkylphenols, especially for those compounds with no chronic toxicity data.38 references.

Beck, B.D.; Toole, A.P.; Callahan, B.G.; Siddhanti, S.K. (Gradient Corporation, Cambridge, MA (United States))

1991-12-01

163

Acute and chronic aquatic toxicity structure-activity relationships for alcohol ethoxylates.  

PubMed

Acute and chronic toxicity tests using the cladoceran Daphnia magna were conducted on several alcohol ethoxylate surfactants. Exposure and homologue distributions were confirmed using specific analytical methods. These data were used to test currently available acute structure-activity relationships (SARs) and to develop a new chronic SAR to extrapolate test data to effluent or receiving water mixtures. Existing acute SARs adequately predicted the toxicity of these materials with an r(2) of 0.96 based on alkyl chain length and number of ethoxylates and 0.98 based on logK(ow). The additional chronic toxicity data allowed for development of a chronic SAR based on logK(ow) and produced an r(2) of 0.93. Slopes of new and published acute, chronic, and mesocosm SARs based on logK(ow) ranged from -0.61 to -0.87. These new data and refined SARs will assist in the toxicity prediction of mixtures in the environment. PMID:14575678

Morrall, D D; Belanger, S E; Dunphy, J C

2003-11-01

164

In Vivo Structure Activity Relationship Study of Dorsomorphin Analogs Identifies Selective VEGF and BMP Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

The therapeutic potential of small molecule signaling inhibitors is often limited by off-target effects. Recently, in a screen for compounds that perturb zebrafish embryonic dorsoventral axis, we identified dorsomorphin, the first selective inhibitor of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. Here we show that dorsomorphin has significant “off-target” effects against the VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) type-2 receptor (Flk1/KDR) and disrupts zebrafish angiogenesis. Since both BMP and VEGF signals are known to be involved in vascular development, we sought to determine whether dorsomorphin’s anti-angiogenic effects are due to its impact on the BMP or VEGF signals through the development of analogs that target BMP but not VEGF signaling, and vise versa. In a structure activity relationship (SAR) study of dorsomorphin analogs based primarily on their effects on live zebrafish embryos, we identified highly selective and potent BMP inhibitors as well as selective VEGF inhibitors. One of the BMP inhibitors, DMH1, which exclusively targets the BMP, but not VEGF, pathway, dorsalized the embryonic axis without disrupting angiogenic process, demonstrating that BMP signaling was not involved in angiogenic process. This is one of the first full-scale SAR study performed in vertebrates, and demonstrates the potential of zebrafish as an attractive complementary platform for drug development that incorporates an assessment of in vivo bioactivity and selectivity in the context of a living organism. PMID:20020776

Hao, Jijun; Ho, Joshua N.; Lewis, Jana A.; Karim, Kaleh A.; Daniels, R. Nathan; Gentry, Patrick R.; Hopkins, Corey R.; Lindsley, Craig W.; Hong, Charles C.

2010-01-01

165

Quantitative structure-activity relationships for weak acid respiratory uncouplers to Vibrio fisheri  

SciTech Connect

Acute toxicity values of 16 organic compounds thought to elicit their response via the weak acid respiratory uncoupling mechanism of toxic action were secured from the literature. Regression analysis of toxicities revealed that a measured 5-min V. fisheri potency value can be used as a surrogate for the 30-min value. Regression analysis of toxicity versus hydrophobicity, measured as the 1-octanol/water partition coefficient (log K{sub ow}), was used to formulate a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR). The equation log pT{sub 30}{sup {minus}1} = 0.489(log K{sub ow}) + 0.126 was found to be a highly predictive model. This V. fisheri QSAR is statistically similar to QSARs generated from weak acid uncoupler potency data for Pimephales promelas survivability and Tetrahymena pyriformis population growth impairment. This work, therefore, suggests that the weak acid respiratory uncoupling mechanism of toxic action is present in V. fisheri, and as such is not restricted to mitochondria-containing organisms.

Schultz, T.W. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Coll. of Veterinary Medicine; Cronin, M.T.D. [Liverpool John Moores Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Pharmacy and Chemistry

1997-02-01

166

Design, synthesis and structure-activity relationship of rhenium 2-arylbenzothiazoles as ?-amyloid plaque binding agents.  

PubMed

To continue our efforts toward the development of (99m)Tc PiB analogs, we have synthesized 24 neutral and lipophilic Re (as a surrogate of (99m)Tc) 2-arylbenzothiazoles, and explored their structure-activity relationship for binding to A?1-40 fibrils. These Re complexes were designed and synthesized via the integrated approach, so their (99m)Tc analogs would have a greater chance of crossing the blood-brain barrier. While the lipophilicities (logPC18=1.59-3.53) of these Re 2-arylbenzothiazoles were all within suitable range, their binding affinities (Ki=30-617nM) to A?1-40 fibrils varied widely depending on the selection and integration of the tetradentate chelator into the 2-phenylbenzothiazole pharmacophore. For potential clinical applications, further refinement to obtain Re 2-arylbenzothiazoles with better binding affinities (<10nM) will likely be needed. The integrated approach reported here to generate compact, neutral and lipophilic Re 2-arylbenzothiazoles could be applied to other potent pharmacophores as well to convert other current A? PET tracers to their (99m)Tc analogs for more widespread application via the use of SPECT scanners. PMID:23411076

Pan, Jinhe; Mason, Neale S; Debnath, Manik L; Mathis, Chester A; Klunk, William E; Lin, Kuo-Shyan

2013-03-15

167

Deep neural nets as a method for quantitative structure-activity relationships.  

PubMed

Neural networks were widely used for quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) in the 1990s. Because of various practical issues (e.g., slow on large problems, difficult to train, prone to overfitting, etc.), they were superseded by more robust methods like support vector machine (SVM) and random forest (RF), which arose in the early 2000s. The last 10 years has witnessed a revival of neural networks in the machine learning community thanks to new methods for preventing overfitting, more efficient training algorithms, and advancements in computer hardware. In particular, deep neural nets (DNNs), i.e. neural nets with more than one hidden layer, have found great successes in many applications, such as computer vision and natural language processing. Here we show that DNNs can routinely make better prospective predictions than RF on a set of large diverse QSAR data sets that are taken from Merck's drug discovery effort. The number of adjustable parameters needed for DNNs is fairly large, but our results show that it is not necessary to optimize them for individual data sets, and a single set of recommended parameters can achieve better performance than RF for most of the data sets we studied. The usefulness of the parameters is demonstrated on additional data sets not used in the calibration. Although training DNNs is still computationally intensive, using graphical processing units (GPUs) can make this issue manageable. PMID:25635324

Ma, Junshui; Sheridan, Robert P; Liaw, Andy; Dahl, George E; Svetnik, Vladimir

2015-02-23

168

COMPUTER-ASSISTED STRUCTURE ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS OF NITROGENOUS CYCLIC COMPOUNDS TESTED IN SALMONELLA ASSAYS FOR MUTAGENICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Study of the relationship between mutagenicity and molecular structure for a data set of nitrogenous cyclic compounds is reported. A computerized SAR system (ADAPT) was utilized to classify a data set of 114 nitrogenous cyclic compounds with 19 molecular descriptors. All of the d...

169

IN VIVO AND IN VITRO STRUCTURE-DOSIMETRY-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS OF SUBSTITUTED PHENOLS IN DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY ASSAYS  

EPA Science Inventory

Structure-dosimetry-activity relationships (SDARs) of a series of substituted phenols were evaluated following exposure of gestation day 11 rats in vivo and in comparable stage embryos in vitro. n the in vivo study, 27 congeners were assayed and log p (a term used synonymously wi...

170

Cytotoxic Activity and Three-Dimensional Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship of 2-Aryl-1,8-naphthyridin-4-ones  

PubMed Central

A series of substituted 2-arylnaphthyridin-4-one analogues, which were previously synthesized in our laboratory, were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxic activity against human lung cancer A549 and human renal cancer Caki-2 cells using MTT assay. Some compounds (11, 12, and 13) showed stronger cytotoxicity than colchicine against both tumor cell lines, and compound 13 exhibited the most potent activity with IC50 values of 2.3 and 13.4 µM, respectively. Three-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship (3D-QSAR) studies of comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) were performed. Predictive 3D-QSAR models were obtained with q2 values of 0.869 and 0.872 and r2ncv values of 0.983 and 0.993 for CoMFA and CoMSIA, respectively. These results demonstrate that CoMFA and CoMSIA models could be reliably used in the design of novel cytotoxic agents. PMID:20054500

Kim, Yong Jin; Kim, Eun Ae; Chung, Mi Lyang

2009-01-01

171

Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship for Inhibition of Human Organic Cation/Carnitine Transporter (OCTN2)  

PubMed Central

Organic cation/carnitine transporter (OCTN2; SLC22A5) is an important transporter for L-carnitine homeostasis, but can be inhibited by drugs, which may cause L-carnitine deficiency and possibly other OCTN2-mediated drug-drug interactions. One objective was to develop a quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) of OCTN2 inhibitors, in order to predict and identify other potential OCTN2 inhibitors and infer potential clinical interactions. A second objective was to assess two high renal clearance drugs that interact with OCTN2 in vitro (cetirizine and cephaloridine) for possible OCTN2-mediated drug-drug interactions. Using previously generated in vitro data of 22 drugs, a 3D quantitative pharmacophore model and a Bayesian machine learning model were developed. The four pharmacophore features include two hydrophobic groups, one hydrogen-bond acceptor, and one positive ionizable center. The Bayesian machine learning model was developed using simple interpretable descriptors and function class fingerprints of maximum diameter 6 (FCFP_6). An external test set of 27 molecules, including 15 newly identified OCTN2 inhibitors, and a literature test set of 22 molecules were used to validate both models. The computational models afforded good capability to identify structurally diverse OCTN2 inhibitors, providing a valuable tool to predict new inhibitors efficiently. Inhibition results confirmed our previously observed association between rhabdomyolysis and Cmax/Ki ratio. The two high renal clearance drugs cetirizine and cephaloridine were found not to be OCTN2 substrates and their diminished elimination by other drugs is concluded not to be mediated by OCTN2. PMID:20831193

Diao, Lei; Ekins, Sean; Polli, James E.

2010-01-01

172

Does electron-correlation has any role in the quantitative structure-activity relationships?  

PubMed

For developing quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs), quantum-mechanical molecular descriptors based on the state-of-the-art quantum-mechanical methods such as Hartree-Fock (HF) method and density-functional theory (DFT), are now routinely employed. The validity of these quantum-mechanical methods, however, rests on the accurate estimation of electron-correlation energy. This work analyses the role of electron-correlation, using correlation energy as a molecular descriptor, in the QSARs. In particular, QSAR models, for the mutagenic activity of a set of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs), are examined for the role of electron-correlation through state-of-the-art external validation parameters such as concordance correlation coefficient and recently proposed predictive squared correlation coefficients, namely, QF1(2), QF2(2), and QF3(2) etc. The electron-correlation contribution to the highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (HOMO/LUMO) energies is also analyzed. QSAR models based on the semi-empirical quantum-mechanical methods like PM6 and RM1 are also compared. It is found that the models, developed using electron-correlation contribution of the quantum-mechanical descriptors, are not only robust but also relatively more predictive than those developed with the HF and DFT descriptors. The latter are found to be even less reliable than PM6 and RM1 descriptors based models, which show comparable robustness and predictivity with those developed using electron correlation based descriptors. The external predictivity of model based on semi-empirical descriptors can be improved if electron-correlation contribution of the quantum-mechanical descriptors is explicitly included in the model. This work reports the first-ever use of electron-correlation energy and its contribution to the HOMO/LUMO energies as molecular descriptors. PMID:23501159

Vikas; Reenu; Chayawan

2013-05-01

173

Quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling of acute toxicity of quaternary alkylammonium sulfobetaines to Daphnia magna.  

PubMed

The logarithm of the octanol/water partition coefficient has been widely used as the sole physicochemical property to define various types of biological activity, such as aquatic toxicity. In the present study, we derive a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) equation for the prediction of acute aquatic toxicity (48-h median effective concentration) of quaternary alkylammonium sulfobetaines to the aquatic invertebrate Daphnia magna Straus. The single-parameter approach described is also based on the hydrophobicity parameter, log P. The 17 zwitterionic compounds were considered for QSAR development. They have the general formula RN+(CH3)2(CH2)nSO3-, where n = 2 to 4, and were synthesized by reacting the corresponding N,N-dimethylamines with either sodium-2-chloroethanesulfonate (n = 2), 1,3-propanesultone (n = 3), or 1,4-butanesultone (n = 4). The R group was either a C6 to C12 alkyl chain, a phenylalkyl unit bearing a C1 to C4 chain, or a phenylpropyl unit with a C4 to C6 para-substituted alkyl group. Octanol/water partition coefficients were experimentally determined via a conventional stir-flask procedure, which was quantified using a reverse-phase, high-performance liquid chromatographic technique coupled with either an ultraviolet or an electrospray ionization mass spectrometry detection system. Median effective concentration values were also determined experimentally via a standard acute immobilization test recommended by Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (Paris, France) Guideline 202. The established QSAR equation for such zwitterionic compounds is consistent with the standard equation that normally defines the polar narcosis mode of toxic action. PMID:15378986

Davies, Joanna; Ward, Robert S; Hodges, Geoffrey; Roberts, David W

2004-09-01

174

Development of ribonucleotide reductase inhibitors: a review on structure activity relationships.  

PubMed

Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR, E.C. 1.17.4.1), which is composed of two dissimilar proteins (subunits), often referred as R1 (containing polythiols) and R2 (containing non-heme iron and a free tyrosyl radical), which contribute to the role played by the enzyme. RNRs are one of the important targets in anticancer and antiviral drug development and many RNR inhibitors have been discovered at the end of the 20(th) century; many of them are already in clinical use. Triapine (3-AP) is one of the important RNR inhibitors belonging to the class of thiosemicarbazone derivatives, used in the treatment of various cancers. The structure activity relationship (SAR) studies on the investigated RNR inhibitors showed that the nitrogen atom in the pyridine (or other heterocycles) forms coordination complexes with the metal ions along with the imine, oxo and thio atoms of the thiosemicarbazone or semicarbazone pharmacophores. The computational analyses results in the adenine and purine derivatives suggest that the nitrogen atoms in the adenine rings make several hydrogen bonds with the water molecules present in the active site, as well as Gly249 and Glu288 residues. The OH group in third position of the sugar moiety interacts with the Ser217 (C=O) and the water molecules through hydrogen bonds. The aromatic rings in the molecules interact with the tyrosine residues. The thiosemicarbazone or semicarbazone derivatives explain that the flexibility and polar properties in the thiosemicarbazone or semicarbazone pharmacophoric regions allow the molecules to coordinate with the metal ion (especially iron) present in the RNR enzymes. This review concluded that RNR inhibitors composed of different fragments such as aryl, heteroaryl, sugar moiety, polar groups, flexible bonds, etc which are required for the binding of the molecules to the RNR enzymes. Further, the fragmental analysis of the RNR inhibitors on different toxicological and metabolic targets can provide significant novel molecules with acceptable pharmacokinetic properties. PMID:24032510

Moorthy, Narayana S H N; Cerqueira, Nuno M F S A; Ramos, Maria J; Fernandes, Pedro A

2013-11-01

175

Human acetylcholinesterase inhibitors: electronic-topological and neural network approaches to the structure-activity relationships study.  

PubMed

The Electronic-Topological (ETM) and Neural Network methods were applied to the study of the "structure-acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor activity" relationships for a series of physostigmine and N-benzylpiperidine derivatives. Molecular fragments specific for active compounds and breaks of activity were calculated for human AChE by applying the ETM and Neural Network methods. Requirements necessary for a compound to be active were formulated; they are the result of detailed analysis of all compounds under study. A comparative study of the activity features found for human AChE was performed. PMID:15892689

Kandemirli, F; Saraçoglu, M; Kovalishyn, V

2005-05-01

176

Broad spectrum antibacterial and antifungal polymeric paint materials: synthesis, structure-activity relationship, and membrane-active mode of action.  

PubMed

Microbial attachment and subsequent colonization onto surfaces lead to the spread of deadly community-acquired and hospital-acquired (nosocomial) infections. Noncovalent immobilization of water insoluble and organo-soluble cationic polymers onto a surface is a facile approach to prevent microbial contamination. In the present study, we described the synthesis of water insoluble and organo-soluble polymeric materials and demonstrated their structure-activity relationship against various human pathogenic bacteria including drug-resistant strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and beta lactam-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae as well as pathogenic fungi such as Candida spp. and Cryptococcus spp. The polymer coated surfaces completely inactivated both bacteria and fungi upon contact (5 log reduction with respect to control). Linear polymers were more active and found to have a higher killing rate than the branched polymers. The polymer coated surfaces also exhibited significant activity in various complex mammalian fluids such as serum, plasma, and blood and showed negligible hemolysis at an amount much higher than minimum inhibitory amounts (MIAs). These polymers were found to have excellent compatibility with other medically relevant polymers (polylactic acid, PLA) and commercial paint. The cationic hydrophobic polymer coatings disrupted the lipid membrane of both bacteria and fungi and thus showed a membrane-active mode of action. Further, bacteria did not develop resistance against these membrane-active polymers in sharp contrast to conventional antibiotics and lipopeptides, thus the polymers hold great promise to be used as coating materials for developing permanent antimicrobial paint. PMID:25541751

Hoque, Jiaul; Akkapeddi, Padma; Yadav, Vikas; Manjunath, Goutham B; Uppu, Divakara S S M; Konai, Mohini M; Yarlagadda, Venkateswarlu; Sanyal, Kaustuv; Haldar, Jayanta

2015-01-28

177

Discovery of 4-Substituted Methoxybenzoyl-Aryl-Thiazole as Novel Anticancer Agents: Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and Structure-Activity Relationships  

PubMed Central

A series of 4-substituted methoxylbenzoyl-aryl-thiazoles (SMART) have been discovered and synthesized as a result of structural modifications of the lead compound 2-arylthiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid amides (ATCAA). The antiproliferative activity of the SMART agents against melanoma and prostate cancer cells was improved from ?M to low nM range compared with ATCAA series. The structure-activity relationship was discussed from modifications of “A”, “B” “C” rings and the linker. Preliminary mechanism of action studies indicated that these compounds exert their anticancer activity through inhibition of tubulin polymerization. PMID:19243174

Lu, Yan; Li, Chien-Ming; Wang, Zhao; Ross, Charles R.; Chen, Jianjun; Dalton, James; Li, Wei; Miller, Duane.D.

2009-01-01

178

Structure–activity relationships of tyrosinase inhibitory combinatorial library of 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-oxadiazole analogues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here the tyrosinase inhibition studies of library of 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-oxadiazoles have been reported and their structure–activity relationship (SAR) also have been discussed. The library of the oxadiazoles was synthesized under the microwave irradiation and was structures of these were characterized by different spectral techniques. From this study it could be concluded that for a better inhibition of tyrosinase, electronegative substitution is

Mahmud Tareq Hassan Khan; Muhammad Iqbal Choudhary; Khalid Mohammed Khan; Mubeen Rani; Atta-ur-Rahman

2005-01-01

179

Nonenolides and cytochalasins with phytotoxic activity against Cirsium arvense and Sonchus arvensis: a structure-activity relationships study.  

PubMed

A structure-activity relationships study was conducted assaying 15 natural analogues and derivatives belonging to two groups of organic compounds, nonenolides and cytochalasins, for their toxicity against the composite perennial weeds Cirsium arvense and Sonchus arvensis occurring through the temperate region of world. The toxic nonenolides (stagonolide, putaminoxin, pinolidoxin) and cytochalasins (deoxaphomin, cytochalasins A, B, F, T, Z2 and Z3) were isolated from phytopathogenic Stagonospora, Phoma and Ascochyta spp. The pinolidoxin (7,8-O,O'-diacetyl- and 7,8-O,O'-isopropylidene-pinolidoxin) and cytochalasins B (21,22-dihydro-, 7-O-acetyl- and 7,20-O,O'-diacetyl-cytochalasin B) derivatives were obtained by chemical modifications of the corresponding toxins. Among the 15 compounds tested, stagonolide and deoxaphomin proved to be the most phytotoxic to C. arvense and S. arvensis leaves, respectively. The tested phytotoxic nonenolides were stronger inhibitors of photosynthesis in C. arvense leaves than cytochalasines A and B. Stagonolide had less effect on membrane permeability in C. arvense leaves than cytochalasin B. Significant changes of light absorption by C. arvense leaves in visible and infrared spectra were caused by stagonolide. The functional groups and the conformational freedom of the ring, appear to be important structural features for the nonenolides toxicity, whereas and the presence of the hydroxy group at C-7, the functional group at C-20 and the conformational freedom of the macrocyclic ring are important for the cytochalasins toxicity. PMID:18155260

Berestetskiy, Alexander; Dmitriev, Andrey; Mitina, Galina; Lisker, Iosif; Andolfi, Anna; Evidente, Antonio

2008-02-01

180

Ginsenosides as Anticancer Agents: In vitro and in vivo Activities, Structure–Activity Relationships, and Molecular Mechanisms of Action  

PubMed Central

Conventional chemotherapeutic agents are often toxic not only to tumor cells but also to normal cells, limiting their therapeutic use in the clinic. Novel natural product anticancer compounds present an attractive alternative to synthetic compounds, based on their favorable safety and efficacy profiles. Several pre-clinical and clinical studies have demonstrated the anticancer potential of Panax ginseng, a widely used traditional Chinese medicine. The anti-tumor efficacy of ginseng is attributed mainly to the presence of saponins, known as ginsenosides. In this review, we focus on how ginsenosides exert their anticancer effects by modulation of diverse signaling pathways, including regulation of cell proliferation mediators (CDKs and cyclins), growth factors (c-myc, EGFR, and vascular endothelial growth factor), tumor suppressors (p53 and p21), oncogenes (MDM2), cell death mediators (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, XIAP, caspases, and death receptors), inflammatory response molecules (NF-?B and COX-2), and protein kinases (JNK, Akt, and AMP-activated protein kinase). We also discuss the structure–activity relationship of various ginsenosides and their potentials in the treatment of various human cancers. In summary, recent advances in the discovery and evaluation of ginsenosides as cancer therapeutic agents support further pre-clinical and clinical development of these agents for the treatment of primary and metastatic tumors. PMID:22403544

Nag, Subhasree Ashok; Qin, Jiang-Jiang; Wang, Wei; Wang, Ming-Hai; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Ruiwen

2012-01-01

181

Structure-activity relationships of mononuclear metal-thiosemicarbazone complexes endowed with potent antiplasmodial and antiamoebic activities.  

PubMed

A useful concept for the rational design of antiparasitic drug candidates is the complexation of bioactive ligands with transition metals. In view of this, an investigation was conducted into a new set of metal complexes as potential antiplasmodium and antiamoebic agents, in order to examine the importance of metallic atoms, as well as the kind of sphere of co-ordination, in these biological properties. Four functionalized furyl-thiosemicarbazones (NT1-4) treated with divalent metals (Cu, Co, Pt, and Pd) to form the mononuclear metallic complexes of formula [M(L)2Cl2] or [M(L)Cl2] were examined. The pharmacological characterization, including assays against Plasmodium falciparum and Entamoeba histolytica, cytotoxicity to mammalian cells, and interaction with pBR 322 plasmid DNA was performed. Structure-activity relationship data revealed that the metallic complexation plays an essential role in antiprotozoal activity, rather than the simple presence of the ligand or metal alone. Important steps towards identification of novel antiplasmodium (NT1Cu, IC50 of 4.6 microM) and antiamoebic (NT2Pd, IC50 of 0.6 microM) drug prototypes were achieved. Of particular relevance to this work, these prototypes were able to reduce the proliferation of these parasites at concentrations that are not cytotoxic to mammalian cells. PMID:20719524

Bahl, Deepa; Athar, Fareeda; Soares, Milena Botelho Pereira; de Sá, Matheus Santos; Moreira, Diogo Rodrigo Magalhães; Srivastava, Rajendra Mohan; Leite, Ana Cristina Lima; Azam, Amir

2010-09-15

182

The pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) receptor of Heliothis virescens: Identification, functional expression, and structure-activity relationships of ligand analogs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) promotes synthesis and release of sex pheromones in moths. We have identified and functionally expressed a PBAN receptor from Heliothis virescens (HevPBANR) and elucidated structure-activity relationships of PBAN analogs. Screening of a larval C...

183

Quantitative structure activity relationship and risk analysis of some pesticides in the goat milk  

PubMed Central

The detection and quantification of different pesticides in the goat milk samples collected from different localities of Faisalabad, Pakistan was performed by HPLC using solid phase microextraction. The analysis showed that about 50% milk samples were contaminated with pesticides. The mean±SEM levels (ppm) of cyhalothrin, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin were 0.34±0.007, 0.063±0.002, 0.034±0.002 and 0.092±0.002, respectively; whereas, methyl parathion was not detected in any of the analyzed samples. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models were suggested to predict the residues of unknown pesticides in the goat milk using their known physicochemical characteristics including molecular weight (MW), melting point (MP), and log octanol to water partition coefficient (Ko/w) in relation to the characteristics such as pH, % fat, specific gravity and refractive index of goat milk. The analysis revealed good correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.985) for goat QSAR model. The coefficients for Ko/w and refractive index for the studied pesticides were higher in goat milk. This suggests that these are better determinants for pesticide residue prediction in the milk of these animals. Based upon the determined pesticide residues and their provisional tolerable daily intakes, risk analysis was also conducted which showed that daily intake levels of pesticide residues including cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin in present study are 2.68, 5.19 and 2.71 times higher, respectively in the goat milk. This intake of pesticide contaminated milk might pose health hazards to humans in this locality. PMID:23369514

2013-01-01

184

Structure-Activity Relationship Study of the Plant-Derived Decapeptide OSIP108 Inhibiting Candida albicans Biofilm Formation  

PubMed Central

We performed a structure-activity relationship study of the antibiofilm plant-derived decapeptide OSIP108. Introduction of positively charged amino acids R, H, and K resulted in an up-to-5-fold-increased antibiofilm activity against Candida albicans compared to native OSIP108, whereas replacement of R9 resulted in complete abolishment of its antibiofilm activity. By combining the most promising amino acid substitutions, we found that the double-substituted OSIP108 analogue Q6R/G7K had an 8-fold-increased antibiofilm activity. PMID:24913176

Delattin, Nicolas; De Brucker, Katrijn; Craik, David J.; Cheneval, Olivier; De Coninck, Barbara; Thevissen, Karin

2014-01-01

185

Synthesis and structure-activity relationship studies in peripheral benzodiazepine receptor ligands related to alpidem.  

PubMed

The exploration of the structure-affinity relationships concerning a new class of peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) ligands related to alpidem has been pursued in order to evaluate the consistency of the structure-affinity relationships among different classes (and subclasses) of PBR ligands. The target amide derivatives were prepared following a previously published procedure based on the condensation of pyrrolo[3,4-b]quinoline derivatives 11a,b with glyoxylic acid mono-hydrate and the subsequent amidation of the acids obtained via mixed anhydride. On the other hand, the preparation of compound 9g lacking the pharmacophoric (delta1) carbonyl group involved: (a) the double sequential attack of the dimethylmethyleneammonium salt obtained from bis(dimethylamino)methane and acetyl chloride to pyrrolo[3,4-b]quinoline derivative 11b, (b) the quaternization of the obtained allylamine derivative 13 with methyl iodide, and (c) the palladium-catalyzed allylation of N-methyl-p-anisidine by quaternary allylammonium cation 14. The structure-affinity relationship trends observed in this subclass of tricyclic alpidem-related PBR ligands find correlations in other classes (or subclasses) of PBR ligands. This result supports the initial pharmacophoric hypothesis and suggests a common mode of interaction at the PBR binding site. PMID:18294852

Cappelli, Andrea; Giuliani, Germano; Valenti, Salvatore; Anzini, Maurizio; Vomero, Salvatore; Giorgi, Gianluca; Sogliano, Cristiana; Maciocco, Elisabetta; Biggio, Giovanni; Concas, Alessandra

2008-03-15

186

Design, Synthesis, and Structure-Activity Relationship of Substrate Competitive, Selective, and in Vivo Active Triazole and Thiadiazole inhibitors of the c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase  

PubMed Central

We report comprehensive structure activity relationship studies on a novel series of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitors. The compounds are substrate competitive inhibitors that bind to the docking site of the kinase. The reported medicinal chemistry and structure-based optimizations studies resulted in the discovery of selective and potent thiadiazole JNK inhibitors that displays promising in vivo activity in mouse models of insulin insensitivity. PMID:19271755

De, Surya K.; Stebbins, John L.; Chen, Li-Hsing; Riel-Mehan, Megan; Machleidt, Thomas; Dahl, Russell; Yuan, Hongbin; Emdadi, Aras; Barile, Elisa; Chen, Vida; Murphy, Ria; Pellecchia, Maurizio

2009-01-01

187

Phosphodiesterase inhibitors. Part 1: Synthesis and structure–activity relationships of pyrazolopyridine–pyridazinone PDE inhibitors developed from ibudilast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ibudilast [1-(2-isopropylpyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-3-yl)-2-methylpropan-1-one] is a nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitor used clinically to treat asthma. Efforts to selectively develop the PDE3- and PDE4-inhibitory activity of ibudilast led to replacement of the isopropyl ketone by a pyridazinone heterocycle. Structure–activity relationship exploration in the resulting 6-(pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-3-yl)pyridazin-3(2H)-ones revealed that the pyridazinone lactam functionality is a critical determinant for PDE3-inhibitory activity, with the nitrogen preferably unsubstituted. PDE4

Robert W. Allcock; Haakon Blakli; Zhong Jiang; Karen A. Johnston; Keith M. Morgan; Georgina M. Rosair; Kazuhiko Iwase; Yasushi Kohno; David R. Adams

2011-01-01

188

[Application of neural networks using the volume learning algorithm for the study of structure-activity relationship in chemical compounds].  

PubMed

A volume learning algorithm for artificial neural networks was developed to quantitatively describe the three-dimensional structure-activity relationships using as an example N-benzylpiperidine derivatives. The new algorithm combines two types of neural networks, the Kohonen and the feed-forward artificial neural networks, which are used to analyze the input grid data generated by the comparative molecular field approach. Selection of the most informative parameters using the algorithm helped to reveal the most important spatial properties of the molecules, which affect their biological activities. Cluster regions determined using the new algorithm adequately predicted the activity of molecules from a control data set. PMID:11558265

Kovalishin, V V; Tetko, I V; Lu?k, A I; Chretien, J R; Livingstone, D J

2001-01-01

189

Oximes: Inhibitors of Human Recombinant Acetylcholinesterase. A Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) Study  

PubMed Central

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivators were developed for the treatment of organophosphate intoxication. Standard care involves the use of anticonvulsants (e.g., diazepam), parasympatolytics (e.g., atropine) and oximes that restore AChE activity. However, oximes also bind to the active site of AChE, simultaneously acting as reversible inhibitors. The goal of the present study is to determine how oxime structure influences the inhibition of human recombinant AChE (hrAChE). Therefore, 24 structurally different oximes were tested and the results compared to the previous eel AChE (EeAChE) experiments. Structural factors that were tested included the number of pyridinium rings, the length and structural features of the linker, and the number and position of the oxime group on the pyridinium ring. PMID:23959117

Sepsova, Vendula; Karasova, Jana Zdarova; Korabecny, Jan; Dolezal, Rafael; Zemek, Filip; Bennion, Brian J.; Kuca, Kamil

2013-01-01

190

Lipase-catalyzed preparation of optically active 1'-acetoxychavicol acetates and their structure-activity relationships in apoptotic activity against human leukemia HL-60 cells.  

PubMed

Structure-activity relationships of 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA) for apoptotic activity against human leukemia HL-60 cells were investigated using optically active ACA and various racemic ACA analogues. Natural-type (or with different acyl group) ACA showed a high apoptotic activity, but the ortho or meta isomers, 4-deacetoxy analogue, and the 2'-3' dehydrogenated derivative had no effect, or a weak activity. Optically active (R)- and (S)-ACA were prepared by a lipase-catalyzed esterification. Using a mixture of vinyl acetate-tetrahydrofuran (1:1 v/v) as a solvent at refluxing temperature, optically pure (R)- and (S)-ACA were obtained (99.7% ee and 99.1% ee, respectively). The apoptosis-inducing effects of both enantiomers were compared by means of an MTT assay and the detection of typical apoptotic phenomena (DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 activation, and PARP cleavage) and these two activities were almost equal. These results indicate that the essential moieties of ACA for apoptotic activity against HL-60 cells are both the presence of a 4-acetoxyl group and an unsaturated double bond between C-2' and C-3', and that the configuration at the 1'-position is unrelated to activity. PMID:16288877

Azuma, Hideki; Miyasaka, Keita; Yokotani, Tsuyoshi; Tachibana, Taro; Kojima-Yuasa, Akiko; Matsui-Yuasa, Isao; Ogino, Kenji

2006-03-15

191

Antimicrobial peptides with potential for biofilm eradication: synthesis and structure activity relationship studies of battacin peptides.  

PubMed

We report on the first chemical syntheses and structure-activity analyses of the cyclic lipopeptide battacin which revealed that conjugation of a shorter fatty acid, 4-methyl-hexanoic acid, and linearization of the peptide sequence improves antibacterial activity and reduces hemolysis of mouse blood cells. This surprising finding of higher potency in linear lipopeptides than their cyclic counterparts is economically beneficial. This novel lipopeptide was membrane lytic and exhibited antibiofilm activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and, for the first time, Pseudomonas syringe pv. actinidiae. The peptide was unstructured in aqueous buffer and dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine-polymerized diacetylene vesicles, with 12% helicity induced in 50% v/v of trifluoroethanol. Our results indicate that a well-defined secondary structure is not essential for the observed antibacterial activity of this novel lipopeptide. A truncated pentapeptide conjugated to 4-methyl hexanoic acid, having similar potency against Gram negative and Gram positive pathogens was identified through alanine scanning. PMID:25495219

De Zoysa, Gayan Heruka; Cameron, Alan James; Hegde, Veena V; Raghothama, Srinivasarao; Sarojini, Vijayalekshmi

2015-01-22

192

The use of structure–activity relationships and markers of cell toxicity to detect non-genotoxic carcinogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to the situation for genotoxic carcinogens, few in vitro tests exist that can detect early markers of the events thought to be associated with non-genotoxic carcinogenesis. Also, comparatively little is known about the quantitative structure–activity relationships (Q)SARs of these agents. This review discusses published SAR studies conducted on non-genotoxic carcinogens, in relation to the use of several markers

R. D Combes

2000-01-01

193

Evaluation and Structure-Activity Relationship Analysis of a New Series of Arylnaphthalene lignans as Potential Anti-Tumor Agents  

PubMed Central

Arylnaphthalene lignan lactones have attracted considerable interest because of their anti-tumor and anti-hyperlipidimic activities. However, to our knowledge, few studies have explored the effects of these compounds on human leukemia cell lines. In this study, five arylnaphthalene lignans including 6?-hydroxy justicidin A (HJA), 6?-hydroxy justicidin B (HJB), justicidin B (JB), chinensinaphthol methyl ether (CME) and Taiwanin E methyl ether (TEME) were isolated from Justicia procumbens and their effects on the proliferation and apoptosis of the human leukemia K562 cell line were investigated then used to assess structure-activity relationships. To achieve these aims, cytotoxicity was assayed using the MTT assay, while intracellular SOD activity was detected using the SOD Activity Assay kit. Apoptosis was measured by both the using a cycle TEST PLUS DNA reagent kit as well as the FITC Annexin V apoptosis detection kit in combination with flow cytometry. Activation of caspase-mediated apoptosis was evaluated using a FITC active Caspase-3 apoptosis kit and flow cytometry. The results indicated that HJB, HJA and JB significantly inhibited the growth of K562 cells by decreasing both proliferation and SOD activity and inducing apoptosis. The sequence of anti-proliferative activity induced by the five tested arylnaphthalenes by decreasing strength was HJB > HJA > JB > CME > TEME. HJB, HJA and JB also decreased SOD activity and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Activation of caspase-3 further indicated that HJB, HJA and JB induced caspase-dependent intrinsic and/or extrinsic apoptosis pathways. Together, these assays suggest that arylnaphthalene lignans derived from Justicia procumbens induce apoptosis to varying degrees, through a caspase-dependent pathway in human leukemia K562 cells. Furthermore, analysis of structure-activity relationships suggest that hydroxyl substitution at C-1 and C-6? significantly increased the antiproliferative activity of arylnaphthalene lignans while a methoxyl at C-1 significantly decreased the effect. PMID:24675875

Luo, Jiaoyang; Hu, Yichen; Kong, Weijun; Yang, Meihua

2014-01-01

194

Antimicrobial activities of active component isolated from Lawsonia inermis leaves and structure-activity relationships of its analogues against food-borne bacteria.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial activities of Lawsonia inermis leaf extract and 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone analogues against food-borne bacteria. The antimicrobial activities of five fractions derived from the methanol extract of Lawsonia inermis leaves were evaluated against 7 food-borne bacteria. 2-Hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone was isolated by chromatographic analyses. 2-Hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone showed the strong activities against Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica, Shigella sonnei, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and S. intermedius, but exerted no growth-inhibitory activities against S. typhimurium. The antimicrobial activities of the 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone analogues were tested against 7 food-borne bacteria to establish structure-activity relationships. Hydroxyl (2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone and 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone), methoxy (2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone), and methyl (2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, and 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) functional groups on the 1,4-naphthoquinone skeleton possessed potent activities, whereas bromo (2-bromo-1,4-naphthoquinone and 2,3-dibromo-1,4-naphthoquione) and chloro (2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphthoquinone) exhibited no activity against 7 food-borne bacteria. The L. inermis leaf extract and 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone analogues should be useful as natural antimicrobial agents against food-borne bacteria. PMID:25829631

Yang, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Hoi-Seon

2015-04-01

195

Glucal-conjugated sterols as novel vascular leakage blocker: structure-activity relationship focusing on the C17-side chain.  

PubMed

A series of glucal-conjugated sterols as novel vascular leakage blocker were identified through design, synthesis and biologically evaluation. In addition, the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of the glucal-conjugated sterols focusing on the C17-side chain was also established. The sterol analogs linked with the rigid C17-side chain side chains exhibited potent cell survival activities. In particular, analog 21l, which possesses a cyclopentyl oxime moiety, was shown to have excellent pharmacological effects on retinal vascular leakage in a diabetic mouse model. PMID:24531231

Kim, Kyeojin; Maharjan, Sony; Lim, Changjin; Kim, Nam-Jung; Agrawal, Vijayendra; Han, Young Taek; Lee, Sujin; An, Hongchan; Yun, Hwayoung; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Kwon, Young-Guen; Suh, Young-Ger

2014-03-21

196

Screening of natural and synthetic drugs against Trypanosoma cruzi. 1. Establishing a structure/activity relationship.  

PubMed

The activity of 45 compounds against bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma cruzi was investigated. The aim was to consider new agents which might subsequently be assayed for chemoprophylaxis in donated blood. In a preliminary screening the drugs were assayed (50 to 1,000 microM at 29 degrees C) and those active against bloodstream forms at concentrations below 600 microM were selected for further assays under blood-bank conditions (4 degrees C/24 h). Three compounds isolated from natural sources and six synthetic agents were selected. The active compounds of plant origin included purpurin, a member of the trihydroxylated anthraquinone group, which is known to exhibit trypanocidal activity. Among the active synthetic compounds, five displayed a common structural feature in that they were potentially one-electron acceptors, via reductive functional groups. All five compounds form tricentered C or N intermediates, joined in a hypothetical 'Y' radical pattern. It is possible that the trypanocidal mechanisms initiated by these compounds are similar to those found with crystal violet, since this dye, which is already used in endemic areas for the treatment of banked blood, also conforms to this general Y structural pattern. PMID:8047025

de Castro, S L; Pinto, M C; Pinto, A V

1994-01-01

197

Design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationship of Trypanosoma brucei leucyl-tRNA synthetase inhibitors as antitrypanosomal agents.  

PubMed

African trypanosomiasis, caused by the proto zoal pathogen Trypanosoma brucei (T. brucei), is one of the most neglected tropical diseases that are in great need of new drugs. We report the design and synthesis of T. brucei leucyl-tRNA synthetase (TbLeuRS) inhibitors and their structure--activity relationship. Benzoxaborole was used as the core structure and C(6) was modified to achieve improved affinity based on docking results that showed further binding space at this position. Indeed, compounds with C(7) substitutions showed diminished activity due to clash with the eukaryote specific I4ae helix while substitutions at C(6) gave enhanced affinity. TbLeuRS inhibitors with IC(50) as low as 1.6 ?M were discovered, and the structure-activity relationship was discussed. The most potent enzyme inhibitors also showed excellent T. brucei parasite growth inhibition activity. This is the first time that TbLeuRS inhibitors are reported, and this study suggests that leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS) could be a potential target for antiparasitic drug development. PMID:21322634

Ding, Dazhong; Meng, Qingqing; Gao, Guangwei; Zhao, Yaxue; Wang, Qing; Nare, Bakela; Jacobs, Robert; Rock, Fernando; Alley, Michael R K; Plattner, Jacob J; Chen, Guoqiang; Li, Dawei; Zhou, Huchen

2011-03-10

198

Structure activity relationship of plumbagin in BRCA1 related cancer cells.  

PubMed

It has been shown earlier that plumbagin, a naturally occurring naphthaquinone has specific anticancer activity in BRCA1 blocked ovarian cancer cells. Plumbagin can induce estrogen dependent cell signaling and apoptosis in BRCA1 blocked ovarian cancer cells. Being a reactive oxygen species (ROS) generator and apoptosis inducing agent, plumbagin has immense potential as a promising anticancer agent. In this study we analyzed whether there would be increased anticancer activity if the positions of the functional groups on plumbagin were altered and further to analyze the detailed molecular mechanism of action of the lead molecule. Methods like MTT assay, apoptosis analysis by flow cytometry, assessment of mitochondrial membrane potential-??m , suppression subtractive hybridization, microarray, molecular docking and estrogen receptor-DNA binding activity by electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA) were adopted for assessing the anticancer activity. Consequently we found that, plumbagin was the most potent anticancer agent when compared to structurally related compounds. The anti-cancer activities were in the order plumbagin > 1,4-naphthaquinone > juglone > lawsone > menadione. Molecular docking studies showed that plumbagin could be well docked in the receptor ligand complex of TRAIL-DR5 complexes to activate the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Since the antiproliferative activity of plumbagin could be reduced by inhibiting ER?, we speculated that plumbagin interferes with the binding of ER? to ERE and we confirmed this by EMSA. This study clearly indicates that plumbagin can induce multiple pathways of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in BRCA1 blocked cells compared to unblocked cells. PMID:22290577

K A, Thasni; T, Ratheeshkumar; G, Rojini; K C, Sivakumar; Nair, Rakesh Sathish; G, Srinivas; Banerji, Asoke; Somasundaram, Veena; Srinivas, Priya

2013-05-01

199

Structure-activity relationship studies on unifiram (DM232) and sunifiram (DM235), two novel and potent cognition enhancing drugs.  

PubMed

Structure-activity relationships on two novel potent cognition enhancing drugs, unifiram (DM232, 1) and sunifiram (DM235, 2), are reported. Although none of the compounds synthesised reached the potency of the parent drugs, some fairly active compounds have been identified that may represent new leads to develop other cognition enhancing drugs. An interesting result of this research is the identification of two compounds (13 and 14) that are endowed with amnesing activity (the opposite of the activity of the original molecules) and are nearly equipotent to scopolamine. Moreover, two compounds of the series (5 and 6) were found endowed with analgesic activity on a rat model of neuropathic pain at the dose of 1 mg/kg. PMID:14697772

Scapecchi, Serena; Martini, Elisabetta; Manetti, Dina; Ghelardini, Carla; Martelli, Cecilia; Dei, Silvia; Galeotti, Nicoletta; Guandalini, Luca; Novella Romanelli, Maria; Teodori, Elisabetta

2004-01-01

200

StructureActivity Relationships in Purine-Based Inhibitor Binding to HSP90 Isoforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhibition of the ATPase activity of the chaperone protein HSP90 is a potential strategy for treatment of cancers. We have determined structures of the HSP90? N-terminal domain complexed with the purine-based inhibitor, PU3, and analogs with enhanced potency both in enzyme and cell-based assays. The compounds induce upregulation of HSP70 and downregulation of the known HSP90 client proteins Raf-1, CDK4,

Lisa Wright; Xavier Barril; Brian Dymock; Louisa Sheridan; Allan Surgenor; Mandy Beswick; Martin Drysdale; Adam Collier; Andy Massey; Nick Davies; Alex Fink; Christophe Fromont; Wynne Aherne; Kathy Boxall; Swee Sharp; Paul Workman; Roderick E Hubbard

2004-01-01

201

Computational identification of RNA functional determinants by three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships.  

PubMed

Anti-infection drugs target vital functions of infectious agents, including their ribosome and other essential non-coding RNAs. One of the reasons infectious agents become resistant to drugs is due to mutations that eliminate drug-binding affinity while maintaining vital elements. Identifying these elements is based on the determination of viable and lethal mutants and associated structures. However, determining the structure of enough mutants at high resolution is not always possible. Here, we introduce a new computational method, MC-3DQSAR, to determine the vital elements of target RNA structure from mutagenesis and available high-resolution data. We applied the method to further characterize the structural determinants of the bacterial 23S ribosomal RNA sarcin-ricin loop (SRL), as well as those of the lead-activated and hammerhead ribozymes. The method was accurate in confirming experimentally determined essential structural elements and predicting the viability of new SRL variants, which were either observed in bacteria or validated in bacterial growth assays. Our results indicate that MC-3DQSAR could be used systematically to evaluate the drug-target potentials of any RNA sites using current high-resolution structural data. PMID:25200082

Blanchet, Marc-Frédérick; St-Onge, Karine; Lisi, Véronique; Robitaille, Julie; Hamel, Sylvie; Major, François

2014-01-01

202

Computational identification of RNA functional determinants by three-dimensional quantitative structure–activity relationships  

PubMed Central

Anti-infection drugs target vital functions of infectious agents, including their ribosome and other essential non-coding RNAs. One of the reasons infectious agents become resistant to drugs is due to mutations that eliminate drug-binding affinity while maintaining vital elements. Identifying these elements is based on the determination of viable and lethal mutants and associated structures. However, determining the structure of enough mutants at high resolution is not always possible. Here, we introduce a new computational method, MC-3DQSAR, to determine the vital elements of target RNA structure from mutagenesis and available high-resolution data. We applied the method to further characterize the structural determinants of the bacterial 23S ribosomal RNA sarcin–ricin loop (SRL), as well as those of the lead-activated and hammerhead ribozymes. The method was accurate in confirming experimentally determined essential structural elements and predicting the viability of new SRL variants, which were either observed in bacteria or validated in bacterial growth assays. Our results indicate that MC-3DQSAR could be used systematically to evaluate the drug-target potentials of any RNA sites using current high-resolution structural data. PMID:25200082

Blanchet, Marc-Frédérick; St-Onge, Karine; Lisi, Véronique; Robitaille, Julie; Hamel, Sylvie; Major, François

2014-01-01

203

Structure-activity relationships of 3-O-?-chacotriosyl ursolic acid derivatives as novel H5N1 entry inhibitors.  

PubMed

A series of methyl ursolate 3-O-?-chacotrioside analogs have been designed, synthesized and evaluated as H5N1 entry inhibitors based on a small molecule inhibitor saponin 3 previously discovered by us. Detailed structure-activity relationships (SARs) studies on the aglycone of compound 3 indicated that both the type of pentacyclic triterpene and the subtle modification of ursolic acid as an aglycon had key influences on the antiviral activity. These results suggested that either the introduction of a disubstituted amide structure at the 17-COOH of ursolic acid or alteration of the C-3 configuration of ursolic acid from 3?-to 3?-forms was helpful to significantly improve the selective index while keeping their antiviral activities. PMID:25728024

Song, Gaopeng; Shen, Xintian; Li, Sumei; Li, Yibin; Liu, Yunpeng; Zheng, Yushan; Lin, Ruheng; Fan, Jihong; Ye, Hanming; Liu, Shuwen

2015-03-26

204

Non-linear quantitative structure-activity relationship for adenine derivatives as competitive inhibitors of adenosine deaminase  

SciTech Connect

Logistic regression and artificial neural networks have been developed as two non-linear models to establish quantitative structure-activity relationships between structural descriptors and biochemical activity of adenosine based competitive inhibitors, toward adenosine deaminase. The training set included 24 compounds with known k {sub i} values. The models were trained to solve two-class problems. Unlike the previous work in which multiple linear regression was used, the highest of positive charge on the molecules was recognized to be in close relation with their inhibition activity, while the electric charge on atom N1 of adenosine was found to be a poor descriptor. Consequently, the previously developed equation was improved and the newly formed one could predict the class of 91.66% of compounds correctly. Also optimized 2-3-1 and 3-4-1 neural networks could increase this rate to 95.83%.

Sadat Hayatshahi, Sayyed Hamed [Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Science, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box: 14115/175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of) ; Abdolmaleki, Parviz [Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Science, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box: 14115/175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of) ]. E-mail: parviz@modares.ac.ir; Safarian, Shahrokh [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Tehran University, P.O. Box: 13155-6455, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of) ; Khajeh, Khosro [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box: 14115/175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2005-12-16

205

Non-linear quantitative structure-activity relationship for adenine derivatives as competitive inhibitors of adenosine deaminase.  

PubMed

Logistic regression and artificial neural networks have been developed as two non-linear models to establish quantitative structure-activity relationships between structural descriptors and biochemical activity of adenosine based competitive inhibitors, toward adenosine deaminase. The training set included 24 compounds with known k(i) values. The models were trained to solve two-class problems. Unlike the previous work in which multiple linear regression was used, the highest of positive charge on the molecules was recognized to be in close relation with their inhibition activity, while the electric charge on atom N1 of adenosine was found to be a poor descriptor. Consequently, the previously developed equation was improved and the newly formed one could predict the class of 91.66% of compounds correctly. Also optimized 2-3-1 and 3-4-1 neural networks could increase this rate to 95.83%. PMID:16256072

Sadat Hayatshahi, Sayyed Hamed; Abdolmaleki, Parviz; Safarian, Shahrokh; Khajeh, Khosro

2005-12-16

206

AnalogExplorer: a new method for graphical analysis of analog series and associated structure-activity relationship information.  

PubMed

In recent years, several attempts have been made to develop graphical methods for the analysis of structure-activity relationships (SARs) in increasingly large and heterogeneous compound data sets. Among others, these approaches include extensions of conventional R-group tables and graph representations for the analysis of active analogs. Herein, we introduce AnalogExplorer as a new method for the graphical exploration of analog series. AnalogExplorer consists of three graphical components and is methodologically distinct from previous SAR visualization techniques. It is designed to deconvolute large series of analogs and systematically analyze and compare analog series contained in structurally heterogeneous data sets. In addition, analog subsets forming activity cliffs and R-groups responsible for cliff formation are easily identified in AnalogExplorer graphs. The design of AnalogExplorer is described in detail, and exemplary applications are discussed. In addition, the implementation of AnalogExplorer is made freely available. PMID:25333505

Zhang, Bijun; Hu, Ye; Bajorath, Jürgen

2014-11-13

207

Biofunctional constituent isolated from Citrullus colocynthis fruits and structure-activity relationships of its analogues show acaricidal and insecticidal efficacy.  

PubMed

The acaricidal and insecticidal potential of the active constituent isolated from Citrullus colocynthis fruits and its structurally related analogues was evaluated by performing leaf disk, contact toxicity, and fumigant toxicity bioassays against Tetranychus urticae, Sitophilus oryzae, and Sitophilus zeamais adults. The active constituent of C. colocynthis fruits was isolated by chromatographic techniques and was identified as 4-methylquinoline on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. To investigate the structure-activity relationships, 4-methylquinoline and its structural analogues were tested against mites and two insect pests. On the basis of the LC50 values, 7,8-benzoquinoline was the most effective against T. urticae. Quinoline, 8-hydroxyquinoline, 2-methylquinoline, 4-methylquinoline, 6-methylquinoline, 8-methylquinoline, and 7,8-benzoquinoline showed high insecticidal activities against S. oryzae and S. zeamais regardless of the application method. These results indicate that introduction of a functional group into the quinoline skeleton and changing the position of the group have an important influence on the acaricidal and insecticidal activities. Furthermore, 4-methylquinoline isolated from C. colocynthis fruits, along with its structural analogues, could be effective natural pesticides for managing spider mites and stored grain weevils. PMID:25110971

Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Hoi-Seon

2014-08-27

208

Quantitative structure-activity relationship of botanical sesquiterpenes: spatial and contact repellency to the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

The plant terpenoids encompass a diversity of structures and have many functional roles in nature, including protection against pest arthropods. Previous studies in this laboratory have identified naturally occurring sesquiterpenes contained in essential oils from two plants, amyris (Amyris balsamifera) and Siam-wood (Fokienia hodginsii), that are significantly repellent to a spectrum of arthropod pests. In efforts to further examine the biological activity of this class of compounds 12 of these plant-derived sesquiterpenes have been isolated, purified, and assayed for spatial and contact repellency against the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti . These data were used to develop quantitative structure-activity relationships that identified key properties of the sesquiterpene molecule, including electronic and structural parameters that were used to predict optimal repellent activity. There were notable similarities in the models developed for spatial repellency over five time points and for contact repellency. Vapor pressure was an important component of all repellency models. Initial levels of spatial repellency were also related to polarizability of the molecule and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy, whereas the equation for late spatial repellency was dependent on other electronic features, including Mulliken population and electrotopological state descriptors. The model identified for contact repellency was the best fit and most significant model in this analysis and showed a relationship with vapor pressure, Mulliken population, and total energy. PMID:19645502

Paluch, Gretchen; Grodnitzky, Justin; Bartholomay, Lyric; Coats, Joel

2009-08-26

209

Structure-activity relationships of piscidin 4, a piscine antimicrobial peptide.  

PubMed

Piscidin 4, an antimicrobial peptide recently isolated from mast cells of hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops female × Morone saxatilis male), is unusual in that it is twice as long (44 amino acids) as the typical members of the piscidin family. We previously showed that native piscidin 4 had a modified amino acid at position 20, but synthetic piscidin 4 (having an unmodified Trp at position 20) had similar potent activity against a number of both human and fish bacterial pathogens. In this study, the structure and membrane topology of synthetic piscidin 4 were examined using liposomes as model bilayers. Circular dichroism analyses revealed that it had a disordered structure in aqueous solution and folded to form a relatively weak ?-helical structure in both membrane-mimetic trifluoroethanol solutions and liposome suspensions. Fluorescence data (piscidin 4 embedded in liposomes) and leakage experiments indicated that piscidin 4 interacted strongly with the hydrophobic part of the liposome. Binding of piscidin 4 to liposomes induced significant blue shifts of the emission spectra of the single Trp residue (Trp20). Quenching of Trp20 by water-soluble quencher (either acrylamide or I-) indicated that the fluorescence of Trp20 decreased more in the presence of liposomes than in buffer solution, thus revealing that Trp20 is less accessible to the quenchers in the presence of liposomes. The relative leakage abilities of piscidin 4 (1 ?M) with liposomes were in the following order: DPPC (100%)?EYPC (94%)>DPPC/DPPG (65%)>EYPC/EYPG (0%). This high activity against DPPC and EYPC liposomes was contrary to our data suggesting that piscidin 4 has a much weaker tendency to form an ?-helix than other piscidins, such as piscidin 1. However, the structural similarity of protozoan membranes to EYPC liposomes might explain our discovery of the potent activity of piscidin 4 against the important skin/gill parasite ich (Ichthyophthirius multifiliis), but its negligible hemolytic activity against vertebrate membranes (hybrid striped bass or human erythrocytes). It also suggests that other conformation(s) in addition to the ?-helix of this peptide may be responsible for its selective activity. This differential toxicity also suggests that piscidin 4 plays a significant role in the innate defense system of hybrid striped bass and may be capable of functioning extracellularly. PMID:21355570

Park, N G; Silphaduang, U; Moon, H S; Seo, J-K; Corrales, J; Noga, E J

2011-04-26

210

WebProAnalyst: an interactive tool for analysis of quantitative structure–activity relationships in protein families  

PubMed Central

WebProAnalyst is a web-accessible analysis tool () designed for scanning quantitative structure–activity relationships in protein families. The tool allows users to search correlations between protein activity and physicochemical characteristics (i.e. hydrophobicity or alpha-helical amphipathicity) in queried sequences. WebProAnalyst uses aligned amino acid sequences and data on protein activity (pK, Km, ED50, among others). WebProAnalyst implements methods of the known ProAnalyst package, including the multiple linear regression analysis and the sequence–activity correlation coefficient. In addition, WebProAnalyst incorporates a method based on neural networks. The WebProAnalyst reports a list of sites in protein family, the regression analysis parameters (including correlation values) for the relationships between the amino acid physicochemical characteristics in the site and the protein activity values. WebProAnalyst is useful in search of the amino acid residues that are important for protein function/activity. Furthermore, WebProAnalyst may be helpful in designing the protein-engineering experiments. PMID:15980590

Ivanisenko, Vladimir A.; Eroshkin, Alexey M.; Kolchanov, Nickolay A.

2005-01-01

211

Structure-Activity Relationships of Aminocoumarin-Type Gyrase and Topoisomerase IV Inhibitors Obtained by Combinatorial Biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

Novobiocin and clorobiocin are gyrase inhibitors produced by Streptomyces strains. Structurally, the two compounds differ only by substitution at two positions: CH3 versus Cl at position 8? of the aminocoumarin ring and carbamoyl versus 5-methyl-pyrrol-2-carbonyl (MePC) at the 3"-OH of noviose. Using genetic engineering, we generated a series of analogs carrying H, CH3, or Cl at 8? and H, carbamoyl, or MePC at 3"-OH. Comparison of the gyrase inhibitory activities of all nine structural permutations confirmed that acylation of 3"-OH is essential for activity, with MePC being more effective than carbamoyl. Substitution at 8? further enhanced activity, but the effect of CH3 or Cl depended on the nature of the acyl group at 3": in the presence of carbamoyl at 3", CH3 resulted in higher activity; in the presence of MePC at 3", Cl resulted in higher activity. This suggests that the structures of both natural compounds are highly evolved for optimal interaction with gyrase. In a second series of experiments, clorobiocin derivatives with and without the methyl group at 4"-OH of noviose, and with different positions of the MePC group of noviose, were tested. Again clorobiocin was superior to all of its analogs. The activities of all compounds were also tested against topoisomerase IV (topo IV). Clorobiocin stood out as a remarkably effective topo IV inhibitor. The relative activities of the different compounds toward topo IV showed a pattern similar to that of the relative gyrase-inhibitory activities. This is the first report of a systematic evaluation of a series of aminocoumarins against both gyrase and topo IV. The results give further insight into the structure-activity relationships of aminocoumarin antibiotics. PMID:16569821

Flatman, Ruth H.; Eustaquio, Alessandra; Li, Shu-Ming; Heide, Lutz; Maxwell, Anthony

2006-01-01

212

Leishmania lipophosphoglycan: how to establish structure-activity relationships for this highly complex and multifunctional glycoconjugate?  

PubMed

A key feature of many pathogenic microorganisms is the presence of a dense glycocalyx at their surface, composed of lipid-anchored glycoproteins and non-protein-bound polysaccharides. These surface glycolipids are important virulence factors for bacterial, fungal and protozoan pathogens. The highly complex glycoconjugate lipophosphoglycan (LPG) is one of the dominant surface macromolecules of the promastigote stage of all Leishmania parasitic species. LPG plays critical pleiotropic roles in parasite survival and infectivity in both the sandfly vector and the mammalian host. Here, we review the composition of the Leishmania glycocalyx, the chemical structure of LPG and what is currently known about its effects in the mammalian host, specifically. We will then discuss the current approaches employed to elucidate LPG functions. Finally, we will provide a viewpoint on future directions that this area of investigation could take to unravel in detail the biological activity of the specific molecular elements composing the structurally complex LPG. PMID:25653924

Forestier, Claire-Lise; Gao, Qi; Boons, Geert-Jan

2014-01-01

213

Leishmania lipophosphoglycan: how to establish structure-activity relationships for this highly complex and multifunctional glycoconjugate?  

PubMed Central

A key feature of many pathogenic microorganisms is the presence of a dense glycocalyx at their surface, composed of lipid-anchored glycoproteins and non-protein-bound polysaccharides. These surface glycolipids are important virulence factors for bacterial, fungal and protozoan pathogens. The highly complex glycoconjugate lipophosphoglycan (LPG) is one of the dominant surface macromolecules of the promastigote stage of all Leishmania parasitic species. LPG plays critical pleiotropic roles in parasite survival and infectivity in both the sandfly vector and the mammalian host. Here, we review the composition of the Leishmania glycocalyx, the chemical structure of LPG and what is currently known about its effects in the mammalian host, specifically. We will then discuss the current approaches employed to elucidate LPG functions. Finally, we will provide a viewpoint on future directions that this area of investigation could take to unravel in detail the biological activity of the specific molecular elements composing the structurally complex LPG. PMID:25653924

Forestier, Claire-Lise; Gao, Qi; Boons, Geert-Jan

2015-01-01

214

Structure-activity relationships of phenothiazines and related drugs for inhibition of protein kinase C.  

PubMed

Phenothiazines are known to inhibit the activity of protein kinase C. To identify structural features that determine inhibitory activity against the enzyme, we utilized a semiautomated assay [Anal. Biochem. 187:84-88 (1990)] to compare the potency of greater than 50 phenothiazines and related compounds. Potency was decreased by trifluoro substitution at position 2 on the phenothiazine nucleus and increased by quinoid structures on the nucleus. An alkyl bridge of at least three carbons connecting the terminal amine to the nucleus was required for activity. Primary amines and unsubstituted piperazines were the most potent amino side chains. We selected 7,8-dihydroxychlorpromazine (DHCP) (IC50 = 8.3 microM) and 2-chloro-9-(3-[1-piperazinyl]propylidene)thioxanthene (N751) (IC50 = 14 microM) for further study because of their potency and distinct structural features. Under standard (vesicle) assay conditions, DHCP was noncompetitive with respect to phosphatidylserine and a mixed-type inhibitor with respect to ATP. N751 was competitive with respect to phosphatidylserine and noncompetitive with respect to ATP. Using the mixed micelle assay, DHCP was a competitive inhibitor with respect to both phosphatidylserine and ATP. DHCP was selective for protein kinase C compared with cAMP-dependent protein kinase, calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II, and casein kinase. N751 was more potent against protein kinase C compared with cAMP-dependent protein kinase and casein kinase but less potent against protein kinase C compared with calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II. DHCP was analyzed for its ability to inhibit different isoenzymes of protein kinase C, and no significant isozyme selectivity was detected. These data provide important information for the rational design of more potent and selective inhibitors of protein kinase C. PMID:1944244

Aftab, D T; Ballas, L M; Loomis, C R; Hait, W N

1991-11-01

215

Cytocompatibility and P-glycoprotein inhibition of block copolymers: structure-activity relationship.  

PubMed

Amphiphilic polymeric micelles greatly improve the solubilization and sustained release of hydrophobic drugs and provide a protective environment for the cargo molecules in aqueous media, which favors lower drug administration doses, reduces adverse side effects, and increases blood circulation times and passive targeting to specific cells. These capabilities depend, among other variables, on the structure and composition of the polymer chains. Composition and, in particular, block length have been shown to play an important role in the modification of cellular responses such as drug internalization processes or transduction pathways when polymeric unimer/micelles are in close contact with cells. Here we present a detailed study about the role copolymer structure and composition play on cell viability and cellular response of several cell lines. To do that, more than 30 structurally related copolymers with diblock and triblock architectures containing different hydrophobic blocks and poly(ethylene oxide) as the common hydrophilic unit have been analyzed regarding cytocompatibility and potential as "active" cell response modifiers by testing their influence on the P-gp pump efflux mechanism responsible of multidrug resistance in cancerous cells. An empirical threshold for cell viability could be established at a copolymer EO/POeffective value above ca. 1.5 for copolymers with triblock structure, whereas no empirical rule could be observed for diblocks. Moreover, some of the tested copolymers (e.g., BO12EO227BO12 and EO57PO46EO57 that notably increased and C16EO455C16 that decreased the P-gp ATPase activity) were observed to act as efficient inhibitors of the P-gp efflux pump promoting an enhanced doxorubicin (DOXO) accumulation inside multidrug resistant (MDR) NCI-ADR-RES cells. PMID:23763603

Cambón, A; Brea, J; Loza, M I; Alvarez-Lorenzo, C; Concheiro, A; Barbosa, S; Taboada, P; Mosquera, V

2013-08-01

216

DNA cross-linking in mammalian cells by pyrrolizidine alkaloids: structure-activity relationships.  

PubMed

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are common constituents of many species of flowering plants which possess carcinogenic as well as anticarcinogenic activity in vivo. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are genotoxic in various short-term assays. The mechanisms by which these compounds exert these effects is still unclear. In this study, we characterized the ability of eight bifunctional PAs, with differing stereochemistry and functional groups, to cross-link cellular DNA in cultured bovine kidney epithelial cells. PAs representative of three major structural classes, the macrocycles (seneciphylline, riddelline, retrorsine, senecionine, monocrotaline), the open diesters (heliosupine, latifoline), and pyrrolizidine base (retronecine) were cultured for 2 hr with cells and an external metabolizing system. Every PA induced DNA cross-links which consisted primarily of proteinase-sensitive cross-links (DPC), but also to a smaller extent, DNA interstrand cross-links (ISC). None of the PAs induced detectable amounts of DNA single-strand breaks. The PAs which produced DPC and/or ISC (ranked from most potent to least) were: seneciphylline (DPC greater than ISC); riddelline (DPC greater than ISC); retrorsine (DPC greater than ISC); senecionine (DPC greater than ISC); heliosupine (DPC greater than ISC); monocrotaline (ISC = DPC); latifoline (DPC greater than ISC); and retronecine (ISC greater than DPC). Although the PAs induced DNA cross-linking to varying degrees, cell viabilities for all treatment groups were greater than 90% as determined by trypan blue dye exclusion. Since the cross-linking ability of these PAs paralleled their ability to inhibit colony formation, cross-link formation may be involved in the biological activity of these compounds. Two structural determinants of biological activity appear to be the presence of both a macrocyclic necic acid ester and an alpha,beta-unsaturated ester function since the cross-linking ability of seneciphylline, riddelline, retrorsine, and senecionine far exceeded that of monocrotaline, heliosupine, latifoline, and retronecine. In addition, the stereochemical orientation of the ester linkage was found to have no effect on biological activity. PMID:1949039

Hincks, J R; Kim, H Y; Segall, H J; Molyneux, R J; Stermitz, F R; Coulombe, R A

1991-10-01

217

Structure-activity relationships of mineral dusts as heterogeneous nuclei for ammonium sulfate crystallization from supersaturated aqueous solutions.  

PubMed

Mineral inclusions, present in aqueous atmospheric salt droplets, regulate crystallization when relative humidity decreases by providing a surface for heterogeneous nucleation and thus reducing the critical supersaturation. Although laboratory studies have quantified these processes to some extent, the diverse atmospheric mineralogy presents more chemical systems than practically feasible for direct study. Structure--activity relationships are necessary. To that end, in the present work the interactions of ammonium sulfate with corundum, hematite, mullite, rutile, anatase, and baddeleyite were studied by diffuse reflectance fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and by epitaxial modeling. The spectroscopic results show that shifts in sulfate peak positions due to chemisorption are not a correlative indicator of the efficacy of heterogeneous nucleation. In contrast, epitaxial modeling results of unreconstructed surfaces explain the sequence of critical supersaturations for constant particle size. If validated by further work, this computer modeling method would provide an important structure--activity tool for the estimation of heterogeneous nucleation properties of the atmospheric mineralogy. PMID:11329712

Martin, S T; Schlenker, J; Chelf, J H; Duckworth, O W

2001-04-15

218

Cellular Localization of Dieldrin and Structure–Activity Relationship of Dieldrin Analogues in Dopaminergic Cells  

PubMed Central

The incidence of Parkinson’s disease (PD) correlates with environmental exposure to pesticides, such as the organochlorine insecticide, dieldrin. Previous studies found an increased concentration of the pesticide in the striatal region of the brains of PD patients and also that dieldrin adversely affects cellular processes associated with PD. These processes include mitochondrial function and reactive oxygen species production. However, the mechanism and specific cellular targets responsible for dieldrin-mediated cellular dysfunction and the structural components of dieldrin contributing to its toxicity (toxicophore) have not been fully defined. In order to identify the toxicophore of dieldrin, a structure–activity approach was used, with the toxicity profiles of numerous analogues of dieldrin (including aldrin, endrin, and cis-aldrin diol) assessed in PC6-3 cells. The MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays were used to monitor cell viability and membrane permeability after treatment with each compound. Cellular assays monitoring ROS production and extracellular dopamine metabolite levels were also used. Structure and stereochemistry for dieldrin were found to be very important for toxicity and other end points measured. Small changes in structure for dieldrin (e.g., comparison to the stereoisomer endrin) yielded significant differences in toxicity. Interestingly, the cis-diol metabolite of dieldrin was found to be significantly more toxic than the parent compound. Disruption of dopamine catabolism yielded elevated levels of the neurotoxin, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde, for many organochlorines. Comparisons of the toxicity profiles for each dieldrin analogue indicated a structure-specific effect important for elucidating the mechanisms of dieldrin neurotoxicity. PMID:23763672

Allen, Erin M. G.; Florang, Virginia R.; Davenport, Laurie L.; Jinsmaa, Yunden; Doorn, Jonathan A.

2015-01-01

219

Hepatoprotection of sesquiterpenoids: a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) approach.  

PubMed

The relative hepatoprotection effect of fifteen sesquiterpenoids, commonly found in plants and plant-derived foods and beverages was assessed. Endogenous lipid peroxidation (assay A) and induced lipid peroxidation (assay B) were evaluated in liver homogenates from Wistar rats by the thiobarbituric acid reactive species test. Sesquiterpenoids with different chemical structures were tested: trans,trans-farnesol, cis-nerolidol, (-)-?-bisabolol, trans-?-farnesene, germacrene D, ?-humulene, ?-caryophyllene, isocaryophyllene, (+)-valencene, guaiazulene, (-)-?-cedrene, (+)-aromadendrene, (-)-?-neoclovene, (-)-?-copaene, and (+)-cyclosativene. Ascorbic acid was used as a positive antioxidant control. With the exception of ?-humulene, all the sesquiterpenoids under study (1mM) were effective in reducing the malonaldehyde levels in both endogenous and induced lipid peroxidation up to 35% and 70%, respectively. The 3D-QSAR models developed, relating the hepatoprotection activity with molecular properties, showed good fit (Radj(2) 0.819 and 0.972 for the assays A and B, respectively) with good prediction power (Q(2)>0.950 and SDEP<2%, for both models A and B). A network of effects associated with structural and chemical features of sesquiterpenoids such as shape, branching, symmetry, and presence of electronegative fragments, can modulate the hepatoprotective activity observed for these compounds. PMID:24176316

Vinholes, Juliana; Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Gonçalves, Pedro; Martel, Fátima; Coimbra, Manuel A; Rocha, Sílvia M

2014-03-01

220

Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of N-(cinnamyl) chitosan analogs as antimicrobial agents.  

PubMed

The current study focuses on the preparation of new N-(cinnamyl) chitosan derivatives as antimicrobial agents against nine types of crop-threatening pathogens. Chitosan was reacted with a set of aromatic cinnamaldehyde analogs by reductive amination involving formation of the corresponding imines, followed by reduction with sodium borohydride to produce N-(cinnamyl) chitosan derivatives. The structural characterization was confirmed by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and the degrees of substitution ranged from 0.08 to 0.28. The antibacterial activity was evaluated in vitro by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Erwinia carotovora. A higher inhibition activity was obtained by N-(?-methylcinnamyl) chitosan with MIC 1275 and 1025 mg/L against A. tumefaciens and E. carotovora, respectively followed by N-(o-methoxycinnamyl) chitosan (MIC=1925 and 1550 mg/L, respectively). The antifungal assessment was evaluated in vitro by mycelial radial growth technique against Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Pythium debaryanum and Phytophthora infestans. N-(o-methoxycinnamyl) chitosan showed the highest antifungal activity among the tested compounds against the airborne fungi A. alternata, B. cinerea, Bd. theobromae and Ph. infestans with EC?? of 672, 796, 980 and 636 mg/L, respectively. However, N-(p-N-dimethylaminocinnamyl) chitosan was the most active against the soil born fungi F. oxysporum, F. solani and P. debaryanum (EC50=411, 566 and 404 mg/L, respectively). On the other hand, the chitosan derivatives caused significant reduction in spore germination of A. alternata, B. cinerea, F. oxysporum and F. solani compared to chitosan and the reduction in spore germination was higher than that of the mycelia inhibition. The synthesis and characterization of new chitosan derivatives are ongoing in our laboratory aiming to obtain derivatives with higher antimicrobial activities and used as safe alternatives to harmful microbicides. PMID:23511055

Badawy, Mohamed E I; Rabea, Entsar I

2013-06-01

221

Using quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling to quantitatively predict the developmental toxicity of halogenated azole compounds.  

PubMed

Developmental toxicity is a relevant endpoint for the comprehensive assessment of human health risk from chemical exposure. However, animal developmental toxicity data remain unavailable for many environmental contaminants due to the complexity and cost of these types of analyses. Here we describe an approach that uses quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling as an alternative methodology to fill data gaps in the developmental toxicity profile of certain halogenated compounds. Chemical information was obtained and curated using the OECD Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Toolbox, version 3.0. Data from 35 curated compounds were analyzed via linear regression to build the predictive model, which has an R(2) of 0.79 and a Q(2) of 0.77. The applicability domain (AD) was defined by chemical category and structural similarity. Seven halogenated chemicals that fit the AD but are not part of the training set were employed for external validation purposes. Our model predicted lowest observed adverse effect level values with a maximal threefold deviation from the observed experimental values for all chemicals that fit the AD. The good predictability of our model suggests that this method may be applicable to the analysis of qualifying compounds whenever developmental toxicity information is lacking or incomplete for risk assessment considerations. PMID:24122872

Craig, Evisabel A; Wang, Nina Ching; Zhao, Q Jay

2014-07-01

222

Synthesis, Structure?Activity Relationship, and Pharmacological Profile of Analogs of The ASIC-3 Inhibitor A-317567  

PubMed Central

The synthesis, structure?activity relationship (SAR), and pharmacological evaluation of analogs of the acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) inhibitor A-317567 are reported. It was found that the compound with an acetylenic linkage was the most potent ASIC-3 channel blocker. This compound reversed mechanical hypersensitivity in the rat iodoacetate model of osteoarthritis pain, although sedation was noted. Sedation was also observed in ASIC-3 knockout mice, questioning whether sedation and antinociception are mediated via a non-ASIC-3 specific mechanism. PMID:22778804

2009-01-01

223

Structure-immunomodulating activity relationships of a pectic arabinogalactan from Vernonia kotschyana Sch. Bip. ex Walp.  

PubMed

Structure and immunological characteristics of the pectic arabinogalactan Vk2a (previously reported as Vk100A2a) from the roots of Vernonia kotschyana Sch. Bip. ex Walp. were investigated after enzymatic digestion of the galacturonan moiety and the side chains of the rhamnogalacturonan structure of Vk2a. endo-alpha-D-(1-->4)-Polygalacturonase digestion released the high molecular weight 'hairy region' (Vk2a-HR) and oligogalacturonides. Vk2a-HR consisted of GalA (4-linked) and Rha (2- or 2,4-linked) in a 1:1 ratio, with 60% of Rha branched at C-4. The Rha located in the rhamnogalacturonan core was branched randomly by Gal units. Vk2a-HR was rich in neutral sugars such as Araf 5- (12.2%) and 3,5-substituted (12.8%) and terminally- (14.1%) linked and Gal 4- (13.0%), 3- (0.9%), 6- (2.2%) and 3,6- (1.1%) substituted. Arabinans with chain lengths up to 11 units were identified. Araf residues were attached to C-3 of alpha-L-(1-->5)-Araf chains and to C-4 of Gal residues. Single Gal units and chains of beta-D-(1-->6)-linked galacto di- to penta-saccharides were attached to a beta-D-(1-->3)-galactan core. All the enzyme resistant fractions expressed potent complement fixation and induction of B-cell mitogenic activity, and the present study indicates that there may be several and possibly structurally different active sites involved in the bioactivity of Vk2a. The bioactive sites may be located both in the more peripheral parts of the molecule but also in the inner core of the 'hairy region' or in larger enzyme-resistant chains. PMID:15979597

Nergard, Cecilie Sogn; Kiyohara, Hiroaki; Reynolds, James C; Thomas-Oates, Jane E; Matsumoto, Tsukasa; Yamada, Haruki; Michaelsen, Terje E; Diallo, Drissa; Paulsen, Berit Smestad

2005-08-15

224

Uncovering structure-activity relationships in manganese-oxide-based heterogeneous catalysts for efficient water oxidation.  

PubMed

Artificial photosynthesis by harvesting solar light into chemical energy could solve the problems of energy conversion and storage in a sustainable way. In nature, CO2 and H2 O are transformed into carbohydrates by photosynthesis to store the solar energy in chemical bonds and water is oxidized to O2 in the oxygen-evolving center (OEC) of photosystem II (PS II). The OEC contains CaMn4 O5 cluster in which the metals are interconnected through oxido bridges. Inspired by biological systems, manganese-oxide-based catalysts have been synthesized and explored for water oxidation. Structural, functional modeling, and design of the materials have prevailed over the years to achieve an effective and stable catalyst system for water oxidation. Structural flexibility with eg (1) configuration of Mn(III) , mixed valency in manganese, and higher surface area are the main requirements to attain higher efficiency. This Minireview discusses the most recent progress in heterogeneous manganese-oxide-based catalysts for efficient chemical, photochemical, and electrochemical water oxidation as well as the structural requirements for the catalyst to perform actively. PMID:25641823

Indra, Arindam; Menezes, Prashanth W; Driess, Matthias

2015-03-01

225

Synthesis, evaluation of pharmacological activities and quantitative structure-activity relationship studies of a novel group of bis(4-nitroaryl-1,4-dihyropyridine).  

PubMed

Voltage-dependent calcium channels are crucial targets for a wide range of clinically active pharmacological agents. From these agents, 1,4-dihydropyridines constitute a group of small organic compounds are based on a core pyridine structure which can both block and enhance calcium currents. They are considered specific for L-Type calcium channels; however, other channel types, and in particular certain T-Type channels, may show sensitivity to dihydropyridine compounds. In this study, we synthesized a novel group of bis-1,4-dihydropyridines using the procedure reported by Dagnino that involved the condensation of n-alkyl diacetoacetate (n = 2-7) with methyl-3-aminocrotonate and nitrophenylaldehyde. The synthesis was run under two conditions: (i) reflux and (ii) microwave. Calcium channels antagonist activity were determined in vitro using guinea-pig ileum longitudinal smooth muscle assay. Synthesis of these compounds was confirmed with 1H-NMR, IR and mass spectrometry. Then IC(50) of them are calculated and compared with Nifedipine. Finally, the result of this pharmacological assay was used in quantitative structure-activity relationship studies utilizing multiple linear regression analysis. Most of these compounds are less active compared with Nifedipine. Decrease in activity is the result of increase in steric hindrance. The quantitative structure-activity relationship study indicates that the activity is related to the electrostatic and topological parameters and the distance between two C5-esteric groups of 1,4-dihydropyridine rings. PMID:19207425

Miri, Ramin; Javidnia, Katayoun; Hemmateenejad, Bahram; Tabarzad, Maryam; Jafarpour, Mehrnaz

2009-02-01

226

Structure-activity relationships of siRNA carriers based on sequence-defined oligo (ethane amino) amides.  

PubMed

Sequence defined oligo (ethane amino) amides produced by solid-phase supported synthesis using different building blocks and molecular shapes were tested for structure-activity relationships in siRNA delivery. Efficient reporter gene knockdown was obtained in a variety of cell lines using either branched three-armed structures, or lipid-modified structures with i-shape, T-shape, U-shape configuration. For the majority of structures (apart from U-shapes), the presence of 2 or 3 cysteines was strictly required for polyplex stabilization and silencing activity. Although all four building blocks contain the ethylenediamine proton sponge motif, only oligomers assembled with the tetraethylenepentamine based amino acids (Stp, Gtp, Ptp) but not with the triethylenetetramine based amino acid (Gtt) were able to mediate efficient gene silencing. For the lipopolymeric structures, out of the tested saturated (from C4 to C18) and unsaturated (C18) fatty acid moieties, two proximate oleic acids or linolic acids provided the oligomers with the best gene silencing activity and also pH specific lytic activity at pH 5.5, presumably facilitating endosomal escape of the polyplexes. Evaluation of oligomer chain length revealed a minimal number of at least two oligo (ethane amino) building blocks per oligomer arm as necessary for the vast majority of structures, but only marginal changes were found with higher numbers (structures with up to 60 ethane amino nitrogens were evaluated). Two promising carriers (T-shape 49, i-shape 229) were also evaluated for EG5 siRNA delivery. This resulted in tumor cell cycle arrest, and appearance of mitotic monoastral spindles both in vitro and in vivo upon systemic delivery. Repeated intratumoral treatment with EG5 siRNA polyplexes significantly reduced Neuro2A-eGFPLuc tumor growth in a siRNA-specific manner. PMID:22465674

Fröhlich, Thomas; Edinger, Daniel; Kläger, Raphaela; Troiber, Christina; Salcher, Edith; Badgujar, Naresh; Martin, Irene; Schaffert, David; Cengizeroglu, Arzu; Hadwiger, Philipp; Vornlocher, Hans-Peter; Wagner, Ernst

2012-06-28

227

Structure-Activity Relationships of Antitubercular Salicylanilides Consistent with Disruption of the Proton Gradient via Proton Shuttling  

PubMed Central

A series of salicylanilides was synthesized based on a high-throughput screening hit against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A free phenolic hydroxyl on the salicylic acid moeity is required for activity, and the structure-activity relationship of the aniline ring is largely driven by the presence of electron withdrawing groups. We synthesized 94 analogs exploring substitutions of both rings and the linker region in this series and we have identified multiple compounds with low micromolar potency. Unfortunately, cytotoxicity in a murine macrophage cell line trends with antimicrobial activity, suggesting a similar mechanism of action. We propose that salicylanilides function as proton shuttles that kill cells by destroying the cellular proton gradient, limiting their utility as potential therapeutics. PMID:23211970

Lee, Ill-Young; Gruber, Todd D.; Samuels, Amanda; Yun, Minhan; Nam, Bora; Kang, Minseo; Crowley, Kathryn; Winterroth, Benjamin; Boshoff, Helena I.; Barry, Clifton E.

2012-01-01

228

In Vitro Photodynamic Therapy and Quantitative Structure–Activity Relationship Studies with Stable Synthetic Near-Infrared-Absorbing Bacteriochlorin Photosensitizers  

PubMed Central

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a rapidly developing approach to treating cancer that combines harmless visible and near-infrared light with a nontoxic photoactivatable dye, which upon encounter with molecular oxygen generates the reactive oxygen species that are toxic to cancer cells. Bacteriochlorins are tetrapyrrole compounds with two reduced pyrrole rings in the macrocycle. These molecules are characterized by strong absorption features from 700 to >800 nm, which enable deep penetration into tissue. This report describes testing of 12 new stable synthetic bacteriochlorins for PDT activity. The 12 compounds possess a variety of peripheral substituents and are very potent in killing cancer cells in vitro after illumination. Quantitative structure–activity relationships were derived, and subcellular localization was determined. The most active compounds have both low dark toxicity and high phototoxicity. This combination together with near-infrared absorption gives these bacteriochlorins great potential as photosensitizers for treatment of cancer. PMID:20441223

Huang, Ying-Ying; Mroz, Pawel; Zhiyentayev, Timur; Sharma, Sulbha K.; Balasubramanian, Thiagarajan; Ruzié, Christian; Krayer, Michael; Fan, Dazhong; Borbas, K. Eszter; Yang, Eunkyung; Kee, Hooi Ling; Kirmaier, Christine; Diers, James R.; Bocian, David F.; Holten, Dewey; Lindsey, Jonathan S.; Hamblin, Michael R.

2010-01-01

229

Synthesis and structure-active relationship of 1-aryl-6,7-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline anticonvulsants.  

PubMed

We have previously disclosed that some 6,7-dimethoxyisoquinoline derivatives are able to produce anticonvulsant effects in different animal models of epilepsy. Following these studies this paper describes the synthesis of a small series of new 1-aryl-6,7-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines strictly related to previously reported analogues. This novel series of isoquinolines was designed on the basis of well defined structure-active relationship (SAR) information already acquired for this class of anticonvulsant agents. The pharmacological effects of the new synthesized compounds were evaluated against audiogenic seizures in Dilute Brown non-Agouti (DBA/2) mice. The preliminary pharmacological screening led to the identification of a new active molecule the 2-acetyl-1-(4'-methylphenyl)-6,7-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (6d) that displayed significant anticonvulsant activity. Computational studies helped to rationalize these obtained pharmacological results. PMID:21139262

Gitto, Rosaria; De Luca, Laura; Ferro, Stefania; Agnello, Stefano; Russo, Emilio; De Sarro, Giovanbattista; Chimirri, Alba

2010-12-01

230

Synthesis and dopaminergic activity of some 3-(1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-1-pyridylalkyl)indoles. A novel conformational model to explain structure-activity relationships.  

PubMed

The synthesis and dopaminergic properties of a novel type of dopamine agonist is described. The number and kind of essential structural elements differ significantly from that of the rigid apomorphine-type dopamine agonists. Using standard molecular modeling techniques, a conformational model is developed proposing a U-shaped conformation which might be energetically preferred through aromatic pi-pi-interactions between both of the electron rich aromatic structural elements of this class of compounds. Superimposition of conformations of the lead compound 28 with apomorphine yields a novel model explaining the atypical structure-activity relationships found in this class of indolealkylamines. PMID:1359142

Böttcher, H; Barnickel, G; Hausberg, H H; Haase, A F; Seyfried, C A; Eiermann, V

1992-10-30

231

Antioxidant phenolic constituents in roots of Rheum officinale and Rubia cordifolia: structure-radical scavenging activity relationships.  

PubMed

The phenolic constituents in the roots of Rheum officinale and Rubia cordifolia were identified with the aid of high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and by comparison with authentic standards. A total of 17 hydroxyanthraquinones, gallic acid, and tannins were separated, and 14 of them were identified, being the main phenolic constituents present. Their antioxidant activity (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) was evaluated using the improved 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)diammonium salt method. Hydroxyanthraquinones were the predominant antioxidant phenolic constituents in the roots of R. cordifolia, and tannins and gallic acid were the predominant antioxidant phenolic constituents in the roots of R. officinale. The structure-radical scavenging activity relationships of the tested hydroxyanthraquinones were systematically demonstrated as follows: Hydroxy groups on one benzene ring of the anthraquinone structure were essential for hydroxyanthraquinones to show activity, the ortho-dihydroxy structure in the hydroxyanthraquinone molecules could greatly enhance their radical scavenging effect, and glycosylation of the hydroxyanthraquinones reduced activity. PMID:15612771

Cai, Yizhong; Sun, Mei; Xing, Jie; Corke, Harold

2004-12-29

232

Studies examining the relationship between the chemical structure of protoxin II and its activity on voltage gated sodium channels.  

PubMed

The aqueous solution structure of protoxin II (ProTx II) indicated that the toxin comprises a well-defined inhibitor cystine knot (ICK) backbone region and a flexible C-terminal tail region, similar to previously described NaSpTx III tarantula toxins. In the present study we sought to explore the structure-activity relationship of the two regions of the ProTx II molecule. As a first step, chimeric toxins of ProTx II and PaTx I were synthesized and their biological activities on Nav1.7 and Nav1.2 channels were investigated. Other tail region modifications to this chimera explored the effects of tail length and tertiary structure on sodium channel activity. In addition, the activity of various C-terminal modifications of the native ProTx II was assayed and resulted in the identification of protoxin II-NHCH3, a molecule with greater potency against Nav1.7 channels (IC50=42 pM) than the original ProTx II. PMID:25026046

Park, Jae H; Carlin, Kevin P; Wu, Gang; Ilyin, Victor I; Musza, Laszlo L; Blake, Paul R; Kyle, Donald J

2014-08-14

233

Antipodal Crambescin A2 Homologues from the Marine Sponge Pseudaxinella reticulata. Antifungal Structure-Activity Relationships.  

PubMed

Investigation of antifungal natural products from the marine sponge Pseudaxinella reticulata from the Bahamas led to the discovery of new crambescin homologues (1, 2) and enantiomers (3, 4) of known natural products. The cyclic-guanidine structures were solved through analysis of 2D NMR, MS-MS, and CD data. The absolute configurations of 1-4 were established as 13R-opposite of known homologues reported from Crambe crambe obtained from the Mediterranean Sea-by comparison of their CD spectra with predicted Cotton effects obtained from DFT calculations. Antifungal activities of 1-4 against the pathogenic strains Candida albicans and Cryptococcus sp. were observed to correlate potency (MIC50 and MIC90) with the length of the alkyl side chain. PMID:25738226

Jamison, Matthew T; Molinski, Tadeusz F

2015-03-27

234

Structure-activity relationships of pentamidine-affected ion channel trafficking and dofetilide mediated rescue  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Drug interference with normal hERG protein trafficking substantially reduces the channel density in the plasma membrane and thereby poses an arrhythmic threat. The chemical substructures important for hERG trafficking inhibition were investigated using pentamidine as a model drug. Furthermore, the relationship between acute ion channel block and correction of trafficking by dofetilide was studied. Experimental Approach hERG and KIR2.1 trafficking in HEK293 cells was evaluated by Western blot and immunofluorescence microscopy after treatment with pentamidine and six pentamidine analogues, and correction with dofetilide and four dofetilide analogues that displayed different abilities to inhibit IKr. Molecular dynamics simulations were used to address mode, number and type of interactions between hERG and dofetilide analogues. Key Results Structural modifications of pentamidine differentially affected plasma membrane levels of hERG and KIR2.1. Modification of the phenyl ring or substituents directly attached to it had the largest effect, affirming the importance of these chemical residues in ion channel binding. PA-4 had the mildest effects on both ion channels. Dofetilide corrected pentamidine-induced hERG, but not KIR2.1 trafficking defects. Dofetilide analogues that displayed high channel affinity, mediated by pi-pi stacks and hydrophobic interactions, also restored hERG protein levels, whereas analogues with low affinity were ineffective. Conclusions and Implications Drug-induced trafficking defects can be minimized if certain chemical features are avoided or ‘synthesized out’; this could influence the design and development of future drugs. Further analysis of such features in hERG trafficking correctors may facilitate the design of a non-blocking corrector for trafficking defective hERG proteins in both congenital and acquired LQTS. PMID:23586323

Varkevisser, R; Houtman, M J C; Linder, T; de Git, K C G; Beekman, H D M; Tidwell, R R; IJzerman, A P; Stary-Weinzinger, A; Vos, M A; van der Heyden, M A G

2013-01-01

235

Ecotoxicity quantitative structure-activity relationships for alcohol ethoxylate mixtures based on substance-specific toxicity predictions.  

PubMed

Traditionally, ecotoxicity quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for alcohol ethoxylate (AE) surfactants have been developed by assigning the measured ecotoxicity for commercial products to the average structures (alkyl chain length and ethoxylate chain length) of these materials. Acute Daphnia magna toxicity tests for binary mixtures indicate that mixtures are more toxic than the individual AE substances corresponding with their average structures (due to the nonlinear relation of toxicity with structure). Consequently, the ecotoxicity value (expressed as effects concentration) attributed to the average structures that are used to develop the existing QSARs is expected to be too low. A new QSAR technique for complex substances, which interprets the mixture toxicity with regard to the "ethoxymers" distribution (i.e., the individual AE components) rather than the average structure, was developed. This new technique was then applied to develop new AE ecotoxicity QSARs for invertebrates, fish, and mesocosms. Despite the higher complexity, the fit and accuracy of the new QSARs are at least as good as those for the existing QSARs based on the same data set. As expected from typical ethoxymer distributions of commercial AEs, the new QSAR generally predicts less toxicity than the QSARs based on average structure. PMID:16256196

Boeije, G M; Cano, M L; Marshall, S J; Belanger, S E; Van Compernolle, R; Dorn, P B; Gümbel, H; Toy, R; Wind, T

2006-05-01

236

Synthesis, fungicidal activity, and structure-activity relationship of spiro-compounds containing macrolactam (macrolactone) and thiadiazoline rings.  

PubMed

Two series of novel spiro-compounds containing macrolactam or macrolactone and thiadiazoline rings, 1-thia-2-alkylimino-3,4,9-triaza-10-oxospiro[4.15]eicosyl-3-ene (4F) and 1-thia-2-alkylimino-3,4-diaza-9-oxa-10-oxospiro[4.15]eicosyl-3-ene (4G), were synthesized from 12-oxo-1,15-pentadecanlactam and 12-oxo-1,15-pentadecanlactone, respectively. Their structures were confirmed by elemental analysis, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR. The conformation of compounds 4F was determined via the crystal structure of a representative compound (4F(6)). The bioassay showed that compounds 4F have much better fungicidal activity against five fungi ( Botrytis cinerea Pers., Sclerotinia sclerotiorum , Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn., Phomopsis asparagi Sacc., and Pyricularia oryzae Cav.) than compounds 4G. The fact above showed that the presence of a hydrogen-bonding donor for the fungicidal activity of macrocyclic compounds is very important. 4F(6) showed excellent fungicidal activity against P. oryzae, which is much better than the commercial fungicide isoprothiolane, and 4F(13) showed excellent fungicidal activity against P. oryzae and good fungicidal activity against P. asparagi. PMID:20041703

Li, Jian-Jun; Liang, Xiao-Mei; Jin, Shu-Hui; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Yuan, Hui-Zhu; Qi, Shu-Hua; Chen, Fu-Heng; Wang, Dao-Quan

2010-03-10

237

Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship analyses of piperidine-based CCR5 receptor antagonists.  

PubMed

The CCR5 chemokine receptor has recently been found to play a crucial role in the viral entry stage of HIV infection and has therefore become an attractive potential target for anti-HIV therapeutics. On the other hand, the lack of CCR5 crystal structure data has impeded the development of structure-based CCR5 antagonist design. In this paper, we compare two three-dimensional Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (3D-QSAR) methods: Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) and Comparative Molecular Similarity Indices Analysis (CoMSIA) on a series of piperidine-based CCR5 antagonists as an alternative approach to investigate the interaction between CCR5 antagonists and their receptor. Superimposition of antagonist structures was performed using two alignment rules: atomic/centroid rms fit and rigid body field fit techniques. The 3D QSAR models were derived from a training set of 72 compounds, and were found to have predictive capability for a set of 19 holdout test compounds. The resulting contour maps produced by the best CoMFA and CoMSIA models were used to identify the structural features relevant to biological activity in this series of compounds. Further analyses of these interaction-field contour maps also showed a high level of internal consistency. PMID:14723967

Song, Minghu; Breneman, Curt M; Sukumar, N

2004-01-15

238

Biological evaluation, structure-activity relationships, and three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship studies of dihydro-beta-agarofuran sesquiterpenes as modulators of P-glycoprotein-dependent multidrug resistance.  

PubMed

Multidrug resistance (MDR) is one of the main challenges in the chemotherapy of cancer, malaria, and other important diseases. Here, we report the inhibitory activity of a series of 76 dihydro-beta-agarofuran sesquiterpenes, tested on NIH-3T3 cells expressing the human P-glycoprotein (Pgp) multidrug transporter, to establish quantitative comparisons of their respective abilities to block the drug transport activity. The screening was performed on the basis of the ability of sesquiterpenes to modulate the intracellular accumulation of the classical Pgp substrate daunorubicin. To understand the structural basis for inhibitory activity and guide the design of more potent Pgp inhibitors, we have performed a three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship model using the comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA). The most salient features of these requirements are in the region of the substituents at the C-2, C-3, and C-8 positions, which seem to be critical for determining the overall effectiveness of sesquiterpenes as Pgp inhibitors. PMID:17850057

Reyes, Carolina P; Muñoz-Martínez, Francisco; Torrecillas, Ivan R; Mendoza, Cristina R; Gamarro, Francisco; Bazzocchi, Isabel L; Núñez, Marvin J; Pardo, Leonardo; Castanys, Santiago; Campillo, Mercedes; Jiménez, Ignacio A

2007-10-01

239

The antibacterial properties of 6-tuliposide B. Synthesis of 6-tuliposide B analogues and structure-activity relationship.  

PubMed

6-Tuliposide B is a secondary metabolite occurring specifically in tulip anthers. Recently, a potent antibacterial activity of 6-tuliposide B has been reported. However, its molecular target has not yet been established, nor its action mechanism. To shed light on such issues, 6-tuliposide B and tulipalin B analogues were synthesized and a structure-activity relationship (SAR) was examined using a broad panel of bacterial strains. As the results of SAR among a total of 25 compounds, only tulipalin B and the compounds having 3',4'-dihydroxy-2'-methylenebutanoate (DHMB) moieties showed any significant antibacterial activity. Moreover, the 3'R analogues of these compounds displayed essentially the same activities as 6-tuliposide B and the structure of the 3'R-DMBA moiety was the same as that of the proposed active moiety of cnicin. These results suggest that 6-tuliposide B has the same action mechanism as proposed for cnicin and bacterial MurA is one of the major molecular targets of 6-tuliposide B. PMID:19939419

Shigetomi, Kengo; Shoji, Kazuaki; Mitsuhashi, Shinya; Ubukata, Makoto

2010-02-01

240

Validation of protein-based alignment in 3D quantitative structure-activity relationships with CoMFA models.  

PubMed

The predictive capabilities of protein-based alignment (PBA) and structure-based alignment (SBA) comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) models have been compared. 3D quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D QSAR) models have been derived for a series of N-benzylpiperidine derivatives which are potent acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors interesting for Alzheimer's disease. To establish a comparison with the classical SBA procedure, different assay models were derived by superposing ligand conformers that are docked to the AChE active site and by using the most active compound as the reference one. A Kohonen self organizing map (SOM) was applied to analyse the molecular diversity of the test set relative to that of the training set, in order to explain the influence of molecular diversity on the predictive power of the considered models. SBA 3D QSAR models have to be used to predict the inhibitory activity only for compounds belonging to subgroups included in the training set. The PBA 3D QSAR models appeared to have a higher predictability, even for compounds with a molecular diversity greater than that of the training set. This results from the fact that the protein helps to automatically select the active conformation which is fitting the 3D QSAR model. PMID:10733609

Golbraikh, A; Bernard, P; Chrétien, J R

2000-01-01

241

Structure-Activity Relationships of Novel Salicylaldehyde Isonicotinoyl Hydrazone (SIH) Analogs: Iron Chelation, Anti-Oxidant and Cytotoxic Properties  

PubMed Central

Salicylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (SIH) is a lipophilic, tridentate iron chelator with marked anti-oxidant and modest cytotoxic activity against neoplastic cells. However, it has poor stability in an aqueous environment due to the rapid hydrolysis of its hydrazone bond. In this study, we synthesized a series of new SIH analogs (based on previously described aromatic ketones with improved hydrolytic stability). Their structure-activity relationships were assessed with respect to their stability in plasma, iron chelation efficacy, redox effects and cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells. Furthermore, studies assessed the cytotoxicity of these chelators and their ability to afford protection against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative injury in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. The ligands with a reduced hydrazone bond, or the presence of bulky alkyl substituents near the hydrazone bond, showed severely limited biological activity. The introduction of a bromine substituent increased ligand-induced cytotoxicity to both cancer cells and H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. A similar effect was observed when the phenolic ring was exchanged with pyridine (i.e., changing the ligating site from O, N, O to N, N, O), which led to pro-oxidative effects. In contrast, compounds with long, flexible alkyl chains adjacent to the hydrazone bond exhibited specific cytotoxic effects against MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells and low toxicity against H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. Hence, this study highlights important structure-activity relationships and provides insight into the further development of aroylhydrazone iron chelators with more potent and selective anti-neoplastic effects. PMID:25393531

Pot??ková, Eliška; Hrušková, Kate?ina; Bureš, Jan; Kova?íková, Petra; Špirková, Iva A.; Pravdíková, Kate?ina; Kolbabová, Lucie; Hergeselová, Tereza; Hašková, Pavlína; Jansová, Hana; Machá?ek, Miloslav; Jirkovská, Anna; Richardson, Vera; Lane, Darius J. R.; Kalinowski, Danuta S.; Richardson, Des R.; Vávrová, Kate?ina; Šim?nek, Tomáš

2014-01-01

242

Synthesis and structure-activity relationship study of chemical probes as hypoxia induced factor-1?/malate dehydrogenase 2 inhibitors.  

PubMed

A structure-activity relationship study of hypoxia inducible factor-1? inhibitor 3-aminobenzoic acid-based chemical probes, which were previously identified to bind to mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase 2, was performed to provide a better understanding of the pharmacological effects of LW6 and its relation to hypoxia inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) and malate dehydrogenase 2 (MDH2). A variety of multifunctional probes including the benzophenone or the trifluoromethyl diazirine for photoaffinity labeling and click reaction were prepared and evaluated for their biological activity using a cell-based HRE-luciferase assay as well as a MDH2 assay in human colorectal cancer HCT116 cells. Among them, the diazirine probe 4a showed strong inhibitory activity against both HIF-1? and MDH2. Significantly, the inhibitory effect of the probes on HIF-1? activity was consistent with that of the MDH2 enzyme assay, which was further confirmed by the effect on in vitro binding activity to recombinant human MDH2, oxygen consumption, ATP production, and AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. Competitive binding modes of LW6 and probe 4a to MDH2 were also demonstrated. PMID:25356789

Naik, Ravi; Won, Misun; Ban, Hyun Seung; Bhattarai, Deepak; Xu, Xuezhen; Eo, Yumi; Hong, Ye Seul; Singh, Sarbjit; Choi, Yongseok; Ahn, Hee-Chul; Lee, Kyeong

2014-11-26

243

Virulence Factor-activity Relationships: Workshop Summary  

EPA Science Inventory

The concept or notion of virulence factor?activity relationships (VFAR) is an approach for identifying an analogous process to the use of qualitative structure?activity relationships (QSAR) for identifying new microbial contaminants. In QSAR, it is hypothesized that, for new chem...

244

Uniform 2 nm gold nanoparticles supported on iron oxides as active catalysts for CO oxidation reaction: structure-activity relationship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uniform Au nanoparticles (~2 nm) with narrow size-distribution (standard deviation: 0.5-0.6 nm) supported on both hydroxylated (Fe_OH) and dehydrated iron oxide (Fe_O) have been prepared by either deposition-precipitation (DP) or colloidal-deposition (CD) methods. Different structural and textural characterizations were applied to the dried, calcined and used gold-iron oxide samples. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) showed high homogeneity in the supported Au nanoparticles. The ex situ and in situ X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) characterization monitored the electronic and short-range local structure of active gold species. The synchrotron-based in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD), together with the corresponding temperature-programmed reduction by hydrogen (H2-TPR), indicated a structural evolution of the iron-oxide supports, correlating to their reducibility. An inverse order of catalytic activity between DP (Au/Fe_OH < Au/Fe_O) and CD (Au/Fe_OH > Au/Fe_O) was observed. Effective gold-support interaction results in a high activity for gold nanoparticles, locally generated by the sintering of dispersed Au atoms on the oxide support in the DP synthesis, while a hydroxylated surface favors the reactivity of externally introduced Au nanoparticles on Fe_OH support for the CD approach. This work reveals why differences in the synthetic protocol translate to differences in the catalytic performance of Au/FeOx catalysts with very similar structural characteristics in CO oxidation.

Guo, Yu; Gu, Dong; Jin, Zhao; Du, Pei-Pei; Si, Rui; Tao, Jing; Xu, Wen-Qian; Huang, Yu-Ying; Senanayake, Sanjaya; Song, Qi-Sheng; Jia, Chun-Jiang; Schüth, Ferdi

2015-03-01

245

Uniform 2 nm gold nanoparticles supported on iron oxides as active catalysts for CO oxidation reaction: structure-activity relationship.  

PubMed

Uniform Au nanoparticles (?2 nm) with narrow size-distribution (standard deviation: 0.5-0.6 nm) supported on both hydroxylated (Fe_OH) and dehydrated iron oxide (Fe_O) have been prepared by either deposition-precipitation (DP) or colloidal-deposition (CD) methods. Different structural and textural characterizations were applied to the dried, calcined and used gold-iron oxide samples. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) showed high homogeneity in the supported Au nanoparticles. The ex situ and in situ X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) characterization monitored the electronic and short-range local structure of active gold species. The synchrotron-based in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD), together with the corresponding temperature-programmed reduction by hydrogen (H2-TPR), indicated a structural evolution of the iron-oxide supports, correlating to their reducibility. An inverse order of catalytic activity between DP (Au/Fe_OH < Au/Fe_O) and CD (Au/Fe_OH > Au/Fe_O) was observed. Effective gold-support interaction results in a high activity for gold nanoparticles, locally generated by the sintering of dispersed Au atoms on the oxide support in the DP synthesis, while a hydroxylated surface favors the reactivity of externally introduced Au nanoparticles on Fe_OH support for the CD approach. This work reveals why differences in the synthetic protocol translate to differences in the catalytic performance of Au/FeOx catalysts with very similar structural characteristics in CO oxidation. PMID:25631762

Guo, Yu; Gu, Dong; Jin, Zhao; Du, Pei-Pei; Si, Rui; Tao, Jing; Xu, Wen-Qian; Huang, Yu-Ying; Senanayake, Sanjaya; Song, Qi-Sheng; Jia, Chun-Jiang; Schüth, Ferdi

2015-03-01

246

A Systematic Investigation of Quaternary Ammonium Ions as Asymmetric Phase Transfer Catalysts. Application of Quantitative Structure Activity/Selectivity Relationships  

PubMed Central

While the synthetic utility of asymmetric phase transfer catalysis continues to expand, the number of proven catalyst types and design criteria remains limited. At the origin of this scarcity is a lack in understanding of how catalyst structural features affect the rate and enantioselectivity of phase transfer catalyzed reactions. Described in this paper is the development of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) and -selectivity relationships (QSSR) for the alkylation of a protected glycine imine with libraries of quaternary ammonium ion catalysts. Catalyst descriptors including ammonium ion accessibility, interfacial adsorption affinity, and partition coefficient were found to correlate meaningfully with catalyst activity. The physical nature of the descriptors was rationalized through differing contributions of the interfacial and extraction mechanisms to the reaction under study. The variation in the observed enantioselectivity was rationalized employing a comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) using both the steric and electrostatic fields of the catalysts. A qualitative analysis of the developed model reveals preferred regions for catalyst binding to afford both configurations of the alkylated product. PMID:21446723

Denmark, Scott E.; Gould, Nathan D.; Wolf, Larry M.

2011-01-01

247

Thermodynamics of engineered gold binding peptides: establishing the structure-activity relationships.  

PubMed

Adsorption behavior of a gold binding peptide was experimentally studied to achieve kinetics and thermodynamics parameters toward understanding of the binding of an engineered peptide onto a solid metal surface. The gold-binding peptide, GBP1, was originally selected using a cell surface display library and contains 14 amino acid residues. In this work, single- and three-repeats of GBP1 were used to assess the effects of two parameters: molecular architecture versus secondary structure on adsorption on to gold substrate. The adsorption measurements were carried out using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy at temperatures ranging from 10 to 55 °C. At all temperatures, two different regimes of peptide adsorption were observed, which, based on the model, correspond to two sets of thermodynamics values. The values of enthalpy, ?H(ads), and entropy, ?S(ads), in these two regimes were determined using the van't Hoff approach and Gibbs-Helmholtz relationship. In general, the values of enthalpy for both peptides are negative indicating GBP1 binding to gold is an exothermic phenomenon and that the binding of three repeat gold binding peptide (3l-GBP1) is almost 5 times tighter than that for the single repeat (l-GBP1). More intriguing result is that the entropy of adsorption for the 3l-GBP1 is negative (-43.4 ± 8.5 cal/(mol K)), while that for the l-GBP1 is positive (10.90 ± 1.3 cal/(mol K)). Among a number of factors that synergistically contribute to the decrease of entropy, long-range ordered self-assembly of the 3l-GBP1 on gold surface is the most effective, probably through both peptide-solid and peptide-peptide intermolecular interactions. Additional adsorption experiments were conducted in the presence of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) to determine how the conformational structures of the biomolecules responded to the environmental perturbation. We found that the peptides differ in their conformational responses to the change in solution conditions; while l-GBP does not fold in the presence of TFE, 3l-GBP1 adopted two types of secondary structure (?-strand, ?-helix) and that peptide's binding to the solid is enhanced by the presence of low percentages of TFE solvent. Not only do these kinetics and thermodynamics results provide adsorption behavior and binding of genetically engineered peptides for inorganics (GEPI), but they could also provide considerable insights into fundamental understanding peptide molecular recognition and their selective specificity for the solids. Moreover, comprehensive work described herein suggests that multiple repeat forms of the solid binding peptides possess a conformational component that can be exploited to further tailor affinity and binding of a given sequence to a solid material followed by ordered assembly as a convenient tool in future practical applications. PMID:24892212

Seker, Urartu Ozgur Safak; Wilson, Brandon; Kulp, John L; Evans, John S; Tamerler, Candan; Sarikaya, Mehmet

2014-07-14

248

Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) dissipation in rhizosphere based on molecular structure and effect size.  

PubMed

Rhizoremediation is a significant form of bioremediation for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This study examined the role of molecular structure in determining the rhizosphere effect on PAHs dissipation. Effect size in meta-analysis was employed as activity dataset for building quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models and accumulative effect sizes of 16 PAHs were used for validation of these models. Based on the genetic algorithm combined with partial least square regression, models for comprehensive dataset, Poaceae dataset, and Fabaceae dataset were built. The results showed that information indices, calculated as information content of molecules based on the calculation of equivalence classes from the molecular graph, were the most important molecular structural indices for QSAR models of rhizosphere effect on PAHs dissipation. The QSAR model, based on the molecular structure indices and effect size, has potential to be used in studying and predicting the rhizosphere effect of PAHs dissipation. PMID:20537774

Ma, Bin; Chen, Huaihai; Xu, Minmin; Hayat, Tahir; He, Yan; Xu, Jianming

2010-08-01

249

Structure-activity relationship of 9-methylstreptimidone, a compound that induces apoptosis selectively in adult T-cell leukemia cells.  

PubMed

We previously reported that 9-methylstreptimidone, a piperidine compound isolated from a culture filtrate of Streptomyces, induces apoptosis selectively in adult T-cell leukemia cells. It was screened for a compound that inhibits LPS-induced NF-kappaB and NO production in mouse macrophages. However, 9-methystreptimidone is poorly obtained from the producing microorganism and difficult to synthesize. Therefore, in the present research, we studied the structure-activity relationship to look for new selective inhibitors. We found that the structure of the unsaturated hydrophobic portion of 9-methylstreptimidone was essential for the inhibition of LPS-induced NO production. Among the 9-methylstreptimidone-related compounds tested, (+/-)-4,alpha-diepi-streptovitacin A inhibited NO production in macrophage-like cells as potently as 9-methylstreptimidone and without cellular toxicity. Moreover, this compound selectively induced apoptosis in adult T-cell leukemia MT-1 cells. PMID:23035360

Takeiri, Masatoshi; Ota, Eisuke; Nishiyama, Shigeru; Kiyota, Hiromasa; Umezawa, Kazuo

2012-01-01

250

Theoretical investigations and density functional theory based quantitative structure-activity relationships model for novel cytotoxic platinum(IV) complexes.  

PubMed

Octahedral platinum(IV) complexes are promising candidates in the fight against cancer. In order to rationalize the further development of this class of compounds, detailed studies on their mechanisms of action, toxicity, and resistance must be provided and structure-activity relationships must be drawn. Herein, we report on theoretical and QSAR investigations of a series of 53 novel bis-, tris-, and tetrakis(carboxylato)platinum(IV) complexes, synthesized and tested for cytotoxicity in our laboratories. The hybrid DFT functional wb97x was used for optimization of the structure geometry and calculation of the descriptors. Reliable and robust QSAR models with good explanatory and predictive properties were obtained for both the cisplatin sensitive cell line CH1 and the intrinsically cisplatin resistant cell line SW480, with a set of four descriptors. PMID:23214999

Varbanov, Hristo P; Jakupec, Michael A; Roller, Alexander; Jensen, Frank; Galanski, Markus; Keppler, Bernhard K

2013-01-10

251

Structure–activity relationships of a small-molecule inhibitor of the PDZ domain of PICK1†  

PubMed Central

Recently, we described the first small-molecule inhibitor, (E)-ethyl 2-cyano-3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)acryloylcarbamate (1), of the PDZ domain of protein interacting with C?-kinase 1 (PICK1), a potential drug target against brain ischemia, pain and cocaine addiction. Herein, we explore structure–activity relationships of 1 by introducing subtle modifications of the acryloylcarbamate scaffold and variations of the substituents on this scaffold. The configuration around the double bond of 1 and analogues was settled by a combination of X-ray crystallography, NMR and density functional theory calculations. Thereby, docking studies were used to correlate biological affinities with structural considerations for ligand–protein interactions. The most potent analogue obtained in this study showed an improvement in affinity compared to 1 and is currently a lead in further studies of PICK1 inhibition. PMID:20668766

Bach, Anders; Stuhr-Hansen, Nicolai; Thorsen, Thor S.; Bork, Nicolai; Moreira, Irina S.; Frydenvang, Karla; Padrah, Shahrokh; Christensen, S. Brøgger; Madsen, Kenneth L.; Weinstein, Harel; Gether, Ulrik; Strømgaard, Kristian

2013-01-01

252

Kinetics and Quantitative Structure—Activity Relationship Study on the Degradation Reaction from Perfluorooctanoic Acid to Trifluoroacetic Acid  

PubMed Central

Investigation of the degradation kinetics of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) has been carried out to calculate rate constants of the main elementary reactions using the multichannel Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus theory and canonical variational transition state theory with small-curvature tunneling correction over a temperature range of 200~500 K. The Arrhenius equations of rate constants of elementary reactions are fitted. The decarboxylation is role step in the degradation mechanism of PFOA. For the perfluorinated carboxylic acids from perfluorooctanoic acid to trifluoroacetic acid, the quantitative structure–activity relationship of the decarboxylation was analyzed with the genetic function approximation method and the structure–activity model was constructed. The main parameters governing rate constants of the decarboxylation reaction from the eight-carbon chain to the two-carbon chain were obtained. As the structure–activity model shows, the bond length and energy of C1–C2 (RC1–C2 and EC1–C2) are positively correlated to rate constants, while the volume (V), the energy difference between EHOMO and ELUMO (?E), and the net atomic charges on atom C2 (QC2) are negatively correlated. PMID:25196516

Gong, Chen; Sun, Xiaomin; Zhang, Chenxi; Zhang, Xue; Niu, Junfeng

2014-01-01

253

Synthesis, Optimization and Structure-Activity Relationships of 3,5-Disubstituted Isoxazolines as New Anti-tuberculosis Agents  

PubMed Central

In the course of the development of a potent series of nitrofuranylamide anti-tuberculosis agents, we investigated if the exceptional activity resulted in part from the isoxazoline core and if it possessed any intrinsic anti-tuberculosis activity. This led to the discovery of an isoxazoline ester with appreciable anti-tuberculosis activity. In this study we explored the anti-tuberculosis structure activity relationship of the isoxazoline ester compound through systematic modification of the 3,5-di-substituted isoxazoline core. Two approaches were used: (i) modification of the potentially metabolically labile ester functionality at the 3-position with acids, amines, amides, reverse amides, alcohols, hydrazides, and 1,3,4-oxadiazoles; (ii) substitution of the distal benzyl piperazine ring in the 5-position of the isoxazoline ring with piperazyl-ureas, piperazyl-carbamates, biaryl systems, piperidines and morpholine. Attempts to replace the ester group at C-3 position of isoxazoline with a variety of bioisosteric head groups led to significant loss of the tuberculosis inhibition indicating that an ester is required for anti-tuberculosis activity. Optimization of the isoxazoline C5-position produced compounds with improved anti-tuberculosis activity, most notably the piperazyl-urea and piperazyl-carbamate analogs. PMID:18524421

Rakesh, Dianqing Sun; Lee, Robin B.; Tangallapally, Rajendra; Lee, Richard E.

2009-01-01

254

Cyclotide Structure–Activity Relationships: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches Linking Cytotoxic and Anthelmintic Activity to the Clustering of Physicochemical Forces  

PubMed Central

Cyclotides are a family of plant-derived proteins that are characterized by a cyclic backbone and a knotted disulfide topology. Their cyclic cystine knot (CCK) motif makes them exceptionally resistant to thermal, chemical, and enzymatic degradation. Cyclotides exert much of their biological activity via interactions with cell membranes. In this work, we qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the cytotoxic and anthelmintic membrane activities of cyclotides. The qualitative and quantitative models describe the potency of cyclotides using four simple physicochemical terms relevant to membrane contact. Specifically, surface areas of the cyclotides representing lipophilic and hydrogen bond donating properties were quantified and their distribution across the molecular surface was determined. The resulting quantitative structure-activity relation (QSAR) models suggest that the activity of the cyclotides is proportional to their lipophilic and positively charged surface areas, provided that the distribution of these surfaces is asymmetric. In addition, we qualitatively analyzed the physicochemical differences between the various cyclotide subfamilies and their effects on the cyclotides' orientation on the membrane and membrane activity. PMID:24682019

Park, Sungkyu; Strömstedt, Adam A.; Göransson, Ulf

2014-01-01

255

A structure-activity relationship study of catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitors combining molecular docking and 3D QSAR methods.  

PubMed

A panel of 92 catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors was used to examine the molecular interactions affecting their biological activity. COMT inhibitors are used as therapeutic agents in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, but there are limitations in the currently marketed compounds due to adverse side effects. This study combined molecular docking methods with three-dimensional structure-activity relationships (3D QSAR) to analyse possible interactions between COMT and its inhibitors, and to incite the design of new inhibitors. Comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and GRID/GOLPE models were made by using bioactive conformations from docking experiments, which yielded q2 values of 0.594 and 0.636, respectively. The docking results, the COMT X-ray structure, and the 3D QSAR models are in agreement with each other. The models suggest that an interaction between the inhibitor's catechol oxygens and the Mg2+ ion in the COMT active site is important. Both hydrogen bonding with Lys144, Asn170 and Glu199, and hydrophobic contacts with Trp38, Pro174 and Leu198 influence inhibitor binding. Docking suggests that a large R1 substituent of the catechol ring can form hydrophobic contacts with side chains of Val173, Leu198, Met201 and Val203 on the COMT surface. Our models propose that increasing steric volume of e.g. the diethylamine tail of entacapone is favourable for COMT inhibitory activity. PMID:15124929

Tervo, Anu J; Nyrönen, Tommi H; Rönkkö, Toni; Poso, Antti

2003-12-01

256

Structure-activity relationships of a novel pyranopyridine series of Gram-negative bacterial efflux pump inhibitors.  

PubMed

Recently we described a novel pyranopyridine inhibitor (MBX2319) of RND-type efflux pumps of the Enterobacteriaceae. MBX2319 (3,3-dimethyl-5-cyano-8-morpholino-6-(phenethylthio)-3,4-dihydro-1H-pyrano[3,4-c]pyridine) is structurally distinct from other known Gram-negative efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs), such as 1-(1-naphthylmethyl)-piperazine (NMP), phenylalanylarginine-?-naphthylamide (PA?N), D13-9001, and the pyridopyrimidine derivatives. Here, we report the synthesis and biological evaluation of 60 new analogs of MBX2319 that were designed to probe the structure activity relationships (SARs) of the pyranopyridine scaffold. The results of these studies produced a molecular activity map of the scaffold, which identifies regions that are critical to efflux inhibitory activities and those that can be modified to improve potency, metabolic stability and solubility. Several compounds, such as 22d-f, 22i and 22k, are significantly more effective than MBX2319 at potentiating the antibacterial activity of levofloxacin and piperacillin against Escherichia coli. PMID:25818767

Nguyen, Son T; Kwasny, Steven M; Ding, Xiaoyuan; Cardinale, Steven C; McCarthy, Courtney T; Kim, Hong-Suk; Nikaido, Hiroshi; Peet, Norton P; Williams, John D; Bowlin, Terry L; Opperman, Timothy J

2015-05-01

257

Isomer-specific biodegradation of nonylphenol in an activated sludge bioreactor and structure-biodegradability relationship.  

PubMed

Nonylphenol (NP), one of the priority hazardous substances, is in fact a mixture of numerous isomers. It is inconclusive whether or not biodegradation during wastewater treatment process is isomer-specific, leading to the environmental release of NP in different isomer profiles. In this study, we evaluated the isomer selectivity of 19 NP isomers in a laboratory-scale continuous flow conventional activated sludge bioreactor under various operational conditions. The removal efficiency of NP isomers ranged from 90 to 99%, depending on the operational conditions and isomer structures. Isomer selective biodegradation resulted in the increase of composition of recalcitrant isomers, such as, NP???a/b, NP???a and NP??? in the effluent. Moreover, biodegradability was related to the bulkiness of ?-substituents and followed ?-dimethyl > ?-ethyl-?-methyl > ?-methyl-?-n-propyl > ?-iso-propyl-?-methyl. Steric effect index, a quantitative descriptor of steric hindrance, was linearly correlated with residues of NP isomers in the effluent (R² = 0.76). Decrease of temperature to 10 °C decreased the overall biodegradability and also enhanced the relative enrichment of recalcitrant isomers. These findings suggest that isomer compositions of NP entering the environment may be different from those in technical mixtures and that isomeric selectivity should be taken into account to better understand the occurrence, fate, and ecological risks of NP. PMID:25462736

Lu, Zhijiang; Reif, Rubén; Gan, Jay

2015-01-01

258

Structure-activity relationship study of arbidol derivatives as inhibitors of chikungunya virus replication.  

PubMed

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a mosquito-borne arthrogenic Alphavirus, causes an acute febrile illness in humans, that is, accompanied by severe joint pains. In many cases, the infection leads to persistent arthralgia, which may last for weeks to several years. The re-emergence of this infection in the early 2000s was exemplified by numerous outbreaks in the eastern hemisphere. Since then, the virus is rapidly spreading. Currently, no drugs have been approved or are in development for the treatment of CHIKV, which makes this viral infection particularly interesting for academic medicinal chemistry efforts. Several molecules have already been identified that inhibit CHIKV replication in phenotypic virus-cell-based assays. One of these is arbidol, a molecule that already has been licensed for the treatment of influenza A and B virus infections. For structural optimization, a dedicated libraries of 43 indole-based derivatives were evaluated leading to more potent analogues (IIIe and IIIf) with anti-chikungunya virus (CHIKV) activities higher than those of the other derivatives, including the lead compound, and with a selective index of inhibition 13.2 and 14.6, respectively, higher than that of ARB (4.6). PMID:25282648

Di Mola, Antonia; Peduto, Antonella; La Gatta, Annalisa; Delang, Leen; Pastorino, Boris; Neyts, Johan; Leyssen, Pieter; de Rosa, Mario; Filosa, Rosanna

2014-11-01

259

Structure-activity relationships for serotonin transporter and dopamine receptor selectivity.  

PubMed

Antipsychotic medications have a diverse pharmacology with affinity for serotonergic, dopaminergic, adrenergic, histaminergic and cholinergic receptors. Their clinical use now also includes the treatment of mood disorders, thought to be mediated by serotonergic receptor activity. The aim of our study was to characterise the molecular properties of antipsychotic agents, and to develop a model that would indicate molecular specificity for the dopamine (D(2)) receptor and the serotonin (5-HT) transporter. Back-propagation artificial neural networks (ANNs) were trained on a dataset of 47 ligands categorically assigned antidepressant or antipsychotic utility. The structure of each compound was encoded with 63 calculated molecular descriptors. ANN parameters including hidden neurons and input descriptors were optimised based on sensitivity analyses, with optimum models containing between four and 14 descriptors. Predicted binding preferences were in excellent agreement with clinical antipsychotic or antidepressant utility. Validated models were further tested by use of an external prediction set of five drugs with unknown mechanism of action. The SAR models developed revealed the importance of simple molecular characteristics for differential binding to the D(2) receptor and the 5-HT transporter. These included molecular size and shape, solubility parameters, hydrogen donating potential, electrostatic parameters, stereochemistry and presence of nitrogen. The developed models and techniques employed are expected to be useful in the rational design of future therapeutic agents. PMID:19442217

Agatonovic-Kustrin, Snezana; Davies, Paul; Turner, Joseph V

2009-05-01

260

Substituted 4-(Thiazol-5-yl)-2-(phenylamino)pyrimidines Are Highly Active CDK9 Inhibitors: Synthesis, X-ray Crystal Structures, Structure–Activity Relationship, and Anticancer Activities  

PubMed Central

Cancer cells often have a high demand for antiapoptotic proteins in order to resist programmed cell death. CDK9 inhibition selectively targets survival proteins and reinstates apoptosis in cancer cells. We designed a series of 4-thiazol-2-anilinopyrimidine derivatives with functional groups attached to the C5-position of the pyrimidine or to the C4-thiazol moiety and investigated their effects on CDK9 potency and selectivity. One of the most selective compounds, 12u inhibits CDK9 with IC50 = 7 nM and shows over 80-fold selectivity for CDK9 versus CDK2. X-ray crystal structures of 12u bound to CDK9 and CDK2 provide insights into the binding modes. This work, together with crystal structures of selected inhibitors in complex with both enzymes described in a companion paper,34 provides a rationale for the observed SAR. 12u demonstrates potent anticancer activity against primary chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells with a therapeutic window 31- and 107-fold over those of normal B- and T-cells. PMID:23301767

2013-01-01

261

Structure–Activity Relationship Study Reveals ML240 and ML241 as Potent and Selective Inhibitors of p97 ATPase  

PubMed Central

To discover more potent p97 inhibitors, we carried out a structure–activity relationship study of the quinazoline scaffold previously identified from our HTS campaigns. Two improved inhibitors, ML240 and ML241, inhibit p97 ATPase with IC50 values of 100 nm. Both compounds inhibited degradation of a p97-dependent but not a p97-independent proteasome substrate in a dual-reporter cell line. They also impaired the endoplasmic-reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. Unexpectedly, ML240 potently stimulated accumulation of LC3-II within minutes, inhibited cancer cell growth, and rapidly mobilized the executioner caspases 3 and 7, whereas ML241 did not. The behavior of ML240 suggests that disruption of the protein homeostasis function of p97 leads to more rapid activation of apoptosis than is observed with a proteasome inhibitor. Further characterization revealed that ML240 has broad antiproliferative activity toward the NCI-60 panel of cancer cell lines, but slightly lower activity toward normal cells. ML240 also synergizes with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 to kill multiple colon cancer cell lines. Meanwhile, both probes have low off-target activity toward a panel of protein kinases and central nervous system targets. Our results nominate ML240 as a promising starting point for the development of a novel agent for the chemotherapy of cancer, and provide a rationale for developing pathway-specific p97 inhibitors. PMID:23316025

Chou, Tsui-Fen; Li, Kelin; Frankowski, Kevin J; Schoenen, Frank J; Deshaies, Raymond J

2013-01-01

262

Structure-activity relationships of clonidine- and tolazoline-like compounds at histamine and alpha-adrenoceptor sites.  

PubMed Central

1 Thirty clonidine- and tolazoline-like compounds with differing phenyl ring substituents were tested for agonistic actions at histamine H1-receptors (guinea-pig ileum), histamine H2-receptors (guinea-pig driven right ventricular strips), post-junctional alpha-adrenoceptors (rat desheathed was deferens) and pre-junctional alpha-adrenoceptors (inhibition of sympathetic stimulation in guinea-pig driven left atria). 2 All compounds were inactive at histamine H1-receptors, while 21 of the 30 compounds displayed varying stimulant activity at H2-receptors. 3 At post-junctional alpha-receptors all 30 compounds produced stimulant actions, whereas at prejunctional alpha-receptors the compounds displayed either agonistic or antagonistic actions. 4 Thus structure-activity-relationships (SAR) could only be validated for histamine H2- and post-junctional alpha-receptor effects. These studies show that the most potent compounds are those with 2,6-phenyl substituents in which rotation is restricted so that the two rings are aplanar. Electronic effects of the substituents have a greater influence on activity at H2- than at alpha-receptors. 5 The major difference in SAR involves the influence of substituents in the 3, 4 or 5 positions on the phenyl ring. The presence of these substituents abolish significant activity at H2-receptors, while alpha-receptor stimulant activity is retained. PMID:6254596

Malta, E.; Ong, J. S.; Raper, C.; Tawa, P. E.; Vaughan, G. N.

1980-01-01

263

Structure–Activity Relationships for Three Macrolide Antibiotics in Haemophilus influenzae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prior study examining differences in the activities of erythromycin and azithromycin on cellular functions in the Gram-negative pathogen, Haemophilus influenzae, revealed a marked difference in their inhibitory activities. The study revealed that protein synthesis and 50S ribosomal subunit assembly were equal targets for inhibition by azithromycin while erythromycin was a preferential inhibitor of translation. This contrast in inhibitory activities

Susan Mabe; Jessica Eller; W. Scott Champney

2004-01-01

264

Molecular determinants for improved activity at PPAR?: structure-activity relationship of pirinixic acid derivatives, docking study and site-directed mutagenesis of PPAR?.  

PubMed

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are attractive targets for the treatment of the metabolic syndrome. Especially a combination of PPAR? and PPAR? agonistic activity seems worthwhile to be pursued. Herein we present the design and synthesis of a series of pirinixic acid derivatives as potent PPAR? particularly dual PPAR?/? agonists with 2-((4-chloro-6-((4-(phenylamino)phenyl)amino)pyrimidin-2-yl)thio)octanoicacid having the highest potential. Our investigations based on molecular docking and structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies elucidated structural determinants affecting the potency at PPAR?. A diphenylamine-scaffold seems to play a key role. Careful in silico analysis revealed an essential role for a hydrogen bond between the diphenylamine and a water cluster. We confirmed this hypothesis using a mutated PPAR? LBD in our transactivation assay to disrupt the water cluster and to validate the proposed interaction. PMID:25022880

Lamers, Christina; Dittrich, Michaela; Steri, Ramona; Proschak, Ewgenij; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred

2014-08-15

265

Immunomodulatory action of triterpene glycosides isolated from the sea cucumber Actinocucumis typica. Structure-activity relationships.  

PubMed

Stimulation of lysosomal activity and ROS formation in mouse peritoneal macrophages by five triterpene glycosides, typicosides A1 (1), A2 (2), B1 (3), C1 (4) and C2 (5) has been studied and compared with their cytotoxic activities. Glycosides 1-3 possess moderate activities, but the most cytotoxic glycoside 5 is not active. Typicoside C1 (4), with low toxicity, was proved to be the most active concerning stimulation of ROS formation. This is the first example of a triterpene glycoside from sea cucumbers with low cytotoxicity, but which demonstrates a strong immunostimulatory effect on mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro. PMID:25115075

Pislyagin, Evgeny A; Aminin, Dmitry L; Silchenko, Alexandra S; Avilov, Sergey A; Andryjashchenko, Pelageya V; Kalinin, Vladimir I; Padmakumar, Krishna

2014-06-01

266

Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationship Studies of HIV-1 Virion Infectivity Factor (Vif) Inhibitors that Block Viral Replication  

PubMed Central

The HIV-1 Vif protein, essential for in vivo viral replication, protects the virus from innate antiviral cellular factor APOBEC3G (A3G), and is an attractive target for developing antiviral therapeutics. Here we have evaluated the structure-activity relationships of RN18, a small molecule recently identified as an inhibitor of Vif function that blocks viral replication only in non-permissive cells expressing A3G, by inhibiting Vif-A3G interactions. Microwave-assisted cross-coupling reactions were developed to prepare a series of RN18 analogues with diverse linkages and substitutions on the phenyl rings. A dual cell-based assay system was used to assess antiviral activity against wild-type HIV-1 in both non-permissive (H9) and permissive (MT-4) cells that also allowed evaluation of specificity. In general, variations of phenyl substitutions were detrimental for antiviral potency and specificity, but isosteric replacements of amide and ether linkages were relatively well tolerated. These SAR data define structural requirements for Vif-specific activity, identify new compounds with improved antiviral potency and specificity, and provide leads for further exploration to develop new antiviral therapeutics. PMID:22555953

Ali, Akbar; Wang, Jinhua; Nathans, Robin S.; Cao, Hong; Sharova, Natalia; Stevenson, Mario; Rana, Tariq M.

2012-01-01

267

Rational Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (RQSAR) Screen for PXR and CAR Isoform-Specific Nuclear Receptor Ligands  

PubMed Central

Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) are closely related orphan nuclear receptor proteins that share several ligands and target overlapping sets of genes involved in homeostasis and all phases of drug metabolism. CAR and PXR are involved in the development of certain diseases, including diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity. Ligand screens for these receptors so far have typically focused on steroid hormone analogs with pharmacophore-based approaches, only to find relatively few new hits. Multiple CAR isoforms have been detected in human liver, with the most abundant being the constitutively active reference, CAR1, and the ligand-dependent isoform CAR3. It has been assumed that any compound that binds CAR1 should also activate CAR3, and so CAR3 can be used as a ligand-activated surrogate for CAR1 studies. The possibility of CAR3-specific ligands has not, so far, been addressed. To investigate the differences between CAR1, CAR3 and PXR, and to look for more CAR ligands that may be of use in quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies, we performed a luciferase transactivation assay screen of 60 mostly non-steroid compounds. Known active compounds with different core chemistries were chosen as starting points and structural variants were rationally selected for screening. Distinct differences in agonist versus inverse agonist/antagonist effects were seen in 49 compounds that had some ligand effect on at least one receptor and 18 that had effects on all three receptors; eight were CAR1 ligands only, three were CAR3 only ligands and four affected PXR only. This work provides evidence for new CAR ligands, some of which have CAR3-specific effects, and provides observational data on CAR and PXR ligands with which to inform in silico strategies. Compounds that demonstrated unique activity on any one receptor are potentially valuable diagnostic tools for the investigation of in vivo molecular targets. PMID:20869355

Dring, Ann M.; Anderson, Linnea E.; Qamar, Saima; Stoner, Matthew A.

2010-01-01

268

Ethyl Cinnamate Derivatives as Promising High-Efficient Acaricides against Psoroptes cuniculi: Synthesis, Bioactivity and Structure-Activity Relationship.  

PubMed

This paper reported the synthesis, structure-activity relationship (SAR) and acaricidal activity in vitro against Psoroptes cuniculi, a mange mite, of 25 ethyl cinnamate derivatives. All target compounds were synthesized and elucidated by means of MS, (1)H- and (13)C-NMR analysis. The results showed that 24 out of 25 tested compounds at 1.0?mg/mL demonstrated acaricidal activity in varying degrees. Among them, 6, 15, 26, 27 and 30 showed significant activity with median lethal concentration values (LC50) of 89.3, 119.0, 39.2, 29.8 and 41.2?µg/mL, respectively, which were 2.1- to 8.3-fold the activity of ivermectin (LC50=247.4?µg/mL), a standard drug in the treatment of Psoroptes cuniculi. Compared with ivermectin, with a median lethal time value (LT50) of 8.9?h, 27 and 30 showed smaller LT50 values of 7.9 and 1.3?h, respectively, whereas 6, 15 and 26 showed slightly larger LT50 values of 10.6, 11.0 and 10.4?h at 4.5?µmol/mL. SARs showed that the presence of o-NO2 or m-NO2 on the benzene ring significantly improved the activity, whereas the introduction of a hydroxy, methoxy, acetoxy, methylenedioxy, bromo or chloro group reduced the activity. (E)-Cinnamates were more effective than their (Z)-isomer. Nevertheless, the carbon-carbon double bond in the acrylic ester moiety was proven not to be essential to improve the activity of cinnamic acid esters. Thus, the results strongly indicate that cinnamate derivatives, especially their dihydro derivatives, should be promising candidates or lead compounds for the development of novel acaricides for the effective control of animal or human acariasis. PMID:25739666

Zhang, Bingyu; Lv, Chao; Li, Weibo; Cui, Zhiming; Chen, Dongdong; Cao, Fangjun; Miao, Fang; Zhou, Le

2015-04-01

269

Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationship Studies of Furan-ring Fused Chalcones as Antiproliferative Agents.  

PubMed

As part of our continuing investigation of flavonoid derivatives as potential anticancer substances, the synthesis of 25 cinnamoyl derivatives of benzofuran as furan-fused chalcones was carried-out and these compounds were further evaluated for their antiproliferative activity towards HL60 promyelocytic leukemia cells. In comparison with 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone, attachment of a furan moiety on the A-ring enhanced activity by more than twofold. Benzofurans may be useful in the design of biologically active flavonoids. PMID:25667461

Saito, Yusuke; Kishimoto, Maho; Yoshizawa, Yuko; Kawaii, Satoru

2015-02-01

270

Structure–activity relationships for dipeptide prodrugs of acyclovir: Implications for prodrug design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of water-soluble dipeptide ester prodrugs of the antiviral acyclovir (ACV) were evaluated for their chemical stability, cytotoxicity, and antiviral activity against several strains of Herpes Simplex-1 and -2, vaccinia, vesicular stomatitis, cytomegalovirus and varicella zoster viruses. ACV dipeptide esters were very active against herpetic viruses, independently of the rate at which they liberate the parent drug. Their minimum

Cledir R. Santos; Rita Capela; Cláudia S. G. P. Pereira; Emília Valente; Luís Gouveia; Christophe Pannecouque; Erik De Clercq; Rui Moreira; Paula Gomes

2009-01-01

271

Quantitative structure-activity relationships for 5-substituted 8-hydroxyquinolines as inhibitors of dental plaque.  

PubMed

Fourteen 8-hydroxyquinolines were tested for antiplaque activity by measuring their minimum inhibitory concentrations [MIC (M)] against Streptococcus mutans No. 6715. Linear regression analysis was conducted with the MIC (M) values and hydrophobic (log P), electronic (beta, pKaOH, pKaN), and steric [molar refractivity (MR), molecular weight (mol wt)] parameters. The best correlation (r2 = 0.90) was obtained with MR, log P, and beta. The smaller the steric contribution of the 5-substituent, the more active the compound. The parent 8-hydroxyquinoline was the most active. The negative contribution toward activity by 5-substituents larger than hydrogen can be overcome by the positive contributions of groups that are lipophilic and electron withdrawing; for example, the 5-chloro derivative is as active as the parent 8-hydroxyquinolines. PMID:401891

Warner, V D; Musto, J D; Sane, J N; Kim, K H; Grunewald, G L

1977-01-01

272

Quantitative structure-activity relationships by evolved neural networks for the inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase by pyrimidines.  

PubMed

Evolutionary computation provides a useful method for training neural networks in the face of multiple local optima. This paper begins with a description of methods for quantitative structure activity relationships (QSAR). An overview of artificial neural networks for pattern recognition problems such as QSAR is presented and extended with the description of how evolutionary computation can be used to evolve neural networks. Experiments are conducted to examine QSAR for the inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase by pyrimidines using evolved neural networks. Results indicate the utility of evolutionary algorithms and neural networks for the predictive task at hand. Furthermore, results that are comparable or perhaps better than those published previously were obtained using only a small fraction of the previously required degrees of freedom. PMID:11888662

Landavazo, Dana G; Fogel, Gary B; Fogel, David B

2002-02-01

273

Human uric acid transporter 1 (hURAT1): an inhibitor structure-activity relationship (SAR) study.  

PubMed

The current study describes the chemical synthesis of a series of (2-ethylbenzofuran-3-yl)(substituted-phenyl)methanone compounds and their subsequent in vitro testing via oocytes expressing hURAT1. The experimental data support the notion that a potent hURAT1 inhibitor requires an anion (i.e., a formal negative charge) to interact with the positively charged hURAT1 binding pocket. An anion appears to be a primary requirement in order to be a hURAT1 substrate (i.e., urate) or inhibitor. We discuss the inhibitor structure-activity relationship and how electronically donating or withdrawing groups attached to the B-ring can decrease or increase inhibitory potency, respectively. PMID:22132992

Wempe, M F; Quade, B; Jutabha, P; Iwen, T; Frick, M; Rice, P J; Wakui, S; Endou, H

2011-12-01

274

Topological study on the toxicity of ionic liquids on Vibrio fischeri by the quantitative structure-activity relationship method.  

PubMed

As environmentally friendly solvents, ionic liquids (ILs) are unlikely to act as air contaminants or inhalation toxins resulting from their negligible vapor pressure and excellent thermal stability. However, they can be potential water contaminants because of their considerable solubility in water; therefore, a proper toxicological assessment of ILs is essential. The environmental fate of ILs is studied by quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) method. A multiple linear regression (MLR) model is obtained by topological method using toxicity data of 157 ILs on Vibrio fischeri, which are composed of 74 cations and 22 anions. The topological index developed in our research group is used for predicting the V. fischeri toxicity for the first time. The MLR model is precise for estimating LogEC50 of ILs on V. fischeri with square of correlation coefficient (R(2))=0.908 and the average absolute error (AAE)=0.278. PMID:25603290

Yan, Fangyou; Shang, Qiaoyan; Xia, Shuqian; Wang, Qiang; Ma, Peisheng

2015-04-01

275

Structure-activity relationships of oxysterol-derived pharmacological chaperones for Niemann-Pick type C1 protein.  

PubMed

Niemann-Pick disease type C is a fatal neurodegenerative disease, and its major cause is mutations in NPC1 gene. This gene encodes NPC1 protein, a late endosomal polytopic membrane protein required for intracellular cholesterol trafficking. One prevalent mutation (I1061T) has been shown to cause a folding defect, which results in failure of endosomal localization of the protein, leading to loss-of-function phenotype. We have previously demonstrated that several oxysterols and their derivatives act as pharmacological chaperones; binding of these compounds to NPC1(I1061T) mutant protein corrects the localization/maturation defect of the mutant protein. Here, we disclose detailed structure-activity relationships of oxysterol derivatives as pharmacological chaperones for NPC1(I1061T) mutant. PMID:24928400

Ohgane, Kenji; Karaki, Fumika; Noguchi-Yachide, Tomomi; Dodo, Kosuke; Hashimoto, Yuichi

2014-08-01

276

Structure activity relationship of phenolic diterpenes from Salvia officinalis as activators of the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 pathway  

PubMed Central

Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor known to activate cytoprotective genes which may be useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative disease. In order to better understand the structure activity relationship of phenolic diterpenes from Salvia officinalis L., we isolated carnosic acid, carnosol, epirosmanol, rosmanol, 12-methoxy-carnosic acid, sageone, and carnosaldehyde using polyamide column, centrifugal partition chromatography, and semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography. Isolated compounds were screened in-vitro for their ability to active the Nrf2 and general cellular toxicity using mouse primary cortical cultures. All compounds except 12-methoxy-carnosic acid were able to activate the antioxidant response element. Furthermore both carnosol and carnoasldehyde were able to induce Nrf2-dependent gene expression as well as protect mouse primary cortical neuronal cultures from H2O2 induced cell death. PMID:23507152

Fischedick, Justin T; Standiford, Miranda; Johnson, Delinda A.; Johnson, Jeffrey A.

2013-01-01

277

Structure activity relationship of phenolic diterpenes from Salvia officinalis as activators of the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 pathway.  

PubMed

Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor known to activate cytoprotective genes which may be useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative disease. In order to better understand the structure activity relationship of phenolic diterpenes from Salvia officinalis L., we isolated carnosic acid, carnosol, epirosmanol, rosmanol, 12-methoxy-carnosic acid, sageone, and carnosaldehyde using polyamide column, centrifugal partition chromatography, and semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography. Isolated compounds were screened in vitro for their ability to active the Nrf2 and general cellular toxicity using mouse primary cortical cultures. All compounds except 12-methoxy-carnosic acid were able to activate the antioxidant response element. Furthermore both carnosol and carnoasldehyde were able to induce Nrf2-dependent gene expression as well as protect mouse primary cortical neuronal cultures from H(2)O(2) induced cell death. PMID:23507152

Fischedick, Justin T; Standiford, Miranda; Johnson, Delinda A; Johnson, Jeffrey A

2013-05-01

278

Structure–Activity Relationships among Antifungal Nylon-3 Polymers: Identification of Materials Active against Drug-Resistant Strains of Candida albicans  

PubMed Central

Fungal infections are a major challenge to human health that is heightened by pathogen resistance to current therapeutic agents. Previously, we were inspired by host-defense peptides to develop nylon-3 polymers (poly-?-peptides) that are toxic toward the fungal pathogen Candida albicans but exert little effect on mammalian cells. Based on subsequent analysis of structure–activity relationships among antifungal nylon-3 polymers, we have now identified readily prepared cationic homopolymers active against strains of C. albicans that are resistant to the antifungal drugs fluconazole and amphotericin B. These nylon-3 polymers are nonhemolytic. In addition, we have identified cationic–hydrophobic copolymers that are highly active against a second fungal pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans, and moderately active against a third pathogen, Aspergillus fumigatus. PMID:24606327

2015-01-01

279

Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship study on antioxidant capacity of curcumin analogues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) was performed on a set of 27 curcumin-like diarylpentanoid analogues with the radical scavenging activities. A significant cross-validated correlation coefficient Q2 (0.784), SEP (0.042) for CoMSIA were obtained, indicating the statistical significance of the correlation. Further we adopt a rational approach toward the selection of substituents at various positions in our scaffold,and finally find the favored and disfavoured regions for the enhanced antioxidative activity. The results have been used as a guide to design compounds that, potentially, have better activity against oxidative damage.

Chen, Bohong; Zhu, Zhibo; Chen, Min; Dong, Wenqi; Li, Zhen

2014-03-01

280

Gedunin, a Novel Hsp90 Inhibitor: Semisynthesis of Derivatives and Preliminary Structure–Activity Relationships  

PubMed Central

Gedunin (1), a tetranortriterpenoid isolated from the Indian neem tree (Azadirachta indica), was recently shown to manifest anticancer activity via inhibition of the 90 kDa heat shock protein (Hsp90) folding machinery and to induce the degradation of Hsp90-dependent client proteins similar to other Hsp90 inhibitors. The mechanism of action by which gedunin induces client protein degradation remains undetermined, however, prior studies have demonstrated that it does not bind competitively versus ATP. In an effort to further probe the mechanism of action, 19 semisynthetic derivatives of gedunin were prepared and their antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 and SkBr3 breast cancer cells determined. Although no compound was found to exhibit antiproliferative activity more effective than the natural product, functionalities critical for antiproliferative activity have been identified. PMID:18816111

Brandt, Gary E. L.; Schmidt, Matthew D.; Prisinzano, Thomas E.; Blagg, Brian S. J.

2010-01-01

281

Design, synthesis and structure?activity relationships of novel biarylamine-based Met kinase inhibitors  

SciTech Connect

Biarylamine-based inhibitors of Met kinase have been identified. Lead compounds demonstrate nanomolar potency in Met kinase biochemical assays and significant activity in the Met-driven GTL-16 human gastric carcinoma cell line. X-ray crystallography revealed that these compounds adopt a bioactive conformation, in the kinase domain, consistent with that previously seen with 2-pyridone-based Met kinase inhibitors. Compound 9b demonstrated potent in vivo antitumor activity in the GTL-16 human tumor xenograft model.

Williams, David K.; Chen, Xiao-Tao; Tarby, Christine; Kaltenbach, Robert; Cai, Zhen-Wei; Tokarski, John S.; An, Yongmi; Sack, John S.; Wautlet, Barri; Gullo-Brown, Johnni; Henley, Benjamin J.; Jeyaseelan, Robert; Kellar, Kristen; Manne, Veeraswamy; Trainor, George L.; Lombardo, Louis J.; Fargnoli, Joseph; Borzilleri, Robert M. (BMS)

2010-09-03

282

Structure-activity relationships of the hypertrehalosemic hormone from the cockroach Blaberus discoidalis Serville  

E-print Network

AMP in the fat body and activated the enzyme glycogen phosphorylase resulting in a breakdown of glycogen in the fat body and elevation of trehalose in the haemolymph (13). These results indicate that these factors act through the classical cyclic AMP... 50 GPAH glycogen phosphorylase activating hormone H-AKH Heliothis adipokinetic hormone HF hydrogen fluoride HGH1 hyperglycemic hormone I HGH2 hyperglycemic hormone 2 HOBT hydroxybenzotriazole HPLC high performance liquid chromatography HTH...

Ford, Mary Stahlschmidt

1988-01-01

283

Oxidative stress and structure-activity relationship in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) under exposure to paclobutrazol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acute toxicity and changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the zebrafish Danio rerio were measured when the fish was exposed to paclobutrazol (PBZ) under laboratory conditions. The median lethal concentration value at 96 h post-exposure (LC50 (96 h)) was determined to be 20.55 mg\\/L. In addition, the SOD activities in

Feng Ding; Wen H. Song; Jing Guo; Min L. Gao; Wei X. Hu

2008-01-01

284

In vitro studies of acute toxicity mechanisms and structure-activity relationships of nonionic surfactants in fish  

SciTech Connect

In fish, gills are believed to be a primary target for a number of toxicants. Gills perform the essential systemic functions of gas exchange, waste elimination, and ion/pH balance, and are exposed to ambient environmental toxicant levels. Qualitative gill morphology changes are easily observed, but quantitative measures of impaired function are difficult. This in vitro technique utilizes the opercular epithelium of the mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus, as a surrogate for gill epithelium in mechanistic toxicity and structure-activity studies. This model has long been used by electrophysiologists studying osmoregulation in marine fish. Effects on trans-epithelial potential (TEP) and/or short-circuit current (I{sub sc}) across the opercular epithelium can be made for any pollutant of interest, using an epithelial voltage clamp and Ussing chamber. The nonionic synthetic surfactant class, alkylphenol ethoxylates, were chosen as a model toxicant class to test this experimental model. Synthetic surfactants are ubiquitous waterborne pollutants, with annual North American usage approaching eight billion pounds. Surfactants are recognized as potent, acute gill toxicants in fish. The exact mechanism of toxicity has yet to be elucidated. These compounds proved to be potent inhibitors of both TEP and I{sub sc} in vitro, at dose levels comparable to those causing lethality, suggesting that impaired osmoregulation plays a role in their acute toxicity. Similar structure-activity relationships were found for the endpoints of acute lethality to F. heteroclitus and impaired in vitro epithelial transport.

Bodishbauah, D.F. [Duke Univ. Marine Lab., Beaufort, NC (United States)

1994-12-31

285

Structure-activity relationships of substituted 1H-indole-2-carboxamides as CB1 receptor allosteric modulators.  

PubMed

A series of substituted 1H-indole-2-carboxamides structurally related to compounds Org27569 (1), Org29647 (2) and Org27759 (3) were synthesized and evaluated for CB1 allosteric modulating activity in calcium mobilization assays. Structure-activity relationship studies showed that the modulation potency of this series at the CB1 receptor was enhanced by the presence of a diethylamino group at the 4-position of the phenyl ring, a chloro or fluoro group at the C5 position and short alkyl groups at the C3 position on the indole ring. The most potent compound (45) had an IC50 value of 79nM which is ?2.5 and 10 fold more potent than the parent compounds 3 and 1, respectively. These compounds appeared to be negative allosteric modulators at the CB1 receptor and dose-dependently reduced the Emax of agonist CP55,940. These analogs may provide the basis for further optimization and use of CB1 allosteric modulators. PMID:25797163

Nguyen, Thuy; German, Nadezhda; Decker, Ann M; Li, Jun-Xu; Wiley, Jenny L; Thomas, Brian F; Kenakin, Terry P; Zhang, Yanan

2015-05-01

286

Synthesis, pharmacological characterization, and structure-activity relationship studies of small molecular agonists for the orphan GPR88 receptor.  

PubMed

GPR88 is an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) enriched in the striatum. Genetic deletion and gene expression studies have suggested that GPR88 plays an important role in the regulation of striatal functions and is implicated in psychiatric disorders. The signal transduction pathway and receptor functions of GPR88, however, are still largely unknown due to the lack of endogenous and synthetic ligands. In this paper, we report the synthesis of a GPR88 agonist 2-PCCA and its pure diastereomers, which were functionally characterized in both transiently and stably expressing GPR88 HEK293 cells. 2-PCCA inhibited isoproterenol-stimulated cAMP accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner in cells expressing GPR88 but not in the control cells, suggesting that the observed cAMP inhibition is mediated through GPR88 and that GPR88 is coupled to G?i. 2-PCCA did not induce calcium mobilization in GPR88 cells, indicating no G?q-mediated response. A structure-activity relationship (SAR) study of 2-PCCA was also conducted to explore the key structural features for GPR88 agonist activity. PMID:24793972

Jin, Chunyang; Decker, Ann M; Huang, Xi-Ping; Gilmour, Brian P; Blough, Bruce E; Roth, Bryan L; Hu, Yang; Gill, Joseph B; Zhang, X Peter

2014-07-16

287

Structure-activity relationships of analogs of pentamidine against Plasmodium falciparum and Leishmania mexicana amazonensis.  

PubMed Central

The antiprotozoal compound 1,5-di(4-amidinophenoxy)pentane (pentamidine) and 36 of its analogs were screened for in vitro activity against Leishmania mexicana amazonensis clone 669 C4S (MHOM/BR/73/M2269) and Plasmodium falciparum clones W2 (Indochina III/CDC) and D6 (Sierra Leone I/CDC). Pentamidine and each of the analogs tested exhibited activity in vitro against L. m. amazonensis and P. falciparum. The pentamidine analogs were more effective against the P. falciparum clones than against L. m. amazonensis. P. falciparum was extremely susceptible to these compounds, with 50% inhibitory concentrations as low as 0.03 microM. While none of the analogs exhibited marked improvement in antileishmanial activity compared with pentamidine, 12 of the pentamidine analogs showed activity approximately equal to or greater than that of the parent compound. From the promising activity exhibited by the pentamidine analogs in this in vitro study and their potential for reduced toxicity relative to the parent drug, pentamidine-related compounds hold promise as new agents for the treatment of protozoal infections. PMID:2201254

Bell, C A; Hall, J E; Kyle, D E; Grogl, M; Ohemeng, K A; Allen, M A; Tidwell, R R

1990-01-01

288

Synthesis and quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) of arylidene (benzimidazol-1-yl)acetohydrazones as potential antibacterial agents.  

PubMed

Ethyl (benzimidazol-1-yl)acetate was subjected to hydrazinolysis with hydrazine hydrate to give (benzimidazol-1-yl)acetohydrazide. The latter was reacted with various aromatic aldehydes to give the respective arylidene (1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)acetohydrazones. Solutions of the prepared hydrazones were found to contain two geometric isomers. Similarly (2-methyl-benzimidazol-1-yl)acetohydrazide was reacted with various aldehydes to give the corresponding hydrazones. The antibacterial activity was evaluated in vitro by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Agrobacterium tumefaciens (A. tumefaciens), Erwinia carotovora (E. carotovora), Corynebacterium fascians (C. fascians) and Pseudomonas solanacearum (P. solanacearum). MIC result demonstrated that salicylaldehyde(1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)acetohydrazone (4) was the most active compound (MIC = 20, 35, 25 and 30 mg/L against A. tumefaciens, C. fascians, E. carotovora and P. solanacearum, respectively). Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) investigation using Hansch analysis was applied to find out the correlation between antibacterial activity and physicochemical properties. Various physicochemical descriptors and experimentally determined MIC values for different microorganisms were used as independent and dependent variables, respectively. pMICs of the compounds exhibited good correlation (r = 0.983, 0.914, 0.960 and 0.958 for A. tumefaciens, C. fascians, E. carotovora and P. solanacearum, respectively) with the prediction made by the model. QSAR study revealed that the hydrophobic parameter (ClogP), the aqueous solubility (LogS), calculated molar refractivity, topological polar surface area and hydrogen bond acceptor were found to have overall significant correlation with antibacterial activity. The statistical results of training set, correlation coefficient (r and r (2)), the ratio between regression and residual variances (f, Fisher's statistic), the standard error of estimates and significant (s) gave reliability to the prediction of molecules with activity using QSAR models. However, QSAR equations derived for the MIC values against the tested bacteria showed negative contribution of molecular mass. PMID:25304024

El-Kilany, Yeldez; Nahas, Nariman M; Al-Ghamdi, Mariam A; Badawy, Mohamed E I; El Ashry, El Sayed H

2015-01-01

289

Thinking in Terms of Structure-Activity-Relationships (T-SAR): A Tool to Better Understand Nanofiltration Membranes.  

PubMed

A frontier to be conquered in the field of membrane technology is related to the very limited scientific base for the rational and task-specific design of membranes. This is especially true for nanofiltration membranes with properties that are based on several solute-membrane interaction mechanisms. "Thinking in terms of Structure-Activity-Relationships" (T-SAR) is a methodology which applies a systematic analysis of a chemical entity based on its structural formula. However, the analysis become more complex with increasing size of the molecules considered. In this study, T-SAR was combined with classical membrane characterization methods, resulting in a new methodology which allowed us not only to explain membrane characteristics, but also provides evidence for the importance of the chemical structure for separation performance. We demonstrate an application of the combined approach and its potential to discover stereochemistry, molecular interaction potentials, and reactivity of two FilmTec nanofiltration membranes (NF-90 and NF-270). Based on these results, it was possible to predict both properties and performance in the recovery of hydrophobic ionic liquids from aqueous solution. PMID:24957730

Fernández, José F; Jastorff, Bernd; Störmann, Reinhold; Stolte, Stefan; Thöming, Jorg

2011-01-01

290

Thinking in Terms of Structure-Activity-Relationships (T-SAR): A Tool to Better Understand Nanofiltration Membranes  

PubMed Central

A frontier to be conquered in the field of membrane technology is related to the very limited scientific base for the rational and task-specific design of membranes. This is especially true for nanofiltration membranes with properties that are based on several solute-membrane interaction mechanisms. “Thinking in terms of Structure-Activity-Relationships” (T-SAR) is a methodology which applies a systematic analysis of a chemical entity based on its structural formula. However, the analysis become more complex with increasing size of the molecules considered. In this study, T-SAR was combined with classical membrane characterization methods, resulting in a new methodology which allowed us not only to explain membrane characteristics, but also provides evidence for the importance of the chemical structure for separation performance. We demonstrate an application of the combined approach and its potential to discover stereochemistry, molecular interaction potentials, and reactivity of two FilmTec nanofiltration membranes (NF-90 and NF-270). Based on these results, it was possible to predict both properties and performance in the recovery of hydrophobic ionic liquids from aqueous solution. PMID:24957730

Fernández, José F.; Jastorff, Bernd; Störmann, Reinhold; Stolte, Stefan; Thöming, Jorg

2011-01-01

291

INCREASED [3H]-PHORBOL ESTER BINDING IN RAT CEREBELLAR GRANULE CELLS BY POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL MIXTURES AND CONGENERS: STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS  

EPA Science Inventory

Our previous reports indicate that the neuroactivity of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners may be associated with perturbations in cellular Ca2-homeostasis, and protein kinase C (PKC) activation/translocation. e have now studied the structure-activity relationship of severa...

292

Synthesis and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study of novel isoxazoline and oxime derivatives of podophyllotoxin as insecticidal agents.  

PubMed

In continuation of our program aimed at the discovery and development of natural-product-based insecticidal agents, 33 isoxazoline and oxime derivatives of podophyllotoxin modified in the C and D rings were synthesized and their structures were characterized by Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), optical rotation, melting point (mp), and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The stereochemical configurations of compounds 5e, 5f, and 9f were unambiguously determined by X-ray crystallography. Their insecticidal activity was evaluated against the pre-third-instar larvae of northern armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walker), in vivo. Compounds 5e, 9c, 11g, and 11h especially exhibited more promising insecticidal activity than toosendanin, a commercial botanical insecticide extracted from Melia azedarach . A genetic algorithm combined with multiple linear regression (GA-MLR) calculation is performed by the MOBY DIGS package. Five selected descriptors are as follows: one two-dimensional (2D) autocorrelation descriptor (GATS4e), one edge adjacency indice (EEig06x), one RDF descriptor (RDF080v), one three-dimensional (3D) MoRSE descriptor (Mor09v), and one atom-centered fragment (H-052) descriptor. Quantitative structure-activity relationship studies demonstrated that the insecticidal activity of these compounds was mainly influenced by many factors, such as electronic distribution, steric factors, etc. For this model, the standard deviation error in prediction (SDEP) is 0.0592, the correlation coefficient (R(2)) is 0.861, and the leave-one-out cross-validation correlation coefficient (Q(2)loo) is 0.797. PMID:22891988

Wang, Yi; Shao, Yonghua; Wang, Yangyang; Fan, Lingling; Yu, Xiang; Zhi, Xiaoyan; Yang, Chun; Qu, Huan; Yao, Xiaojun; Xu, Hui

2012-08-29

293

Design, synthesis and structure-activity relationship of novel semi-synthetic flavonoids as antiproliferative agents.  

PubMed

Various flavonoid scaffold based derivatives viz furochalcones (3a-e, 6a-d and 9a-d), furoflavones (10a-d, 11a-d, 12a-d, 18a&b), flavones (21a-d), furoaurones (13a,b, 14a-d and 15a-d) and 7-styrylfurochromones (22a-d and 25a-e) were designed and synthesized. The novel compounds were evaluated for their antiproliferative activity against a panel of 60 cancer cell lines comprising 9 types of tumors. Ten compounds belonging to the major subgroups of flavonoids viz furochalcones (3a, 3d, 6b, 9a and 9b), furoflavones (12a and 12c), furoaurones (15d), styrylfurochromones (25b and 25e) showed very promising activity. These active compounds were also evaluated in vitro as kinase inhibitors against CDK2/cyclin E1, CDK4/cyclin D1 and GSK-3? and the best inhibition was displayed against GSK-3? with the allylfurochalcone derivative 9b exhibiting 80% decrease in GSK-3? catalytic activity. On the other hand, the styrylfurochromone 25e interestingly showed a 13% enhancement of GSK-3? catalytic power and a 12% reduction in CDK4/cyclin D1 activity. Finally, the in vivo anti-tumor activity of 25e was evaluated against breast cancer induced in mice. The results showed a profound anti-tumor effect of 25e that accompanies a significant increase and decrease in the levels of GSK-3? and cyclin D1, respectively. PMID:24937184

Ragab, F A; Yahya, T A A; El-Naa, M M; Arafa, R K

2014-07-23

294

Molecular modeling study of uranyl nitrate extraction with monoamides. 2: Molecular mechanics and lipophilicity calculations -- Structure-activity relationships  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the second part of a theoretical approach aimed at establishing structure-activity relationships in a data base made of twenty-two monoamides (A) used as uranium (VI) nitrate extractants. It was found that predominant factors determining the extracting ability of a monoamide are of three kinds: (1) electron density of the coordinating atoms or groups, which should be as high as possible; (2) steric effects, which should be as low as possible; and (3) lipophilicity of the ligands, which should be above a minimum threshold value. In the first paper of this series, quantum chemistry calculations were reported to account for electronic properties of the ligands. This second paper reports molecular mechanics calculations made on UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}A{sub 2} complexes in order to determine the influence of steric effects on the formation of these compounds. Calculations of monoamide lipophilicity using Rekker`s method showed that all the molecules of the data base were lipophilic enough and, consequently, that this parameter was not significantly important for the extraction of uranyl nitrate by these monoamides. A quantitative relationship was established between the U(VI) distribution ratio and the two parameters, calculated by quantum chemistry and molecular mechanics methods.

Rabbe, C.; Madic, C. [CEA-DCC-DRRV, Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Sella, C. [E.S.P.C.I., Paris (France). Lab. de Chimie Analytique; Godard, A. [INSA Rouen, Mont-Saint-Aignan (France)

1999-01-01

295

Antiproliferative constituents in plants 10. Flavones from the leaves of Lantana montevidensis Briq. and consideration of structure-activity relationship.  

PubMed

The flavonoid fraction from the leaves of Lantana montevidensis Briq. (Verbenaceae) showed antiproliferative activity against human gastric adenocarcinoma (MK-1, GI50: 12 microg/ml), human uterus carcinoma (HeLa, 5 microg/ml), and murine melanoma (B16F10, 5 microg/ml) cells in vitro. Bioactivity-guided chemical investigation of the fraction has resulted in the isolation of apigenin (10) and ten 5,6,7-oxygenated flavones: cirsilineol (1), eupatorin (2), 5,4'-dihydroxy-6,7,3',5'-tetramethoxyflavone (3), 5,6-dihydroxy-7,3',4'-trimethoxyflavone (4), 5,6,4'-trihydroxy-7,3',5'-trimethoxyflavone (5), 5,6,3'-trihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavone (6), 5,3',4'-trihydroxy-6,7,5'-trimethoxyflavone (7), cirsiliol (8), hispidulin (9), and eupafolin (11). Antiproliferative activity of the isolated flavones, some other related flavones (luteolin, baicalein, 6-hydroxyluteolin, pectolinarigenin, jaceosidin, desmethoxycentaureidin, eupatilin, and chrysin) from other plant materials, and synthetic 6- and 7-methoxyflavones was evaluated, and the structure-activity relationships were examined. PMID:12132661

Nagao, Tsuneatsu; Abe, Fumiko; Kinjo, Junei; Okabe, Hikaru

2002-07-01

296

Cytochrome P4501A1-inhibitory action of antimutagenic anthraquinones in medicinal plants and the structure-activity relationship.  

PubMed

We have earlier found that flavones and flavonols in vegetables specifically inhibited one of the carcinogenesis-related enzymes, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1, and subsequently suppressed the mutagenicity of food-derived carcinogens. In this study, we explored other candidates for the enzyme inhibitor in Chinese medicinal plants. Some of them were antimutagenic toward 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-2). For example, Rheum officinale contained large amounts of anthraquinones as the active compounds, 3.4 mg of emodin, 2.1 mg of chrysophanol and 1.8 mg of rhein in 10 g of dry matter. Anthraquinones showed similar IC50 values for antimutagenicity against Trp-P-2 to those for inhibition of the N-hydroxylation activity of CYP1A1 toward Trp-P-2, indicating that the antimutagenicity was attributable to CYP inhibition. The structure-activity relationships were then examined with 14 commercial chemicals, and it was found that the interaction with an enzyme required three rings and an oxygen group in the side ring. This characteristic is similar to that of flavones and flavonols. PMID:10945253

Sun, M; Sakakibara, H; Ashida, H; Danno, G; Kanazawa, K

2000-07-01

297

Phosphodiesterase inhibitors. Part 1: Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of pyrazolopyridine-pyridazinone PDE inhibitors developed from ibudilast.  

PubMed

Ibudilast [1-(2-isopropylpyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-3-yl)-2-methylpropan-1-one] is a nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitor used clinically to treat asthma. Efforts to selectively develop the PDE3- and PDE4-inhibitory activity of ibudilast led to replacement of the isopropyl ketone by a pyridazinone heterocycle. Structure-activity relationship exploration in the resulting 6-(pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-3-yl)pyridazin-3(2H)-ones revealed that the pyridazinone lactam functionality is a critical determinant for PDE3-inhibitory activity, with the nitrogen preferably unsubstituted. PDE4 inhibition is strongly promoted by introduction of a hydrophobic substituent at the pyridazinone N(2) centre and a methoxy group at C-7' in the pyrazolopyridine. Migration of the pyridazinone ring connection from the pyrazolopyridine 3'-centre to C-4' strongly enhances PDE4 inhibition. These studies establish a basis for development of potent PDE4-selective and dual PDE3/4-selective inhibitors derived from ibudilast. PMID:21530250

Allcock, Robert W; Blakli, Haakon; Jiang, Zhong; Johnston, Karen A; Morgan, Keith M; Rosair, Georgina M; Iwase, Kazuhiko; Kohno, Yasushi; Adams, David R

2011-06-01

298

Phthalocyanine-induced photohemolysis: structure-activity relationship and the effect of fluoride.  

PubMed

Phthalocyanine (Pc) containing A1, Ga or Zn as central metal ligand and substituted with a varying number of sulfonic acid residues as well as additional benzene rings were synthesized and their photodynamic activity was assayed using photohemolysis of human erythrocytes as an endpoint. The Pc derivatives varied > 300-fold in their photodynamic activity. Activity correlated with binding of the dye to the cell, with the exception of some of the amphiphilic dyes where cell uptake was an order of magnitude higher than expected from the observed activity. Fluoride was shown to inhibit A1PcSn-induced photohemolysis. This effect occurred also with other A1Pc and GaPc derivatives, but the concentration of F- required to slow photohemolysis by a factor of two (Ki) varied between 4 microM and 10 mM. Fluorescence spectral studies indicated complex formation between F- and the dye, which was stronger for A1Pc than GaPc derivatives. Ultrastructural studies using scanning electron microscopy showed that the photosensitized cells were converted to spherocytes and that F- prevented this to a large extent. PMID:8234468

Ben-Hur, E; Malik, Z; Dubbelman, T M; Margaron, P; Ali, H; van Lier, J E

1993-09-01

299

Structure-Activity Relationships among the Kanamycin Aminoglycosides: Role of Ring I Hydroxyl and Amino Groups  

PubMed Central

The kanamycins form an important subgroup of the 4,6-disubstituted 2-deoxystreptamine aminoglycoside antibiotics, comprising kanamycin A, kanamycin B, tobramycin, and dibekacin. These compounds interfere with protein synthesis by targeting the ribosomal decoding A site, and they differ in the numbers and locations of amino and hydroxy groups of the glucopyranosyl moiety (ring I). We synthesized kanamycin analogues characterized by subtle variations of the 2? and 6? substituents of ring I. The functional activities of the kanamycins and the synthesized analogues were investigated (i) in cell-free translation assays on wild-type and mutant bacterial ribosomes to study drug-target interaction, (ii) in MIC assays to assess antibacterial activity, and (iii) in rabbit reticulocyte translation assays to determine activity on eukaryotic ribosomes. Position 2? forms an intramolecular H bond with O5 of ring II, helping the relative orientations of the two rings with respect to each other. This bond becomes critical for drug activity when a 6?-OH substituent is present. PMID:22948879

Salian, Sumantha; Matt, Tanja; Akbergenov, Rashid; Harish, Shinde; Meyer, Martin; Duscha, Stefan; Shcherbakov, Dmitri; Bernet, Bruno B.; Vasella, Andrea; Westhof, Eric

2012-01-01

300

Structure-activity relationships among the kanamycin aminoglycosides: role of ring I hydroxyl and amino groups.  

PubMed

The kanamycins form an important subgroup of the 4,6-disubstituted 2-deoxystreptamine aminoglycoside antibiotics, comprising kanamycin A, kanamycin B, tobramycin, and dibekacin. These compounds interfere with protein synthesis by targeting the ribosomal decoding A site, and they differ in the numbers and locations of amino and hydroxy groups of the glucopyranosyl moiety (ring I). We synthesized kanamycin analogues characterized by subtle variations of the 2' and 6' substituents of ring I. The functional activities of the kanamycins and the synthesized analogues were investigated (i) in cell-free translation assays on wild-type and mutant bacterial ribosomes to study drug-target interaction, (ii) in MIC assays to assess antibacterial activity, and (iii) in rabbit reticulocyte translation assays to determine activity on eukaryotic ribosomes. Position 2' forms an intramolecular H bond with O5 of ring II, helping the relative orientations of the two rings with respect to each other. This bond becomes critical for drug activity when a 6'-OH substituent is present. PMID:22948879

Salian, Sumantha; Matt, Tanja; Akbergenov, Rashid; Harish, Shinde; Meyer, Martin; Duscha, Stefan; Shcherbakov, Dmitri; Bernet, Bruno B; Vasella, Andrea; Westhof, Eric; Böttger, Erik C

2012-12-01

301

Science Highlight February 2011 Uncovering the Relationship between the Active Layer Structure and Device  

E-print Network

and Device Performance in Organic Solar Cells Solar power is an important component of our society's future fabrication and manufacturing costs, albeit at lower power conversion efficiencies. Critical of the active layer in the solar cell can affect the light-to-energy conversion efficiency.2 Indeed, many

Wechsler, Risa H.

302

Cl ? -channel blockers in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle Structure activity relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of our findings with diphenylamine-2-carboxylate [5] we have searched for compounds which possess an even higher affinity for the Cl--channels in the basolateral membrane of the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle. To quantitiy the inhibitory potency, we performed measurements of the equivalent short circuit current, corresponding to the secondary active transport of Cl- [8

P. Wangemann; M. Wittner; A. Di Stefano; H. C. Englert; H. J. Lang; E. Schlatter; R. Greger

1986-01-01

303

Structure-antioxidant activity relationship of ferulic acid derivatives: effect of carbon side chain characteristic groups.  

PubMed

Differences in the antioxidant activity of some biosynthetically related ferulic acid derivatives induced by the presence of characteristic groups (-COOH, -CHO, -CH(2)OH, -CH(3), and -COOC(2)H(5)) at the end of their carbon side chain were investigated using both experimental and computational methods. The relative order of the scavenging activity toward the DPPH radical derived from kinetic studies was isoeugenol approximately coniferyl alcohol > ferulic acid approximately coniferyl aldehyde approximately ethyl ferulate. In bulk oil autoxidation (45 degrees C) the same order of activity was obtained. In the o/w emulsion autoxidation, lipophilicity of the phenols was the determining factor because the least polar compounds bearing -CH(3) and -COOC(2)H(5) were the most effective ones. The order of activity based on the O-H bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE) and ionization potential (IP) values, calculated by the density functional theory (DFT) method, was in accordance with the experimental radical scavenging order and with the electron-donating/withdrawing properties of the characteristic groups. Other molecular descriptors could not complement the experimental findings. PMID:12643644

Nenadis, Nikolaos; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Tsimidou, Maria Z

2003-03-26

304

Antileishmanial lead structures from nature: analysis of structure-activity relationships of a compound library derived from caffeic Acid bornyl ester.  

PubMed

Bioassay-guided fractionation of a chloroform extract of Valeriana wallichii (V. wallichii) rhizomes lead to the isolation and identification of caffeic acid bornyl ester (1) as the active component against Leishmania major (L. major) promastigotes (IC50 = 48.8 µM). To investigate the structure-activity relationship (SAR), a library of compounds based on 1 was synthesized and tested in vitro against L. major and L. donovani promastigotes, and L. major amastigotes. Cytotoxicity was determined using a murine J774.1 cell line and bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM). Some compounds showed antileishmanial activity in the concentration range of pentamidine and miltefosine which are the standard drugs in use. In the L. major amastigote assay compounds 15, 19 and 20 showed good activity with relatively low cytotoxicity against BMDM, resulting in acceptable selectivity indices. Molecules with adjacent phenolic hydroxyl groups exhibited elevated cytotoxicity against murine cell lines J774.1 and BMDM. The Michael system seems not to be essential for antileishmanial activity. Based on the results compound 27 can be regarded as new lead structure for further structure optimization. PMID:24473204

Glaser, Jan; Schultheis, Martina; Hazra, Sudipta; Hazra, Banasri; Moll, Heidrun; Schurigt, Uta; Holzgrabe, Ulrike

2014-01-01

305

Studies on structure-activity relationship of seiridins, phytotoxins, produced by three species of Seiridium.  

PubMed

The phytotoxins seiridin (SEI) and iso-seiridin (ISE), two delta alpha,beta-butenolides produced in vitro by Seiridium cardinale, S. cupressi, and S. unicorne, as well as their derivatives obtained by chemical modification of each toxin, were analyzed for their bioactivity. The effects each compound on host and non-host plants and their antimicrobial activity on bacteria were investigated. The toxicity of both seiridins (SEIs) decreased in the derivatives with modifications of the gamma-lactone ring or with acetylation of the hydroxy group of the aliphatic side chain at C-4. Shoot tissues of Cupressus macrocarpa artificially infected by S. cardinale leached electrolytes more than those of C. sempervirens and C. arizonica. Electrolyte loss from shoot tissues of cypress plants treated with each derivative also decreased for most of them. Seed germination was not affected by SEI and ISE derivatives. Inhibition of root growth of three herbaceous test plants was studied. SEI and 3,4-dihydro SEI were active to germlings of lettuce. No ISE derivative affected root growth of lettuce and oat germlings. Reduction was observed on roots of radish germlings treated with acetyl ISE or 3,4-dihydro ISE. No derivative of SEI or ISE elicited hormone-like activity as SEI did. Antibacterial activity shown by SEI and ISE at 150 microM accounted for both hydrogenated derivatives of SEI. The integrity of the delta alpha,beta-unsaturated-gamma-lactone ring and the location of the hydroxy group in the heptyl side chain are features of importance in biological activity of the two butenolides. PMID:7648025

Sparapano, L; Evidente, A

1995-01-01

306

Quantitative structure–activity relationships for estimating the aryl hydrocarbon receptor binding affinities of resveratrol derivatives and the antioxidant activities of hydroxystilbenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSARs) were developed for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) binding affinity\\u000a of non-fluorinated and fluorinated cis and trans 3,4?,5-substituted resveratrol derivatives. Lower quality QSAR fits were found when all compounds were modeled together,\\u000a in contrast to strong correlations with Hammett substituent constants and atomic charges for separate non-fluorinated\\/fluorinated\\u000a and cis\\/trans groupings. The collective findings suggest little promise

Sierra Rayne; Charles D. Goss; Kaya Forest; Ken J. Friesen

2010-01-01

307

Synthesis of dl-standishinal and its related compounds for the studies on structure–activity relationship of inhibitory activity against aromatase  

Microsoft Academic Search

dl-Standishinal (1), an aromatase inhibitor isolated from Thuja standishii, was synthesized in 15 steps from p-formylanisole via aldol reaction of 12-hydroxy-6,7-secoabieta-8,11,13-trien-6,7-dial (2). In the present study, we found that the aldol condensation of 2 proceeded in excellent yield with the protonic catalyst such as d-camphorsulfonic acid in CH2Cl2. Moreover, structure-activity relationship of 1 and its related compounds was studied and

Takahiro Katoh; Taichi Akagi; Chie Noguchi; Tetsuya Kajimoto; Manabu Node; Reiko Tanaka; Hironori Ohtsu; Noriyuki Suzuki; Koichi Saito

2007-01-01

308

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STRUCTURE OF BENZIMIDAZOLE DERIVATIVES AND SELECTIVE VIRUS INHIBITORY ACTIVITY  

PubMed Central

The virus inhibitory activity and selectivity of certain benzimidazole, benzotriazole, and naphthimidazole derivatives were determined with influenza B and polio type 2 viruses. Among the sixty-five compounds examined, several were highly active inhibitors of influenza B virus multiplication in the chorioallantoic membrane in vitro. The following compounds, listed in order of increasing inhibitory activity, were more than 100 times as active as benzimidazole: 5-(4'-toluenesulfonamido)-benzimidazole, 5-hydroxybenzotriazole-4-carboxy-?-naphthylamide, 4,5,6-trichlorobenzotriazole, 5-(3',4'-dichlorobenzenesulfonamido)-benzimidazole, 5-(3',4'-dichlorobenzenesulfonamido) - 1 - (3'',4'' - dichlorobenzenesulfonyl)-benzimidazole, 4-(p-chlorophenylazo)-5-hydroxybenzotriazole, and 4,5,6,7-tetrachlorobenzotriazole. However, none showed high selectivity. Of the sixty-five compounds studied with influenza virus, twenty-five were also examined with poliovirus type 2 in monkey kidney cells in vitro. Included in this group were five of the seven most active inhibitors of influenza virus, listed above. All five were more than 100 times as active in inhibiting poliovirus multiplication as the reference compound. In addition to these, two other compounds were highly active: 2-(?-hydroxybenzyl)-benzimidazole (HBB), and 2-(?-hydroxybenzyl)-5-chlorobenzimidazole, with relative inhibitory activities of 78 and 130, respectively. These two compounds, and the much less active 5,6-dichloro derivative of HBB, were the only ones which showed no, or only slight, toxic effects on cells at concentrations sufficient to cause considerable inhibition of poliovirus multiplication. Furthermore, HBB and the 5-chloro derivative were the only compounds which caused significant inhibition of the cytopathic effects of poliovirus. HBB, and its 5-chloro and 5,6-dichloro derivatives had no effect on the multiplication of influenza B virus in the chorioallantoic membrane. In addition, HBB failed to inhibit influenza B virus multiplication and cytopathic effects in monkey kidney cells. Inhibition of poliovirus-induced cell damage by HBB was characterized by the following features: the curves relating reduction in virus yield or cytopathic effects to concentration of the compound followed an approximately parallel course; somewhat higher concentrations were required to inhibit virus-induced cell damage than to reduce virus yield. HBB suppressed viral cytopathic effects for a period of time which varied directly with the concentration of compound, and inversely with the size of virus inoculum. The development of virus-induced cell damage in treated cultures on prolonged incubation was not due to inactivation of HBB. The inhibitory effect of HBB on virus-induced cell damage was reversible by removal of the compound. HBB inhibited viral cytopathic effects when given during the exponential increase phase in virus multiplication. Inhibition of virus-induced cell damage by HBB was demonstrated by photomicrographs. HBB did not inactivate the infectivity of poliovirus type 2. PMID:13775109

Tamm, Igor; Bablanian, Rostom; Nemes, Marjorie M.; Shunk, Clifford H.; Robinson, Franklin M.; Folkers, Karl

1961-01-01

309

Key structure-activity relationships in the vanadium phosphorus oxide catalyst system  

SciTech Connect

The crystal structure of vanadyl pyrophosphate has been redetermined using single crystals obtained from a near solidified melt of a microcrystalline catalyst sample. Crystals that index as vanadyl pyrophosphate obtained from this melt are variable in color. Crystallographic refinement of the single crystal x-ray diffraction data indicates that structural differences among these materials can be described in terms of crystal defects associated with linear disorder of the vanadium atoms. The importance of the disorder is outlined in the context of its effect on the proposed surface topology parallel to (1,0,0). Models of the surface topology simply and intuitively account for the non-stoichometric surface atomic P/V ratio exhibited by selective catalysts of this phase. These models also point to the possible role of the excess phosphorus in providing site isolation of reactive centers at the surface. 33 refs., 7 figs.

Thompson, M.R. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Ebner, J.R. (Monsanto Co., St. Louis, MO (USA))

1990-04-01

310

Screening for in vitro antimycobacterial activity and three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) study of 4-(arylamino)coumarin derivatives.  

PubMed

The resurgence of tuberculosis and the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacteria necessitate the search for new classes of antimycobacterial agents. We have synthesized a small library of 50 analogues of 4-(arylamino)coumarins with various aromatic amines at the C(4) - position of the coumarin scaffold. The compounds were evaluated for antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H(37) Rv with rifampicin as the standard. Of the molecules synthesized, compound 9 was found to be most potent with a minimum inhibitory concentration >6.25 ?g/mL for 100% inhibition. In an effort to develop new and more effective molecules in this series, the relationship between structure and activity was investigated by comparative molecular field analysis. Various models were generated using comparative molecular field analysis alone and comparative molecular field analysis plus a hydropathy field (HINT). In all, eight models were generated with atom-fit and field-fit alignment strategies. The comparative molecular field analysis models (Models 3a and 4a) based on field-fit alignment were the best with statistically good correlation coefficients (r²) and cross-validated q². The values of r²(pred) for the validation set were 0.469 and 0.516. Based on the comparative molecular field analysis contours, some insights into the structure-activity relationship of the compounds could be gained. PMID:20925693

Virsdoia, Vijay; Shaikh, Mushtaque S; Manvar, Atul; Desai, Bhavik; Parecha, Alpesh; Loriya, Raju; Dholariya, Kinnari; Patel, Gautam; Vora, Vipul; Upadhyay, Kuldip; Denish, Karia; Shah, Anamik; Coutinho, Evans C

2010-11-01

311

Some aspects of the in vivo neuroprotective capacity of flavonoids: Bioavailability and structure-activity relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of previous work showing that flavonoids structurally related to quercetin are neuroprotective for cells in culture,\\u000a this work was directed towards determining if several flavonoids (quercetin, fisetin and catechin) could acutely and by an\\u000a intraperitoneal (IP) route reach significant cerebral concentrations and either prevent or facilitate recovery from a brain\\u000a lesion induced by focal ischemia in rats.

Felicia Rivera; Jessika Urbanavicius; Elena Gervaz; Andrea Morquio; Federico Dajas

2004-01-01

312

Anticoagulant sulfated polysaccharides: Part I. Synthesis and structure–activity relationships of new pullulan sulfates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to develop new anticoagulants as potential heparin alternatives, two pullulans with different molecular weight (MW) were used as starting polymers for the partial synthesis of a structurally new class of sulfated polysaccharides. Sulfation of these linear ?-1,4-\\/1,6-glucans was carried out by a method with a SO3–pyridine complex in DMF, which had been optimized for the modification of ?-1,3-glucans.

S Alban; A Schauerte; G Franz

2002-01-01

313

Knockdown and larvicidal activity of six monoterpenes against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and their structure-activity relationships.  

PubMed

The relationships between physicochemical parameters of majority components of Eucalyptus essential oils and their insecticide effect were evaluated on Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). The octanol-water partition coefficients of the monoterpenes were estimated by the atom/fragment contribution method and the vapor pressures were determined by our laboratory in previous studies. The larvicidal activity (LC50 (ppm)) and knockdown effect (KT50 (min)) of each component was determined. The results show that the toxicity of EOs main components of Eucalyptus on adults and larvae of A. aegypti is strongly related to their physicochemical properties (vapor pressure and Log P). However, the interaction of both variables (vapor pressure * Log P) explains the toxicological phenomenon more precisely. The regression models were expressed as follows: KT 50(min)?=??-?10.9?+?3.7?*?Log P?+?1.9?*?1/Pvapor (R(2)?=?0.80;?F?=?42.5) and LC 50(ppm)?=??-?94.3?+?438.6?*? 1/Log P?+?2.8?*? 1/Pvapor (F?=?57.8;?R(2)?=?0.85). The six evaluated components present different functional groups. Therefore, it was considered to evaluate the monoterpenes as a group and separated in two groups: oxygenated monoterpenes (?-terpineol, 4-terpineol, and 1,8-cineole) and terpene hydrocarbons (?-terpinene, p-cymene, and ?-pinene). The results show the regression models for each group as follows: (A) oxygenated terpenes: KT 50(min)?=?-?515.3?+?1613.2?*?1/Log P?+?5,?2?*?1/Pvapor (F?=?3176.7?R(2)?=?0.99) and LC 50(ppm) ?=??-?1679.4?+?5402.1?*?1/Log P?+?12.7?*? 1/Pvapor (F?=?282.9;?R(2)?=?0.99). (B) Hydrocarbons terpenes: KT 50(min)?=?18.2?-?58.3?*?1/Log P?+?2.7?*?1/Pvapor (F?=?171.7;? R(2)?=?0.97) and LC 50(ppm)?=?-?21.1?+?174.9?*?1/Log P?-?14.3?*?1/Pvapor (F?=?410.0;?R(2)?=?0.99). The association between the toxic effect of the evaluated monoterpenes against A. aegypti and the physicochemical properties can be better described when they are separated into functional groups (hydrocarbons vs. oxygenated terpenes). PMID:24100604

Lucia, Alejandro; Zerba, Eduardo; Masuh, Hector

2013-12-01

314

Design, synthesis, and structure–activity relationship of new isobenzofuranone ligands of protein kinase C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of enzymes, which play important roles in intracellular signal transduction. We have designed novel PKC ligands having an isobenzofuranone template, based on the proposed interaction of DAG (1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol) with the PKC? C1B ligand-binding domain. Several isobenzofuranone derivatives were synthesized and their PKC? binding activities were evaluated. The pivaloyl derivative 1f was found to

Yoshiyasu Baba; Yosuke Ogoshi; Go Hirai; Takeshi Yanagisawa; Kumiko Nagamatsu; Satoshi Mayumi; Yuichi Hashimoto; Mikiko Sodeoka

2004-01-01

315

Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of trisubstituted thiazoles as Cdc7 kinase inhibitors.  

PubMed

The Cell division cycle 7 (Cdc7) protein kinase is essential for DNA replication and maintenance of genome stability. We systematically explored thiazole-based compounds as inhibitors of Cdc7 kinase activity in cancer cells. Our studies resulted in the identification of a potent, selective Cdc7 inhibitor that decreased phosphorylation of the direct substrate MCM2 in vitro and in vivo, and inhibited DNA synthesis and cell viability in vitro. PMID:24793884

Reichelt, Andreas; Bailis, Julie M; Bartberger, Michael D; Yao, Guomin; Shu, Hong; Kaller, Matthew R; Allen, John G; Weidner, Margaret F; Keegan, Kathleen S; Dao, Jennifer H

2014-06-10

316

Development of antitubercular compounds based on a 4-quinolylhydrazone scaffold. Further structure-activity relationship studies.  

PubMed

A series of 4-quinolylhydrazones was synthesized and tested in vitro against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. At a concentration of 6.25microg/mL, most of the newly synthesized compounds displayed 100% inhibitory activity against M. tuberculosis in cellular assays. Further screening allowed the identification of very potent antitubercular agents. Compound 4c was also tested in a time-course experiment and against mtb clinical isolates, displaying interesting results. PMID:19620006

Gemma, Sandra; Savini, Luisa; Altarelli, Maria; Tripaldi, Pierangela; Chiasserini, Luisa; Coccone, Salvatore Sanna; Kumar, Vinod; Camodeca, Caterina; Campiani, Giuseppe; Novellino, Ettore; Clarizio, Sandra; Delogu, Giovanni; Butini, Stefania

2009-08-15

317

Structure-Activity Relationships of Orotidine-5?-Monophosphate Decarboxylase Inhibitors as Anticancer Agents  

SciTech Connect

A series of 6-substituted and 5-fluoro-6-substituted uridine derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their potential as anticancer agents. The designed molecules were synthesized from either fully protected uridine or the corresponding 5-fluorouridine derivatives. The mononucleotide derivatives were used for enzyme inhibition investigations against ODCase. Anticancer activities of all the synthesized derivatives were evaluated using the nucleoside forms of the inhibitors. 5-Fluoro-UMP was a very weak inhibitor of ODCase. 6-Azido-5-fluoro and 5-fluoro-6-iodo derivatives are covalent inhibitors of ODCase, and the active site Lys145 residue covalently binds to the ligand after the elimination of the 6-substitution. Among the synthesized nucleoside derivatives, 6-azido-5-fluoro, 6-amino-5-fluoro, and 6-carbaldehyde-5-fluoro derivatives showed potent anticancer activities in cell-based assays against various leukemia cell lines. On the basis of the overall profile, 6-azido-5-fluoro and 6-amino-5-fluoro uridine derivatives exhibited potential for further investigations.

Bello, A.; Konforte, D; Poduch, E; Furlonger, C; Wei, L; Liu, Y; Lewis, M; Pai, E; Paige, C; Kotra, L

2009-01-01

318

Cytotoxicity and Structure-activity Relationships of Naphthyridine Derivatives in Human Cervical Cancer, Leukemia, and Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

Naphthyridine compounds are important, because they exhibit various biological activities including anticancer, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activity. Some naphthyridines have antimitotic effects or demonstrate anticancer activity by inhibiting topoisomerase II. These compounds have been investigated as potential anticancer agents, and several compounds are now part of clinical trials. A series of naphthyridine derivatives were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxic activities against human cervical cancer (HeLa), leukemia (HL-60), and prostate cancer (PC-3) cell lines using an MTT assay. Some compounds (14, 15, and 16) were more potent than colchicine against all three human cancer cell lines and compound (16) demonstrated potency with IC50 values of 0.7, 0.1, and 5.1 µM, respectively. Comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) were used for quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) molecular modeling of these compounds. We obtained accurate and predictive three-dimensional QSAR (3D-QSAR) models as indicated by the high PLS parameters of the HeLa (q2, 0.857; r2, 0.984; r2pred, 0.966), HL-60 (q2, 0.777; r2, 0.937; r2pred, 0.913), and PC-3 (q2, 0.702; r2, 0.983; r2pred, 0.974) cell lines. The 3D-QSAR contour maps suggested that the C-1 NH and C-4 carbonyl group of the naphthyridine ring and the C-2 naphthyl ring were important for cytotoxicity in all three human cancer cell lines. PMID:24381501

Hwang, Yu Jin; Chung, Mi Lyang; Sohn, Uy Dong

2013-01-01

319

Synergetic effect and structure-activity relationship of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors from Crataegus pinnatifida Bge.  

PubMed

The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) inhibitors from hawthorn fruit ( Crataegus pinnatifida Bge.) were isolated and evaluated for their antihyperlipidemic effect induced by high-fat diet in mice. After being further purified with silica and polyamide column chromatography from the fractions (fractions A, F, H, and G) with a high inhibitory rate (IR) to HMGR, 24 chromatographic fractions were obtained, including 8 active fractions with a high IR to HMGR. However, the total inhibitory activity of 24 fractions was decreased by about 70%. From eight active fractions, four compounds were obtained by recrystallization and identified as quercetin (a), hyperoside (b), rutin (c), and chlorogenic acid (d), the contents of which in hawthorn EtOH extract were 0.16, 0.32, 1.45, and 0.95%, respectively. The IR values of compounds a-d to HMGR were 6.28, 9.64, 23.53, and 10.56% at the corresponding concentrations of 0.16, 0.32, 1.45, and 0.95 mg/mL, respectively. It was discovered that the IR of a mixture (2.85 mg/mL) matching the original percentage of compounds a-d in hawthorn EtOH extract was up to 79.5%, much higher than that of the single compound and the total IR of these four compounds (50.01%). The in vivo results also revealed that the mixture had a more significant lipid-lowering efficacy than the monomers. Structure-activity relationship revealed the inhibitory activity and lowering-lipid ability of compounds a-c decreased with increasing glycoside numbers. It was concluded that there were synergetic effects on inhibiting HMGR and lowering lipid among compounds a-d, and the weak hydrophilic ability benefits the inhibition to HMGR and lowering-lipid efficacy. PMID:20131788

Ye, Xiao-Li; Huang, Wen-Wen; Chen, Zhu; Li, Xue-Gang; Li, Ping; Lan, Ping; Wang, Liang; Gao, Ying; Zhao, Zhong-Qi; Chen, Xin

2010-03-10

320

Increased phagocytosis of Mycobacterium marinum mutants defective in lipooligosaccharide production: a structure-activity relationship study.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium marinum is a waterborne pathogen responsible for tuberculosis-like infections in ectotherms and is an occasional opportunistic human pathogen. In the environment, M. marinum also interacts with amoebae, which may serve as a natural reservoir for this microorganism. However, the description of mycobacterial determinants in the early interaction with macrophages or amoebae remains elusive. Lipooligosaccharides (LOSs) are cell surface-exposed glycolipids capable of modulating the host immune system, suggesting that they may be involved in the early interactions of M. marinum with macrophages. Herein, we addressed whether LOS composition affects the uptake of M. marinum by professional phagocytes. Mutants with various truncated LOS variants were generated, leading to the identification of several previously uncharacterized biosynthetic genes (wbbL2, MMAR_2321, and MMAR_2331). Biochemical and structural approaches allowed resolving the structures of LOS precursors accumulating in this set of mutants. These strains with structurally defined LOS profiles were then used to infect both macrophages and Acanthamoebae. An inverse correlation between LOS completeness and uptake of mycobacteria by phagocytes was found, allowing the proposal of three mutant classes: class I (papA4), devoid of LOS and highly efficiently phagocytosed; class II, accumulating only early LOS intermediates (wbbL2 and MMAR_2331) and efficiently phagocytosed but less than class I mutants; class III, lacking LOS-IV (losA, MMAR_2319, and MMAR_2321) and phagocytosed similarly to the control strain. These results indicate that phagocytosis is conditioned by the LOS pattern and that the LOS pathway used by M. marinum in macrophages is conserved during infection of amoebae. PMID:24235141

Alibaud, Laeticia; Pawelczyk, Jakub; Gannoun-Zaki, Laila; Singh, Vipul K; Rombouts, Yoann; Drancourt, Michel; Dziadek, Jaroslaw; Guérardel, Yann; Kremer, Laurent

2014-01-01

321

[Structure-activity relationship of novel vitamin K analogues as steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR) agonists].  

PubMed

Vitamin K2 is a ligand for a nuclear receptor, steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR), that induces the gene expressions of CYP3A4. We synthesized new vitamin K analogues with the same isoprene side chains symmetrically introduced at the 2 and 3 positions of 1,4-naphthoquinone and vitamin K2 analogues with hydroxyl or phenyl groups at the ?-terminal of the side chain. The upregulation of SXR-mediated transcription of the target gene by the analogues was dependent on the length of the side chain and the hydrophobicity of the ?-terminal residues. Phenyl analogue menaquinone-3 was as active as the known SXR ligand rifampicin. PMID:22864345

Suhara, Yoshitomo; Motoyoshi, Sayaka; Hirota, Yoshihisa; Sawada, Natsumi; Nakagawa, Kimie; Tokiwa, Hiroaki; Okano, Toshio

2012-01-01

322

Developmental toxicity and structure-activity relationships of ochratoxin A and related compounds in Hydra attenuata  

E-print Network

, suggesting that adaptation occurs after repeated treatment with low doses of OA. All rats except those that had received 5. 0 ppm OA recovered when fed the control diet, indicating that mild renal damage induced by chronic low doses of OA is reversible... doses of 5 mg OA/kg. These changes indicate an effect on tubular transport rather than a renal shutdown. Alterations in enzyme activity suggest that energy production through the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is decreased in cells exposed to OA (31...

Taylor, Monica Ann

1988-01-01

323

Structure-activity relationship of ibogaine analogs interacting with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in different conformational states.  

PubMed

The interaction of ibogaine analogs with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) in different conformational states was studied by functional and structural approaches. The results established that ibogaine analogs: (a) inhibit (±)-epibatidine-induced Ca²? influx in human embryonic muscle AChRs with the following potency sequence (IC(50) in ?M): (±)-18-methylaminocoronaridine (5.9±0.3)?(±)-18-methoxycoronaridine (18-MC) (6.8±0.8)>(-)-ibogaine (17±3)?(+)-catharanthine (20±1)>(±)-albifloranine (46±13), (b) bind to the [³H]TCP binding site with higher affinity when the Torpedo AChR is in the desensitized state compared to that in the resting state. Similar results were obtained using [³H]18-MC. These and docking results suggest a steric interaction between TCP and ibogaine analogs for the same site, (c) enhance [³H]cytisine binding to resting but not to desensitized AChRs, with desensitizing potencies (apparent EC??) that correlate very well with the pK(i) values in the desensitized state, and (d) there are good bilinear correlations between the ligand molecular volumes and their affinities in the desensitized and resting states, with an optimal volume of ?345 ?³ for the ibogaine site. These results indicate that the size of the binding sites for ibogaine analogs, located between the serine and nonpolar rings and shared with TCP, is an important structural feature for binding and for inducing desensitization. PMID:21642011

Arias, Hugo R; Feuerbach, Dominik; Targowska-Duda, Katarzyna M; Jozwiak, Krzysztof

2011-09-01

324

Structure-activity relationship study of permethyl ningalin B analogues as P-glycoprotein chemosensitizers.  

PubMed

A novel series of permethyl ningalin B analogues were synthesized and evaluated for their P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-modulating activities in a P-gp-overexpressing breast cancer cell line (LCC6MDR). Compounds 35 and 37, which possess one methoxy group and one benzyloxy group at aryl ring C, displayed the most potent P-gp-modulating activity. A 1 ?M concentration of 35 and 37 resensitized LCC6MDR cells toward paclitaxel by 42.7-fold, with respective EC50 values of 93.5 and 110.0 nM. Their mechanism of P-gp modulation is associated with an increase in intracellular drug accumulation. Their advantages also include low cytotoxicity (IC50 for L929 fibroblast >100 ?M) and high therapeutic indexes (>909 after normalization with their EC50 values). 35 is not a substrate of P-gp. They are potentially dual-selective modulators for both P-gp and breast cancer resistance protein transporters. The present study demonstrates that these new compounds can be employed as effective and safe modulators of P-gp-mediated drug resistance in cancer cells. PMID:24171478

Bin, Jin Wen; Wong, Iris L K; Hu, Xuesen; Yu, Zhang Xiao; Xing, Li Fu; Jiang, Tao; Chow, Larry M C; Biao, Wan Sheng

2013-11-27

325

Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationships of Antimalarial 4-oxo-3-carboxyl quinolones  

PubMed Central

Malaria is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, Asia, and the Americas. The increasing prevalence of multi-drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum drives the ongoing need for the development of new antimalarial drugs. In this light, novel scaffolds to which the parasite has not been exposed are of particular interest. Recently, workers at the Swiss Tropical Institute discovered two novel 4-oxo-3-carboxyl quinolones active against the intra-erythrocytic stages of P. falciparum while carrying out rationally directed low-throughput screening of potential antimalarial agents as part of an effort directed by the World Health Organization. Here we report the design, synthesis, and preliminary pharmacologic characterization of a series of analogues of 4-oxo-3-carboxyl quinolones. These studies indicate that the series has good potential for preclinical development. PMID:20206533

Zhang, Yiqun; Guiguemde, W. Armand; Sigal, Martina; Zhu, Fangyi; Connelly, Michele C.; Nwaka, Solomon

2010-01-01

326

Combating the threat of anthrax: a quantitative structure-activity relationship approach.  

PubMed

Bacterial agents or products more likely to be used as biological weapons of mass destruction are Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, Yersinia pestis, and the neurotoxin of Clostridium botulinum. Anthrax is an acute infectious disease with a high mortality rate caused by Bacillus anthracis, reinforcing the need for better adjunctive therapy and prevention strategies. In this paper, we developed 7 QSAR models on penicillin-based inhibitors of the class A and B beta-lactamases from B. anthracis and inhibitors of anthrax lethal factor to understand the chemical-biological interactions. Hydrophobic and steric factors are found to be the most important determinants of the activity. Internal (cross-validation ( q (2)), quality factor ( Q), Fischer statistics ( F), and Y-randomization) and external validation tests have validated all the QSAR models. PMID:18611038

Verma, Rajeshwar P; Hansch, Corwin

2008-01-01

327

Quantitative structure-activity relationship study of antioxidative peptide by using different sets of amino acids descriptors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A database consisting of 214 tripeptides which contain either His or Tyr residue was applied to study quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) of antioxidative tripeptides. Partial Least-Squares Regression analysis (PLSR) was conducted using parameters individually of each amino acid descriptor, including Divided Physico-chemical Property Scores (DPPS), Hydrophobic, Electronic, Steric, and Hydrogen (HESH), Vectors of Hydrophobic, Steric, and Electronic properties (VHSE), Molecular Surface-Weighted Holistic Invariant Molecular (MS-WHIM), isotropic surface area-electronic charge index (ISA-ECI) and Z-scale, to describe antioxidative tripeptides as X-variables and antioxidant activities measured with ferric thiocyanate methods were as Y-variable. After elimination of outliers by Hotelling's T 2 method and residual analysis, six significant models were obtained describing the entire data set. According to cumulative squared multiple correlation coefficients ( R2), cumulative cross-validation coefficients ( Q2) and relative standard deviation for calibration set (RSD c), the qualities of models using DPPS, HESH, ISA-ECI, and VHSE descriptors are better ( R2 > 0.6, Q2 > 0.5, RSD c < 0.39) than that of models using MS-WHIM and Z-scale descriptors ( R2 < 0.6, Q2 < 0.5, RSD c > 0.44). Furthermore, the predictive ability of models using DPPS descriptor is best among the six descriptors systems (cumulative multiple correlation coefficient for predict set ( Rext2) > 0.7). It was concluded that the DPPS is better to describe the amino acid of antioxidative tripeptides. The results of DPPS descriptor reveal that the importance of the center amino acid and the N-terminal amino acid are far more than the importance of the C-terminal amino acid for antioxidative tripeptides. The hydrophobic (positively to activity) and electronic (negatively to activity) properties of the N-terminal amino acid are suggested to play the most important significance to activity, followed by the hydrogen bond (positively to activity) of the center amino acid. The N-terminal amino acid should be a high hydrophobic and low electronic amino acid (such as Ala, Gly, Val, and Leu); the center amino acid would be an amino acid that possesses high hydrogen bond property (such as base amino acid Arg, Lys, and His). The structural characteristics of antioxidative peptide be found in this paper may contribute to the further research of antioxidative mechanism.

Li, Yao-Wang; Li, Bo; He, Jiguo; Qian, Ping

2011-07-01

328

Cellular Quantitative Structure–Activity Relationship (Cell-QSAR): Conceptual Dissection of Receptor Binding and Intracellular Disposition in Antifilarial Activities of Selwood Antimycins  

PubMed Central

We present the cellular quantitative structure–activity relationship (cell-QSAR) concept that adapts ligand-based and receptor-based 3D-QSAR methods for use with cell-level activities. The unknown intracellular drug disposition is accounted for by the disposition function (DF), a model-based, nonlinear function of a drug’s lipophilicity, acidity, and other properties. We conceptually combined the DF with our multispecies, multimode version of the frequently used ligand-based comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) method, forming a single correlation function for fitting the cell-level activities. The resulting cell-QSAR model was applied to the Selwood data on filaricidal activities of antimycin analogues. Their molecules are flexible, ionize under physiologic conditions, form different intramolecular H-bonds for neutral and ionized species, and cross several membranes to reach unknown receptors. The calibrated cell-QSAR model is significantly more predictive than other models lacking the disposition part and provides valuable structure optimization clues by factorizing the cell-level activity of each compound into the contributions of the receptor binding and disposition. PMID:22468611

2012-01-01

329

Structure-activity relationships of anthraquinone derivatives derived from bromaminic acid as inhibitors of ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (E-NTPDases)  

PubMed Central

Reactive blue 2 (RB-2) had been characterized as a relatively potent ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (E-NTPDase) inhibitor with some selectivity for NTPDase3. In search for the pharmacophore and to analyze structure-activity relationships we synthesized a series of truncated derivatives and analogs of RB-2, including 1-amino-2-sulfo-4-ar(alk)ylaminoanthraquinones, 1-amino-2-methyl-4-arylaminoanthraquinones, 1-amino-4-bromoanthraquinone 2-sulfonic acid esters and sulfonamides, and bis-(1-amino-4-bromoanthraquinone) sulfonamides, and investigated them in preparations of rat NTPDase1, 2, and 3 using a capillary electrophoresis assay. Several 1-amino-2-sulfo-4-ar(alk)ylaminoanthraquinone derivatives inhibited E-NTPDases in a concentration-dependent manner. The 2-sulfonate group was found to be required for inhibitory activity, since 2-methyl-substituted derivatives were inactive. 1-Amino-2-sulfo-4-p-chloroanilinoanthraquinone (18) was identified as a nonselective competitive blocker of NTPDases1, 2, and 3 (Ki 16–18 ?M), while 1-amino-2-sulfo-4-(2-naphthylamino)anthraquinone (21) was a potent inhibitor with preference for NTPDase1 (Ki 0.328 ?M) and NTPDase3 (Ki 2.22 ?M). Its isomer, 1-amino-2-sulfo-4-(1-naphthylamino)anthraquinone (20), was a potent and selective inhibitor of rat NTPDase3 (Ki 1.5 ?M). PMID:18528783

Baqi, Younis; Weyler, Stefanie; Iqbal, Jamshed; Zimmermann, Herbert

2008-01-01

330

How Does Catalase Release Nitric Oxide? A Computational Structure Activity Relationship Study  

PubMed Central

Hydroxyurea (HU) is the only FDA approved medication for treating sickle cell disease in adults. The primary mechanism of action is pharmacological elevation of nitric oxide (NO) levels which induces propagation of fetal hemoglobin. HU is known to undergo redox reactions with heme based enzymes like hemoglobin and catalase to produce NO. However, specific details about the HU based NO release remain unknown. Experimental studies indicate that interaction of HU with human catalase compound I produces NO. Presently, we combine flexible receptor-flexible substrate induced fit docking (IFD) with energy decomposition analyses to examine the atomic level details of a possible key step in the clinical conversion of HU to NO. Substrate binding modes of nine HU analogs with catalase compound I were investigated to determine the essential properties necessary for effective NO release. Three major binding orientations were found that provide insight into the possible reaction mechanisms for producing NO. Further results show that anion/radical intermediates produced as part of these mechanisms would be stabilized by hydrogen bonding interactions from distal residues His75, Asn148, Gln168, and oxoferryl-heme. These details will ideally contribute to both a clearer mechanistic picture and provide insights for future structure based drug design efforts. PMID:24087936

Vankayala, Sai Lakshmana; Hargis, Jacqueline C.; Woodcock, H. Lee

2013-01-01

331

Structures, Biological Activities and Phylogenetic Relationships of Terpenoids from Marine Ciliates of the Genus Euplotes  

PubMed Central

In the last two decades, large scale axenic cell cultures of the marine species comprising the family Euplotidae have resulted in the isolation of several new classes of terpenoids with unprecedented carbon skeletons including the (i) euplotins, highly strained acetylated sesquiterpene hemiacetals; (ii) raikovenals, built on the bicyclo[3.2.0]heptane ring system; (iii) rarisetenolides and focardins containing an octahydroazulene moiety; and (iv) vannusals, with a unique C30 backbone. Their complex structures have been elucidated through a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, molecular mechanics and quantum chemical calculations. Despite the limited number of biosynthetic experiments having been performed, the large diversity of ciliate terpenoids has facilitated the proposal of biosynthetic pathways whereby they are produced from classical linear precursors. Herein, the similarities and differences emerging from the comparison of the classical chemotaxonomy approach based on secondary metabolites, with species phylogenesis based on genetic descriptors (SSU-rDNA), will be discussed. Results on the interesting ecological and biological properties of ciliate terpenoids are also reported. PMID:20714425

Guella, Graziano; Skropeta, Danielle; Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Dini, Fernando

2010-01-01

332

Determination of biodegradability kinetics of RCRA compounds using respirometry for structure-activity relationships  

SciTech Connect

Electrolytic respirometry is attaining prominence in biodegradation studies and is becoming one of the more suitable experimental methods for measuring the biodegradability and the kinetics of biodegradation of toxic organic compounds by the sewage, sludge, and soil microbiota and for determining substrate inhibitory effects to microorganisms in wastewater treatment systems. The purpose of the study was to obtain information on biological treatability of the benzene, phenol, phthalate, ketone organics and of the Superfund CERCLA organics bearing wastes in wastewater treatment systems which will support the development of an EPA technical guidance document on the discharge of the above organics to POTWs. The paper discusses the experimental design and procedural steps for the respirometric biodegradation and toxicity testing approach for individual organics or specific industrial wastes at different concentration levels in a mineral salts medium. A developed multi-level protocol is presented for determination of the biodegradability, microbial acclimation to toxic substrates and first order kinetic parameters of biodegradation for estimation of the Monod kinetic parameter of toxic organic compounds, in order to correlate the extent and rate of biodegradation with a predictive model based on chemical properties and molecular structure of these compounds. Respirometric biodegradation/inhibition and biokinetic data are provided for representative RCRA alkyl benzene and ketone organics.

Tabak, H.H.; Desai, S.; Govind, R.

1990-01-01

333

Synthesis, cytostatic evaluation and structure activity relationships of novel bis-indolylmethanes and their corresponding tetrahydroindolocarbazoles.  

PubMed

BIMs (bis-indolylmethanes) (1a-n) were synthesized using glacial acetic acid as a protic acid for promotion of the condensation reaction of indoles with aldehydes in high yields (86-98 %). Corresponding tetrahydroindolo[2,3-b]carbazoles (2a-m) were synthesized via condensation of BIMs with aldehydes. Ten synthesized compounds have been submitted to the national cancer institute in the USA where all the submitted samples have been selected for one dose screening. As a result of the one dose screening of BIMs (1e,f,h,i,n) and of the indolocarbazoles (2e,f,h,i,j) the average highest cytostatic effects was recorded here for the BIM 1h and the indolocarbazole (2e) that showed the lowest mean values of "47.39%" and of "21.63%" respectively. Both compounds (1h and 2e) were further tested in five dose screening with the tested substance (1h) being significantly more sensitive for several cancers cell line as corresponding to their GI50 values. Furthermore, the basically substituted derivative 2e showed the highest antipoliferative activity in a nanomolar scale towards the three selected cancers cell lines Non small lung cell NCI-H460 with GI50 "616 nM", Ovarian Cancer cell line OVCAR-4 with GI50 "562 nM" and Breast Cancer cell line MCF7 with GI50 "930 nM". PMID:25528338

El Sayed, Mardia T; Ahmed, Khadiga M; Mahmoud, Kazem; Hilgeroth, Andreas

2015-01-27

334

Blood-brain barrier permeable anticholinesterase aurones: Synthesis, structure-activity relationship, and drug-like properties.  

PubMed

A series of novel aurones bearing amine and carbamate functionalities at various positions (rings A and/or B) of the scaffold was synthesized and evaluated for their acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. Structure-activity relationship study disclosed several potent submicromolar acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) particularly aurones bearing piperidine and pyrrolidine moieties at ring A or ring B. Bulky groups particularly methoxyls, and carbamate to a lesser extent, at either rings were also prominently featured in these AChEI aurones as exemplified by the trimethoxyaurone 4-3. The active aurones exhibited a lower butyrylcholinesterase inhibition. A 3'-chloroaurone 6-3 originally designed to improve the metabolic stability of the scaffold was the most potent of the series. Molecular docking simulations showed these AChEI aurones to adopt favourable binding modes within the active site gorge of the Torpedo californica AChE (TcAChE) including an unusual chlorine-? interaction by the chlorine of 6-3 to establish additional bondings to hydrophobic residues of TcAChE. Evaluation of the potent aurones for their blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and metabolic stability using PAMPA-BBB assay and in vitro rat liver microsomes (RLM) identified 4-3 as an aurone with an optimal combination of high passive BBB permeability and moderate CYP450 metabolic stability. LC-MS identification of a mono-hydroxylated metabolite found in the RLM incubation of 4-3 provided an impetus for further improvement of the compound. Thus, 4-3, discovered within this present series is a promising, drug-like lead for the development of the aurones as potential multipotent agents for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25768702

Liew, Kok-Fui; Chan, Kit-Lam; Lee, Chong-Yew

2015-04-13

335

Development of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models to predict the carcinogenic potency of chemicals  

SciTech Connect

Determining the carcinogenicity and carcinogenic potency of new chemicals is both a labor-intensive and time-consuming process. In order to expedite the screening process, there is a need to identify alternative toxicity measures that may be used as surrogates for carcinogenic potency. Alternative toxicity measures for carcinogenic potency currently being used in the literature include lethal dose (dose that kills 50% of a study population [LD{sub 50}]), lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level (LOAEL) and maximum tolerated dose (MTD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between tumor dose (TD{sub 50}) and three alternative toxicity measures as an estimator of carcinogenic potency. A second aim of this study was to develop a Classification and Regression Tree (CART) between TD{sub 50} and estimated/experimental predictor variables to predict the carcinogenic potency of new chemicals. Rat TD{sub 50}s of 590 structurally diverse chemicals were obtained from the Cancer Potency Database, and the three alternative toxicity measures considered in this study were estimated using TOPKAT, a toxicity estimation software. Though poor correlations were obtained between carcinogenic potency and the three alternative toxicity (both experimental and TOPKAT) measures for the CPDB chemicals, a CART developed using experimental data with no missing values as predictor variables provided reasonable estimates of TD{sub 50} for nine chemicals that were part of an external validation set. However, if experimental values for the three alternative measures, mutagenicity and logP are not available in the literature, then either the CART developed using missing experimental values or estimated values may be used for making a prediction.

Venkatapathy, Raghuraman [Pegasus Technical Services, Inc., 46 E. Hollister St., Cincinnati, OH 45219 (United States)], E-mail: venkatapathy.raghuraman@epa.gov; Wang Chingyi; Bruce, Robert Mark [National Center for Environmental Assessment, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 W Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); Moudgal, Chandrika [National Homeland Security Research Center, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 7, ENSV/IO, 901 N 5th Street, Kansas City, KS 66101 (United States)

2009-01-15

336

Multi-Site ?-dynamics for simulated Structure-Activity Relationship studies  

PubMed Central

Multi-Site ?-dynamics (MS?D) is a new free energy simulation method that is based on ?-dynamics. It has been developed to enable multiple substituents at multiple sites on a common ligand core to be modeled simultaneously and their free energies assessed. The efficacy of MS?D for estimating relative hydration free energies and relative binding affinties is demonstrated using three test systems. Model compounds representing multiple identical benzene, dihydroxybenzene and dimethoxybenzene molecules show total combined MS?D trajectory lengths of ~1.5 ns are sufficient to reliably achieve relative hydration free energy estimates within 0.2 kcal/mol and are less sensitive to the number of trajectories that are used to generate these estimates for hybrid ligands that contain up to ten substituents modeled at a single site or five substituents modeled at each of two sites. Relative hydration free energies among six benzene derivatives calculated from MS?D simulations are in very good agreement with those from alchemical free energy simulations (with average unsigned differences of 0.23 kcal/mol and R2=0.991) and experiment (with average unsigned errors of 1.8 kcal/mol and R2=0.959). Estimates of the relative binding affinities among 14 inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase obtained from MS?D simulations are in reasonable agreement with those from traditional free energy simulations and experiment (average unsigned errors of 0.9 kcal/mol and R2=0.402). For the same level of accuracy and precision MS?D simulations are achieved ~20–50 times faster than traditional free energy simulations and thus with reliable force field parameters can be used effectively to screen tens to hundreds of compounds in structure-based drug design applications. PMID:22125476

Knight, Jennifer L.; Brooks, Charles L.

2011-01-01

337

EPC syntheses and structure-activity relationships of hypoglycaemic semicyclic amidines.  

PubMed

A series of homochiral sterically hindered mono- and bicyclic amidines was prepared as hypoglycaemic agents by lethargic reaction of O-methylcaprolactim and 3-ethoxy-2-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene, respectively, with homochiral cis-2-substituted cyclopentane amines provided by asymmetrical reductive amination of racemic 2-substituted cyclopentanones. All compounds, except the cyclohexylmethyl-isoquinuclidone derivative which inhibited secretion at 100 microM, significantly stimulated insulin secretion 2-8-fold at 10 microM and 100 microM in INS-1 cells. The most potent activator was the 2-cyclopentyl-substituted caprolactam derivative 5e. The stimulatory effects on secretion increased with rising steric hindrance of both the amidine alpha-carbon and the bicyclic amidine moiety itself. Enantiomeric discrimination was observed for the 2-¿(cis-2-bulkysubstituted cyclopentyl)iminohexahydroazepine halides 5e and 5f and for the 3-¿(cis-2-substituted cyclopentyl)imino-2-azabicyclo¿2.2.2?ctane halides 6a and 6c. The amidines depolarized INS-1 cells and generated action potentials, accompanied by a decrease of membrane conductance. Simultaneously [Ca(2+)](i) increased, probably due to Ca(2+)-entry through voltage-dependent Ca(2+)-channels. At high concentrations, where inhibition of secretion was observed, ¿Ca(2+)(i) still rose upon application of the amidines, indicating an additional inhibitory pathway downstream to the elevation of ¿Ca(2+)(i). Even at high concentrations (100 microM), the amidines had no toxic effects on insulin secreting INS-1 cells. PMID:10858599

Hartmann, S; Ullrich, S; Hupfer, C; Frahm, A W

2000-04-01

338

In vitro anticancer activity, toxicity and structure-activity relationships of phyllostictine A, a natural oxazatricycloalkenone produced by the fungus Phyllosticta cirsii  

SciTech Connect

The in vitro anticancer activity and toxicity of phyllostictine A, a novel oxazatricycloalkenone recently isolated from a plant-pathogenic fungus (Phyllosticta cirsii) was characterized in six normal and five cancer cell lines. Phyllostictine A displays in vitro growth-inhibitory activity both in normal and cancer cells without actual bioselectivity, while proliferating cells appear significantly more sensitive to phyllostictine A than non-proliferating ones. The main mechanism of action by which phyllostictine displays cytotoxic effects in cancer cells does not seem to relate to a direct activation of apoptosis. In the same manner, phyllostictine A seems not to bind or bond with DNA as part of its mechanism of action. In contrast, phyllostictine A strongly reacts with GSH, which is a bionucleophile. The experimental data from the present study are in favor of a bonding process between GSH and phyllostictine A to form a complex though Michael attack at C=C bond at the acrylamide-like system. Considering the data obtained, two new hemisynthesized phyllostictine A derivatives together with three other natural phyllostictines (B, C and D) were also tested in vitro in five cancer cell lines. Compared to phyllostictine A, the two derivatives displayed a higher, phyllostictines B and D a lower, and phyllostictine C an almost equal, growth-inhibitory activity, respectively. These results led us to propose preliminary conclusions in terms of the structure-activity relationship (SAR) analyses for the anticancer activity of phyllostictine A and its related compounds, at least in vitro.

Le Calve, Benjamin [Laboratoire de Toxicologie, Faculte de Pharmacie de Pharmacie, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels (Belgium); Lallemand, Benjamin [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique, Toxicologie et de Chimie Physique Appliquee, Faculte de Pharmacie de Pharmacie, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels (Belgium); Perrone, Carmen [Dipartimento di Scienze, del Suolo, della Pianta, dell'Ambiente e delle Produzioni Animali, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Portici (Italy); Lenglet, Gaelle; Depauw, Sabine [INSERM U-837, Jean-Pierre Aubert Research Center (JPARC), Team Molecular and Cellular Targeting for Cancer Treatment, Institut pour la Recherche sur le Cancer de Lille, Lille (France); Van Goietsenoven, Gwendoline; Bury, Marina [Laboratoire de Toxicologie, Faculte de Pharmacie de Pharmacie, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels (Belgium); Vurro, Maurizio [Istituto di Scienze delle Produzioni Alimentari, CNR, Bari (Italy); Herphelin, Francoise [Cell and Tissue Laboratory, URPHYM, University of Namur (FUNDP), Namur (Belgium); Andolfi, Anna [Dipartimento di Scienze, del Suolo, della Pianta, dell'Ambiente e delle Produzioni Animali, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Portici (Italy); Zonno, Maria Chiara [Istituto di Scienze delle Produzioni Alimentari, CNR, Bari (Italy); Mathieu, Veronique [Laboratoire de Toxicologie, Faculte de Pharmacie de Pharmacie, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels (Belgium); Dufrasne, Francois [Laboratoire de Chimie Pharmaceutique Organique, Faculte de Pharmacie de Pharmacie, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels (Belgium); Van Antwerpen, Pierre [Laboratoire de Chimie Pharmaceutique Organique, Faculte de Pharmacie de Pharmacie, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels (Belgium); Plate-Forme Analytique, Faculte de Pharmacie de Pharmacie, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels (Belgium); Poumay, Yves [Cell and Tissue Laboratory, URPHYM, University of Namur (FUNDP), Namur (Belgium)

2011-07-01

339

Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships and docking studies of some structurally diverse flavonoids and design of new aldose reductase inhibitors.  

PubMed

Aldose reductase (AR) plays an important role in the development of several long-term diabetic complications. Inhibition of AR activities is a strategy for controlling complications arising from chronic diabetes. Several AR inhibitors have been reported in the literature. Flavonoid type compounds are shown to have significant AR inhibition. The objective of this study was to perform a computational work to get an idea about structural insight of flavonoid type compounds for developing as well as for searching new flavonoid based AR inhibitors. The data-set comprising 68 flavones along with their pIC50 values ranging from 0.44 to 4.59 have been collected from literature. Structure of all the flavonoids were drawn in Chembiodraw Ultra 11.0, converted into corresponding three-dimensional structure, saved as mole file and then imported to maestro project table. Imported ligands were prepared using LigPrep option of maestro 9.6 version. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships and docking studies were performed with appropriate options of maestro 9.6 version installed in HP Z820 workstation with CentOS 6.3 (Linux). A model with partial least squares factor 5, standard deviation 0.2482, R(2) = 0.9502 and variance ratio of regression 122 has been found as the best statistical model. PMID:25709964

Chandra De, Utpal; Debnath, Tanusree; Sen, Debanjan; Debnath, Sudhan

2015-01-01

340

Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships and docking studies of some structurally diverse flavonoids and design of new aldose reductase inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Aldose reductase (AR) plays an important role in the development of several long-term diabetic complications. Inhibition of AR activities is a strategy for controlling complications arising from chronic diabetes. Several AR inhibitors have been reported in the literature. Flavonoid type compounds are shown to have significant AR inhibition. The objective of this study was to perform a computational work to get an idea about structural insight of flavonoid type compounds for developing as well as for searching new flavonoid based AR inhibitors. The data-set comprising 68 flavones along with their pIC50 values ranging from 0.44 to 4.59 have been collected from literature. Structure of all the flavonoids were drawn in Chembiodraw Ultra 11.0, converted into corresponding three-dimensional structure, saved as mole file and then imported to maestro project table. Imported ligands were prepared using LigPrep option of maestro 9.6 version. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships and docking studies were performed with appropriate options of maestro 9.6 version installed in HP Z820 workstation with CentOS 6.3 (Linux). A model with partial least squares factor 5, standard deviation 0.2482, R2 = 0.9502 and variance ratio of regression 122 has been found as the best statistical model. PMID:25709964

Chandra De, Utpal; Debnath, Tanusree; Sen, Debanjan; Debnath, Sudhan

2015-01-01

341

Synthesis, structure-activity, and structure-stability relationships of 2-substituted-N-(4-oxo-3-oxetanyl) N-acylethanolamine acid amidase (NAAA) inhibitors.  

PubMed

N-Acylethanolamine acid amidase (NAAA) is a cysteine amidase that preferentially hydrolyzes saturated or monounsaturated fatty acid ethanolamides (FAEs), such as palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and oleoylethanolamide (OEA), which are endogenous agonists of nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?). Compounds that feature an ?-amino-?-lactone ring have been identified as potent and selective NAAA inhibitors and have been shown to exert marked anti-inflammatory effects that are mediated through FAE-dependent activation of PPAR-?. We synthesized and tested a series of racemic, diastereomerically pure ?-substituted ?-amino-?-lactones, as either carbamate or amide derivatives, investigating the structure-activity and structure-stability relationships (SAR and SSR) following changes in ?-substituent size, relative stereochemistry at the ?- and ?-positions, and ?-amino functionality. Substituted carbamate derivatives emerged as more active and stable than amide analogues, with the cis configuration being generally preferred for stability. Increased steric bulk at the ?-position negatively affected NAAA inhibitory potency, while improving both chemical and plasma stability. PMID:24403170

Vitale, Romina; Ottonello, Giuliana; Petracca, Rita; Bertozzi, Sine Mandrup; Ponzano, Stefano; Armirotti, Andrea; Berteotti, Anna; Dionisi, Mauro; Cavalli, Andrea; Piomelli, Daniele; Bandiera, Tiziano; Bertozzi, Fabio

2014-02-01

342

Exploring the Anti-Cancer Activity of Novel Thiosemicarbazones Generated through the Combination of Retro-Fragments: Dissection of Critical Structure-Activity Relationships  

PubMed Central

Thiosemicarbazones (TSCs) are an interesting class of ligands that show a diverse range of biological activity, including anti-fungal, anti-viral and anti-cancer effects. Our previous studies have demonstrated the potent in vivo anti-tumor activity of novel TSCs and their ability to overcome resistance to clinically used chemotherapeutics. In the current study, 35 novel TSCs of 6 different classes were designed using a combination of retro-fragments that appear in other TSCs. Additionally, di-substitution at the terminal N4 atom, which was previously identified to be critical for potent anti-cancer activity, was preserved through the incorporation of an N4-based piperazine or morpholine ring. The anti-proliferative activity of the novel TSCs were examined in a variety of cancer and normal cell-types. In particular, compounds 1d and 3c demonstrated the greatest promise as anti-cancer agents with potent and selective anti-proliferative activity. Structure-activity relationship studies revealed that the chelators that utilized “soft” donor atoms, such as nitrogen and sulfur, resulted in potent anti-cancer activity. Indeed, the N,N,S donor atom set was crucial for the formation of redox active iron complexes that were able to mediate the oxidation of ascorbate. This further highlights the important role of reactive oxygen species generation in mediating potent anti-cancer activity. Significantly, this study identified the potent and selective anti-cancer activity of 1d and 3c that warrants further examination. PMID:25329549

Rasko, Nathalie; Pot??ková, Eliška; Mrozek-Wilczkiewicz, Anna; Musiol, Robert; Ma?ecki, Jan G.; Sajewicz, Mieczys?aw; Ratuszna, Alicja; Muchowicz, Angelika; Go??b, Jakub; Šim?nek, Tomáš; Richardson, Des R.; Polanski, Jaroslaw

2014-01-01

343

Exploring the anti-cancer activity of novel thiosemicarbazones generated through the combination of retro-fragments: dissection of critical structure-activity relationships.  

PubMed

Thiosemicarbazones (TSCs) are an interesting class of ligands that show a diverse range of biological activity, including anti-fungal, anti-viral and anti-cancer effects. Our previous studies have demonstrated the potent in vivo anti-tumor activity of novel TSCs and their ability to overcome resistance to clinically used chemotherapeutics. In the current study, 35 novel TSCs of 6 different classes were designed using a combination of retro-fragments that appear in other TSCs. Additionally, di-substitution at the terminal N4 atom, which was previously identified to be critical for potent anti-cancer activity, was preserved through the incorporation of an N4-based piperazine or morpholine ring. The anti-proliferative activity of the novel TSCs were examined in a variety of cancer and normal cell-types. In particular, compounds 1d and 3c demonstrated the greatest promise as anti-cancer agents with potent and selective anti-proliferative activity. Structure-activity relationship studies revealed that the chelators that utilized "soft" donor atoms, such as nitrogen and sulfur, resulted in potent anti-cancer activity. Indeed, the N,N,S donor atom set was crucial for the formation of redox active iron complexes that were able to mediate the oxidation of ascorbate. This further highlights the important role of reactive oxygen species generation in mediating potent anti-cancer activity. Significantly, this study identified the potent and selective anti-cancer activity of 1d and 3c that warrants further examination. PMID:25329549

Serda, Maciej; Kalinowski, Danuta S; Rasko, Nathalie; Pot??ková, Eliška; Mrozek-Wilczkiewicz, Anna; Musiol, Robert; Ma?ecki, Jan G; Sajewicz, Mieczys?aw; Ratuszna, Alicja; Muchowicz, Angelika; Go??b, Jakub; Sim?nek, Tomáš; Richardson, Des R; Polanski, Jaroslaw

2014-01-01

344

Structure-activity relationships of pentamidine analogs against Giardia lamblia and correlation of antigiardial activity with DNA-binding affinity.  

PubMed Central

1,5-Di(4-amidinophenoxy)pentane (pentamidine) and 38 analogs of pentamidine were screened for in vitro activity against the enteric protozoan Giardia lamblia WB (ATCC 30957). All compounds were active against G. lamblia as measured by a [methyl-3H]thymidine incorporation assay. Antigiardial activity varied widely, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) ranging from 0.51 +/- 0.13 microM (mean +/- standard deviation) for the most active compound to over 100.0 microM for the least active compounds. The IC50 of the most potent antigiardial agent, 1,3-di(4-amidino-2-methoxyphenoxy)propane compared favorably with the IC50s of the compounds currently used to treat giardiasis, i.e., furazolidone (1.0 +/- 0.03 microM), metronidazole (2.1 +/- 0.80 microM), quinacrine HCl (0.03 +/- 0.02 microM), and tinidazole (0.78 +/- 0.48 microM). A mode of antigiardial activity for these compounds was suggested by the correlation observed between antigiardial activity and the binding of the compounds to calf thymus DNA and poly(dA).poly(dT). PMID:1929249

Bell, C A; Cory, M; Fairley, T A; Hall, J E; Tidwell, R R

1991-01-01

345

Determination of boiling point of petrochemicals by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and multivariate regression analysis of structural activity relationship.  

PubMed

Accurate understanding of analyte boiling points (BP) is of critical importance in gas chromatographic (GC) separation and crude oil refinery operation in petrochemical industries. This study reported the first combined use of GC separation and partial-least-square (PLS1) multivariate regression analysis of petrochemical structural activity relationship (SAR) for accurate BP determination of two commercially available (D3710 and MA VHP) calibration gas mix samples. The results of the BP determination using PLS1 multivariate regression were further compared with the results of traditional simulated distillation method of BP determination. The developed PLS1 regression was able to correctly predict analytes BP in D3710 and MA VHP calibration gas mix samples, with a root-mean-square-%-relative-error (RMS%RE) of 6.4%, and 10.8% respectively. In contrast, the overall RMS%RE of 32.9% and 40.4%, respectively obtained for BP determination in D3710 and MA VHP using a traditional simulated distillation method were approximately four times larger than the corresponding RMS%RE of BP prediction using MRA, demonstrating the better predictive ability of MRA. The reported method is rapid, robust, and promising, and can be potentially used routinely for fast analysis, pattern recognition, and analyte BP determination in petrochemical industries. PMID:24881546

Fakayode, Sayo O; Mitchell, Breanna S; Pollard, David A

2014-08-01

346

Serotonin 5-HT7 receptor agents: structure-activity relationships and potential therapeutic applications in central nervous system disorders  

PubMed Central

Since its discovery in the 1940s in serum, the mammalian intestinal mucosa, and in the central nervous system, serotonin (5-HT) has been shown to be involved in virtually all cognitive and behavioral human functions, and alterations in its neurochemistry have been implicated in the etiology of a plethora of neuropsychiatric disorders. The cloning of 5-HT receptor subtypes has been of importance in enabling them to be classified as specific protein molecules encoded by specific genes. The 5-HT7 receptor is the most recently classified member of the serotonin receptor family. Since its identification, it has been the subject of intense research efforts driven by its presence in functionally relevant regions of the brain. The availability of some selective antagonists and agonists, in combination with genetically modified mice lacking the 5-HT7 receptor, has allowed for a better understanding of the pathophysiological role of this receptor. This paper reviews data on localization and pharmacological properties of the 5-HT7 receptor, and summarizes the results of structure-activity relationship studies aimed at the discovery of selective 5-HT7 receptor ligands. Additionally, an overview of the potential therapeutic applications of 5-HT7 receptor agonists and antagonists in central nervous system disorders is presented. PMID:20923682

Leopoldo, Marcello; Lacivita, Enza; Berardi, Francesco; Perrone, Roberto; Hedlund, Peter B.

2010-01-01

347

Prediction of anticancer property of bowsellic acid derivatives by quantitative structure activity relationship analysis and molecular docking study  

PubMed Central

Context: Boswellic acid consists of a series of pentacyclic triterpene molecules that are produced by the plant Boswellia serrata. The potential applications of Bowsellic acid for treatment of cancer have been focused here. Aims: To predict the property of the bowsellic acid derivatives as anticancer compounds by various computational approaches. Materials and Methods: In this work, all total 65 derivatives of bowsellic acids from the PubChem database were considered for the study. After energy minimization of the ligands various types of molecular descriptors were computed and corresponding two-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models were obtained by taking Andrews coefficient as the dependent variable. Statistical Analysis Used: Different types of comparative analysis were used for QSAR study are multiple linear regression, partial least squares, support vector machines and artificial neural network. Results: From the study geometrical descriptors shows the highest correlation coefficient, which indicates the binding factor of the compound. To evaluate the anticancer property molecular docking study of six selected ligands based on Andrews affinity were performed with nuclear factor-kappa protein kinase (Protein Data Bank ID 4G3D), which is an established therapeutic target for cancers. Along with QSAR study and docking result, it was predicted that bowsellic acid can also be treated as a potential anticancer compound. Conclusions: Along with QSAR study and docking result, it was predicted that bowsellic acid can also be treated as a potential anticancer compound. PMID:25709332

Satpathy, Raghunath; Guru, R. K.; Behera, R.; Nayak, B.

2015-01-01

348

Determination of key structure-activity relationships in siRNA delivery with a mixed micelle system.  

PubMed

Short interfering ribonucleic acids (siRNAs) offer a highly specific and selective form of therapy for diseases with a genetic component; however the poor pharmacokinetic properties of the molecule have impeded its development into a therapeutic for use in vivo. Several different approaches have been taken to develop a successful siRNA delivery system but these systems lack the flexibility for easy optimisation. Here, we propose a polymeric nanoparticle (PNP) system consisting of two amphiphilic diblock copolymers which allow for the rapid determination of structure-activity relationships involving gene knockdown and toxicity. The diblock copolymers self-assemble into monodisperse micelles of defined hydrodynamic diameters ranging from 30 to 100 nm dependent on the copolymer ratio. A luciferase-based high throughput assay varying PNP composition, concentration and siRNA concentration allowed the rapid identification of efficient PNP formulations for adherent and suspension cell lines. Optimised PNPs efficiently knocked down a fusion oncogene in hard to transfect human leukaemic cells raising the possibility of targeting malignant cells in a cancer-specific fashion. This approach allows the optimum PNP formulation to be identified for different cell types and conditions. PMID:24140749

Omedes Pujol, Marta; Coleman, Daniel J L; Allen, Christopher D; Heidenreich, Olaf; Fulton, David A

2013-12-28

349

Determination of key structure–activity relationships in siRNA delivery with a mixed micelle system???  

PubMed Central

Short interfering ribonucleic acids (siRNAs) offer a highly specific and selective form of therapy for diseases with a genetic component; however the poor pharmacokinetic properties of the molecule have impeded its development into a therapeutic for use in vivo. Several different approaches have been taken to develop a successful siRNA delivery system but these systems lack the flexibility for easy optimisation. Here, we propose a polymeric nanoparticle (PNP) system consisting of two amphiphilic diblock copolymers which allow for the rapid determination of structure–activity relationships involving gene knockdown and toxicity. The diblock copolymers self-assemble into monodisperse micelles of defined hydrodynamic diameters ranging from 30 to 100 nm dependent on the copolymer ratio. A luciferase-based high throughput assay varying PNP composition, concentration and siRNA concentration allowed the rapid identification of efficient PNP formulations for adherent and suspension cell lines. Optimised PNPs efficiently knocked down a fusion oncogene in hard to transfect human leukaemic cells raising the possibility of targeting malignant cells in a cancer-specific fashion. This approach allows the optimum PNP formulation to be identified for different cell types and conditions. PMID:24140749

Omedes Pujol, Marta; Coleman, Daniel J.L.; Allen, Christopher D.; Heidenreich, Olaf; Fulton, David A.

2013-01-01

350

Structure-activity relationship for the estimation of OH-oxidation rate constants of carbonyl compounds in the aqueous phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the atmosphere, one important class of reactions occurs in the aqueous phase in which organic compounds are known to undergo oxidation towards a number of radicals, among which OH radicals are the most reactive oxidants. In 2008, Monod and Doussin have proposed a new structure-activity relationship (SAR) to calculate OH-oxidation rate constants in the aqueous phase. This estimation method is based on the group-additivity principle and was until now limited to alkanes, alcohols, acids, bases and related polyfunctional compounds. In this work, the initial SAR is extended to carbonyl compounds, including aldehydes, ketones, dicarbonyls, hydroxy carbonyls, acidic carbonyls, their conjugated bases, and the hydrated form of all these compounds. To do so, only five descriptors have been added and none of the previously attributed descriptors were modified. This extension leads now to a SAR which is based on a database of 102 distinct compounds for which 252 experimental kinetic rate constants have been gathered and reviewed. The efficiency of this updated SAR is such that 58% of the rate constants could be calculated within ±20% of the experimental data and 76% within ±40% (respectively 41 and 72% for the carbonyl compounds alone).

Doussin, J.-F.; Monod, A.

2013-12-01

351

Structure-activity relationship for the estimation of OH-oxidation rate constants of carbonyl compounds in the aqueous phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the atmosphere, one important class of reactions occurs in the aqueous phase in which organic compounds are known to undertake oxidation towards a number of radicals, among which OH radicals are the most reactive oxidants. In 2008, Monod and Doussin have proposed a new structure activity relationship (SAR) to calculate OH-oxidation rate constants in the aqueous phase. This estimation method is based on the group-additivity principle and was until now limited to alkanes, alcohols, acids, bases and related polyfunctional compounds. In this work, the initial SAR is extended to carbonyl compounds, including aldehydes, ketones, dicarbonyls, hydroxy-carbonyls, acidic carbonyls, their conjugated bases, and the hydrated form of all these compounds. To do so, only five descriptors have been added and none of the previously attributed descriptors were modified. This extension leads now to a SAR which is based on a database of 102 distinct compounds for which 252 experimental kinetic rate constants have been gathered and reviewed. The efficiency of this updated SAR is such that 58% of the rate constants could be calculated within ±20% of the experimental data and 76% within ±40%.

Doussin, J. F.; Monod, A.

2013-06-01

352

Design, structure-activity relationship, and in vivo characterization of the development candidate NVP-HSP990.  

PubMed

Utilizing structure-based drug design, a novel dihydropyridopyrimidinone series which exhibited potent Hsp90 inhibition, good pharmacokinetics upon oral administration, and an excellent pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship in vivo was developed from a commercial hit. The exploration of this series led to the selection of NVP-HSP990 as a development candidate. PMID:25368984

McBride, Christopher M; Levine, Barry; Xia, Yi; Bellamacina, Cornelia; Machajewski, Timothy; Gao, Zhenhai; Renhowe, Paul; Antonios-McCrea, William; Barsanti, Paul; Brinner, Kristin; Costales, Abran; Doughan, Brandon; Lin, Xiaodong; Louie, Alicia; McKenna, Maureen; Mendenhall, Kris; Poon, Daniel; Rico, Alice; Wang, Michael; Williams, Teresa E; Abrams, Tinya; Fong, Susan; Hendrickson, Thomas; Lei, Dachuan; Lin, Julie; Menezes, Daniel; Pryer, Nancy; Taverna, Pietro; Xu, Yongjin; Zhou, Yasheen; Shafer, Cynthia M

2014-11-13

353

Quantitative structure–activity relationship studies for the prediction of antifungal activity of N-arylbenzenesulfonamides against Botrytis cinerea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Botrytis cinerea is one of the most interesting fungal pathogens. It can infect almost every plant and plant part and cause early latent infections which damage the fruit before ripening. The QSAR is an alternative method for the research of new and better fungicides against B. cinerea. This paper describes the results of applying a topological sub-structural molecular design

Liane Saíz-Urra; Maykel Pérez González; Isidro G. Collado; Rosario Hernández-Galán

2007-01-01

354

Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of pyripyropene A derivatives as potent and selective acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 2 (ACAT2) inhibitors: part 2.  

PubMed

Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of 7-O-p-cyanobenzoyl pyripyropene A derivatives with modification at C1 and 11 are described. Regioselective mono-deprotection of di-tert-butylsilylene acetal was critical in their synthesis. PMID:23535327

Ohtawa, Masaki; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Daisuke; Ohshiro, Taichi; Rudel, Lawrence L; ?mura, Satoshi; Tomoda, Hiroshi; Nagamitsu, Tohru

2013-05-01

355

Structure-activity relationships in new polycationic molecules based on two 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octanes as artificial ribonucleases.  

PubMed

In the present study, we designed and synthesised new polycationic molecules based on two 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) moieties with hydrophobic groups connected by different linkers. The structure and the RNA-cleavage activity relationships of this novel series of artificial ribonucleases (aRNases) were investigated. PMID:25462988

Burakova, E; Kovalev, N; Zenkova, M; Vlassov, V; Silnikov, V

2014-12-01

356

STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS FOR INSECT KININS ON EXPRESSED RECEPTORS FROM A TICK (ACARI:IXODIDAE) AND A MOSQUITO (DIPTERA:CULICIDAE)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The systematic analysis of structure-activity relationships of insect kinins on two heterologous receptor-expressing systems is described. Previously, kinin receptors from the southern cattle tick, Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1888) [1; 2] and the dengue vector, the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.) ...

357

TRANSFORMATION OF DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY DATA INTO STRUCTURE-SEARCHABLE TOXML DATABASE IN SUPPORT OF STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIP (SAR) WORKFLOW.  

EPA Science Inventory

Early hazard identification of new chemicals is often difficult due to lack of data on the novel material for toxicity endpoints, including neurotoxicity. At present, there are no structure searchable neurotoxicity databases. A working group was formed to construct a database to...

358

Three-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship computational approaches for prediction of human in vitro intrinsic clearance.  

PubMed

Future alternatives to the presently accepted in vitro paradigm of prediction of intrinsic clearance, which could be used earlier in the drug discovery process, would potentially accelerate efforts to identify better drug candidates with more favorable metabolic profiles and less likelihood of failure with regard to human pharmacokinetic attributes. In this study we describe two computational methods for modeling human microsomal and hepatocyte intrinsic clearance data derived from our laboratory and the literature, which utilize pharmacophore features or descriptors derived from molecular structure. Human microsomal intrinsic clearance data generated for 26 known therapeutic drugs were used to build computational models using commercially available software (Catalyst and Cerius(2)), after first converting the data to hepatocyte intrinsic clearance. The best Catalyst pharmacophore model gave an r of 0.77 for the observed versus predicted clearance. This pharmacophore was described by one hydrogen bond acceptor, two hydrophobic features, and one ring aromatic feature essential to discriminate between high and low intrinsic clearance. The Cerius(2) quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) model gave an r(2) = 0.68 for the observed versus predicted clearance and a cross-validated r(2) (q(2)) of 0.42. Similarly, literature data for human hepatocyte intrinsic clearance for 18 therapeutic drugs were also used to generate two separate models using the same computational approaches. The best Catalyst pharmacophore model gave an improved r of 0.87 and was described by two hydrogen bond acceptors, one hydrophobe, and 1 positive ionizable feature. The Cerius(2) QSAR gave an r(2) of 0.88 and a q(2) of 0.79. Each of these models was then used as a test set for prediction of the intrinsic clearance data in the other data set, with variable successes. These present models represent a preliminary application of QSAR software to modeling and prediction of human in vitro intrinsic clearance. PMID:11046077

Ekins, S; Obach, R S

2000-11-01

359

A novel quantitative structure-activity relationship model for prediction of biomagnification factor of some organochlorine pollutants.  

PubMed

The biomagnification factor (BMF) is an important property for toxicology and environmental chemistry. In this work, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models were used for the prediction of BMF for a data set including 30 polychlorinated biphenyls and 12 organochlorine pollutants. This set was divided into training and prediction sets. The result of diversity test reveals that the structure of the training and test sets can represent those of the whole ones. After calculation and screening of a large number of molecular descriptors, the methods of stepwise multiple linear regression and genetic algorithm (GA) were used for the selection of most important and significant descriptors which were related to BMF. Then multiple linear regression and artificial neural network (ANN) techniques were applied as linear and non-linear feature mapping techniques, respectively. By comparison between statistical parameters of these methods it was concluded that an ANN model, which used GA selected descriptors, was superior over constructed models. Descriptors which were used by this model are: topographic electronic index, complementary information content, XY shadow/XY rectangle and difference between partial positively and negatively charge surface area. The standard errors for training and test sets of this model are 0.03 and 0.20, respectively. The degree of importance of each descriptor was evaluated by sensitivity analysis approach for the nonlinear model. A good results (Q (2) = 0.97 and SPRESS = 0.084) is obtained by applying cross-validation test that indicating the validation of descriptors in the obtained model in prediction of BMF for these compounds. PMID:19219557

Fatemi, Mohammad Hossein; Baher, Elham

2009-08-01

360

Design, Synthesis, and Structure–Activity Relationship Studies of Fluorescent Inhibitors of Cycloxygenase-2 as Targeted Optical Imaging Agents  

PubMed Central

Cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an attractive target for molecular imaging because it is an inducible enzyme that is expressed in response to inflammatory and proliferative stimuli. Recently, we reported that conjugation of indomethacin with carboxy-X-rhodamine dyes results in the formation of effective, targeted, optical imaging agents able to detect COX-2 in inflammatory tissues and premalignant and malignant tumors (Uddin et al. Cancer Res. 2010, 70, 3618–3627). The present paper summarizes the details of the structure–activity relationship (SAR) studies performed for lead optimization of these dyes. A wide range of fluorescent conjugates were designed and synthesized, and each of them was tested for the ability to selectively inhibit COX-2 as the purified protein and in human cancer cells. The SAR study revealed that indomethacin conjugates are the best COX-2-targeted agents compared to the other carboxylic acid-containing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or COX-2-selective inhibitors (COXIBs). An n-butyldiamide linker is optimal for tethering bulky fluorescent functionalities onto the NSAID or COXIB cores. The activity of conjugates also depends on the size, shape, and electronic properties of the organic fluorophores. These reagents are taken up by COX-2-expressing cells in culture, and the uptake is blocked by pretreatment with a COX inhibitor. In in vivo settings, these reagents become highly enriched in COX-2-expressing tumors compared to surrounding normal tissue, and they accumulate selectively in COX-2-expressing tumors as compared with COX-2-negative tumors grown in mice. Thus, COX-2-targeted fluorescent inhibitors are useful for preclinical and clinical detection of lesions containing elevated levels of COX-2. PMID:23488616

2013-01-01

361

Inhibitory activity on DNA gyrase and intracellular accumulation of quinolones: structure-activity relationship of Q-35 analogs.  

PubMed

Q-35, 1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-8-methoxy-7-(3- methylaminopiperidine-1-yl)-4-oxyquinoline-3-carboxylic acid, has excellent activity against gram-positive bacteria and inhibits S. aureus gyrase at concentrations more than 10-fold lower than those of other quinolones. In this paper, the effect of the C-7 and C-8 substituents of Q-35 on the inhibitory activity of gyrase purified from S. aureus, M. luteus, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa are described. In addition, intracellular accumulation of Q-35 was examined. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of Q-35, 8-fluoro- Q-35, and 8-hydro-Q-35 on DNA gyrase purified from S. aureus were 2.5, 7.8, and 68 micrograms/ml, respectively. The IC50 on gyrase from P. aeruginosa were 11, 5.2, and 17 micrograms/ml, respectively. It is concluded that the introduction of a methoxy group into the 8 position of the quinolone leads to greater antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria. The concentrations of Q-35 which accumulated in S. aureus and E. coli were almost equal to ciprofloxacin, but in P. aeruginosa, Q-35 was lower than ciprofloxacin. PMID:8000379

Ito, T; Kojima, K; Koizumi, K; Nagano, H; Nishino, T

1994-07-01

362

Structural characterization and cytotoxic properties of a 4-O-methylglucuronoxylan from castanea sativa. 2. Evidence of a structure-activity relationship.  

PubMed

Xylans were purified from delignified holocellulose alkaline extracts of Castanea sativa (Spanish chestnut) and Argania spinosa (Argan tree) and their structures analyzed by means of GC of their per-trimethylsilylated methylglycoside derivatives and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The structures deduced were characteristic of a 4-O-methylglucuronoxylan (MGX) and a homoxylan (HX), respectively, with degrees of polymerization ranging from 182 to 360. In the case of MGX, the regular or random distribution of 4-O-methylglucuronic acid along the xylosyl backbone--determined by MALDI mass spectrometry after autohydrolysis of the polysaccharide--varied and depended both on the botanical source from which they were extracted and on the xylan extraction procedure. The MGX also inhibited in different ways the proliferation as well as the migration and invasion capability of A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. These biological properties could be correlated with structural features including values of the degree of polymerization, 4-O-MeGlcA to xylose ratios, and distribution of 4-O-MeGlcA along the xylosyl backbone, giving evidence of a defined structure-activity relationship. PMID:18646856

Barbat, Aline; Gloaguen, Vincent; Moine, Charlotte; Sainte-Catherine, Odile; Kraemer, Michel; Rogniaux, Hélène; Ropartz, David; Krausz, Pierre

2008-08-01

363

Antitumor Agents. 272. Structure–Activity Relationships and In Vivo Selective Anti-Breast Cancer Activity of Novel Neo-tanshinlactone Analogs  

PubMed Central

Neo-tanshinlactone (1) and its previously reported analogs, such as 2, are potent and selective in vitro anti-breast cancer agents. The synthetic pathway to 2 was optimized from seven to five steps, with a better overall yield. Structure–activity relationships studies on these compounds revealed some key molecular determinants for this family of anti-breast agents. Several derivatives (19-21 and 24) exerted potent and selective anti-breast cancer activity with IC50 values of 0.3, 0.2, 0.1 and 0.1 ?g/mL, respectively, against the ZR-75-1 cell lines. Compound 24 was two- to three-fold more potent than 1 against SK-BR-3 and ZR-75-1. Importantly, 21 exhibited high selectivity; it was 23 times more active against ZR-75-1 than MCF-7. Compound 20 had an approximately 12-fold ratio of SK-BR-3/MCF-7 selectivity. In addition, analog 2 showed potent activity against a ZR-75-1 xenograft model, but not PC-3 and MDA-MB-231 xenografts, as well as high selectivity against breast cancer cell line compared with normal breast tissue-derived cell lines. Further development of lead compounds 19-21 and 24 as clinical trial candidates is warranted. PMID:20148565

Dong, Yizhou; Shi, Qian; Pai, Huei-Chen; Peng, Chieh-Yu; Pan, Shiow-Lin; Teng, Che-Ming; Nakagawa-Goto, Kyoko; Yu, Donglei; Liu, Yi-Nan; Wu, Pei-Chi; Bastow, Kenneth F.; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Brossi, Arnold; Lang, Jing-Yu; Hsu, Jennifer L.; Hung, Mien-Chie; Lee, Eva Y.-H. P.; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

2010-01-01

364

Structure-activity relationships in the induction of hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 by clotrimazole and its structurally related compounds in rats.  

PubMed

We investigated the structure-activity relationship in the induction of hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 by clotrimazole and its structurally related compounds. For this purpose, we synthesized various compounds structurally analogous to clotrimazole and injected them into rats at a fixed dose of 0.2 mmol/kg. We found that the chlorine atom in clotrimazole was not necessary for the induction of cytochrome P450. The imidazole moiety of clotrimazole, however, was a very important structural component for the induction of cytochrome P450; triazole, but not pyrrole, could be substituted for this moiety. 1-Tritylimidazole, 1-diphenylmethylimidazole and 1-benzylimidazole were also found to be inducers of cytochrome P450, but, to a somewhat lesser extent, with a decreasing number of substituted phenyl groups. Thus, 1-benzylimidazole was a minimum structurally active unit for inducing cytochrome P450. In addition, 4-diphenylmethylpyridine and 4-benzylpyridine also induced cytochrome P450 to extents similar to those induced by the corresponding imidazole derivatives, but 4-benzylpiperidine lacked this effect. When the methylene unit of clotrimazole-related compounds was introduced by a hydroxy or amino group instead of imidazole, there was a less extensive increase in cytochrome P450 content. This inducing effect was lost completely by the lack of an imidazole moiety and imidazole itself. 1-Phenylethylimidazole and 1-benzylimidazole induced cytochrome P450 to a similar extent. All of these findings suggest that 1-substituted heteroaromatic compounds having two or more nitrogen atoms are likely to be required for inducing cytochrome P450. Immunoblot analysis revealed that clotrimazole and other various inducers found in this study increased cytochrome P450b/e content. These results could provide information on the effects of drugs and chemicals on cytochrome P450 induction. PMID:2039545

Matsuura, Y; Kotani, E; Iio, T; Fukuda, T; Tobinaga, S; Yoshida, T; Kuroiwa, Y

1991-06-15

365

Structure-activity relationships and in vivo activity of (1H-pyrazol-4-yl)acetamide antagonists of the P2X(7) receptor.  

PubMed

Structure-activity relationships (SAR) of analogues of lead compound 1 were investigated and compound 16 was selected for further study in animal models of pain. Compound 16 was shown to be a potent antihyperalgesic agent in both the rat acute complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) model of inflammatory pain [Iadarola, M. J.; Douglass, J.; Civelli, O.; Naranjo, J. R. rain Res.1988, 455, 205] and the knee joint model of chronic inflammatory pain [Wilson, A. W.; Medhurst, S. J.; Dixon, C. I.; Bontoft, N. C.; Winyard, L. A.; Brackenborough, K. T.; De Alba, J.; Clarke, C. J.; Gunthorpe, M. J.; Hicks, G. A.; Bountra, C.; McQueen, D. S.; Chessell, I. P. Eur. J. Pain2006, 10, 537]. PMID:20579878

Beswick, Paul J; Billinton, Andy; Chambers, Laura J; Dean, David K; Fonfria, Elena; Gleave, Robert J; Medhurst, Stephen J; Michel, Anton D; Moses, Andrew P; Patel, Sadhana; Roman, Shilina A; Roomans, Sue; Senger, Stefan; Stevens, Alexander J; Walter, Daryl S

2010-08-01

366

FISH ACUTE TOXICITY SYNDROMES AND THEIR USE IN THE QSAR (QUANTITATIVE STRUCTURE ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIP) APPROACH TO HAZARD ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Implementation of the Toxic Substances Control Act of 1977 creates the need to reliably establish testing priorities because laboratory resources are limited and the number of industrial chemicals requiring evaluation is overwhelming. The use of quantitative structure activity re...

367

The structure-activity relationship study on 2-, 5-, and 6-position of the water soluble 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives blocking N-type calcium channels.  

PubMed

In order to find an injectable and selective N-type calcium channel blocker, we have performed the structure-activity relationship (SAR) study on the 2-, 5-, and 6-position of 1,4-dihydropyridine-3-carboxylate derivative APJ2708 (2), which is a derivative of Cilnidipine and has L/N-type calcium channel dual inhibitory activities. As a consequence of the optimization, 6-dimethylacetal derivative 7 was found to have an effective inhibitory activity against N-type calcium channels with more than 170-fold lower activity for L-type channel compared to that of APJ2708. PMID:18684623

Yamamoto, Takashi; Niwa, Seiji; Ohno, Seiji; Tokumasu, Munetaka; Masuzawa, Yoko; Nakanishi, Chika; Nakajo, Akira; Onishi, Tomoyuki; Koganei, Hajime; Fujita, Shin-Ichi; Takeda, Tomoko; Kito, Morikazu; Ono, Yukitsugu; Saitou, Yuki; Takahara, Akira; Iwata, Seinosuke; Shoji, Masataka

2008-09-01

368

Pseudocyanides of sanguinarine and chelerythrine and their series of structurally simple analogues as new anticancer lead compounds: Cytotoxic activity, structure-activity relationship and apoptosis induction.  

PubMed

6-Cyano dihydrosanguinarine (CNS) and 6-cyano dihydrochelerythrine (CNC) are respectively artificial derivatives of sanguinarine and chelerythrine, two anticancer quaternary benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloids (QBAs) while 1-cyano-2-aryl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines (CATHIQs) are a class of structurally simple analogues of CNS or CNC. This study investigated the inhibition activity of CNS, CNC and CATHIQs on cancer cells, apoptosis induction as well as their preliminary SAR. The results showed that CNS and 18 out of CATHIQs showed IC50 values of 0.53 and 0.62-2.24?M against NB4 and 1.53 and 2.99-11.17?M against MKN-45 cells, respectively, superior to a standard anticancer drug cis-platinum with IC50 of 2.39 and 11.36?M. CNC showed a higher activity against NB4 cells (IC50=1.85?M) and a moderate activity against MKN-45 cells (IC50=12.72?M). Among all CATHIQs, 2 and 17 gave the highest activity against NB4 cells and MKN-45 cells (IC50=0.62 and 2.99?M), respectively. DAPI staining, AO/EB staining and ultrastructure analysis of cells demonstrated that CATHIQs were able to induce apoptosis of the cells in a concentration-dependent manner. SAR showed that substitution patterns on the N-aromatic ring significantly influenced the activity of CATHIQs. The general trend was that the introduction of electron-withdrawing substituents like halogen atom, nitro, trifluoromethyl led to a significant improvement of the activity, while the presence of electron-donating groups like methyl, methoxyl caused a reduction of the activity. In most cases, the 2' site was the most favorable substitution position for the improvement of the activity. Thus, the present results strongly suggested that QBA-type pseudocyanides may serve as potential alternatives of anticancer QBAs while CATHIQs should be a class of promising lead compounds for the development of new QBA-like-type anticancer drugs. CNS exhibited the highest cytotoxicities with IC50 values of 0.53?M on NB4 cells and 1.53?M on MKN-45 cells. PMID:25444843

Cao, Fang-Jun; Yang, Rui; Lv, Chao; Ma, Qun; Lei, Ming; Geng, Hui-Ling; Zhou, Le

2015-01-25

369

Structure activity relationship studies of 3-arylsulfonyl-pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-4-imines as potent 5-HT? antagonists.  

PubMed

Comprehensive structure activity relationship (SAR) studies were conducted on a focused screening hit, 2-(methylthio)-3-(phenylsulfonyl)-4H-pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-4-imine (1, IC50: 4.0 nM), as 5-HT6 selective antagonists. Activity was improved some 2-4 fold when small, electron-donating groups were added to the central core as observed in 19, 20 and 26. Molecular docking of key compounds in a homology model of the human 5-HT6 receptor was used to rationalize our structure-activity relationship (SAR) findings. In pharmacokinetic experiments, compound 1 displayed good brain uptake in rats following intra-peritoneal administration, but limited oral bioavailability. PMID:24495863

Hu, Shuanghua; Huang, Yazhong; Wu, Yong-Jin; He, Huan; Grant-Young, Katherine A; Bertekap, Robert L; Whiterock, Valerie; Brassil, Patrick; Lentz, Kimberley; Sivaprakasam, Prasanna; Langley, David R; Westphal, Ryan S; Scola, Paul M

2014-03-01

370

Structure-activity relationships in cytotoxic Au(I)/Au(III) complexes derived from 2-(2'-pyridyl)benzimidazole.  

PubMed

Gold(I) and gold(III) complexes derived from 2-(2'-pyridyl)benzimidazole (pbiH) were proven to be a promising class of in vitro antitumor agents against A2780 human ovarian cancer cells. In this paper, a comparative electrochemical, UV-vis absorption, and emission spectroscopic investigation is reported on pbiH, the two mononuclear Au(III) complexes [(pbi)AuX2] (X = Cl (1), AcO (2)), the four mononuclear Au(I) derivatives [(pbiH)AuCl] (3), [(pbiH)Au(PPh3)]PF6 ((4(+))(PF6(-))), [(pbi)Au(PPh3)] (5), and [(pbi)Au(TPA)] (6), the three mixed-valence Au(III)/Au(I) complexes [(?-pbi)Au2Cl3] (7), [(Ph3P)Au(?-pbi)AuX2]PF6 (X = Cl ((8(+))(PF6(-))), AcO ((9(+))(PF6(-)))), and the binuclear Au(I)-Au(I) compound [(?-pbi)Au2(PPh3)2]PF6 ((10(+))(PF6(-))). All complexes feature irreversible reduction processes related to the Au(III)/Au(I) or Au(I)/Au(0) processes and peculiar luminescent emission at about 360-370 nm in CH2Cl2, with quantum yields that are remarkably lower ((0.7-14.5) × 10(-2)) in comparison to that determined for the free pbiH ligand (31.5 × 10(-2)) in the same solvent. The spectroscopic and electrochemical properties of all complexes were interpreted on the grounds of time-dependent PBE0/DFT calculations carried out both in the gas phase and in CH2Cl2 implicitly considered within the IEF-PCM SCRF approach. The electronic structure of the complexes, and in particular the energy and composition of the Kohn-Sham LUMOs, can be related to the antiproliferative properties against the A2780 ovarian carcinoma cell line, providing sound quantitative structure-activity relationships and shedding a light on the role played by the global charge and nature of ancillary ligands in the effectiveness of Au-based antitumor drugs. PMID:24679072

Maiore, Laura; Aragoni, Maria Carla; Deiana, Carlo; Cinellu, Maria Agostina; Isaia, Francesco; Lippolis, Vito; Pintus, Anna; Serratrice, Maria; Arca, Massimiliano

2014-04-21

371

Quantitative structure-activity relationships of insecticides and plant growth regulators: comparative studies toward understanding the molecular mechanism of action.  

PubMed Central

Emphasis was put on the comparative quantitative structure-activity approaches to the exploration of action mechanisms of structurally different classes of compounds showing the same type of activity as well as those of the same type of compounds having different actions. Examples were selected from studies performed on insecticides and plant growth regulators, i.e., neurotoxic carbamates, phosphates, pyrethroids and DDT analogs, insect juvenile hormone mimics, and cytokinin agonistic and antagonistic compounds. Similarities and dissimilarities in structures required to elicit activity between compounds classes were revealed in terms of physicochemical parameters, provoking further exploration and evoking insights into the molecular mechanisms of action which may lead to the development of new structures having better qualities. PMID:3905379

Iwamura, H; Nishimura, K; Fujita, T

1985-01-01

372

Relationship between chemical structure and biological activity of alkali metal o-, m- and p-anisates. FT-IR and microbiological studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we investigated relationship between molecular structure of alkali metal o-, m-, p-anisate molecules and their antimicrobial activity. For this purpose FT-IR spectra for lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium anisates in solid state and solution were recorded, assigned and analysed. Microbial activity of studied compounds was tested against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus vulgaris. In order to evaluate the dependency between chemical structure and biological activity of alkali metal anisates the statistical analysis (multidimensional regression and principal component) was performed for selected wavenumbers from FT-IR spectra and parameters that describe microbial activity of anisates. The obtained statistical equations show the existence of correlation between molecular structure of anisates and their biological properties.

Kalinowska, M.; Piekut, J.; Lewandowski, W.

2011-11-01

373

Structure, Relationships, and Community Responsibility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers several suggestions about how educators' efforts have gone wrong and makes recommendations about what they need to teach students about ethics and management to prepare students more adequately. Concludes that ethics are about structures, processes, and the relationships that endure, get reproduced, and that generate outcomes that affect…

DiTomaso, Nancy; Parks-Yancy, Rochelle; Post, Corinne

2003-01-01

374

Synthesis, structure-activity relationships, and in vivo evaluation of N3-phenylpyrazinones as novel corticotropin-releasing factor-1 (CRF1) receptor antagonists.  

PubMed

Evidence suggests that corticotropin-releasing factor-1 (CRF(1)) receptor antagonists may offer therapeutic potential for the treatment of diseases associated with elevated levels of CRF such as anxiety and depression. A pyrazinone-based chemotype of CRF(1) receptor antagonists was discovered. Structure-activity relationship studies led to the identification of numerous potent analogues including 12p, a highly potent and selective CRF(1) receptor antagonist with an IC(50) value of 0.26 nM. The pharmacokinetic properties of 12p were assessed in rats and Cynomolgus monkeys. Compound 12p was efficacious in the defensive withdrawal test (an animal model of anxiety) in rats. The synthesis, structure-activity relationships and in vivo properties of compounds within the pyrazinone chemotype are described. PMID:19552437

Hartz, Richard A; Ahuja, Vijay T; Arvanitis, Argyrios G; Rafalski, Maria; Yue, Eddy W; Denhart, Derek J; Schmitz, William D; Ditta, Jonathan L; Deskus, Jeffrey A; Brenner, Allison B; Hobbs, Frank W; Payne, Joseph; Lelas, Snjezana; Li, Yu-Wen; Molski, Thaddeus F; Mattson, Gail K; Peng, Yong; Wong, Harvey; Grace, James E; Lentz, Kimberley A; Qian-Cutrone, Jingfang; Zhuo, Xiaoliang; Shu, Yue-Zhong; Lodge, Nicholas J; Zaczek, Robert; Combs, Andrew P; Olson, Richard E; Bronson, Joanne J; Mattson, Ronald J; Macor, John E

2009-07-23

375

Environmental properties of long-chain alcohols, Part 2: Structure–activity relationship for chronic aquatic toxicity of long-chain alcohols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daphnia magna reproduction tests were performed with C10, C12, C14 and C15 alcohols to establish a structure–activity relationship of chronic effects of long-chain alcohols. The data generation involved substantial methodological efforts due to the exceptionally rapid biodegradability of the test substances and the need to test as close as possible to their water solubility limits. Test concentrations were determined by

C. Schäfers; U. Boshof; H. Jürling; S. E. Belanger; H. Sanderson; S. D. Dyer; A. M. Nielsen; A. Willing; K. Gamon; Y. Kasai; C. V. Eadsforth; P. R. Fisk; A. E. Girling

2009-01-01

376

STRUCTURE-GENOTOXIC ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS OF PESTICIDES: COMPARISON OF THE RESULTS FROM SEVERAL SHORT-TERM ASSAYS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Computer-Automated Structure Evaluation (CASE) program has been applied to the analysis of the genotoxic activity of 54 pesticides (31 insecticides, 15 herbicides and 8 fungicides), in 5 different short-term test systems measuring point-gene mutation and DNA damage. The datab...

377

Studies on uricosuric diuretics. 4. Three-dimensional structure-activity relationships and receptor mapping of (aryloxy)acetic acid diuretics.  

PubMed

Attempts to develop new (aryloxy)acetic acids with a better profile of diuretic and uricosuric activities as well as with fewer side effects have produced a series of compounds in which the ring system has been varied. Diuretic screening of these analogues in rats indicated that the great difference in the activity between these compounds might be ascribed to a difference in the ring system rather than that in the substituent effect and that the annulation hypothesis described before is not necessarily applicable to all of these compounds. This prompted us to study the relationship between the structure and the diuretic activity of the (aryloxy)acetic acids. An active model (receptor model) was created with the indanone moiety of R-(-)-3 and the dihydrobenzofuran-2-carboxylic acid moiety of S-(+)-4. The three-dimensional structure-activity study of known compounds 2-4, and 5a using the active model showed that the degree of fitting to the model is related to the diuretic activity of these compounds. This was also confirmed for compounds 6a, 6b, 9a, 10a, 11a, 12a, 13a, 14a, 15a, and 16a, and the relation between the structure and the diuretic activity was rationalized qualitatively. With these insights in mind, a modified receptor model was constructed. We believe that this model is useful for a prediction of the activity of compounds not yet synthesized as well as for designing new (aryloxy)acetic acid diuretics. PMID:1895290

Koga, H; Sato, H; Dan, T; Aoki, B

1991-09-01

378

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls as neuroendocrine disruptors of vasopressin release: effects during physiological activation in vitro and structure-activity relationships.  

PubMed

The neuropeptide, vasopressin (VP) is synthesized in magnocellular neuroendocrine cells (MNCs) located within the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei of the mammalian hypothalamus. VP has multiple functions including maintenance of body fluid homeostasis, cardiovascular control, learning and memory, and nervous system development. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), used as additive flame retardants, have been shown to interfere with hormone metabolism and function. Previously, we demonstrated that the technical polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture, Aroclor 1254, inhibits somatodendritic VP release from the SON of osmotically stimulated rats. The objectives of the current study were to test whether PBDEs affect central VP release in a similar manner and to determine the potency of several PCB and PBDE congeners in order to identify a common mode of action for these persistent chemicals. The current work shows that the commercial PBDE mixture (DE-71) significantly decreased somatodendritic VP release from rat SON punches in a strain-independent manner. In addition, the specific congeners PBDE 47 and PCB 47 (15 and 5 microM) were also neuroactive in this system. To explore structure/activity relationships, we compared the effects of PBDE 77 with PCB 77. PBDE 77, but not PCB 77 significantly reduced VP release. These results show that like PCBs, PBDEs perturb signaling mechanisms responsible for hormone release, and that environmentally relevant PBDE congeners are more neuroactive than the commercial mixtures with noncoplanarity of these compounds playing a role in promoting neuroactivity. PMID:17434953

Coburn, Cary G; Currás-Collazo, Margarita C; Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S

2007-07-01

379

Orally Active Metabotropic Glutamate Subtype 2 Receptor Positive Allosteric Modulators: Structure-Activity Relationships and Assessment in a Rat Model of Nicotine Dependence  

PubMed Central

Compounds that modulate metabotropic glutamate subtype 2 (mGlu2) receptors have the potential to treat several disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) including drug dependence. Herein we describe the synthesis and structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies around a series of mGlu2 receptor positive allosteric modulators (PAMs). The effects of N-substitution (R1) and substitutions on the aryl ring (R2) were identified as key areas for SAR exploration (Figure 3). Investigation of the effects of varying substituents in both the isoindolinone (2) and benzisothiazolone (3) series led to compounds with improved in vitro potency and/or efficacy. In addition, several analogues exhibited promising pharmacokinetic (PK) properties. Furthermore, compound 2 was shown to dose-dependently decrease nicotine self-administration in rats following oral administration. Our data, showing for the first time efficacy of an mGlu2 receptor PAM in this in vivo model, suggest potential utility for the treatment of nicotine dependence in humans. PMID:23009245

Sidique, Shyama; Dhanya, Raveendra-Panickar; Sheffler, Douglas J.; Nickols, Hilary Highfield; Yang, Li; Dahl, Russell; Mangravita-Novo, Arianna; Smith, Layton H.; D’Souza, Manoranjan S.; Semenova, Svetlana; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Markou, Athina; Cosford, Nicholas D. P.

2012-01-01

380

Structure-function relationships of citrus limonoids on p38 MAP kinase activity in human aortic smooth muscle cells.  

PubMed

Limonoids, abundantly present in citrus fruits, have potential role in reducing risk of different type of cancer. In the present study, we hypothesized that seven structurally different limonoids would involve in inflammatory pathway via modulating p38 MAP kinase activity at various extent in vascular smooth muscle cells. Results demonstrated that the different functional groups containing limonoids had differential effects on the p38 MAP kinase activity in human aortic smooth muscle cells. Among seven limonoids, nomilin exhibited the highest (38%) inhibition of p38 MAP kinase activity, followed by limonin (19%), deacetyl nomilin (19%), and defuran nomilin (17%). While defuran limonin and methyl nomilinate showed no significant decrease in p38 MAP kinase activity, obacunone significantly increased the p38 MAP kinase activity by 38%. Furthermore, TNF-? induced p38 MAP kinase activity in the smooth muscle cells was completely inhibited by nomilin. Thus our data provide the first evidence that nomilin is the potent natural inhibitor for p38 MAP kinase activity in human aortic smooth muscle cells. These data also suggest that a seven-membered A ring with acetoxy group, present in nomilin, seems to be essential for its inhibitory activity on p38 MAP kinase. PMID:21924259

Kim, Jinhee; Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K; Muthuchamy, Mariappan; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

2011-11-16

381

Discovery and structure-activity relationship of N-(ureidoalkyl)-benzyl-piperidines as potent small molecule CC chemokine receptor-3 (CCR3) antagonists.  

PubMed

Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of initial screening hits from our corporate library of compounds and a structurally related series of CCR1 receptor antagonists were used to determine that an N-(alkyl)benzylpiperidine is an essential pharmacophore for selective CCR3 antagonists. Further SAR studies that introduced N-(ureidoalkyl) substituents improved the binding potency of these compounds from the micromolar to the low nanomolar range. This new series of compounds also displays highly potent, in vitro functional CCR3-mediated antagonism of eotaxin-induced Ca(2+) mobilization and chemotaxis of human eosinophils. PMID:12166951

De Lucca, George V; Kim, Ui T; Johnson, Curt; Vargo, Brian J; Welch, Patricia K; Covington, Maryanne; Davies, Paul; Solomon, Kimberly A; Newton, Robert C; Trainor, George L; Decicco, Carl P; Ko, Soo S

2002-08-15

382

Design, synthesis, and testing of potential antisickling agents. 4. Structure-activity relationships of benzyloxy and phenoxy acids.  

PubMed

In this paper we further establish the activity of two classes of small molecules, benzyloxy and phenoxy acids, as potent inhibitors of hemoglobin S (HbS) gelation. Structural modifications with a large number of each class confirm our earlier work that the highest activity is observed with compounds that contain dihalogenated aromatic rings with attached polar side chains. We have also found a halogenated aromatic malonic acid derivative to be quite active. Compounds reported in this paper are compared with other antigelling agents studied in our laboratory. Comments are made concerning the antigelling activity and binding sites of four derivatives and their effect on the allosteric mechanism of hemoglobin (Hb) function. PMID:6747995

Abraham, D J; Kennedy, P E; Mehanna, A S; Patwa, D C; Williams, F L

1984-08-01

383

Structure determination of glycogen synthase kinase-3 from Leishmania major and comparative inhibitor structure?activity relationships with Trypanosoma brucei GSK-3  

SciTech Connect

Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a drug target under intense investigation in pharmaceutical companies and constitutes an attractive piggyback target for eukaryotic pathogens. Two different GSKs are found in trypanosomatids, one about 150 residues shorter than the other. GSK-3 short (GeneDB: Tb927.10.13780) has previously been validated genetically as a drug target in Trypanosoma brucei by RNAi induced growth retardation; and chemically by correlation between enzyme and in vitro growth inhibition. Here, we report investigation of the equivalent GSK-3 short enzymes of L. major (LmjF18.0270) and L. infantum (LinJ18{_}V3.0270, identical in amino acid sequences to LdonGSK-3 short) and a crystal structure of LmajGSK-3 short at 2 {angstrom} resolution. The inhibitor structure-activity relationships (SARs) of L. major and L. infantum are virtually identical, suggesting that inhibitors could be useful for both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Leishmania spp. GSK-3 short has different inhibitor SARs than TbruGSK-3 short, which can be explained mostly by two variant residues in the ATP-binding pocket. Indeed, mutating these residues in the ATP-binding site of LmajGSK-3 short to the TbruGSK-3 short equivalents results in a mutant LmajGSK-3 short enzyme with SAR more similar to that of TbruGSK-3 short. The differences between human GSK-3{beta} (HsGSK-3{beta}) and LmajGSK-3 short SAR suggest that compounds which selectively inhibit LmajGSK-3 short may be found.

Ojo, Kayode K.; Arakaki, Tracy L.; Napuli, Alberto J.; Inampudi, Krishna K.; Keyloun, Katelyn R.; Zhang, Li; Hol, Wim G.J.; Verlind, Christophe L.M.J.; Merritt, Ethan A.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C. (UWASH)

2012-04-24

384

Structure Determination of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 from Leishmania major and Comparative Inhibitor Structure-Activity Relationships with Trypanosoma brucei GSK-3  

PubMed Central

Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a drug target under intense investigation in pharmaceutical companies and constitutes an attractive piggyback target for eukaryotic pathogens. Two different GSKs are found in trypanosomatids, one about 150 residues shorter than the other. GSK-3 short (GeneDB: Tb927.10.13780) has previously been validated genetically as a drug target in Trypanosoma brucei by RNAi induced growth retardation; and chemically by correlation between enzyme and in vitro growth inhibition. Here, we report investigation of the equivalent GSK-3 short enzymes of L. major (LmjF18.0270) and L. infantum (LinJ18_V3.0270, identical in amino acid sequences to LdonGSK-3 short) and a crystal structure of LmajGSK-3 short at 2 Å resolution. The inhibitor structure-activity relationships (SARs) of L. major and L. infantum are virtually identical, suggesting that inhibitors could be useful for both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Leishmania spp. GSK-3 short has different inhibitor SARs than TbruGSK-3 short, which can be explained mostly by two variant residues in the ATP-binding pocket. Indeed, mutating these residues in the ATP-binding site of LmajGSK-3 short to the TbruGSK-3 short equivalents results in a mutant LmajGSK-3 short enzyme with SAR more similar to that of TbruGSK-3 short. The differences between human GSK-3? (HsGSK-3?) and LmajGSK-3 short SAR suggest that compounds which selectively inhibit LmajGSK-3 short may be found. PMID:21195115

Ojo, Kayode K.; Arakaki, Tracy L.; Napuli, Alberto J.; Inampudi, Krishna K.; Keyloun, Katelyn R.; Zhang, Li; Hol, Wim G.J.; Verlinde, Christophe L.M.J.; Merritt, Ethan A.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.

2011-01-01

385

The relationship between enhanced enzyme activity and structural dynamics in ionic liquids: a combined computational and experimental study.  

PubMed

Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) is an efficient biocatalyst for hydrolysis, esterification, and polymerization reactions. In order to understand how to control enzyme activity and stability we performed a combined experimental and molecular dynamics simulation study of CALB in organic solvents and ionic liquids (ILs). Our results demonstrate that the conformational changes of the active site cavity are directly related to enzyme activity and decrease in the following order: [Bmim][TfO] > tert-butanol > [Bmim][Cl]. The entrance to the cavity is modulated by two isoleucines, ILE-189 and ILE-285, one of which is located on the ?-10 helix. The ?-10 helix can substantially change its conformation due to specific interactions with solvent molecules. This change is acutely evident in [Bmim][Cl] where interactions of LYS-290 with chlorine anions caused a conformational switch between ?-helix and turn. Disruption of the ?-10 helix structure results in a narrow cavity entrance and, thus, reduced the activity of CALB in [Bmim][Cl]. Finally, our results show that the electrostatic energy between solvents in this study and CALB is correlated with the structural changes leading to differences in enzyme activity. PMID:24424278

Kim, Ho Shin; Ha, Sung Ho; Sethaphong, Latsavongsakda; Koo, Yoon-Mo; Yingling, Yaroslava G

2014-02-21

386

New strigolactone mimics: structure-activity relationship and mode of action as germinating stimulants for parasitic weeds.  

PubMed

Strigolactones (SLs) are new plant hormones with varies important bio-functions. This Letter deals with germination of seeds of parasitic weeds. Natural SLs have a too complex structure for synthesis. Therefore, there is an active search for SL analogues and mimics with a simpler structure with retention of activity. SL analogues all contain the D-ring connected with an enone moiety through an enol ether unit. A new mechanism for the hydrolysis SL analogues involving bidentate bound water and an ?,?-hydrolase with a Ser-His-Asp catalytic triad has been proposed. Newly discovered SL mimics only have the D-ring with an appropriate leaving group at C-5. A mode of action for SL mimics was proposed for which now supporting evidence is provided. As predicted an extra methyl group at C-4 of the D-ring blocks the germination of seeds of parasitic weeds. PMID:23920440

Zwanenburg, Binne; Nayak, Sandip K; Charnikhova, Tatsiana V; Bouwmeester, Harro J

2013-09-15

387

The Inhibitory Effects of a Rhamnogalacturonan ? (RG-I) Domain from Ginseng Pectin on Galectin-3 and Its Structure-Activity Relationship*  

PubMed Central

Pectin has been shown to inhibit the actions of galectin-3, a ?-galactoside-binding protein associated with cancer progression. The structural features of pectin involved in this activity remain unclear. We investigated the effects of different ginseng pectins on galectin-3 action. The rhamnogalacturonan I-rich pectin fragment, RG-I-4, potently inhibited galectin-3-mediated hemagglutination, cancer cell adhesion and homotypic aggregation, and binding of galectin-3 to T-cells. RG-I-4 specifically bound to the carbohydrate recognition domain of galectin-3 with a dissociation constant of 22.2 nm, which was determined by surface plasmon resonance analysis. The structure-activity relationship of RG-I-4 was investigated by modifying the structure through various enzymatic and chemical methods followed by activity tests. The results showed that (a) galactan side chains were essential to the activity of RG-I-4, whereas arabinan side chains positively or negatively regulated the activity depending on their location within the RG-I-4 molecule. (b) The activity of galactan chain was proportional to its length up to 4 Gal residues and largely unchanged thereafter. (c) The majority of galactan side chains in RG-I-4 were short with low activities. (d) The high activity of RG-I-4 resulted from the cooperative action of these side chains. (e) The backbone of the molecule was very important to RG-I-4 activity, possibly by maintaining a structural conformation of the whole molecule. (f) The isolated backbone could bind galectin-3, which was insensitive to lactose treatment. The novel discovery that the side chains and backbone play distinct roles in regulating RG-I-4 activity is valuable for producing highly active pectin-based galectin-3 inhibitors. PMID:24100038

Gao, Xiaoge; Zhi, Yuan; Sun, Lin; Peng, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Tao; Xue, Huiting; Tai, Guihua; Zhou, Yifa

2013-01-01

388

Physiological and Biochemical Role of Brassinosteroids and Their StructureActivity Relationship in the Green Alga Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck ( Chlorophyceae )  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   This paper studies the influence of the 7-oxalactone type of brassinosteroids (BRs) and 6-ketone upon the biological activity\\u000a of the alga Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorophyceae). The results of the study indicate significant differences in the growth and metabolism of C. vulgaris cells caused by the different chemical structures of the BRs used. The most significant differences in the stimulation of

A. Bajguz; R. Czerpak

1998-01-01

389

Noncompetitive antagonist binding sites in the torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ion channel. Structure-activity relationship studies using adamantane derivatives.  

PubMed

We used a series of adamantane derivatives to probe the structure of the phencyclidine locus in either the resting or desensitized state of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR). Competitive radioligand binding and photolabeling experiments using well-characterized noncompetitive antagonists such as the phencyclidine analogue [piperidyl-3,4-(3)H(N)]-N-[1-(2-thienyl)cyclohexyl]-3,4-piperidine ([(3)H]TCP), [(3)H]ethidium, [(3)H]tetracaine, [(14)C]amobarbital, and 3-(trifluoromethyl)-3-(m-[(125)I]iodophenyl)diazirine ([(125)I]TID) were performed. Thermodynamic and structure-function relationship analyses yielded the following results. (1) There is a good structure-function relationship for adamantane amino derivatives inhibiting [(3)H]TCP or [(3)H]tetracaine binding to the resting AChR. (2) Since the same derivatives inhibit neither [(14)C]amobarbital binding nor [(125)I]TID photoincorporation, we conclude that these positively charged molecules preferably bind to the TCP locus, perhaps interacting with alphaGlu(262) residues at position M2-20. (3) The opposite is true for the neutral molecule adamantane, which prefers the TID (or barbiturate) locus instead of the TCP site. (4) The TID site is smaller and more hydrophobic (it accommodates neutral molecules with a maximal volume of 333 +/- 45 A(3)) than the TCP locus, which has room for positively charged molecules with volumes as large as 461 A(3) (e.g., crystal violet). This supports the concept that the resting ion channel is tapering from the extracellular mouth to the middle portion. (5) Finally, although both the hydrophobic environment and the size of the TCP site are practically the same in both states, there is a more obvious cutoff in the desensitized state than in the resting state, suggesting that the desensitization process constrains the TCP locus. A plausible location of neutral and charged adamantane derivatives is shown in a model of the resting ion channel. PMID:12809491

Arias, Hugo R; Trudell, James R; Bayer, Erin Z; Hester, Brent; McCardy, Elizabeth A; Blanton, Michael P

2003-06-24

390

2-(Substituted phenyl)-3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-2-iums as novel antifungal lead compounds: biological evaluation and structure-activity relationships.  

PubMed

The title compounds are a class of structurally simple analogues of quaternary benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloids (QBAs). In order to develop novel QBA-like antifungal drugs, in this study, 24 of the title compounds with various substituents on the N-phenyl ring were evaluated for bioactivity against seven phytopathogenic fungi using the mycelial growth rate method and their SAR discussed. Almost all the compounds showed definite activities in vitro against each of the test fungi at 50 ?g/mL and a broad antifungal spectrum. In most cases, the mono-halogenated compounds 2-12 exhibited excellent activities superior to the QBAs sanguinarine and chelerythrine. Compound 8 possessed the strongest activities on each of the fungi with EC?? values of 8.88-19.88 µg/mL and a significant concentration-dependent relationship. The SAR is as follows: the N-phenyl group is a high sensitive structural moiety for the activity and the characteristics and position of substituents intensively influence the activity. Generally, electron-withdrawing substituents remarkably enhance the activity while electron-donating substituents cause a decrease of the activity. In most cases, ortha- and para-halogenated isomers were more active than the corresponding m-halogenated isomers. Thus, the title compounds emerged as promising lead compounds for the development of novel biomimetic antifungal agrochemicals. Compounds 8 and 2 should have great potential as new broad spectrum antifungal agents for plant protection. PMID:23994968

Hou, Zhe; Yang, Rui; Zhang, Cen; Zhu, Li-Fei; Miao, Fang; Yang, Xin-Juan; Zhou, Le

2013-01-01

391

Modification of a synthetic LPS-binding domain of anti-lipopolysaccharide factor from shrimp reveals strong structure-activity relationship in their antimicrobial characteristics.  

PubMed

Anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) is a small protein with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities and certain antiviral property. Its putative lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding domain was deduced to be important for its activities. However, there is still no report revealing how the structure of the LPS-binding domain affects its biological function until now. In the present study, we designed and synthesized a peptide corresponding to the LPS-binding domain of ALF from the Chinese shrimp (designated as FcALF-LBDc) and its structure-modified isoforms in order to analyze the relationship between its structure and antimicrobial activities. Results showed that FcALF-LBDc exhibited apparent antibacterial activities against both Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Vibrio anguillarum and Gram-positive bacteria Micrococcus luteus and Micrococcus lysodeikticus with MIC ranges of 32-64, 2-4, 1-2, and 32-64?M, respectively. The disulfide loop and the basic amino acids in the LPS-binding domain (LBD) of ALF played key roles in its antibacterial activities. In addition, FcALF-LBDc could reduce the propagation of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in vivo, and its lysine residue is indispensable for its antiviral property. This is the first attempt to testify the effects of the sequence features of the LPS-binding domain on its antimicrobial activities. PMID:24661926

Guo, Shuyue; Li, Shihao; Li, Fuhua; Zhang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Jianhai

2014-08-01

392

Synthesis and Structure–Activity Relationships of N-Benzyl Phenethylamines as 5-HT2A/2C Agonists  

PubMed Central

N-Benzyl substitution of 5-HT2A receptor agonists of the phenethylamine structural class of psychedelics (such as 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine, often referred to as 2C-B) confer a significant increase in binding affinity as well as functional activity of the receptor. We have prepared a series of 48 compounds with structural variations in both the phenethylamine and N-benzyl part of the molecule to determine the effects on receptor binding affinity and functional activity at 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors. The compounds generally had high affinity for the 5-HT2A receptor with 8b having the highest affinity at 0.29 nM but with several other compounds also exhibiting subnanomolar binding affinities. The functional activity of the compounds was distributed over a wider range with 1b being the most potent at 0.074 nM. Most of the compounds exhibited low to moderate selectivity (1- to 40-fold) for the 5-HT2A receptor in the binding assays, although one compound 6b showed an impressive 100-fold selectivity for the 5-HT2A receptor. In the functional assay, selectivity was generally higher with 1b being more than 400-fold selective for the 5-HT2A receptor. PMID:24397362

2014-01-01

393

Structure-activity relationships of 2',5'-oligoadenylate analogue modifications of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) antagonists.  

PubMed

Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is an ideal biomarker for prostate cancer. A previously reported 2-5A conjugate RBI1033 (3) showed binding affinity more than 10 times higher than the parent urea-based compound (S)-2-(3-((S)-5-amino-1-carboxypentyl)ureido) pentanedioic acid (1). The purpose of this work is to further optimize the structure of 3 to identify highly selective ligands of PSMA. It was found that conjugates having 2-5A in their structure showed extraordinary improved binding affinity to PSMA compared with compound 1. Removal of 2-5A significantly reduced its biological activity. The results will provide a path to agents for targeted imaging and treatment of prostate cancer. PMID:22497258

Wang, Xinning; Tian, Haibin; Lee, Zhenghong; Heston, Warren D W

2012-05-01

394

Quantitative Nanostructure-Activity Relationship (QNAR) Modeling  

PubMed Central

Evaluation of biological effects, both desired and undesired, caused by Manufactured NanoParticles (MNPs) is of critical importance for nanotechnology. Experimental studies, especially toxicological, are time-consuming, costly, and often impractical, calling for the development of efficient computational approaches capable of predicting biological effects of MNPs. To this end, we have investigated the potential of cheminformatics methods such as Quantitative StructureActivity Relationship (QSAR) modeling to establish statistically significant relationships between measured biological activity profiles of MNPs and their physical, chemical, and geometrical properties, either measured experimentally or computed from the structure of MNPs. To reflect the context of the study, we termed our approach Quantitative Nanostructure-Activity Relationship (QNAR) modeling. We have employed two representative sets of MNPs studied recently using in vitro cell-based assays: (i) 51 various MNPs with diverse metal cores (PNAS, 2008, 105, pp 7387–7392) and (ii) 109 MNPs with similar core but diverse surface modifiers (Nat. Biotechnol., 2005, 23, pp 1418–1423). We have generated QNAR models using machine learning approaches such as Support Vector Machine (SVM)-based classification and k Nearest Neighbors (kNN)-based regression; their external prediction power was shown to be as high as 73% for classification modeling and R2 of 0.72 for regression modeling. Our results suggest that QNAR models can be employed for: (i) predicting biological activity profiles of novel nanomaterials, and (ii) prioritizing the design and manufacturing of nanomaterials towards better and safer products. PMID:20857979

Fourches, Denis; Pu, Dongqiuye; Tassa, Carlos; Weissleder, Ralph; Shaw, Stanley Y.; Mumper, Russell J.; Tropsha, Alexander

2010-01-01

395

Synthesis and Structure-activity Relationship of piperidine-derived non-urea soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors  

PubMed Central

A series of potent amide non-urea inhibitors of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is disclosed. The inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase leads to elevated levels of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), and thus inhibitors of sEH represent one of a novel approach to the development of vasodilatory and anti-inflammatory drugs. Structure-activities studies guided optimization of a lead compound, identified through high-throughput screening, gave rise to sub-nanomolar inhibitors of human sEH with stability in human liver microsomal assay suitable for preclinical development. PMID:23237835

Pecic, Stevan; Pakhomova, Svetlana; Newcomer, Marcia E.; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D.; Zhu, Zhengxiang; Rinderspacher, Alison; Deng, Shi-Xian

2012-01-01

396

Quantitative structure-activity relationship for 4-hydroxy-2-alkenal induced cytotoxicity in L6 muscle cells.  

PubMed

Lipid peroxidation is one of the most important sources of endogenous toxic metabolites. 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) and 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (HHE) are produced in several oxidative stress associated diseases from peroxidation of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively. Both are able to form covalent adducts with many biomolecules. Particularly, proteins adduction can induce structural and conformational changes and impair biological function, which may be involved in the toxicity of hydroxy-alkenals. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of 4-hydroxy-2-alkenals to several chemically related derivatives in order to clarify the physico-chemical requirement of their toxicity. L6 muscle cells were treated with HHE, HNE and parent derivatives (acetal derivative, trans-alkenals and alkanals). Viability and necrosis were estimated using MTT, LDH and caspase-3 tests. LogLC50 (Lethal Concentration 50) was then tested for correlation with adducts formation (estimated using dinitrophenylhydrazine) and several molecular descriptors in order to establish quantitative structure-toxicity relationship (QSTR) models. The rank of derivatives toxicity, based on LC50 was: hydroxy-alkenals>acetal derivatives approximately 2-alkenals>alkanals and a high correlation was found between logLC50 and protein carbonylation. Moreover, logLC50 was correlated to the electrophilic descriptor LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) as well as with electronegativity-related molecular descriptors such as number of oxygen atoms, partial negative surface area (PNSA3) and partial positive surface area (PPSA3). Together, these results point out the important role of the electrophilic structure and adduct formation in hydroxy-alkenals toxicity. Our present study demonstrates that 4-hydroxy-2-alkenals dramatic effects on cell viability are due to covalent adducts formation, particularly Michael adducts. This capacity is related to the electrophilic structure and reactive CC double bond, making it highly accessible for nucleophilic addition. The present study suggests that nucleophilic scavengers might protect cells against electrophile compounds and might be of possible therapeutic value in oxidative stress associated diseases. PMID:20619253

Pillon, Nicolas J; Soulère, Laurent; Vella, Roxane E; Croze, Marine; Caré, Bertrand R; Soula, Hedi A; Doutheau, Alain; Lagarde, Michel; Soulage, Christophe O

2010-10-01