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1

Structure-activity relationships and drug allergy.  

PubMed

Structure-activity relationships (SARs) refer to the relation between chemical structure and pharmacologic activity for a series of compounds. Since the pioneering work of Crum-Brown and Fraser in 1868, they have been increasingly used in the pharmaceutical, chemical and cosmetic industries, especially for drug and chemical design purposes. Structure-activity relationships may be based on various techniques, ranging from considerations of similarity or diversity of molecules to mathematical relationships linking chemical structures to measured activities, the latter being referred to as quantitative SAR or QSAR. This review aims at briefly reviewing the history of SARs and highlighting their interest in delayed and immediate drug allergy using selected examples from the literature. Studies of SAR are commonly conducted in the area of contact dermatitis, a delayed hypersensitivity reaction, to determine the allergenic potential of a given compound without animal testing. In immediate, immunoglobulin E-mediated drug hypersensitivity, this kind of approach remains rather confidential. It has been mainly applied to neuromuscular blocking drugs (muscle relaxants) and betalactam antibiotics (penicillins, cephalosporins). This review shows that SARs can prove useful to (i) predict the allergenic potential of a chemical or a drug, (ii) help identify putative antigenic determinants for each patient or small group of patients sharing the same cross-reactivity pattern, and (iii) predict the likelihood of adverse reactions to related molecules and select safe alternatives. PMID:22299766

Hasdenteufel, Frederic; Luyasu, Samuel; Hougardy, Nicolas; Fisher, Malcolm; Boisbrun, Michel; Mertes, Paul-Michel; Kanny, Gisele

2012-02-01

2

Structure-Activity Relationships and Drug Allergy.  

PubMed

Structure-activity relationships (SARs) refer to the relation between chemical structure and pharmacologic activity for a series of compounds. Since the pioneering work of Crum-Brown and Fraser in 1868, they have been increasingly used in the pharmaceutical, chemical and cosmetic industries, especially for drug and chemical design purposes. Structure-activity relationships may be based on various techniques, ranging from considerations of similarity or diversity of molecules to mathematical relationships linking chemical structures to measured activities, the latter being referred to as quantitative SAR or QSAR. This review aims at briefly reviewing the history of SARs and highlighting their interest in delayed and immediate drug allergy using selected examples from the literature. Studies of SAR are commonly conducted in the area of contact dermatitis, a delayed hypersensitivity reaction, to determine the allergenic potential of a given compound without animal testing. In immediate, immunoglobulin E-mediated drug hypersensitivity, this kind of approach remains rather confidential. It has been mainly applied to neuromuscular blocking drugs (muscle relaxants) and betalactam antibiotics (penicillins, cephalosporins). This review shows that SARs can prove useful to (i) predict the allergenic potential of a chemical or a drug, (ii) help identify putative antigenic determinants for each patient or small group of patients sharing the same cross-reactivity pattern, and (iii) predict the likelihood of adverse reactions to related molecules and select safe alternatives. PMID:22283609

Hasdenteufel, Frédéric; Luyasu, Samuel; Hougardy, Nicolas; Fisher, Malcolm; Boisbrun, Michel; Mertes, Paul-Michel; Kanny, Gisèle

2012-01-25

3

On exploring structure-activity relationships.  

PubMed

Understanding structure-activity relationships (SARs) for a given set of molecules allows one to rationally explore chemical space and develop a chemical series optimizing multiple physicochemical and biological properties simultaneously, for instance, improving potency, reducing toxicity, and ensuring sufficient bioavailability. In silico methods allow rapid and efficient characterization of SARs and facilitate building a variety of models to capture and encode one or more SARs, which can then be used to predict activities for new molecules. By coupling these methods with in silico modifications of structures, one can easily prioritize large screening decks or even generate new compounds de novo and ascertain whether they belong to the SAR being studied. Computational methods can provide a guide for the experienced user by integrating and summarizing large amounts of preexisting data to suggest useful structural modifications. This chapter highlights the different types of SAR modeling methods and how they support the task of exploring chemical space to elucidate and optimize SARs in a drug discovery setting. In addition to considering modeling algorithms, I briefly discuss how to use databases as a source of SAR data to inform and enhance the exploration of SAR trends. I also review common modeling techniques that are used to encode SARs, recent work in the area of structure-activity landscapes, the role of SAR databases, and alternative approaches to exploring SAR data that do not involve explicit model development. PMID:23568465

Guha, Rajarshi

2013-01-01

4

Cytotoxic Activity and Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships of Arylpropyl Sulfonamides  

PubMed Central

B13 is a ceramide analogue and apoptosis inducer with potent cytotoxic activity. A series of arylpropyl sulfonamide analogues of B13 were evaluated for their cytotoxicity using MTT assays in prostate cancer PC-3 and leukemia HL-60 cell lines. Some compounds (4, 9, 13, 14, 15, and 20) showed stronger activities than B13 in both tumor cell lines, and compound (15) gave the most potent activity with IC50 values of 29.2 and 20.7 µM, for PC-3and HL-60 cells, respectively. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) analysis was performed to build highly reliable and predictive CoMSIA models with cross-validated q2 values of 0.816 and 0.702, respectively. Our results suggest that long alkyl chains and a 1R, 2R configuration of the propyl group are important for the cytotoxic activities of arylpropyl sulfonamides. Moreover, the introduction of small hydrophobic groups in the phenyl ring and sulfonamide group could increase biological activity. PMID:23776401

Hwang, Yu Jin; Park, Sang Min; Yim, Chul Bu

2013-01-01

5

DEVELOPMENT OF STRUCTURE ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS FOR ASSESSING ECOLOGICAL RISKS  

EPA Science Inventory

In the field of environmental toxicology, structure activity relationships (SARs) have developed as scientifically-credible tools for predicting the effects of chemicals when little or no empirical data are available....

6

Quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis of phenolic antioxidants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report, the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analyses of substituted phenols, vitamin E derivatives and flavonoids are presented. Two models have been derived using calculated parameters such as the heat of formation (Hf), the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of radicals (Elumo-r), the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital of the parent compounds (Ehomo) and the

Eric J. Lien; Shijun Ren; Huynh-Hoa Bui; Rubin Wang

1999-01-01

7

Biaryl cannabinoid mimetics--synthesis and structure-activity relationship.  

PubMed

Synthesis, in vitro biological evaluation, and structure-activity relationships of a biaryl cannabinoid mimetic 2 are reported. Variations in the substitution pattern yielded a number of agonists with low nanomolar affinity. Replacing the phenol group by a methyl morpholino acetate group led to compound 28, a 500-fold selective CB(2) receptor agonist. PMID:17507224

Worm, Karin; Zhou, Q Jean; Stabley, Gabriel J; DeHaven, Robert N; Dolle, Roland E

2007-07-01

8

Synthetic and structure-activity relationship of insecticidal bufadienolides.  

PubMed

A new synthetic analog of bufadienolide, methyl isobryophyllinate A (1), and a known synthetic analog, methyl isobersaldegenate-1,3,5-orthoacetate (2), were obtained by methanolysis of bryophyllin A (3) and bersaldegenin-1,3,5-orthoacetate (5) in basic solution. Structure-insecticidal activity relationship studies revealed both orthoacetate and alpha-pyrone moieties seemed to be essential structural elements for exhibiting insecticidal activity, whereas oxygenated substituents in the C ring enhanced the insecticidal activity against the third instar larvae of silkworm (Bombyx mori). PMID:25230494

Hidayat, Ace Tatang; Zainuddin, Achmad; Dono, Danar; Hermawan, Wawan; Hayashi, Hideo; Supratman, Unang

2014-07-01

9

Structure-Activity Relationship of novel phenylacetic CXCR1 inhibitors.  

PubMed

We reported recently the Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) of a class of CXCL8 allosteric modulators. They invariably share a 2-arylpropionic moiety so far considered a key structural determinant of the biological activity. We show the results of recent SAR studies on a novel series of phenylacetic derivatives supported by a combined approach of mutagenesis experiments and conformational analysis. The results suggest novel insights on the fine role of the propionic/acetic chain in the modulation of CXCL8 receptors. PMID:19560921

Sablone, Manolo Rocco; Cesta, Maria Candida; Moriconi, Alessio; Aramini, Andrea; Bizzarri, Cinzia; Di Giacinto, Claudia; Di Bitondo, Rosa; Gloaguen, Isabelle; Aschi, Massimiliano; Crucianelli, Marcello; Bertini, Riccardo; Allegretti, Marcello

2009-08-01

10

Quantitative structure-activity relationship study of antitubercular fluoroquinolones.  

PubMed

Quantitative structure-activity relationship study on three diverse sets of structurally similar fluoroquinolones was performed using a comprehensive set of molecular descriptors. Multiple linear regression technique was applied as a preprocessing tool to find the set of relevant descriptors (10) which are subsequently used in the artificial neural networks approach (non-linear procedure). The biological activity in the series (minimal inhibitory concentration (?g/mL) was treated as negative decade logarithm, pMIC). Using the non-linear technique counter propagation artificial neural networks, we obtained good predictive models. All models were validated using cross validation leave-one-out procedure. The results (the best models: Assay1, R = 0.8108; Assay2, R = 0.8454, and Assay3, R = 0.9212) obtained on external, previously excluded test datasets show the ability of these models in providing structure-activity relationship of fluoroquinolones. Thus, we demonstrated the advantage of non-linear approach in prediction of biological activity in these series. Furthermore, these validated models could be proficiently used for the design of novel structurally similar fluoroquinolone analogues with potentially higher activity. PMID:20229318

Minovski, Nikola; Vra?ko, Marjan; Solmajer, Tom

2011-05-01

11

Antioxidant and Prooxidant Behavior of Flavonoids: StructureActivity Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant and prooxidant behavior of flavonoids and the related activity-structure relationships were investigated in this study using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay. Three different reactive species were used in the assay: 2,2?-azobis(2-amidino-propane) dihydrochloride, a peroxyl radical generator; Cu2+-H2O2, mainly a hydroxyl radical generator; and Cu2+, a transition metal. Flavonoids including flavones, isoflavones, and flavanones acted as antioxidants against

Guohua Cao; Emin Sofic; Ronald L. Prior

1997-01-01

12

Antitrypanosomal structure-activity-relationship study of synthetic cynaropicrin derivatives.  

PubMed

Cynaropicrin is a guaianolide sesquiterpene lactone with a 5-7-5 tricyclic skeleton, four exo-olefins, and two hydroxyl groups. Recently, it was found that the compound is a potent in vitro and in vivo inhibitor of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei, which causes human African trypanosomiasis (HAT; sleeping sickness). In this Letter, chemical derivatization of cynaropicrin and the structure-activity-relationship (SAR) study against T. brucei is described. PMID:24433861

Usuki, Toyonobu; Sato, Makiko; Hara, Shihori; Yoshimoto, Yukiko; Kondo, Ryosuke; Zimmermann, Stefanie; Kaiser, Marcel; Brun, Reto; Hamburger, Matthias; Adams, Michael

2014-02-01

13

CONSIDERATION OF REACTION INTERMEDIATES IN STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS: A KEY TO UNDERSTANDING AND PREDICTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Consideration of Reaction Intermediates in Structure- Activity Relationships: A Key to Understanding and Prediction A structure-activity relationship (SAR) represents an empirical means for generalizing chemical information relative to biological activity, and is frequent...

14

STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIP STUIDES AND THEIR ROLE IN PREDICTING AND INVESTIGATING CHEMICAL TOXICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Structure-Activity Relationship Studies and their Role in Predicting and Investigating Chemical Toxicity Structure-activity relationships (SAR) represent attempts to generalize chemical information relative to biological activity for the twin purposes of generating insigh...

15

Structure-Activity Relationship of Fluoroquinolones Against K. pneumoniae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure-activity relationship of fluoroquinolones, which show anti-K. pneumoniae activity, was studied by using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). The PCA results showed that the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy, energy difference between the highest occupied and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, dipole moment, net atomic charge on atom I, molecular polarizability, partition coefficient and molecular refractivity of these compounds are responsible for the separation between high-activity and low-activity groups. The HCA results were similar to those obtained with PCA. By using the chemometric results, four synthetic compounds were analyzed through PCA and HCA, and three of them are proposed as active molecules against K. pneumoniae which is consistent with the results of clinical experiments. The methodologies of PCA and HCA provide a reliable rule for classifying new fluoroquinolones with anti-K. pneumoniae activity.

Li, Xiao-hong; Zhang, Rui-zhou; Cheng, Xin-lu; Yang, Xiang-dong

2007-04-01

16

Structure-activity relationship for the oxadiazole class of antibiotics.  

PubMed

The structure-activity relationship (SAR) for the newly discovered oxadiazole class of antibiotics is described with evaluation of 120 derivatives of the lead structure. This class of antibiotics was discovered by in silico docking and scoring against the crystal structure of a penicillin-binding protein. They impair cell-wall biosynthesis and exhibit activities against the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant and linezolid-resistant S. aureus. 5-(1H-Indol-5-yl)-3-(4-(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy)phenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazole (antibiotic 75b) was efficacious in a mouse model of MRSA infection, exhibiting a long half-life, a high volume of distribution, and low clearance. This antibiotic is bactericidal and is orally bioavailable in mice. This class of antibiotics holds great promise in recourse against infections by MRSA. PMID:25590813

Spink, Edward; Ding, Derong; Peng, Zhihong; Boudreau, Marc A; Leemans, Erika; Lastochkin, Elena; Song, Wei; Lichtenwalter, Katerina; O'Daniel, Peter I; Testero, Sebastian A; Pi, Hualiang; Schroeder, Valerie A; Wolter, William R; Antunes, Nuno T; Suckow, Mark A; Vakulenko, Sergei; Chang, Mayland; Mobashery, Shahriar

2015-02-12

17

Discovery and Structure–Activity Relationships of Pyrrolone Antimalarials  

PubMed Central

In the pursuit of new antimalarial leads, a phenotypic screening of various commercially sourced compound libraries was undertaken by the World Health Organisation Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (WHO-TDR). We report here the detailed characterization of one of the hits from this process, TDR32750 (8a), which showed potent activity against Plasmodium falciparum K1 (EC50 ? 9 nM), good selectivity (>2000-fold) compared to a mammalian cell line (L6), and significant activity against a rodent model of malaria when administered intraperitoneally. Structure–activity relationship studies have indicated ways in which the molecule could be optimized. This compound represents an exciting start point for a drug discovery program for the development of a novel antimalarial. PMID:23517371

2013-01-01

18

Structure–Activity Relationship Studies of Pyrrolone Antimalarial Agents  

PubMed Central

Previously reported pyrrolones, such as TDR32570, exhibited potential as antimalarial agents; however, while these compounds have potent antimalarial activity, they suffer from poor aqueous solubility and metabolic instability. Here, further structure–activity relationship studies are described that aimed to solve the developability issues associated with this series of compounds. In particular, further modifications to the lead pyrrolone, involving replacement of a phenyl ring with a piperidine and removal of a potentially metabolically labile ester by a scaffold hop, gave rise to derivatives with improved in vitro antimalarial activities against Plasmodium falciparum K1, a chloroquine-and pyrimethamine-resistant parasite strain, with some derivatives exhibiting good selectivity for parasite over mammalian (L6) cells. Three representative compounds were selected for evaluation in a rodent model of malaria infection, and the best compound showed improved ability to decrease parasitaemia and a slight increase in survival. PMID:23918316

Murugesan, Dinakaran; Kaiser, Marcel; White, Karen L; Norval, Suzanne; Riley, Jennifer; Wyatt, Paul G; Charman, Susan A; Read, Kevin D; Yeates, Clive; Gilbert, Ian H

2013-01-01

19

Plasma quercetin metabolites: structure-antioxidant activity relationships.  

PubMed

We studied quercetin metabolism in rats to determine the nature and conjugation positions on the resulting metabolites and to evaluate their contribution to the antioxidant activity of plasma. HPLC analysis showed that quercetin is primarily metabolized to glucuronides and sulfoglucuronides and, to a minor extent, to sulfates. ESI-MS/MS studies confirmed these results and indicate that the most plausible positions for glucuronidation and sulfation are the hydroxyl groups located at positions 5 and 7, excluding the 3'-OH and 4'-OH groups. Plasma antioxidant status was significantly higher in animals to which quercetin was administrated, suggesting that quercetin metabolites can retain some antioxidant activity when the o-catechol group does not undergo conjugation reactions. It was also shown that plasma quercetin metabolites could compete in vivo with other molecules for peroxynitrite. These results enabled the establishment of quercetin metabolite structure-antioxidant activity relationships and, hence, to understand their contribution for the antioxidant potential of plasma. PMID:15519302

Justino, Gonçalo C; Santos, Marta R; Canário, Sónia; Borges, Carlos; Florêncio, M Helena; Mira, Lurdes

2004-12-01

20

Structure activity relationship of cyclic thiacarbocyanine tau aggregation inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Macrocyclic bis-carbocyanines are efficacious inhibitors of tau aggregation. To extend the structure activity relationship of this inhibitor class, N,N?-alkylene bis-thiacarbocyanines linked by three to nine carbon alkyl chains were synthesized and examined for inhibitory activity against recombinant human tau aggregation in vitro. At 10 micromolar concentration, inhibitory activity varied with linker length, with four methylene units being most efficacious. On the basis of absorbance spectroscopy measurements, linker length also affected compound folding and aggregation propensity, with a linker length of four methylene units being optimal for preserving open monomer conformation. These data suggest that inhibitory potency can be optimized through control of linker length, and that a contributory mechanism involves modulation of compound folding and aggregation. PMID:21549596

Schafer, Kelsey N.; Murale, Dhiraj P.; Kim, Kibong; Cisek, Katryna; Kuret, Jeff; Churchill, David G.

2015-01-01

21

Synthesis and Structural Activity Relationship Study of Antitubercular Carboxamides  

PubMed Central

The unusual structure and chemical composition of the mycobacterial cell wall, the tedious duration of therapy, and resistance developed by the microorganism have made the recurrence of the disease multidrug resistance and extensive or extreme drug resistance. The prevalence of tuberculosis in synergy with HIV/AIDS epidemic augments the risk of developing the disease by 100-fold. The need to synthesize new drugs that will shorten the total duration of effective treatment and/or significantly reduce the dosage taken under DOTS supervision, improve on the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis which defies the treatment with isoniazid and rifampicin, and provide effective treatment for latent TB infections which is essential for eliminating tuberculosis prompted this review. In this review, we considered the synthesis and structure activity relationship study of carboxamide derivatives with antitubercular potential. PMID:25610646

Ugwu, D. I.; Ezema, B. E.; Eze, F. U.; Ugwuja, D. I.

2014-01-01

22

Antioxidant activity of eugenol: a structure-activity relationship study.  

PubMed

Eugenol (4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol), a major phenolic component from clove oil (Eugenia caryophyllata), has several biological activities. To estimate the capacity of eugenol to act as an antioxidant, the following were studied: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl-, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)-, and N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine-scavenging activity; total antioxidant activity; and ability to reduce ferric ions and cupric ions. Eugenol inhibited 96.7% (r(2)=0.9319) lipid peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion at a 15-?g/mL concentration. Butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, ?-tocopherol, and Trolox(®) displayed 95.4% (r(2)=0.8482), 99.7% (r(2)=0.7798), 84.6% (r(2)=0.9272), and 95.6% (r(2)=0.8511) inhibition of peroxidation, respectively, at the 15-?g/mL concentration. According to the results of this study, eugenol had the most powerful antioxidant activity and radical-scavenging activity. This study should prompt further studies of the antioxidant properties of eugenol. PMID:21554120

Gülçin, ?lhami

2011-09-01

23

Methods for applying the quantitative structure-activity relationship paradigm.  

PubMed

There are several Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) methods to assist in the design of compounds for medicinal use. Owing to the different QSAR methodologies, deciding which QSAR method to use depends on the composition of system of interest and the desired results. The relationship between a compound's binding affinity/activity to its structural properties was first noted in the 1930s by Hammett and later refined by Hansch and Fujita in the mid-1960s. In 1988 Cramer and coworkers created Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) incorporating the three-dimensional (3D) aspects of the compounds, specifically the electrostatic fields of the compound, into the QSAR model. Hopfinger and coworkers included an additional dimension to 3D-QSAR methodology in 1997 that eliminated the question of "Which conformation to use in a QSAR study?", creating 4D-QSAR. In 1999 Chemical Computing Group Inc. (CCG) developed the Binary-QSAR methodology and added novel 3D-QSAR descriptors to the traditional QSAR model allowing the 3D properties of compounds to be incorporated into the traditional QSAR model. Recently CCG released Probabilistic Receptor Potentials to calculate the substrate's atomic preferences in the active site. These potentials are constructed by fitting analytical functions to experimental properties of the substrates using knowledge-based methods. An overview of these and other QSAR methods will be discussed along with an in-depth examination of the methodologies used to construct QSAR models. Also, included in this chapter is a case study of molecules used to create QSAR models utilizing different methodologies and QSAR programs. PMID:15141113

Esposito, Emilio Xavier; Hopfinger, Anton J; Madura, Jeffry D

2004-01-01

24

Quantitative Structure-activity Relationship: Prediction of Anaerobic Transformation of Chloroacetanilide Herbicides.  

E-print Network

??A preliminary analysis of quantitative structure-activity relationships was conducted over five selected chloroacetanilide herbicides: alachor, acetochlor, butachlor, metolachlor, and propachlor. Multiple structural, thermodynamic, atomic, electronic… (more)

Kana, Angela Robyn

2007-01-01

25

Structure-activity relationship of cyanine tau aggregation inhibitors  

PubMed Central

A structure-activity relationship for symmetrical cyanine inhibitors of human tau aggregation was elaborated using a filter trap assay. Antagonist activity depended on cyanine heterocycle, polymethine bridge length, and the nature of meso- and N-substituents. One potent member of the series, 3,3’-diethyl-9-methylthiacarbocyanine iodide (compound 11), retained submicromolar potency and had calculated physical properties consistent with blood-brain barrier and cell membrane penetration. Exposure of organotypic slices prepared from JNPL3 transgenic mice (which express human tau harboring the aggregation prone P301L tauopathy mutation) to compound 11 for one week revealed a biphasic dose response relationship. Low nanomolar concentrations decreased insoluble tau aggregates to half those observed in slices treated with vehicle alone. In contrast, high concentrations (?300 nM) augmented tau aggregation and produced abnormalities in tissue tubulin levels. These data suggest that certain symmetrical carbocyanine dyes can modulate tau aggregation in the slice biological model at concentrations well below those associated with toxicity. PMID:19432420

Chang, Edward; Congdon, Erin E.; Honson, Nicolette S.; Duff, Karen E.; Kuret, Jeff

2009-01-01

26

Structure-activity relationship of human bone sialoprotein peptides  

PubMed Central

In the current study, the relationship between the structure of the RGD-containing human bone sialoprotein (hBSP) peptide 278-293 and its attachment activity toward osteoblast-like (MC3T3) cells was investigated. This goal was accomplished by examining the comparative cell attachment activities of several truncated forms of peptide 278-293. Computer modeling of the various peptides was also performed to assess the role of secondary structure in peptide bioactivity. The elimination of the tyrosine-278 at the N-terminus resulted in a more dramatic loss of cell attachment activity compared to the removal of either tyrosine-293 or the arg-ala-tyr (291-293) tripeptide. Although the replacement of the RGD (arg-gly-asp) peptide moiety with peptide KAE (lys-ala-glu) resulted in a dramatic loss of cell attachment activity, a peptide containing RGE (arg-glyglu) in place of RGD retained 70-85 % of the parental peptide's attachment activity. These results suggest that the N-terminal RGD-flanking region of hBSP peptide 278-293, in particular the tyrosine-278 residue, represents a second cell attachment site that stabilizes the RGD-integrin receptor complex. Computer modeling also suggested that a ?-turn encompassing RGD or RGE in some of the hBSP peptides may facilitate its binding to integrins by increasing the exposure of the tripeptide. This knowledge may be useful in the future design of biomimetic peptides which are more effective in promoting the attachment of osteogenic cells to implant surfaces in vivo. PMID:24103036

Rapuano, Bruce E.; MacDonald, Daniel E.

2014-01-01

27

Trypanocidal nitroimidazole derivatives: relationships among chemical structure and genotoxic activity.  

PubMed

Human American trypanosomiasis is resurgent in Latin Americans, and new drugs are urgently required as current medications suffer from a number of drawbacks. Some nitroheterocycles have been demonstrated to exert a potent activity against trypanosomes. However, host toxicity issues halted their development as trypanocides. As part of the efforts to develop new compounds in order to treat parasitic infections, it is important to define their structure-activity relationship. In this study, 5-nitromegazol and two of its analogues, 4-nitromegazol, and 1-methyl-5-nitro-2-imidazolecarboxaldehyde 5-nitroimidazole-thiosemicarbazone, were tested and compared for in vitro induction of DNA damage in human leukocytes by the comet assay, performed at different pHs to better identify the types of damage. Specific oxidatively generated damage to DNA was also measured by using the comet assay with endonucleases. DNA damage was found in 5-nitromegazol-treated cells: oxidative stress appeared as the main source of DNA damage. 4-Nitromegazol did not produce any significant effect, thus confirming that 4-nitroimidazoles isomers have no important biological activity. The 5-nitroimidazole-thiosemicarbazone induced DNA damage with a higher efficiency than 5-nitromegazol. The central role in the reduction process played by the acidic hydrazine proton present in the thiosemicarbazone group but not in the cyclic (thiadiazole) form can contribute to rationalise our results. Given its versatility, thiosemicarbazone moiety could be involved in different reactions with nitrogenous bases (nucleophilic and/or electrophilic attacks). PMID:17291457

Buschini, Annamaria; Giordani, Federica; de Albuquerque, Cristina Northfleet; Pellacani, Claudia; Pelosi, Giorgio; Rossi, Carlo; Zucchi, Tânia Maria Araújo Domingues; Poli, Paola

2007-05-15

28

Hydrolysis Reactions of the Taccalonolides Reveal Structure Activity Relationships  

PubMed Central

The taccalonolides are microtubule stabilizers isolated from plants of the genus Tacca that show potent in vivo antitumor activity and the ability to overcome multiple mechanisms of drug resistance. The most potent taccalonolide identified to date, AJ, is a semisynthetic product generated from the major plant metabolite, taccalonolide A, in a two-step reaction. The first step involves hydrolysis of taccalonolide A to generate taccalonolide B and then this product is oxidized to generate an epoxide group at C22-23. To generate sufficient taccalonolide AJ for in vivo antitumor efficacy studies, the hydrolysis conditions for the conversion of taccalonolide A to B were optimized. During purification of the hydrolysis products, we identified the new taccalonolide, AO (1) along with taccalonolide I. When the same hydrolysis reaction was performed on a taccalonolide E-enriched fraction four new taccalonolides, assigned to AK, AL, AM, and AN (2–5), were obtained in addition to the expected product taccalonolide N. Biological assays were performed on each of the purified taccalonolides which allowed for increased refinement of the structure-activity relationship of this class of compounds. PMID:23855953

Li, Jing; Peng, Jiangnan; Risinger, April L.; Mooberry, Susan L.

2013-01-01

29

Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of antifungal coniothyriomycin analogues.  

PubMed

The structure of the antifungal metabolite coniothyriomycin was systematically modified by changing the acids of the open chain imide, modification of the hydrophobicity, variation in the degree of saturation, replacement of carbons by nitrogen or oxygen, and incorporation of the open chain molecule into cyclic arrangements. Structure-activity studies showed that antifungal activity was retained by replacement of phenylacetic acids by benzoic acids in the imide structure but diminished by hydrogenation of the fumaric ester part. PMID:12760686

Krohn, Karsten; Elsässer, Brigitta; Antus, Sándor; Kónya, Krisztina; Ammermann, Eberhard

2003-03-01

30

Precise structure activity relationships in asymmetric catalysis using carbohydrate scaffolds to allow ready fine tuning  

E-print Network

construction of 24 stereochemically and functionally diverse carbohydrate ligand structures from a core D-glucosamine extensive such structure­activity relationship (SAR) study to date. N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine 1 was chosen

Davis, Ben G.

31

PREDICTING TOXICOLOGICAL ENDPOINTS OF CHEMICALS USING QUANTITATIVE STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS (QSARS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) are being developed to predict the toxicological endpoints for untested chemicals similar in structure to chemicals that have known experimental toxicological data. Based on a very large number of predetermined descriptors, a...

32

COMPUTER-ASSISTED STUDIES OF MOLECULAR STRUCTURE-BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS  

EPA Science Inventory

Computer-assisted methods can be used to investigate the relationships between the molecular structures of compounds and their biological activity. A number of approaches have been reported in the literature, including correlations of activity with substituent constants, conforma...

33

Synthesis, Activity and Structure-Activity Relationship of Noroviral Protease Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

The protease of norovirus, an important human pathogen, is essential for the viral replication and, therefore, represents a potential drug target. A series of tripeptide-based inhibitors of the protease were designed, synthesized and tested, among which several potent inhibitors were identified with Ki values as low as 75 nM. The structure-activity relationships of these inhibitors are discussed. PMID:24244836

Deng, Lisheng; Muhaxhiri, Zana; Estes, Mary K.; Palzkill, Timothy; Prasad, B. V. Venkataram; Song, Yongcheng

2013-01-01

34

Structure-activity relationships of polybiguanides with activity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1  

PubMed Central

Previous investigations showing that polydisperse biguanide (PDBG) molecules have activity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) also suggested a relationship between PDBG biologic activity and the lengths of hydrocarbon linkers surrounding the positively charged biguanide unit. To better define structure-activity relationships, PDBG molecules with select linker lengths were evaluated for cytotoxicity, anti-HIV-1 activity, and in vivo toxicity. Results of the in vitro experiments demonstrated that increases in linker length (and, therefore, increases in compound lipophilicity) were generally associated with increases in cytotoxicity and antiviral activity against HIV-1. However, a relationship between linker length asymmetry and in vitro therapeutic index (TI) suggested structural specificity in the mechanism of action against HIV-1. Polyethylene hexamethylene biguanide (PEHMB; biguanide units spaced between alternating ethylene and hexamethylene linkers) was found to have the highest in vitro TI (CC50/IC50) among the compounds examined. Recent improvements in PEHMB synthesis and purification have yielded preparations of PEHMB with in vitro TI values of 266 and 7000 against HIV-1 strains BaL and IIIB, respectively. The minimal toxicity of PEHMB relative to polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB; biguanide units alternating with hexamethylene linkers) in a murine model of cervicovaginal microbicide toxicity was consistent with considerable differences in cytotoxicity between PEHMB and PHMB observed during in vitro experiments. These structure-activity investigations increase our understanding of PDBG molecules as agents with activity against HIV-1 and provide the foundation for further preclinical studies of PEHMB and other biguanide-based compounds as antiviral and microbicidal agents. PMID:21106331

Passic, Shendra R.; Ferguson, Mary Lee; Catalone, Bradley J.; Kish-Catalone, Tina; Kholodovych, Vladyslav; Zhu, Wei; Welsh, William; Rando, Robert; Howett, Mary K.; Wigdahl, Brian; Labib, Mohamed; Krebs, Fred C.

2013-01-01

35

Structure-activity relationships of polybiguanides with activity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1.  

PubMed

Previous investigations showing that polydisperse biguanide (PDBG) molecules have activity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) also suggested a relationship between PDBG biologic activity and the lengths of hydrocarbon linkers surrounding the positively charged biguanide unit. To better define structure-activity relationships, PDBG molecules with select linker lengths were evaluated for cytotoxicity, anti-HIV-1 activity, and in vivo toxicity. Results of the in vitro experiments demonstrated that increases in linker length (and, therefore, increases in compound lipophilicity) were generally associated with increases in cytotoxicity and antiviral activity against HIV-1. However, a relationship between linker length asymmetry and in vitro therapeutic index (TI) suggested structural specificity in the mechanism of action against HIV-1. Polyethylene hexamethylene biguanide (PEHMB; biguanide units spaced between alternating ethylene and hexamethylene linkers) was found to have the highest in vitro TI (CC??/IC??) among the compounds examined. Recent improvements in PEHMB synthesis and purification have yielded preparations of PEHMB with in vitro TI values of 266 and 7000 against HIV-1 strains BaL and IIIB, respectively. The minimal toxicity of PEHMB relative to polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB; biguanide units alternating with hexamethylene linkers) in a murine model of cervicovaginal microbicide toxicity was consistent with considerable differences in cytotoxicity between PEHMB and PHMB observed during in vitro experiments. These structure-activity investigations increase our understanding of PDBG molecules as agents with activity against HIV-1 and provide the foundation for further preclinical studies of PEHMB and other biguanide-based compounds as antiviral and microbicidal agents. PMID:21106331

Passic, Shendra R; Ferguson, Mary Lee; Catalone, Bradley J; Kish-Catalone, Tina; Kholodovych, Vladyslav; Zhu, Wei; Welsh, William; Rando, Robert; Howett, Mary K; Wigdahl, Brian; Labib, Mohamed; Krebs, Fred C

2010-12-01

36

Structure-Activity Relationships of Antitubercular Nitroimidazoles. II. Determinants of aerobic activity and quantitative structure-activity relationships  

PubMed Central

The (S)-2-nitro-6-substituted 6,7-dihydro-5H-imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]oxazines have been extensively explored for their potential use as new antituberculars based on their excellent bactericidal properties on aerobic whole cells of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. An oxygen atom at the 2-position of the imidazole ring is required for aerobic activity. Here we show that substitution of this oxygen by either nitrogen or sulfur yielded equipotent analogs. Acylating the amino series, oxidizing the thioether, or replacing the ether oxygen with carbon significantly reduced the potency of the compounds. Replacement of the benzylic oxygen at the 6-position by nitrogen slightly improved potency and facilitated exploration of the SAR in the more soluble 6-amino series. Significant improvements in potency were realized by extending the linker region between the 6-(S) position and the terminal hydrophobic aromatic substituent. A simple 4-feature QSAR model was derived to rationalize MIC results in this series of bicyclic nitroimidazoles. PMID:19209893

Kim, Pilho; Kang, Sunhee; Boshoff, Helena I.; Jiricek, Jan; Collins, Margaret; Singh, Ramandeep; Manjunatha, Ujjini H.; Niyomrattanakit, Pornwaratt; Zhang, Liang; Goodwin, Michael; Dick, Thomas; Keller, Thomas H.; Dowd, Cynthia S.; Barry, Clifton E.

2009-01-01

37

Quantitative structure-activity relationship of sesquiterpene lactones with cytotoxic activity.  

PubMed

Some sesquiterpene lactones (SLs) are the active compounds of a great number of traditionally medicinal plants from the Asteraceae family and possess considerable cytotoxic activity. Several studies in vitro have shown the inhibitory activity against cells derived from human carcinoma of the nasopharynx (KB). In this study, we investigated a set of 37 different sesquiterpene lactones, represented by 4 skeletons (14 germacranolides, 6 elemanolides, 9 guaianolides and nor-derivatives, and 8 pseudoguaianolides), in what it says respect of their cytotoxic properties. The experimental results were submitted to a QSAR study. A single model for the entire data set was described using 3D molecular descriptors and genetic algorithms establishing structure-activity relationships among the compounds. Important properties for the inhibition potency are discussed for the whole data set and for subsets of the different structural skeletons. PMID:17336532

Scotti, Marcus T; Fernandes, Mariane B; Ferreira, Marcelo J P; Emerenciano, Vicente P

2007-04-15

38

Synthesis, structure and structure-activity relationship analysis of caffeic acid amides as potential antimicrobials.  

PubMed

A series of caffeic acid amides 1-23 were synthesized and nine of which (13-17, 19-21 and 23) were reported for the first time. The chemical structures of these compounds were confirmed by means of 1H NMR, ESI MS and elemental analyses. Compound 15 was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. All of the compounds were assayed for antibacterial (Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Staphylococcus aureus) and antifungal (Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans and Trichophyton rubrum) activities by MTT method. Compounds 10-12, 15, 18 and 21 showed considerable antibacterial activities against B. subtilis with MICs of 7.95, 6.25, 3.89, 1.18, 3.12 and 15.5 microg/mL, respectively. Structure-activity relationship analysis disclosed that caffeic acid anilides with electron-donating groups at p-position of benzene ring have better inhibitory activities. PMID:20181415

Fu, Jie; Cheng, Kui; Zhang, Zhi-ming; Fang, Rui-qin; Zhu, Hai-liang

2010-06-01

39

Anti-dengue-virus activity and structure-activity relationship studies of lycorine derivatives.  

PubMed

Dengue is a systemic viral infection that is transmitted to humans by Aedes mosquitoes. No vaccines or specific therapeutics are currently available for dengue. Lycorine, which is a natural plant alkaloid, has been shown to possess antiviral activities against flaviviruses. In this study, a series of novel lycorine derivatives were synthesized and assayed for their inhibition of dengue virus (DENV) in cell cultures. Among the lycorine analogues, 1-acetyllycorine exhibited the most potent anti-DENV activity (EC50 =0.4??M) with a reduced cytotoxicity (CC50 >300??M), which resulted in a selectivity index (CC50 /EC50 ) of more than 750. The ketones 1-acetyl-2-oxolycorine (EC50 =1.8??M) and 2-oxolycorine (EC50 =0.5??M) also exhibited excellent antiviral activities with low cytotoxicity. Structure-activity relationships for the lycorine derivatives against DENV are discussed. A three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship model was established by using a comparative molecular-field analysis protocol in order to rationalize the experimental results. Further modifications of the hydroxy group at the C1 position with retention of a ketone at the C2 position could potentially lead to inhibitors with improved overall properties. PMID:24574246

Wang, Peng; Li, Lin-Feng; Wang, Qing-Yin; Shang, Lu-Qing; Shi, Pei-Yong; Yin, Zheng

2014-07-01

40

Structure activity relationship (SAR) study of benzimidazole scaffold for different biological activities: A mini-review.  

PubMed

Benzimidazoles are the fused heterocyclic ring systems which form an integral part of vitamin B12 and have been luring many researchers all over the world to assess their potential therapeutic significance. They are known for their crucial role in numerous diseases via various mechanisms. Substitution of benzimidazole nucleus is a crucial step in the drug discovery process. Therefore, it is necessary to gather the latest information along with the earlier information to understand the present status of benzimidazole nucleus in drug discovery. In the present review, benzimidazole derivatives with different pharmacological activities are described on the basis of SAR study using structural substitution pattern around the benzimidazole nucleus and aims to review the reported work related to the chemistry and pharmacological activities of benzimidazole derivatives during recent years. The present manuscript to the best of our knowledge is the first compilation on synthesis and medicinal aspects including structure-activity relationships of benzimidazole reported to date. PMID:25479684

Yadav, Geeta; Ganguly, Swastika

2014-11-26

41

DETERMINING THE STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS OF AMINOBIPHENYL AND BENZIDINE ANALOGS  

EPA Science Inventory

Determining the structure-activity relationships of aminobiphenyl and benzidine analogues Benzidine is a confirmed human carcinogen causing bladder and other types of cancer in humans and animals. Many of the benzidine and related aminobiphenyl compounds are mutagenic in t...

42

Synthesis, insecticidal activity, and structure-activity relationship (SAR) of anthranilic diamides analogs containing oxadiazole rings.  

PubMed

A series of anthranilic diamides analogs (3–11, 16–24) containing 1,2,4- or 1,3,4-oxadiazole rings were synthesized and characterized by (1)H NMR, MS and elemental analyses. The structure of 3-bromo-N-(2-(3-(4-bromophenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)-4-chloro-6-methylphenyl)-1-(3-chloropyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide (18, CCDC-) was determined by X-ray diffraction crystallography. The insecticidal activities against Plutella xylostella and Spodoptera exigua were evaluated. The results showed that most of title compounds displayed good larvicidal activities against P. xylostella, especially compound 3-bromo-N-(4-chloro-2-methyl-6-(5-(methylthio)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)phenyl)-1-(3-chloropyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide (6), which displayed 71.43% activity against P. xylostella at 0.4 ?g mL(-1) and 33.33% against S. exigua at 1 ?g mL(-1). The structure-activity relationship showed that compounds decorated with a 1,3,4-oxadiazole were more potent than compounds decorated with a 1,2,4-oxadiazole, and different substituents attached to the oxadiazole ring also affected the insecticidal activity. This work provides some hints for further structure modification and the enhancement of insecticidal activity. PMID:23657615

Li, Yuhao; Zhu, Hongjun; Chen, Kai; Liu, Rui; Khallaf, Abdalla; Zhang, Xiangning; Ni, Jueping

2013-06-28

43

Structure-activity relationship analysis of curcumin analogues on anti-influenza virus activity.  

PubMed

Curcumin (Cur) is a commonly used colouring agent and spice in food. Previously, we reported that Cur inhibits type A influenza virus (IAV) infection by interfering with viral haemagglutination (HA) activity. To search for a stable Cur analogue with potent anti-IAV activity and to investigate the structure contributing to its anti-IAV activity, a comparative analysis of structural and functional analogues of Cur, such as tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) and petasiphenol (Pet), was performed. The result of time-of-drug addition tests indicated that these curcuminoids were able to inhibit IAV production in cell cultures. Noticeably, Pet and THC inhibit IAV to a lesser extent than Cur, which is in line with their effect on reducing plaque formation when IAV was treated with Cur analogues before infection. Unexpectedly, both THC and Pet did not harbour any HA inhibitory effect. It should be noted that the structure of Pet and THC differs from Cur with respect to the number of double bonds present in the central seven-carbon chain, and structure modelling of Cur analogues indicates that the conformations of THC and Pet are distinct from that of Cur. Moreover, simulation docking of Cur with the HA structure revealed that Cur binds to the region constituting sialic acid anchoring residues, supporting the results obtained by the inhibition of HA activity assay. Collectively, structure-activity relationship analyses indicate that the presence of the double bonds in the central seven-carbon chain enhanced the Cur -dependent anti-IAV activity and also that Cur might interfere with IAV entry by its interaction with the receptor binding region of viral HA protein. PMID:24034558

Ou, Jun-Lin; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Chuang, Duen-Yau; Nadar, Muthukumar; Hsu, Wei-Li

2013-11-01

44

Structure and radical scavenging activity relationships of pyrolytic lignins.  

PubMed

This work deals with antioxidant properties of pyrolytic lignins against two free radicals, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid). Pyrolytic lignins produced by the thermal pyrolysis of the Etek lignin were extracted from the liquid pyrolysis product and fractionated using solvents of different polarities. The main functional groups linked to the lignin skeleton have been characterized by (1)H NMR and (19)F NMR upon acetylation and trifluoromethylation, respectively. Their radical scavenging activity against targeted free radicals was evaluated in vitro, and it was correlated to the content of studied functional groups. In contrast to the extracted Etek lignin, thermal pyrolysis produces lignin adducts that have higher scavenging efficacy than the nonthermally altered lignin and even higher than that of quercetin, a well-known phenolic antioxidant. The phenyl hydroxyl and methoxyl groups appear to be the main lignin structural factors contributing to the overall scavenging properties against the DPPH and ABTS free radicals. Also, these results show that there is no correlation between the content of aliphatic hydroxyl and carbonyl groups and the antioxidant activity. PMID:23199120

Nsimba, Robert Y; West, Nathan; Boateng, Akwasi A

2012-12-26

45

THE USE OF STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS IN INTEGRATING THE CHEMISTRY AND TOXICOLOGY OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Structure activity relationships (SARs) are based on the principle that structurally similar chemicals should have similar biological activity. SARs relate specifically-defined toxicological activity of chemicals to their molecular structure and physico-chemical properties. To de...

46

Structure–radical scavenging activity relationships of phenolic compounds from traditional Chinese medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer contain a wide variety of natural phenolic compounds with various structural features and possessing widely differing antioxidant activity. The structure–radical scavenging activity relationships of a large number of representative phenolic compounds (e.g., flavanols, flavonols, chalcones, flavones, flavanones, isoflavones, tannins, stilbenes, curcuminoids, phenolic acids, coumarins, lignans, and quinones) identified in the traditional Chinese medicinal

Yi-Zhong Cai; Mei Sun; Jie Xing; Qiong Luo; Harold Corke

2006-01-01

47

Advance in dietary polyphenols as ?-glucosidases inhibitors: a review on structure-activity relationship aspect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dietary polyphenols as ?-glucosidases inhibitors have attracted great interest among researchers. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the research reports on the structure-activity relationship of dietary polyphenols inhibiting ?-glucosidases. The molecular structures influence the inhibition are the following: 1) The hydroxylation and galloylation of flavonoids including catechins improve the inhibitory activity. 2) The glycosylation

Jianbo Xiao; Guoyin Kai; Koichiro Yamamoto; Xiaoqing Chen

2012-01-01

48

Design, synthesis, antiviral activity, and structure-activity relationships (SARs) of two types of structurally novel phenanthroindo/quinolizidine analogues.  

PubMed

To investigate the influence of the variation of the original skeletons of natural phenanthroindo/quinolizidine alkaloids on antiviral activities, two types of structurally totally novel analogues 7a, 7b, 16a, and 16b were designed, synthesized, and evaluated against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) for the first time. Bioassay results indicated that all four of the newly designed analogues showed good to excellent antiviral activities, among which analogue 16a dispalyed comparable activity with that of ningnanmycin, perhaps one of the most successful commercial antiviral agents, thus emerging as a potential inhibitor of plant virus and serving as a new lead for further optimization. Further structure-activity relationships are also discussed, demonstrating for the first time that the same changes of the original skeletons of phenanthroindolizidine and phenanthroquinolizidine exihibted totally different antiviral activities results, providing some original and useful information about the preferential conformation for maintaining high activities. PMID:24467600

Su, Bo; Chen, Fazhong; Wang, Lizhong; Wang, Qingmin

2014-02-12

49

Isothiocyanate synthetic analogs: biological activities, structure-activity relationships and synthetic strategies.  

PubMed

Sulforaphane is a natural product that is constantly under biological investigation for its unique biological properties. This naturally occurring isothiocyanate (ITC) and its analogs are the main components of cruciferous vegetables, such as cauliflower, watercress, broccoli, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, widely used as chemopreventive agents. Due to their interesting biological profiles, natural ITCs have been exploited as starting point to develop new synthetic analogs. The present mini-review briefly highlights the most important biological actions of selected new synthetic ITCs focusing on their structure-activity relationships and related synthetic strategies. PMID:25373847

Milelli, Andrea; Fimognari, Carmela; Ticchi, Nicole; Neviani, Paolo; Minarini, Anna; Tumiatti, Vincenzo

2014-11-11

50

Inhibition of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Activity by Flavonoids: Structure-Activity Relationship Studies  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have demonstrated that certain flavonoids can have an inhibitory effect on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity, which plays a key role in the regulation of arterial blood pressure. In the present study, 17 flavonoids belonging to five structural subtypes were evaluated in vitro for their ability to inhibit ACE in order to establish the structural basis of their bioactivity. The ACE inhibitory (ACEI) activity of these 17 flavonoids was determined by fluorimetric method at two concentrations (500 µM and 100 µM). Their inhibitory potencies ranged from 17 to 95% at 500 µM and from 0 to 57% at 100 µM. In both cases, the highest ACEI activity was obtained for luteolin. Following the determination of ACEI activity, the flavonoids with higher ACEI activity (i.e., ACEI >60% at 500 µM) were selected for further IC50 determination. The IC50 values for luteolin, quercetin, rutin, kaempferol, rhoifolin and apigenin K were 23, 43, 64, 178, 183 and 196 µM, respectively. Our results suggest that flavonoids are an excellent source of functional antihypertensive products. Furthermore, our structure-activity relationship studies show that the combination of sub-structures on the flavonoid skeleton that increase ACEI activity is made up of the following elements: (a) the catechol group in the B-ring, (b) the double bond between C2 and C3 at the C-ring, and (c) the cetone group in C4 at the C-ring. Protein-ligand docking studies are used to understand the molecular basis for these results. PMID:23185345

Guerrero, Ligia; Castillo, Julián; Quiñones, Mar; Garcia-Vallvé, Santiago; Arola, Lluis; Pujadas, Gerard; Muguerza, Begoña

2012-01-01

51

Improving quantitative structure-activity relationships through multiobjective optimization.  

PubMed

A multiobjective optimization algorithm was proposed for the automated integration of structure- and ligand-based molecular design. Driven by a genetic algorithm, the herein proposed approach enabled the detection of a number of trade-off QSAR models accounting simultaneously for two independent objectives. The first was biased toward best regressions among docking scores and biological affinities; the second minimized the atom displacements from a properly established crystal-based binding topology. Based on the concept of dominance, 3D QSAR equivalent models profiled the Pareto frontier and were, thus, designated as nondominated solutions of the search space. K-means clustering was, then, operated to select a representative subset of the available trade-off models. These were effectively subjected to GRID/GOLPE analyses for quantitatively featuring molecular determinants of ligand binding affinity. More specifically, it was demonstrated that a) diverse binding conformations occurred on the basis of the ligand ability to profitably contact different part of protein binding site; b) enzyme selectivity was better approached and interpreted by combining diverse equivalent models; and c) trade-off models were successful and even better than docking virtual screening, in retrieving at high sensitivity active hits from a large pool of chemically similar decoys. The approach was tested on a large series, very well-known to QSAR practitioners, of 3-amidinophenylalanine inhibitors of thrombin and trypsin, two serine proteases having rather different biological actions despite a high sequence similarity. PMID:19785453

Nicolotti, Orazio; Giangreco, Ilenia; Miscioscia, Teresa Fabiola; Carotti, Angelo

2009-10-01

52

Crystal Structures and Structure-Activity Relationships of Imidazothiazole Derivatives as IDO1 Inhibitors.  

PubMed

Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) is considered as a promising target for the treatment of several diseases, including neurological disorders and cancer. We report here the crystal structures of two IDO1/IDO1 inhibitor complexes, one of which shows that Amg-1 is directly bound to the heme iron of IDO1 with a clear induced fit. We also describe the identification and preliminary optimization of imidazothiazole derivatives as novel IDO1 inhibitors. Using our crystal structure information and structure-activity relationships (SAR) at the pocket-B of IDO1, we found a series of urea derivatives as potent IDO1 inhibitors and revealed that generation of an induced fit and the resulting interaction with Phe226 and Arg231 are essential for potent IDO1 inhibitory activity. The results of this study are very valuable for understanding the mechanism of IDO1 activation, which is very important for structure-based drug design (SBDD) to discover potent IDO1 inhibitors. PMID:25313323

Tojo, Shingo; Kohno, Tetsuya; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Kamioka, Seiji; Ota, Yosuke; Ishii, Takayuki; Kamimoto, Keiko; Asano, Shigehiro; Isobe, Yoshiaki

2014-10-01

53

Structure-activity relationships of ketolides vs. macrolides.  

PubMed

Since their discovery, the macrolide antimicrobials have proved clinically valuable for the treatment of respiratory tract infections, offering coverage against a broad spectrum of pathogens and excellent tolerability. However, the global increase in macrolide resistance among respiratory pathogens, particularly Streptococcus pneumoniae, threatens their future usefulness. The ketolides, of which telithromycin is the first to reach clinical development, represent a new generation of antimicrobials that have been developed with a view to overcoming the problem of macrolide resistance. Telithromycin is structurally derived from macrolides, and possesses several distinguishing features that are important for its improved microbiological profile. The L-cladinose at position C3 of the miacrolactone ring has been replaced with a keto function. This modification enables telithromycin to bind to its target without tripping the inducible resistance to macrolide-lincosamide-streptograminB (MLS(B)) drugs that many groups of pathogens exhibit. The C6 position has been modified by the addition of a methoxy group. This helps prevent hemiketalization of the C6 position with the 3- and 9-keto groups, thereby conferring excellent acid stability, particularly at gastric pH values. Telithromycin is differentiated from other ketolide compounds by the addition of a large aromatic N-substituted carbamate extension from positions C11/C12. This carbamate extension improves binding of the drug to its target, the 50S ribosomal subunit, as demonstrated in in vitro experiments. Telithromycin binds to wild-type ribosomes with 10-fold greater affinity than erythromycin A and 6-fold greater affinity than clarithromycin; its affinity for MLS(B)-resistant ribosomes is > 20 times that of both macrolides. The increased ribosomal affinity of telithromycin correlates with its superior potency against Gram-positive cocci both in vitro and in vivo, and is one of the factors determining the drug's activity against MLS(B)-resistant respiratory pathogens. PMID:11523556

Douthwaite, S

2001-01-01

54

Synthesis, Structure-Activity Relationships (SAR) and in Silico Studies of Coumarin Derivatives with Antifungal Activity  

PubMed Central

The increased incidence of opportunistic fungal infections, associated with greater resistance to the antifungal drugs currently in use has highlighted the need for new solutions. In this study twenty four coumarin derivatives were screened in vitro for antifungal activity against strains of Aspergillus. Some of the compounds exhibited significant antifungal activity with MICs values ranging between 16 and 32 ?g/mL. The structure-activity relationships (SAR) study demonstrated that O-substitutions are essential for antifungal activity. It also showed that the presence of a short aliphatic chain and/or electron withdrawing groups (NO2 and/or acetate) favor activity. These findings were confirmed using density functional theory (DFT), when calculating the LUMO density. In Principal Component Analysis (PCA), two significant principal components (PCs) explained more than 60% of the total variance. The best Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS) model showed an r2 of 0.86 and q2cv of 0.64 corroborating the SAR observations as well as demonstrating a greater probe N1 interaction for active compounds. Descriptors generated by TIP correlogram demonstrated the importance of the molecular shape for antifungal activity. PMID:23306152

de Araújo, Rodrigo S. A.; Guerra, Felipe Q. S.; de O. Lima, Edeltrudes; de Simone, Carlos A.; Tavares, Josean F.; Scotti, Luciana; Scotti, Marcus T.; de Aquino, Thiago M.; de Moura, Ricardo O.; Mendonça, Francisco J. B.; Barbosa-Filho, José M.

2013-01-01

55

Structure–activity relationships of the phosphonate antibiotic dehydrophos†‡  

PubMed Central

Synthetic derivatives of the phosphonate antibiotic dehydrophos were tested for antimicrobial activity. Both the phosphonate monomethyl ester and the vinyl phosphonate moiety proved to be important for bacteriocidal activity of the natural product. PMID:20871915

Kuemin, Michael; van der Donk, Wilfred A.

2011-01-01

56

Quantitative structure-activity relationship of antifungal activity of rosin derivatives.  

PubMed

To develop new rosin-based wood preservatives with good antifungal activity, 24 rosin derivatives were synthesized, bioassay tested with Trametes versicolor and Gloeophyllum trabeum, and subjected to analysis of their quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR). A QSAR analysis using Ampac 9.2.1 and Codessa 2.7.16 software built two QSAR models of antifungal ratio for T. versicolor and G. trabeum with values of R(2)=0.9740 and 0.9692, respectively. Based on the models, tri-N-(3-hydroabietoxy-2-hydroxy) propyl-triethyl ammonium chloride was designed and the bioassay test result proved its better inhibitory effect against the two selected fungi as expected. PMID:25466709

Wang, Hui; Nguyen, Thi Thanh Hien; Li, Shujun; Liang, Tao; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Li, Jian

2015-01-15

57

ESTIMATION OF ELECTRON AFFINITY BASED ON STRUCTURE ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS  

EPA Science Inventory

Electron affinity for a wide range of organic molecules was calculated from molecular structure using the chemical reactivity models developed in SPARC. hese models are based on fundamental chemical structure theory applied to the prediction of chemical reactivities for organic m...

58

Structure- and ligand-based structure-activity relationships for a series of inhibitors of aldolase.  

PubMed

Aldolase has emerged as a promising molecular target for the treatment of human African trypanosomiasis. Over the last years, due to the increasing number of patients infected with Trypanosoma brucei, there is an urgent need for new drugs to treat this neglected disease. In the present study, two-dimensional fragment-based quantitative-structure activity relationship (QSAR) models were generated for a series of inhibitors of aldolase. Through the application of leave-one-out and leave-many-out cross-validation procedures, significant correlation coefficients were obtained (r²=0.98 and q²=0.77) as an indication of the statistical internal and external consistency of the models. The best model was employed to predict pKi values for a series of test set compounds, and the predicted values were in good agreement with the experimental results, showing the power of the model for untested compounds. Moreover, structure-based molecular modeling studies were performed to investigate the binding mode of the inhibitors in the active site of the parasitic target enzyme. The structural and QSAR results provided useful molecular information for the design of new aldolase inhibitors within this structural class. PMID:22734708

Ferreira, Leonardo G; Andricopulo, Adriano D

2012-12-01

59

Structure–activity relationship of indomethacin analogues for MRP-1, COX1 and COX2 inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the screening of analogues of indomethacin to investigate the structure–activity relationship (SAR) of indomethacin-mediated multidrug resistance associated protein-1 (MRP-1) inhibition. By examining the activities of compounds with minor variations of the parent structure, we were able to separate MRP-1, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 inhibitory activities. Combination cytotoxicity assays were utilised to identify agents which possess synergistic

S Touhey; R O'Connor; S Plunkett; A Maguire; M Clynes

2002-01-01

60

Structure and antiinflammatory activity relationships of wogonin derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of wogonin derivatives have been synthesized as congeners of wogonin and evaluated for their inhibitory activities\\u000a of PGE2 production. Wogonin derivatives modified at the B ring of wogonin were obtained from 2,4-Dihydroxy-3,6-dimethoxyacetophenone\\u000a (1)via several steps. Most wogonin derivatives exhibited much reduced inhibitory activities against COX-2 catalyzed PGE2 production compared to that of wogonin. Alkylation of 5,7-phenol groups and

Jinhee Jang; Hyun Pyo Kim

2005-01-01

61

Synthesis of Ureido-Muraymycidine Derivatives for Structure Activity Relationship Studies of Muraymycins  

PubMed Central

One of the key constituents of the muraymycins is the 6-membered cyclic guanidine, (2S,3S)-muraymycidine (or epi-capreomycidine). In order to diversify the structure of the oligo-peptide moiety of the muraymycins for thorough structure activity relationship studies, we have developed a highly stereoselective synthesis of ureido-muraymycidine derivatives with the lactone 4a. PMID:22458337

Aleiwi, Bilal A.; Schneider, Christopher M.

2012-01-01

62

Structures and cytotoxic activity relationship of casearins, new clerodane diterpenes from Casearia sylvestris Sw.  

PubMed

Casearins G-R, new cytotoxic clerodane diterpenes have been isolated from the leaves of Casearia sylvestris Sw. (Flacourtiaceae). Their structures have been elucidated by spectroscopic methods and chemical conversions, and their structure-activity relationships have been discussed. PMID:2070450

Morita, H; Nakayama, M; Kojima, H; Takeya, K; Itokawa, H; Schenkel, E P; Motidome, M

1991-03-01

63

STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS FOR SCREENING ORGANIC CHEMICALS FOR POTENTIAL ECOTOXICITY EFFECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper presents structure-activity relationships (QSAR) for estimating the bioconcentration factor and acute toxicity of some classes of industrial chemicals using only the n-octanol/water partition coefficient (Log P) which is derived from chemical structure. The bioconcentra...

64

Structural Relationships between Social Activities and Longitudinal Trajectories of Depression among Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study examines the structural relationships between social activities and trajectories of late-life depression. Design and Methods: Latent class analysis was used with a nationally representative sample of older adults (N = 5,294) from the Longitudinal Study on Aging II to classify patterns of social activities. A latent growth curve…

Hong, Song-Iee; Hasche, Leslie; Bowland, Sharon

2009-01-01

65

Flavonoid antioxidants: chemistry, metabolism and structure-activity relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flavonoids are a class of secondary plant phenolics with significant antioxidant and chelating properties. In the human diet, they are most concentrated in fruits, vegetables, wines, teas and cocoa. Their cardioprotective effects stem from the ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation, chelate redox-active metals, and attenuate other processes involving reactive oxygen species. Flavonoids occur in foods primarily as glycosides and polymers

Kelly E Heim; Anthony R Tagliaferro; Dennis J Bobilya

2002-01-01

66

Structure-activity relationships of dimeric PPAR agonists.  

PubMed

A series of dimeric PPAR agonists were designed and tested for PPAR activity in vitro. The SAR showed that dimeric ligands with a common group or full dimeric ligands had retained or even increased PPARgamma potency. The dimeric agonist concept can be used to fine tune the subtype selectivity of PPAR agonists. The PPARgamma potency could, at least partly, be explained using molecular modeling. PMID:15713415

Sauerberg, Per; Mogensen, John P; Jeppesen, Lone; Svensson, L Anders; Fleckner, Jan; Nehlin, Jan; Wulff, Erik M; Pettersson, Ingrid

2005-03-01

67

Dibasic inhibitors of human mast cell tryptase. Part 2: Structure–activity relationships and requirements for potent activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed structure–activity relationships (SARs) for a series of dibasic human tryptase inhibitors are presented. The structural requirements for potent inhibitory activity are remarkably broad with a range of core template modifications being well tolerated. Optimized inhibitors demonstrate potent anti-asthmatic activity in a sheep model of allergic asthma. APC-2059, a dibasic tryptase inhibitor with subnanomolar activity, has been advanced to phase

Kenneth D Rice; Vivian R Wang; Anthony R Gangloff; Elaine Y.-L Kuo; Jeffrey M Dener; William S Newcomb; Wendy B Young; Daun Putnam; Lynne Cregar; Martin Wong; Paul J Simpson

2000-01-01

68

Toxicity of aliphatic amines: structure-activity relationship.  

PubMed

SARs may enable the evaluation of the toxic potential of chemicals by drawing conclusions from available data on structurally-related chemicals, thus reducing the need for further testing. The Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals of Environmental Relevance (BUA) [1,2] of the German Chemical Society (Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker [GDCh]) has compiled data on the toxicity and ecological impact for several groups of chemicals [3, 4]. In the present review, some common toxicological properties for aliphatic amines were revealed after evaluation and comparison of the toxicity data. PMID:9569935

Greim, H; Bury, D; Klimisch, H J; Oeben-Negele, M; Ziegler-Skylakakis, K

1998-01-01

69

The relationship between the structure and the activity of pyrethroids  

PubMed Central

There is considerable scope for developing new non-persistent insecticides with little hazard for man and mammals by modifying the structures of the natural pyrethrins. New compounds already synthesized are more effective against some insect species than are the natural compounds, are even less hazardous to mammals, and do not need synergists to supplement their insecticidal action. Other examples show considerable insect species specificity. These compounds may help to control insect vectors when other insecticides are no longer effective because resistance has developed or because their residues can no longer be tolerated. PMID:4938024

Elliott, M.

1971-01-01

70

Structure-activity relationship of immunostimulatory effects of phthalates  

PubMed Central

Background Some chemicals, including some phthalate plasticizers, have been shown to have an adjuvant effect in mice. However, an adjuvant effect, defined as an inherent ability to stimulate the humoral immune response, was only observed after exposure to a limited number of the phthalates. An adjuvant effect may be due to the structure or physicochemical characteristics of the molecule. The scope of this study was to investigate which molecular characteristics that determine the observed adjuvant effect of the most widely used phthalate plasticizer, the di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), which is documented as having a strong adjuvant effect. To do so, a series of nine lipophilic compounds with structural and physicochemical relations to DEHP were investigated. Results Adjuvant effect of phthalates and related compounds were restricted to the IgG1 antibody formation. No effect was seen on IgE. It appears that lipophilicity plays a crucial role, but lipophilicity does not per se cause an adjuvant effect. In addition to lipophilicity, a phthalate must also possess specific stereochemical characteristics in order for it to have adjuvant effect. Conclusion The adjuvant effect of phthalates are highly influenced by both stereochemical and physico-chemical properties. This knowledge may be used in the rational development of plasticizers without adjuvant effect as well as in the design of new immunological adjuvants. PMID:18976460

Larsen, Søren T; Nielsen, Gunnar D

2008-01-01

71

Feature Selection of Support Vector Regression for Quantitative StructureActivity Relationships (QSAR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Predicting the biological activity of a compound from its chemical structure is a fundamental problem in drug design. The Support Vector (SV) Machine regression is one of the powerful machine,learning methods,developed for this purpose in Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR) Analysis. A procedure based on linear programming,is proposed for feature selection of SV regression. This new approach,demonstrates,favorable behavior in com-

Lei Huang; Hsiao-mei Lu; Yang Dai

2003-01-01

72

Macrolide-Based Microtubule-Stabilizing Agents - Chemistry and Structure-Activity Relationships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article provides an overview on the chemistry and structure-activity relationships of macrolide-based microtubule-stabilizing agents. The primary focus will be on the total synthesis or examples thereof, but a brief summary of the current state of knowledge on the structure-activity relationships of epothilones, laulimalide, dictyostatin, and peloruside A will also be given. This macrolide class of compounds, over the last decade, has become the subject of growing interest due to their ability to inhibit human cancer cell proliferation through a taxol-like mechanism of action.

Pfeiffer, B.; Kuzniewski, C. N.; Wullschleger, C.; Altmann, K.-H.

73

Derivatives of Ergot-alkaloids: Molecular structure, physical properties, and structure-activity relationships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive screening of fifteen functionalized Ergot-alkaloids, containing bulk aliphatic cyclic substituents at D-ring of the ergoline molecular skeleton was performed, studying their structure-active relationships and model interactions with ?2A-adreno-, serotonin (5HT2A) and dopamine D3 (D3A) receptors. The accounted high affinity to the receptors binding loops and unusual bonding situations, joined with the molecular flexibility of the substituents and the presence of proton accepting/donating functional groups in the studied alkaloids, may contribute to further understanding the mechanisms of biological activity in vivo and in predicting their therapeutic potential in central nervous system (CNS), including those related the Schizophrenia. Since the presented correlation between the molecular structure and properties, was based on the comprehensively theoretical computational and experimental physical study on the successfully isolated derivatives, through using routine synthetic pathways in a relatively high yields, marked these derivatives as 'treasure' for further experimental and theoretical studied in areas such as: (a) pharmacological and clinical testing; (b) molecular-drugs design of novel psychoactive substances; (c) development of the analytical protocols for determination of Ergot-alkaloids through a functionalization of the ergoline-skeleton, and more.

Ivanova, Bojidarka B.; Spiteller, Michael

2012-09-01

74

Synthesis, biological activity, and hologram quantitative structure-activity relationships of novel allatostatin analogues.  

PubMed

Cockroach-type allatostatins (FGLamides) (ASTs) can inhibit the production of juvenile hormone in vitro, and they therefore are regarded as possible insect growth regulator (IGR) candidates for pest control. However, several shortcomings, such as the absence of in vivo effects, rapid degradation, and high production costs, preclude their practical use in pest management. To discover new IGRs, 25 novel analogues of pentapeptide (Y/FXFGLa) were designed and synthesized with different aromatic acids, fatty acids, and dicarboxylic acids as the Y/FX region replacements on the basis of previous results. Their bioactivities in vitro were determined, and the results showed that eight analogues (K14, K15, K17, K18, K19, K23, K24, and K25) were more active than the lead, core region pentapeptide. The IC(50) values of K15 and K24 (IC(50) = 1.79 and 5.32 nM, respectively) were even lower than that of the natural AST, Dippu-AST 1(IC(50) = 8 nM), which indicated both analogues have better activity than Dippu-AST 1; particularly, K15 has better activity than most natural Dippu-ASTs. A predictable and statistically meaningful hologram quantitative structure-activity relationship (HQSAR) model of 32 AST analogues (28 as training sets and 4 as test sets) was obtained. The final model suggested that a potent AST analogue should contain an aromatic group, a linker of appropriate length, and the FGLa portion. These results will be useful in the design of new AST analogues that are structurally related to the training set compounds. PMID:19950981

Kai, Zhen-Peng; Huang, Juan; Xie, Yong; Tobe, Stephen S; Ling, Yun; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Yi-Chen; Yang, Xin-Ling

2010-03-10

75

Structure–activity relationship of cardiotonic flavonoids in guinea-pig papillary muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen flavonoids were tested for a positive inotropic effect (PIE) on guinea-pig papillary muscle paced at 0.2 Hz in a Krebs–Henseleit solution at 30°C. The structure–activity relationship was investigated by determining both the pD2 value and the intrinsic activity in the case of ten flavonols, three flavones, one flavanone and two catechins. Quercetin showed the most potent intrinsic activity, and

Masataka Itoigawa; Kazumi Takeya; Chihiro Ito; Hiroshi Furukawa

1999-01-01

76

Structure-Activity Relationship for Thiohydantoin Androgen Receptor Antagonists for Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer (CRPC)  

PubMed Central

A structure-activity relationship study was carried out on a series of thiohydantoins and their analogues 14 which led to the discovery of 92 (MDV3100) as the clinical candidate for the treatment of hormone refractory prostate cancer. PMID:20218717

Jung, Michael E.; Ouk, Samedy; Yoo, Dongwon; Sawyers, Charles L.; Chen, Charlie; Tran, Chris; Wongvipat, John

2011-01-01

77

STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS (SARS) AMONG MUTAGENS AND CARCINOGENS: A REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

The review is an introduction to methods for evaluating structure-activity relationships (SARs), and, in particular, to those methods that have been applied to study mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. A brief history and some background material on the earliest attempts to correla...

78

Total Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationship of Glycoglycerolipids from Marine Organisms  

PubMed Central

Glycoglycerolipids occur widely in natural products, especially in the marine species. Glycoglycerolipids have been shown to possess a variety of bioactivities. This paper will review the different methodologies and strategies for the synthesis of biological glycoglycerolipids and their analogs for bioactivity assay. In addition, the bioactivities and structure-activity relationship of the glycoglycerolipids are also briefly outlined. PMID:24945415

Zhang, Jun; Li, Chunxia; Yu, Guangli; Guan, Huashi

2014-01-01

79

Validation of Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) Model for Photosensitizer Activity Prediction  

PubMed Central

Photodynamic therapy is a relatively new treatment method for cancer which utilizes a combination of oxygen, a photosensitizer and light to generate reactive singlet oxygen that eradicates tumors via direct cell-killing, vasculature damage and engagement of the immune system. Most of photosensitizers that are in clinical and pre-clinical assessments, or those that are already approved for clinical use, are mainly based on cyclic tetrapyrroles. In an attempt to discover new effective photosensitizers, we report the use of the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) method to develop a model that could correlate the structural features of cyclic tetrapyrrole-based compounds with their photodynamic therapy (PDT) activity. In this study, a set of 36 porphyrin derivatives was used in the model development where 24 of these compounds were in the training set and the remaining 12 compounds were in the test set. The development of the QSAR model involved the use of the multiple linear regression analysis (MLRA) method. Based on the method, r2 value, r2 (CV) value and r2 prediction value of 0.87, 0.71 and 0.70 were obtained. The QSAR model was also employed to predict the experimental compounds in an external test set. This external test set comprises 20 porphyrin-based compounds with experimental IC50 values ranging from 0.39 ?M to 7.04 ?M. Thus the model showed good correlative and predictive ability, with a predictive correlation coefficient (r2 prediction for external test set) of 0.52. The developed QSAR model was used to discover some compounds as new lead photosensitizers from this external test set. PMID:22272096

Frimayanti, Neni; Yam, Mun Li; Lee, Hong Boon; Othman, Rozana; Zain, Sharifuddin M.; Rahman, Noorsaadah Abd.

2011-01-01

80

Electron-topological investigation of the structure-antitumor activity relationship of thiosemicarbazone derivatives.  

PubMed

In the frameworks of the electron-topological method (ETM) the structure-antitumor activity relationship was investigated for a series of thiosemicarbazone derivatives. The series included 70 compounds. Conformational analysis and quantum-chemical calculations were carried out for each compound. The revealed activity feature showed a satisfactory description of the class of active compounds according to two different parameters P and alpha estimating the probabilities of the feature realization in the class of active compounds (they are equal to 0.94 and 0.86, correspondingly). The results of testing demonstrated the high ability of ETM in predicting the activity investigated. PMID:9150865

Dimoglo, A S; Chumakov, Y M; Dobrova, B N; Saracoglu, M

1997-04-01

81

Structure-activity relationships of phenylcyclohexene and biphenyl antitubulin compounds against plant and mammalian cells.  

PubMed

Phenylcyclohexenes (PCHs) [e.g., trans-4-nitro-5-(2,3,4-trimethoxyphenyl)cyclohexene, 2d] were found to bind weakly to the colchicine site of bovine tubulin, but are the first mimics of colchicine found to have high activity towards plant cells. Structure-activity relationships for PCHs and biphenyl AC-ring analogues of colchicine (e.g., 2,3,4,4'-tetramethoxy-2'-methyl-1,1'-biphenyl, 3e) are discussed. PMID:11378362

Young, D H; Tice, C M; Michelotti, E L; Roemmele, R C; Slawecki, R A; Rubio, F M; Rolling, J A

2001-06-01

82

Structure–activity relationships of phenylcyclohexene and biphenyl antitubulin compounds against plant and mammalian cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenylcyclohexenes (PCHs) [e.g., trans-4-nitro-5-(2,3,4-trimethoxyphenyl)cyclohexene, 2d] were found to bind weakly to the colchicine site of bovine tubulin, but are the first mimics of colchicine found to have high activity towards plant cells. Structure–activity relationships for PCHs and biphenyl AC-ring analogues of colchicine (e.g., 2,3,4,4?-tetramethoxy-2?-methyl-1,1?-biphenyl, 3e) are discussed.

David H. Young; Colin M. Tice; Enrique L. Michelotti; Renee C. Roemmele; Richard A. Slawecki; Fernando M. Rubio; Judith A. Rolling

2001-01-01

83

4-aminoquinolines active against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum: basis of antiparasite activity and quantitative structure-activity relationship analyses.  

PubMed

Chloroquine (CQ) is a safe and economical 4-aminoquinoline (AQ) antimalarial. However, its value has been severely compromised by the increasing prevalence of CQ resistance. This study examined 108 AQs, including 68 newly synthesized compounds. Of these 108 AQs, 32 (30%) were active only against CQ-susceptible Plasmodium falciparum strains and 59 (55%) were active against both CQ-susceptible and CQ-resistant P. falciparum strains (50% inhibitory concentrations [IC50s], ?25 nM). All AQs active against both CQ-susceptible and CQ-resistant P. falciparum strains shared four structural features: (i) an AQ ring without alkyl substitution, (ii) a halogen at position 7 (Cl, Br, or I but not F), (iii) a protonatable nitrogen at position 1, and (iv) a second protonatable nitrogen at the end of the side chain distal from the point of attachment to the AQ ring via the nitrogen at position 4. For activity against CQ-resistant parasites, side chain lengths of ?3 or ?10 carbons were necessary but not sufficient; they were identified as essential factors by visual comparison of 2-dimensional (2-D) structures in relation to the antiparasite activities of the AQs and were confirmed by computer-based 3-D comparisons and differential contour plots of activity against P. falciparum. The advantage of the method reported here (refinement of quantitative structure-activity relationship [QSAR] descriptors by random assignment of compounds to multiple training and test sets) is that it retains QSAR descriptors according to their abilities to predict the activities of unknown test compounds rather than according to how well they fit the activities of the compounds in the training sets. PMID:21383099

Hocart, Simon J; Liu, Huayin; Deng, Haiyan; De, Dibyendu; Krogstad, Frances M; Krogstad, Donald J

2011-05-01

84

Synthesis and structure-activity relationship analysis of caffeic acid amides as selective matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors.  

PubMed

Four series of acid amides were synthesized, and through measurement using a fluorogenic substrate assay with human recombinant MMP-1, MMP-2 and MMP-9, compound 3f showed considerable inhibitory activities against MMP-2, MMP-9 and the best selectivity over MMP-1. Preliminary structure-activity relationship analysis indicated that caffeic acid amides with electron-donating groups at para-position of amino phenyl group showed better inhibitory activities and selectivity than those with electron-withdrawing groups, and the presence of adjacent dihydroxy in the caffeoyl group was very important for the MMP-2 and MMP-9 inhibitory activities. PMID:23375794

Shi, Zhi-Hao; Li, Nian-Guang; Shi, Qian-Ping; Tang, Hao; Tang, Yu-Ping; Li, Wei; Yin, Lian; Yang, Jian-Ping; Duan, Jin-Ao

2013-03-01

85

Inhibitors of the interaction of a thyroid hormone receptor and coactivators: preliminary structure-activity relationships.  

PubMed

The modulation of gene regulation by blocking the interaction between the thyroid receptor (TR) and obligate coregulators has been reported recently with the discovery of the lead compound 3-(dimethylamino)-1-(4-hexylphenyl)propan-1-one). Herein we report studies aimed at optimization of this initial hit to determine the basic parameters of the structure-activity relationships and clarify the mechanism of action. These studies provided new insights, showing that activity and TRbeta isoform selectivity is highly correlated with the structural composition of these covalent inhibitors. PMID:17918822

Arnold, Leggy A; Kosinski, Aaron; Estébanez-Perpiñá, Eva; Fletterick, Robert J; Guy, R Kiplin

2007-11-01

86

Inhibitors of the Interaction of Thyroid Hormone Receptor and Coactivators: Preliminary Structure–Activity Relationships  

PubMed Central

The modulation of gene regulation by blocking the interaction between the thyroid receptor (TR) and obligate coregulators (CoRs) has been reported recently with discovery of the lead compound 3-(dimethylamino)-1-(4-hexylphenyl)propan-1-one). Herein we report studies aimed at optimization of this initial hit to determine the basic parameters of the structure–activity relationships (SAR) and clarify the mechanism of action. These studies provided new insights, showing that activity and TR? isoform selectivity is highly correlated with the structural composition of these covalent inhibitors. PMID:17918822

Arnold, Leggy A.; Kosinski, Aaron; Estébanez-Perpiñá, Eva; Guy, R. Kiplin

2008-01-01

87

Flavonoids and tyrosine nitration: structure–activity relationship correlation with enthalpy of formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of 11 flavonoids, naturally occurring polyphenols, and their related structure–activity relationships (SAR’s) for inhibiting peroxynitrite-induced nitration of tyrosine was investigated. The flavonoids under study could be classified into four groups having very distinct in vitro inhibition effects. We also calculated the heat of formation (?Hf) of the corresponding flavonoids radicals which supported this finding. The most effective flavonoids

Mitra Sadeghipour; Raphael Terreux; Jenny Phipps

2005-01-01

88

Trainable structure-activity relationship model for virtual screening of CYP3A4 inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new structure–activity relationship model predicting the probability for a compound to inhibit human cytochrome P450 3A4\\u000a has been developed using data for >800 compounds from various literature sources and tested on PubChem screening data. Novel\\u000a GALAS (Global, Adjusted Locally According to Similarity) modeling methodology has been used, which is a combination of baseline\\u000a global QSAR model and local similarity

Justas Dapkunas; Andrius Sazonovas; Pranas Japertas

2010-01-01

89

Chemical Sensor Array Response Modeling Using Quantitative StructureActivity Relationships Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We have developed a Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR) based approach to correlate the response of chemical\\u000a sensors in an array with molecular descriptors. A novel molecular descriptor set has been developed; this set combines descriptors\\u000a of sensing film-analyte interactions, representing sensor response, with a basic analyte descriptor set commonly used in QSAR\\u000a studies. The descriptors are obtained using a combination

Abhijit V. Shevade; Margaret A. Ryan; Margie L. Homer; Hanying Zhou; Allison M. Manfreda; Liana M. Lara; Shiao-Pin S. Yen; April D. Jewell; Kenneth S. Manatt; Adam K. Kisor

2009-01-01

90

Synthesis and structure–activity relationships of a series of pyrrole cannabinoid receptor agonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

We designed and synthesized a series of pyrrole derivatives with the aim of investigating the structure–activity relationship (SAR) for the binding of non-classical agonists to CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors. Superposition of two pyrrole-containing cannabinoid agonists, JWH-007 and JWH-161, allowed us to identify positions 1, 3 and 4 of the pyrrole nucleus as amenable to additional investigation. We prepared the

Giorgio Tarzia; Andrea Duranti; Andrea Tontini; Gilberto Spadoni; Marco Mor; Silvia Rivara; Pier Vincenzo Plazzi; Satish Kathuria; Daniele Piomelli

2003-01-01

91

Cannabimimetic Indoles, Pyrroles, and Indenes: Structure–Activity Relationships and Receptor Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A number of years ago it was found that 1-aminoalkyl-3-aroylindoles have affinity for the canabinoid receptor that is expressed\\u000a in the central nervous system (CB1 receptor). More than 100 of these aminoalkylindoles were prepared and structure–activity\\u000a relationships (SARs) were developed for these compounds. Subsequently it was found that the aminoalkyl substituent could be\\u000a replaced by a straight chain alkyl group

John W. Huffman

92

Design, synthesis, and structure–activity relationship of novel thiophene derivatives for ?-amyloid plaque imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel 2,5-diphenylthiophene derivatives were synthesized and structure activity relationship with regard to A? plaque binding was studied. Binding affinities of these compounds were found to range from 3.9 to >1000nM, depending on the substitution patterns on the phenyl ring. The fluoroethyl-substituted thiophene derivatives showed excellent binding affinities. These compounds may be useful for the development of novel PET tracers for

Rajesh Chandra; Mei-Ping Kung; Hank F. Kung

2006-01-01

93

Quantitative studies on structure-DPPH• scavenging activity relationships of food phenolic acids.  

PubMed

Phenolic acids are potent antioxidants, yet the quantitative structure-activity relationships of phenolic acids remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to establish 3D-QSAR models able to predict phenolic acids with high DPPH• scavenging activity and understand their structure-activity relationships. The model has been established by using a training set of compounds with cross-validated q2 = 0.638/0.855, non-cross-validated r2 = 0.984/0.986, standard error of estimate = 0.236/0.216, and F = 139.126/208.320 for the best CoMFA/CoMSIA models. The predictive ability of the models was validated with the correlation coefficient r2(pred) = 0.971/0.996 (>0.6) for each model. Additionally, the contour map results suggested that structural characteristics of phenolics acids favorable for the high DPPH• scavenging activity might include: (1) bulky and/or electron-donating substituent groups on the phenol ring; (2) electron-donating groups at the meta-position and/or hydrophobic groups at the meta-/ortho-position; (3) hydrogen-bond donor/electron-donating groups at the ortho-position. The results have been confirmed based on structural analyses of phenolic acids and their DPPH• scavenging data from eight recent publications. The findings may provide deeper insight into the antioxidant mechanisms and provide useful information for selecting phenolic acids for free radical scavenging properties. PMID:23117431

Jing, Pu; Zhao, Shu-Juan; Jian, Wen-Jie; Qian, Bing-Jun; Dong, Ying; Pang, Jie

2012-01-01

94

Structure–Activity Relationships for Side Chain Oxysterol Agonists of the Hedgehog Signaling Pathway  

PubMed Central

Oxysterols (OHCs) are byproducts of cholesterol oxidation that are known to activate the Hedeghog (Hh) signaling pathway. While OHCs that incorporate hydroxyl groups throughout the scaffold are known, those that act as agonists of Hh signaling primarily contain a single hydroxyl on the alkyl side chain. We sought to further explore how side chain hydroxylation patterns affect oxysterol-mediated Hh activation, by performing a structure–activity relationship study on a series of synthetic OHCs. The most active analogue, 23(R)-OHC (35), demonstrated potent activation of Hh signaling in two Hh-dependent cell lines (EC50 values 0.54–0.65 ?M). In addition, OHC 35 was approximately 3-fold selective for the Hh pathway as compared to the liver X receptor, a nuclear receptor that is also activated by endogenous OHCs. Finally, 35 induced osteogenic differentiation and osteoblast formation in cultured cells, indicating functional agonism of the Hh pathway. PMID:24900386

2012-01-01

95

Synthesis and antioxidant evaluation of isochroman-derivatives of hydroxytyrosol: Structure-activity relationship.  

PubMed

Isochroman-derivatives of the natural olive oil phenol hydroxytyrosol (HT) have been synthesised via Oxa-Pictet-Spengler reaction in high yields. Lipophilicity and antioxidant activity were determined to establish the structure-activity relationship of isochromans compared to HT, BHT and ?-tocopherol. Antioxidant capacity was tested in two different media: bulk oils, using the Rancimat test, and brain homogenates, by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) levels as a lipoperoxidation biomarker. In addition, other antioxidant assays (FRAP, ABTS and ORAC) were carried out. Rancimat and MDA results show that antioxidant activity was related with lipophilicity, directly in brain homogenates and inversely in the oils, in agreement with the polar paradox. Free o-diphenolic groups positively determined the activity in the oils, whereas reducing and radical-scavenging activities were related to the number of free hydroxyl moieties. BHT and ?-tocopherol showed lower antioxidant activity than isochromans and HT. We conclude that HT-isochromans present significant potential as bioactive compounds. PMID:25466028

Mateos, Raquel; Madrona, Andrés; Pereira-Caro, Gema; Domínguez, Vanessa; Cert, Rosa M A; Parrado, Juan; Sarriá, Beatriz; Bravo, Laura; Espartero, José Luis

2015-04-15

96

Structure-antitumor activity relationship of semi-synthetic spicamycin analogues.  

PubMed

Spicamycin, a nucleoside antibiotic containing fatty acids with a variety of chain lengths (C12-C18), showed potent antitumor activity against human gastric cancer SC-9 and human breast cancer MX-1 in a xenograft model. We have made several semi-synthetic spicamycin analogues (SPMs) which differed in the chain length of the fatty acid moiety, and examined their structure-antitumor activity relationship. The cytotoxic activities of SPMs depended on the chain length of the fatty acid moiety, with dodecanoyl, tetradecanoyl, hexadecanoyl and icosanoyl analogues (SPM VIII, SPM X, SPM XII and SPM XVI) exhibiting the most potent cytotoxic activity against P388 murine leukemia cells. SPM VIII showed the most activity against SC-9 in the human tumor xenograft model with the highest therapeutic index among SPMs. The antitumor activity of SPM VIII was superior to that of mitomycin C. PMID:8226322

Kamishohara, M; Kawai, H; Odagawa, A; Isoe, T; Mochizuki, J; Uchida, T; Hayakawa, Y; Seto, H; Tsuruo, T; Otake, N

1993-09-01

97

Structure-Activity Relationship for Fe(III)-Salen-Like Complexes as Potent Anticancer Agents  

PubMed Central

Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) for the anticancer activity of Fe(III)-salen and salen-like complexes was studied. The methods of density function theory (B3LYP/LANL2DZ) were used to optimize the structures. A pool of descriptors was calculated: 1497 theoretical descriptors and quantum-chemical parameters, shielding NMR, and electronic descriptors. The study of structure and activity relationship was performed with multiple linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural network (ANN). In nonlinear method, the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was applied in order to choose the most effective descriptors. The ANN-ANFIS model with high statistical significance (R2train = 0.99, RMSE = 0.138, and Q2LOO = 0.82) has better capability to predict the anticancer activity of the new compounds series of this family. Based on this study, anticancer activity of this compound is mainly dependent on the geometrical parameters, position, and the nature of the substituent of salen ligand. PMID:24955417

Ghanbari, Zahra; Housaindokht, Mohammad R.; Izadyar, Mohammad; Bozorgmehr, Mohammad R.; Eshtiagh-Hosseini, Hossein; Bahrami, Ahmad R.; Matin, Maryam M.; Khoshkholgh, Maliheh Javan

2014-01-01

98

Structure-Activity Relationships of Retro-dihydrochalcones Isolated from Tacca sp  

PubMed Central

Several biologically active compounds have been identified from Tacca species, including glycosides, diarylheptanoids, saponins, withanolides, and the taccalonolide class of microtubule stabilizers. More recently, two cytotoxic retro-dihydrochalcones named evelynin A (7) and taccabulin A (6) were isolated and their biological activities characterized, including the finding that taccabulin has microtubule destabilizing effects. Here we describe the identification and characterization of five new retro-chalcones, named taccabulins B – E (1–4) and evelynin B (5) from Tacca sp. extracts. Their structures were determined using 1D and 2D NMR as well as mass spectroscopic data and modeled into the colchicine binding site of tubulin. The antiproliferative and microtubule effects of each compound were determined experimentally and found to be well correlated with modeling studies. The isolation and biological characterization of several retro-dihydrochalcones facilitated preliminary structure-activity relationships for this compound class concerning its antiproliferative and microtubule depolymerizing activities. PMID:24303844

Peng, Jiangnan; Risinger, April L.; Da, Chenxiao; Fest, Gary A.; Kellogg, Glen E.; Mooberry, Susan L.

2014-01-01

99

Structure-activity relationship for the reactivators of acetylcholinesterase inhibited by nerve agent VX.  

PubMed

Nerve agents such as sarin, VX and tabun are organophosphorus compounds able to inhibit an enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). AChE reactivators and anticholinergics are generally used as antidotes in the case of intoxication with these agents. None from the known AChE reactivators is able to reactivate AChE inhibited by all kinds of nerve agents. In this work, reactivation potency of seventeen structurally different AChE reactivators was tested in vitro and subsequently, relationship between their chemical structure and biological activity was outlined. VX was chosen as appropriate member of the nerve agent family. PMID:22779796

Kuca, Kamil; Musilek, Kamil; Jun, Daniel; Karasova, Jana; Soukup, Ondrej; Pejchal, Jaroslav; Hrabinova, Martina

2013-08-01

100

Structure-activity relationship studies of the tricyclic indoline resistance-modifying agent.  

PubMed

Previously we discovered a tricyclic indoline, N-[2-(6-bromo-4-methylidene-2,3,4,4a,9,9a-hexahydro-1H-carbazol-4a-yl)ethyl]-4-chlorobenzene-1-sulfonamide (1, Of1), from bioinspired synthesis of a highly diverse polycyclic indoline alkaloid library, that selectively resensitizes methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains to ?-lactam antibiotics. Herein, we report a thorough structure-activity relationship investigation of 1, which identified regions of 1 that tolerate modifications without compromising activity and afforded the discovery of a more potent analogue with reduced mammalian toxicity. PMID:24694192

Chang, Le; Podoll, Jessica D; Wang, Wei; Walls, Shane; O'Rourke, Courtney P; Wang, Xiang

2014-05-01

101

Structure-activity relationship of the pro- and anticoagulant effects of Fucus vesiculosus fucoidan.  

PubMed

Fucoidan is a highly complex sulfated polysaccharide commonly extracted from brown seaweed. In addition to their many biological activities, fucoidans have recently been demonstrated to inhibit or increase coagulation at different concentration ranges. Their structural features, i.e. molecular weight (Mw), Mw distribution, degree of sulfation, monosaccharide composition, and different linkages, are known to affect these activities. Therefore, structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis of fucoidan is crucial for its potential use as a procoagulant. In this study, Fucus vesiculosus (F.v.) fucoidan was fractionated by charge and size as well as over- and desulfated to different degrees to yield preparations with various structural properties. The fractions' pro- and anticoagulant activities were assessed by calibrated automated thrombography (CAT) and activated partial thromboplastin time(aPTT) assays. Binding to and inhibition of the anticoagulant protein tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) and the ability to activate coagulation via the contact pathway were also investigated. This paper discusses the impact of charge density, size, and sugar composition on fucoidan's pro- and anticoagulant activities. Fucoidan requires a minimal charge density of 0.5 sulfates per sugar unit and a size of 70 sugar units to demonstrate desired procoagulant activities for improvement of haemostasis in factor VIII/factor IX-deficient plasma. PMID:24285223

Zhang, Z; Till, S; Jiang, C; Knappe, S; Reutterer, S; Scheiflinger, F; Szabo, C M; Dockal, M

2014-03-01

102

Studies of structure–activity relationship on plant polyphenol-induced suppression of human liver cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To study anticancer activities of 68 plant polyphenols with different backbone structures and various substitutions and to\\u000a analyze the structure–activity relationships.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Antiproliferative activity of 68 plant polyphenols on human liver cancer cells were screened by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium\\u000a bromide method. Structure–activity relationships were analyzed by comparison of their activities with selected structures.\\u000a Cell cycle progression was assayed by flow cytometry analysis

Jacky Loa; Pierce Chow; Kai Zhang

2009-01-01

103

Mechanisms of toxic action and structure-activity relationships for organochlorine and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides.  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms and sites of action of organochlorine (DDT-types and chlorinated alicyclics) and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides are presented with discussion of symptoms, physiological effects, and selectivity. The structural requirements for toxicity are assessed, and structure-activity relationships are considered for each subclass. Lipophilicity is important for all the groups because it facilitates delivery of these neurotoxicants to the site of action in the nerve. Steric factors including molecular volume, shape, and isomeric configuration greatly influence toxicity. Electronic parameters also have been demonstrated to affect biological activity in some of the groups of insecticides, e.g., Hammett's sigma and Taft's sigma * as indicators of electronegativity. New synthetic pyrethroids continue to be developed, with varied structures and different physicochemical and biological properties. PMID:2176589

Coats, J R

1990-01-01

104

Synthesis, Structure-Activity Relationship, & Mode-of-Action Studies of Antimalarial Reversed Chloroquine Compounds  

PubMed Central

We have previously shown that a 'reversed chloroquine (RCQ)' molecule, composed of a chloroquine-like moiety and a resistance reversal-like moiety, can overcome chloroquine resistance in P. falciparum (Burgess, S. J.; Selzer, A.; Kelly, J. X.; Smilkstein, M. J.; Riscoe, M. K.; Peyton, D. H. J. Med. Chem. 2006, 49, 5623; Andrews, S.; Burgess, S. J.; Skaalrud, D.; Kelly, J. X.; Peyton, D. H. J. Med. Chem. 2010, 53, 916). Here, we present an investigation into the structure-activity relationship of the RCQ structures, resulting in an orally active molecule with good in vitro and in vivo antimalarial activity. We also present evidence of the mode of action, indicating that the RCQ molecules inhibit hemozoin formation in the parasite’s digestive vacuole in a manner similar to that of chloroquine. PMID:20684562

Burgess, Steven J.; Kelly, Jane X.; Shomloo, Shawheen; Wittlin, Sergio; Brun, Reto; Liebmann, Katherine; Peyton, David H.

2010-01-01

105

Similarities and differences in the structure-activity relationships of capsaicin and resiniferatoxin analogues.  

PubMed

Structure-activity relationships in analogues of the irritant natural product capsaicin have previously been rationalized by subdivision of the molecule into three structural regions (A,B, and C). The hypothesis that resiniferatoxin (RTX), which is a high-potency ligand for the same receptor and which has superficial structural similarities with capsaicin, could be analogously subdivided has been investigated. The effects of making parallel changes in the two structural series have been studied in a cellular functional assay which is predictive of analgesic activity. Parallel structural changes in the two series lead to markedly different consequences on biological activity; the 3- and 4-position aryl substituents (corresponding to the capsaicin 'A-region') which are strictly required for activity in capsaicin analogues are not important in RTX analogues. The homovanillyl C-20 ester group in RTX (corresponding to the capsaicin 'B-region') is more potent than the corresponding amide, in contrast to the capsaicin analogues. Structural variations to the diterpene moiety suggest that the functionalized 5-membered diterpene ring of RTX is an important structural determinant for high potency. Modeling studies indicate that the 3D position of the alpha-hydroxy ketone moiety in the 5-membered ring is markedly different in the phorbol (inactive) analogues and RTX (active) series. This difference appears to be due to the influence of the strained ortho ester group in RTX, which acts as a local conformational constraint. The reduced activity of an analogue substituted in this region and the inactivity of a simplified analogue in which this unit is entirely removed support this conclusion. PMID:8709128

Walpole, C S; Bevan, S; Bloomfield, G; Breckenridge, R; James, I F; Ritchie, T; Szallasi, A; Winter, J; Wrigglesworth, R

1996-07-19

106

Synthesis and Structure Activity Relationship of 3-Hydroxypyridin-2-thione Based Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

We have previously identified 3-hydroxypyridin-2-thione (3HPT) as a novel zinc binding group for histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition. Early structure activity relationship (SAR) studies led to various small molecules possessing selective inhibitory activity against HDAC6 or HDAC8 but are devoid of HDAC1 inhibition. To further delineate the depth of the SAR of 3HPT-derived HDAC inhibitors (HDACi), we have extended the SAR studies to include the linker region and the surface recognition group to optimize the HDAC inhibition. The current efforts resulted in the identification of two lead compounds 10d and 14e with potent HDAC6 and HDAC8 activities, but that are inactive against HDAC1. These new HDACi possess anti-cancer activities against various cancer cell lines including Jurkat J-?1 against which SAHA and the previously disclosed 3HPT-derived HDACi were inactive. PMID:24304348

Sodji, Quaovi H.; Patil, Vishal; Kornacki, James R.; Mrksich, Milan; Oyelere, Adegboyega K.

2014-01-01

107

Structure-activity relationship of fenamates as Slo2.1 channel activators.  

PubMed

Niflumic acid, 2-{[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]amino}pyridine-3-carboxylic acid (NFA), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that blocks cyclooxygenase (COX), was shown previously to activate [Na(+)](i)-regulated Slo2.1 channels. In this study, we report that other fenamates, including flufenamic acid, mefenamic acid, tolfenamic acid, meclofenamic acid, and a phenyl acetic acid derivative, diclofenac, also are low-potency (EC(50) = 80 ?M to 2.1 mM), partial agonists of human Slo2.1 channels heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Substituent analysis determined that N-phenylanthranilic acid was the minimal pharmacophore for fenamate activation of Slo2.1 channels. The effects of fenamates were biphasic, with an initial rapid activation phase followed by a slow phase of current inhibition. Ibuprofen, a structurally dissimilar COX inhibitor, did not activate Slo2.1. Preincubation of oocytes with ibuprofen did not significantly alter the effects of NFA, suggesting that neither channel activation nor inhibition is associated with COX activity. A point mutation (A278R) in the pore-lining S6 segment of Slo2.1 increased the sensitivity to activation and reduced the inhibition induced by NFA. Together, our results suggest that fenamates bind to two sites on Slo2.1 channels: an extracellular accessible site to activate and a cytoplasmic accessible site in the pore to inhibit currents. PMID:22851714

Garg, Priyanka; Sanguinetti, Michael C

2012-11-01

108

Structure-activity relationships for withanolides as inducers of the cellular heat-shock response.  

PubMed

To understand the relationship between the structure and the remarkably diverse bioactivities reported for withanolides, we obtained withaferin A (WA; 1) and 36 analogues (2-37) and compared their cytotoxicity to cytoprotective heat-shock-inducing activity (HSA). By analyzing structure-activity relationships for the series, we found that the ring A enone is essential for both bioactivities. Acetylation of 27-OH of 4-epi-WA (28) to 33 enhanced both activities, whereas introduction of ?-OH to WA at C-12 (29) and C-15 (30) decreased both activities. Introduction of ?-OAc to 4,27-diacetyl-WA (16) at C-15 (37) decreased HSA without affecting cytotoxicity, but at C-12 (36), it had minimal effect. Importantly, acetylation of 27-OH, yielding 15 from 1, 16 from 14, and 35 from 34, enhanced HSA without increasing cytotoxicity. Our findings demonstrate that the withanolide scaffold can be modified to enhance HSA selectively, thereby assisting development of natural product-inspired drugs to combat protein aggregation-associated diseases by stimulating cellular defense mechanisms. PMID:24625088

Wijeratne, E M Kithsiri; Xu, Ya-Ming; Scherz-Shouval, Ruth; Marron, Marilyn T; Rocha, Danilo D; Liu, Manping X; Costa-Lotufo, Leticia V; Santagata, Sandro; Lindquist, Susan; Whitesell, Luke; Gunatilaka, A A Leslie

2014-04-10

109

Prediction of compounds in different local structure-activity relationship environments using emerging chemical patterns.  

PubMed

Active compounds can participate in different local structure-activity relationship (SAR) environments and introduce different degrees of local SAR discontinuity, depending on their structural and potency relationships in data sets. Such SAR features have thus far mostly been analyzed using descriptive approaches, in particular, on the basis of activity landscape modeling. However, compounds in different local SAR environments have not yet been predicted. Herein, we adapt the emerging chemical patterns (ECP) method, a machine learning approach for compound classification, to systematically predict compounds with different local SAR characteristics. ECP analysis is shown to accurately assign many compounds to different local SAR environments across a variety of activity classes covering the entire range of observed local SARs. Control calculations using random forests and multiclass support vector machines were carried out and a variety of statistical performance measures were applied. In all instances, ECP calculations yielded comparable or better performance than controls. The approach presented herein can be applied to predict compounds that complement local SARs or prioritize compounds with different SAR characteristics. PMID:24803014

Namasivayam, Vigneshwaran; Gupta-Ostermann, Disha; Balfer, Jenny; Heikamp, Kathrin; Bajorath, Jürgen

2014-05-27

110

Inhibition of LOX by flavonoids: a structure-activity relationship study.  

PubMed

The lipoxygenase (LOX) products have been identified as mediators of a series of inflammatory diseases, namely rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, psoriasis, allergic rhinitis, atherosclerosis and certain types of cancer. Hence, LOX inhibitors are of interest for the modulation of these phenomena and resolution of the inflammatory processes. During LOX activity, peroxyl radical complexes are part of the reaction and may function as sources of free radicals. Thus antioxidants, such as flavonoids, capable of inhibiting lipid peroxidation and scavenging free radicals, may act as LOX inhibitors. The aim of this work was to assess the structure-activity relationship among a series of flavonoids concerning 5-LOX inhibition, through a systematic study of the inhibition of the formation of LTB4 in human neutrophils. The type of inhibition of the flavonoids was further studied using soybean LOX, type I, and Saturation Transfer Difference (1)H NMR (STD-(1)H NMR) was used to characterize the binding epitopes of the compounds to LOX-1. The obtained results reinforce flavonoids as effective inhibitors of LTB4 production in human neutrophils. It was also possible to establish a structure/activity relationship for the inhibitory activity and the type of inhibition. PMID:24368208

Ribeiro, Daniela; Freitas, Marisa; Tomé, Sara M; Silva, Artur M S; Porto, Graça; Cabrita, Eurico J; Marques, M Manuel B; Fernandes, Eduarda

2014-01-24

111

In vivo structure-activity relationship studies support allosteric targeting of a dual specificity phosphatase.  

PubMed

Dual specificity phosphatase 6 (DUSP6) functions as a feedback attenuator of fibroblast growth factor signaling during development. In vitro high throughput chemical screening attempts to discover DUSP6 inhibitors have yielded limited success. However, in vivo whole-organism screens of zebrafish identified compound 1 (BCI) as an allosteric inhibitor of DUSP6. Here we designed and synthesized a panel of analogues to define the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of DUSP6 inhibition. In vivo high-content analysis in transgenic zebrafish, coupled with cell-based chemical complementation assays, identified structural features of the pharmacophore of 1 that were essential for biological activity. In vitro assays of DUSP hyperactivation corroborated the results from in vivo and cellular SAR. The results reinforce the notion that DUSPs are druggable through allosteric mechanisms and illustrate the utility of zebrafish as a model organism for in vivo SAR analyses. PMID:24909879

Korotchenko, Vasiliy N; Saydmohammed, Manush; Vollmer, Laura L; Bakan, Ahmet; Sheetz, Kyle; Debiec, Karl T; Greene, Kristina A; Agliori, Christine S; Bahar, Ivet; Day, Billy W; Vogt, Andreas; Tsang, Michael

2014-07-01

112

Quantitative structure-activity relationships of selective antagonists of glucagon receptor using QuaSAR descriptors.  

PubMed

In the present paper, quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) approach was applied to understand the affinity and selectivity of a novel series of triaryl imidazole derivatives towards glucagon receptor. Statistically significant and highly predictive QSARs were derived for glucagon receptor inhibition by triaryl imidazoles using QuaSAR descriptors of molecular operating environment (MOE) employing computer-assisted multiple regression procedure. The generated QSAR models revealed that factors related to hydrophobicity, molecular shape and geometry predominantly influences glucagon receptor binding affinity of the triaryl imidazoles indicating the relevance of shape specific steric interactions between the molecule and the receptor. Further, QSAR models formulated for selective inhibition of glucagon receptor over p38 mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase of the compounds in the series highlights that the same structural features, which influence the glucagon receptor affinity, also contribute to their selective inhibition. PMID:17077558

Manoj Kumar, Palanivelu; Karthikeyan, Chandrabose; Hari Narayana Moorthy, Narayana Subbiah; Trivedi, Piyush

2006-11-01

113

Application of Hansch's model to guaianolide ester derivatives: a quantitative structure-activity relationship study.  

PubMed

A quantitative structure-activity study to evaluate the effect of lipophilia/aqueous solubility on etiolated wheat coleoptiles elongation has been carried out with 34 guaianolides having different numbers of hydroxyl groups and ester side chains of variable length and structure: linear, branched, aromatic, and unsaturated. Compounds have been tested in a range of concentrations between 10 and 1000 microM. Data show a strong influence of lipophilia, expressed as logP values. Specially, data from alkylic side chain ester derivatives adjust to the mathematical model based on Hansch's transport theory; hence, a quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) correlation with a high degree of reliance is provided. Moreover, all active compounds fit the Lipinski's rule of five. Also, the presence of additional hydroxyl groups and their derivatives in the basic skeleton does not affect the mode of action but greatly influences the activity, as they modify the transport through membranes and aqueous phases. Finally, a second hydroxyl group enhances differences of activity between alkylic side chain derivatives by increasing differences in van der Waals interactions. PMID:15853398

Macías, Francisco A; Velasco, Raúl F; Castellano, Diego; Galindo, Juan C G

2005-05-01

114

Cytochrome P450 Family 1 Inhibitors and Structure-Activity Relationships  

PubMed Central

With the widespread use of O-alkoxyresorufin dealkylation assays since the 1990’s, thousands of inhibitors of cytochrome P450 family 1 enzymes (P450s 1A1, 1A2, and 1B1) have been identified and studied. Generally, planar polycyclic molecules such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, stilbenoids, and flavonoids are considered to potentially be effective inhibitors of these enzymes. However, the details of structure-activity relationships and selectivity of these inhibitors are still ambiguous. In this review, we thoroughly discuss the selectivity of many representative P450 family 1 inhibitors reported in the past 20 years through a meta-analysis. PMID:24287985

Liu, Jiawang; Sridhar, Jayalakshmi; Foroozesh, Maryam

2014-01-01

115

FISH ACUTE TOXICITY SYNDROMES: APPLICATION TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF MECHANISM-SPECIFIC QSARS (QUANTITATIVE STRUCTURE ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Predictive models based on quantitative structure activity relationships (QSARs), are used as rapid screening tools to identify potentially hazardous chemicals. Several QSARs are now available that predict the acute toxicity of narcotic-industrial chemicals. Predictions for compo...

116

Localized heuristic inverse quantitative structure activity relationship with bulk descriptors using numerical gradients.  

PubMed

State-of-the-art quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models are often based on nonlinear machine learning algorithms, which are difficult to interpret. From a pharmaceutical perspective, QSARs are used to enhance the chemical design process. Ultimately, they should not only provide a prediction but also contribute to a mechanistic understanding and guide modifications to the chemical structure, promoting compounds with desirable biological activity profiles. Global ranking of descriptor importance and inverse QSAR have been used for these purposes. This paper introduces localized heuristic inverse QSAR, which provides an assessment of the relative ability of the descriptors to influence the biological response in an area localized around the predicted compound. The method is based on numerical gradients with parameters optimized using data sets sampled from analytical functions. The heuristic character of the method reduces the computational requirements and makes it applicable not only to fragment based methods but also to QSARs based on bulk descriptors. The application of the method is illustrated on congeneric QSAR data sets, and it is shown that the predicted influential descriptors can be used to guide structural modifications that affect the biological response in the desired direction. The method is implemented into the AZOrange Open Source QSAR package. The current implementation of localized heuristic inverse QSAR is a step toward a generally applicable method for elucidating the structure activity relationship specifically for a congeneric region of chemical space when using QSARs based on bulk properties. Consequently, this method could contribute to accelerating the chemical design process in pharmaceutical projects, as well as provide information that could enhance the mechanistic understanding for individual scaffolds. PMID:23845139

Stålring, Jonna; Almeida, Pedro R; Carlsson, Lars; Helgee Ahlberg, Ernst; Hasselgren, Catrin; Boyer, Scott

2013-08-26

117

Fundamental Structure-Activity Relationships of Titanium Dioxide-Based Photocatalysts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heterogeneous photocatalysis has been identified as a means of using renewable solar energy to produce the sustainable, non-carbon fuel H 2 and a variety of useful chemical intermediates. Currently, however, heterogeneous photocatalytic reactions are too inefficient to be industrially relevant and a deeper understanding of the effect of fundamental photocatalytic material properties on photoactivity is needed to further enhance the yields of desired products. In the general field of heterogeneous catalysis, structure-activity relationships aid in the rational design of improved catalysts and this ideology was applied to photocatalytic reactions over TiO2 based photocatalysts and model supported TiO2/SiO2 catalysts in this study. The model supported TiO2/SiO2 catalysts contain well-defined TiOx nanodomain structures that vary in domain size and electronic structure and greatly facilitate the determination of structure-photoactivity relationships. These catalysts were used in reactor studies during photocatalytic water splitting and cyclohexane photo-oxidation, and were monitored for production of H2 and cyclohexanone, respectively. It was found that for both reactions the trend in photoactivity for the TiOx nanodomains proceeded as: pure TiO2 (anatase) (24 nm) > TiO2 (anatase) nanoparticles (4--11 nm) > polymeric surface TiO5 (˜1 nm) > surface isolated TiO4 (˜0.4 nm). Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy was employed to yield insight into how exciton generation and recombination are related to TiOx domain size and, thus, to the photoactivity of the examined reactions. Transient PL decay studies determined that the larger bulk structure found in TiO 2 (anatase) nanoparticles (NPs) acts as a reservoir for excitons exhibiting slow recombination kinetics, which have an increased opportunity to participate in photochemistry at the surface active sites. The reactions were also studied using in situ attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to observe the formation of adsorbed intermediates and products. For cyclohexane photo-oxidation, cyclohexanone intermediates and products were identified and the high photoactivity of the unsupported TiO2 (anatase) NPs was attributed to improved product desorption characteristics. The identification of intermediates during water splitting is made difficult by the extremely high absorption of infrared wavelengths by H2O. ATR-FTIR and Raman spectroscopy measurements were performed during photocatalytic splitting of water in an attempt to confirm the surface reaction intermediates currently identified in the literature and evidence for both superoxide (O2-) and peroxide (O2 2-) adsorbed species were found by ATR-FTIR, but no surface Ti-OOH was detected by Raman. Finally, alternate Ti-containing structures, titanate and TiO2 (anatase) nanotubes, were characterized with Raman spectroscopy and screened for their photocatalytic activity. Depending on the photo-reaction (4-chlorophenol decomposition or water splitting), thermal treatment to form the anatase phase in the nanotubular structure is a benefit to photoactivity due to the increased crystallinity. For water splitting, however, the structure-activity relationship found for supported TiO 2/SiO2 holds, and the presence of a larger bulk structure yields the best H2 production photoactivity. The structure-photoactivity relationship in this dissertation exists for two different photo-reactions and is expected to be a beneficial aid to future studies on the rational design of new and novel photocatalysts.

Roberts, Charles A.

118

Quantitative structure-activation barrier relationship modeling for Diels-Alder ligations utilizing quantum chemical structural descriptors  

PubMed Central

Background In the present study, we show the correlation of quantum chemical structural descriptors with the activation barriers of the Diels-Alder ligations. A set of 72 non-catalysed Diels-Alder reactions were subjected to quantitative structure-activation barrier relationship (QSABR) under the framework of theoretical quantum chemical descriptors calculated solely from the structures of diene and dienophile reactants. Experimental activation barrier data were obtained from literature. Descriptors were computed using Hartree-Fock theory using 6-31G(d) basis set as implemented in Gaussian 09 software. Results Variable selection and model development were carried out by stepwise multiple linear regression methodology. Predictive performance of the quantitative structure-activation barrier relationship (QSABR) model was assessed by training and test set concept and by calculating leave-one-out cross-validated Q2 and predictive R2 values. The QSABR model can explain and predict 86.5% and 80% of the variances, respectively, in the activation energy barrier training data. Alternatively, a neural network model based on back propagation of errors was developed to assess the nonlinearity of the sought correlations between theoretical descriptors and experimental reaction barriers. Conclusions A reasonable predictability for the activation barrier of the test set reactions was obtained, which enabled an exploration and interpretation of the significant variables responsible for Diels-Alder interaction between dienes and dienophiles. Thus, studies in the direction of QSABR modelling that provide efficient and fast prediction of activation barriers of the Diels-Alder reactions turn out to be a meaningful alternative to transition state theory based computation. PMID:24171724

2013-01-01

119

Quantitative structure-activity relationships for commercially available inhibitors of COX-2.  

PubMed

Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) studies of selective COX-2 inhibitors of commercial interest (drugs in market and on clinical trials) were performed. The COX-2 inhibitory activity (pIC(50)=-logIC(50)) of these twelve compounds was correlated with nineteen descriptors including steric, electronic and constitutional parameters. pIC(50) activity showed high positive correlation with both volume and HOMO (Highest occupied molecular orbital). A Biparametric model was developed that included both these descriptors. The predictive capability (q(2)= 0.66) of this equation was satisfactory. So it can be used to design newer templates or modify existing templates. Volume is an important parameter for the selective COX-2 inhibitory activity, because the secondary pocket in the active site of this enzyme is bigger than the active site of COX-1 enzyme (by 17%). HOMO is a measure of the nucleophilicity of the molecule and a molecule with high HOMO energy is ready to donate its electrons and thus is more reactive than molecule with low values. Binding studies were performed between the COX-2 enzyme and these molecules. The inhibitory activity increased with decrease in binding energy (or interaction energy) between the compounds with the COX-2 enzyme (with a correlation coefficient = -0.65). Calculated Log BBB (Blood Brain barrier), Log P (octonol water partition) and HBD (hydrogen bond donor) values were in the acceptable range (i.e., BBB = -1 to 0.3; LogP= 0 to 5; HBD < 5). PMID:18336329

Sivakumar, P M; Doble, M

2008-03-01

120

Chemical Sensor Array Response Modeling Using Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR) based approach to correlate the response of chemical sensors in an array with molecular descriptors. A novel molecular descriptor set has been developed; this set combines descriptors of sensing film-analyte interactions, representing sensor response, with a basic analyte descriptor set commonly used in QSAR studies. The descriptors are obtained using a combination of molecular modeling tools and empirical and semi-empirical Quantitative Structure-Property Relationships (QSPR) methods. The sensors under investigation are polymer-carbon sensing films which have been exposed to analyte vapors at parts-per-million (ppm) concentrations; response is measured as change in film resistance. Statistically validated QSAR models have been developed using Genetic Function Approximations (GFA) for a sensor array for a given training data set. The applicability of the sensor response models has been tested by using it to predict the sensor activities for test analytes not considered in the training set for the model development. The validated QSAR sensor response models show good predictive ability. The QSAR approach is a promising computational tool for sensing materials evaluation and selection. It can also be used to predict response of an existing sensing film to new target analytes.

Shevade, Abhijit V.; Ryan, Margaret A.; Homer, Margie L.; Zhou, Hanying; Manfreda, Allison M.; Lara, Liana M.; Yen, Shiao-Pin S.; Jewell, April D.; Manatt, Kenneth S.; Kisor, Adam K.

121

Synthesis, biological activity and structure-activity relationship of 4,5-dimethoxybenzene derivatives inhibitor of rhinovirus 14 infection.  

PubMed

Human rhinoviruses are a common cause of respiratory infections, and thus constitute an important target for medicinal chemistry. Still, no drug has been approved for clinical use. We report herein the discovery of dibenzenic derivatives with potent and specific in vitro anti-rhinoviral 14 activity. A total of 99 structural analogues were synthesized by an original synthesis method, i.e. through one organic agent Tetrakis(DimethylAmino)Ethylene (TDAE) and a structure-activity relationship was established. It was shown that 4,5-dimethoxy scaffold and the presence of a C-4 substituted aromatic moiety were necessary to the in vitro activity of these original agents. However, modifications on liker were not convincing. The benzonitrile derivative 23 was identified as the most potent and selective inhibitor of rhinovirus replication in these series (EC?? of 2 ± 0.5 ?M, CC?? of 184 ?M, selectivity index of 92). PMID:24602790

Roche, Manon; Lacroix, Céline; Khoumeri, Omar; Franco, David; Neyts, Johan; Terme, Thierry; Leyssen, Pieter; Vanelle, Patrice

2014-04-01

122

Structure-activity relationship studies on cholecystokinin: Analogues with partial agonist activity  

SciTech Connect

In the present study, hepta- and octapeptide analogues of the C-terminal part of cholecystokinin, modified on the C-terminal phenylalanine residue, were synthesized. CCK analogues were prepared in which the peptide bond between aspartic acid and phenylalanine had or had not been modified and were lacking the C-terminal primary amide function. These CCK derivatives were able to cause full stimulation of amylase release from rat pancreatic acini but without a decrease in amylase release at supramaximal concentrations. There was a close relationship between the abilities of these derivatives to stimulate amylase release and their abilities to inhibit binding of {sup 125}I-BH-CCK-9 to CCK receptors on rat and guinea pig pancreatic acini. These CCK analogues were also able to recognize the guinea pig brain CCK receptors, some of them being particularly potent. The findings indicate that the aromatic ring of phenylalanine is important for the binding to brain and pancreatic CCK receptors, whereas the C-terminal primary amide function is not essential for the binding to pancreatic CCK receptors but is crucial for biological activity of rat pancreatic acini.

Galas, M.C.; Lignon, M.F.; Rodriguez, M.; Mendre, C.; Fulcrand, P.; Laur, J.; Martinez, J. (Centre de Pharmacologie-Endocrinologie, Montpellier (France))

1988-02-01

123

Structure activity relationships of cycloalkylamide derivatives as inhibitors of the soluble epoxide hydrolase  

PubMed Central

Structure activity relationships of cycloalkylamide compounds as inhibitors of human sEH were investigated. When the left side of amide function was modified by a variety of cycloalkanes, at least a C6 like cyclohexane was necessary to yield reasonable inhibition potency on the target enzyme. In compounds with a smaller cycloalkane or with a polar group on the left side of amide function, no inhibition was observed. On the other hand, increased hydrophobicity dramatically improved inhibition potency. Especially, a tetrahydronaphthalene (20) effectively increased the potency. When a series of alkyl or aryl derivatives of cycloalkylamide were investigated to continuously optimize the right side of the amide pharmacophore, a benzyl moiety functionalized with a polar group produced highly potent inhibition. Non-substituted benzyl, alkyl, aryl, or biaryl structure present in the right side of cycloalkylamide function induced a big decrease in inhibition potency. Also, a resulting potent cycloalkylamide (32) showed reasonable physical properties. PMID:21338111

Kim, In-Hae; Park, Yong-Gyu; Hammock, Bruce D.; Nishi, Kosuke

2012-01-01

124

Structure–Activity Relationships and Molecular Modeling of Sphingosine Kinase Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

The design, synthesis, and evaluation of the potency of new isoform-selective inhibitors of sphingosine kinases 1 and 2 (SK1 and SK2), the enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of d-erythro-sphingosine to produce the key signaling lipid, sphingosine 1-phosphate, are described. Recently, we reported that 1-(4-octylphenethyl)piperidin-4-ol (RB-005) is a selective inhibitor of SK1. Here we report the synthesis of 43 new analogues of RB-005, in which the lipophilic tail, polar headgroup, and linker region were modified to extend the structure–activity relationship profile for this lead compound, which we explain using modeling studies with the recently published crystal structure of SK1. We provide a basis for the key residues targeted by our profiled series and provide further evidence for the ability to discriminate between the two isoforms using pharmacological intervention. PMID:24164513

2013-01-01

125

Computer simulations of structure-activity relationships for HERG channel blockers.  

PubMed

The hERG potassium channel is of major pharmaceutical importance, and its blockade by various compounds, potentially causing serious cardiac side effects, is a major problem in drug development. Despite the large amounts of existing biochemical data on blockade of hERG by drugs and druglike compounds, relatively little is known regarding the structural basis of binding of blockers to the channel. Here, we have used a recently developed homology model of hERG to conduct molecular docking experiments with a series of channel blockers, followed by molecular dynamics simulations of the complexes and evaluation of binding free energies with the linear interaction energy method. The calculations yield a remarkably good agreement with experimental binding affinities and allow for a rationalization of three-dimensional structure-activity relationships in terms of a number of key interactions. Two main interaction regions of the channel are thus identified with implications for further mutagenesis experiments and design of new compounds. PMID:21657256

Boukharta, Lars; Keränen, Henrik; Stary-Weinzinger, Anna; Wallin, Göran; de Groot, Bert L; Aqvist, Johan

2011-07-12

126

Extraction of structure-activity relationship information from high-throughput screening data.  

PubMed

The wealth of biological screening data that is generated poses substantial problems to medicinal chemistry. A key question becomes how to best prioritize and select hits for further evaluation from the many weakly active compounds that are typically identified in HTS campaigns. Such decisions can be substantially supported if it is possible to evaluate preliminary structure-activity relationship (SAR) information that might be contained in screening data. If SAR information can be extracted from screening data, one can attempt to estimate the chemical optimization potential of hits. We will discuss different types of approaches that have been developed to facilitate HTS data analysis, with special emphasis on recent methods to explore SAR information contained in screening sets. PMID:19754425

Wawer, Mathias; Bajorath, Jürgen

2009-01-01

127

Investigations on Inhibitors of Hedgehog Signal Pathway: A Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Study  

PubMed Central

The hedgehog signal pathway is an essential agent in developmental patterning, wherein the local concentration of the Hedgehog morphogens directs cellular differentiation and expansion. Furthermore, the Hedgehog pathway has been implicated in tumor/stromal interaction and cancer stem cell. Nowadays searching novel inhibitors for Hedgehog Signal Pathway is drawing much more attention by biological, chemical and pharmological scientists. In our study, a solid computational model is proposed which incorporates various statistical analysis methods to perform a Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) study on the inhibitors of Hedgehog signaling. The whole QSAR data contain 93 cyclopamine derivatives as well as their activities against four different cell lines (NCI-H446, BxPC-3, SW1990 and NCI-H157). Our extensive testing indicated that the binary classification model is a better choice for building the QSAR model of inhibitors of Hedgehog signaling compared with other statistical methods and the corresponding in silico analysis provides three possible ways to improve the activity of inhibitors by demethylation, methylation and hydroxylation at specific positions of the compound scaffold respectively. From these, demethylation is the best choice for inhibitor structure modifications. Our investigation also revealed that NCI-H466 served as the best cell line for testing the activities of inhibitors of Hedgehog signal pathway among others. PMID:21686166

Zhu, Ruixin; Liu, Qi; Tang, Jian; Li, Huiliang; Cao, Zhiwei

2011-01-01

128

Quantitative structure-activity relationships of imidazole-containing farnesyltransferase inhibitors using different chemometric methods.  

PubMed

Farnesyltranseferase inhibitors (FTIs) are one of the most promising classes of anticancer agents, but though some compounds in this category are in clinical trials there are no marketed drugs in this class yet. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models can be used for predicting the activity of FTI candidates in early stages of drug discovery. In this study 192 imidazole-containing FTIs were obtained from the literature, structures of the molecules were optimized using Hyperchem software, and molecular descriptors were calculated using Dragon software. The most suitable descriptors were selected using genetic algorithms-partial least squares (GA-PLS) and stepwise regression, and indicated that the volume, shape and polarity of the FTIs are important for their activities. 2D-QSAR models were prepared using both linear methods, i.e., multiple linear regression (MLR), and non-linear methods, i.e., artificial neural networks (ANN) and support vector machines (SVM). The proposed QSAR models were validated using internal and external validation methods. The results show that the proposed 2D-QSAR models are valid and that they can be applied to predict the activities of imidazole-containing FTIs. The prediction capability of the 2D-QSAR (linear and non-linear) models is comparable to and somewhat better than that of previous 3D-QSAR models and the non-linear models are more accurate than the linear models. PMID:22920090

Shayanfar, Ali; Ghasemi, Saeed; Soltani, Somaieh; Asadpour-Zeynali, Karim; Doerksen, Robert J; Jouyban, Abolghasem

2013-05-01

129

Hologram quantitative structure activity relationship, docking, and molecular dynamics studies of inhibitors for CXCR4.  

PubMed

CXCR4 plays a crucial role as a co-receptor with CCR5 for HIV-1 anchoring to mammalian cell membrane and is implicated in cancer metastasis and inflammation. In the current work, we study the relationship of structure and activity of AMD11070 derivatives and other inhibitors of CXCR4 using HQSAR, docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We obtain an HQSAR model (q(2)  = 0.779), and the HQSAR result illustrates that AMD11070 shows a high antiretroviral activity. As HQSAR only provides 2D information, we perform docking and MD to study the interaction of It1t, AMD3100, and AMD3465 with CXCR4. Our results illustrate that the binding are affected by two crucial residues Asp97 and Glu288. The butyl amine moiety of AMD11070 contributes to its high antiretroviral activity. Without a butyl amine moiety, (2,7a-Dihydro-1H-benzoimidazol-2-ylmethyl)-methyl-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-quinolin-8-yl)-amine (compound 5a) shows low antiretroviral activity. Our results provide structural details about the interactions between the inhibitors and CXCR4, which are useful for rational drug design of CXCR4. PMID:24923360

Zhang, Chongqian; Du, Chunmiao; Feng, Zhiwei; Zhu, Jingyu; Li, Youyong

2015-02-01

130

Percutaneous absorption of herbicides derived from 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacid: structure-activity relationship.  

PubMed

Ethyl to octyl esters of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy-acetic acids (2,4DAA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxy-propionic acids (2,4DPA) or 2,4-dichlorophenoxy-butyric acids (2,4DBA) are present in the most commonly used herbicides. Their use involves a significant risk of skin exposure, but little is known about the percutaneous flux of these substances. Studies have shown that percutaneous transition of esters may be dependent on their hydrolysis by esterases present in the skin. In this study, we describe ex vivo percutaneous absorption of seven pure esters (methyl to decyl) with a 2,4DA structure for rats (n=6) and humans (n=7). Esters were applied at 50 ?L cm(-2) to dermatomed skin (approximately 0.5 mm thick) for 24 h. The enzymatic constants for hydrolysis of each ester by skin esterases were determined in vitro using skin homogenates from both species. Structure-activity relationships linking the evolution of the ex vivo percutaneous flux of esters and the 2,4D structure with enzymatic (Vmax; Km) and/or physical parameters (molecular weight, molecular volume, size of the ester, log(kow)) were examined to develop a good flux estimation model. Although the percutaneous penetration of all of the esters of the 2,4D family are "esterase-dependent", the decreasing linear relationship between percutaneous penetration and hyrophobicity defined by the logarithm for the octanol-water partition coefficient (log(kow)) is the most pertinent model for estimating the percutaneous absorption of esters for both species. The mean flux of the free acid production by the esterases of the skin is not the limiting factor for percutaneous penetration. The rate of hydrolysis of the esters in the skin decreases linearly with log(kow), which would suggest that either the solubility of the esters in the zones of the skin that are rich in esterases or the accessibility to the active sites of the enzyme is the key factor. The structure-activity relationship resulting from this study makes it possible, in humans and in rats, to make a good estimate of the ex vivo percutaneous fluxes for all pure esters of this family of herbicides. PMID:24803314

Beydon, Dominique; Payan, Jean-Paul; Ferrari, Elisabeth; Grandclaude, Marie-Christine

2014-08-01

131

The Effect of Nano Confinement on the C–H Activation and its Corresponding Structure-Activity Relationship  

PubMed Central

The C–H activation of methane, ethane, and t-butane on inner and outer surfaces of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube (NCNTs) are investigated using density functional theory. It includes NCNTs with different diameters, different N and O concentrations, and different types (armchair and zigzag). A universal structure-reactivity relationship is proposed to characterize the C–H activation occurring both on the inner and outer surfaces of the nano channel. The C–O bond distance, spin density and charge carried by active oxygen are found to be highly related to the C–H activation barriers. Based on these theoretical results, some useful strategies are suggested to guide the rational design of more effective catalysts by nano channel confinement. PMID:25428459

Shao, Jing; Yuan, Linghua; Hu, Xingbang; Wu, Youting; Zhang, Zhibing

2014-01-01

132

The Effect of Nano Confinement on the C-H Activation and its Corresponding Structure-Activity Relationship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The C-H activation of methane, ethane, and t-butane on inner and outer surfaces of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube (NCNTs) are investigated using density functional theory. It includes NCNTs with different diameters, different N and O concentrations, and different types (armchair and zigzag). A universal structure-reactivity relationship is proposed to characterize the C-H activation occurring both on the inner and outer surfaces of the nano channel. The C-O bond distance, spin density and charge carried by active oxygen are found to be highly related to the C-H activation barriers. Based on these theoretical results, some useful strategies are suggested to guide the rational design of more effective catalysts by nano channel confinement.

Shao, Jing; Yuan, Linghua; Hu, Xingbang; Wu, Youting; Zhang, Zhibing

2014-11-01

133

The effect of nano confinement on the C-h activation and its corresponding structure-activity relationship.  

PubMed

The C-H activation of methane, ethane, and t-butane on inner and outer surfaces of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube (NCNTs) are investigated using density functional theory. It includes NCNTs with different diameters, different N and O concentrations, and different types (armchair and zigzag). A universal structure-reactivity relationship is proposed to characterize the C-H activation occurring both on the inner and outer surfaces of the nano channel. The C-O bond distance, spin density and charge carried by active oxygen are found to be highly related to the C-H activation barriers. Based on these theoretical results, some useful strategies are suggested to guide the rational design of more effective catalysts by nano channel confinement. PMID:25428459

Shao, Jing; Yuan, Linghua; Hu, Xingbang; Wu, Youting; Zhang, Zhibing

2014-01-01

134

Structure-composition-activity relationships in transition-metal oxide and oxyhydroxide oxygen-evolution electrocatalysts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar water-splitting is a potentially transformative renewable energy technology. Slow kinetics of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) limit the efficiency of solar-watersplitting devices, thus constituting a hurdle to widespread implementation of this technology. Catalysts must be stable under highly oxidizing conditions in aqueous electrolyte and minimally absorb light. A grand goal of OER catalysis research is the design of new materials with higher efficiencies enabled by comprehensive understanding of the fundamental chemistry behind catalyst activity. However, little progress has been made towards this goal to date. This dissertation details work addressing major challenges in the field of OER catalysis. Chapter I introduces the current state-of-the-art and challenges in the field. Chapter II highlights work using ultra-thin films as a platform for fundamental study and comparison of catalyst activity. Key results of this work are (1) the identification of a Ni0.9Fe0.1OOH catalyst displaying the highest OER activity in base to date and (2) that in base, many transition-metal oxides transform to layered oxyhydroxide materials which are the active catalysts. The latter result is critical in the context of understanding structure-activity relationships in OER catalysts. Chapter III explores the optical properties of these catalysts, using in situ spectroelectrochemistry to quantify their optical absorption. A new figure-of-merit for catalyst performance is developed which considers both optical and kinetic losses due to the catalyst and describes how these factors together affect the efficiency of composite semiconductor/catalyst photoanodes. In Chapter IV, the fundamental structure-composition-activity relationships in Ni1--xFexOOH catalysts are systematically investigated. This work shows that nearly all previous studies of Ni-based catalysts were likely affected by the presence of Fe impurities, a realization which holds significant weight for future study of Ni-based catalyst materials. Chapter V discusses the synthesis of tin-titanium oxide nanoparticles with tunable lattice constants. These materials could be used to make high-surface-area supports for thin layers of OER catalysts, which is important for maximizing catalyst surface area, minimizing the use of precious-metal catalysts, and optimizing 3D structure for enhanced mass/bubble transport. Finally, Chapter VI summarizes this work and outlines directions for future research.

Trotochaud, Lena

135

New lead structures in the isoxazole system: relationship between quantum chemical parameters and immunological activity.  

PubMed

Potential immunological activities of three compounds: RM54 and its two derivatives RM55 and RM56, were evaluated in several, selected in vitro and in vivo tests such as: mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine production, the humoral immune response in vitro and carrageenan test. Leflunomide served as a reference drug. The studied compounds showed differential, generally immunosuppressive properties. RM56 exhibited stronger suppressive activities as compared to RM54 and RM55. In particular, RM56 displayed the strongest activity in suppression of the carrageenan inflammation that was correlated with strong suppression of the humoral immune response in vitro and lymphocyte proliferation. Density Functional Theory (DFT) was employed to shed a light on molecular properties of the investigated compounds. The geometrical parameters of the studied molecular structures were fully optimized at the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level. The atomic charges distribution derived on the base of the Mulliken population analysis was correlated with immunological activity of RM54, RM55 and RM56. The obtained relationships show that the isoxazole ring plays an important role in the observed immunological activities. We also suggest that due to strong anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative properties of RM-56, potential therapeutic applications of this derivative can be broad. PMID:24779196

Maczy?ski, Marcin; Ryng, Stanis?aw; Artym, Jolanta; Kocieba, Maja; Zimecki, Micha?; Brudnik, Katarzyna; Jodkowski, Jerzy T

2014-01-01

136

Structure-activity relationships of gastrointestinal hormones: motilin, GIP, and [27-TYR]CCK-PZ.  

PubMed

The docosapeptide and the tritetracontapeptide corresponding to the entire amino acid sequence of porcine motilin and gastric inhibitory peptide were synthesized, and in addition, an unsulfated form of cholecystokinin-pancreozymin (CCK-PZ) was prepared to cast some light on the structure-activity relationships of these gastrointestinal hormones. In a series of motilin peptides, elimination of the pentapeptide from the amino terminus decreased the activity (in vitro contraction of rabbit duodenal muscle) to 1/250 of the whole molecule, and subsequent removal of the tripeptide Thr-Tyr-Gly resulted in the complete loss of its effects, In a series of gastric inhibitory peptides, two fragments corresponding to positions 1 to 28 and 26 to 43 were both inactive. However, the nonacosapeptide (15 to 43) retained one-fourth of the activity of the tritetracontapeptide (suppression of the gastric acid secretion stimulated by tetragastrin in Heidenhain pouch dogs). Synthetic [27-Tyr]CCK-PZ exhibited 1/250 of the activity of natural CCK-PZ (amylase release from rat pancreas). This compound was smoothly and efficiently labeled with 125I (specific activity 200 to 250 muc per mug). PMID:190081

Yajima, H; Kai, Y; Ogawa, H; Kubota, M; Mori, Y

1977-04-01

137

Quantitative structure-activity relationships for toxicity of nonpolar narcotic chemicals to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata.  

PubMed

This study presents data for 27 nonpolar narcotic compounds regarding toxicity to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata as evaluated using a closed-system algal toxicity test with an exposure time of 48 h. Two test endpoints, dissolved oxygen production and algal growth rate, were used to assess the toxicity of nonpolar narcotic chemicals on algae. Hydrophobicity (1-octanol-water partition coefficient [K(OW)]) provided satisfactory descriptions for the toxicity of nonpolar narcotic compounds, and quantitative structure-activity relationships based on log K(OW) were established. The relative sensitivity of various aquatic organisms to nonpolar chemicals was as follows: P. subcapitata > Vibriofischeri > or = Nitrosomonas sp. > fathead minnow > Daphnia magna > polytox > activated sludge. In addition, linear relationships were found between the toxicity observed in P. subcapitata and other aquatic organisms, except in the case of Nitrosomonas sp. Therefore, for nonpolar toxicants, the closed-system technique applied in the present study can be an ideal surrogate for other tests, such as fathead minnow and D. magna, that are either time-consuming or labor-intensive. However, because the current toxicity database is based primarily on the conventional batch tests, it cannot provide adequate assessment regarding the effects of various organic toxicants. Therefore, more extensive research is needed to revise the database for the toxicity of organic compounds on phytoplankton using the closed-system technique. PMID:17089715

Hsieh, Shih-Hung; Hsu, Chih-Hsiung; Tsai, Din-Yu; Chen, Chung-Yuan

2006-11-01

138

Selective COX-2 Inhibitors: A Review of Their Structure-Activity Relationships  

PubMed Central

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the competitive inhibitors of cyclooxygenase (COX), the enzyme which mediates the bioconversion of arachidonic acid to inflammatory prostaglandins (PGs). Their use is associated with the side effects such as gastrointestinal and renal toxicity. The therapeutic anti-inflammatory action of NSAIDs is produced by the inhibition of COX-2, while the undesired side effects arise from inhibition of COX-1 activity. Thus, it was though that more selective COX-2 inhibitors would have reduced side effects. Based upon a number of selective COX-2 inhibitors (rofecoxib, celecoxib, valdecoxibetc.) were developed as safer NSAIDs with improved gastric safety profile. However, the recent market removal of some COXIBs such as rofecoxib due to its adverse cardiovascular side effects clearly encourages the researchers to explore and evaluate alternative templates with COX-2 inhibitory activity. Recognition of new avenues for selective COX-2 inhibitors in cancer chemotherapy and neurological diseases such as Parkinson and Alzheimer’s diseases still continues to attract investigations on the development of COX-2 inhibitors. This review highlights the various structural classes of selective COX-2 inhibitors with special emphasis on their structure-activity relationships. PMID:24250402

Zarghi, Afshin; Arfaei, Sara

2011-01-01

139

In vitro anti-cancer activity and structure–activity relationships of natural products isolated from fruits of Panax ginseng  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  \\u000a Panax ginseng and its extracts have long been used for medical purposes; there is increasing interest in developing ginseng products as\\u000a cancer preventive or therapeutic agents. The present study was designed to determine biological structure–activity relationships\\u000a (SAR) for saponins present in Panax ginseng fruits.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Eleven saponins were extracted from P. ginseng fruits and purified by use of D101 resin

Wei Wang; Yuqing Zhao; Elizabeth R. Rayburn; Donald L. Hill; Hui Wang; Ruiwen Zhang

2007-01-01

140

Novel structurally varied N-alkyl 1,4-dihydropyridines as ABCB1 inhibitors: structure-activity relationships, biological activity and first bioanalytical evaluation.  

PubMed

Series of structurally varied N-alkyl 1,4-dihydropyridines and novel benzo-annelated derivatives as 1,4- dihydroquinolines have been characterized as ABCB1 inhibitors. Structure-activity relationships (SARs) are discussed. Cytotoxic activities of selected compounds have been determined. A first bioanalysis of ABCB1 substrate properties has been carried out in a cell-based model. Compounds with highest ABCB1 inhibiting activities were no substrates of ABCB1 and not transported by the efflux pump, thus profiling the new ABCB1 inhibitors. PMID:23167942

Hilgeroth, Andreas; Baumert, Christiane; Coburger, Claudius; Seifert, Marianne; Krawczyk, Sören; Hempel, Cornelius; Neubauer, Felix; Krug, Martin; Molnár, Josef; Lage, Hermann

2013-06-01

141

Antioxidant activity of new benzo[de]quinolines and lactams: 2D-quantitative structure-activity relationships.  

PubMed

In order to predict the antioxidant activity of 7 polycyclic lactams, a two dimensional quantitative-structure activity relationships (2D-QSAR) study based on a 5-descriptor model was performed. The synthetic compounds built from a condensed lactam scaffold were screened for their abilities to inhibit the autoxidation of pyrogallol, a superoxide anion radical-dependent process. The ketone 2 (8,9-dihydro-7H-benzo[de]pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoline-7,10(7aH)-dione) exhibited the most potent antioxidant activity in vitro. The oxidation mechanism was proved by the isolation and characterization of alcohol 5 formed in the reaction of ketone 2 with dissolved oxygen in methanol. PMID:22741798

Ghinet, Alina; Farce, Amaury; Oudir, Souhila; Pommery, Jean; Vamecq, Joseph; Henichart, Jean-Pierre; Rigo, Benoît; Gautret, Philippe

2012-09-01

142

Structure-activity relationships for allosteric NMDA receptor inhibitors based on 2-naphthoic acid  

PubMed Central

Over-activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors is critically involved in many neurological conditions, thus there has been considerable interest in developing NMDA receptor antagonists. We have recently identified a series of naphthoic and phenanthroic acid compounds that allosterically modulate NMDA receptors through a novel mechanism of action. In the present study, we have determined the structure-activity relationships of 18 naphthoic acid derivatives for the ability to inhibit the four GluN1/GluN2(A-D) NMDA receptor subtypes. 2-Naphthoic acid has low activity at GluN2A-containing receptors and yet lower activity at other NMDA receptors. 3-Amino addition, and especially 3-hydroxy addition, to 2-naphthoic acid increased inhibitory activity at GluN1/GluN2C and GluN1/GluN2D receptors. Further halogen and phenyl substitutions to 2-hydroxy-3-naphthoic acid leads to several relatively potent inhibitors, the most potent of which is UBP618 (1-bromo-2-hydroxy-6-phenylnaphthalene-3-carboxylic acid) with an IC50 ~ 2 ?M at each of the NMDA receptor subtypes. While UBP618 is non-selective, elimination of the hydroxyl group in UBP618, as in UBP628 and UBP608, leads to an increase in GluN1/GluN2A selectivity. Of the compounds evaluated, specifically those with a 6-phenyl substitution were less able to fully inhibit GluN1/GluN2A, GluN1/GluN2B and GluN1/GluN2C responses (maximal % inhibition of 60 – 90%). Such antagonists may potentially have reduced adverse effects by not excessively blocking NMDA receptor signaling. Together, these studies reveal discrete structure-activity relationships for the allosteric antagonism of NMDA receptors that may facilitate the development of NMDA receptor modulator agents for a variety of neuropsychiatric and neurological conditions. PMID:22155206

Costa, Blaise Mathias; Irvine, Mark W.; Fang, Guangyu; Eaves, Richard J.; Mayo-Martin, Maria Belen; Laube, Bodo; Jane, David E.; Monaghan, Daniel T.

2012-01-01

143

Disubstituted amino-, nitroso-, and nitrofluorenes: a physicochemical basis for structure-activity relationships in Salmonella typhimurium  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-nine derivatives of fluorene were tested for mutagenic potency in four strains of Salmonella typhimurium with and/or without S9 microsomal activation. The effects of a second functional group on the mutagenic activity of an amino-nitroso-, and nitrofluorene were correlated with its physical and chemical properties. When the functional group is conjugated by resonance, both inductive and resonance effects are determinants of mutagenic potency. Electron-withdrawing groups such as the halogens (F, Cl, Br, and I), nitro, nitroso, and cyano at C-7 increased the mutagenic potency of 2-nitrofluorene. Acetylation of a hydroxy or an amino group at C-7 increased the mutagenic potency of 2-nitrofluorene. The physical properties of a second functional group are expected to exert their effect(s) at three points in the metabolic activation of 2,7-disubstituted fluorene derivatives: 1) initial reduction of the nitro group (redox effect), 2) stabilization of the hydroxylamine (inductive effect), and 3) stabilization/destabilization of the nitrenium ion (resonance and inductive effects). The relationships between the physical properties of a second functional group and their effects on biological activities of nitro- and aminofluorenes in the Ames Salmonella assay may be of predictive value in a first approximation of both the mutagenic and carcinogenic potency of chemicals with comparable structures such as fluoranthene and biphenyl.

Vance, W.A.; Wang, Y.Y.; Okamoto, H.S.

1987-01-01

144

Antioxidant properties of phenolic Schiff bases: structure-activity relationship and mechanism of action.  

PubMed

Phenolic Schiff bases are known for their diverse biological activities and ability to scavenge free radicals. To elucidate (1) the structure-antioxidant activity relationship of a series of thirty synthetic derivatives of 2-methoxybezohydrazide phenolic Schiff bases and (2) to determine the major mechanism involved in free radical scavenging, we used density functional theory calculations (B3P86/6-31+(d,p)) within polarizable continuum model. The results showed the importance of the bond dissociation enthalpies (BDEs) related to the first and second (BDEd) hydrogen atom transfer (intrinsic parameters) for rationalizing the antioxidant activity. In addition to the number of OH groups, the presence of a bromine substituent plays an interesting role in modulating the antioxidant activity. Theoretical thermodynamic and kinetic studies demonstrated that the free radical scavenging by these Schiff bases mainly proceeds through proton-coupled electron transfer rather than sequential proton loss electron transfer, the latter mechanism being only feasible at relatively high pH. PMID:24243063

Anouar, El Hassane; Raweh, Salwa; Bayach, Imene; Taha, Muhammad; Baharudin, Mohd Syukri; Di Meo, Florent; Hasan, Mizaton Hazizul; Adam, Aishah; Ismail, Nor Hadiani; Weber, Jean-Frédéric F; Trouillas, Patrick

2013-11-01

145

Amyloid-? probes: Review of structure-activity and brain-kinetics relationships.  

PubMed

The number of people suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) is expected to increase dramatically in the coming years, placing a huge burden on society. Current treatments for AD leave much to be desired, and numerous research efforts around the globe are focused on developing improved therapeutics. In addition, current diagnostic tools for AD rely largely on subjective cognitive assessment rather than on identification of pathophysiological changes associated with disease onset and progression. These facts have led to numerous efforts to develop chemical probes to detect pathophysiological hallmarks of AD, such as amyloid-? plaques, for diagnosis and monitoring of therapeutic efficacy. This review provides a survey of chemical probes developed to date for AD with emphasis on synthetic methodologies and structure-activity relationships with regards to affinity for target and brain kinetics. Several probes discussed herein show particularly promising results and will be of immense value moving forward in the fight against AD. PMID:23766818

Eckroat, Todd J; Mayhoub, Abdelrahman S; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

2013-01-01

146

Amyloid-? probes: Review of structure–activity and brain-kinetics relationships  

PubMed Central

Summary The number of people suffering from Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is expected to increase dramatically in the coming years, placing a huge burden on society. Current treatments for AD leave much to be desired, and numerous research efforts around the globe are focused on developing improved therapeutics. In addition, current diagnostic tools for AD rely largely on subjective cognitive assessment rather than on identification of pathophysiological changes associated with disease onset and progression. These facts have led to numerous efforts to develop chemical probes to detect pathophysiological hallmarks of AD, such as amyloid-? plaques, for diagnosis and monitoring of therapeutic efficacy. This review provides a survey of chemical probes developed to date for AD with emphasis on synthetic methodologies and structure–activity relationships with regards to affinity for target and brain kinetics. Several probes discussed herein show particularly promising results and will be of immense value moving forward in the fight against AD. PMID:23766818

Eckroat, Todd J; Mayhoub, Abdelrahman S

2013-01-01

147

Quantitative structure-activity relationships for prediction of removal efficiency in air-phase biofilters  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative structure-activity relationships were developed to describe the success of biofiltration for sixteen compounds present in wastewater treatment plant off gases. Combinations of one topological index and one measured compound characteristic were generally found to be effective. Average results for biofilters using GAC support medium were best predicted by the third order valence molecular connectivity index, {sup 3}{chi}{sup v}, with the octanol-water partition coefficient, K{sub ow}. Average results for compost biofilters were best described by the third order molecular connectivity index, {sup 3}{chi}, and K{sub ow}, as were combined averages for all biofilters. These results are consistent with simple biofilter models which assume treatment success in a well-operated biofilter is largely determined by the tendency of a compound to partition into the water phase and its inherent biodegradability.

Devinny, J.S.; Choi, D.S.; Webster, T.S. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1997-12-31

148

Olfactory sensitivity and odor structure-activity relationships for aliphatic ketones in CD-1 mice.  

PubMed

Using a conditioning paradigm, the olfactory sensitivity of CD-1 mice for a homologous series of aliphatic 2-ketones (2-butanone to 2-nonanone) and several of their isomeric forms was investigated. With all 11 odorants, the animals significantly discriminated concentrations as low as 0.01 ppm (parts per million) from the solvent, and with two odorants (2-octanone and 5-nonanone), the best-scoring animals even detected concentrations as low as 3 ppt (parts per trillion). Analysis of odor structure-activity relationships showed that the correlation between olfactory detection thresholds of the mice for the 2-ketones and carbon chain length can best be described as a U-shaped function with the lowest threshold values at 2-octanone. Similarly, the correlation between olfactory sensitivity and carbon chain length of symmetrical ketones (3-pentanone to 6-undecanone) can best be described as a U-shaped function. In contrast, no significant correlation was found between olfactory detection thresholds of the mice and position of the functional carbonyl group attached to a C7 backbone. A comparison between the olfactory detection thresholds obtained here with those obtained in earlier studies suggests that mice are significantly more sensitive for 2-ketones than for n-carboxylic acids of the same carbon chain length. Across-species comparisons suggest that mice are significantly more sensitive for aliphatic ketones than squirrel monkeys and pigtail macaques, whereas the ranges of human olfactory detection threshold values overlap with those of the mice with seven of the 11 ketones tested. Further comparisons suggest that odor structure-activity relationships are both substance class and species specific. PMID:24621664

Laska, Matthias

2014-06-01

149

Olfactory Sensitivity and Odor Structure-Activity Relationships for Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids in CD-1 Mice  

PubMed Central

Using a conditioning paradigm, the olfactory sensitivity of CD-1 mice for a homologous series of aliphatic n-carboxylic acids (ethanoic acid to n-octanoic acid) and several of their isomeric forms was investigated. With all 14 odorants, the animals significantly discriminated concentrations as low as 0.03 ppm (parts per million) from the solvent, and with four odorants the best-scoring animals even detected concentrations as low as 3 ppt (parts per trillion). Analysis of odor structure-activity relationships showed that the correlation between olfactory detection thresholds of the mice for the unbranched carboxylic acids and carbon chain length can best be described as a U-shaped function with the lowest threshold values at n-butanoic acid. A significant positive correlation between olfactory detection thresholds and carbon chain length of the carboxylic acids with their branching next to the functional carboxyl group was found. In contrast, no such correlation was found for carboxylic acids with their branching at the distal end of the carbon chain relative to the functional carboxyl group. Finally, a significant correlation was found between olfactory detection thresholds and the position of the branching of the carboxylic acids. Across-species comparisons suggest that mice are more sensitive for short-chained (C2 to C4) aliphatic n-carboxylic acids than other mammalian species, but not for longer-chained ones (C5 to C8). Further comparisons suggest that odor structure-activity relationships are both substance class- and species-specific. PMID:22479594

Can Güven, Selçuk; Laska, Matthias

2012-01-01

150

Olfactory sensitivity and odor structure-activity relationships for aliphatic carboxylic acids in CD-1 mice.  

PubMed

Using a conditioning paradigm, the olfactory sensitivity of CD-1 mice for a homologous series of aliphatic n-carboxylic acids (ethanoic acid to n-octanoic acid) and several of their isomeric forms was investigated. With all 14 odorants, the animals significantly discriminated concentrations as low as 0.03 ppm (parts per million) from the solvent, and with four odorants the best-scoring animals even detected concentrations as low as 3 ppt (parts per trillion). Analysis of odor structure-activity relationships showed that the correlation between olfactory detection thresholds of the mice for the unbranched carboxylic acids and carbon chain length can best be described as a U-shaped function with the lowest threshold values at n-butanoic acid. A significant positive correlation between olfactory detection thresholds and carbon chain length of the carboxylic acids with their branching next to the functional carboxyl group was found. In contrast, no such correlation was found for carboxylic acids with their branching at the distal end of the carbon chain relative to the functional carboxyl group. Finally, a significant correlation was found between olfactory detection thresholds and the position of the branching of the carboxylic acids. Across-species comparisons suggest that mice are more sensitive for short-chained (C(2) to C(4)) aliphatic n-carboxylic acids than other mammalian species, but not for longer-chained ones (C(5) to C(8)). Further comparisons suggest that odor structure-activity relationships are both substance class- and species-specific. PMID:22479594

Can Güven, Selçuk; Laska, Matthias

2012-01-01

151

Structure-antitussive activity relationships of naltrindole derivatives. Identification of novel and potent antitussive agents.  

PubMed

We have previously reported antitussive effects of naltrindole (NTI), a typical delta opioid receptor antagonist, in a rat model. The ED50 values of NTI by intraperitoneal and peroral injections were 104 microg/kg and 1840 microg/kg, respectively, comparable to those of codeine. Codeine, one of the most reliable centrally acting antitussive drugs, has micro agonist activity and thus the same side effects as morphine, e.g., constipation, dependency, and respiratory depression. Because NTI is a delta opioid antagonist, its derivatives have potential as highly potent antitussives, free from the mu opioid agonist side effects. We attempted to optimize the NTI derivatives to develop novel antitussive agents. On the basis of the studies of structure-antitussive activity relationships of alkyl substituted NTI derivatives, we designed NTI derivatives with extra ring fused structures. As a clinical candidate, we identified a highly potent new compound, (5R,9R,13S,14S)-17-cyclopropylmethyl-6,7-didehydro-4,5-epoxy-5',6'-dihydro-3-methoxy-4'H-pyrrolo[3,2,1-ij]quinolino[2',1':6,7]morphinan-14-ol (5b) methanesulfonate (TRK-850) which was effective even by oral administration (ED50 6.40 microg/kg). PMID:18637671

Sakami, Satoshi; Maeda, Masayuki; Kawai, Koji; Aoki, Takumi; Kawamura, Kuniaki; Fujii, Hideaki; Hasebe, Ko; Nakajima, Mayumi; Endo, Takashi; Ueno, Shinya; Ito, Tsuyoshi; Kamei, Junzo; Nagase, Hiroshi

2008-08-14

152

Quantitative structure-activity relationships and the prediction of MHC supermotifs.  

PubMed

The underlying assumption in quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) methodology is that related chemical structures exhibit related biological activities. We review here two QSAR methods in terms of their applicability for human MHC supermotif definition. Supermotifs are motifs that characterise binding to more than one allele. Supermotif definition is the initial in silico step of epitope-based vaccine design. The first QSAR method we review here--the additive method--is based on the assumption that the binding affinity of a peptide depends on contributions from both amino acids and the interactions between them. The second method is a 3D-QSAR method: comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA). Both methods were applied to 771 peptides binding to 9 HLA alleles. Five of the alleles (A*0201, A*0202, A*0203, A*0206 and A*6802) belong to the HLA-A2 superfamily and the other four (A*0301, A*1101, A*3101 and A*6801) to the HLA-A3 superfamily. For each superfamily, supermotifs defined by the two QSAR methods agree closely and are supported by many experimental data. PMID:15542370

Doytchinova, Irini A; Guan, Pingping; Flower, Darren R

2004-12-01

153

Gold(I) thiolates containing amino acid moieties. Cytotoxicity and structure-activity relationship studies.  

PubMed

Several gold(I) complexes containing a thiolate ligand functionalised with several amino acid or peptide moieties of the type [Au(SPyCOR)(PPh2R')] (where R = OH, amino acid or dipeptide and R' = Ph or Py) were prepared. These thiolate gold complexes bearing biological molecules possess potential use as antitumor agents. Cytotoxicity assays in different tumour cell lines such as A549 (lung carcinoma), Jurkat (T-cell leukaemia) and MiaPaca2 (pancreatic carcinoma) revealed that the complexes exhibit good antiproliferative activity, with IC50 values in the low micromolar range. Several structural modifications such as in the type of phosphine, number of metal atoms and amino acid (type, stereochemistry and functionalisation) were carried out in order to establish the structure-activity relationship in this family of complexes, which has led to the design of new and more potent cytotoxic complexes. Observations of different cellular events after addition of the complexes indicated the possible mechanism of action or the biological targets of this type of new gold(I) drug. PMID:25302929

Gutiérrez, Alejandro; Gracia-Fleta, Lucia; Marzo, Isabel; Cativiela, Carlos; Laguna, Antonio; Gimeno, M Concepción

2014-12-01

154

Inhibitors of the kinase IspE: structure-activity relationships and co-crystal structure analysis.  

PubMed

Enzymes of the non-mevalonate pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis are therapeutic targets for the treatment of important infectious diseases. Whereas this pathway is absent in humans, it is used by plants, many eubacteria and apicomplexan protozoa, including major human pathogens such as Plasmodium falciparum and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Herein, we report on the design, preparation and biological evaluation of a new series of ligands for IspE protein, a kinase from this pathway. These inhibitors were developed for the inhibition of IspE from Escherichia coli, using structure-based design approaches. Structure-activity relationships (SARs) and a co-crystal structure of Aquifex aeolicus IspE bound to a representative inhibitor validate the proposed binding mode. The crystal structure shows that the ligand binds in the substrate-rather than the adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP)-binding pocket. As predicted, a cyclopropyl substituent occupies a small cavity not used by the substrate. The optimal volume occupancy of this cavity is explored in detail. In the co-crystal structure, a diphosphate anion binds to the Gly-rich loop, which normally accepts the triphosphate moiety of ATP. This structure provides useful insights for future structure-based developments of inhibitors for the parasite enzymes. PMID:18633530

Hirsch, Anna K H; Alphey, Magnus S; Lauw, Susan; Seet, Michael; Barandun, Luzi; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Rohdich, Felix; Hunter, William N; Bacher, Adelbert; Diederich, François

2008-08-01

155

Development of a phospholipidosis database and predictive quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Drug-induced phospholipidosis (PL) is a condition characterized by the accumulation of phospholipids and drug in lysosomes, and is found in a variety of tissue types. PL is frequently manifested in preclinical studies and may delay or prevent the development of pharmaceuticals. This report describes the construction of a database of PL findings in a variety of animal species and its use as a training data set for computational toxicology software. PL data and chemical structures were compiled from the published literature, existing pharmaceutical databases, and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) internal reports yielding a total of 583 compounds suitable for modeling. The database contained 190 (33%) positive drugs and 393 (77%) negative drugs, of which 39 were electron microscopy-confirmed negative compounds and 354 were classified as negatives due to the absence of positive reported data. Of the 190 positive findings, 76 were electron microscopy confirmed and 114 were considered positive based on other evidence. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models were constructed using two commercially available software programs, MC4PC and MDL-QSAR, and internal cross-validation (10 x 10%) experiments were performed to assess their predictive performance. Performance parameters for the MC4PC model were specificity 92%, sensitivity 50%, concordance 78%, positive predictivity 76%, and negative predictivity 78%. For MDL-QSAR, predictive performance was similar: specificity 80%, sensitivity 76%, concordance 79%, positive predictivity 65%, and negative predictivity 87%. By combining the output of the two QSAR programs, the overall predictive performance was vastly improved and sensitivity could be optimized to 81% without significant loss of specificity (79%). Many of the structural alerts and significant molecular descriptors obtained from the QSAR software were found to be associated with parts of active molecules known for their cationic amphiphilic drug (CAD) properties supporting the hypothesis that the endpoint of PL is statistically correlated with chemical structure. QSAR models can be useful tools for screening drug candidate molecules for potential PL. PMID:20020916

Kruhlak, Naomi L; Choi, Sydney S; Contrera, Joseph F; Weaver, James L; Willard, James M; Hastings, Kenneth L; Sancilio, Lawrence F

2008-01-01

156

Acute toxicity estimation by calculation--Tubifex assay and quantitative structure-activity relationships.  

PubMed

A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model dependent on log P(n - octanol/water), or log P(OW), was developed with acute toxicity index EC50, the median effective concentration measured as inhibition of movement of the oligochaeta Tubifex tubifex with 3 min exposure, EC50(Tt) (mol/L): log EC50(Tt) = -0.809 (+/-0.035) log P(OW) - 0.495 (+/-0.060), n=82, r=0.931, r2=0.867, residual standard deviation of the estimate 0.315. A learning series for the QSAR model with the oligochaete contained alkanols, alkenols, and alkynols; saturated and unsaturated aldehydes; aniline and chlorinated anilines; phenol and chlorinated phenols; and esters. Three cross-validation procedures proved the robustness and stability of QSAR models with respect to the chemical structure of compounds tested within a series of compounds used in the learning series. Predictive ability was described by q2 .801 (cross-validated r2; predicted variation estimated with cross-validation) in LSO (leave-a structurally series-out) cross-validation. PMID:18522479

Tichý, Milon; Rucki, Marian; Hanzlíková, Iveta; Roth, Zdenek

2008-11-01

157

Structure-activity relationships in gold nanoparticle dimers and trimers for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Understanding the detailed relationship between nanoparticle structure and activity remains a significant challenge for the field of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. To this end, the structural and optical properties of individual plasmonic nanoantennas comprised of Au nanoparticle assemblies that are coated with organic reporter molecules and encapsulated by a SiO(2) shell have been determined using correlated transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dark-field Rayleigh scattering microscopy, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) microscopy, and finite element method (FEM) calculations. The distribution of SERS enhancement factors (EFs) for a structurally and optically diverse set of nanoantennas is remarkably narrow. For a collection of 30 individual nanoantennas ranging from dimers to heptamers, the EFs vary by less than 2 orders of magnitude. Furthermore, the EFs for the hot-spot-containing nanoparticles are uncorrelated to aggregation state and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) wavelength but are crucially dependent on the size of the interparticle gap. This study demonstrates that the creation of hot spots, where two particles are in subnanometer proximity or have coalesced to form crevices, is paramount to achieving maximum SERS enhancements. PMID:20681724

Wustholz, Kristin L; Henry, Anne-Isabelle; McMahon, Jeffrey M; Freeman, R Griffith; Valley, Nicholas; Piotti, Marcelo E; Natan, Michael J; Schatz, George C; Van Duyne, Richard P

2010-08-11

158

Synthesis and quantitative structure-activity relationships of selective BCRP inhibitors.  

PubMed

The breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) is a member of the ABC transporter superfamily. This protein has a number of physiological functions, including protection of the human body from xenobiotics. The overexpression of BCRP in certain tumor cell lines causes cross-resistance against various drugs used in chemotherapeutic treatment. In a previous work we showed that a new class of compounds derived from XR9576 (tariquidar) selectively inhibits BCRP. In this work we synthesized more members of this class, with modification on the second and third aromatic rings. The inhibitory activities against BCRP and P-gp were assayed using a Hoechst 33342 assay for BCRP and a calcein AM assay for P-gp. Finally, quantitative structure-activity relationships for both aromatic rings were established. The results obtained show the importance of the electron density on the third aromatic ring, influenced by substituents, pointing to interactions with aromatic residues of the protein binding site. In the second aromatic ring the activity of compounds is influenced by the steric volume of the substituents. PMID:23150210

Marighetti, Federico; Steggemann, Kerstin; Hanl, Markus; Wiese, Michael

2013-01-01

159

Synthesis and structure/antioxidant activity relationship of novel catecholic antioxidant structural analogues to hydroxytyrosol and its lipophilic esters.  

PubMed

A large panel of novel catecholic antioxidants and their fatty acid or methyl carbonate esters has been synthesized in satisfactory to good yields through a 2-iodoxybenzoic acid (IBX)-mediated aromatic hydroxylation as the key step. The new catechols are structural analogues of naturally occurring hydroxytyrosol (3,4-DHE). To evaluate structure/activity relationships, the antioxidant properties of all catecholic compounds were evaluated in vitro by ABTS assay and on whole cells by DCF fluorometric assay and compared with that of the corresponding already known hydroxytyrosyl derivatives. Results outline that all of the new catechols show antioxidant capacity in vitro higher than that of the corresponding hydroxytyrosyl derivatives. Less evident positive effects have been detected in whole cells experiments. Cytotoxicity experiments, using MTT assay, on a representative set of compounds evidenced no influence in cell survival. PMID:22780104

Bernini, Roberta; Crisante, Fernanda; Barontini, Maurizio; Tofani, Daniela; Balducci, Valentina; Gambacorta, Augusto

2012-08-01

160

DNA binding ellipticine analogues: synthesis, biological evaluation, and structure-activity relationships.  

PubMed

In connection with our interest in the synthesis and study of the biological properties of ellipticine analogues as anticancer agents, some 7H-pyrido[2,3-c]carbazoles (7H-PyC) and their corresponding tetrahydro derivatives (7H-THPyC) were synthesized. A common multistep pathway characterized by conventional reactions involving carbazole Fischer and Conrad-Limpach quinoline syntheses yielded the tetracyclic compounds. With the aim to improve the cytotoxic activity of the new 7H-PyC derivatives, we provided them with one or two diethylaminoethyl side chains. The new THPyCs, PyCs, and smaller pyrroloquinoline (PQ) derivatives were tested for their in vitro cytotoxic properties against several human tumor cell lines. Most of the compounds tested showed considerable cytotoxic activity, particularly compound 24, which, with two basic alkylamino chains, has IC(50) values in the sub-micromolar range, about one order of magnitude lower than those of the reference compound, ellipticine. Chemosensitivity tests on cisplatin-, mitoxantrone-, and multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotypes indicated that compound 24 shows no cross-resistance; this suggests that, besides not being a potential MDR substrate, it might act as a mixed inhibitor of topoisomerases I and II. Flow cytometric and caspase-3 activation analyses revealed that 24 induces a caspase-3-dependent apoptotic cell-death mechanism. Linear dichroism and unwinding experiments suggested that the most active compounds act as DNA intercalators. For compound 24, an inhibitory concentration-dependent effect on topoisomerases II and I was demonstrated. Herein we discuss interesting structure-activity relationships with respect to molecular size and planarity, as well as the substitution and position of one side chain on the PyC nucleus, in comparison with corresponding smaller PQs. PMID:19197924

Ferlin, Maria Grazia; Marzano, Christine; Gandin, Valentina; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Dalla Via, Lisa

2009-03-01

161

Inhibitory effects of caffeine analogues on neoplastic transformation: structure–activity relationship  

PubMed Central

Some xanthine analogues, including 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine (caffeine) and 1,3-dimethylxanthine (theophylline), have been shown to exert anticancer activities in both cell culture and animal models. The present study focused on the relationship of structure and activity of 50 different caffeine analogues in preventing epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced malignant transformation of mouse epidermal JB6 promotion-sensitive (P+) Cl41 (JB6 P+) cells. Results indicated that the inhibition of cell transformation by the 1,3,7-trialkylxanthines depends on the number of carbons at the alkyl groups R1 and R3, but not R7. Notably, 1-ethyl-3-hexylxanthine (xanthine 70) was the most effective compound for inhibiting EGF-induced neoplastic transformation among the 50 xanthine analogues tested. The 50% inhibition of cell transformation (ICT50) value for xanthine 70 was 48- or 75-fold less than the ICT50 value of caffeine or theophylline, respectively. Further study revealed that xanthine 70 (5–40 ?M) dose dependently inhibited EGF-induced transactivation of activator protein 1 (AP-1), whereas theophylline or caffeine (up to 500 ?M) had no effect on AP-1 activity. In addition, xanthine 70 (10 ?M) inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate- or H-Ras-induced neoplastic transformation in JB6 P+ cells by 78.2 or 62.0%, respectively. Collectively, these results indicated that the number of carbons at R1 and R3 is important for the antitumor-promoting activity of the trialkylxanthines and xanthine 70 might be a promising anticancer agent. PMID:18195054

Rogozin, Evgeny A.; Lee, Ki Won; Kang, Nam Joo; Yu, Haoyu; Nomura, Masaaki; Miyamoto, Ken-Ichi; Conney, Allan H.; Bode, Ann M.; Dong, Zigang

2008-01-01

162

Resveratrol analogues as selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors: synthesis and structure-activity relationship.  

PubMed

Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is found in grapes and various medical plants. Among cytotoxic, antifungal, antibacterial cardioprotective activity resveratrol also demonstrates non-selective cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition. In order to find more selective COX-2 inhibitors a series of methoxylated and hydroxylated resveratrol derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to inhibit both enzymes using in vitro inhibition assays for COX-1 and COX-2 by measuring PGE(2) production. Hydroxylated but not methoxylated resveratrol derivatives showed a high rate of inhibition. The most potent resveratrol compounds were 3,3',4',5-tetra-trans-hydroxystilbene (COX-1: IC(50)=4.713, COX-2: IC(50)=0.0113 microM, selectivity index=417.08) and 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexa-hydroxy-trans-stilbene (COX-1: IC(50)=0.748, COX-2: IC(50)=0.00104 microM, selectivity index=719.23). Their selectivity index was in part higher than celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor already established on the market (COX-1: IC(50)=19.026, COX-2: IC(50)=0.03482 microM, selectivity index=546.41). Effect of structural parameters on COX-2 inhibition was evaluated by quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis and a high correlation was found with the topological surface area TPSA (r=0.93). Docking studies on both COX-1 and COX-2 protein structures also revealed that hydroxylated but not methoxylated resveratrol analogues are able to bind to the previously identified binding sites of the enzymes. Hydroxylated resveratrol analogues therefore represent a novel class of highly selective COX-2 inhibitors and promising candidates for in vivo studies. PMID:15465334

Murias, Marek; Handler, Norbert; Erker, Thomas; Pleban, Karin; Ecker, Gerhard; Saiko, Philipp; Szekeres, Thomas; Jäger, Walter

2004-11-01

163

Structure-activity relationship of trifluoromethyl-containing metallocenes: electrochemistry, lipophilicity, cytotoxicity, and ROS production.  

PubMed

We report the synthesis of trifluoromethylated metallocenes (M=Fe, Ru) and related metal-free compounds for comparison of their biological properties with the aim to establish structure-activity relationships toward the anti-proliferative activity of this compound class. All new compounds were comprehensively characterized by NMR spectroscopy ((1) H, (13) C, (19) F), mass spectrometry, IR spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. A single-crystal X-ray structure was obtained on the Ru derivative, 1-(1-hydroxy-1-hexafluoromethylethyl)ruthenocene (3). The cytotoxicity of all compounds was tested on MCF-7, HT-29, and PT-45 cells, and IC50 values as low as 12 ?M were observed. Both the metallocene moiety and the hydroxy function are crucial for cytotoxicity. In addition, the activity decreased sharply even if only one trifluoromethyl group was replaced with a methyl group. Electrochemical investigations by cyclic voltammetry revealed that all CF3 -containing compounds are harder to oxidize than the unsubstituted metallocenes. Moreover, log?P determination by RP-HPLC showed the fluorinated derivatives to have higher lipophilicity, with log?P values up to 4.6. At the same time, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Jurkat cells by these compounds was investigated by flow cytometry. Strong ROS production was shown exclusively for the bis-CF3 derivative 1-(1-hydroxy-1-hexafluoromethylethyl)ferrocene (1) after 6 and 24 h. Also on the Jurkat cell line, only compound 1 strongly induces necrosis after 24 and 48 h, as shown by annexin V/propidium iodide staining. No induction of apoptosis was observed. We propose that compound 1 is more efficiently incorporated into cancer cells relative to all other derivatives, causing significant induction of oxidative stress within the cell, which ultimately leads to cell death. PMID:24838930

Maschke, Marcus; Alborzinia, Hamed; Lieb, Max; Wölfl, Stefan; Metzler-Nolte, Nils

2014-06-01

164

The use of structure-activity relationship analysis in the food contact notification program.  

PubMed

Food contact substances (FCS) include polymers, paper and paperboard, and substances used in their manufacture, that do not impart a technical effect on food. Moreover, FCSs are industrial chemicals generally consumed at dietary concentrations (DC) of less than 1mg/kg food (ppm), and more commonly at less than 0.05 ppm (50 ppb), in the daily diet. As such, many industrial chemicals have been analyzed for toxicological concern, some of which may share structural similarity with FCSs or their constituents, and the majority of these studies are available in the public domain. The DCs of these compounds lend themselves to using structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis, as the available "expert systems" and use of analogs allows for prediction and management of potential carcinogens. This paper describes the newly implemented food contact notification (FCN) program, the program by which FDA reviews FCSs for safe use, the administrative review of FCSs, the SAR tools available to FDA, and qualitative and quantitative risk assessments using SAR analysis within the regulatory framework of reviewing the safety of FCSs. PMID:15935536

Bailey, Allan B; Chanderbhan, Ronald; Collazo-Braier, Nancy; Cheeseman, M A; Twaroski, Michelle L

2005-07-01

165

Quantitative structure-activity relationship for toxicity of ionic liquids to Daphnia magna: aromaticity vs. lipophilicity.  

PubMed

Water solubility of ionic liquids (ILs) allows their dispersion into aquatic systems and raises concerns on their pollutant potential. Again, lipophilicity can contribute to the toxicity of ILs due to increased ability of the compounds to cross lipoidal bio-membranes. In the present work, we have performed statistical model development for toxicity of a set of ionic liquids to Daphnia magna, a widely accepted model organism for toxicity testing, using computed lipophilicity, atom-type fragment, quantum topological molecular similarity (QTMS) and extended topochemical atom (ETA) descriptors. The models have been developed and validated in accordance with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines for quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs). The best partial least squares (PLS) model outperforms the previously reported multiple linear regression (MLR) model in statistical quality and predictive ability (R(2)=0.955, Q(2)=0.917, Rpred(2)=0.848). In this work, the ETA descriptors show importance of branching and aromaticity while the QTMS descriptor ellipticity efficiently shows which compounds are influential in the data set, with reference to the model. While obvious importance of lipophilicity is evident from the models, the best model clearly shows the importance of aromaticity suggesting that more lipophilic ILs with less toxicity may be designed by avoiding aromaticity, nitrogen atoms and increasing branching in the cationic structure. The developed quantitative models are in consonance with the recent hypothesis of importance of aromaticity for toxicity of ILs. PMID:25048897

Roy, Kunal; Das, Rudra Narayan; Popelier, Paul L A

2014-10-01

166

Identification, Structure-Activity Relationships and Molecular Modeling of Potent Triamine and Piperazine Opioid Ligands  

PubMed Central

Opioid receptors are important targets for pain management. Here, we report the synthesis and biological evaluation of three positional scanning combinatorial libraries, consisting of linear triamines and piperazines. A highly potent (14 nM) and selective (IC50(?)/IC50(?) = 71; IC50(?)/IC50(?) = 714) triamine for the ?-opioid receptor was found. In addition, non-selective ?-? binders were obtained, with binding affinities of 54 nM and 22 nM for ?- and ?-opioid receptors, respectively. Structure-activity relationships of each subset are described. 3D molecular alignments based on shape similarity to internal and external query molecules were carried out. For the combinatorial chemistry dataset studied here a 1.3 similarity cut-off value was observed to be efficient in the ROCS-based alignment method. Interactions from the overlays analyzed in the binding sites of homology models of the receptors revealed specific substitution patterns for enhancing binding affinity in the piperazine series. Pharmacophore modeling of the compounds found from the three combinatorial libraries was also performed. The pharmacophore model indicated that the important feature for receptor binding activity with the ?-receptor was the presence of at least one hydrogen bond acceptor and one aromatic hydrophobic group. Whereas for the ?-receptor two binding modes emerged with one set of compounds employing the hydrogen bond acceptor and aromatic hydrophobic group, and a second set possibly via interactions with the receptor by hydrophobic and ionic salt-bridges. PMID:19576786

Yongye, Austin B.; Appel, Jon R.; Giulianotti, Marc A.; Dooley, Colette T.; Medina-Franco, Jose L.; Nefzi, Adel; Houghten, Richard A.; Martínez-Mayorga, Karina

2009-01-01

167

Structure-Activity Relationships of N-benzylsalicylamides for Inhibition of Photosynthetic Electron Transport.  

PubMed

Inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport (PET) in spinach chloroplasts by sixty-one ring-substituted N-benzylsalicylamides was investigated. The inhibitory potency of compounds expressed by IC50 value varied from 2.0 to 425.3 ?mol/L. Several of the evaluated compounds can be considered as effective PET inhibitors; these include N-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)-2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzamide (IC50 = 2.0 ?mol/L), 3,5-dibromo-N-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)-2-hydroxybenzamide (IC50 = 2.3 ?mol/L) and 3,5-dibromo-N-(4-chlorobenzyl)-2-hydroxybenzamide (IC50 = 2.6 ?mol/L), which had activity comparable with the standard Diuron (IC50 = 1.9 ?mol/L). The PET inhibiting activity increased approximately linearly with increasing lipophilicity of the compounds as well as with the increasing sum of Hammett ? constants of substituents on the acyl (R1 = H, 5-OCH3, 5-CH3, 5-Cl, 5-Br, 5-NO2, 4-OCH3, 4-Cl, 3,5-Cl and 3,5-Br) and benzylamide fragments (R2 = H, 4-OCH3, 4-CH3, 4-F, 4-Cl and 3,4-Cl). Based on evaluated structure-PET inhibiting activity relationships (QSAR) it was confirmed that the inhibitory activity of the compounds depends on lipophilicity (log P or distributive parameters ?1 and ?2 of individual substituents) and electronic properties of substituents on acyl (?1) and benzylamide fragments (?2), the contribution of ?1 being more significant than that of ?2. PMID:25134428

Kralova, Katarina; Perina, Milan; Waisser, Karel; Jampilek, Josef

2014-08-15

168

Synthesis, structure-activity relationship, and antimalarial activity of ureas and thioureas of 15-membered azalides.  

PubMed

Azithromycin, a first member of the azalide family of macrolides, while having substantial antimalarial activity, failed as a single agent for malaria prophylaxis. In this paper we present the first analogue campaign to identify more potent compounds from this class. Ureas and thioureas of 15-membered azalides, N''-substituted 9a-(N'-carbamoyl-?-aminoethyl), 9a-(N'-thiocarbamoyl-?-aminoethyl), 9a-[N'-(?-cyanoethyl)-N'-(carbamoyl-?-aminoethyl)], 9a-[N'-(?-cyanoethyl)-N'-(thiocarbamoyl-?-aminoethyl)], 9a-{N'-[?-(ethoxycarbonyl)ethyl]-N'(carbamoyl-?-aminoethyl)}, and 9a-[N'-(?-amidoethyl)-N'-(carbamoyl-?-aminoethyl)] of 9-deoxo-9-dihydro-9a-aza-9a-homoerythromycin A, were synthesized and their biological properties evaluated. The results obtained indicate a substantial improvement of the in vitro activity against P. falciparum (up to 88 times over azithromycin), particularly for compounds containing both sugars on the macrocyclic ring and aromatic moiety on 9a-position. The improved in vitro activity was not confirmed in the mouse model, likely due to an increase in lipophilicity of these analogues leading to a higher volume of distribution. Overall, with increased in vitro activity, promising PK properties, and modest in vivo efficacy, this series of molecules represents a good starting platform for the design of novel antimalarial azalides. PMID:21476508

Bukvi? Kraja?i?, Mirjana; Peri?, Mihaela; Smith, Kirsten S; Schönfeld, Zrinka Ivezi?; Žiher, Dinko; Fajdeti?, Andrea; Kujundži?, Nedjeljko; Schönfeld, Wolfgang; Landek, Goran; Padovan, Jasna; Jeli?, Dubravko; Ager, Arba; Milhous, Wilbur K; Ellis, William; Spaventi, Radan; Ohrt, Colin

2011-05-26

169

Structure-Activity Relationships of Constrained Phenylethylamine Ligands for the Serotonin 5-HT2 Receptors  

PubMed Central

Serotonergic ligands have proven effective drugs in the treatment of migraine, pain, obesity, and a wide range of psychiatric and neurological disorders. There is a clinical need for more highly 5-HT2 receptor subtype-selective ligands and the most attention has been given to the phenethylamine class. Conformationally constrained phenethylamine analogs have demonstrated that for optimal activity the free lone pair electrons of the 2-oxygen must be oriented syn and the 5-oxygen lone pairs anti relative to the ethylamine moiety. Also the ethyl linker has been constrained providing information about the bioactive conformation of the amine functionality. However, combined 1,2-constriction by cyclization has only been tested with one compound. Here, we present three new 1,2-cyclized phenylethylamines, 9–11, and describe their synthetic routes. Ligand docking in the 5-HT2B crystal structure showed that the 1,2-heterocyclized compounds can be accommodated in the binding site. Conformational analysis showed that 11 can only bind in a higher-energy conformation, which would explain its absent or low affinity. The amine and 2-oxygen interactions with D3.32 and S3.36, respectively, can form but shift the placement of the core scaffold. The constraints in 9–11 resulted in docking poses with the 4-bromine in closer vicinity to 5.46, which is polar only in the human 5-HT2A subtype, for which 9–11 have the lowest affinity. The new ligands, conformational analysis and docking expand the structure-activity relationships of constrained phenethylamines and contributes towards the development of 5-HT2 receptor subtype-selective ligands. PMID:24244317

Isberg, Vignir; Paine, James; Leth-Petersen, Sebastian; Kristensen, Jesper L.; Gloriam, David E.

2013-01-01

170

Moving around the molecule: relationship between chemical structure and in vivo activity of synthetic cannabinoids.  

PubMed

Originally synthesized for research purposes, indole- and pyrrole-derived synthetic cannabinoids are the most common psychoactive compounds contained in abused products marketed as "spice" or "herbal incense." While CB1 and CB2 receptor affinities are available for most of these research chemicals, in vivo pharmacological data are sparse. In mice, cannabinoids produce a characteristic profile of dose-dependent effects: antinociception, hypothermia, catalepsy and suppression of locomotion. In combination with receptor binding data, this tetrad battery has been useful in evaluation of the relationship between the structural features of synthetic cannabinoids and their in vivo cannabimimetic activity. Here, published tetrad studies are reviewed and additional in vivo data on synthetic cannabinoids are presented. Overall, the best predictor of likely cannabimimetic effects in the tetrad tests was good CB1 receptor affinity. Further, retention of good CB1 affinity and in vivo activity was observed across a wide array of structural manipulations of substituents of the prototypic aminoalkylindole molecule WIN55,212-2, including substitution of an alkyl for the morpholino group, replacement of an indole core with a pyrrole or phenylpyrrole, substitution of a phenylacetyl or tetramethylcyclopropyl group for JWH-018's naphthoyl, and halogenation of the naphthoyl group. This flexibility of cannabinoid ligand-receptor interactions has been a particular challenge for forensic scientists who have struggled to identify and regulate each new compound as it has appeared on the drug market. One of the most pressing future research needs is determination of the extent to which the pharmacology of these synthetic cannabinoids may differ from those of classical cannabinoids. PMID:24071522

Wiley, Jenny L; Marusich, Julie A; Huffman, John W

2014-02-27

171

A relational learning approach to Structure-Activity Relationships in drug design toxicity studies.  

PubMed

It has been recognized that the development of new therapeutic drugs is a complex and expensive process. A large number of factors affect the activity in vivo of putative candidate molecules and the propensity for causing adverse and toxic effects is recognized as one of the major hurdles behind the current "target-rich, lead-poor" scenario. Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) studies, using relational Machine Learning (ML) algorithms, have already been shown to be very useful in the complex process of rational drug design. Despite the ML successes, human expertise is still of the utmost importance in the drug development process. An iterative process and tight integration between the models developed by ML algorithms and the know-how of medicinal chemistry experts would be a very useful symbiotic approach. In this paper we describe a software tool that achieves that goal--iLogCHEM. The tool allows the use of Relational Learners in the task of identifying molecules or molecular fragments with potential to produce toxic effects, and thus help in stream-lining drug design in silico. It also allows the expert to guide the search for useful molecules without the need to know the details of the algorithms used. The models produced by the algorithms may be visualized using a graphical interface, that is of common use amongst researchers in structural biology and medicinal chemistry. The graphical interface enables the expert to provide feedback to the learning system. The developed tool has also facilities to handle the similarity bias typical of large chemical databases. For that purpose the user can filter out similar compounds when assembling a data set. Additionally, we propose ways of providing background knowledge for Relational Learners using the results of Graph Mining algorithms. PMID:21926445

Camacho, Rui; Pereira, Max; Costa, Vítor Santos; Fonseca, Nuno A; Adriano, Carlos; Simões, Carlos J V; Brito, Rui M M

2011-01-01

172

Structure-activity relationship of flavonoids active against lard oil oxidation based on quantum chemical analysis.  

PubMed

In this study, the antioxidant activities of 15 flavonoids against lard oil oxidation were determined by using the Rancimat test. Quercetin, dihydromyricetin, luteolin and kaempferol showed the strongest antioxidant activity, with protection factor values (PF) of 11.50, 11.29, 4.24 and 2.49, respectively. The role of conjugated hydroxyl groups of the B and C ring is discussed. By using the following descriptors: DeltaH(f) (the difference in heat of formation between flavonoids and their free radicals resulted after hydrogen atom donation) and H(BC) (the number of conjugated hydroxyl groups of the B and C ring), the result obtained in the antioxidant Rancimat test could be successfully explained. PMID:19104485

Yang, Ji-Guo; Liu, Ben-Guo; Liang, Gui-Zhao; Ning, Zheng-Xiang

2009-01-01

173

Structure activity relationship of phenolic acid inhibitors of ?-synuclein fibril formation and toxicity  

PubMed Central

The aggregation of ?-synuclein (?-syn) is considered the key pathogenic event in many neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies and multiple system atrophy, giving rise to a whole category of neurodegenerative diseases known as synucleinopathies. Although the molecular basis of ?-syn toxicity has not been precisely elucidated, a great deal of effort has been put into identifying compounds that could inhibit or even reverse the aggregation process. Previous reports indicated that many phenolic compounds are potent inhibitors of ?-syn aggregation. The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-aggregating effect of gallic acid (GA) (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid), a benzoic acid derivative that belongs to a group of phenolic compounds known as phenolic acids. By employing an array of biophysical and biochemical techniques and a cell-viability assay, GA was shown not only to inhibit ?-syn fibrillation and toxicity but also to disaggregate preformed ?-syn amyloid fibrils. Interestingly, GA was found to bind to soluble, non-toxic oligomers with no ?-sheet content, and to stabilize their structure. The binding of GA to the oligomers may represent a potential mechanism of action. Additionally, by using structure activity relationship data obtained from fourteen structurally similar benzoic acid derivatives, it was determined that the inhibition of ?-syn fibrillation by GA is related to the number of hydroxyl moieties and their position on the phenyl ring. GA may represent the starting point for designing new molecules that could be used for the treatment of PD and related disorders. PMID:25140150

Ardah, Mustafa T.; Paleologou, Katerina E.; Lv, Guohua; Abul Khair, Salema B.; Kazim, Abdulla S.; Minhas, Saeed T.; Al-Tel, Taleb H.; Al-Hayani, Abdulmonem A.; Haque, Mohammed E.; Eliezer, David; El-Agnaf, Omar M. A.

2014-01-01

174

Structure-activity relationships of sandalwood odorants: synthesis and odor of tricyclo beta-santalol.  

PubMed

In a series of structure-odor relationship investigations the synthesis of a new tricyclic beta-santalol derivative is described. The product of a multistep synthesis appears in an olfactive evaluation more or less odorless, may be slightly creamy but definitely with no sandalwood odor. This modification with a bulky aliphatic bridge in the neighborhood of the quaternary C3-atom demonstrated the sensitivity of sandalwood odor on the structure of beta-santalol analogues. PMID:15571865

Buchbauer, Gerhard; Stappen, Iris; Pretterklieber, Claudia; Wolschann, Peter

2004-12-01

175

Structure-activity relationships to estimate the effective Henry's law coefficients of organics of atmospheric interest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oxidation of volatile organic compounds emitted in the atmosphere involves complex reaction mechanisms which leads to the formation of oxygenated organic intermediates, usually denoted as secondary organics. The fate of these secondary organics remains poorly quantified due to a lack of information about their speciation, distribution and evolution in the gas and condensed phases. A significant fraction of secondary organics may dissolve into the tropospheric aqueous phase owing to the presence of polar moieties generated during the oxidation processes. The partitioning of organics between the gas and the aqueous atmospheric phases is usually described in the basis of Henry's law. Atmospheric models require a knowledge of the Henry's law coefficient (H) for every water soluble organic species described in the chemical mechanism. Methods that can predict reliable H values for the vast number of organic compounds are therefore required. We have compiled a data set of experimental Henry's law constants for compounds bearing functional groups of atmospheric relevance. This data set was then used to develop GROMHE, a structure activity relationship to predict H values based on a group contribution approach. We assessed its performance with two other available estimation methods. The results show that for all these methods the reliability of the estimates decreases with increasing solubility. We discuss differences between methods and found that GROMHE had greater prediction ability.

Raventos-Duran, Teresa; Valorso, Richard; Aumont, Bernard; Camredon, Marie

2010-05-01

176

Structure–Activity Relationships of ?-Keto Oxazole Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase  

PubMed Central

A systematic study of the structure–activity relationships (SAR) of 2b (OL-135), a potent inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), is detailed targeting the C2 acyl side chain. A series of aryl replacements or substituents for the terminal phenyl group provided effective inhibitors (e.g., 5c, aryl = 1-napthyl, Ki = 2.6 nM) with 5hh (aryl = 3-Cl-Ph, Ki = 900 pM) being 5-fold more potent than 2b. Conformationally-restricted C2 side chains were examined and many provided exceptionally potent inhibitors of which 11j (ethylbiphenyl side chain) was established to be a 750 pM inhibitor. A systematic series of heteroatoms (O, NMe, S), electron-withdrawing groups (SO, SO2), and amides positioned within and hydroxyl substitutions on the linking side chain were investigated which typically led to a loss in potency. The most tolerant positions provided effective inhibitors (12p, 6-position S, Ki = 3 nM or 13d, 2-position OH, Ki = 8 nM) comparable in potency to 2b. Proteomic-wide screening of selected inhibitors from the systematic series of >100 candidates prepared revealed that they are selective for FAAH over all other mammalian serine proteases. PMID:17559203

Hardouin, Christophe; Kelso, Michael J.; Romero, F. Anthony; Rayl, Thomas J.; Leung, Donmienne; Hwang, Inkyu; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Boger, Dale L.

2008-01-01

177

Design, synthesis and structure-activity relationship of rhenium 2-arylbenzothiazoles as ?-amyloid plaque binding agents  

PubMed Central

To continue our efforts toward the development of 99mTc PiB analogs, we have synthesized twenty-four neutral and lipophilic Re (as a surrogate of 99mTc) 2-arylbenzothiazoles, and explored their structure-activity relationship for binding to A?1–40fibrils. These Re complexes were designed and synthesized via the integrated approach, so their 99mTc analogs would have a greater chance of crossing the blood-brain barrier. While the lipophilicities (logPC18= 1.59–3.53) of these Re 2-arylbenzothiazoles were all within suitable range, their binding affinities (Ki= 30–617 nM) to A?1–40 fibrils varied widely depending on the selection and integration of the tetradentate chelator into the 2-phenylbenzothiazole pharmacophore. For potential clinical applications, further refinement to obtain Re 2-arylbenzothiazoles with better binding affinities (< 10 nM) will likely be needed. The integrated approach reported here to generate compact, neutral and lipophilic Re 2-arylbenzothiazoles could be applied to other potent pharmacophores as well to convert other current A? PET tracers to their 99mTc analogs for more widespread application via the use of SPECT scanners. PMID:23411076

Pan, Jinhe; Mason, Neale S.; Debnath, Manik L.; Mathis, Chester A.; Klunk, William E.; Lin, Kuo-Shyan

2013-01-01

178

Utilization of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) in risk assessment: Alkylphenols  

SciTech Connect

Alkylphenols are a class of environmentally pervasive compounds, found both in natural (e.g., crude oils) and in anthropogenic (e.g., wood tar, coal gasification waste) materials. Despite the frequent environmental occurrence of these chemicals, there is a limited toxicity database on alkylphenols. The authors have therefore developed a 'toxicity equivalence approach' for alkylphenols which is based on their ability to inhibit, in a specific manner, the enzyme cyclooxygenase. Enzyme-inhibiting ability for individual alkylphenols can be estimated based on the quantitative structure-activity relationship developed by Dewhirst (1980) and is a function of the free hydroxyl group, electron-donating ring substituents, and hydrophobic aromatic ring substituents. The authors evaluated the toxicological significance of cyclooxygenase inhibition by comparison of the inhibitory capacity of alkylphenols with the inhibitory capacity of acetylsalicylic acid, or aspirin, a compound whose low-level effects are due to cyclooxygenase inhibition. Since nearly complete absorption for alkylphenols and aspirin is predicted, based on estimates of hydrophobicity and fraction of charged molecules at gastrointestinal pHs, risks from alkylphenols can be expressed directly in terms of 'milligram aspirin equivalence,' without correction for absorption differences. They recommend this method for assessing risks of mixtures of alkylphenols, especially for those compounds with no chronic toxicity data.38 references.

Beck, B.D.; Toole, A.P.; Callahan, B.G.; Siddhanti, S.K. (Gradient Corporation, Cambridge, MA (United States))

1991-12-01

179

Structure-function relationships affecting the insecticidal and miticidal activity of sugar esters.  

PubMed

Synthetic sugar esters are a relatively new class of insecticidal compounds that are produced by reacting sugars with fatty acids. The objective of this research was to determine how systematic alterations in sugar or fatty acid components of sugar ester compounds influenced their insecticidal properties. Sucrose octanoate, sorbitol octanoate, sorbitol decanoate, sorbitol caproate, xylitol octanoate, xylitol decanoate and xylitol dodecanoate were synthesized and evaluated against a range of arthropod pests. Dosage-mortality studies were conducted on pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyricola Foerster) on pear, tobacco aphid (Myzus nicotianae) Blackman and tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta [Johannson]) on tobacco, and twospotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) on apple in laboratory bioassays. These sugar esters were compared with insecticidal soap (M-Pede, Dow AgroSciences L.L.C., San Diego, CA), to determine how toxicologically similar these materials were against the arthropod pests. Substitutions in either the sugar or fatty acid component led to significant changes in the physical properties and insecticidal activity of these compounds. The sugar esters varied in their solubility in water and in emulsion stability, yet, droplet spread upon pear leaves occurred at low concentrations of 80-160 ppm and was strongly correlated with psylla mortalities (R2 = 0.73). Sequentially altering the sugar or fatty acid components from lower to higher numbers of carbon chains, or whether the sugar was a monosaccharide or disaccharide did not follow a predictable relationship to insecticidal activity. Intuitively, changing the hydrophile from sorbitol (C6) to xylitol (C5) would require a decrease in lipophile chain length to maintain hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) relationships, yet an increase in lipophile chain length was unexpectedly needed for increasing insecticidal activity. Thus, the HLB of these materials did not correlate with pear psylla mortalities. Initial insect bioassays and dosage-mortality data found significant differences among sugar ester compounds' toxicity to the range of arthropod species. Sucrose octanoate high in monoester content had the highest activity against the range of arthropod pests at low concentrations of 1200-2400 ppm. No single chemical structure for the xylitol or sorbitol esters were optimally effective against the range of arthropods we tested and sorbitol octanoate and xylitol decanoate had the highest insecticidal activity of this group. All of the sugar ester materials produced high T. urticae mortalities on apple at very low concentrations of 400 ppm. Overall, most of the sugar esters that were examined had superior insecticidal activity compared with insecticidal soap. Sugar ester chemistry offers a unique opportunity to design an insecticide or miticide specific to certain arthropod pests which would be valuable in crop integrated pest management (IPM) programs. Sucrose esters are currently used as additives in the food industry which makes them especially attractive as safe and effective insecticides. PMID:12852599

Puterka, Gary J; Farone, William; Palmer, Tracy; Barrington, Anthony

2003-06-01

180

[Perspective of predictive toxicity assessment of in vivo repeated dose toxicity using structural activity relationship].  

PubMed

Tens of thousands of existing chemicals have been widely used for manufacture, agriculture, household and other purposes in worldwide. Only approximately 10% of chemicals have been assessed for human health hazard. The health hazard assessment of residual large number of chemicals for which little or no information of their toxicity is available is urgently needed for public health. However, the conduct of traditional toxicity tests which involves using animals for all of these chemicals would be economically impractical and ethically unacceptable. (Quantitative) Structure-Activity Relationships [(Q)SARs] are expected as method to have the potential to estimate hazards of chemicals from their structure, while reducing time, cost and animal testing currently needed. Therefore, our studies have been focused on evaluation of available (Q)SAR systems for estimating in vivo repeated toxicity on the liver. The results from our preliminary analysis showed the distribution for LogP of the chemicals which have potential to induce liver toxicity was bell-shape and indicating the possibility to estimate liver toxicity of chemicals from their physicochemical property. We have developed (Q)SAR models to in vivo liver toxicity using three commercially available systems (DEREK, ADMEWorks and MultiCASE) as well as combinatorial use of publically available chemoinformatic tools (CDK, MOSS and WEKA). Distinct data-sets of the 28-day repeated dose toxicity test of new and existing chemicals evaluated in Japan were used for model development and performance test. The results that concordances of commercial systems and public tools were almost same which below 70% may suggest currently attainable knowledge of in silico estimation of complex biological process, though it possible to obtain complementary and enhanced performance by combining predictions from different programs. In future, the combinatorial application of in silico and in vitro tests might provide more accurate information which support regulatory decisions. At the same time, an appropriate strategy to use (Q)SAR for of the efficiency and accuracy in chemical management is necessary. PMID:21381395

Ono, Atsushi

2010-01-01

181

Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship for Inhibition of Human Organic Cation/Carnitine Transporter (OCTN2)  

PubMed Central

Organic cation/carnitine transporter (OCTN2; SLC22A5) is an important transporter for L-carnitine homeostasis, but can be inhibited by drugs, which may cause L-carnitine deficiency and possibly other OCTN2-mediated drug-drug interactions. One objective was to develop a quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) of OCTN2 inhibitors, in order to predict and identify other potential OCTN2 inhibitors and infer potential clinical interactions. A second objective was to assess two high renal clearance drugs that interact with OCTN2 in vitro (cetirizine and cephaloridine) for possible OCTN2-mediated drug-drug interactions. Using previously generated in vitro data of 22 drugs, a 3D quantitative pharmacophore model and a Bayesian machine learning model were developed. The four pharmacophore features include two hydrophobic groups, one hydrogen-bond acceptor, and one positive ionizable center. The Bayesian machine learning model was developed using simple interpretable descriptors and function class fingerprints of maximum diameter 6 (FCFP_6). An external test set of 27 molecules, including 15 newly identified OCTN2 inhibitors, and a literature test set of 22 molecules were used to validate both models. The computational models afforded good capability to identify structurally diverse OCTN2 inhibitors, providing a valuable tool to predict new inhibitors efficiently. Inhibition results confirmed our previously observed association between rhabdomyolysis and Cmax/Ki ratio. The two high renal clearance drugs cetirizine and cephaloridine were found not to be OCTN2 substrates and their diminished elimination by other drugs is concluded not to be mediated by OCTN2. PMID:20831193

Diao, Lei; Ekins, Sean; Polli, James E.

2010-01-01

182

Structure-activity relationship studies toward the discovery of selective apelin receptor agonists.  

PubMed

Apelin is the endogenous ligand for the previously orphaned G protein-coupled receptor APJ. Apelin and its receptor are widely distributed in the brain, heart, and vasculature, and are emerging as an important regulator of body fluid homeostasis and cardiovascular functions. To further progress in the pharmacology and the physiological role of the apelin receptor, the development of small, bioavailable agonists and antagonists of the apelin receptor, is crucial. In this context, E339-3D6 (1) was described as the first nonpeptidic apelin receptor agonist. We show here that 1 is actually a mixture of polymethylated species, and we describe an alternative and versatile solid-phase approach that allows access to highly pure 27, the major component of 1. This approach was also applied to prepare a series of derivatives in order to identify the crucial structural determinants required for the ligand to maintain its affinity for the apelin receptor as well as its capacity to promote apelin receptor signaling and internalization. The study of the structure-activity relationships led to the identification of ligands 19, 21, and 38, which display an increased affinity compared to that of 27. The latter and 19 behave as full agonists with regard to cAMP production and apelin receptor internalization, whereas 21 is a biased agonist toward cAMP production. Interestingly, the three ligands display a much higher stability in mouse plasma (T1/2 > 10 h) than the endogenous apelin-17 peptide 2 (T1/2 < 4 min). PMID:24625069

Margathe, Jean-François; Iturrioz, Xavier; Alvear-Perez, Rodrigo; Marsol, Claire; Riché, Stéphanie; Chabane, Hadjila; Tounsi, Nassera; Kuhry, Maxime; Heissler, Denis; Hibert, Marcel; Llorens-Cortes, Catherine; Bonnet, Dominique

2014-04-10

183

The relationship between molecular structure and biological activity of alkali metal salts of vanillic acid: Spectroscopic, theoretical and microbiological studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we investigate the relationship between molecular structure of alkali metal vanillate molecules and their antimicrobial activity. To this end FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV absorption and 1H, 13C NMR spectra for lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium vanillates in solid state were registered, assigned and analyzed. Microbial activity of studied compounds was tested against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans. In order to evaluate the dependence between chemical structure and biological activity of alkali metal vanillates the statistical analysis was performed for selected wavenumbers from FT-IR spectra and parameters describing microbial activity of vanillates. The geometrical structures of the compounds studied were optimized and the structural characteristics were determined by density functional theory (DFT) using at B3LYP method with 6-311++G** as basis set. The obtained statistical equations show the existence of correlation between molecular structure of vanillates and their biological properties.

?wis?ocka, Renata; Piekut, Jolanta; Lewandowski, W?odzimierz

184

Broad spectrum antibacterial and antifungal polymeric paint materials: synthesis, structure-activity relationship, and membrane-active mode of action.  

PubMed

Microbial attachment and subsequent colonization onto surfaces lead to the spread of deadly community-acquired and hospital-acquired (nosocomial) infections. Noncovalent immobilization of water insoluble and organo-soluble cationic polymers onto a surface is a facile approach to prevent microbial contamination. In the present study, we described the synthesis of water insoluble and organo-soluble polymeric materials and demonstrated their structure-activity relationship against various human pathogenic bacteria including drug-resistant strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and beta lactam-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae as well as pathogenic fungi such as Candida spp. and Cryptococcus spp. The polymer coated surfaces completely inactivated both bacteria and fungi upon contact (5 log reduction with respect to control). Linear polymers were more active and found to have a higher killing rate than the branched polymers. The polymer coated surfaces also exhibited significant activity in various complex mammalian fluids such as serum, plasma, and blood and showed negligible hemolysis at an amount much higher than minimum inhibitory amounts (MIAs). These polymers were found to have excellent compatibility with other medically relevant polymers (polylactic acid, PLA) and commercial paint. The cationic hydrophobic polymer coatings disrupted the lipid membrane of both bacteria and fungi and thus showed a membrane-active mode of action. Further, bacteria did not develop resistance against these membrane-active polymers in sharp contrast to conventional antibiotics and lipopeptides, thus the polymers hold great promise to be used as coating materials for developing permanent antimicrobial paint. PMID:25541751

Hoque, Jiaul; Akkapeddi, Padma; Yadav, Vikas; Manjunath, Goutham B; Uppu, Divakara S S M; Konai, Mohini M; Yarlagadda, Venkateswarlu; Sanyal, Kaustuv; Haldar, Jayanta

2015-01-28

185

Discovery of 4-Substituted Methoxybenzoyl-Aryl-Thiazole as Novel Anticancer Agents: Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and Structure-Activity Relationships  

PubMed Central

A series of 4-substituted methoxylbenzoyl-aryl-thiazoles (SMART) have been discovered and synthesized as a result of structural modifications of the lead compound 2-arylthiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid amides (ATCAA). The antiproliferative activity of the SMART agents against melanoma and prostate cancer cells was improved from ?M to low nM range compared with ATCAA series. The structure-activity relationship was discussed from modifications of “A”, “B” “C” rings and the linker. Preliminary mechanism of action studies indicated that these compounds exert their anticancer activity through inhibition of tubulin polymerization. PMID:19243174

Lu, Yan; Li, Chien-Ming; Wang, Zhao; Ross, Charles R.; Chen, Jianjun; Dalton, James; Li, Wei; Miller, Duane.D.

2009-01-01

186

Structure-activity relationship of gramicidin S analogues on membrane permeability.  

PubMed

The previous study of the action of gramicidin S on bacteria (Katsu, T., Kobayashi, H. and Fujita, Y. (1986) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 860, 608-619) prompted us to investigate further the structure-activity relationship of the gramicidin S analogues on membrane permeability. Two types of the gramicidin S analogues were used in the present study: (1) cyclo(-X-D-Leu-D-Lys-D-Leu-L-Pro-)2, where X = Gly, D-Leu and D-cyclohexylalanine (D-cHxAla); (2) N,N'-diacetyl derivative of gramicidin S (diacetyl-gramicidin S) which lacks a cationic moiety of gramicidin S. All the analogues have a beta-sheet conformation as gramicidin S. The following cellular systems were used: Staphylococcus aureus as Gram-positive bacteria, Escherichia coli as Gram-negative bacteria, human erythrocytes, rat liver mitochondria and artificial liposomal membranes. It was found that gramicidin S and one of the type 1 analogues having X = D-cHxAla induced the efflux of K+ through the cytoplasmic membrane of all types of the cells. In addition, these two peptides had the ability to lower the phase transition temperature of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine. Accordingly, it was concluded that, if peptides can expand greatly the membrane structure of neutral lipids which constitute main parts of the biological membrane, they can stimulate the permeability of cells without any selectivity. The action of the type 2 peptide, diacetyl-gramicidin S, was strongly cell dependent. Although this peptide stimulated the efflux of K+ from mitochondria, it did not do so efficiently, if at all, from S. aureus, E. coli and erythrocytes. In experiments using liposomes, diacetyl-gramicidin S increased markedly the permeability of liposomes composed of egg phosphatidylcholine. The presence of egg phosphatidylethanolamine or cholesterol reduced its activity. These results on liposomes explained well the low sensitivity of diacetyl-gramicidin S against E. coli and erythrocytes in terms of lipid constituents of the membranes. The mechanism of action of diacetyl-gramicidin S was discussed from the formation of a boundary lipid induced by this peptide. PMID:2437956

Katsu, T; Kobayashi, H; Hirota, T; Fujita, Y; Sato, K; Nagai, U

1987-05-29

187

Ginsenosides as Anticancer Agents: In vitro and in vivo Activities, Structure–Activity Relationships, and Molecular Mechanisms of Action  

PubMed Central

Conventional chemotherapeutic agents are often toxic not only to tumor cells but also to normal cells, limiting their therapeutic use in the clinic. Novel natural product anticancer compounds present an attractive alternative to synthetic compounds, based on their favorable safety and efficacy profiles. Several pre-clinical and clinical studies have demonstrated the anticancer potential of Panax ginseng, a widely used traditional Chinese medicine. The anti-tumor efficacy of ginseng is attributed mainly to the presence of saponins, known as ginsenosides. In this review, we focus on how ginsenosides exert their anticancer effects by modulation of diverse signaling pathways, including regulation of cell proliferation mediators (CDKs and cyclins), growth factors (c-myc, EGFR, and vascular endothelial growth factor), tumor suppressors (p53 and p21), oncogenes (MDM2), cell death mediators (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, XIAP, caspases, and death receptors), inflammatory response molecules (NF-?B and COX-2), and protein kinases (JNK, Akt, and AMP-activated protein kinase). We also discuss the structure–activity relationship of various ginsenosides and their potentials in the treatment of various human cancers. In summary, recent advances in the discovery and evaluation of ginsenosides as cancer therapeutic agents support further pre-clinical and clinical development of these agents for the treatment of primary and metastatic tumors. PMID:22403544

Nag, Subhasree Ashok; Qin, Jiang-Jiang; Wang, Wei; Wang, Ming-Hai; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Ruiwen

2012-01-01

188

Quantitative structure activity relationship and risk analysis of some pesticides in the goat milk  

PubMed Central

The detection and quantification of different pesticides in the goat milk samples collected from different localities of Faisalabad, Pakistan was performed by HPLC using solid phase microextraction. The analysis showed that about 50% milk samples were contaminated with pesticides. The mean±SEM levels (ppm) of cyhalothrin, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin were 0.34±0.007, 0.063±0.002, 0.034±0.002 and 0.092±0.002, respectively; whereas, methyl parathion was not detected in any of the analyzed samples. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models were suggested to predict the residues of unknown pesticides in the goat milk using their known physicochemical characteristics including molecular weight (MW), melting point (MP), and log octanol to water partition coefficient (Ko/w) in relation to the characteristics such as pH, % fat, specific gravity and refractive index of goat milk. The analysis revealed good correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.985) for goat QSAR model. The coefficients for Ko/w and refractive index for the studied pesticides were higher in goat milk. This suggests that these are better determinants for pesticide residue prediction in the milk of these animals. Based upon the determined pesticide residues and their provisional tolerable daily intakes, risk analysis was also conducted which showed that daily intake levels of pesticide residues including cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin in present study are 2.68, 5.19 and 2.71 times higher, respectively in the goat milk. This intake of pesticide contaminated milk might pose health hazards to humans in this locality. PMID:23369514

2013-01-01

189

Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) using the novel marine algal toxicity data of phenols.  

PubMed

The present study reports for the first time in its entirety the toxicity of 30 phenolic compounds to marine alga Dunaliella tertiolecta. Toxicity of polar narcotics and respiratory uncouplers was strongly correlated to hydrophobicity as described by the logarithm of the octanol/water partition coefficient (Log P). Compounds expected to act by more reactive mechanisms, particularly hydroquinones, were shown to have toxicity in excess of that predicted by Log P. A quality quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) was obtained with Log P and a 2D autocorrelation descriptor weighted by atomic polarizability (MATS3p) only after the removal of hydroquinones from the data set. In an attempt to model the whole data set including hydroquinones, 3D descriptors were included in the modeling process and three quality QSARs were developed using multiple linear regression (MLR). One of the most significant results of the present study was the superior performance of the consensus MLR model, obtained by averaging the predictions from each individual linear model, which provided excellent prediction accuracy for the test set (Q(test)²=0.94). The four-parameter Counter Propagation Artificial Neural Network (CP ANN) model, which was constructed using four out of six descriptors that appeared in the linear models, also provided an excellent external predictivity (Q(test)²=0.93). The proposed algal QSARs were further tested in their predictivity using an external set comprising toxicity data of 44 chemicals on freshwater alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. The two-parameter global model employing a 3D descriptor (Mor24m) and a charge-related descriptor (C(ortho)) not only had high external predictivity (Q(ext)²=0.74), but it also had excellent external data set coverage (%97). PMID:23085159

Ertürk, M Do?a; Saçan, Melek Türker; Novic, Marjana; Minovski, Nikola

2012-09-01

190

Conformational analysis of rhazinilam and three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships of rhazinilam analogues.  

PubMed

3D QSAR of rhazinilam (1), an alkaloid isolated from Rhazya stricta (Apocynaceae) with an activity involving disassembly of microtubules and its derivatives was investigated by using the comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA). In an effort to get a better understanding of the correlation between conformation and antitubulin activity of 1, most probable minimum energy conformation in solution of 1 was analyzed on the basis of NMR data of 1 in solution. The results indicated a correlation between the antitubulin activity of these alkaloids and the steric and electrostatic factors, which modulate their biological activity, and accounted for the potent activities of 1 with suitable relationship for the overall conformation. PMID:15686909

Morita, Hiroshi; Awang, Khalijah; Hadi, A Hamid A; Takeya, Koichi; Itokawa, Hideji; Kobayashi, Jun'ichi

2005-02-15

191

Synthesis and structure-activity-relationship studies of thiazolidinediones as antiplasmodial inhibitors of the Plasmodium falciparum cysteine protease falcipain-2.  

PubMed

Following a structure-based virtual screening, a series of 2,4 thiazolidinediones was synthesized in order to explore structure activity relationships for inhibition of the Plasmodium falciparum cysteine protease falcipain-2 (FP-2) and of whole cell antiparasitic activity. Most compounds exhibited low micromolar antiplasmodial activities against the P. falciparum drug resistant W2 strain. The most active compounds of the series were tested for in vitro microsomal metabolic stability and found to be susceptible to hepatic metabolism. Subsequent metabolite identification studies highlighted the metabolic hot spots. Molecular docking studies of a frontrunner inhibitor were carried out to determine the probable binding mode of this class of inhibitors in the active site of FP-2. PMID:25486422

Sharma, Rajni Kant; Younis, Yassir; Mugumbate, Grace; Njoroge, Mathew; Gut, Jiri; Rosenthal, Philip J; Chibale, Kelly

2015-01-27

192

Diarylquinolines, synthesis pathways and quantitative structure--activity relationship studies leading to the discovery of TMC207.  

PubMed

The emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and resistance to current anti-TB drugs call for the discovery and development of new effective anti-TB drugs. TMC207 is the lead candidate of a novel class of antimycobacterial agents, the diarylquinolines, which specifically inhibit mycobacterial ATP synthase and displays high activity against both drug-susceptible and multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This article covers both synthesis pathways as well as qualitative and quantitative analyses of the structure-activity relationships of the diarylquinoline series on Mycobacterium smegmatis activity. PMID:21879841

Guillemont, Jerome; Meyer, Christophe; Poncelet, Alain; Bourdrez, Xavier; Andries, Koen

2011-09-01

193

Quantitative structure-activity relationship of insect juvenile hormone mimetic compounds.  

PubMed

Juvenile hormone mimetic activities on Aedes aegypti (yellow-fever mosquito) and Tenebrio molitor (yellow mealworm) of compounds having (2E,4E)-3,7,11-trimethyl-2,4-dodecadienone structures were comparatively and quantitatively analyzed in terms of their physiochemical structural parameters and by regression analysis. They were structurally composed of three classes, ester and thiol ester derivatives, amides, and ketones, depending on the C1 substituents. The results indicated that the steric dimensions and the hydrophobicity of the whole molecule are important factors in governing the activity through these classes as well as through both insect species. The effects of the structure of the C1 and C11 substituents, the two ends of the chain molecule, are specific to the insect. The length along the bond axis of the C1 substituents is significant and the hydroxy and alkoxy functions attached to the C11 atom favor the activity on A. aegypti, whereas with T. molitor the width of the C1 substituents in the direction perpendicular to the bond axis is significant and the position-specific hydrophobicity of the C1 moiety enhances the activity. The activity is also affected differently by the compound types. The amide and ketone series of compounds are more active than the corresponding ester type of compounds on T. molitor, while the favorable types on A. aegypti are the ester and ketone derivatives. Correlation equations formulated for 85 active compounds on A. aegypti and 84 compounds on T. molitor led us to draw a hypothetical "mode of action" model for each species, which visualizes the overall similarity as well as the species differences of the interaction site or the receptor and may show the structural conditions necessary for activity. PMID:6492079

Nakayama, A; Iwamura, H; Fujita, T

1984-11-01

194

Structure-activity relationships in platelet-activating factor (PAF). 8. Tetrahydrofuran derivatives as dual PAF antagonists and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors: anti-acetylcholinesterase activity and comparative SAR.  

PubMed

2,5-disubstituted tetrahydrofuran derivatives display a dual functionality: they are PAF antagonists and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors. In vitro anti-AChE activity and in vivo trials are presented herein. These compounds are competitive and potent AChE inhibitors. Structure-activity relationships are described and compared with PAF-antagonist results. The presence of an onium group, a suitable distance supplied by a chain of 7 or 10 carbon atoms separating the function from the polar head and an appreciable chain hydrophobicity (4 < sigma f < 7) are the main features required for a dual activity. The derivatives are evaluated in a mouse passive avoidance model. Only compounds with both activities are able to reverse scopolamine-induced amnesia. In addition, they display a very weak toxicity. PMID:8816985

Le Texier, L; Favre, E; Ronzani, N; Massicot, F; Blavet, N; Pirotzky, E; Godfroid, J J

1996-05-01

195

Inhibition of ethoxy- and pentoxy-resorufin dealkylases of rat liver by flavones and flavonols: structure-activity relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The inhibitory effects of 17 flavones and flavonols on ethoxy- and pentoxy-resorufin dealkylases of rat liver were investigated.\\u000a Several findings concerning the relationship between structure and activity can be pointed out The presence or lack of hydroxyl\\u000a groups on the Havane nucleus has no influence on the efficiency of inhibition. Flavone and quercetin result in the same degree\\u000a of inhibition.

M. H. Siess; A. Pennec; E. Gaydou

1989-01-01

196

Selective CB2 receptor agonists. Part 2: Structure-activity relationship studies and optimization of proline-based compounds.  

PubMed

Through a ligand-based pharmacophore model (S)-proline based compounds were identified as potent cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) agonists with high selectivity over the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1). Structure-activity relationship investigations for this compound class lead to oxo-proline compounds 21 and 22 which combine an impressive CB1 selectivity profile with good pharmacokinetic properties. In a streptozotocin induced diabetic neuropathy model, 22 demonstrated a dose-dependent reversal of mechanical hyperalgesia. PMID:25556092

Riether, Doris; Zindell, Renee; Wu, Lifen; Betageri, Raj; Jenkins, James E; Khor, Someina; Berry, Angela K; Hickey, Eugene R; Ermann, Monika; Albrecht, Claudia; Ceci, Angelo; Gemkow, Mark J; Nagaraja, Nelamangala V; Romig, Helmut; Sauer, Achim; Thomson, David S

2015-02-01

197

Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of a novel series of pyrimidines as potent inhibitors of TBK1/IKK? kinases.  

PubMed

The design, synthesis and structure-activity relationships of a novel series of 2,4-diamino-5-cyclopropyl pyrimidines is described. Starting from BX795, originally reported to be a potent inhibitor of PDK1, we have developed compounds with improved selectivity and drug-like properties. These compounds have been evaluated in a range of cellular and in vivo assays, enabling us to probe the putative role of the TBK1/IKK? pathway in inflammatory diseases. PMID:23099093

McIver, Edward G; Bryans, Justin; Birchall, Kristian; Chugh, Jasveen; Drake, Thomas; Lewis, Stephen J; Osborne, Joanne; Smiljanic-Hurley, Ela; Tsang, William; Kamal, Ahmad; Levy, Alison; Newman, Michelle; Taylor, Debra; Arthur, J Simon C; Clark, Kristopher; Cohen, Philip

2012-12-01

198

Structure-Activity Relationship Studies and Biological Characterization of Human NAD+-dependent 15-Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenase Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

The structure-activity relationship (SAR) study of two chemotypes identified as inhibitors of the human NAD+-dependent 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (HPGD, 15-PGDH) was conducted. Top compounds from both series displayed potent inhibition (IC50 <50 nM), demonstrate excellent selectivity towards HPGD and potently induce PGE2 production in A549 lung cancer and LNCaP prostate cancer cells. PMID:24360556

Duveau, Damien Y.; Yasgar, Adam; Wang, Yuhong; Hu, Xin; Kouznetsova, Jennifer; Brimacombe, Kyle R.; Jadhav, Ajit; Simeonov, Anton; Thomas, Craig J.; Maloney, David J.

2014-01-01

199

Antifungal Spectrum, In Vivo Efficacy, and Structure–Activity Relationship of Ilicicolin H  

PubMed Central

Ilicicolin H is a polyketide—nonribosomal peptide synthase (NRPS)—natural product isolated from Gliocadium roseum, which exhibits potent and broad spectrum antifungal activity, with sub-?g/mL MICs against Candida spp., Aspergillus fumigatus, and Cryptococcus spp. It showed a novel mode of action, potent inhibition (IC50 = 2–3 ng/mL) of the mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 reductase, and over 1000-fold selectivity relative to rat liver cytochrome bc1 reductase. Ilicicolin H exhibited in vivo efficacy in murine models of Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans infections, but efficacy may have been limited by high plasma protein binding. Systematic structural modification of ilicicolin H was undertaken to understand the structural requirement for the antifungal activity. The details of the biological activity of ilicicolin H and structural modification of some of the key parts of the molecule and resulting activity of the derivatives are discussed. These data suggest that the ?-keto group is critical for the antifungal activity. PMID:24900384

2012-01-01

200

Evaluation and Structure-Activity Relationship Analysis of a New Series of Arylnaphthalene lignans as Potential Anti-Tumor Agents  

PubMed Central

Arylnaphthalene lignan lactones have attracted considerable interest because of their anti-tumor and anti-hyperlipidimic activities. However, to our knowledge, few studies have explored the effects of these compounds on human leukemia cell lines. In this study, five arylnaphthalene lignans including 6?-hydroxy justicidin A (HJA), 6?-hydroxy justicidin B (HJB), justicidin B (JB), chinensinaphthol methyl ether (CME) and Taiwanin E methyl ether (TEME) were isolated from Justicia procumbens and their effects on the proliferation and apoptosis of the human leukemia K562 cell line were investigated then used to assess structure-activity relationships. To achieve these aims, cytotoxicity was assayed using the MTT assay, while intracellular SOD activity was detected using the SOD Activity Assay kit. Apoptosis was measured by both the using a cycle TEST PLUS DNA reagent kit as well as the FITC Annexin V apoptosis detection kit in combination with flow cytometry. Activation of caspase-mediated apoptosis was evaluated using a FITC active Caspase-3 apoptosis kit and flow cytometry. The results indicated that HJB, HJA and JB significantly inhibited the growth of K562 cells by decreasing both proliferation and SOD activity and inducing apoptosis. The sequence of anti-proliferative activity induced by the five tested arylnaphthalenes by decreasing strength was HJB > HJA > JB > CME > TEME. HJB, HJA and JB also decreased SOD activity and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Activation of caspase-3 further indicated that HJB, HJA and JB induced caspase-dependent intrinsic and/or extrinsic apoptosis pathways. Together, these assays suggest that arylnaphthalene lignans derived from Justicia procumbens induce apoptosis to varying degrees, through a caspase-dependent pathway in human leukemia K562 cells. Furthermore, analysis of structure-activity relationships suggest that hydroxyl substitution at C-1 and C-6? significantly increased the antiproliferative activity of arylnaphthalene lignans while a methoxyl at C-1 significantly decreased the effect. PMID:24675875

Luo, Jiaoyang; Hu, Yichen; Kong, Weijun; Yang, Meihua

2014-01-01

201

Structure/activity relationship of some natural monoterpenes as acaricides against Psoroptes cuniculi.  

PubMed

The pharmacological activity of many essential oils on a large number of human and animal pathogens, as used in folk medicine, has been confirmed world-wide by several laboratory investigations. Unfortunately, the biological properties of essential oils can be extremely inconsistent because of the variability of their chemical composition. The acaricidal activities of some natural terpenoids, which are the main constitutents of several essential oils, were evaluated in vitro against the mange mite (Psoroptes cuniculi) of the rabbit, by direct contact and by inhalation. Because the test components represent different chemical classes (hydrocarbons, alcohols, and phenols, with free and esterified or etherified functional groups), it was also possible to discern in a preliminary fashion a correlation between chemical structure and acaricidal activity. The results obtained suggest that molecules possessing free alcoholic or phenolic groups showed the most potent acaricidal activity. PMID:7595592

Perrucci, S; Macchioni, G; Cioni, P L; Flamini, G; Morelli, I

1995-08-01

202

Structure-activity relationship of a broad-spectrum insect odorant receptor agonist.  

PubMed

Agonism of insect odorant receptor (OR) cation channels may represent a new strategy for the manipulation of destructive insect olfactory-driven behaviors. We have explored the chemical space around VUAA1, the first in class agonist of the obligate OR co-receptor ion channel (Orco), and describe novel compound analogues with increased potency across insect taxa. Functional analyses reveal several of these VUAA1 structural analogues display significantly greater potency as compared to the activity of the previously described active compounds in mobility-based behavioral assays on mosquito larvae. PMID:22924767

Taylor, Robert W; Romaine, Ian M; Liu, Chao; Murthi, Poornima; Jones, Patrick L; Waterson, Alex G; Sulikowski, Gary A; Zwiebel, Laurence J

2012-10-19

203

Structure activity relationship of plumbagin in BRCA1 related cancer cells.  

PubMed

It has been shown earlier that plumbagin, a naturally occurring naphthaquinone has specific anticancer activity in BRCA1 blocked ovarian cancer cells. Plumbagin can induce estrogen dependent cell signaling and apoptosis in BRCA1 blocked ovarian cancer cells. Being a reactive oxygen species (ROS) generator and apoptosis inducing agent, plumbagin has immense potential as a promising anticancer agent. In this study we analyzed whether there would be increased anticancer activity if the positions of the functional groups on plumbagin were altered and further to analyze the detailed molecular mechanism of action of the lead molecule. Methods like MTT assay, apoptosis analysis by flow cytometry, assessment of mitochondrial membrane potential-??m , suppression subtractive hybridization, microarray, molecular docking and estrogen receptor-DNA binding activity by electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA) were adopted for assessing the anticancer activity. Consequently we found that, plumbagin was the most potent anticancer agent when compared to structurally related compounds. The anti-cancer activities were in the order plumbagin > 1,4-naphthaquinone > juglone > lawsone > menadione. Molecular docking studies showed that plumbagin could be well docked in the receptor ligand complex of TRAIL-DR5 complexes to activate the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Since the antiproliferative activity of plumbagin could be reduced by inhibiting ER?, we speculated that plumbagin interferes with the binding of ER? to ERE and we confirmed this by EMSA. This study clearly indicates that plumbagin can induce multiple pathways of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in BRCA1 blocked cells compared to unblocked cells. PMID:22290577

K A, Thasni; T, Ratheeshkumar; G, Rojini; K C, Sivakumar; Nair, Rakesh Sathish; G, Srinivas; Banerji, Asoke; Somasundaram, Veena; Srinivas, Priya

2013-05-01

204

AnalogExplorer: a new method for graphical analysis of analog series and associated structure-activity relationship information.  

PubMed

In recent years, several attempts have been made to develop graphical methods for the analysis of structure-activity relationships (SARs) in increasingly large and heterogeneous compound data sets. Among others, these approaches include extensions of conventional R-group tables and graph representations for the analysis of active analogs. Herein, we introduce AnalogExplorer as a new method for the graphical exploration of analog series. AnalogExplorer consists of three graphical components and is methodologically distinct from previous SAR visualization techniques. It is designed to deconvolute large series of analogs and systematically analyze and compare analog series contained in structurally heterogeneous data sets. In addition, analog subsets forming activity cliffs and R-groups responsible for cliff formation are easily identified in AnalogExplorer graphs. The design of AnalogExplorer is described in detail, and exemplary applications are discussed. In addition, the implementation of AnalogExplorer is made freely available. PMID:25333505

Zhang, Bijun; Hu, Ye; Bajorath, Jürgen

2014-11-13

205

Synthesis and structure-activity relationship study of 8-hydroxyquinoline-derived Mannich bases as anticancer agents.  

PubMed

To continue our early study on the structural modifications of clioquinol, more 8-hydroxyquinoline-derived Mannich bases were synthesized and examined for growth-inhibitory effect. Taken Mannich base 1 as our lead compound, upon replacement of either sulfonyl group with methylene group or piperazine ring with ethylenediamine group resulted in an appreciable increase in potency. On the other hand, as 8-hydroxyquinoline was replaced with phenol, 3-hydroxypyridine and 1-naphthol, a dramatic decrease in activity was observed, indicating that 8-hydroxyquinoline is a crucial scaffold for activity. Further 3D-QSAR analysis on HeLa cells revealed that both steric and electronic effects contributed equally to growth inhibition. Taken together, the structure-activity relationships obtained from both in vitro data and CoMFA model warrant a valuable reference for further study. PMID:20359788

Shaw, Arthur Y; Chang, Chun-Yi; Hsu, Mei-Yuan; Lu, Pei-Jung; Yang, Chia-Ning; Chen, Hui-Ling; Lo, Cheng-Wei; Shiau, Chung-Wai; Chern, Ming-Kai

2010-07-01

206

Computational identification of RNA functional determinants by three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships.  

PubMed

Anti-infection drugs target vital functions of infectious agents, including their ribosome and other essential non-coding RNAs. One of the reasons infectious agents become resistant to drugs is due to mutations that eliminate drug-binding affinity while maintaining vital elements. Identifying these elements is based on the determination of viable and lethal mutants and associated structures. However, determining the structure of enough mutants at high resolution is not always possible. Here, we introduce a new computational method, MC-3DQSAR, to determine the vital elements of target RNA structure from mutagenesis and available high-resolution data. We applied the method to further characterize the structural determinants of the bacterial 23S ribosomal RNA sarcin-ricin loop (SRL), as well as those of the lead-activated and hammerhead ribozymes. The method was accurate in confirming experimentally determined essential structural elements and predicting the viability of new SRL variants, which were either observed in bacteria or validated in bacterial growth assays. Our results indicate that MC-3DQSAR could be used systematically to evaluate the drug-target potentials of any RNA sites using current high-resolution structural data. PMID:25200082

Blanchet, Marc-Frédérick; St-Onge, Karine; Lisi, Véronique; Robitaille, Julie; Hamel, Sylvie; Major, François

2014-01-01

207

Part 2: Structure–activity relationship (SAR) investigations of fused pyrazoles as potent, selective and orally available inhibitors of p38? mitogen-activated protein kinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel class of pyrazolopyridazine p38? mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors is disclosed. A structure activity relationship (SAR) investigation was conducted driven by the ability of these compounds to inhibit the p38? enzyme, the secretion of TNF? in a LPS-challenged THP1 cell line and TNF?-induced production of IL-8 in the presence of 50% human whole blood (hWB). This study resulted

Ryan P. Wurz; Liping H. Pettus; Bradley Henkle; Lisa Sherman; Matthew Plant; Kent Miner; Helen J. McBride; Lu Min Wong; Christiaan J. M. Saris; Matthew R. Lee; Samer Chmait; Christopher Mohr; Faye Hsieh; Andrew S. Tasker

2010-01-01

208

A structure/activity relationship study on arvanil, an endocannabinoid and vanilloid hybrid.  

PubMed

Arvanil, a structural "hybrid" between the endogenous cannabinoid CB1 receptor ligand anandamide and capsaicin, is a potent agonist for the capsaicin receptor VR1 (vanilloid receptor type 1), inhibits the anandamide membrane transporter (AMT), and induces cannabimimetic responses in mice. Novel arvanil derivatives prepared by N-methylation, replacement of the amide with urea and thiourea moieties, and manipulation of the vanillyl group were evaluated for their ability to bind/activate CB1 receptors, activate VR1 receptors, inhibit the AMT and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), and produce cannabimimetic effects in mice. The compounds did not stimulate the CB1 receptor. Methylation of the amide group decreased the activity at VR1, AMT, and FAAH. On the aromatic ring, the substitution of the 3-methoxy group with a chlorine atom or the lack of the 4-hydroxy group decreased the activity on VR1 and AMT, but not the affinity for CB1 receptors, and increased the capability to inhibit FAAH. The urea or thiourea analogs retained activity at VR1 and AMT but exhibited little affinity for CB1 receptors. The urea analog was a potent FAAH inhibitor (IC50 = 2.0 microM). A water-soluble analog of arvanil, O-2142, was as active on VR1, much less active on AMT and CB1, and more potent on FAAH. All compounds induced a response in the mouse "tetrad", particularly those with EC50 <10 nM on VR1. However, the most potent compound, N-N'-di-(3-chloro-4-hydroxy)benzyl-arachidonamide (O-2093, ED50 approximately 0.04 mg/kg), did not activate VR1 or CB1 receptors. Our findings suggest that VR1 and/or as yet uncharacterized receptors produce cannabimimetic responses in mice in vivo. PMID:11861807

Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Griffin, Graeme; De Petrocellis, Luciano; Brandi, Ines; Bisogno, Tiziana; Williams, William; Grier, Mark C; Kulasegram, Sanjitha; Mahadevan, Anu; Razdan, Raj K; Martin, Billy R

2002-03-01

209

Biofunctional constituent isolated from Citrullus colocynthis fruits and structure-activity relationships of its analogues show acaricidal and insecticidal efficacy.  

PubMed

The acaricidal and insecticidal potential of the active constituent isolated from Citrullus colocynthis fruits and its structurally related analogues was evaluated by performing leaf disk, contact toxicity, and fumigant toxicity bioassays against Tetranychus urticae, Sitophilus oryzae, and Sitophilus zeamais adults. The active constituent of C. colocynthis fruits was isolated by chromatographic techniques and was identified as 4-methylquinoline on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. To investigate the structure-activity relationships, 4-methylquinoline and its structural analogues were tested against mites and two insect pests. On the basis of the LC50 values, 7,8-benzoquinoline was the most effective against T. urticae. Quinoline, 8-hydroxyquinoline, 2-methylquinoline, 4-methylquinoline, 6-methylquinoline, 8-methylquinoline, and 7,8-benzoquinoline showed high insecticidal activities against S. oryzae and S. zeamais regardless of the application method. These results indicate that introduction of a functional group into the quinoline skeleton and changing the position of the group have an important influence on the acaricidal and insecticidal activities. Furthermore, 4-methylquinoline isolated from C. colocynthis fruits, along with its structural analogues, could be effective natural pesticides for managing spider mites and stored grain weevils. PMID:25110971

Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Hoi-Seon

2014-08-27

210

WebProAnalyst: an interactive tool for analysis of quantitative structure–activity relationships in protein families  

PubMed Central

WebProAnalyst is a web-accessible analysis tool () designed for scanning quantitative structure–activity relationships in protein families. The tool allows users to search correlations between protein activity and physicochemical characteristics (i.e. hydrophobicity or alpha-helical amphipathicity) in queried sequences. WebProAnalyst uses aligned amino acid sequences and data on protein activity (pK, Km, ED50, among others). WebProAnalyst implements methods of the known ProAnalyst package, including the multiple linear regression analysis and the sequence–activity correlation coefficient. In addition, WebProAnalyst incorporates a method based on neural networks. The WebProAnalyst reports a list of sites in protein family, the regression analysis parameters (including correlation values) for the relationships between the amino acid physicochemical characteristics in the site and the protein activity values. WebProAnalyst is useful in search of the amino acid residues that are important for protein function/activity. Furthermore, WebProAnalyst may be helpful in designing the protein-engineering experiments. PMID:15980590

Ivanisenko, Vladimir A.; Eroshkin, Alexey M.; Kolchanov, Nickolay A.

2005-01-01

211

Quantitative structure-activity relationship models correctly predict the toxic and aneuploidizing properties of six halogenated methanes in Aspergillus nidulans.  

PubMed

In a previous study, the relationships between the chemical structure and the ability of 35 chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons to induce aneuploidy and toxicity in Aspergillus nidulans were analyzed. Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) were defined for each of the biological activities under study: ARR (the dose able to block mitotic growth), D37 (the dose with 37% of survival) and LEC (the lowest efficient concentration in aneuploidy induction). In this study, these QSAR equations were used to predict the toxic and genetic activity of a further six chemicals, not included in the previous data base: bromotrichloromethane, bromoform, bromochloromethane, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and dibromochlorofluoromethane. Their ARR, D37 and LEC values were measured, and were in agreement with the predicted values, with correlation coefficients around 0.99. Furthermore, the QSAR model, which had previously been developed to discriminate between aneugenic and inactive halogenated hydrocarbons, correctly predicted the aneugenic activity of five out of six methanes. These correct predictions confirmed the validity of our QSAR model, according to which the induction of aneuploidy in A. nidulans depends on both the electrophilic and steric properties of the chemicals, whereas toxicity mainly depends on steric factors. PMID:8377647

Benigni, R; Andreoli, C; Conti, L; Tafani, P; Cotta-Ramusino, M; Carere, A; Crebelli, R

1993-07-01

212

Inhibitory effects of dietary flavonoids on purified hepatic NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase: structure-activity relationships.  

PubMed

The structure-activity relationships of flavonoids with regard to their inhibitory effects on NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase (E.C. 1.6.2.2), a clinically and toxicologically important enzyme, are not known. In the present study, the inhibitory effects of fourteen selected flavonoids of variable structure on the activity of purified bovine liver cytochrome b5 reductase, which shares a high degree of homology with the human counterpart, were investigated and the relationship between structure and inhibition was examined. Of all the compounds tested, the flavone luteolin was the most potent in inhibiting b5 reductase with an IC50 value of 0.11 ?M, whereas naringenin, naringin and chrysin were inactive within the concentration range tested. Most of the remaining flavonoids (morin, quercetin, quercitrin, myricetin, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, (-)-epicatechin, and (+)-catechin) produced a considerable inhibition of enzyme activity with IC50 values ranging from 0.81 to 4.5 ?M except apigenin (36 ?M), rutin (57 ?M) and (+)-taxifolin (IC50 not determined). The magnitude of inhibition was found to be closely related to the chemical structures of flavonoids. Analysis of structure-activity data revealed that flavonoids containing two hydroxyl groups in ring B and a carbonyl group at C-4 in combination with a double bond between C-2 and C-3 produced a much stronger inhibition, whereas substitution of a hydroxyl group at C-3 was associated with a less inhibitory effect. The physiologically relevant IC50 values for most of the flavonoids tested regarding b5 reductase inhibition indicate a potential for significant flavonoid-drug and/or flavonoid-xenobiotic interactions which may have important therapeutic and toxicological outcomes for certain drugs and/or xenobiotics. PMID:22542668

Çelik, Haydar; Ko?ar, Müberra

2012-05-30

213

Leishmania lipophosphoglycan: how to establish structure-activity relationships for this highly complex and multifunctional glycoconjugate?  

PubMed Central

A key feature of many pathogenic microorganisms is the presence of a dense glycocalyx at their surface, composed of lipid-anchored glycoproteins and non-protein-bound polysaccharides. These surface glycolipids are important virulence factors for bacterial, fungal and protozoan pathogens. The highly complex glycoconjugate lipophosphoglycan (LPG) is one of the dominant surface macromolecules of the promastigote stage of all Leishmania parasitic species. LPG plays critical pleiotropic roles in parasite survival and infectivity in both the sandfly vector and the mammalian host. Here, we review the composition of the Leishmania glycocalyx, the chemical structure of LPG and what is currently known about its effects in the mammalian host, specifically. We will then discuss the current approaches employed to elucidate LPG functions. Finally, we will provide a viewpoint on future directions that this area of investigation could take to unravel in detail the biological activity of the specific molecular elements composing the structurally complex LPG. PMID:25653924

Forestier, Claire-Lise; Gao, Qi; Boons, Geert-Jan

2015-01-01

214

Structure-activity relationships of phenothiazines and related drugs for inhibition of protein kinase C.  

PubMed

Phenothiazines are known to inhibit the activity of protein kinase C. To identify structural features that determine inhibitory activity against the enzyme, we utilized a semiautomated assay [Anal. Biochem. 187:84-88 (1990)] to compare the potency of greater than 50 phenothiazines and related compounds. Potency was decreased by trifluoro substitution at position 2 on the phenothiazine nucleus and increased by quinoid structures on the nucleus. An alkyl bridge of at least three carbons connecting the terminal amine to the nucleus was required for activity. Primary amines and unsubstituted piperazines were the most potent amino side chains. We selected 7,8-dihydroxychlorpromazine (DHCP) (IC50 = 8.3 microM) and 2-chloro-9-(3-[1-piperazinyl]propylidene)thioxanthene (N751) (IC50 = 14 microM) for further study because of their potency and distinct structural features. Under standard (vesicle) assay conditions, DHCP was noncompetitive with respect to phosphatidylserine and a mixed-type inhibitor with respect to ATP. N751 was competitive with respect to phosphatidylserine and noncompetitive with respect to ATP. Using the mixed micelle assay, DHCP was a competitive inhibitor with respect to both phosphatidylserine and ATP. DHCP was selective for protein kinase C compared with cAMP-dependent protein kinase, calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II, and casein kinase. N751 was more potent against protein kinase C compared with cAMP-dependent protein kinase and casein kinase but less potent against protein kinase C compared with calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II. DHCP was analyzed for its ability to inhibit different isoenzymes of protein kinase C, and no significant isozyme selectivity was detected. These data provide important information for the rational design of more potent and selective inhibitors of protein kinase C. PMID:1944244

Aftab, D T; Ballas, L M; Loomis, C R; Hait, W N

1991-11-01

215

Structure-activity relationships of cecropin-like peptides and their interactions with phospholipid membrane.  

PubMed

Cecropin A and papiliocin are novel 37-residue cecropin-like antimicrobial peptides isolated from insect. We have confirmed that papiliocin possess high bacterial cell selectivity and has an ?-helical structure from Lys(3) to Lys(21) and from Ala(25) to Val(35), linked by a hinge region. In this study, we demonstrated that both peptides showed high antimicrobial activities against multi-drug resistant Gram negative bacteria as well as fungi. Interactions between these cecropin-like peptides and phospholipid membrane were studied using CD, dye leakage experiments, and NMR experiments, showing that both peptides have strong permeabilizing activities against bacterial cell membranes and fungal membranes as well as Trp(2) and Phe(5) at the N-terminal helix play an important role in attracting cecropin-like peptides to the negatively charged bacterial cell membrane. Cecropin-like peptides can be potent peptide antibiotics against multi-drug resistant Gram negative bacteria and fungi. PMID:23710640

Lee, Eunjung; Jeong, Ki-Woong; Lee, Juho; Shin, Areum; Kim, Jin-Kyoung; Lee, Juneyoung; Lee, Dong Gun; Kim, Yangmee

2013-05-01

216

Structure-activity relationship study of diphenylamine-based estrogen receptor (ER) antagonists.  

PubMed

We have reported the design and synthesis of novel estrogen receptor (ER) agonists with a diphenylamine skeleton, which has several advantages over the formerly used diphenylmethane skeleton for drug development. Here, we confirmed the versatility of the diphenylamine skeleton by designing and synthesizing ER antagonist candidates bearing a basic alkylamino side chain on one of the two phenol groups of the diphenylamine agonist core structure. Among the tested compounds, cyclic alkylamine-containing derivatives showed more potent ER-antagonistic activity than the corresponding acyclic derivatives in cell proliferation assay using the MCF-7 cell line. Compound 5e showed the most potent antiestrogenic activity (IC50: 1.3×10(-7)M), being 10times more potent than tamoxifen. PMID:25614118

Ohta, Kiminori; Chiba, Yuki; Kaise, Asako; Endo, Yasuyuki

2015-02-15

217

Inhibition of tolbutamide metabolism by substituted imidazole drugs in vivo: evidence for a structure-activity relationship.  

PubMed Central

Tolbutamide has been used as a model drug for an examination of the effects of eleven substituted imidazole compounds on hepatic metabolism in vivo. The 1-substituted compounds 1-methylimidazole, miconazole, clotrimazole and ketoconazole produced marked alterations in tolbutamide kinetics (increased half-life, decreased clearance). However, if there was substitution in the 2- position, irrespective of a substituent on N-1, then the compound did not appear to inhibit metabolism (e.g. 2-methylimidazole, 1,2-dimethylimidazole, methimazole, metronidazole). The 4- substituted compounds, 4-methylimidazole and cimetidine were inhibitors. A structure-activity relationship for the inhibitory actions of the substituted imidazoles is thus evident in vivo. PMID:4027461

Back, D. J.; Tjia, J. F.

1985-01-01

218

Anosognosia in mild cognitive impairment: Relationship to activation of cortical midline structures involved in self-appraisal  

PubMed Central

Awareness of cognitive dysfunction shown by individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), a condition conferring risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), is variable. Anosognosia, or unawareness of loss of function, is beginning to be recognized as an important clinical symptom of MCI. However, little is known about the brain substrates underlying this symptom. We hypothesized that MCI participants’ activation of cortical midline structures (CMS) during self-appraisal would covary with level of insight into cognitive difficulties (indexed by a discrepancy score between patient and informant ratings of cognitive decline in each MCI participant). To address this hypothesis, we first compared 16 MCI participants and 16 age-matched controls, examining brain regions showing conjoint or differential BOLD response during self-appraisal. Second, we used regression to investigate the relationship between awareness of deficit in MCI and BOLD activity during self-appraisal, controlling for extent of memory impairment. Between-group comparisons indicated that MCI participants show subtly attenuated CMS activity during self-appraisal. Regression analysis revealed a highly-significant relationship between BOLD response during self-appraisal and self-awareness of deficit in MCI. This finding highlights the level of anosognosia in MCI as an important predictor of response to self-appraisal in cortical midline structures, brain regions vulnerable to changes in early AD. PMID:17445294

Ries, Michele L.; Jabbar, Britta M.; Schmitz, Taylor W.; Trivedi, Mehul A.; Gleason, Carey E.; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Rowley, Howard A.; Asthana, Sanjay; Johnson, Sterling C.

2009-01-01

219

Structure-Activity Relationships in Human Toll-like Receptor 2-Specific Monoacyl Lipopeptides  

PubMed Central

Toll-like receptor 2-agonistic lipopeptides typified by S-[2,3-bis(palmitoyloxy)-(2RS)-propyl]-R-cysteinyl-S-serine (PAM2CS) compounds are potential vaccine adjuvants. We had previously determined that at least one acyl group of optimal length (C16) and an appropriately orientated ester carbonyl group is essential for TLR2-agonistic activity. We now show that these structurally simpler analogues display agonistic activities with human, but not murine TLR2. SAR studies on the monoacyl derivatives show that the optimal acyl chain length is C16, and aryl substituents are not tolerated. A variety of alkyl and acyl substituents on the cysteine amine were examined. All N-alkyl derivatives were inactive. In contradistinction, short-chain N-acyl analogues were found to be highly active, with a clear dependence on the chain length. A cysteine N-acetyl analogue was found to be the most potent (EC50: 1 nM), followed by the N-butyryl analogue. The N-acetyl analogue is human TLR2-specific, with its potency comparable to that of PAM2CS. PMID:22385476

Salunke, Deepak B.; Shukla, Nikunj M.; Yoo, Euna; Crall, Breanna M.; Balakrishna, Rajalakshmi; Malladi, Subbalakshmi S.; David, Sunil A.

2012-01-01

220

Structure-activity relationships of pentamidine-affected ion channel trafficking and dofetilide mediated rescue  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Drug interference with normal hERG protein trafficking substantially reduces the channel density in the plasma membrane and thereby poses an arrhythmic threat. The chemical substructures important for hERG trafficking inhibition were investigated using pentamidine as a model drug. Furthermore, the relationship between acute ion channel block and correction of trafficking by dofetilide was studied. Experimental Approach hERG and KIR2.1 trafficking in HEK293 cells was evaluated by Western blot and immunofluorescence microscopy after treatment with pentamidine and six pentamidine analogues, and correction with dofetilide and four dofetilide analogues that displayed different abilities to inhibit IKr. Molecular dynamics simulations were used to address mode, number and type of interactions between hERG and dofetilide analogues. Key Results Structural modifications of pentamidine differentially affected plasma membrane levels of hERG and KIR2.1. Modification of the phenyl ring or substituents directly attached to it had the largest effect, affirming the importance of these chemical residues in ion channel binding. PA-4 had the mildest effects on both ion channels. Dofetilide corrected pentamidine-induced hERG, but not KIR2.1 trafficking defects. Dofetilide analogues that displayed high channel affinity, mediated by pi-pi stacks and hydrophobic interactions, also restored hERG protein levels, whereas analogues with low affinity were ineffective. Conclusions and Implications Drug-induced trafficking defects can be minimized if certain chemical features are avoided or ‘synthesized out’; this could influence the design and development of future drugs. Further analysis of such features in hERG trafficking correctors may facilitate the design of a non-blocking corrector for trafficking defective hERG proteins in both congenital and acquired LQTS. PMID:23586323

Varkevisser, R; Houtman, M J C; Linder, T; de Git, K C G; Beekman, H D M; Tidwell, R R; IJzerman, A P; Stary-Weinzinger, A; Vos, M A; van der Heyden, M A G

2013-01-01

221

Antioxidant phenolic constituents in roots of Rheum officinale and Rubia cordifolia: structure-radical scavenging activity relationships.  

PubMed

The phenolic constituents in the roots of Rheum officinale and Rubia cordifolia were identified with the aid of high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and by comparison with authentic standards. A total of 17 hydroxyanthraquinones, gallic acid, and tannins were separated, and 14 of them were identified, being the main phenolic constituents present. Their antioxidant activity (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) was evaluated using the improved 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)diammonium salt method. Hydroxyanthraquinones were the predominant antioxidant phenolic constituents in the roots of R. cordifolia, and tannins and gallic acid were the predominant antioxidant phenolic constituents in the roots of R. officinale. The structure-radical scavenging activity relationships of the tested hydroxyanthraquinones were systematically demonstrated as follows: Hydroxy groups on one benzene ring of the anthraquinone structure were essential for hydroxyanthraquinones to show activity, the ortho-dihydroxy structure in the hydroxyanthraquinone molecules could greatly enhance their radical scavenging effect, and glycosylation of the hydroxyanthraquinones reduced activity. PMID:15612771

Cai, Yizhong; Sun, Mei; Xing, Jie; Corke, Harold

2004-12-29

222

Studies examining the relationship between the chemical structure of protoxin II and its activity on voltage gated sodium channels.  

PubMed

The aqueous solution structure of protoxin II (ProTx II) indicated that the toxin comprises a well-defined inhibitor cystine knot (ICK) backbone region and a flexible C-terminal tail region, similar to previously described NaSpTx III tarantula toxins. In the present study we sought to explore the structure-activity relationship of the two regions of the ProTx II molecule. As a first step, chimeric toxins of ProTx II and PaTx I were synthesized and their biological activities on Nav1.7 and Nav1.2 channels were investigated. Other tail region modifications to this chimera explored the effects of tail length and tertiary structure on sodium channel activity. In addition, the activity of various C-terminal modifications of the native ProTx II was assayed and resulted in the identification of protoxin II-NHCH3, a molecule with greater potency against Nav1.7 channels (IC50=42 pM) than the original ProTx II. PMID:25026046

Park, Jae H; Carlin, Kevin P; Wu, Gang; Ilyin, Victor I; Musza, Laszlo L; Blake, Paul R; Kyle, Donald J

2014-08-14

223

Arachin derived peptides as selective angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors: structure-activity relationship.  

PubMed

Current attention focuses on mechanisms of controlling blood pressure through the inhibition of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE). Bioactive antihypertensive peptides of food origin are increasingly gaining importance as alternates to synthetic drugs in hypertension therapy. The ACE inhibitory property of an enzymatic digest of arachin, the major storage globulin of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) has been demonstrated. The ACE inhibitory activity of a tripeptide (IEY) isolated from these digests has been characterized. Five synthetic structural analogs of this peptide (IEW, IKY, IKW, IEP and IKP) were assembled and their ACE inhibitory activity evaluated. Among these, the tripeptide IKP was a potent competitive inhibitor with an IC(50) of 7+/-1 x 10(-6)M similar to that of the potent whey peptides IPP and VPP. The inhibition data of these peptide analogs have been rationalized through docking simulations using the tACE-lisinopril complex at 2A resolution (PDB: 1086). The best docking poses were located at the tACE catalytic site resembling the mode of inhibition exerted by lisinopril, the synthetic drug. The degree of inhibition by the peptides correlated with the coordination distance between the catalytic Zn(II) and the carbonyl oxygen of the peptide bond between the amino-terminal and middle residue. These studies illustrate that these peptides, like lisinopril, behave as transition state analog inhibitors and are useful in therapeutic intervention for blood pressure management. PMID:20214946

Jimsheena, V K; Gowda, Lalitha R

2010-06-01

224

Synthesis, fungicidal activity, and structure-activity relationship of spiro-compounds containing macrolactam (macrolactone) and thiadiazoline rings.  

PubMed

Two series of novel spiro-compounds containing macrolactam or macrolactone and thiadiazoline rings, 1-thia-2-alkylimino-3,4,9-triaza-10-oxospiro[4.15]eicosyl-3-ene (4F) and 1-thia-2-alkylimino-3,4-diaza-9-oxa-10-oxospiro[4.15]eicosyl-3-ene (4G), were synthesized from 12-oxo-1,15-pentadecanlactam and 12-oxo-1,15-pentadecanlactone, respectively. Their structures were confirmed by elemental analysis, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR. The conformation of compounds 4F was determined via the crystal structure of a representative compound (4F(6)). The bioassay showed that compounds 4F have much better fungicidal activity against five fungi ( Botrytis cinerea Pers., Sclerotinia sclerotiorum , Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn., Phomopsis asparagi Sacc., and Pyricularia oryzae Cav.) than compounds 4G. The fact above showed that the presence of a hydrogen-bonding donor for the fungicidal activity of macrocyclic compounds is very important. 4F(6) showed excellent fungicidal activity against P. oryzae, which is much better than the commercial fungicide isoprothiolane, and 4F(13) showed excellent fungicidal activity against P. oryzae and good fungicidal activity against P. asparagi. PMID:20041703

Li, Jian-Jun; Liang, Xiao-Mei; Jin, Shu-Hui; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Yuan, Hui-Zhu; Qi, Shu-Hua; Chen, Fu-Heng; Wang, Dao-Quan

2010-03-10

225

Structure-Activity Relationships of Novel Salicylaldehyde Isonicotinoyl Hydrazone (SIH) Analogs: Iron Chelation, Anti-Oxidant and Cytotoxic Properties  

PubMed Central

Salicylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (SIH) is a lipophilic, tridentate iron chelator with marked anti-oxidant and modest cytotoxic activity against neoplastic cells. However, it has poor stability in an aqueous environment due to the rapid hydrolysis of its hydrazone bond. In this study, we synthesized a series of new SIH analogs (based on previously described aromatic ketones with improved hydrolytic stability). Their structure-activity relationships were assessed with respect to their stability in plasma, iron chelation efficacy, redox effects and cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells. Furthermore, studies assessed the cytotoxicity of these chelators and their ability to afford protection against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative injury in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. The ligands with a reduced hydrazone bond, or the presence of bulky alkyl substituents near the hydrazone bond, showed severely limited biological activity. The introduction of a bromine substituent increased ligand-induced cytotoxicity to both cancer cells and H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. A similar effect was observed when the phenolic ring was exchanged with pyridine (i.e., changing the ligating site from O, N, O to N, N, O), which led to pro-oxidative effects. In contrast, compounds with long, flexible alkyl chains adjacent to the hydrazone bond exhibited specific cytotoxic effects against MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells and low toxicity against H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. Hence, this study highlights important structure-activity relationships and provides insight into the further development of aroylhydrazone iron chelators with more potent and selective anti-neoplastic effects. PMID:25393531

Pot??ková, Eliška; Hrušková, Kate?ina; Bureš, Jan; Kova?íková, Petra; Špirková, Iva A.; Pravdíková, Kate?ina; Kolbabová, Lucie; Hergeselová, Tereza; Hašková, Pavlína; Jansová, Hana; Machá?ek, Miloslav; Jirkovská, Anna; Richardson, Vera; Lane, Darius J. R.; Kalinowski, Danuta S.; Richardson, Des R.; Vávrová, Kate?ina; Šim?nek, Tomáš

2014-01-01

226

3D-Quantitative structure-activity relationship and docking studies of the tachykinin NK3 receptor.  

PubMed

The tachykinin NK(3) receptor (NK(3)R) is a novel drug target for schizophrenia and drug abuse. Since few non-peptide antagonists of this G protein-coupled receptor are available, we have initiated this study to gain a better understanding of the structure-activity relationships of NK(3) antagonist compounds. We developed a 3D comparative molecular similarity index analysis (CoMSIA) model that gave cross-validated PLS values with q(2) >0.5 which were validated using a test set. We also describe the development of a homology model of the NK(3)R. The model was then used to develop a pharmacophore for docked ligands. This pharmacophore showed two aromatic, two hydrogen donor and one acceptor/aromatic points. These data will be useful for future structure-based drug discovery of ligands for the NK(3)R. PMID:22056747

Geldenhuys, Werner J; Simmons, Mark A

2011-12-15

227

Structure–activity relationships of a small-molecule inhibitor of the PDZ domain of PICK1†  

PubMed Central

Recently, we described the first small-molecule inhibitor, (E)-ethyl 2-cyano-3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)acryloylcarbamate (1), of the PDZ domain of protein interacting with C?-kinase 1 (PICK1), a potential drug target against brain ischemia, pain and cocaine addiction. Herein, we explore structure–activity relationships of 1 by introducing subtle modifications of the acryloylcarbamate scaffold and variations of the substituents on this scaffold. The configuration around the double bond of 1 and analogues was settled by a combination of X-ray crystallography, NMR and density functional theory calculations. Thereby, docking studies were used to correlate biological affinities with structural considerations for ligand–protein interactions. The most potent analogue obtained in this study showed an improvement in affinity compared to 1 and is currently a lead in further studies of PICK1 inhibition. PMID:20668766

Bach, Anders; Stuhr-Hansen, Nicolai; Thorsen, Thor S.; Bork, Nicolai; Moreira, Irina S.; Frydenvang, Karla; Padrah, Shahrokh; Christensen, S. Brøgger; Madsen, Kenneth L.; Weinstein, Harel; Gether, Ulrik; Strømgaard, Kristian

2013-01-01

228

Theoretical Investigations and Density Functional Theory Based Quantitative Structure–Activity Relationships Model for Novel Cytotoxic Platinum(IV) Complexes  

PubMed Central

Octahedral platinum(IV) complexes are promising candidates in the fight against cancer. In order to rationalize the further development of this class of compounds, detailed studies on their mechanisms of action, toxicity, and resistance must be provided and structure–activity relationships must be drawn. Herein, we report on theoretical and QSAR investigations of a series of 53 novel bis-, tris-, and tetrakis(carboxylato)platinum(IV) complexes, synthesized and tested for cytotoxicity in our laboratories. The hybrid DFT functional wb97x was used for optimization of the structure geometry and calculation of the descriptors. Reliable and robust QSAR models with good explanatory and predictive properties were obtained for both the cisplatin sensitive cell line CH1 and the intrinsically cisplatin resistant cell line SW480, with a set of four descriptors. PMID:23214999

2012-01-01

229

Kinetics and Quantitative Structure—Activity Relationship Study on the Degradation Reaction from Perfluorooctanoic Acid to Trifluoroacetic Acid  

PubMed Central

Investigation of the degradation kinetics of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) has been carried out to calculate rate constants of the main elementary reactions using the multichannel Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus theory and canonical variational transition state theory with small-curvature tunneling correction over a temperature range of 200~500 K. The Arrhenius equations of rate constants of elementary reactions are fitted. The decarboxylation is role step in the degradation mechanism of PFOA. For the perfluorinated carboxylic acids from perfluorooctanoic acid to trifluoroacetic acid, the quantitative structure–activity relationship of the decarboxylation was analyzed with the genetic function approximation method and the structure–activity model was constructed. The main parameters governing rate constants of the decarboxylation reaction from the eight-carbon chain to the two-carbon chain were obtained. As the structure–activity model shows, the bond length and energy of C1–C2 (RC1–C2 and EC1–C2) are positively correlated to rate constants, while the volume (V), the energy difference between EHOMO and ELUMO (?E), and the net atomic charges on atom C2 (QC2) are negatively correlated. PMID:25196516

Gong, Chen; Sun, Xiaomin; Zhang, Chenxi; Zhang, Xue; Niu, Junfeng

2014-01-01

230

Structure–Activity Relationship for the First-in-Class Clinical Steroid Sulfatase Inhibitor Irosustat (STX64, BN83495)  

PubMed Central

Structure–activity relationship studies were conducted on Irosustat (STX64, BN83495), the first steroid sulfatase (STS) inhibitor to enter diverse clinical trials for patients with advanced hormone-dependent cancer. The size of its aliphatic ring was expanded; its sulfamate group was N,N-dimethylated, relocated to another position and flanked by an adjacent methoxy group; and series of quinolin-2(1H)-one and quinoline derivatives of Irosustat were explored. The STS inhibitory activities of the synthesised compounds were assessed in a preparation of JEG-3 cells. Stepwise enlargement of the aliphatic ring from 7 to 11 members increases potency, although a further increase in ring size is detrimental. The best STS inhibitors in vitro had IC50 values between 0.015 and 0.025 nm. Other modifications made to Irosustat were found to either abolish or significantly weaken its activity. An azomethine adduct of Irosustat with N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) was isolated, and crystal structures of Irosustat and this adduct were determined. Docking studies were conducted to explore the potential interactions between compounds and the active site of STS, and suggest a sulfamoyl group transfer to formylglycine 75 during the inactivation mechanism. PMID:21990014

Woo, L W Lawrence; Ganeshapillai, Dharshini; Thomas, Mark P; Sutcliffe, Oliver B; Malini, Bindu; Mahon, Mary F; Purohit, Atul; Potter, Barry V L

2011-01-01

231

Structure-activity relationships of the thujaplicins for inhibition of human tyrosinase.  

PubMed

Tyrosinase inhibitors have become increasingly critical agents in cosmetic, agricultural, and medicinal products. Although a large number of tyrosinase inhibitors have been reported, almost all the inhibitors were unfortunately evaluated by using commercial available mushroom tyrosinase. Here, we examined the inhibitory effects of three isomers of thujaplicin (?, ?, and ?) on human tyrosinase and analyzed their binding modes using homology model and docking studies. As the results, ?-thujaplicin was found to strongly inhibit human tyrosinase with the IC50 of 1.15 ?M, extremely superior to a well-known tyrosinase inhibitor kojic acid (IC50 = 571.17 ?M). MM-GB/SA binding free energy decomposition analyses suggested that the potent inhibitory activity of ?-thujaplicin may be due to the interactions with His367, Ile368, and Val377 (hot spot amino acid residues) in human tyrosinase. Furthermore, the binding mode of ?-thujaplicin indicated that Val377 and Ser380 may cause van der Waals clashes with the isopropyl group of ?-thujaplicin. These results provide a novel structural insight into the hot spot of human tyrosinase for the specific binding of ?-thujaplicin and a way to optimize not only thujaplicins but also other lead compounds as specific inhibitors for human tyrosinase in a rational manner. PMID:25288494

Yoshimori, Atsushi; Oyama, Takahiro; Takahashi, Satoshi; Abe, Hideaki; Kamiya, Takanori; Abe, Takehiko; Tanuma, Sei-ichi

2014-11-01

232

Structure-activity relationship study of arbidol derivatives as inhibitors of chikungunya virus replication.  

PubMed

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a mosquito-borne arthrogenic Alphavirus, causes an acute febrile illness in humans, that is, accompanied by severe joint pains. In many cases, the infection leads to persistent arthralgia, which may last for weeks to several years. The re-emergence of this infection in the early 2000s was exemplified by numerous outbreaks in the eastern hemisphere. Since then, the virus is rapidly spreading. Currently, no drugs have been approved or are in development for the treatment of CHIKV, which makes this viral infection particularly interesting for academic medicinal chemistry efforts. Several molecules have already been identified that inhibit CHIKV replication in phenotypic virus-cell-based assays. One of these is arbidol, a molecule that already has been licensed for the treatment of influenza A and B virus infections. For structural optimization, a dedicated libraries of 43 indole-based derivatives were evaluated leading to more potent analogues (IIIe and IIIf) with anti-chikungunya virus (CHIKV) activities higher than those of the other derivatives, including the lead compound, and with a selective index of inhibition 13.2 and 14.6, respectively, higher than that of ARB (4.6). PMID:25282648

Di Mola, Antonia; Peduto, Antonella; La Gatta, Annalisa; Delang, Leen; Pastorino, Boris; Neyts, Johan; Leyssen, Pieter; de Rosa, Mario; Filosa, Rosanna

2014-11-01

233

Type AII lantibiotic bovicin HJ50 with a rare disulfide bond: structure, structure-activity relationships and mode of action.  

PubMed

Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides containing unusual amino acids. As promising alternatives to conventional antibiotics, they have a high potential for alleviating the problem of emergent antibiotic resistance, with possible applications in many industries that have antibacterial demand. Bovicin HJ50 is a type AII lantibiotic, the largest group of lantibiotics, comprising a linear N-terminal region and a globular C-terminal region. Interestingly, bovicin H50 has a disulfide bond that is rare in this group. Owing to limited information about the spatial structures of type AII lantibiotics, the functional regions of this type and the role of the disulfide bond are still unknown. In the present study, we resolved the solution structure of bovicin HJ50 using NMR spectroscopy. This is the first spatial structure of a type AII lantibiotic. Bovicin HJ50 exhibited high flexibility in aqueous solution, whereas varied rigidities were observed in the different rings with the conserved ring A being the most rigid. The charged residues Lys¹¹, Asp¹² and Lys³?, as well as the essential disulfide bond were critical for antimicrobial activity. Importantly, bovicin HJ50 showed not only peptidoglycan precursor lipid II-binding ability, but also pore-forming activity, which is significantly different from other bacteriostatic type AII lantibiotics, suggesting a novel antimicrobial mechanism. PMID:24814218

Zhang, Jie; Feng, Yingang; Teng, Kunling; Lin, Yuheng; Gao, Yong; Wang, Jinfeng; Zhong, Jin

2014-08-01

234

Active Tensegrity Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most active structures involve direct control of single parameters when there is a closed form relationship between the response required and the control parameter. Building on a previous study of an adjustable structure, this paper describes geometric active control of a reusable tensegrity structure that has been enlarged to five modules with improved connections and is equipped with actuators. Closely

Etienne Fest; Kristina Shea; Ian F. C. Smith

2009-01-01

235

Designing Anti-Influenza Aptamers: Novel Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship Approach Gives Insights into Aptamer – Virus Interaction  

PubMed Central

This study describes the development of aptamers as a therapy against influenza virus infection. Aptamers are oligonucleotides (like ssDNA or RNA) that are capable of binding to a variety of molecular targets with high affinity and specificity. We have studied the ssDNA aptamer BV02, which was designed to inhibit influenza infection by targeting the hemagglutinin viral protein, a protein that facilitates the first stage of the virus’ infection. While testing other aptamers and during lead optimization, we realized that the dominant characteristics that determine the aptamer’s binding to the influenza virus may not necessarily be sequence-specific, as with other known aptamers, but rather depend on general 2D structural motifs. We adopted QSAR (quantitative structure activity relationship) tool and developed computational algorithm that correlate six calculated structural and physicochemical properties to the aptamers’ binding affinity to the virus. The QSAR study provided us with a predictive tool of the binding potential of an aptamer to the influenza virus. The correlation between the calculated and actual binding was R2?=?0.702 for the training set, and R2?=?0.66 for the independent test set. Moreover, in the test set the model’s sensitivity was 89%, and the specificity was 87%, in selecting aptamers with enhanced viral binding. The most important properties that positively correlated with the aptamer’s binding were the aptamer length, 2D-loops and repeating sequences of C nucleotides. Based on the structure-activity study, we have managed to produce aptamers having viral affinity that was more than 20 times higher than that of the original BV02 aptamer. Further testing of influenza infection in cell culture and animal models yielded aptamers with 10 to 15 times greater anti-viral activity than the BV02 aptamer. Our insights concerning the mechanism of action and the structural and physicochemical properties that govern the interaction with the influenza virus are discussed. PMID:24846127

Musafia, Boaz; Oren-Banaroya, Rony; Noiman, Silvia

2014-01-01

236

Structure Activity Relationship and Mechanism of Action Studies of Manzamine Analogues for the Control of Neuroinflammation and Cerebral Infections  

PubMed Central

Structure-activity relationship studies were carried out by chemical modification of manzamine A (1), 8-hydroxymanzamine A (2), manzamine F (14), and ircinol isolated from the sponge Acanthostrongylophora. The derived analogues were evaluated for antimalarial, antimicrobial, and antineuroinflammatory activities. Several modified products exhibited potent and improved in vitro antineuroinflammatory, antimicrobial, and antimalarial activity. 1 showed improved activity against malaria compared to chloroquine in both multi- and single-dose in vivo experiments. The significant antimalarial potential was revealed by a 100% cure rate of malaria in mice with one administration of 100 mg/kg of 1. The potent antineuroinflammatory activity of the manzamines will provide great benefit for the prevention and treatment of cerebral infections (e.g. Cryptococcus and Plasmodium). In addition, 1 was shown to permeate across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in an in vitro model using a MDR-MDCK monolayer. Docking studies support that 2 binds to the ATP-noncompetitive pocket of glycogen synthesis kinase-3? (GSK-3?), which is a putative target of manzamines. Based on the results presented here it will be possible to initiate rational drug design efforts around this natural product scaffold for the treatment of several different diseases. PMID:20017491

Peng, Jiangnan; Kudrimoti, Sucheta; Prasanna, Sivaprakasam; Odde, Srinivas; Doerksen, Robert J.; Pennaka, Hari K; Choo, Yeun-Mun; Rao, Karumanchi V.; Tekwani, Babu L.; Madgula, Vamsi; Khan, Shabana I.; Wang, Bin; Mayer, Alejandro M. S.; Jacob, Melissa R.; Tu, Lan Chun; Gertsch, Jürg; Hamann, Mark T.

2010-01-01

237

Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationship Studies of HIV-1 Virion Infectivity Factor (Vif) Inhibitors that Block Viral Replication  

PubMed Central

The HIV-1 Vif protein, essential for in vivo viral replication, protects the virus from innate antiviral cellular factor APOBEC3G (A3G), and is an attractive target for developing antiviral therapeutics. Here we have evaluated the structure-activity relationships of RN18, a small molecule recently identified as an inhibitor of Vif function that blocks viral replication only in non-permissive cells expressing A3G, by inhibiting Vif-A3G interactions. Microwave-assisted cross-coupling reactions were developed to prepare a series of RN18 analogues with diverse linkages and substitutions on the phenyl rings. A dual cell-based assay system was used to assess antiviral activity against wild-type HIV-1 in both non-permissive (H9) and permissive (MT-4) cells that also allowed evaluation of specificity. In general, variations of phenyl substitutions were detrimental for antiviral potency and specificity, but isosteric replacements of amide and ether linkages were relatively well tolerated. These SAR data define structural requirements for Vif-specific activity, identify new compounds with improved antiviral potency and specificity, and provide leads for further exploration to develop new antiviral therapeutics. PMID:22555953

Ali, Akbar; Wang, Jinhua; Nathans, Robin S.; Cao, Hong; Sharova, Natalia; Stevenson, Mario; Rana, Tariq M.

2012-01-01

238

Structure-activity relationship of oleanane disaccharides isolated from Akebia quinata versus cytotoxicity against cancer cells and NO inhibition.  

PubMed

In order to further determine the nature of structure-activity relationship on the cytotoxicities of saponins with 1-->2 and 1-->3 linkages of disaccharides, we isolated guaianin N, collinsonidin, kalopanaxsaponin A and hederoside D(2) as disaccharides, and patrinia glycoside B-II as a trisaccharide, from the n-BuOH extract of Akebia quinata (Lardizabalaceae). Complete acid hydrolysis of the extract afforded oleanolic acid (1) and hederagenin (2). By sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay, kalopanaxsaponin A containing an alpha-L-rhap-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arap moiety exhibited distinctly higher cytotoxicity (IC(50) 1.8-2.7 microg/ml) against all of the tested cell lines than the other saponins (IC(50), 4-8 microg/ml). These results suggest that the alpha-L-rhap-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arap moiety has a unique structural significance in terms of its cell biochemistry, compared to those oleanane glycosides with other sugar linkages. On the other hand, kalopanaxsaponin A exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on nitric oxide production by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophage 264.7, whereas other saponins had weaker activities. PMID:15133259

Jung, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Chong Ock; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Choi, Jongwon; Park, Hee-Juhn

2004-05-01

239

Jatrophane diterpenes as inhibitors of chikungunya virus replication: structure-activity relationship and discovery of a potent lead.  

PubMed

Bioassay-guided purification of an EtOAc extract of the whole plant of Euphorbia amygdaloides ssp. semiperfoliata using a chikungunya virus-cell-based assay led to the isolation of six new (1-4, 9, and 10) and six known (5-7, 8, 11, and 12) jatrophane esters. Their planar structures and relative configurations were determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis, and their absolute configurations by X-ray analysis. These compounds were investigated for selective antiviral activity against chikungunya virus (CHIKV), Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus, and HIV-1 and HIV-2 viruses. Compound 3 was found to be the most potent and selective inhibitor of the replication of CHIKV and of HIV-1 and HIV-2 (EC50 = 0.76, IC50 = 0.34 and 0.043 ?M, respectively). A preliminary structure-activity relationship study demonstrated that potency and selectivity are very sensitive to the substitution pattern on the jatrophane skeleton. Although replication strategies of CHIK and HIV viruses are quite different, the mechanism of action by which these compounds act may involve a similar target for both viruses. The present results provide additional support for a previous hypothesis that the anti-CHIKV activity could involve a PKC-dependent mechanism. PMID:24926807

Nothias-Scaglia, Louis-Félix; Retailleau, Pascal; Paolini, Julien; Pannecouque, Christophe; Neyts, Johan; Dumontet, Vincent; Roussi, Fanny; Leyssen, Pieter; Costa, Jean; Litaudon, Marc

2014-06-27

240

Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis of inhibitors of human and rat cytochrome P4503A enzymes.  

PubMed

Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is a member of the CYP family and is an important enzyme in drug metabolism. A compound that inhibits CYP3A4 activity could also affect the pharmacokinetics of other substrates, resulting in drug-drug interactions (DDIs) that could cause side effects. Pharmacokinetic data from drug-development studies in rats often determine the dosage used in human clinical trials. It is therefore useful to understand differences in metabolism in different species at an early stage in drug development. Human and rat CYP3A enzymes show different inhibition profiles with different drugs, although the mechanisms involved are not yet clear. Here we built three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) models using structure-based comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA), to predict the direct inhibitory activity of ligands for human CYP3A4 and rat CYP3A1, based on computer-ligand docking. The alignment of the ligand docking poses suggested that key amino acid-ligand interactions (e.g., Thr309 in CYP3A4 and Pro310 in CYP3A1) characterized the different potencies with which the ligands inhibited CYP3A4 and CYP3A1. The 3D-QSAR models for human and rat CYP3A family inhibitors predicted the potency of inhibitors and could be useful for assessing DDIs at an early stage in drug discovery. PMID:23358262

Handa, Koichi; Nakagome, Izumi; Yamaotsu, Noriyuki; Gouda, Hiroaki; Hirono, Shuichi

2013-01-01

241

Immunomodulatory action of triterpene glycosides isolated from the sea cucumber Actinocucumis typica. Structure-activity relationships.  

PubMed

Stimulation of lysosomal activity and ROS formation in mouse peritoneal macrophages by five triterpene glycosides, typicosides A1 (1), A2 (2), B1 (3), C1 (4) and C2 (5) has been studied and compared with their cytotoxic activities. Glycosides 1-3 possess moderate activities, but the most cytotoxic glycoside 5 is not active. Typicoside C1 (4), with low toxicity, was proved to be the most active concerning stimulation of ROS formation. This is the first example of a triterpene glycoside from sea cucumbers with low cytotoxicity, but which demonstrates a strong immunostimulatory effect on mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro. PMID:25115075

Pislyagin, Evgeny A; Aminin, Dmitry L; Silchenko, Alexandra S; Avilov, Sergey A; Andryjashchenko, Pelageya V; Kalinin, Vladimir I; Padmakumar, Krishna

2014-06-01

242

Structure-based and multiple potential three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (SB-MP-3D-QSAR) for inhibitor design.  

PubMed

The inhibitions of enzymes (proteins) are determined by the binding interactions between ligands and targeting proteins. However, traditional QSAR (quantitative structure-activity relationship) is a one-side technique, only considering the structures and physicochemical properties of inhibitors. In this study, the structure-based and multiple potential three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (SB-MP-3D-QSAR) is presented, in which the structural information of host protein is involved in the QSAR calculations. The SB-MP-3D-QSAR actually is a combinational method of docking approach and QSAR technique. Multiple docking calculations are performed first between the host protein and ligand molecules in a training set. In the targeting protein, the functional residues are selected, which make the major contribution to the binding free energy. The binding free energy between ligand and targeting protein is the summation of multiple potential energies, including van der Waals energy, electrostatic energy, hydrophobic energy, and hydrogen-bond energy, and may include nonthermodynamic factors. In the foundational QSAR equation, two sets of weighting coefficients {aj} and {bp} are assigned to the potential energy terms and to the functional residues, respectively. The two coefficient sets are solved by using iterative double least-squares (IDLS) technique in the training set. Then, the two sets of weighting coefficients are used to predict the bioactivities of inquired ligands. In an application example, the new developed method obtained much better results than that of docking calculations. PMID:22480344

Du, Qi-Shi; Gao, Jing; Wei, Yu-Tuo; Du, Li-Qin; Wang, Shu-Qing; Huang, Ri-Bo

2012-04-23

243

Drug structure–transport relationships  

PubMed Central

Malcolm Rowland has greatly facilitated an understanding of drug structure–pharmacokinetic relationships using a physiological perspective. His view points, covering a wide range of activities, have impacted on my own work and on my appreciation and understanding of our science. This overview summarises some of our parallel activities, beginning with Malcolm’s work on the pH control of amphetamine excretion, his work on the disposition of aspirin and on the application of clearance concepts in describing the disposition of lidocaine. Malcolm also spent a considerable amount of time developing principles that define solute structure and transport/pharmacokinetic relationships using in situ organ studies, which he then extended to involve the whole body. Together, we developed a physiological approach to studying hepatic clearance, introducing the convection–dispersion model in which there was a spread in blood transit times through the liver accompanied by permeation into hepatocytes and removal by metabolism or excretion into the bile. With a range of colleagues, we then further developed the model and applied it to various organs in the body. One of Malcolm’s special interests was in being able to apply this knowledge, together with an understanding of physiological differences in scaling up pharmacokinetics from animals to man. The description of his many other activities, such as the development of clearance concepts, application of pharmacokinetics to the clinical situation and using pharmacokinetics to develop new compounds and delivery systems, has been left to others. PMID:21107662

2010-01-01

244

Molecular determinants for improved activity at PPAR?: structure-activity relationship of pirinixic acid derivatives, docking study and site-directed mutagenesis of PPAR?.  

PubMed

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are attractive targets for the treatment of the metabolic syndrome. Especially a combination of PPAR? and PPAR? agonistic activity seems worthwhile to be pursued. Herein we present the design and synthesis of a series of pirinixic acid derivatives as potent PPAR? particularly dual PPAR?/? agonists with 2-((4-chloro-6-((4-(phenylamino)phenyl)amino)pyrimidin-2-yl)thio)octanoicacid having the highest potential. Our investigations based on molecular docking and structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies elucidated structural determinants affecting the potency at PPAR?. A diphenylamine-scaffold seems to play a key role. Careful in silico analysis revealed an essential role for a hydrogen bond between the diphenylamine and a water cluster. We confirmed this hypothesis using a mutated PPAR? LBD in our transactivation assay to disrupt the water cluster and to validate the proposed interaction. PMID:25022880

Lamers, Christina; Dittrich, Michaela; Steri, Ramona; Proschak, Ewgenij; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred

2014-08-15

245

Structure-activity studies of 14-helical antimicrobial beta-peptides: probing the relationship between conformational stability and antimicrobial potency.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial alpha-helical alpha-peptides are part of the host-defense mechanism of multicellular organisms and could find therapeutic use against bacteria that are resistant to conventional antibiotics. Recent work from Hamuro et al. has shown that oligomers of beta-amino acids ("beta-peptides") that can adopt an amphiphilic helix defined by 14-membered ring hydrogen bonds ("14-helix") are active against Escherichia coli [Hamuro, Y.; Schneider, J. P.; DeGrado, W. F. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1999, 121, 12200-12201]. We have created two series of cationic 9- and 10-residue amphiphilic beta-peptides to probe the effect of 14-helix stability on antimicrobial and hemolytic activity. 14-Helix stability within these series is modulated by varying the proportions of rigid trans-2-aminocyclohexanecarboxylic acid (ACHC) residues and flexible acyclic residues. We have previously shown that a high proportion of ACHC residues in short beta-peptides encourages 14-helical structure in aqueous solution [Appella, D. H.; Barchi, J. J.; Durell, S. R.; Gellman, S. H. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1999, 121, 2309-2310]. Circular dichroism of the beta-peptides described here reveals a broad range of 14-helix population in aqueous buffer, but this variation in helical propensity does not lead to significant changes in antibiotic activity against a set of four bacteria. Several of the 9-mers display antibiotic activity comparable to that of a synthetic magainin derivative. Among these 9-mers, hemolytic activity increases slightly with increasing 14-helical propensity, but all of the 9-mers are less hemolytic than the magainin derivative. Previous studies with conventional peptides (alpha-amino acid residues) have provided conflicting evidence on the relationship between helical propensity and antimicrobial activity. This uncertainty has arisen because alpha-helix stability can be varied to only a limited extent among linear alpha-peptides without modifying parameters important for antimicrobial activity (e.g., net charge or hydrophobicity); a much greater range of helical stability is accessible with beta-peptides. For example, it is very rare for a linear alpha-peptide to display significant alpha-helix formation in aqueous solution and manifest antibacterial activity, while the linear beta-peptides described here range from fully unfolded to very highly folded in aqueous solution. This study shows that beta-peptides can be unique tools for analyzing relationships between conformational stability and biological activity. PMID:12392424

Raguse, Tami L; Porter, Emilie A; Weisblum, Bernard; Gellman, Samuel H

2002-10-30

246

Oxidative toxicity of perfluorinated chemicals in green mussel and bioaccumulation factor dependent quantitative structure-activity relationship.  

PubMed

Concerns regarding perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) have risen in recent years because of their ubiquitous presence and high persistency. However, data on the environmental impacts of PFCs on marine organisms are very limited. Oxidative toxicity has been suggested to be one of the major toxic pathways for PFCs to induce adverse effects on organisms. To investigate PFC-induced oxidative stress and oxidative toxicity, a series of antioxidant enzyme activities and oxidative damage biomarkers were examined to assess the adverse effects of the following 4 commonly detected compounds: perfluoro-octanesulfonate, perfluoro-ocanoic acid, perfluorononanoic acid, and perfluorodecanoic acid, on green mussel (Perna viridis). Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models were also established. The results showed that all the tested PFCs are able to induce antioxidant response and oxidative damage on green mussels in a dose-dependent manner. At low exposure levels (0?µg/L-100?µg/L), activation of antioxidant enzymes (catalase [CAT] and superoxide dismutase [SOD]) was observed, which is an adaptive response to the excessive reactive oxygen species induced by PFCs, while at high exposure levels (100?µg/L-10 000?µg/L), PFCs were found to inhibit some enzyme activity (glutathione S-transferase and SOD) where the organism's ability to respond in an adaptive manner was compromised. The oxidative stress under high PFC exposure concentration also led to lipid and DNA damage. PFC-induced oxidative toxicity was found to be correlated with the bioaccumulation potential of PFCs. Based on this relationship, QSAR models were established using the bioaccumulation factor (BAF) as the molecular descriptor for the first time. Compared with previous octanol-water partition coefficient-dependent QSAR models, the BAF-dependent QSAR model is more suitable for the impact assessment of PFCs and thus provides a more accurate description of the toxic behavior of these compounds. PMID:24995545

Liu, Changhui; Chang, Victor W C; Gin, Karina Y H

2014-10-01

247

Structure-activity relationships for selected sulfur-rich antithrombotic compounds.  

PubMed

We assessed the antithrombotic activity of some simple organosulfur compounds which have some of the functionality found in the disulfide ajoene, a pharmacologically active compound isolated from garlic. The results establish that antithrombotic activity is associated with disulfides directly attached to a phenyl ring and is further enhanced by an alpha-sulfonyl group. CH(3)SO(2)CH(2)SSPh proved to be a potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation with an IC(50) of 5 microM. PMID:10873621

MacDonald, J A; Langler, R F

2000-07-01

248

Structure–Activity Relationships for Selected Sulfur-Rich Antithrombotic Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the antithrombotic activity of some simple organosulfur compounds which have some of the functionality found in the disulfide ajoene, a pharmacologically active compound isolated from garlic. The results establish that antithrombotic activity is associated with disulfides directly attached to a phenyl ring and is further enhanced by an ?-sulfonyl group. CH3SO2CH2SSPh proved to be a potent inhibitor of

Justin A. MacDonald; Richard F. Langler

2000-01-01

249

Structure-activity relationships in ultrashort cationic lipopeptides: the effects of amino acid ring constraint on antibacterial activity.  

PubMed

Taking a minimalistic approach in efforts to lower the cost for the development of new synthetic antimicrobial peptides, ultrashort cationic lipopeptides were designed to mimic the amphiphilic nature crucial for their activity but with only a very short peptide sequence ligated to a lipidic acid. Nine ultrashort cationic lipopeptides were prepared to study the effects of ring constraint in the amino acid side chain of the peptide component. USCL-PCat1, consisting of only four L-4R-aminoproline residues and acylated with palmitic acid at the N-terminus, was found to populate a polyproline II helical secondary conformation that is stable to different pHs and temperatures using circular dichroism. The synthesized lipopeptides were found to have a micellar structure in water using negative staining transmission electron microscopy. We found that constraining the side chain of the amino acid component is not beneficial to the antimicrobial activity. USCL-Dab1, USCL-Dab3 and USCL-K1 showed promising activity against a panel of laboratory reference and clinically isolated Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains, some of which are multidrug resistant. No appreciable cytotoxicity against human monocytic THP-1 cells was observed up to concentrations of 20-40 µM for all synthesized compounds. Moreover, all USCLs did not induce the production of either pro-inflammatory cytokines or chemokines up to 40 µM. PMID:25069750

Domalaon, Ronald; Yang, Xuan; O'Neil, Joe; Zhanel, George G; Mookherjee, Neeloffer; Schweizer, Frank

2014-11-01

250

Comparison of cytotoxicity and DNA breakage activity of congeners of podophyllotoxin including VP16-213 and VM26: a quantitative structure-activity relationship.  

PubMed

Fourteen congeners of podophyllotoxin were evaluated for their abilities to induce DNA breakage and inhibit growth of A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Among the congeners studied were VP16-213, VM26, alpha-peltatin, beta-peltatin, and picropodophyllotoxin. Alkaline elution methods were used to assess DNA break frequencies following 1-h exposure to different concentrations of the congeners. DNA breakage was dependent upon drug concentration and was detectable when cells were exposed for 1 h to concentrations of VM26 as low as 0.05 microM. DNA breaks formed rapidly in cells after addition of drug but increased little after 30 min of continuous exposure. Repair of drug-induced DNA breaks was equally rapid with repair of 90% of the breaks occurring within 1 h following removal of the drug. Relationships between the structures of the congeners and the resulting DNA breakage activities were obtained, which correlated well with the cytotoxicity. The data suggest that a free hydroxyl group at the 4'-position is essential for DNA breakage activity, epimerization at the 4-position of the podophyllotoxin rings enhances activity, glucosylation of the hydroxyl group at the 4-position diminishes activity, aldehyde condensation with the glucose moiety greatly enhances activity, and the structure of the group associated with the resulting acetal linkage influences DNA breakage activity. These studies present quantitative data supporting and expanding upon the structure-activity relationship first proposed by Loike and Horwitz [Loike, J. D., & Horwitz, S. B. (1976) Biochemistry 15, 5443-5448]. PMID:6712942

Long, B H; Musial, S T; Brattain, M G

1984-03-13

251

Computational structure-activity relationship analysis of non-peptide inducers of macrophage tumor necrosis factor-alpha production.  

PubMed

Previously, we screened a series of arylcarboxylic acid hydrazide derivatives for their ability to induce macrophage tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production and identified 16 such compounds. In the present study, we evaluated 23 additional arylcarboxylic acid hydrazides and found that seven of these compounds also induced macrophage TNF-alpha production, representing novel compounds with this activity. The total set of active compounds was then used for computational structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis to further optimize lead molecules. A sequence of (1) linear discriminant analysis, (2) classification tree analysis with linear combination, and (3) univariate splits based on atom pair descriptors led to the derivation of SAR rule-based algorithms with fitting accuracy of 96.5%, 91.9%, and 84.9%, respectively. The SAR rules obtained from classification tree analysis with univariate splits, which was based on three atom pair descriptors only, revealed that the main factors influencing agonist activity of arylcarboxylic acid hydrazide derivatives were the presence of a methyl or trifluoromethyl group in the benzene ring attached to the furan moiety, an alkoxy group in the aromatic ring near the methylenehydrazide linker, and two or more halogen atoms (chlorine or bromine) on one side of the dumbbell-shaped hydrazide molecule opposed by an aromatic moiety on the opposite side of the molecule. Thus, these rules represent a relatively simple classification approach for de novo design of small-molecule inducers of macrophage TNF-alpha production. PMID:18815052

Khlebnikov, Andrei I; Schepetkin, Igor A; Kirpotina, Liliya N; Quinn, Mark T

2008-10-15

252

Design, synthesis and structure-activity relationships of novel 4-phenoxyquinoline derivatives containing pyridazinone moiety as potential antitumor agents.  

PubMed

A series of novel 4-phenoxyquinoline derivatives containing pyridazinone moiety were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxic activity against five cancer cell lines (HT-29, H460, A549, MKN-45, and U87MG). Most of the compounds exhibited moderate-to-significant cytotoxicity and high selectivity against one or more cell lines. Compounds 15a, 20a, 15b, 15c, 20d, and 16e were further examined for their inhibitory activity against c-Met kinase. The most promising compound 15a (c-Met half-maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50] = 2.15 nM) showed remarkable cytotoxicity against HT-29, H460, and A549 cell lines with IC50 values of 0.10 ?M, 0.13 ?M, and 0.05 ?M, respectively, and thus it was 1.5- to 2.3-fold more potent than foretinib. Their preliminary structure-activity relationships (SARs) studies indicate that electron-withdrawing groups on the terminal phenyl rings are beneficial for improving the antitumor activity. PMID:24996144

Zhou, Shunguang; Liao, Huimin; He, Chao; Dou, Yanan; Jiang, Mingyan; Ren, Lixiang; Zhao, Yanfang; Gong, Ping

2014-08-18

253

Structure-activity relationship study of sesquiterpene lactones and their semi-synthetic amino derivatives as potential antitrypanosomal products.  

PubMed

Sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) are natural products that have potent antitrypanosomal activity in vitro and, in the case of cynaropicrin, also reduce parasitemia in the murine model of trypanosomiasis. To explore their structure-antitrypanosomal activity relationships, a set of 34 natural and semi-synthetic STLs and amino-STLs was tested in vitro against T. b. rhodesiense (which causes East African sleeping sickness) and mammalian cancer cells (rat bone myoblast L6 cells). It was found that the ?-methylene-?-lactone moiety is necessary for both antitrypanosomal effects and cytotoxicity. Antitrypanosomal selectivity is facilitated by 2-(hydroxymethyl)acrylate or 3,4-dihydroxy-2-methylenebutylate side chains, and by the presence of cyclopentenone rings. Semi-synthetic STL amines with morpholino and dimethylamino groups showed improved in vitro activity over the native STLs. The dimethylamino derivative of cynaropicrin was prepared and tested orally in the T. b. rhodesiense acute mouse model, where it showed reduced toxicity over cynaropicrin, but also lost antitrypanosomal activity. PMID:24662071

Zimmermann, Stefanie; Fouché, Gerda; De Mieri, Maria; Yoshimoto, Yukiko; Usuki, Toyonobu; Nthambeleni, Rudzani; Parkinson, Christopher J; van der Westhuyzen, Christiaan; Kaiser, Marcel; Hamburger, Matthias; Adams, Michael

2014-01-01

254

Oxoquinoline derivatives: identification and structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis of new anti-HSV-1 agents.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex virus is an important human pathogen responsible for a range of diseases from mild uncomplicated mucocutaneous infections to life-threatening ones. Currently, the emergence of Herpes simplex virus resistant strains increased the need for more effective and less cytotoxic drugs for Herpes treatment. In this work, we synthesized a series of oxoquinoline derivatives and experimentally evaluated the antiviral activity against acyclovir resistant HSV-1 strain as well as their cytotoxity profile. The most active compound (3b), named here as Fluoroxaq-3b, showed a promising profile with a better cytotoxicity profile than acyclovir. The theoretical analysis of the structure-activity relationship of these compounds revealed some stereoelectronic properties such as lower LUMO energy and lipophilicity, besides a higher polar surface area and number of hydrogen bond acceptor groups as important parameters for the antiviral activity. Fluoroxaq-3b showed a good oral theoretical bioavailability, according to Lipinski rule of five, with a promising profile for further in vivo analysis. PMID:21225264

Abreu, Paula A; da Silva, Viveca A G G; Santos, Fernanda C; Castro, Helena C; Riscado, Cecília S; de Souza, Mariana T; Ribeiro, Camilly P; Barbosa, Juliana E; dos Santos, Cláudio C C; Rodrigues, Carlos R; Lione, Viviane; Correa, Bianca A M; Cunha, Anna C; Ferreira, Vitor F; de Souza, Maria C B V; Paixão, Izabel C N P

2011-05-01

255

Structure-Activity Relationship Studies on the Mosquito Toxicity and Biting Deterrency of Callicarpenal Derivatives  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Callicarpenal (13,14,15,16-tetranor-3-cleroden-12-al) has previously demonstrated significant mosquito bite-deterring activity against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi in addition to repellent activity against host-seeking nymphs of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis. In the present study...

256

Structure-activity relationships of oxysterol-derived pharmacological chaperones for Niemann-Pick type C1 protein.  

PubMed

Niemann-Pick disease type C is a fatal neurodegenerative disease, and its major cause is mutations in NPC1 gene. This gene encodes NPC1 protein, a late endosomal polytopic membrane protein required for intracellular cholesterol trafficking. One prevalent mutation (I1061T) has been shown to cause a folding defect, which results in failure of endosomal localization of the protein, leading to loss-of-function phenotype. We have previously demonstrated that several oxysterols and their derivatives act as pharmacological chaperones; binding of these compounds to NPC1(I1061T) mutant protein corrects the localization/maturation defect of the mutant protein. Here, we disclose detailed structure-activity relationships of oxysterol derivatives as pharmacological chaperones for NPC1(I1061T) mutant. PMID:24928400

Ohgane, Kenji; Karaki, Fumika; Noguchi-Yachide, Tomomi; Dodo, Kosuke; Hashimoto, Yuichi

2014-08-01

257

Application of PCA and HCA to the Structure-Activity Relationship Study of Fluoroquinolones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Density functional theory (DFT) was used to calculate molecular descriptors (properties) for 12 fluoroquinolone with anti-S.pneumoniae activity. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were employed to reduce dimensionality and investigate in which variables should be more effective for classifying fluoroquinolones according to their degree of an-S.pneumoniae activity. The PCA results showed that the variables ELUMO, Q3, Q5, QA, logP, MR, VOL and ?EHL of these compounds were responsible for the anti-S.pneumoniae activity. The HCA results were similar to those obtained with PCA. The methodologies of PCA and HCA provide a reliable rule for classifying new fluoroquinolones with anti-S.pneumoniae activity. By using the chemometric results, 6 synthetic compounds were analyzed through the PCA and HCA and two of them are proposed as active molecules with anti-S.pneumoniae, which is consistent with the results of clinic experiments.

Li, Xiao-hong; Zhang, Xian-zhou; Cheng, Xin-lu; Yang, Xiang-dong; Zhu, Zun-lue

2006-04-01

258

Structure-Activity Relationships Between Perfluorinated Chemicals and Mitochondrial Respiration Rates.  

E-print Network

??Perfluorinated chemicals are synthesized compounds that are structurally derived from hydrocarbons, but have carbon-hydrogen bonds replaced with carbon-fluorine bonds. They have been shown to inhibit… (more)

Ray, Josiah Nathanael

2010-01-01

259

Structure-activity relationships of thiostrepton derivatives: implications for rational drug design.  

PubMed

The bacterial ribosome is a major target of naturally occurring thiopeptides antibiotics. Studying thiopeptide (e.g. thiostrepton) binding to the GAR's 23S·L11 ribosomal subunit using docking methods is challenging. Regarding the target, the binding site is composed of a flexible protein-RNA nonbonded interface whose available crystal structure is of medium resolution. Regarding the ligands, the thiopeptides are chemically complex, flexible, and contain macrocycles. In this study we developed a combined MD-docking-MD workflow that allows us to study thiopeptide-23S·L11 binding. It is shown that docking thiostrepton-like ligands to an MD-refined receptor structure instead of the medium resolution crystal leads to better convergence to the native-like docking pose and a better reproduction of experimental binding affinities. By applying an energy decomposition analysis, we identify key structural binding elements within GAR's rRNA-protein binding site and within the ligand structures. PMID:25281020

Wolf, Antje; Schoof, Sebastian; Baumann, Sascha; Arndt, Hans-Dieter; Kirschner, Karl N

2014-12-01

260

Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship study on antioxidant capacity of curcumin analogues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) was performed on a set of 27 curcumin-like diarylpentanoid analogues with the radical scavenging activities. A significant cross-validated correlation coefficient Q2 (0.784), SEP (0.042) for CoMSIA were obtained, indicating the statistical significance of the correlation. Further we adopt a rational approach toward the selection of substituents at various positions in our scaffold,and finally find the favored and disfavoured regions for the enhanced antioxidative activity. The results have been used as a guide to design compounds that, potentially, have better activity against oxidative damage.

Chen, Bohong; Zhu, Zhibo; Chen, Min; Dong, Wenqi; Li, Zhen

2014-03-01

261

Synthesis, pharmacological characterization, and structure-activity relationship studies of small molecular agonists for the orphan GPR88 receptor.  

PubMed

GPR88 is an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) enriched in the striatum. Genetic deletion and gene expression studies have suggested that GPR88 plays an important role in the regulation of striatal functions and is implicated in psychiatric disorders. The signal transduction pathway and receptor functions of GPR88, however, are still largely unknown due to the lack of endogenous and synthetic ligands. In this paper, we report the synthesis of a GPR88 agonist 2-PCCA and its pure diastereomers, which were functionally characterized in both transiently and stably expressing GPR88 HEK293 cells. 2-PCCA inhibited isoproterenol-stimulated cAMP accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner in cells expressing GPR88 but not in the control cells, suggesting that the observed cAMP inhibition is mediated through GPR88 and that GPR88 is coupled to G?i. 2-PCCA did not induce calcium mobilization in GPR88 cells, indicating no G?q-mediated response. A structure-activity relationship (SAR) study of 2-PCCA was also conducted to explore the key structural features for GPR88 agonist activity. PMID:24793972

Jin, Chunyang; Decker, Ann M; Huang, Xi-Ping; Gilmour, Brian P; Blough, Bruce E; Roth, Bryan L; Hu, Yang; Gill, Joseph B; Zhang, X Peter

2014-07-16

262

Synthesis, biological evaluation, and structure-activity relationship study of novel cytotoxic aza-caffeic acid derivatives.  

PubMed

Three series of aza-caffeic acid derivatives with different linkers were designed and synthesized. Each of the synthesized derivatives was then used in cytotoxicity screening on either 8 or 12 human cancer cell lines. The structure-activity relationships on three structural regions A, B, and C are analyzed in detail, indicating that a nine bond linker B, containing a piperazine unit, is the most favorable linker leading to the generation of molecules with potent cytotoxicities. Compound (E)-1-(4-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)piperazin-1-yl)-3-(4-(4-ethoxybenzyloxy)-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (80) exhibited the most significant and selective cytotoxicity to KB, BEL7404, K562, and Eca109 cell lines, with IC(50) values of 0.2, 2.0, 1.7, and 1.1 microM, respectively, stronger than that seen for caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) and cisplatin (CDDP). Flow cytometric and western blot analysis indicate that compound 80 plays a role in mitochondria-dependent apoptosis activity by suppressing K562 cell proliferation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. PMID:20673727

Zou, Hongbin; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Xiangnan; Zhao, Yu; Stöckigt, Joachim; Lou, Yijia; Yu, Yongping

2010-09-01

263

Antileishmanial chalcones: statistical design, synthesis, and three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis.  

PubMed

A large number of substituted chalcones have been synthesized and tested for antileishmanial and lymphocyte-suppressing activities. A subset of the chalcones was designed by using statistical methods. 3D-QSAR analyses using 67 (antileishmanial activity) and 63 (lymphocyte-suppressing activity) of the compounds for the training sets and 9 compounds as an external validation set were performed by using the GRID/GOLPE methodology. The Smart Region Definition procedure with subsequent region selection as implemented in GOLPE reduced the number of variables to approximately 1300 yielding 3D-QSAR models of high quality (lymphocyte-suppressing model, R2 = 0. 90, Q2 = 0.80; antileishmanial model, R2 = 0.73, Q2 = 0.63). The coefficient plots indicate that steric interactions between the chalcones and the target are of major importance for the potencies of the compounds. A comparison of the coefficient plots for the antileishmanial effect and the lymphocyte-suppressing activity discloses significant differences which should make it possible to design chalcones having a high antileishmanial activity without suppressing the proliferation of lymphocytes. PMID:9822551

Nielsen, S F; Christensen, S B; Cruciani, G; Kharazmi, A; Liljefors, T

1998-11-19

264

Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of pyripyropene A derivatives as potent and selective acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 2 (ACAT2) inhibitors: part 1.  

PubMed

In an effort to develop potent and selective inhibitors toward ACAT2, structure-activity relationship studies were carried out using derivatives based on pyripyropene A (PPPA, 1). We have successfully developed novel PPPA derivatives with a 7-O-substituted benzoyl substituent that significantly exhibit more potent ACAT2 inhibitory activity and higher ACAT2 isozyme selectivity than 1. PMID:23369538

Ohtawa, Masaki; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Ohte, Satoshi; Matsuda, Daisuke; Ohshiro, Taichi; Rudel, Lawrence L; Omura, Satoshi; Tomoda, Hiroshi; Nagamitsu, Tohru

2013-03-01

265

Synthesis and quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) of arylidene (benzimidazol-1-yl)acetohydrazones as potential antibacterial agents.  

PubMed

Ethyl (benzimidazol-1-yl)acetate was subjected to hydrazinolysis with hydrazine hydrate to give (benzimidazol-1-yl)acetohydrazide. The latter was reacted with various aromatic aldehydes to give the respective arylidene (1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)acetohydrazones. Solutions of the prepared hydrazones were found to contain two geometric isomers. Similarly (2-methyl-benzimidazol-1-yl)acetohydrazide was reacted with various aldehydes to give the corresponding hydrazones. The antibacterial activity was evaluated in vitro by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Agrobacterium tumefaciens (A. tumefaciens), Erwinia carotovora (E. carotovora), Corynebacterium fascians (C. fascians) and Pseudomonas solanacearum (P. solanacearum). MIC result demonstrated that salicylaldehyde(1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)acetohydrazone (4) was the most active compound (MIC = 20, 35, 25 and 30 mg/L against A. tumefaciens, C. fascians, E. carotovora and P. solanacearum, respectively). Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) investigation using Hansch analysis was applied to find out the correlation between antibacterial activity and physicochemical properties. Various physicochemical descriptors and experimentally determined MIC values for different microorganisms were used as independent and dependent variables, respectively. pMICs of the compounds exhibited good correlation (r = 0.983, 0.914, 0.960 and 0.958 for A. tumefaciens, C. fascians, E. carotovora and P. solanacearum, respectively) with the prediction made by the model. QSAR study revealed that the hydrophobic parameter (ClogP), the aqueous solubility (LogS), calculated molar refractivity, topological polar surface area and hydrogen bond acceptor were found to have overall significant correlation with antibacterial activity. The statistical results of training set, correlation coefficient (r and r (2)), the ratio between regression and residual variances (f, Fisher's statistic), the standard error of estimates and significant (s) gave reliability to the prediction of molecules with activity using QSAR models. However, QSAR equations derived for the MIC values against the tested bacteria showed negative contribution of molecular mass. PMID:25304024

El-Kilany, Yeldez; Nahas, Nariman M; Al-Ghamdi, Mariam A; Badawy, Mohamed E I; El Ashry, El Sayed H

2015-01-01

266

Thinking in Terms of Structure-Activity-Relationships (T-SAR): A Tool to Better Understand Nanofiltration Membranes  

PubMed Central

A frontier to be conquered in the field of membrane technology is related to the very limited scientific base for the rational and task-specific design of membranes. This is especially true for nanofiltration membranes with properties that are based on several solute-membrane interaction mechanisms. “Thinking in terms of Structure-Activity-Relationships” (T-SAR) is a methodology which applies a systematic analysis of a chemical entity based on its structural formula. However, the analysis become more complex with increasing size of the molecules considered. In this study, T-SAR was combined with classical membrane characterization methods, resulting in a new methodology which allowed us not only to explain membrane characteristics, but also provides evidence for the importance of the chemical structure for separation performance. We demonstrate an application of the combined approach and its potential to discover stereochemistry, molecular interaction potentials, and reactivity of two FilmTec nanofiltration membranes (NF-90 and NF-270). Based on these results, it was possible to predict both properties and performance in the recovery of hydrophobic ionic liquids from aqueous solution. PMID:24957730

Fernández, José F.; Jastorff, Bernd; Störmann, Reinhold; Stolte, Stefan; Thöming, Jorg

2011-01-01

267

Design, synthesis and structure-activity relationship of novel semi-synthetic flavonoids as antiproliferative agents.  

PubMed

Various flavonoid scaffold based derivatives viz furochalcones (3a-e, 6a-d and 9a-d), furoflavones (10a-d, 11a-d, 12a-d, 18a&b), flavones (21a-d), furoaurones (13a,b, 14a-d and 15a-d) and 7-styrylfurochromones (22a-d and 25a-e) were designed and synthesized. The novel compounds were evaluated for their antiproliferative activity against a panel of 60 cancer cell lines comprising 9 types of tumors. Ten compounds belonging to the major subgroups of flavonoids viz furochalcones (3a, 3d, 6b, 9a and 9b), furoflavones (12a and 12c), furoaurones (15d), styrylfurochromones (25b and 25e) showed very promising activity. These active compounds were also evaluated in vitro as kinase inhibitors against CDK2/cyclin E1, CDK4/cyclin D1 and GSK-3? and the best inhibition was displayed against GSK-3? with the allylfurochalcone derivative 9b exhibiting 80% decrease in GSK-3? catalytic activity. On the other hand, the styrylfurochromone 25e interestingly showed a 13% enhancement of GSK-3? catalytic power and a 12% reduction in CDK4/cyclin D1 activity. Finally, the in vivo anti-tumor activity of 25e was evaluated against breast cancer induced in mice. The results showed a profound anti-tumor effect of 25e that accompanies a significant increase and decrease in the levels of GSK-3? and cyclin D1, respectively. PMID:24937184

Ragab, F A; Yahya, T A A; El-Naa, M M; Arafa, R K

2014-07-23

268

Synthesis and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study of novel isoxazoline and oxime derivatives of podophyllotoxin as insecticidal agents.  

PubMed

In continuation of our program aimed at the discovery and development of natural-product-based insecticidal agents, 33 isoxazoline and oxime derivatives of podophyllotoxin modified in the C and D rings were synthesized and their structures were characterized by Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), optical rotation, melting point (mp), and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The stereochemical configurations of compounds 5e, 5f, and 9f were unambiguously determined by X-ray crystallography. Their insecticidal activity was evaluated against the pre-third-instar larvae of northern armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walker), in vivo. Compounds 5e, 9c, 11g, and 11h especially exhibited more promising insecticidal activity than toosendanin, a commercial botanical insecticide extracted from Melia azedarach . A genetic algorithm combined with multiple linear regression (GA-MLR) calculation is performed by the MOBY DIGS package. Five selected descriptors are as follows: one two-dimensional (2D) autocorrelation descriptor (GATS4e), one edge adjacency indice (EEig06x), one RDF descriptor (RDF080v), one three-dimensional (3D) MoRSE descriptor (Mor09v), and one atom-centered fragment (H-052) descriptor. Quantitative structure-activity relationship studies demonstrated that the insecticidal activity of these compounds was mainly influenced by many factors, such as electronic distribution, steric factors, etc. For this model, the standard deviation error in prediction (SDEP) is 0.0592, the correlation coefficient (R(2)) is 0.861, and the leave-one-out cross-validation correlation coefficient (Q(2)loo) is 0.797. PMID:22891988

Wang, Yi; Shao, Yonghua; Wang, Yangyang; Fan, Lingling; Yu, Xiang; Zhi, Xiaoyan; Yang, Chun; Qu, Huan; Yao, Xiaojun; Xu, Hui

2012-08-29

269

Synthesis, structure-activity relationships, and characterization of novel nonsteroidal and selective androgen receptor modulators.  

PubMed

Herein we describe the discovery of ACP-105 (1), a novel and potent nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) with partial agonist activity relative to the natural androgen testosterone. Compound 1 was developed from a series of compounds found in a HTS screen using the receptor selection and amplification technology (R-SAT). In vivo, 1 improved anabolic parameters in a 2-week chronic study in castrated male rats. In addition to compound 1, a number of potent antiandrogens were discovered from the same series of compounds whereof one compound, 13, had antagonist activity at the AR T877A mutant involved in prostate cancer. PMID:19856921

Schlienger, Nathalie; Lund, Birgitte W; Pawlas, Jan; Badalassi, Fabrizio; Bertozzi, Fabio; Lewinsky, Rasmus; Fejzic, Alma; Thygesen, Mikkel B; Tabatabaei, Ali; Bradley, Stefania Risso; Gardell, Luis R; Piu, Fabrice; Olsson, Roger

2009-11-26

270

Design, diversity-oriented synthesis and structure activity relationship studies of quinolinyl heterocycles as antimycobacterial agents.  

PubMed

The current study reports design and diversity oriented synthesis of novel bis heterocycles with a common 2-methyl, C-4 unsubstituted quinoline moiety as the central key heterocycle. Employing reagent based skeletal diversity approach; a facile synthesis of bis heterocycles with different heterocyclic rings at C-3 position of the quinoline moiety has been accomplished. A broad range of heterocyclic frameworks thus obtained were evaluated for their antimycobacterial activity. The active scaffolds were further explored by a parallel library generation in order to establish SAR. Further, low cytotoxicity against A549 cell line enhances the potential of the synthesized molecules as promising antimycobacterial agents. PMID:24189497

Rachakonda, Venkatesham; Alla, Manjula; Kotipalli, Sudha Sravanti; Ummani, Ramesh

2013-01-01

271

Synthesis and Structure Activity Relationship Investigation of Adenosine-containing Inhibitors of Histone Methyltransferase DOT1L  

PubMed Central

Histone3-lysine79 (H3K79) methyltransferase DOT1L has been found to be a drug target for acute leukemia with MLL (mixed lineage leukemia) gene translocations. A total of 55 adenosine-containing compounds were designed and synthesized, among which several potent DOT1L inhibitors were identified with Ki values as low as 0.5 nM. These compounds also show high selectivity (>4,500-fold) over three other histone methyltransferases. Structure activity relationships (SAR) of these compounds for their inhibitory activities against DOT1L are discussed. Potent DOT1L inhibitors exhibit selective activity against the proliferation of MLL-translocated leukemia cell lines MV4;11 and THP1 with EC50 values of 4–11 ?M. Isothermal titration calorimetry studies showed two representative inhibitors bind with a high affinity to the DOT1L:nucleosome complex, and only compete with the enzyme cofactor SAM (S-adenosyl-L-methionine), but not the substrate nucleosome. PMID:22924785

Anglin, Justin L.; Deng, Lisheng; Yao, Yuan; Cai, Guobin; Liu, Zhen; Jiang, Hong; Cheng, Gang; Chen, Pinhong; Dong, Shuo; Song, Yongcheng

2012-01-01

272

Antiproliferative constituents in plants 10. Flavones from the leaves of Lantana montevidensis Briq. and consideration of structure-activity relationship.  

PubMed

The flavonoid fraction from the leaves of Lantana montevidensis Briq. (Verbenaceae) showed antiproliferative activity against human gastric adenocarcinoma (MK-1, GI50: 12 microg/ml), human uterus carcinoma (HeLa, 5 microg/ml), and murine melanoma (B16F10, 5 microg/ml) cells in vitro. Bioactivity-guided chemical investigation of the fraction has resulted in the isolation of apigenin (10) and ten 5,6,7-oxygenated flavones: cirsilineol (1), eupatorin (2), 5,4'-dihydroxy-6,7,3',5'-tetramethoxyflavone (3), 5,6-dihydroxy-7,3',4'-trimethoxyflavone (4), 5,6,4'-trihydroxy-7,3',5'-trimethoxyflavone (5), 5,6,3'-trihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavone (6), 5,3',4'-trihydroxy-6,7,5'-trimethoxyflavone (7), cirsiliol (8), hispidulin (9), and eupafolin (11). Antiproliferative activity of the isolated flavones, some other related flavones (luteolin, baicalein, 6-hydroxyluteolin, pectolinarigenin, jaceosidin, desmethoxycentaureidin, eupatilin, and chrysin) from other plant materials, and synthetic 6- and 7-methoxyflavones was evaluated, and the structure-activity relationships were examined. PMID:12132661

Nagao, Tsuneatsu; Abe, Fumiko; Kinjo, Junei; Okabe, Hikaru

2002-07-01

273

Inuloxins A-D and derivatives as antileishmanial agents: structure-activity relationship study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Inuloxins A-D (1-4) and a-costic acid (5), the phytotoxic compounds previously isolated from Inula viscosa, as well as synthetic derivatives of inuloxin A (compounds 6-10), inuloxin C (compound 11) and inuloxin D (compound 12) were tested in vitro for their activity against Leishmania donovani, the ...

274

Structure activity relationships of N-linked and diglycosylated glucosamine-based antitumor glycerolipids.  

PubMed

1-O-Hexadecyl-2-O-methyl-3-O-(2'-amino-2'-deoxy-?-D-glucopyranosyl)-sn-glycerol (1) was previously reported to show potent in vitro antitumor activity on a range of cancer cell lines derived from breast, pancreas and prostate cancer. This compound was not toxic to mice and was inactive against breast tumor xenografts in mice. This inactivity was attributed to hydrolysis of the glycosidic linkage by glycosidases. Here three N-linked (glycosylamide) analogs 2-4, one triazole-linked analog 5 of 1 as well as two diglycosylated analogs 6 and 7 with different stereochemistry at the C2-position of the glycerol moiety were synthesized and their antitumor activity against breast (JIMT-1, BT-474, MDA-MB-231), pancreas (MiaPaCa2) and prostrate (DU145, PC3) cancer cell lines was determined. The diglycosylated analogs 1-O-hexadecyl-2(R)-, 3-O-di-(2'-amino-2'-deoxy-?-D-glucopyranosyl)-sn-glycerol (7) and the 1:1 diastereomeric mixture of 1-O-hexadecyl-2(R/S), 3-O-di-(2'-amino-2'-deoxy-?-D-glucopyranosyl)-sn-glycerol (6) showed the most potent cytotoxic activity at CC50 values of 17.5 µM against PC3 cell lines. The replacement of the O-glycosidic linkage by a glycosylamide or a glycosyltriazole linkage showed little or no activity at highest concentration tested (30 µM), whereas the replacement of the glycerol moiety by triazole resulted in CC50 values in the range of 20 to 30 µM. In conclusion, the replacement of the O-glycosidic linkage by an N-glycosidic linkage or triazole-linkage resulted in about a two to three fold loss in activity, whereas the replacement of the methoxy group on the glycerol backbone by a second glucosamine moiety did not improve the activity. The stereochemistry at the C2-position of the glycero backbone has minimal effect on the anticancer activities of these diglycosylated analogs. PMID:24335578

Ogunsina, Makanjuola; Pan, Hangyi; Samadder, Pranati; Arthur, Gilbert; Schweizer, Frank

2013-01-01

275

Structure-activity relationships for skin sensitization: recent improvements to Derek for Windows.  

PubMed

Derek for Windows (DfW) is a knowledge-based expert system that predicts the toxicity of a chemical from its structure. Its predictions are based in part on alerts that describe structural features or toxicophores associated with toxicity. Recently, improvements have been made to skin sensitization alerts within the DfW knowledge base in collaboration with Unilever. These include modifications to the alerts describing the skin sensitization potential of aldehydes, 1,2-diketones, and isothiazolinones and consist of enhancements to the toxicophore definition, the mechanistic classification, and the extent of supporting evidence provided. The outcomes from this collaboration demonstrate the importance of updating and refining computer models for the prediction of skin sensitization as new information from experimental and theoretical studies becomes available. PMID:17101009

Langton, Kate; Patlewicz, Grace Y; Long, Anthony; Marchant, Carol A; Basketter, David A

2006-12-01

276

Some aspects of the in vivo neuroprotective capacity of flavonoids: Bioavailability and structure-activity relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of previous work showing that flavonoids structurally related to quercetin are neuroprotective for cells in culture,\\u000a this work was directed towards determining if several flavonoids (quercetin, fisetin and catechin) could acutely and by an\\u000a intraperitoneal (IP) route reach significant cerebral concentrations and either prevent or facilitate recovery from a brain\\u000a lesion induced by focal ischemia in rats.

Felicia Rivera; Jessika Urbanavicius; Elena Gervaz; Andrea Morquio; Federico Dajas

2004-01-01

277

Antileishmanial lead structures from nature: analysis of structure-activity relationships of a compound library derived from caffeic Acid bornyl ester.  

PubMed

Bioassay-guided fractionation of a chloroform extract of Valeriana wallichii (V. wallichii) rhizomes lead to the isolation and identification of caffeic acid bornyl ester (1) as the active component against Leishmania major (L. major) promastigotes (IC50 = 48.8 µM). To investigate the structure-activity relationship (SAR), a library of compounds based on 1 was synthesized and tested in vitro against L. major and L. donovani promastigotes, and L. major amastigotes. Cytotoxicity was determined using a murine J774.1 cell line and bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM). Some compounds showed antileishmanial activity in the concentration range of pentamidine and miltefosine which are the standard drugs in use. In the L. major amastigote assay compounds 15, 19 and 20 showed good activity with relatively low cytotoxicity against BMDM, resulting in acceptable selectivity indices. Molecules with adjacent phenolic hydroxyl groups exhibited elevated cytotoxicity against murine cell lines J774.1 and BMDM. The Michael system seems not to be essential for antileishmanial activity. Based on the results compound 27 can be regarded as new lead structure for further structure optimization. PMID:24473204

Glaser, Jan; Schultheis, Martina; Hazra, Sudipta; Hazra, Banasri; Moll, Heidrun; Schurigt, Uta; Holzgrabe, Ulrike

2014-01-01

278

Potential of 2-hydroxy-3-phenylsulfanylmethyl-[1,4]-naphthoquinones against Leishmania (L.) infantum: biological activity and structure-activity relationships.  

PubMed

Naphtoquinones have been used as promising scaffolds for drug design studies against protozoan parasites. Considering the highly toxic and limited therapeutic arsenal, the global negligence with tropical diseases and the elevated prevalence of co-morbidities especially in developing countries, the parasitic diseases caused by various Leishmania species (leishmaniasis) became a significant public health threat in 98 countries. The aim of this work was the evaluation of antileishmanial in vitro potential of thirty-six 2-hydroxy-3-phenylsulfanylmethyl-[1,4]-naphthoquinones obtained by a three component reaction of lawsone, the appropriate aldehyde and thiols adequately substituted, exploiting the in situ generation of o-quinonemethides (o-QM) via the Knoevenagel condensation. The antileishmanial activity of the naphthoquinone derivatives was evaluated against promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and their cytotoxicity was verified in mammalian cells. Among the thirty-six compounds, twenty-seven were effective against promastigotes, with IC50 values ranging from 8 to 189 µM; fourteen compounds eliminated the intracellular amastigotes, with IC50 values ranging from 12 to 65 µM. The compounds containing the phenyl groups at R1 and R2 and with the fluorine substituent at the phenyl ring at R2, rendered the most promising activity, demonstrating a selectivity index higher than 15 against amastigotes. A QSAR (quantitative structure activity relationship) analysis yielded insights into general structural requirements for activity of most compounds in the series. Considering the in vitro antileishmanial potential of 2-hydroxy-3-phenylsulfanylmethyl-[1,4]-naphthoquinones and their structure-activity relationships, novel lead candidates could be exploited in future drug design studies for leishmaniasis. PMID:25171058

Pinto, Erika G; Santos, Isabela O; Schmidt, Thomas J; Borborema, Samanta E T; Ferreira, Vitor F; Rocha, David R; Tempone, Andre G

2014-01-01

279

Potential of 2-Hydroxy-3-Phenylsulfanylmethyl-[1,4]-Naphthoquinones against Leishmania (L.) infantum: Biological Activity and Structure-Activity Relationships  

PubMed Central

Naphtoquinones have been used as promising scaffolds for drug design studies against protozoan parasites. Considering the highly toxic and limited therapeutic arsenal, the global negligence with tropical diseases and the elevated prevalence of co-morbidities especially in developing countries, the parasitic diseases caused by various Leishmania species (leishmaniasis) became a significant public health threat in 98 countries. The aim of this work was the evaluation of antileishmanial in vitro potential of thirty-six 2-hydroxy-3-phenylsulfanylmethyl-[1,4]-naphthoquinones obtained by a three component reaction of lawsone, the appropriate aldehyde and thiols adequately substituted, exploiting the in situ generation of o-quinonemethides (o-QM) via the Knoevenagel condensation. The antileishmanial activity of the naphthoquinone derivatives was evaluated against promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and their cytotoxicity was verified in mammalian cells. Among the thirty-six compounds, twenty-seven were effective against promastigotes, with IC50 values ranging from 8 to 189 µM; fourteen compounds eliminated the intracellular amastigotes, with IC50 values ranging from 12 to 65 µM. The compounds containing the phenyl groups at R1 and R2 and with the fluorine substituent at the phenyl ring at R2, rendered the most promising activity, demonstrating a selectivity index higher than 15 against amastigotes. A QSAR (quantitative structure activity relationship) analysis yielded insights into general structural requirements for activity of most compounds in the series. Considering the in vitro antileishmanial potential of 2-hydroxy-3-phenylsulfanylmethyl-[1,4]-naphthoquinones and their structure-activity relationships, novel lead candidates could be exploited in future drug design studies for leishmaniasis. PMID:25171058

Schmidt, Thomas J.; Borborema, Samanta E. T.; Ferreira, Vitor F.; Rocha, David R.; Tempone, Andre G.

2014-01-01

280

Pharmacological and structure-activity relationship evaluation of 4-aryl-1-diphenylacetyl(thio)semicarbazides.  

PubMed

This article describes the synthesis of six 4-aryl-(thio)semicarbazides (series a and b) linked with diphenylacetyl moiety along with their pharmacological evaluation on the central nervous system in mice and computational studies, including conformational analysis and electrostatic properties. All thiosemicarbazides (series b) were found to exhibit strong antinociceptive activity in the behavioural model. Among them, compound 1-diphenylacetyl-4-(4-methylphenyl)thiosemicarbazide 1b was found to be the most potent analgesic agent, whose activity is connected with the opioid system. For compounds from series a significant anti-serotonergic effect, especially for compound 1-diphenylacetyl-4-(4-methoxyphenyl)semicarbazide 2b was observed. The computational studies strongly support the obtained results. PMID:24743932

Wujec, Monika; K?dzierska, Ewa; Ku?mierz, Edyta; Plech, Tomasz; Wróbel, Andrzej; Paneth, Agata; Orzelska, Jolanta; Fidecka, Sylwia; Paneth, Piotr

2014-01-01

281

Resveratrol analogues as selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors: synthesis and structure–activity relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resveratrol (3,5,4?-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is found in grapes and various medical plants. Among cytotoxic, antifungal, antibacterial cardioprotective activity resveratrol also demonstrates non-selective cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition. In order to find more selective COX-2 inhibitors a series of methoxylated and hydroxylated resveratrol derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to inhibit both enzymes using in vitro inhibition assays for COX-1

Marek Murias; Norbert Handler; Thomas Erker; Karin Pleban; Gerhard Ecker; Philipp Saiko; Thomas Szekeres; Walter Jäger

2004-01-01

282

Structure-Activity Relationships in Rodent Diaphragm Muscle Fibers vs. Neuromuscular Junctions  

PubMed Central

The diaphragm muscle (DIAm) is a highly active muscle of mixed fiber type composition. We hypothesized that consistent with greater activation history and proportion of fatigue-resistant fibers, neuromuscular transmission failure is lower in the mouse compared to the rat DIAm, and that neuromuscular junction (NMJ) morphology will match their different functional demands. Minute ventilation and duty cycle were higher in the mouse than in the rat. The proportion of fatigue-resistant fibers was similar in the rat and mouse; however the contribution of fatigue-resistant fibers to total DIAm mass was higher in the mouse. Neuromuscular transmission failure was less in mice than in rats. Motor end-plate area differed across fibers in rat but not in mouse DIAm, where NMJs displayed greater complexity overall. Thus, differences across species in activation history and susceptibility to neuromuscular transmission failure are reflected in the relative contribution of fatigue resistant muscle fibers to total DIAm mass, but not in type-dependent morphological differences at the NMJ. PMID:22063925

Sieck, Dylan C.; Zhan, Wen-Zhi; Fang, Yun-Hua; Ermilov, Leonid G.; Sieck, Gary C.; Mantilla, Carlos B.

2011-01-01

283

Structure-activity relationships in rodent diaphragm muscle fibers vs. neuromuscular junctions.  

PubMed

The diaphragm muscle (DIAm) is a highly active muscle of mixed fiber type composition. We hypothesized that consistent with greater activation history and proportion of fatigue-resistant fibers, neuromuscular transmission failure is lower in the mouse compared to the rat DIAm, and that neuromuscular junction (NMJ) morphology will match their different functional demands. Minute ventilation and duty cycle were higher in the mouse than in the rat. The proportion of fatigue-resistant fibers was similar in the rat and mouse; however the contribution of fatigue-resistant fibers to total DIAm mass was higher in the mouse. Neuromuscular transmission failure was less in mice than in rats. Motor end-plate area differed across fibers in rat but not in mouse DIAm, where NMJs displayed greater complexity overall. Thus, differences across species in activation history and susceptibility to neuromuscular transmission failure are reflected in the relative contribution of fatigue resistant muscle fibers to total DIAm mass, but not in type-dependent morphological differences at the NMJ. PMID:22063925

Sieck, Dylan C; Zhan, Wen-Zhi; Fang, Yun-Hua; Ermilov, Leonid G; Sieck, Gary C; Mantilla, Carlos B

2012-01-15

284

Structure-Activity Relationships of Orotidine-5?-Monophosphate Decarboxylase Inhibitors as Anticancer Agents  

SciTech Connect

A series of 6-substituted and 5-fluoro-6-substituted uridine derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their potential as anticancer agents. The designed molecules were synthesized from either fully protected uridine or the corresponding 5-fluorouridine derivatives. The mononucleotide derivatives were used for enzyme inhibition investigations against ODCase. Anticancer activities of all the synthesized derivatives were evaluated using the nucleoside forms of the inhibitors. 5-Fluoro-UMP was a very weak inhibitor of ODCase. 6-Azido-5-fluoro and 5-fluoro-6-iodo derivatives are covalent inhibitors of ODCase, and the active site Lys145 residue covalently binds to the ligand after the elimination of the 6-substitution. Among the synthesized nucleoside derivatives, 6-azido-5-fluoro, 6-amino-5-fluoro, and 6-carbaldehyde-5-fluoro derivatives showed potent anticancer activities in cell-based assays against various leukemia cell lines. On the basis of the overall profile, 6-azido-5-fluoro and 6-amino-5-fluoro uridine derivatives exhibited potential for further investigations.

Bello, A.; Konforte, D; Poduch, E; Furlonger, C; Wei, L; Liu, Y; Lewis, M; Pai, E; Paige, C; Kotra, L

2009-01-01

285

Cytotoxicity and Structure-activity Relationships of Naphthyridine Derivatives in Human Cervical Cancer, Leukemia, and Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

Naphthyridine compounds are important, because they exhibit various biological activities including anticancer, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activity. Some naphthyridines have antimitotic effects or demonstrate anticancer activity by inhibiting topoisomerase II. These compounds have been investigated as potential anticancer agents, and several compounds are now part of clinical trials. A series of naphthyridine derivatives were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxic activities against human cervical cancer (HeLa), leukemia (HL-60), and prostate cancer (PC-3) cell lines using an MTT assay. Some compounds (14, 15, and 16) were more potent than colchicine against all three human cancer cell lines and compound (16) demonstrated potency with IC50 values of 0.7, 0.1, and 5.1 µM, respectively. Comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) were used for quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) molecular modeling of these compounds. We obtained accurate and predictive three-dimensional QSAR (3D-QSAR) models as indicated by the high PLS parameters of the HeLa (q2, 0.857; r2, 0.984; r2pred, 0.966), HL-60 (q2, 0.777; r2, 0.937; r2pred, 0.913), and PC-3 (q2, 0.702; r2, 0.983; r2pred, 0.974) cell lines. The 3D-QSAR contour maps suggested that the C-1 NH and C-4 carbonyl group of the naphthyridine ring and the C-2 naphthyl ring were important for cytotoxicity in all three human cancer cell lines. PMID:24381501

Hwang, Yu Jin; Chung, Mi Lyang; Sohn, Uy Dong

2013-01-01

286

Structure–Activity Relationships of Bifunctional Peptides Based on Overlapping Pharmacophores at Opioid and Cholecystokinin Receptors  

PubMed Central

Cholecystokinin (CCK) has been identified as a pronociceptive endogenous peptide which also possesses antiopioid actions. CCK may be upregulated in conditions of chronic pain or during sustained morphine administration resulting in attenuation of opioid-mediated pain relief. These complex interactions between opioids and endogenous CCK receptor systems have suggested the need for a new paradigm in drug design for some states of chronic pain. In these circumstances the rational design of potential drugs for the treatment of these conditions must be based on one ligand for multiple targets. We have designed a single peptide which can interact with ? and ? opioid receptors as agonists and with CCK receptors as antagonists. The ligands were designed based on a model of overlapping pharmacophores of opioid and CCK peptide ligands, which incorporates opioid pharmacophores at the N-terminal and CCK tetrapeptide pharmacophores at the C-terminal of the designed ligands. We measured binding and activities of our bifunctional peptides at opioid and CCK receptors. Compound 11 (Tyr-d-Ala-Gly-d-Trp-NMeNle-Asp-Phe-NH2) demonstrated opioid agonist properties at ? and ? receptors (IC50 = 63 ± 27 nM and 150 ± 65 nM, respectively in MVD and GPI tissue assays) and high binding affinity at CCK-1 and CCK-2 receptors (Ki = 320 and 1.5 nM, respectively). Compound 9 (Tyr-d-Nle-Gly-Trp-Nle-Asp-Phe-NH2) displayed potent agonist activity at ? and ? receptors (IC50 = 23 ±10 nM and 210 ± 52 nM, respectively in MVD and GPI tissue assays), with a balanced binding affinity for CCK-1 and CCK-2 receptors (Ki = 9.6 and 15 nM, respectively). These results provide evidence supporting the concept that opioid and CCK receptors have overlapping pharmacophores required for binding affinity and biological activity and that designing overlapping pharmacophores of two peptides into a single peptide is a valid drug design approach. PMID:16686530

Agnes, Richard S.; Lee, Yeon Sun; Davis, Peg; Ma, Shou-wu; Badghisi, Hamid; Porreca, Frank; Lai, Josephine; Hruby, Victor J.

2006-01-01

287

HLA-A3 supermotif defined by quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis.  

PubMed

Activation of a cytotoxic T cell requires specific binding of antigenic peptides to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. This paper reports a study of peptides binding to members of the HLA-A3 superfamily using a recently developed 2D-QSAR method, called the additive method. Four alleles with high phenotype frequency were included in the study: A*0301, A*1101, A*3101 and A*6801. The influence of each of the 20 amino acids at each position of the peptide on binding was studied. A refined A3 supertype motif was defined in the study. PMID:12646688

Guan, Pingping; Doytchinova, Irini A; Flower, Darren R

2003-01-01

288

Structure–Activity Relationships in Tripodal Transmembrane Anion Transporters: The Effect of Fluorination  

PubMed Central

A series of easy-to-make fluorinated tripodal anion transporters containing urea and thiourea groups have been prepared and their anion transport properties studied. Vesicle anion transport assays using ion-selective electrodes show that this class of compound is capable of transporting chloride through a lipid bilayer via a variety of mechanisms, including chloride/H+ cotransport and chloride/nitrate, chloride/bicarbonate, and to a lesser extent an unusual chloride/sulfate antiport process. Calculations indicate that increasing the degree of fluorination of the tripodal transmembrane transporters increases the lipophilicity of the transporter and this is shown to be the major contributing factor in the superior transport activity of the fluorinated compounds, with a maximum transport rate achieved for clog P = 8. The most active transporter 5 contained a urea functionality appended with a 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl group and was able to mediate transmembrane chloride transport at receptor to lipid ratios as low as 1:250000. Proton NMR titration and single crystal X-ray diffraction revealed the ability of the tripodal receptors to bind different anions with varying affinities in a 1:1 or 2:1 stoichiometry in solution and in the solid state. We also provide evidence that the most potent anion transporters are able to induce apoptosis in human cancer cells by using a selection of in vitro viability and fluorescence assays. PMID:21846096

2011-01-01

289

Structure-property-composition relationships in doped zinc oxides: enhanced photocatalytic activity with rare Earth dopants.  

PubMed

In this paper, we demonstrate the use of continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis (CHFS) technology to rapidly produce a library of 56 crystalline (doped) zinc oxide nanopowders and two undoped samples, each with different particle properties. Each sample was produced in series from the mixing of an aqueous stream of basic zinc nitrate (and dopant ion or modifier) solution with a flow of superheated water (at 450 °C and 24.1 MPa), whereupon a crystalline nanoparticle slurry was rapidly formed. Each composition was collected in series, cleaned, freeze-dried, and then characterized using analytical methods, including powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-vis spectrophotometry. Photocatalytic activity of the samples toward the decolorization of methylene blue dye was assessed, and the results revealed that transition metal dopants tended to reduce the photoactivity while rare earth ions, in general, increased the photocatalytic activity. In general, low dopant concentrations were more beneficial to having greater photodecolorization in all cases. PMID:25602735

Goodall, Josephine B M; Illsley, Derek; Lines, Robert; Makwana, Neel M; Darr, Jawwad A

2015-02-01

290

Small-molecule glucosylation by sucrose phosphorylase: structure-activity relationships for acceptor substrates revisited.  

PubMed

Sucrose phosphorylase catalyzes the O-glucosylation of a wide range of acceptor substrates. Acceptors presenting a suitable 1,2-diol moiety are glucosylated exclusively at the secondary hydroxyl. Production of the naturally occurring compatible solute, 2-O-alpha-d-glucopyranosyl-sn-glycerol, from sucrose and glycerol is a notable industrial realization of the regio- and stereoselective biotransformation promoted by sucrose phosphorylase. The acceptor substrate specificity of sucrose phosphorylase was analyzed on the basis of recent high-resolution crystal structures of the enzyme. Interactions at the acceptor binding site, observed in the crystal (d-fructosyl) and suggested by results of docking experiments (glycerol), are used to rationalize experimentally determined efficiencies and regioselectivities of enzymatic glucosyl transfer. PMID:20416864

Luley-Goedl, Christiane; Nidetzky, Bernd

2010-07-01

291

In Vitro Structure-Activity Relationship of Re-cyclized Octreotide Analogues  

PubMed Central

Introduction Development of radiolabeled octreotide analogues is of interest for targeting somatostatin receptor-positive tumors for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. We are investigating a direct labeling approach for incorporation of a Re ion into octreotide analogues, where the peptide sequences are cyclized via coordination to Re rather than through a disulfide bridge. Methods Various octreotide analogue sequences and coordination systems (e.g., S2N2 and S3N) were synthesized and cyclized with non-radioactive Re. In vitro competitive binding assays with 111In-DOTA-Tyr3-octreotide in AR42J rat pancreatic tumor cells yielded IC50 values as a measure of somatostatin receptor affinity of the Re-cyclized analogues. Three-dimensional structures of Re-cyclized Tyr3-octreotate and its disulfide-bridged analogue were calculated from two-dimensional NMR experiments to visualize the effect of metal cyclization on the analogue’s pharmacophore. Results Only two of the eleven Re-cyclized analogues investigated showed moderate in vitro binding affinity toward somatostatin subtype 2 receptors. Three-dimensional molecular structures of Re- and disulfide-cyclized Tyr3-octreotate were calculated, and both of their pharmacophore turns appear to be very similar with minor differences due to metal coordination to the amide nitrogen of one of the pharmacophore amino acids. Conclusions Various Re-cyclized analogues were developed and analogue 4 had moderate affinity toward somatostatin subtype 2 receptors. In vitro stable studies that are in progress showed stable radiometal-cyclization of octreotide analogues via NS3 and N2S2 coordination forming 5- and 6- membered chelate rings. In vivo biodistribution studies are underway of 99m Tc- cyclized analogue 4. PMID:20610157

Dannoon, Shorouk F.; Bigott-Hennkens, Heather M.; Ma, Lixin; Gallazzi, Fabio; Lewis, Michael R.; Jurisson, Silvia S.

2010-01-01

292

Design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationships of pyrazole derivatives as potential FabH inhibitors.  

PubMed

Fatty acid biosynthesis is essential for bacterial survival. FabH, beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthase III, is a particularly attractive target, since it is central to the initiation of fatty acid biosynthesis and is highly conserved among Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Fifty-six 1-acetyl-3,5-diphenyl-4,5-dihydro-(1H)-pyrazole derivatives were synthesized and developed as potent inhibitors of FabH. This inhibitor class demonstrates strong antibacterial activity. Escherichia coli FabH inhibitory assay and docking simulation indicated that the compounds 1-(5-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)ethanone (12) and 1-(5-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)ethanone (13) were potent inhibitors of E. coli FabH. PMID:20594840

Lv, Peng-Cheng; Sun, Juan; Luo, Yin; Yang, Ying; Zhu, Hai-Liang

2010-08-01

293

Determination of biodegradability kinetics of RCRA compounds using respirometry for structure-activity relationships  

SciTech Connect

Electrolytic respirometry is attaining prominence in biodegradation studies and is becoming one of the more suitable experimental methods for measuring the biodegradability and the kinetics of biodegradation of toxic organic compounds by the sewage, sludge, and soil microbiota and for determining substrate inhibitory effects to microorganisms in wastewater treatment systems. The purpose of the study was to obtain information on biological treatability of the benzene, phenol, phthalate, ketone organics and of the Superfund CERCLA organics bearing wastes in wastewater treatment systems which will support the development of an EPA technical guidance document on the discharge of the above organics to POTWs. The paper discusses the experimental design and procedural steps for the respirometric biodegradation and toxicity testing approach for individual organics or specific industrial wastes at different concentration levels in a mineral salts medium. A developed multi-level protocol is presented for determination of the biodegradability, microbial acclimation to toxic substrates and first order kinetic parameters of biodegradation for estimation of the Monod kinetic parameter of toxic organic compounds, in order to correlate the extent and rate of biodegradation with a predictive model based on chemical properties and molecular structure of these compounds. Respirometric biodegradation/inhibition and biokinetic data are provided for representative RCRA alkyl benzene and ketone organics.

Tabak, H.H.; Desai, S.; Govind, R.

1990-01-01

294

In vitro toxicological effects of estrogenic mycotoxins on human placental cells: structure activity relationships.  

PubMed

Zearalenone (ZEN) is a non-steroid estrogen mycotoxin produced by numerous strains of Fusarium which commonly contaminate cereals. After oral administration, ZEN is reduced via intestinal and hepatic metabolism to ?- and ?-zearalenol (?ZEL and ?ZEL). These reduced metabolites possess estrogenic properties, ?ZEL showing the highest affinity for ERs. ZEN and reduced metabolites cause hormonal effects in animals, such as abnormalities in the development of the reproductive tract and mammary gland in female offspring, suggesting a fetal exposure to these contaminants. In our previous work, we have suggested the potential impact of ZEN on placental cells considering this organ as a potential target of xenobiotics. In this work, we first compared the in vitro effects of ?ZEL and ???L on cell differentiation to their parental molecule on human trophoblast (BeWo cells). Secondly, we investigated their molecular mechanisms of action by investigating the expression of main differentiation biomarkers and the implication of nuclear receptor by docking prediction. Conversely to ZEN, reduced metabolites did not induce trophoblast differentiation. They also induced significant changes in ABC transporter expression by potential interaction with nuclear receptors (LXR, PXR, PR) that could modify the transport function of placental cells. Finally, the mechanism of ZEN differentiation induction seemed not to involve nuclear receptor commonly involved in the differentiation process (PPAR?). Our results demonstrated that in spite of structure similarities between ZEN, ?ZEL and ?ZEL, toxicological effects and toxicity mechanisms were significantly different for the three molecules. PMID:22310176

Prouillac, Caroline; Koraichi, Farah; Videmann, Bernadette; Mazallon, Michelle; Rodriguez, Frédéric; Baltas, Michel; Lecoeur, Sylvaine

2012-03-15

295

How Does Catalase Release Nitric Oxide? A Computational Structure Activity Relationship Study  

PubMed Central

Hydroxyurea (HU) is the only FDA approved medication for treating sickle cell disease in adults. The primary mechanism of action is pharmacological elevation of nitric oxide (NO) levels which induces propagation of fetal hemoglobin. HU is known to undergo redox reactions with heme based enzymes like hemoglobin and catalase to produce NO. However, specific details about the HU based NO release remain unknown. Experimental studies indicate that interaction of HU with human catalase compound I produces NO. Presently, we combine flexible receptor-flexible substrate induced fit docking (IFD) with energy decomposition analyses to examine the atomic level details of a possible key step in the clinical conversion of HU to NO. Substrate binding modes of nine HU analogs with catalase compound I were investigated to determine the essential properties necessary for effective NO release. Three major binding orientations were found that provide insight into the possible reaction mechanisms for producing NO. Further results show that anion/radical intermediates produced as part of these mechanisms would be stabilized by hydrogen bonding interactions from distal residues His75, Asn148, Gln168, and oxoferryl-heme. These details will ideally contribute to both a clearer mechanistic picture and provide insights for future structure based drug design efforts. PMID:24087936

Vankayala, Sai Lakshmana; Hargis, Jacqueline C.; Woodcock, H. Lee

2013-01-01

296

Synthesis, cytostatic evaluation and structure activity relationships of novel bis-indolylmethanes and their corresponding tetrahydroindolocarbazoles.  

PubMed

BIMs (bis-indolylmethanes) (1a-n) were synthesized using glacial acetic acid as a protic acid for promotion of the condensation reaction of indoles with aldehydes in high yields (86-98 %). Corresponding tetrahydroindolo[2,3-b]carbazoles (2a-m) were synthesized via condensation of BIMs with aldehydes. Ten synthesized compounds have been submitted to the national cancer institute in the USA where all the submitted samples have been selected for one dose screening. As a result of the one dose screening of BIMs (1e,f,h,i,n) and of the indolocarbazoles (2e,f,h,i,j) the average highest cytostatic effects was recorded here for the BIM 1h and the indolocarbazole (2e) that showed the lowest mean values of "47.39%" and of "21.63%" respectively. Both compounds (1h and 2e) were further tested in five dose screening with the tested substance (1h) being significantly more sensitive for several cancers cell line as corresponding to their GI50 values. Furthermore, the basically substituted derivative 2e showed the highest antipoliferative activity in a nanomolar scale towards the three selected cancers cell lines Non small lung cell NCI-H460 with GI50 "616 nM", Ovarian Cancer cell line OVCAR-4 with GI50 "562 nM" and Breast Cancer cell line MCF7 with GI50 "930 nM". PMID:25528338

El Sayed, Mardia T; Ahmed, Khadiga M; Mahmoud, Kazem; Hilgeroth, Andreas

2015-01-27

297

Design, synthesis, and structure-activity-relationship of tetrahydrothiazolopyridine derivatives as potent smoothened antagonists.  

PubMed

The Smoothened (Smo) receptor is an important component of the hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway, which plays a critical role during embryonic development. In adults, Hh signaling is curtailed and has limited functions such as stem cell maintenance and tissue repair. However, aberrant activity of the Hh signaling in adults has been linked to numerous human cancers. Inhibition of Smo leads to the blockade of Hh signaling, and therefore represents a promising approach toward novel anticancer therapy. Through scaffold morphing of a few known Smo antagonists, a series of novel tetrahydrothiazolopyridine derivatives were developed. Compounds from this new scaffold demonstrated excellent Hh signaling inhibition which was comparable to or better than that of Vismodegib. Further, compound 30 exhibited a lower melting point and a moderately improved solubility compared with those of Vismodegib; compounds 11 and 30 showed good pharmacokinetic profiles with 34% and 77% oral bioavailability in rat, respectively. Collectively, these results strongly support further optimization of this novel scaffold to develop better Smo antagonists. PMID:25462278

Ma, Haikuo; Lu, Wenfeng; Sun, Zhijian; Luo, Lusong; Geng, Delong; Yang, Zhaohui; Li, Enqin; Zheng, Jiyue; Wang, Meiyu; Zhang, Hongjian; Yang, Shilin; Zhang, Xiaohu

2015-01-01

298

New imidazolidine derivatives as anti-Trypanosoma cruzi agents: structure-activity relationships.  

PubMed

Imidazolidine derivatives are key components for the development of bioactive compounds for the treatment of many diseases, especially Chagas. In fact, others studies showed that the imidazolidine-2,4-dione has stood out by presenting a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities including anticonvulsants, antiarrhythmic, and antiparasitic. In the present study, we investigated the morphological alterations induced by imidazolidine derivates LPSF/NN-52 and LPSF/NN-100 on trypomastigotes forms of Trypanosoma cruzi through ultrastructural analysis by electron microscopy. Many concentrations were used to measure the antiparasitic propriety promoted by imidazolidine derivatives, and our study indicates that parasites treated with 13 ?g mL(-1) of the imidazolidine derivates for 24 h revealed severe damage to the parasite's mitochondrial complex. Beyond that, also observed in treated parasites were the following: myelin bodies, enlargement of cytoplasm vacuole, fragmentation of endoplasmic reticulum, and some treated samples clearly showed signs of necrosis. To confirm the ultrastructural results, some assays were performed for knowledge cellular death induction promoted by imidazolidine derivates against immune spleen cells. The induction of the necrotic process through derivatives LPSF/NN-52 and LPSF/NN-100 showed similar results in relation to nifurtimox and benznidazole. In the last assays, it was demonstrated that NN-100 was efficient against epimastigotes and trypomastigotes forms and these results reinforce the mechanisms of action of both new imidazolidine derivatives against T. cruzi. PMID:22941528

Dos Santos Gomes, Fabiana Oliveira; de Melo, Cristiane Moutinho Lagos; Peixoto, Christina Alves; de Lima, Maria do Carmo Alves; Galdino, Suely Lins; Pereira, Valéria Rêgo Alves; da Rocha Pitta, Ivan

2012-12-01

299

Translation of Structure-Activity Relationships from Cyclic Mixed Efficacy Opioid Peptides to Linear Analogues  

PubMed Central

Most opioid analgesics used in the treatment of pain are mu opioid receptor (MOR) agonists. While effective, there are significant drawbacks to opioid use, including the development of tolerance and dependence. However, the co-administration of a MOR agonist with a delta opioid receptor (DOR) antagonist slows the development of MOR-related side effects, while maintaining analgesia. We have previously reported a series of cyclic mixed efficacy MOR agonist/DOR antagonist ligands. Here we describe the transfer of key features from these cyclic analogs to linear sequences. Using the linear MOR/DOR agonist, Tyr-DThr-Gly-Phe-Leu-Ser-NH2 (DTLES), as a lead scaffold, we replaced Phe4 with bulkier and/or constrained aromatic residues shown to confer DOR antagonism in our cyclic ligands. These replacements failed to confer DOR antagonism in the DTLES analogs, presumably because the more flexible linear ligands can adopt binding poses that will fit in the narrow binding pocket of the active conformations of both MOR and DOR. Nonetheless, the pharmacological profile observed in this series, high affinity and efficacy for MOR and DOR with selectivity relative to KOR, has also been shown to reduce the development of unwanted side effects. We further modified our lead MOR/DOR agonist with a C-terminal glucoserine to improve bioavailability. The resulting ligand displayed high efficacy and potency at both MOR and DOR and no efficacy at KOR. PMID:24436042

Anand, Jessica P.; Porter-Barrus, Vanessa R.; Waldschmidt, Helen V.; Yeomans, Larisa; Pogozheva, Irina D.; Traynor, John R.

2014-01-01

300

Structure-Activity Relationship Analysis of Peptides Targeting the EphA2 Receptor†  

PubMed Central

The EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase has emerged as a promising new therapeutic target in cancer due to its high expression in tumors. EphA2-specific antibodies have been used to deliver drugs and toxins to tumor cells, leading to inhibition of tumor growth and metastatic dissemination. We previously identified two related peptides, YSA and SWL, that selectively bind to the ligand-binding domain of EphA2 but not other Eph receptors, and could therefore be useful as selective targeting agents. Here we characterize the two peptides and a series of derivatives. Based on systematic amino acid replacements, only 5 YSA residues appear to be critical for high affinity receptor binding. Furthermore, a peptide comprising only the first 5 residues of YSA retains selectivity for EphA2. Similar to ephrin-A1, the physiological ligand for EphA2, both YSA and SWL activate EphA2 and inhibit downstream oncogenic signaling pathways in PC3 cancer cells. The two peptides and derivatives are quite stable in conditioned cell culture medium and show promise for delivering drugs and imaging agents to EphA2-expressing tumors. PMID:20677833

Mitra, Sayantan; Duggineni, Srinivas; Koolpe, Mitchell; Zhu, Xuejun; Huang, Ziwei; Pasquale, Elena B.

2010-01-01

301

Acaricidal toxicity of 2'-hydroxy-4'-methylacetophenone isolated from Angelicae koreana roots and structure-activity relationships of its derivatives.  

PubMed

The acaricidal activities of 2'-hydroxy-4'-methylacetophenone derived from Angelica koreana roots and its derivatives against Dermatophagoides farinae, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, and Tyrophagus putrescentiae were examined by vapor phase and contact toxicity bioassays. In the vapor phase toxicity bioassay, 2'-methylacetophenone (1.25 ?g/cm(2)) was 8.0 times more toxic against D. farinae than benzyl benzoate (10.00 ?g/cm(2)), followed by 3'-methylacetophenone (1.26 ?g/cm(2)), 4'-methylacetophenone (1.29 ?g/cm(2)), 2'-hydroxy-4'-methylacetophenone (1.75 ?g/cm(2)), and 2'-hydroxy-5'-methylacetophenone (1.96 ?g/cm(2)). In the contact toxicity bioassay, 3'-methylacetophenone (0.58 ?g/cm(2)) was 17.24 times more effective against D. farinae than benzyl benzoate (7.52 ?g/cm(2)), followed by 2'-methylacetophenone (0.64 ?g/cm(2)), 2'-hydroxy-4'-methylacetophenone (0.76 ?g/cm(2)), 4'-methylacetophenone (0.77 ?g/cm(2)), and 2'-hydroxy-5'-methylacetophenone (1.16 ?g/cm(2)). The acaricidal activities of 2'-hydroxy-4'-methylacetophenone derivatives against D. pteronyssinus and T. putrescentiae were similar to those against D. farinae. In terms of structure-activity relationships, acaricidal activity against the three mite species changed with the introduction of hydroxyl and methyl functional groups onto the acetophenone skeleton. Furthermore, some of 2'-hydroxy-4'-methylacetophenone derivatives could be useful for natural acaricides against three mite species. PMID:22429095

Oh, Min Seok; Yang, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Hoi Seon

2012-04-11

302

Anti-inflammatory activity and percutaneous absorption of quercetin and its polymethoxylated compound and glycosides: the relationships to chemical structures.  

PubMed

The potential of quercetin-related compounds for topical application has not previously been systematically investigated. To better elucidate relationships of the structure and activity with skin permeation, some quercetin compounds were used as permeants, including aglycone, a polymethoxylated compound (quercetin 3,5,7,3',4'-pentamethylether, QM), and seven glycosides. Quercetin and the glycoside with glucopyranuronic acid (Q4) at a dose of 30 ?M completely inhibited superoxide anion activated neutrophils. QM also potentially suppressed superoxide by 90%. Both quercetin and QM showed inhibitory activity on elastase release with respective IC(50) values of 6.25 and 15.76 ?M. Glycosylation significantly diminished this activity. Both an infinite concentration and saturated solubility in pH 7 buffer were used as permeant doses for the in vitro permeation experiments. The flux or permeability coefficient, which is the indicator for total absorption of dermal delivery due to the use of nude mouse skin, was the greatest for QM, followed by the glycosides and quercetin. QM showed 26× greater flux compared to quercetin. No penetration of quercetin occurred at the dose of saturated solubility. Rutin generally exhibited the highest skin permeation among the glycosides. It was found that the glycoside enantiomers (Q2 and Q3) revealed completely different permeation profiles. The stratum corneum was the principal penetration barrier for quercetin and its glycosides but not QM. Rutin provoked some skin redness and inflammation after a 5-day administration in nude mouse. QM caused no irritation, suggesting that it is a superior candidate for topical delivery. PMID:22609526

Lin, Chwan-Fwu; Leu, Yann-Lii; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A; Ku, Ming-Chuan; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Fang, Jia-You

2012-12-18

303

A quantitative structure activity relationships (QSAR) analysis of triarylmethane dye tracers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dyes are important hydrological tracers. Many different dyes have been proposed as optimal tracers, but none of these dyes can be considered an ideal water tracer. Some dyes are toxic and most sorb to subsurface materials. The objective of this study was to find the molecular structure of an optimal water tracer. We used QSAR to screen a large number of hypothetical molecules, belonging to the class of triarylmethane dyes, in regard to their sorption characteristics to a sandy soil. The QSAR model was based on experimental sorption data obtained from four triarylmethane dyes: C.I. Food Blue 2 (C.I. 42090; Brilliant Blue FCF), C.I. Food Green 3 (C.I. 42053; FD&C Green No. 3), C.I. Acid Blue 7 (C.I. 42080; ORCOacid Blue A 150%), and C.I. Acid Green 9 (C.I. 42100; ORCOacid Fast Green B). Sorption characteristics of the dyes to the sandy soil were expressed with the Langmuir isotherm. Our premise was that dye sorption can be reduced by attachment of sulfonic acid (SO 3) groups to the triarylmethane template. About 70 hypothetical dyes were created and QSAR were used to estimate sorption characteristics. The results indicated that both the position and the number of SO 3 groups affected dye sorption. Sorption decreased with increasing number of SO 3 groups attached to the molecule. Increasing the number of sulfonic acid groups also decreases the toxicity of the compounds. An optimal triarylmethane water tracer contains 4 to 6 SO 3 groups.

Mon, Jarai; Flury, Markus; Harsh, James B.

2006-01-01

304

Development of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models to predict the carcinogenic potency of chemicals  

SciTech Connect

Determining the carcinogenicity and carcinogenic potency of new chemicals is both a labor-intensive and time-consuming process. In order to expedite the screening process, there is a need to identify alternative toxicity measures that may be used as surrogates for carcinogenic potency. Alternative toxicity measures for carcinogenic potency currently being used in the literature include lethal dose (dose that kills 50% of a study population [LD{sub 50}]), lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level (LOAEL) and maximum tolerated dose (MTD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between tumor dose (TD{sub 50}) and three alternative toxicity measures as an estimator of carcinogenic potency. A second aim of this study was to develop a Classification and Regression Tree (CART) between TD{sub 50} and estimated/experimental predictor variables to predict the carcinogenic potency of new chemicals. Rat TD{sub 50}s of 590 structurally diverse chemicals were obtained from the Cancer Potency Database, and the three alternative toxicity measures considered in this study were estimated using TOPKAT, a toxicity estimation software. Though poor correlations were obtained between carcinogenic potency and the three alternative toxicity (both experimental and TOPKAT) measures for the CPDB chemicals, a CART developed using experimental data with no missing values as predictor variables provided reasonable estimates of TD{sub 50} for nine chemicals that were part of an external validation set. However, if experimental values for the three alternative measures, mutagenicity and logP are not available in the literature, then either the CART developed using missing experimental values or estimated values may be used for making a prediction.

Venkatapathy, Raghuraman [Pegasus Technical Services, Inc., 46 E. Hollister St., Cincinnati, OH 45219 (United States)], E-mail: venkatapathy.raghuraman@epa.gov; Wang Chingyi; Bruce, Robert Mark [National Center for Environmental Assessment, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 W Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); Moudgal, Chandrika [National Homeland Security Research Center, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 7, ENSV/IO, 901 N 5th Street, Kansas City, KS 66101 (United States)

2009-01-15

305

In vitro toxicological effects of estrogenic mycotoxins on human placental cells: Structure activity relationships  

SciTech Connect

Zearalenone (ZEN) is a non-steroid estrogen mycotoxin produced by numerous strains of Fusarium which commonly contaminate cereals. After oral administration, ZEN is reduced via intestinal and hepatic metabolism to ?- and ?-zearalenol (?ZEL and ?ZEL). These reduced metabolites possess estrogenic properties, ?ZEL showing the highest affinity for ERs. ZEN and reduced metabolites cause hormonal effects in animals, such as abnormalities in the development of the reproductive tract and mammary gland in female offspring, suggesting a fetal exposure to these contaminants. In our previous work, we have suggested the potential impact of ZEN on placental cells considering this organ as a potential target of xenobiotics. In this work, we first compared the in vitro effects of ?ZEL and ???L on cell differentiation to their parental molecule on human trophoblast (BeWo cells). Secondly, we investigated their molecular mechanisms of action by investigating the expression of main differentiation biomarkers and the implication of nuclear receptor by docking prediction. Conversely to ZEN, reduced metabolites did not induce trophoblast differentiation. They also induced significant changes in ABC transporter expression by potential interaction with nuclear receptors (LXR, PXR, PR) that could modify the transport function of placental cells. Finally, the mechanism of ZEN differentiation induction seemed not to involve nuclear receptor commonly involved in the differentiation process (PPAR?). Our results demonstrated that in spite of structure similarities between ZEN, ?ZEL and ?ZEL, toxicological effects and toxicity mechanisms were significantly different for the three molecules. -- Highlights: ? ZEN and metabolites have differential effect on trophoblast differentiation. ? ZEN and metabolites have differential effect on ABC transporter expression. ? ZEN and metabolites effects involved nuclear receptors interaction.

Prouillac, Caroline, E-mail: c.prouillac@vetagro-sup.fr [Université Lyon, US/C 1233 INRA VetAgroSup, Métabolisme et Toxicologie Comparée des Xénobiotiques, 1 avenue Bourgelat, BP 83, 69280 Marcy l'Etoile (France)] [Université Lyon, US/C 1233 INRA VetAgroSup, Métabolisme et Toxicologie Comparée des Xénobiotiques, 1 avenue Bourgelat, BP 83, 69280 Marcy l'Etoile (France); Koraichi, Farah; Videmann, Bernadette; Mazallon, Michelle [Université Lyon, US/C 1233 INRA VetAgroSup, Métabolisme et Toxicologie Comparée des Xénobiotiques, 1 avenue Bourgelat, BP 83, 69280 Marcy l'Etoile (France)] [Université Lyon, US/C 1233 INRA VetAgroSup, Métabolisme et Toxicologie Comparée des Xénobiotiques, 1 avenue Bourgelat, BP 83, 69280 Marcy l'Etoile (France); Rodriguez, Frédéric; Baltas, Michel [Université Paul Sabatier, SPCMIB-UMR5068, Laboratoire de Synthèse et de Physicochimie des Molécules d'Intérêt Biologique, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 TOULOUSE cedex 9 (France)] [Université Paul Sabatier, SPCMIB-UMR5068, Laboratoire de Synthèse et de Physicochimie des Molécules d'Intérêt Biologique, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 TOULOUSE cedex 9 (France); Lecoeur, Sylvaine [Université Lyon, US/C 1233 INRA VetAgroSup, Métabolisme et Toxicologie Comparée des Xénobiotiques, 1 avenue Bourgelat, BP 83, 69280 Marcy l'Etoile (France)] [Université Lyon, US/C 1233 INRA VetAgroSup, Métabolisme et Toxicologie Comparée des Xénobiotiques, 1 avenue Bourgelat, BP 83, 69280 Marcy l'Etoile (France)

2012-03-15

306

Suicidal inactivation of haemoproteins by reductive metabolites of halomethanes: a structure-activity relationship study.  

PubMed

Human haemoglobin (Hb), methaemalbumin (MHA) or rat liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 (P-450) were incubated anaerobically at microM concentrations with 1 mM carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), trichlorobromomethane (CCl3Br), chloroform (CHCl3) or methylene chloride (CH2Cl2) in presence of 1 mM sodium dithionite as the reducing agent. At the end of a 5-min incubation, haem was measured by various methods, i.e. binding spectrum with CO, pyridine-haemochromogen haem assay and porphyrin fluorescence, and compared for the four analogues. Statistically significant losses were observed, with all three haemo-protein systems, for CCi3Br, CCl4 and CHCl3, but not CH2Cl2. For Hb, the loss was greater with CCl3Br (haem assay, 63%; porphyrin fluorescence, 48%; CO binding, 24%) than with CCl4 (haem assay, 31%) or CHCl3 (haem assay, 13%). On the other hand, with MHA, CCl4 gave a dramatic loss (haem assay, 88%; porphyrin fluorescence, 83%; CO binding, 67%), which was greater than that observed with CCl3Br (haem assay, 49%; porphyrin fluorescence, 38%; CO binding, 25%). No loss was found with CHCl3. Finally, with microsomes, the inactivation was larger with CCl4 (CO binding, 58%; haem assay, 50%; porphyrin fluorescence, 33%) than with CCl3Br (CO binding, 33%; haem assay, 10%) or CHCl3 (haem assay, 9%; CO binding, 6%). In a separate set of similar experiments, an ion-pairing reverse phase HPLC method showed the formation of substrate-dependent hae-derived products during incubation of CCl3Br with Hb or microsomes, and of CCl4 with Hb. A correlation between potential for free radical formation (CCl3Br > CCl4 > CHCl3 > CH2Cl2) and extent of haem inactivation was observed with all methods for Hb, but not for microsomal P-450 or MHA. The results indicate that these halomethanes may be activated differently by different haemoproteins and suggest that their potential ability to undergo reductive metabolism may not be the only critical factor involved in P-450 haem inactivation by these chemicals. PMID:7624875

Manno, M; Tolando, R; Ferrara, R; Rezzadore, M; Cazzaro, S

1995-06-26

307

Nociceptin receptor binding in mouse forebrain membranes: thermodynamic characteristics and structure activity relationships.  

PubMed

The present study describes the labelling of the nociceptin (NC) receptor, ORL1, in mouse forebrain membranes with a new ligand partially protected from metabolic degradation at the C-terminal; the ligand, [3H]-NC-NH2, has a specific activity of 24.5 Ci mmol(-1). Saturation experiments revealed a single class of binding sites with a KD value of 0.55 nM and Bmax of 94 fmol mg(-1) of protein. Non specific binding was 30% of total binding. Kinetic binding studies yielded the following rate constants: Kobs = 0.104 min(-1); K1 =0.034 min(-1): T1/2=20 min; K(+1)=0.07 min nM(-1). Thermodynamic analyses indicated that [3H]-NC-NH2 binding to the mouse ORL1 is totally entropy driven, similar to what has been observed for the labelled agonists to the opioid receptors OP1(delta), OP2(kappa) and OP3(mu). Receptor affinities of several NC fragments and analogues, including the newly discovered ORL-1 receptor antagonist [Phe1psi(CH2-NH)Gly2]NC(1-13)-NH2([F/G]NC(1-13)-NH2), were also evaluated in displacement experiments. The competition curves for these compounds were found to be parallel to that of NC and the following order of potency was determined for NC fragments: NC-OH = NC-NH2-NC(1-13)-NH2 > > NC(1-12)-NH2 > NC(1-13)-OH > > NC(1-11)-NH2, and for NC and NC(1-13)-NH2 analogues: [Tyr1]NC-NH2 > or = [Leu1]NC(1-13)-NH2 > or = [Tyr1]NC(1-13)-NH2 > or = [F/G]NC(1-13)-NH2 > > [Phe3]NC(1-13)-NH2 > [DF/G]NC(1-13)-NH2. Standard opioid receptor ligands (either agonists or antagonists) were unable to displace [3H]-NC-NH2 binding when applied at concentrations up to 10 microM indicating that this new radioligand interacts with a non opioid site, probably the ORL1 receptor. PMID:9884077

Varani, K; Calo, G; Rizzi, A; Merighi, S; Toth, G; Guerrini, R; Salvadori, S; Borea, P A; Regoli, D

1998-12-01

308

Nociceptin receptor binding in mouse forebrain membranes: thermodynamic characteristics and structure activity relationships  

PubMed Central

The present study describes the labelling of the nociceptin (NC) receptor, ORL1, in mouse forebrain membranes with a new ligand partially protected from metabolic degradation at the C-terminal; the ligand, [3H]-NC-NH2, has a specific activity of 24.5?Ci?mmol?1Saturation experiments revealed a single class of binding sites with a KD value of 0.55?nM and Bmax of 94?fmol?mg?1 of protein. Non specific binding was 30% of total binding. Kinetic binding studies yielded the following rate constants: Kobs=0.104?min?1; K1=0.034?min?1; T1/2=20?min; K+1=0.07?min?nM?1.Thermodynamic analyses indicated that [3H]-NC-NH2 binding to the mouse ORL1 is totally entropy driven, similar to what has been observed for the labelled agonists to the opioid receptors OP1(?), OP2(?) and OP3(?).Receptor affinities of several NC fragments and analogues, including the newly discovered ORL-1 receptor antagonist [Phe1?(CH2-NH)Gly2]NC(1–13)-NH2 ([F/G]NC(1–13)-NH2), were also evaluated in displacement experiments. The competition curves for these compounds were found to be parallel to that of NC and the following order of potency was determined for NC fragments: NC-OH=NC-NH2=NC(1–13)-NH2 >> NC(1–12)-NH2 > NC(1–13)-OH >> NC(1–11)-NH2, and for NC and NC(1–13)-NH2 analogues: [Tyr1]NC-NH2 ? [Leu1]NC(1–13)-NH2 ? [Tyr1]NC(1–13)-NH2 ? [F/G]NC(1–13)-NH2 >> [Phe3]NC(1–13)-NH2 > [DF/G]NC(1–13)-NH2.Standard opioid receptor ligands (either agonists or antagonists) were unable to displace [3H]-NC-NH2 binding when applied at concentrations up to 10??M indicating that this new radioligand interacts with a non opioid site, probably the ORL1 receptor. PMID:9884077

Varani, K; Calo', G; Rizzi, A; Merighi, S; Toth, G; Guerrini, R; Salvadori, S; Borea, P A; Regoli, D

1998-01-01

309

Design, synthesis and structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine derived purine isosteres and their potential as cytotoxic agents.  

PubMed

Drug resistance to chemotherapeutic agents paved the way to develop novel synthetic molecules which are active on MDR cancer cell lines. Regio-isomeric imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine analogues were synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against a range of cancer cell lines. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of the imidazopyridine analogues are also described. Analogue 6b displayed strong cytotoxicity and good microsomal stability. PMID:25462222

Sajith, Ayyiliath M; Abdul Khader, K K; Joshi, Nithin; Reddy, Manchala Nageswar; Syed Ali Padusha, M; Nagaswarupa, H P; Nibin Joy, M; Bodke, Yadav D; Karuvalam, Ranjith P; Banerjee, Rinti; Muralidharan, A; Rajendra, P

2015-01-01

310

Design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationships of a series of novel N-aryl-2-phenylcyclopropanecarboxamide that are potent and orally active orexin receptor antagonists.  

PubMed

Herein we describe the design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationships (SARs) of a novel phenylcyclopropane series represented by 7 and 33 b as antagonists of orexin 1 and orexin 2 receptors. With 4 serving as the initial lead for the development of orexin antagonists, exploration of SAR resulted in improved binding affinity for orexin 1 and orexin 2 receptors. Among the synthesized compounds, 33 b ((-)-N-(5-cyanopyridin-2-yl)-2-[(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)oxymethyl]-2-phenylcyclopropanecarboxamide) exhibited potent in vitro activity and oral efficacy in animal sleep measurement experiments. The results of our study suggest that compound 33 b may serve as a valuable template for the development of new orexin receptor antagonists. PMID:25267004

Yoshida, Yu; Terauchi, Taro; Naoe, Yoshimitsu; Kazuta, Yuji; Ozaki, Fumihiro; Beuckmann, Carsten T; Nakagawa, Makoto; Suzuki, Michiyuki; Kushida, Ikuo; Takenaka, Osamu; Ueno, Takashi; Yonaga, Masahiro

2014-11-01

311

In vitro anticancer activity, toxicity and structure-activity relationships of phyllostictine A, a natural oxazatricycloalkenone produced by the fungus Phyllosticta cirsii  

SciTech Connect

The in vitro anticancer activity and toxicity of phyllostictine A, a novel oxazatricycloalkenone recently isolated from a plant-pathogenic fungus (Phyllosticta cirsii) was characterized in six normal and five cancer cell lines. Phyllostictine A displays in vitro growth-inhibitory activity both in normal and cancer cells without actual bioselectivity, while proliferating cells appear significantly more sensitive to phyllostictine A than non-proliferating ones. The main mechanism of action by which phyllostictine displays cytotoxic effects in cancer cells does not seem to relate to a direct activation of apoptosis. In the same manner, phyllostictine A seems not to bind or bond with DNA as part of its mechanism of action. In contrast, phyllostictine A strongly reacts with GSH, which is a bionucleophile. The experimental data from the present study are in favor of a bonding process between GSH and phyllostictine A to form a complex though Michael attack at C=C bond at the acrylamide-like system. Considering the data obtained, two new hemisynthesized phyllostictine A derivatives together with three other natural phyllostictines (B, C and D) were also tested in vitro in five cancer cell lines. Compared to phyllostictine A, the two derivatives displayed a higher, phyllostictines B and D a lower, and phyllostictine C an almost equal, growth-inhibitory activity, respectively. These results led us to propose preliminary conclusions in terms of the structure-activity relationship (SAR) analyses for the anticancer activity of phyllostictine A and its related compounds, at least in vitro.

Le Calve, Benjamin [Laboratoire de Toxicologie, Faculte de Pharmacie de Pharmacie, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels (Belgium); Lallemand, Benjamin [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique, Toxicologie et de Chimie Physique Appliquee, Faculte de Pharmacie de Pharmacie, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels (Belgium); Perrone, Carmen [Dipartimento di Scienze, del Suolo, della Pianta, dell'Ambiente e delle Produzioni Animali, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Portici (Italy); Lenglet, Gaelle; Depauw, Sabine [INSERM U-837, Jean-Pierre Aubert Research Center (JPARC), Team Molecular and Cellular Targeting for Cancer Treatment, Institut pour la Recherche sur le Cancer de Lille, Lille (France); Van Goietsenoven, Gwendoline; Bury, Marina [Laboratoire de Toxicologie, Faculte de Pharmacie de Pharmacie, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels (Belgium); Vurro, Maurizio [Istituto di Scienze delle Produzioni Alimentari, CNR, Bari (Italy); Herphelin, Francoise [Cell and Tissue Laboratory, URPHYM, University of Namur (FUNDP), Namur (Belgium); Andolfi, Anna [Dipartimento di Scienze, del Suolo, della Pianta, dell'Ambiente e delle Produzioni Animali, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Portici (Italy); Zonno, Maria Chiara [Istituto di Scienze delle Produzioni Alimentari, CNR, Bari (Italy); Mathieu, Veronique [Laboratoire de Toxicologie, Faculte de Pharmacie de Pharmacie, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels (Belgium); Dufrasne, Francois [Laboratoire de Chimie Pharmaceutique Organique, Faculte de Pharmacie de Pharmacie, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels (Belgium); Van Antwerpen, Pierre [Laboratoire de Chimie Pharmaceutique Organique, Faculte de Pharmacie de Pharmacie, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels (Belgium); Plate-Forme Analytique, Faculte de Pharmacie de Pharmacie, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels (Belgium); Poumay, Yves [Cell and Tissue Laboratory, URPHYM, University of Namur (FUNDP), Namur (Belgium)

2011-07-01

312

Synthesis, cytotoxic activity, DNA topoisomerase-II inhibition, molecular modeling and structure-activity relationship of 9-anilinothiazolo[5,4-b]quinoline derivatives.  

PubMed

Some novel 9-anilinothiazolo[5,4-b]quinoline derivatives were synthesized and their cytotoxic activities were examined. The inhibition of some of the most active compounds over human topoisomerase II (Topo II) activity was assessed with the kDNA decatenation assay. The novel compounds differ in the substituents attached to the anilino ring, a dialkylamino alkylamino group, a saturated heterocyclic moiety, a methylthio group at position 2 and a fluorine atom present or absent at 7-position. According to the data, compounds with a diethylaminopropylamino group and a chlorine atom at 4'-position of the anilino ring were the most cytotoxic. The molecular models of all compounds indicated a correlation between hydrophobicity and cytotoxic activity although the direction and magnitude of the dipole moment also had a significant influence on its cytotoxicity. The 2-dialkylaminoalkylamino substituent is flexible and is known to facilitate the crossing of cell membranes; thus, this last barrier may be a limiting step in the mechanisms mediating the cytotoxicity. On the other hand, the activity of 2-methylthio derivatives seems to rely more on the electronic effects brought about by the substitution of the aniline ring. The synthesis, cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines, in vitro inhibition of human topoisomerase II, molecular modeling and the preliminary analysis of structure-activity relationships are presented. PMID:19364657

Loza-Mejía, Marco A; Olvera-Vázquez, Susana; Maldonado-Hernández, Karina; Guadarrama-Salgado, Teresita; González-Sánchez, Ignacio; Rodríguez-Hernández, Fernando; Solano, José D; Rodríguez-Sotres, Rogelio; Lira-Rocha, Alfonso

2009-05-01

313

A structure-activity relationship study on multi-heterocyclic molecules: two linked thiazoles are required for cytotoxic activity  

PubMed Central

We report the synthesis, cytotoxicity, and phenotypic analysis of oxazole and thiazole containing fragments. Evaluating the optimal size and heterocycle for growth inhibition and apoptosis showed that activity required at least two thiazoles sequentially connected. This is the first detailed comparison of biological activity between multi-heterocyclic containing fragments. PMID:23524379

Kim, Seong Jong; Lin, Chun Chieh; Pan, Chung-Mao; Rananaware, Dimple P.; Ramsey, Deborah M.

2013-01-01

314

Exploring the Anti-Cancer Activity of Novel Thiosemicarbazones Generated through the Combination of Retro-Fragments: Dissection of Critical Structure-Activity Relationships  

PubMed Central

Thiosemicarbazones (TSCs) are an interesting class of ligands that show a diverse range of biological activity, including anti-fungal, anti-viral and anti-cancer effects. Our previous studies have demonstrated the potent in vivo anti-tumor activity of novel TSCs and their ability to overcome resistance to clinically used chemotherapeutics. In the current study, 35 novel TSCs of 6 different classes were designed using a combination of retro-fragments that appear in other TSCs. Additionally, di-substitution at the terminal N4 atom, which was previously identified to be critical for potent anti-cancer activity, was preserved through the incorporation of an N4-based piperazine or morpholine ring. The anti-proliferative activity of the novel TSCs were examined in a variety of cancer and normal cell-types. In particular, compounds 1d and 3c demonstrated the greatest promise as anti-cancer agents with potent and selective anti-proliferative activity. Structure-activity relationship studies revealed that the chelators that utilized “soft” donor atoms, such as nitrogen and sulfur, resulted in potent anti-cancer activity. Indeed, the N,N,S donor atom set was crucial for the formation of redox active iron complexes that were able to mediate the oxidation of ascorbate. This further highlights the important role of reactive oxygen species generation in mediating potent anti-cancer activity. Significantly, this study identified the potent and selective anti-cancer activity of 1d and 3c that warrants further examination. PMID:25329549

Rasko, Nathalie; Pot??ková, Eliška; Mrozek-Wilczkiewicz, Anna; Musiol, Robert; Ma?ecki, Jan G.; Sajewicz, Mieczys?aw; Ratuszna, Alicja; Muchowicz, Angelika; Go??b, Jakub; Šim?nek, Tomáš; Richardson, Des R.; Polanski, Jaroslaw

2014-01-01

315

Study of structure activity relationship of analogs derived from SU-5416 and thalidomide and mechanism of antiproliferative activity.  

E-print Network

?? SU-5416, a VEGF-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor and Thalidomide demonstrate anti-angiogenic activity in different model systems. Two series of compounds, 1,3-dihydro-indole-2-one analogs based on SU-5416… (more)

Pandit, Bulbul

2007-01-01

316

Discovery and structure-activity relationship of the first non-peptide competitive human glucagon receptor antagonists.  

PubMed

The first non-peptide competitive human glucagon receptor antagonist, 2-(benzimidazol-2-ylthio)-1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-ethan one, NNC 92-1687 (2), is described. This antagonist has a binding affinity of 20 microM (IC50) and a functional Ki = 9.1 microM at the human glucagon receptor. A structure-activity relationship (SAR) was obtained on this compound, and the results show that only the benzimidazole part can be changed without complete loss of affinity. Analogues with tert-butyl or benzyloxy groups in the 5-position of the benzimidazole moiety were found to be equipotent or slightly more potent, all displaying binding affinities around 5-20 microM. Most of the changes to the catechol and the linker gave compounds without any affinity toward the human glucagon receptor. The 3-hydroxy group could, however, in the presence of a 4-hydroxy group be changed to a methoxy or a chloro group while retaining affinity. PMID:9857085

Madsen, P; Knudsen, L B; Wiberg, F C; Carr, R D

1998-12-17

317

Structure–activity relationships for biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and excretion of atomically precise nanoclusters in a murine model†  

PubMed Central

The absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) and pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of inorganic nanoparticles with hydrodynamic diameters between 2 and 20 nm are presently unpredictable. It is unclear whether unpredictable in vivo properties and effects arise from a subset of molecules in a nanomaterials preparation, or if the ADME/PK properties are ensemble properties of an entire preparation. Here we characterize the ADME/PK properties of atomically precise preparations of ligand protected gold nanoclusters in a murine model system. We constructed atomistic models and tested in vivo properties for five well defined compounds, based on crystallographically resolved Au25(SR)18 and Au102(SR)44 nanoclusters with different (SR) ligand shells. To rationalize unexpected distribution and excretion properties observed for several clusters in this study and others, we defined a set of atomistic structure–activity relationships (SAR) for nanoparticles, which includes previously investigated parameters such as particle hydrodynamic diameter and net charge, and new parameters such as hydrophobic surface area and surface charge density. Overall we find that small changes in particle formulation can provoke dramatic yet potentially predictable changes in ADME/PK. PMID:24057086

Wong, O. Andrea; Hansen, Ryan J.; Ni, Thomas W.; Heinecke, Christine L.; Compel, W. Scott; Gustafson, Daniel L.

2013-01-01

318

Quantitative structure-activity relationships of the antimalarial agent artemisinin and some of its derivatives - a DFT approach.  

PubMed

Artemisinin form the most important class of antimalarial agents currently available, and is a unique sesquiterpene peroxide occurring as a constituent of Artemisia annua. Artemisinin is effectively used in the treatment of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum and because of its rapid clearance of cerebral malaria, many clinically useful semisynthetic drugs for severe and complicated malaria have been developed. However, one of the major disadvantages of using artemisinins is their poor solubility either in oil or water and therefore, in order to overcome this difficulty many derivatives of artemisinin were prepared. A comparative study on the chemical reactivity of artemisinin and some of its derivatives is performed using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. DFT based global and local reactivity descriptors, such as hardness, chemical potential, electrophilicity index, Fukui function, and local philicity calculated at the optimized geometries are used to investigate the usefulness of these descriptors for understanding the reactive nature and reactive sites of the molecules. Multiple regression analysis is applied to build up a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model based on the DFT based descriptors against the chloroquine-resistant, mefloquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum W-2 clone. PMID:23597248

Rajkhowa, Sanchaita; Hussain, Iftikar; Hazarika, Kalyan K; Sarmah, Pubalee; Deka, Ramesh Chandra

2013-09-01

319

Serotonin 5-HT7 receptor agents: structure-activity relationships and potential therapeutic applications in central nervous system disorders  

PubMed Central

Since its discovery in the 1940s in serum, the mammalian intestinal mucosa, and in the central nervous system, serotonin (5-HT) has been shown to be involved in virtually all cognitive and behavioral human functions, and alterations in its neurochemistry have been implicated in the etiology of a plethora of neuropsychiatric disorders. The cloning of 5-HT receptor subtypes has been of importance in enabling them to be classified as specific protein molecules encoded by specific genes. The 5-HT7 receptor is the most recently classified member of the serotonin receptor family. Since its identification, it has been the subject of intense research efforts driven by its presence in functionally relevant regions of the brain. The availability of some selective antagonists and agonists, in combination with genetically modified mice lacking the 5-HT7 receptor, has allowed for a better understanding of the pathophysiological role of this receptor. This paper reviews data on localization and pharmacological properties of the 5-HT7 receptor, and summarizes the results of structure-activity relationship studies aimed at the discovery of selective 5-HT7 receptor ligands. Additionally, an overview of the potential therapeutic applications of 5-HT7 receptor agonists and antagonists in central nervous system disorders is presented. PMID:20923682

Leopoldo, Marcello; Lacivita, Enza; Berardi, Francesco; Perrone, Roberto; Hedlund, Peter B.

2010-01-01

320

Inhibition of phthalocyanine-sensitized photohemolysis of human erythrocytes by polyphenolic antioxidants: description of quantitative structure-activity relationships.  

PubMed

Polyphenolic antioxidants protected against Al-phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate-sensitized photohemolysis of human erythrocytes. A quantitative structure-activity relationship has been obtained to describe the protective effects of di- and trihydroxybenzenes: log cI(50) (microM)=(1.8620+/-1.5565)+(3.6366+/-2.8245) E(1)(7) (V)-(0. 4034+/-0.0765) log P (r(2)=0.8367), where cI(50) represents the concentrations of compounds for the 2-fold increase in the lag-phase of hemolysis, E(1)(7) represents the compound single-electron oxidation potential, and P represents the octanol/water partition coefficient. The cI(50) for quercetin and taxifolin were close, and cI(50) for morin, kaempferol and hesperetin were lower than might be predicted by this equation. The protection from hemolysis by azide, a quencher of singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) was accompanied by increase in cI(50) of polyphenols, indicating that azide and polyphenols competed for the same damaging species, (1)O(2). These findings point out to two factors, determining the protective efficiency of polyphenols against (1)O(2), namely, ease of electron donation and lipophilicity. PMID:10893440

Maroziene, A; Kliukiene, R; Sarlauskas, J; Cenas, N

2000-08-31

321

Structure-activity relationship for the estimation of OH-oxidation rate constants of carbonyl compounds in the aqueous phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the atmosphere, one important class of reactions occurs in the aqueous phase in which organic compounds are known to undergo oxidation towards a number of radicals, among which OH radicals are the most reactive oxidants. In 2008, Monod and Doussin have proposed a new structure-activity relationship (SAR) to calculate OH-oxidation rate constants in the aqueous phase. This estimation method is based on the group-additivity principle and was until now limited to alkanes, alcohols, acids, bases and related polyfunctional compounds. In this work, the initial SAR is extended to carbonyl compounds, including aldehydes, ketones, dicarbonyls, hydroxy carbonyls, acidic carbonyls, their conjugated bases, and the hydrated form of all these compounds. To do so, only five descriptors have been added and none of the previously attributed descriptors were modified. This extension leads now to a SAR which is based on a database of 102 distinct compounds for which 252 experimental kinetic rate constants have been gathered and reviewed. The efficiency of this updated SAR is such that 58% of the rate constants could be calculated within ±20% of the experimental data and 76% within ±40% (respectively 41 and 72% for the carbonyl compounds alone).

Doussin, J.-F.; Monod, A.

2013-12-01

322

Structure-activity relationship for the estimation of OH-oxidation rate constants of carbonyl compounds in the aqueous phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the atmosphere, one important class of reactions occurs in the aqueous phase in which organic compounds are known to undertake oxidation towards a number of radicals, among which OH radicals are the most reactive oxidants. In 2008, Monod and Doussin have proposed a new structure activity relationship (SAR) to calculate OH-oxidation rate constants in the aqueous phase. This estimation method is based on the group-additivity principle and was until now limited to alkanes, alcohols, acids, bases and related polyfunctional compounds. In this work, the initial SAR is extended to carbonyl compounds, including aldehydes, ketones, dicarbonyls, hydroxy-carbonyls, acidic carbonyls, their conjugated bases, and the hydrated form of all these compounds. To do so, only five descriptors have been added and none of the previously attributed descriptors were modified. This extension leads now to a SAR which is based on a database of 102 distinct compounds for which 252 experimental kinetic rate constants have been gathered and reviewed. The efficiency of this updated SAR is such that 58% of the rate constants could be calculated within ±20% of the experimental data and 76% within ±40%.

Doussin, J. F.; Monod, A.

2013-06-01

323

Derivation of structure-activity relationships from the anticancer properties of ruthenium(II) arene complexes with 2-aryldiazole ligands.  

PubMed

The ligands 2-pyridin-2-yl-1H-benzimidazole (HL(1)), 1-methyl-2-pyridin-2-ylbenzimidazole (HL(2)), and 2-(1H-imidazol-2-yl)pyridine (HL(3)) and the proligand 2-phenyl-1H-benzimidazole (HL(4)) have been used to prepare five different types of new ruthenium(II) arene compounds: (i) monocationic complexes with the general formula [(?(6)-arene)RuCl(?(2)-N,N-HL)]Y [HL = HL(1), HL(2), or HL(3); Y = Cl or BF4; arene = 2-phenoxyethanol (phoxet), benzene (bz), or p-cymene (p-cym)]; (ii) dicationic aqua complexes of the formula [(?(6)-arene)Ru(OH2)(?(2)-N,N-HL(1))](Y)2 (Y = Cl or TfO; arene = phoxet, bz, or p-cym); (iii) the nucleobase derivative [(?(6)-arene)Ru(9-MeG)(?(2)-N,N-HL(1))](PF6)2 (9-MeG = 9-methylguanine); (iv) neutral complexes consistent with the formulation [(?(6)-arene)RuCl(?(2)-N,N-L(1))] (arene = bz or p-cym); (v) the neutral cyclometalated complex [(?(6)-p-cym)RuCl(?(2)-N,C-L(4))]. The cytototoxic activity of the new ruthenium(II) arene compounds has been evaluated in several cell lines (MCR-5, MCF-7, A2780, and A2780cis) in order to establish structure-activity relationships. Three of the compounds with the general formula [(?(6)-arene)RuCl(?(2)-N,N-HL(1))]Cl differing in the arene moiety have been studied in depth in terms of thermodynamic dissociation constants, aquation kinetic constants, and DNA binding measurements. The biologically most active compound is the p-cym derivative, which strongly destabilizes the DNA double helix, whereas those with bz and phoxet have only a small effect on the stability of the DNA double helix. Moreover, the inhibitory activity of several compounds toward CDK1 has also been evaluated. The DNA binding ability of some of the studied compounds and their CDK1 inhibitory effect suggest a multitarget mechanism for their biological activity. PMID:25302401

Martínez-Alonso, Marta; Busto, Natalia; Jalón, Félix A; Manzano, Blanca R; Leal, José M; Rodríguez, Ana M; García, Begoña; Espino, Gustavo

2014-10-20

324

Evaluation of Cancer Preventive Activity and Structure-Activity Relationships of 3-Demethylubiquinone Q2, Isolated from the Ascidian Aplidium glabrum, and its Synthetic Analogues  

PubMed Central

Purpose 3-Demethylubiquinone Q2 (1) was isolated from the ascidian Aplidium glabrum. The cancer preventive properties and the structure-activity relationship for 3-demethylubiquinone Q2 (1) and 12 of its synthetic analogues (3–14) are reported. Methods Compounds 3–14, having one or several di- or triprenyl substitutions and quinone moieties with methoxyls in different positions, were synthesized. The cancer preventive properties of compounds 1 and 3–14 were tested in JB6 Cl41 mouse skin cells, using a variety of assessments, including the MTS assay, flow cytometry, and soft agar assay. Statistical nonparametric methods were used to confirm statistical significance. Results All quinones tested were shown to inhibit JB6 Cl41 cell transformation, to induce apoptosis, AP-1 and NF-?B activity, and to inhibit p53 activity. The most promising effects were indicated for compounds containing two isoprene units in a side chain and a methoxyl group at the para-position to a polyprenyl substitution. Conclusions Quinones 1 and 3–14 demonstrated cancer preventive activity in JB6 Cl41 cells, which may be attributed to the induction of p53-independent apoptosis. These activities depended on the length of side chains and on the positions of the methoxyl groups in the quinone part of the molecule. PMID:16320003

Fedorov, Sergey N.; Radchenko, Oleg S.; Shubina, Larisa K.; Balaneva, Nadezhda N.; Bode, Ann M.; Stonik, Valentin A.; Dong, Zigang

2006-01-01

325

Cyclodextrin- and calixarene-based polycationic amphiphiles as gene delivery systems: a structure-activity relationship study.  

PubMed

Multi-head/multi-tail facial amphiphiles built on cyclodextrin (CD) and calixarene (CA) scaffolds are paradigmatic examples of monodisperse gene delivery systems. The possibility to precisely control the architectural features at the molecular level offers unprecedented opportunities for conducting structure-activity relationship studies. A major requirement for those channels is the design of a sufficiently diverse ensemble of compounds for parallel evaluation of their capabilities to condense DNA into transfection nanoparticles where the gene material is protected from the environment. Here we have undertaken the preparation of an oriented library of ?-cyclodextrin (?CD) and calix[4]arene (CA4) vectors with facial amphiphilic character designed to ascertain the effect of the cationic head nature (aminothiourea-, arginine- or guanidine-type groups) and the macrocyclic platform on the abilities to complex plasmid DNA (pDNA) and in the efficiency of the resulting nanocomplexes to transfect cells in vitro. The hydrophobic domain, formed by hexanoyl or hexyl chains, remains constant in each series, matching the overall structure found to be optimal in previous studies. DLS, TEM and AFM data support that all the compounds self-assemble in the presence of pDNA through a process that involves initially electrostatic interactions followed by formation of ?CD or CA4 bilayers between the oligonucleotide filaments. Spherical transfectious nanoparticles that are monomolecular in DNA are thus obtained. Evaluation in epithelial COS-7 and human rhabdomyosarcoma RD-4 cells evidenced the importance of having primary amino groups in the vector to warrant high levels of transfection, probably because of their buffering capacity. The results indicate that the optimal cationic head depends on the macrocyclic core, aminothiourea groups being preferred in the ?CD series and arginine groups in the CA4 series. Whereas the transfection efficiency relationships remain essentially unchanged within each series, irrespective of the cell type, the optimal platform (?D or CA4) strongly depends on the cell type. The results illustrate the potential of monodisperse vector prototypes and diversity-oriented strategies on identifying the optimal candidates for gene therapy applications. PMID:25474077

Gallego-Yerga, Laura; Lomazzi, Michela; Franceschi, Valentina; Sansone, Francesco; Ortiz Mellet, Carmen; Donofrio, Gaetano; Casnati, Alessandro; García Fernández, José M

2015-01-27

326

Synthesis, anticancer activity and structure-activity relationship of some anticancer agents based on cyclopenta (b) thiophene scaffold.  

PubMed

Methods for the synthesis of new heterocyclic systems of thieno (3,2-d)- (1,2,3)-triazine derivatives and N-(3-cyano-5,6-dihydro-4H-cyclopenta (b) thiophene derivatives have been developed. The newly synthesized compounds were tested in vitro against human breast carcinoma cell line (MCF-7). Compounds 7 and 9 have shown the highest activity among the two synthesized series. The results of this study have led to the identification of two lead compounds with good inhibitory activities that can confirm the design of the next generation inhibitors of tyrosine kinase with fewer side effects such as hepatotoxicity and resistance. PMID:25015456

Said, Mohamed; Elshihawy, Hosam

2014-07-01

327

Characteristics of chemical binding to alpha 2u-globulin in vitro--evaluating structure-activity relationships  

SciTech Connect

alpha 2u-Globulin (alpha 2u) has been shown to accumulate in the kidneys of male rats treated with 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (TMP). 2,4,4-Trimethyl-2-pentanol (TMP-2-OH), a metabolite of TMP, is found reversibly bound to alpha 2u isolated from the kidneys of these treated rats. The objectives of the following study were to characterize the ability of (3H)TMP-2-OH to bind to alpha 2u in vitro and to determine whether other compounds that cause this protein to accumulate have the same binding characteristics. Although compounds that have been shown to cause the accumulation of alpha 2u in male rat kidneys compete in vitro with (3H)TMP-2-OH for binding to alpha 2u, they do so to varying degrees. The binding affinity (Kd) of the (3H)TMP-2-OH-alpha 2u complex was calculated to be on the order of 10(-7) M. The inhibition constant values (Ki) determined for d-limonene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, and 2,5-dichlorophenol were all in the range 10(-4) M, whereas the Ki values for isophorone, 2,4,4- or 2,2,4-trimethyl-1-pentanol, and d-limonene oxide were determined to be in the range 10(-6) and 10(-7) M, respectively. TMP and 2,4,4- and 2,2,4-trimethylpentanoic acid did not compete for binding. This suggests that other factors, besides binding, are involved in the accumulation of alpha 2u. In this study the ability of a chemical to bind to alpha 2u was used as a measure of biological activity to assess structure-activity relationships among the chemicals tested and known to cause the accumulation of alpha 2u. The results so far suggest that binding is dependent on both hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding.

Borghoff, S.J.; Miller, A.B.; Bowen, J.P.; Swenberg, J.A. (Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA))

1991-02-01

328

Structure-function relationships in novel peptide dodecamerswith broad-spectrum bactericidal and endotoxin-neutralizing activities.  

PubMed Central

A series of designed peptide 33-mers (betapep peptides) areknown to be bactericidal [Mayo, Haseman, Ilyina and Gray (1998)Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1425, 81-92]. Here dodecapeptides (SC-1-SC-8), which 'walk through' the sequence ofbetapep-25, were investigated for their ability to kill Gram-negativeand -positive bacteria and to neutralize endotoxin. SC-4 (KLFKRHLKWKI I-NH(2); the -NH(2) at the right of each sequenceindicates amidation of the C-terminal carboxylate group) is the mosteffective, more so than betapep-25, at killing Gram-negative bacteriawith nanomolar LD(50) values. Against Gram-positive bacteria,SC-4 also shows good activity with submicromolar LD(50)values. Leakage studies indicate rapid bacterial membrane permeability,with t(1/2) valuesof 10-15 min. SC-4 in the micromolar range also effectivelyneutralizes endotoxin and is not haemolytic below 10(-4)M. For all SC peptides, CD and NMR data indicate the presence of both 3(10)- and alpha-helix. For SC-4, nuclear-Overhauser-effect-based computational modelling yields an amphipathic helix with K1, K4,R5, and K8 arrayed on the same face (K is lysine, R is arginine).Activity differences among SC peptides and single-site variants of SC-4allow some structure-function relationships to be deduced.Relative to other known bactericidal peptides in the linear peptide,helix-forming category, SC-4 is the most potent broad-spectrumantibacterial identified to date. The present study contributes to thedevelopment of agents involved in combating the ever-recurring problemof drug-resistant micro-organisms. PMID:10903132

Mayo, K H; Haseman, J; Young, H C; Mayo, J W

2000-01-01

329

Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of novel, potent, orally active hypoxia-inducible factor-1 inhibitors.  

PubMed

Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is the chief transcription factor regulating hypoxia-driven gene expression. HIF-1 overexpression is associated with poor prognosis in several cancers and therefore represents an attractive target for novel antitumor agents. We explored small molecule inhibitors of the HIF-1 pathway. Using high-throughput-screening, we identified benzanilide compound 1 (IC50=560 nM) as a seed. Subsequent extensive derivatization led to the discovery of compounds 43a and 51d, with anti-HIF-1 activities in vitro (IC50=21 and 0.47 nM, respectively), and in vivo. Additionally, 43a (12.5-100mg/kg) also displayed in vivo anti-tumor efficacy, without influencing body weight. PMID:25139751

Nagao, Satoshi; Yamane, Yoshinobu; Funasaka, Setsuo; Tanaka, Keigo; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Kotake, Yoshihiko; Kamata, Jun-ichi; Watanabe-Miyano, Saori; Toyama, Osamu; Ozawa, Yoichi; Mizui, Yoshiharu; Okamoto, Kiyoshi; Ito, Daisuke

2014-10-01

330

Structure-activity relationship of miltirone, an active central benzodiazepine receptor ligand isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen)  

SciTech Connect

Twenty one o-quinonoid-type compounds and one coumarin-type compound related to miltirone (1) have been synthesized with the aim to identify the key structural elements involved in miltirone's interaction with the central benzodiazepine receptor. On the basis of their inhibition of ({sup 3}H)flunitrazepam binding to bovine cerebral cortex membranes, it is apparent that ring A of miltirone is essential for affinity. Although increasing the size of ring A from six-membered to seven- and eight-membered is well-tolerated, the introduction of polar hydroxyl groups greatly reduces binding affinity. The presence of 1,1-dimethyl groups on ring A is, however, not essential. On the other hand, the isopropyl group on ring C appears to be critical for binding as its removal decreases affinity by more than 30-fold. It can, however, be replaced with a methyl group with minimal reduction in affinity. Finally, linking ring A and B with a -CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}- bridge results in analogue 89, which is 6 times more potent than miltirone at the central benzodiazepine receptor (IC50 = 0.05 microM).

Chang, H.M.; Chui, K.Y.; Tan, F.W.; Yang, Y.; Zhong, Z.P.; Lee, C.M.; Sham, H.L.; Wong, H.N. (Chinese Univ. of Hong Kong, Shatin (Hong Kong))

1991-05-01

331

Structure-activity relationships for biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and excretion of atomically precise nanoclusters in a murine model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) and pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of inorganic nanoparticles with hydrodynamic diameters between 2 and 20 nm are presently unpredictable. It is unclear whether unpredictable in vivo properties and effects arise from a subset of molecules in a nanomaterials preparation, or if the ADME/PK properties are ensemble properties of an entire preparation. Here we characterize the ADME/PK properties of atomically precise preparations of ligand protected gold nanoclusters in a murine model system. We constructed atomistic models and tested in vivo properties for five well defined compounds, based on crystallographically resolved Au25(SR)18 and Au102(SR)44 nanoclusters with different (SR) ligand shells. To rationalize unexpected distribution and excretion properties observed for several clusters in this study and others, we defined a set of atomistic structure-activity relationships (SAR) for nanoparticles, which includes previously investigated parameters such as particle hydrodynamic diameter and net charge, and new parameters such as hydrophobic surface area and surface charge density. Overall we find that small changes in particle formulation can provoke dramatic yet potentially predictable changes in ADME/PK.The absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) and pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of inorganic nanoparticles with hydrodynamic diameters between 2 and 20 nm are presently unpredictable. It is unclear whether unpredictable in vivo properties and effects arise from a subset of molecules in a nanomaterials preparation, or if the ADME/PK properties are ensemble properties of an entire preparation. Here we characterize the ADME/PK properties of atomically precise preparations of ligand protected gold nanoclusters in a murine model system. We constructed atomistic models and tested in vivo properties for five well defined compounds, based on crystallographically resolved Au25(SR)18 and Au102(SR)44 nanoclusters with different (SR) ligand shells. To rationalize unexpected distribution and excretion properties observed for several clusters in this study and others, we defined a set of atomistic structure-activity relationships (SAR) for nanoparticles, which includes previously investigated parameters such as particle hydrodynamic diameter and net charge, and new parameters such as hydrophobic surface area and surface charge density. Overall we find that small changes in particle formulation can provoke dramatic yet potentially predictable changes in ADME/PK. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The polyacrylamide gel that shows the purity of Au102pMBA44, excretion graphs for compounds 1-5, atomistic models of the Au25 and Au102-based compounds, the zoomed in versions of Fig. 3 and 6, 1H NMR of compound 5, information on the Au102 1 : 1 exchange compound, and blood drug concentration vs. time curves of Au102-based compounds. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03121g

Wong, O. Andrea; Hansen, Ryan J.; Ni, Thomas W.; Heinecke, Christine L.; Compel, W. Scott; Gustafson, Daniel L.; Ackerson, Christopher J.

2013-10-01

332

Study of the relationship between chemical structure and antimicrobial activity in a series of hydrazine-based coordination compounds.  

PubMed

The dependence of antimicrobial activity on the structure of compounds is studied in a series of compounds based on hydrazine coordinated with ions of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Pd(II). The study has been carried out by means of the original electron-topological method developed earlier. A molecular fragment has been found that is only characteristic of biologically active compounds. Its spatial and electron parameters have been used for the quantitative assessment of the activity in view. The results obtained can be used for the antimicrobial activity prediction in a series of compounds with similar structures. PMID:10994159

Dobrova, B N; Dimoglo, A S; Chumakov, Y M

2000-08-01

333

FISH ACUTE TOXICITY SYNDROMES AND THEIR USE IN THE QSAR (QUANTITATIVE STRUCTURE ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIP) APPROACH TO HAZARD ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Implementation of the Toxic Substances Control Act of 1977 creates the need to reliably establish testing priorities because laboratory resources are limited and the number of industrial chemicals requiring evaluation is overwhelming. The use of quantitative structure activity re...

334

Augmented multivariate image analysis applied to quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling of the phytotoxicities of benzoxazinone herbicides and related compounds on problematic weeds.  

PubMed

Two of major weeds affecting cereal crops worldwide are Avena fatua L. (wild oat) and Lolium rigidum Gaud. (rigid ryegrass). Thus, development of new herbicides against these weeds is required; in line with this, benzoxazinones, their degradation products, and analogues have been shown to be important allelochemicals and natural herbicides. Despite earlier structure-activity studies demonstrating that hydrophobicity (log P) of aminophenoxazines correlates to phytotoxicity, our findings for a series of benzoxazinone derivatives do not show any relationship between phytotoxicity and log P nor with other two usual molecular descriptors. On the other hand, a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis based on molecular graphs representing structural shape, atomic sizes, and colors to encode other atomic properties performed very accurately for the prediction of phytotoxicities of these compounds against wild oat and rigid ryegrass. Therefore, these QSAR models can be used to estimate the phytotoxicity of new congeners of benzoxazinone herbicides toward A. fatua L. and L. rigidum Gaud. PMID:23947385

Freitas, Mirlaine R; Matias, Stella V B G; Macedo, Renato L G; Freitas, Matheus P; Venturin, Nelson

2013-09-11

335

Structure activity relationship studies of 3-arylsulfonyl-pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-4-imines as potent 5-HT? antagonists.  

PubMed

Comprehensive structure activity relationship (SAR) studies were conducted on a focused screening hit, 2-(methylthio)-3-(phenylsulfonyl)-4H-pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-4-imine (1, IC50: 4.0 nM), as 5-HT6 selective antagonists. Activity was improved some 2-4 fold when small, electron-donating groups were added to the central core as observed in 19, 20 and 26. Molecular docking of key compounds in a homology model of the human 5-HT6 receptor was used to rationalize our structure-activity relationship (SAR) findings. In pharmacokinetic experiments, compound 1 displayed good brain uptake in rats following intra-peritoneal administration, but limited oral bioavailability. PMID:24495863

Hu, Shuanghua; Huang, Yazhong; Wu, Yong-Jin; He, Huan; Grant-Young, Katherine A; Bertekap, Robert L; Whiterock, Valerie; Brassil, Patrick; Lentz, Kimberley; Sivaprakasam, Prasanna; Langley, David R; Westphal, Ryan S; Scola, Paul M

2014-03-01

336

Pseudocyanides of sanguinarine and chelerythrine and their series of structurally simple analogues as new anticancer lead compounds: Cytotoxic activity, structure-activity relationship and apoptosis induction.  

PubMed

6-Cyano dihydrosanguinarine (CNS) and 6-cyano dihydrochelerythrine (CNC) are respectively artificial derivatives of sanguinarine and chelerythrine, two anticancer quaternary benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloids (QBAs) while 1-cyano-2-aryl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines (CATHIQs) are a class of structurally simple analogues of CNS or CNC. This study investigated the inhibition activity of CNS, CNC and CATHIQs on cancer cells, apoptosis induction as well as their preliminary SAR. The results showed that CNS and 18 out of CATHIQs showed IC50 values of 0.53 and 0.62-2.24?M against NB4 and 1.53 and 2.99-11.17?M against MKN-45 cells, respectively, superior to a standard anticancer drug cis-platinum with IC50 of 2.39 and 11.36?M. CNC showed a higher activity against NB4 cells (IC50=1.85?M) and a moderate activity against MKN-45 cells (IC50=12.72?M). Among all CATHIQs, 2 and 17 gave the highest activity against NB4 cells and MKN-45 cells (IC50=0.62 and 2.99?M), respectively. DAPI staining, AO/EB staining and ultrastructure analysis of cells demonstrated that CATHIQs were able to induce apoptosis of the cells in a concentration-dependent manner. SAR showed that substitution patterns on the N-aromatic ring significantly influenced the activity of CATHIQs. The general trend was that the introduction of electron-withdrawing substituents like halogen atom, nitro, trifluoromethyl led to a significant improvement of the activity, while the presence of electron-donating groups like methyl, methoxyl caused a reduction of the activity. In most cases, the 2' site was the most favorable substitution position for the improvement of the activity. Thus, the present results strongly suggested that QBA-type pseudocyanides may serve as potential alternatives of anticancer QBAs while CATHIQs should be a class of promising lead compounds for the development of new QBA-like-type anticancer drugs. CNS exhibited the highest cytotoxicities with IC50 values of 0.53?M on NB4 cells and 1.53?M on MKN-45 cells. PMID:25444843

Cao, Fang-Jun; Yang, Rui; Lv, Chao; Ma, Qun; Lei, Ming; Geng, Hui-Ling; Zhou, Le

2015-01-25

337

Quantitative structure-activity relationships of insecticides and plant growth regulators: comparative studies toward understanding the molecular mechanism of action.  

PubMed Central

Emphasis was put on the comparative quantitative structure-activity approaches to the exploration of action mechanisms of structurally different classes of compounds showing the same type of activity as well as those of the same type of compounds having different actions. Examples were selected from studies performed on insecticides and plant growth regulators, i.e., neurotoxic carbamates, phosphates, pyrethroids and DDT analogs, insect juvenile hormone mimics, and cytokinin agonistic and antagonistic compounds. Similarities and dissimilarities in structures required to elicit activity between compounds classes were revealed in terms of physicochemical parameters, provoking further exploration and evoking insights into the molecular mechanisms of action which may lead to the development of new structures having better qualities. PMID:3905379

Iwamura, H; Nishimura, K; Fujita, T

1985-01-01

338

Chloride channels of glycine and GABA receptors with blockers: Monte Carlo minimization and structure-activity relationships.  

PubMed Central

GABA and glycine receptors (GlyRs) are pentameric ligand-gated ion channels that respond to the inhibitory neurotransmitters by opening a chloride-selective central pore lined with five M2 segments homologous to those of alpha(1) GlyR/ ARVG(2')LGIT(6')TVLTMTTQSSGSR. The activity of cyanotriphenylborate (CTB) and picrotoxinin (PTX), the best-studied blockers of the Cl(-) pores, depends essentially on the subunit composition of the receptors, in particular, on residues in positions 2' and 6' that form the pore-facing rings R(2') and R(6'). Thus, CTB blocks alpha(1) and alpha(1)/beta, but not alpha(2) GlyRs (Rundström, N., V. Schmieden, H. Betz, J. Bormann, and D. Langosch. 1994. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 91:8950-8954). PTX blocks homomeric receptors (alpha(1) GlyR and rat rho(1) GABAR), but weakly antagonizes heteromeric receptors (alpha(1)/beta GlyR and rho(1)/rho(2) GABAR) (Pribilla, I., T. Takagi, D. Langosch, J. Bormann, and H. Betz. 1992. EMBO J. 11:4305-4311; Zhang D., Z. H. Pan, X. Zhang, A. D. Brideau, and S. A. Lipton. 1995. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92:11756-11760). Using as a template the kinked-helices model of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in the open state (Tikhonov, D. B., and B. S. Zhorov. 1998. Biophys. J. 74:242-255), we have built homology models of GlyRs and GABARs and calculated Monte Carlo-minimized energy profiles for the blockers pulled through the pore. The profiles have shallow minima at the wide extracellular half of the pore, a barrier at ring R(6'), and a deep minimum between rings R(6') and R(2') where the blockers interact with five M2s simultaneously. The star-like CTB swings necessarily on its way through ring R(6') and its activity inversely correlates with the barrier at R(6'): Thr(6')s and Ala(2')s in alpha(2) GlyR confine the swinging by increasing the barrier, while Gly(2')s in alpha(1) GlyR and Phe(6')s in beta GlyR shrink the barrier. PTX has an egg-like shape with an isopropenyl group at the elongated end and the rounded end trimmed by ether and carbonyl oxygens. In the optimal binding mode to alpha(1) GlyR and rho(1) GABAR, the rounded end of PTX accepts several H-bonds from Thr(6')s, while the elongated end enters ring R(2'). The lack of H-bond donors on the side chains of Phe(6')s (beta GlyR) and Met(6')s (rho(2) GABAR) deteriorates the binding. The hydrophilic elongated end of picrotin does not fit the hydrophobic ring of Pro(2')s/Ala(2')s in GABARs, but fit a more hydrophilic ring with Gly(2')s in GlyRs. This analysis provides explanations for structure-activity relationships of noncompetitive agonists and predicts a narrow pore of LGICs in agreement with experimental data on the permeation of organic cations. PMID:10733960

Zhorov, B S; Bregestovski, P D

2000-01-01

339

Quantitative structure-activity relationships and toxicity studies of mixtures of chemicals with anaesthetic potency: Acute lethal and sublethal toxicity to Daphnia magna  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) were calculated between hydrophobicity of a group of organic chemicals with anaesthetic potency and toxicity (immobilization, mortality and inhibition of reproduction) to Daphnia magna. Differences in slopes of the high quality QSARs might be explained in terms of possible different sites of action for the three criteria of effect.\\u000a\\u000aThe combined effects of

J. L. M. Hermens; H. Canton; P. Janssen; R. de Jong

1984-01-01

340

Synthesis and structure–activity relationships of small molecule inhibitors of the simian virus 40 T antigen oncoprotein, an anti-polyomaviral target.  

PubMed

Polyomavirus infections are common and relatively benign in the general human population but can become pathogenic in immunosuppressed patients. Because most treatments for polyomavirusassociated diseases nonspecifically target DNA replication, existing treatments for polyomavirus infection possess undesirable side effects. However, all polyomaviruses express Large Tumor Antigen (T Ag), which is unique to this virus family and may serve as a therapeutic target. Previous screening of pyrimidinone–peptoid hybrid compounds identified MAL2-11B and a MAL2-11B tetrazole derivative as inhibitors of viral replication and T Ag ATPase activity (IC50 of ~20-50 ?M. To improve upon this scaffold and to develop a structure–activity relationship for this new class of antiviral agents, several iterative series of MAL2-11B derivatives were synthesized. The replacement of a flexible methylene chain linker with a benzyl group or, alternatively, the addition of an ortho-methyl substituent on the biphenyl side chain in MAL2-11B yielded an IC50 of 50 ?M, which retained antiviral activity. After combining both structural motifs, a new lead compound was identified that inhibited T Ag ATPase activity with an IC50 of 50 ?M. We suggest that the knowledge gained from the structure–activity relationship and a further refinement cycle of the MAL2-11B scaffold will provide a specific, novel therapeutic treatment option for polyomavirus infections and their associated diseases. PMID:25440730

Ireland, Alex W; Gobillot, Theodore A; Gupta, Tushar; Seguin, Sandlin P; Liang, Mary; Resnick, Lynn; Goldberg, Margot T; Manos-Turvey, Alexandra; Pipas, James M; Wipf, Peter; Brodsky, Jeffrey L

2014-11-15

341

STRUCTURE-GENOTOXIC ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS OF PESTICIDES: COMPARISON OF THE RESULTS FROM SEVERAL SHORT-TERM ASSAYS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Computer-Automated Structure Evaluation (CASE) program has been applied to the analysis of the genotoxic activity of 54 pesticides (31 insecticides, 15 herbicides and 8 fungicides), in 5 different short-term test systems measuring point-gene mutation and DNA damage. The datab...

342

Quantitative structure-chromatographic retention relationships  

SciTech Connect

This book provides a wide-ranging overview of quantitative structure-retention relationships (QSRR). It brings together a great deal of information that previously was scattered in various parts of the literature. Although the book covers a lot of material, it provides the reader with sufficient background to read the related literature. In addition to QSRR, the book covers some topics related to quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR), where activity refers to biological activity. Overall, the book is well written and easy to understand. It would have been helpful to the reader if the chapter numbers had been included in the running heads. The book is divided by subject into 12 chapters, each with references. Works published through 1985 are included; hence, some recent literature is not covered. However, the book is heavily referenced, and each reference has the full title of the work as well as source and author information.

Kaliszan, R.

1987-01-01

343

Orally Active Metabotropic Glutamate Subtype 2 Receptor Positive Allosteric Modulators: Structure-Activity Relationships and Assessment in a Rat Model of Nicotine Dependence  

PubMed Central

Compounds that modulate metabotropic glutamate subtype 2 (mGlu2) receptors have the potential to treat several disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) including drug dependence. Herein we describe the synthesis and structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies around a series of mGlu2 receptor positive allosteric modulators (PAMs). The effects of N-substitution (R1) and substitutions on the aryl ring (R2) were identified as key areas for SAR exploration (Figure 3). Investigation of the effects of varying substituents in both the isoindolinone (2) and benzisothiazolone (3) series led to compounds with improved in vitro potency and/or efficacy. In addition, several analogues exhibited promising pharmacokinetic (PK) properties. Furthermore, compound 2 was shown to dose-dependently decrease nicotine self-administration in rats following oral administration. Our data, showing for the first time efficacy of an mGlu2 receptor PAM in this in vivo model, suggest potential utility for the treatment of nicotine dependence in humans. PMID:23009245

Sidique, Shyama; Dhanya, Raveendra-Panickar; Sheffler, Douglas J.; Nickols, Hilary Highfield; Yang, Li; Dahl, Russell; Mangravita-Novo, Arianna; Smith, Layton H.; D’Souza, Manoranjan S.; Semenova, Svetlana; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Markou, Athina; Cosford, Nicholas D. P.

2012-01-01

344

Peptidomimetics in the discovery of new insect growth regulators: studies on the structure-activity relationships of the core pentapeptide region of allatostatins.  

PubMed

Cockroach-type allatostatins (ASTs) were discovered in cockroaches through their capacity to inhibit the production of juvenile hormone by the corpora allata (CA). ASTs were considered as potential insect growth regulator (IGR) candidates, but several disadvantages, including the absence of the effect in vivo and rapid degradation in vivo, precluded their application in pest management. The CA were selected as the target, and the core pentapeptide region (YDFGL) was chosen as the lead sequence in the search for new IGRs based on the allatostatins. We designed and synthesized 24 analogues, which mimicked each amino acid of the core region, to determine structure-activity relationships and the possibility of shortening the ASTs in the core region while retaining activity. The results suggest that the sequence FGLa is more important than Y/FX because Y/FX mimics show strong effects in vitro and in vivo. In particular, compound I3 was synthesized by substitution of Y/FX with 6-phenylhexnoic acid and exhibits higher activity in vitro than the complete core region. Furthermore, compound I3 has a clear effect in vivo on juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis of Diploptera punctata females, providing a possible application for cockroach management. On the basis of the structure-activity relationship of pentapeptide analogues, a general structure of potential potent AST analogues is proposed here. A new approach using peptidomimetics in the discovery of IGRs is demonstrated in our study. PMID:21332127

Kai, Zhen-peng; Xie, Yong; Huang, Juan; Tobe, Stephen S; Zhang, Jin-rui; Ling, Yun; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Yi-chen; Yang, Xin-ling

2011-03-23

345

Structure determination of glycogen synthase kinase-3 from Leishmania major and comparative inhibitor structure?activity relationships with Trypanosoma brucei GSK-3  

SciTech Connect

Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a drug target under intense investigation in pharmaceutical companies and constitutes an attractive piggyback target for eukaryotic pathogens. Two different GSKs are found in trypanosomatids, one about 150 residues shorter than the other. GSK-3 short (GeneDB: Tb927.10.13780) has previously been validated genetically as a drug target in Trypanosoma brucei by RNAi induced growth retardation; and chemically by correlation between enzyme and in vitro growth inhibition. Here, we report investigation of the equivalent GSK-3 short enzymes of L. major (LmjF18.0270) and L. infantum (LinJ18{_}V3.0270, identical in amino acid sequences to LdonGSK-3 short) and a crystal structure of LmajGSK-3 short at 2 {angstrom} resolution. The inhibitor structure-activity relationships (SARs) of L. major and L. infantum are virtually identical, suggesting that inhibitors could be useful for both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Leishmania spp. GSK-3 short has different inhibitor SARs than TbruGSK-3 short, which can be explained mostly by two variant residues in the ATP-binding pocket. Indeed, mutating these residues in the ATP-binding site of LmajGSK-3 short to the TbruGSK-3 short equivalents results in a mutant LmajGSK-3 short enzyme with SAR more similar to that of TbruGSK-3 short. The differences between human GSK-3{beta} (HsGSK-3{beta}) and LmajGSK-3 short SAR suggest that compounds which selectively inhibit LmajGSK-3 short may be found.

Ojo, Kayode K.; Arakaki, Tracy L.; Napuli, Alberto J.; Inampudi, Krishna K.; Keyloun, Katelyn R.; Zhang, Li; Hol, Wim G.J.; Verlind, Christophe L.M.J.; Merritt, Ethan A.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C. (UWASH)

2012-04-24

346

The relationship between enhanced enzyme activity and structural dynamics in ionic liquids: a combined computational and experimental study.  

PubMed

Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) is an efficient biocatalyst for hydrolysis, esterification, and polymerization reactions. In order to understand how to control enzyme activity and stability we performed a combined experimental and molecular dynamics simulation study of CALB in organic solvents and ionic liquids (ILs). Our results demonstrate that the conformational changes of the active site cavity are directly related to enzyme activity and decrease in the following order: [Bmim][TfO] > tert-butanol > [Bmim][Cl]. The entrance to the cavity is modulated by two isoleucines, ILE-189 and ILE-285, one of which is located on the ?-10 helix. The ?-10 helix can substantially change its conformation due to specific interactions with solvent molecules. This change is acutely evident in [Bmim][Cl] where interactions of LYS-290 with chlorine anions caused a conformational switch between ?-helix and turn. Disruption of the ?-10 helix structure results in a narrow cavity entrance and, thus, reduced the activity of CALB in [Bmim][Cl]. Finally, our results show that the electrostatic energy between solvents in this study and CALB is correlated with the structural changes leading to differences in enzyme activity. PMID:24424278

Kim, Ho Shin; Ha, Sung Ho; Sethaphong, Latsavongsakda; Koo, Yoon-Mo; Yingling, Yaroslava G

2014-02-21

347

Isolation of nematicidal compounds from Tagetes patula L. yellow flowers: structure-activity relationship studies against cyst nematode Heterodera zeae infective stage larvae.  

PubMed

Bioassay-guided isolation studies on the extracts of yellow flowers of Tagetes patula L. against the Heterodera zeae were carried out to identify phytochemicals lethal to this economically important cyst nematode. In vitro investigation of a polar extract and fractions showing activity led to the isolation of phenolic compounds (flavonoids and phenolic acids). In the nonpolar extract, a few fatty acids, their methyl esters, and thiophenes (including ?-terthienyl) were detected. In studies of compounds obtained commercially, ?-terthienyl and gallic and linoleic acids showed 100% mortality at concentrations of 0.125% after 24 h. Assessment of structure-activity relationships revealed that an increase in the number of hydroxyl groups in phenolic acids increased the activity; with fatty acids, activity depended on chain length and the number and position of double bonds. Crude extracts of the flowers of different colors also have promising activity. PMID:21780738

Faizi, Shaheen; Fayyaz, Shahina; Bano, Samina; Iqbal, Erum Yawar; Lubna; Siddiqi, Humaira; Naz, Aneela

2011-09-14

348

Antitumor agents. 89. Psychorubrin, a new cytotoxic naphthoquinone from Psychotria rubra and its structure-activity relationships.  

PubMed

A new naphthoquinone, isolated from the alcoholic extract of Psychotria rubra, exhibited significant cytotoxicity in the KB cell assay (ED50 = 3.0 micrograms/mL). Spectral data was used to assign the structure of psychorubrin as 2. Naphthoquinone derivatives 6, 8, 13, and 14 were prepared and exhibited superior cytotoxic activity to that of psychorubrin. All were potential Michael acceptors whose conjugation had been extended. However, when a hydrophilic hydroxy group was present in such compounds, reduced in vitro activity was observed. PMID:3669007

Hayashi, T; Smith, F T; Lee, K H

1987-11-01

349

Quantitative structure-activity relationship of sesquiterpene lactones as inhibitors of the transcription factor NF-kappaB.  

PubMed

Sesquiterpene lactones (SLs) are the active compounds of a variety of traditionally used medicinal plants from the Asteraceae family. They are known to possess a considerable antiinflammatory activity in different inflammation models. They inhibit the transcription factor NF-kappaB probably by alkylating cysteine38 in the DNA binding domain of the p65 subunit. Here we investigate a set of 103 different sesquiterpene lactones representing 6 structural groups (44 germacranolides, 16 heliangolides, 22 guaianolides, 9 pseudoguaianolides, 2 hypocretenolides, 10 eudesmanolides) for their NF-kappaB inhibiting properties and the resulting IC(100)-values were submitted to a QSAR study. Properties important for the inhibition potency are discussed for the whole data set and for subsets of the different structural classes. PMID:15537359

Siedle, Bettina; García-Piñeres, Alfonso J; Murillo, Renato; Schulte-Mönting, Jürgen; Castro, Victor; Rüngeler, Peter; Klaas, Christoph A; Da Costa, Fernando B; Kisiel, Wanda; Merfort, Irmgard

2004-11-18

350

The Inhibitory Effects of a Rhamnogalacturonan ? (RG-I) Domain from Ginseng Pectin on Galectin-3 and Its Structure-Activity Relationship*  

PubMed Central

Pectin has been shown to inhibit the actions of galectin-3, a ?-galactoside-binding protein associated with cancer progression. The structural features of pectin involved in this activity remain unclear. We investigated the effects of different ginseng pectins on galectin-3 action. The rhamnogalacturonan I-rich pectin fragment, RG-I-4, potently inhibited galectin-3-mediated hemagglutination, cancer cell adhesion and homotypic aggregation, and binding of galectin-3 to T-cells. RG-I-4 specifically bound to the carbohydrate recognition domain of galectin-3 with a dissociation constant of 22.2 nm, which was determined by surface plasmon resonance analysis. The structure-activity relationship of RG-I-4 was investigated by modifying the structure through various enzymatic and chemical methods followed by activity tests. The results showed that (a) galactan side chains were essential to the activity of RG-I-4, whereas arabinan side chains positively or negatively regulated the activity depending on their location within the RG-I-4 molecule. (b) The activity of galactan chain was proportional to its length up to 4 Gal residues and largely unchanged thereafter. (c) The majority of galactan side chains in RG-I-4 were short with low activities. (d) The high activity of RG-I-4 resulted from the cooperative action of these side chains. (e) The backbone of the molecule was very important to RG-I-4 activity, possibly by maintaining a structural conformation of the whole molecule. (f) The isolated backbone could bind galectin-3, which was insensitive to lactose treatment. The novel discovery that the side chains and backbone play distinct roles in regulating RG-I-4 activity is valuable for producing highly active pectin-based galectin-3 inhibitors. PMID:24100038

Gao, Xiaoge; Zhi, Yuan; Sun, Lin; Peng, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Tao; Xue, Huiting; Tai, Guihua; Zhou, Yifa

2013-01-01

351

The relationship among p53 oligomer formation, structure and transcriptional activity using a comprehensive missense mutation library  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor suppressor p53 forms a homo-tetramer through its COOH-terminal oligomerization domain and acts as a sequence-specific transcription factor. We have analysed the interrelation among the transcriptional activities, the structure and the cancer-related mutations in the oligomerization domain by using a comprehensive missense mutation library. Here, we examined the ability of 184 mutant p53s in the domain to form an oligomer

Tomohiro Kawaguchi; Shunsuke Kato; Kazunori Otsuka; Gou Watanabe; Toshihiro Kumabe; Teiji Tominaga; Takashi Yoshimoto; Chikashi Ishioka

2005-01-01

352

Structure-activity relationship of indomethacin analogues for MRP-1, COX-1 and COX-2 inhibition. identification of novel chemotherapeutic drug resistance modulators.  

PubMed

We report the screening of analogues of indomethacin to investigate the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of indomethacin-mediated multidrug resistance associated protein-1 (MRP-1) inhibition. By examining the activities of compounds with minor variations of the parent structure, we were able to separate MRP-1, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 inhibitory activities. Combination cytotoxicity assays were utilised to identify agents which possess synergistic potential in MRP-1-expressing cell lines. MRP-1 Inside Out Vesicles (IOVs) were utilised to demonstrate the ability of the indomethacin analogues to inhibit the pump directly. Most of the indomethacin analogues active as MRP-1 inhibitors were poor GST inhibitors when compared with the GST-inhibitory activity of indomethacin. Two of the MRP-1 inhibitory analogues were found to have no COX-1 inhibitory activity and low COX-2 inhibitory activity, suggesting potentially reduced clinical toxicity. One MRP-1 inhibitory indomethacin analogue was also found to have low COX-1 inhibitory activity, but significant COX-2 inhibitory activity, making this analogue again interesting in terms of low potential toxicity, but with the possibility of direct inhibitory effects on tumour growth. PMID:12142058

Touhey, S; O'Connor, R; Plunkett, S; Maguire, A; Clynes, M

2002-08-01

353

Biological implications of the structural, antithrombin affinity and anticoagulant activity relationships among vertebrate heparins and heparan sulphates.  

PubMed Central

We analysed the distribution, structural characteristics, antithrombin-III-binding properties and anticoagulant activities of heparins and heparan sulphates isolated from the tissues of a wide range of vertebrates. Heparin has a curiously limited distribution, since it was absent from lower aquatic vertebrate species, present in only certain organs such as intestine in many higher vertebrates, and completely absent from the rabbit among mammals examined. The heparins were structurally diverse, and they exhibited a broad range of anticoagulant activities, from approx. 50% to 150% of average commercial heparins. Although there was a rough correlation between the anticoagulant potency of the starting isolate and the proportional content of material exhibiting high-affinity binding to the proteinase inhibitor antithrombin III, activities of high-affinity fractions from heparins low in activity overlapped those of low-affinity fractions from highly active heparins. Heparan sulphates, which in contrast were isolated from nearly all vertebrate organs, contained high-affinity subfractions constituting up to 5% of the starting material and possessing anticoagulant potencies of 2-30 units/mg. In consideration of the heparin data, we infer that its biological function is either species-specific or may be served by other molecular elements, and that there exists considerable diversity in the antithrombin-III-binding sequence of heparin. The more-generally distributed glycosaminoglycan heparan sulphate possesses within its variable structure a small high-affinity subfraction with low anticoagulant potency, whether isolated from aorta or other tissues. Although heparan sulphate appears to have an essential function at the cellular level, we suggest that this is probably not that of providing heparin-like antithrombotic effects on vascular surfaces. PMID:2948492

Hovingh, P; Piepkorn, M; Linker, A

1986-01-01

354

Structure and activity relationship for CO and O2 adsorption over gold nanoparticles using density functional theory and artificial neural networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the structure and activity relationship for CO and O2 adsorption over Au2 to Au10 clusters was investigated using density functional theory (DFT) and artificial neural networks as a part of ongoing studies in the literature to understand CO oxidation over gold nanoparticles. The optimum structures for the anionic, neutral, and cationic clusters were determined first using DFT. The structural properties such as binding energy, highest occupied molecular orbital-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital gap, ionization potential, and electron affinity as well as the adsorption energies of CO and O2 were calculated using the same method at various values of user defined descriptors such as the size and charge of the cluster, the presence or absence of unpaired electron, and the coordination number of the adsorption site. Then, artificial neural network models were constructed to establish the relationship between these descriptors and the structural properties, as well as between the structural properties and the adsorption energies. It was concluded that the neural network models can successfully predict the adsorption energies calculated using DFT. The statistically determined relative significances of user defined descriptors and the structural properties on the adsorption energies were also found to be in good agreement with the literature indicating that this approach may be used for the other catalytic systems as well.

Davran-Candan, Tu?ba; Günay, M. Erdem; Y?ld?r?m, Ramazan

2010-05-01

355

Quantitative nanostructure-activity relationship modeling.  

PubMed

Evaluation of biological effects, both desired and undesired, caused by manufactured nanoparticles (MNPs) is of critical importance for nanotechnology. Experimental studies, especially toxicological, are time-consuming, costly, and often impractical, calling for the development of efficient computational approaches capable of predicting biological effects of MNPs. To this end, we have investigated the potential of cheminformatics methods such as quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling to establish statistically significant relationships between measured biological activity profiles of MNPs and their physical, chemical, and geometrical properties, either measured experimentally or computed from the structure of MNPs. To reflect the context of the study, we termed our approach quantitative nanostructure-activity relationship (QNAR) modeling. We have employed two representative sets of MNPs studied recently using in vitro cell-based assays: (i) 51 various MNPs with diverse metal cores (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 2008, 105, 7387-7392) and (ii) 109 MNPs with similar core but diverse surface modifiers (Nat. Biotechnol. 2005, 23, 1418-1423). We have generated QNAR models using machine learning approaches such as support vector machine (SVM)-based classification and k nearest neighbors (kNN)-based regression; their external prediction power was shown to be as high as 73% for classification modeling and having an R(2) of 0.72 for regression modeling. Our results suggest that QNAR models can be employed for: (i) predicting biological activity profiles of novel nanomaterials, and (ii) prioritizing the design and manufacturing of nanomaterials toward better and safer products. PMID:20857979

Fourches, Denis; Pu, Dongqiuye; Tassa, Carlos; Weissleder, Ralph; Shaw, Stanley Y; Mumper, Russell J; Tropsha, Alexander

2010-10-26

356

Quantitative Nanostructure-Activity Relationship (QNAR) Modeling  

PubMed Central

Evaluation of biological effects, both desired and undesired, caused by Manufactured NanoParticles (MNPs) is of critical importance for nanotechnology. Experimental studies, especially toxicological, are time-consuming, costly, and often impractical, calling for the development of efficient computational approaches capable of predicting biological effects of MNPs. To this end, we have investigated the potential of cheminformatics methods such as Quantitative StructureActivity Relationship (QSAR) modeling to establish statistically significant relationships between measured biological activity profiles of MNPs and their physical, chemical, and geometrical properties, either measured experimentally or computed from the structure of MNPs. To reflect the context of the study, we termed our approach Quantitative Nanostructure-Activity Relationship (QNAR) modeling. We have employed two representative sets of MNPs studied recently using in vitro cell-based assays: (i) 51 various MNPs with diverse metal cores (PNAS, 2008, 105, pp 7387–7392) and (ii) 109 MNPs with similar core but diverse surface modifiers (Nat. Biotechnol., 2005, 23, pp 1418–1423). We have generated QNAR models using machine learning approaches such as Support Vector Machine (SVM)-based classification and k Nearest Neighbors (kNN)-based regression; their external prediction power was shown to be as high as 73% for classification modeling and R2 of 0.72 for regression modeling. Our results suggest that QNAR models can be employed for: (i) predicting biological activity profiles of novel nanomaterials, and (ii) prioritizing the design and manufacturing of nanomaterials towards better and safer products. PMID:20857979

Fourches, Denis; Pu, Dongqiuye; Tassa, Carlos; Weissleder, Ralph; Shaw, Stanley Y.; Mumper, Russell J.; Tropsha, Alexander

2010-01-01

357

Semisynthesis and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study of novel aromatic esters of 4'-demethyl-4-deoxypodophyllotoxin as insecticidal agents.  

PubMed

By using podophyllotoxin as a phytoinsecticidal lead compound, 15 novel aromatic esters of 4'-demethyl-4-deoxypodophyllotoxin were semisynthesized and preliminarily tested for their insecticidal activity against the pre-third-instar larvae of Mythimna separata Walker in vivo for the first time. Among all of the tested compounds, especially two compounds, 4m and 4o, containing a pyridinyl group, for which final corrected mortality rates against M. separata at 1 mg/mL were 62.9 and 59.2%, respectively, showed the most promising and pronounced insecticidal activity as compared with toosendanin, a commercial insecticide derived from Melia azedarach . The quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) of compounds 4a-4o showed that the relative number of benzene rings and final heat of formation were very important descriptors to their insecticidal activity. PMID:19689137

Xu, Hui; Wang, Juanjuan; Sun, Huijun; Lv, Min; Tian, Xuan; Yao, Xiaojun; Zhang, Xing

2009-09-01

358

Phenyl-imidazolo-cytidine analogues: structure-photophysical activity relationship and ability to detect single DNA mismatch.  

PubMed

To expand the arsenal of fluorescent cytidine analogues for the detection of genetic material, we synthesized para-substituted phenyl-imidazolo-cytidine ((Ph)ImC) analogues 5a-g and established a relationship between their structure and fluorescence properties. These analogues were more emissive than cytidine (?em 398-420 nm, ? 0.009-0.687), and excellent correlation was found between ? of 5a-g and ?p(-) of the substituent on the phenyl-imidazolo moiety (R(2) = 0.94). Calculations suggested that the dominant tautomer of (Ph)ImC in methanol solution is identical to that of cytidine. DFT calculations of the stable tautomer of selected (Ph)ImC analogues suggested a relationship between the HOMO-LUMO gap and ? and explained the loss of fluorescence in the nitro analogue. Incorporation of the CF3-(Ph)ImdC analogue into a DNA probe resulted in 6-fold fluorescence quenching of the former. A 17-fold reduction of fluorescence was observed for the G-matched duplex vs ODN(CF3-(Ph)ImdC), while for A-mismatched duplex, only a 2-fold decrease was observed. Furthermore, since the quantum yield of ODN(CF3-(Ph)ImdC):ODN(G) was reduced 17-fold vs that of a single strand, whereas that of ODN(CF3-(Ph)ImdC):ORN(G) was reduced only 3.8-fold, ODN(CF3-(Ph)ImdC) appears to be a DNA-selective probe. We conclude that the ODN(CF3-(Ph)ImdC) probe, exhibiting emission sensitivity upon single nucleotide replacement, may be potentially useful for DNA single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing. PMID:24992467

Kovaliov, Marina; Weitman, Michal; Major, Dan Thomas; Fischer, Bilha

2014-08-01

359

Modification of a synthetic LPS-binding domain of anti-lipopolysaccharide factor from shrimp reveals strong structure-activity relationship in their antimicrobial characteristics.  

PubMed

Anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) is a small protein with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities and certain antiviral property. Its putative lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding domain was deduced to be important for its activities. However, there is still no report revealing how the structure of the LPS-binding domain affects its biological function until now. In the present study, we designed and synthesized a peptide corresponding to the LPS-binding domain of ALF from the Chinese shrimp (designated as FcALF-LBDc) and its structure-modified isoforms in order to analyze the relationship between its structure and antimicrobial activities. Results showed that FcALF-LBDc exhibited apparent antibacterial activities against both Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Vibrio anguillarum and Gram-positive bacteria Micrococcus luteus and Micrococcus lysodeikticus with MIC ranges of 32-64, 2-4, 1-2, and 32-64?M, respectively. The disulfide loop and the basic amino acids in the LPS-binding domain (LBD) of ALF played key roles in its antibacterial activities. In addition, FcALF-LBDc could reduce the propagation of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in vivo, and its lysine residue is indispensable for its antiviral property. This is the first attempt to testify the effects of the sequence features of the LPS-binding domain on its antimicrobial activities. PMID:24661926

Guo, Shuyue; Li, Shihao; Li, Fuhua; Zhang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Jianhai

2014-08-01

360

Structure-activity relationships of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in insect chemical defense against the orb-weaving spider Nephila clavipes.  

PubMed

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are known to protect Arctiidae moths and Danainae and Ithomiinae butterflies against the orb-weaving spider Nephila clavipes (Araneae, Araneidae, Tetragnathinae), which liberates adults of these insects unharmed from its web. We tested against this spider the role of eight PAs and one derived structure [an 89:11 mixture of the 12-membered macrocyclic diester free base integerrimine and senecionine and the respective N-oxide; two hydrolysis products from this mixture (the necine base retronecine, its respective N-oxide, and a mixture of integerriminic and senecionic necic acids); the 12-membered macrocyclic senkirkine; the 9-O-monoester free base senecioylretronecine and its respective N-oxide; and the 9-O-monoester free base callimorphine (a PA biosynthesized only by insects from retronecine)]. The mixture integerrimine-senecionine N-oxide seems to be more active than the respective free base [LibD50 (liberation dose 50) = 0.042 and 0.153 microg/dry weight of prey, respectively], but the difference in activity between the N-oxide and free base of the 9-O-monoester senecioylretronecine was slight (LibD50 = 0.167 and 0.104, respectively). Senkirkine, an otonecine base PA that does not form N-oxide and is not found in insects, was the less active, showing the highest LibD50 (0.354). The difference in antipredator activity between N-oxides and free bases from macrocyclic diesters and monoesters may be correlated with physicochemical properties of these molecules in interaction with the Nephila receptors. For the active structures, there was a significant correlation between dosage and antipredator activity. Both forms of retronecine and a necic acid mixture were inactive, supporting the hypothesis that PAs biosynthesized by insects from retronecine were originally produced and stored in order to optimize chemical defense. Comparison of dose/activity data with reported amounts of PAs in butterflies suggested that, in general, PA-specialist insects are protected against predation by Nephila. PMID:12035917

Silva, Karina Lucas; Trigo, José Roberto

2002-04-01

361

Design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationships of novel benzothiazole derivatives bearing the ortho-hydroxy N-carbamoylhydrazone moiety as potent antitumor agents.  

PubMed

A series of novel benzothiazole derivatives bearing the ortho-hydroxy N-carbamoylhydrazone moiety were designed and synthesized and their cytotoxic activities against five cancer cell lines (NCI-H226, SK-N-SH, HT29, MKN45, and MDA-MB-231) were screened in vitro. Most of them showed moderate to excellent activity against all the tested cell lines. Among them, compounds 15g (procaspase-3 EC50 = 1.42 ?M) and 16b (procaspase-3 EC50 = 0.25 ?M) exhibited excellent antitumor activity with IC50 values ranging from 0.14 ?M to 0.98 ?M against all cancer cell lines, which were 1.8-8.7 times more active than the first procaspase activating compound (PAC-1) (procaspase-3 EC50 = 4.08 ?M). The structure-activity relationship (SAR) analyses indicated that the introduction of a lipophilic group (a benzyloxy or heteroaryloxy group) at the 4-position of the 2-hydroxy phenyl ring was beneficial to antitumor activity, and the presence of substituents containing nitrogen that are positively charged at physiological pH could also improve antitumor activity. It was also confirmed that the steric effect of the 4-position substituent of the benzyloxy group had a significant influence on cytotoxic activity. PMID:25171780

Ma, Junjie; Chen, Dong; Lu, Kuan; Wang, Lihui; Han, Xiaoqi; Zhao, Yanfang; Gong, Ping

2014-10-30

362

DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) inhibitors: Structure–activity relationships for O-alkoxyphenylchromen-4-one probes of the ATP-binding domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction of an O-alkoxyphenyl substituent at the 8-position of the 2-morpholino-4H-chromen-4-one pharmacophore enabled regions of the ATP-binding site of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) to be probed further. Structure–activity relationships have been elucidated for inhibition of DNA-PK and PI3K (p110?), with N-(2-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-4-(2-morpholino-4-oxo-4H-chromen-8-yl)phenyl)-2-morpholinoacetamide 11a being identified as a potent and selective DNA-PK inhibitor (IC50=8nM).

Kate M. Clapham; Julia Bardos; M. Raymond V. Finlay; Bernard T. Golding; Edward J. Griffen; Roger J. Griffin; Ian R. Hardcastle; Keith A. Menear; Attilla Ting; Paul Turner; Gail L. Young; Céline Cano

2011-01-01

363

Mode of action and the assessment of chemical hazards in the presence of limited data: use of structure-activity relationships (SAR) under TSCA, Section 5.  

PubMed Central

Section 5 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) requires that manufacturers and importers of new chemicals must submit a Premanufacture Notification (PMN) to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 90 days before they intend to commence manufacture or import. Certain information such as chemical identity, uses, etc., must be included in the notification. The submission of test data on the new substance, however, is not required, although any available health and environmental information must be provided. Nonetheless, over half of all PMNs submitted to the agency do not contain any test data; because PMN chemicals are new, no test data is generally available in the scientific literature. Given this situation, EPA has had to develop techniques for hazard assessment that can be used in the presence of limited test data. EPA's approach has been termed "structure-activity relationships" (SAR) and involves three major components: the first is critical evaluation and interpretation of available toxicity data on the chemical; the second component involves evaluation of test data available on analogous substances and/or potential metabolites; and the third component involves the use of mathematical expressions for biological activity known as "quantitative structure-activity relationships" (QSARs). At present, the use of QSARs is limited to estimating physical chemical properties, environmental toxicity, and bioconcentration factors. An important overarching element in EPA's approach is the experience and judgment of scientific assessors in interpreting and integrating the available data and information. Examples are provided that illustrate EPA's approach to hazard assessment for PMN chemicals. PMID:2269224

Auer, C M; Nabholz, J V; Baetcke, K P

1990-01-01

364

Biomacromolecular quantitative structure-activity relationship (BioQSAR): a proof-of-concept study on the modeling, prediction and interpretation of protein-protein binding affinity.  

PubMed

Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR), a regression modeling methodology that establishes statistical correlation between structure feature and apparent behavior for a series of congeneric molecules quantitatively, has been widely used to evaluate the activity, toxicity and property of various small-molecule compounds such as drugs, toxicants and surfactants. However, it is surprising to see that such useful technique has only very limited applications to biomacromolecules, albeit the solved 3D atom-resolution structures of proteins, nucleic acids and their complexes have accumulated rapidly in past decades. Here, we present a proof-of-concept paradigm for the modeling, prediction and interpretation of the binding affinity of 144 sequence-nonredundant, structure-available and affinity-known protein complexes (Kastritis et al. Protein Sci 20:482-491, 2011) using a biomacromolecular QSAR (BioQSAR) scheme. We demonstrate that the modeling performance and predictive power of BioQSAR are comparable to or even better than that of traditional knowledge-based strategies, mechanism-type methods and empirical scoring algorithms, while BioQSAR possesses certain additional features compared to the traditional methods, such as adaptability, interpretability, deep-validation and high-efficiency. The BioQSAR scheme could be readily modified to infer the biological behavior and functions of other biomacromolecules, if their X-ray crystal structures, NMR conformation assemblies or computationally modeled structures are available. PMID:23306464

Zhou, Peng; Wang, Congcong; Tian, Feifei; Ren, Yanrong; Yang, Chao; Huang, Jian

2013-01-01

365

Mechanism of action and relationship between structure and biological activity of Ctx-Ha: a new ceratotoxin-like peptide from Hypsiboas albopunctatus.  

PubMed

The increase in bacterial resistance to current antibiotics has led to the development of new active molecules. We have isolated the antimicrobial peptide Ctx-Ha from the skin secretion of the frog Hypsiboas albopunctatus. The aim of the present work was to elucidate the mechanism of action of this new antimicrobial peptide. The sequence similarity with Ceratotoxin, the pore size, and the pore-like release of carboxyfluorescein from vesicles indicated that Ctx(Ile21)-Ha has a mechanism of action based on the barrel- stave model. In a second part of this work, we synthesized three analogues to provide information about the relationship between the peptide's structure and its biological activity. Ctx(Ile21)-Ha-VD 16, Ctx(Ile21)- Ha-VD 5,16 and Ctx(Ile21)-Ha-I9K were designed to disrupt the peptide's helical structure and change the hydrophobicity/ hydrophilicity and amphipathicity of the apolar face in order to uncouple the antimicrobial activity of Ctx(Ile21)-Ha from its hemolytic activity. To evaluate the effects of the amino acid substitutions on peptide conformation, secondary structure was accessed using CD measurements. The peptides presented a high amount of ?-helical structure in the presence of TFE and LPC. The CD data showed that destruction of the amphipathic ?-helix by the replacing isoleucine by lysine is less harmful to the structure than D-amino acid substitutions. Biological tests demonstrated that all peptides have activity. Nevertheless, the peptide Ctx(Ile21)-Ha-I9K showed the highest value of therapeutic index. Our findings suggest that these peptides are potential templates for the development of new antimicrobial drugs. These studies highlight the importance of single amino acid modification as a tool to modulate the biological activity of antimicrobial peptides. PMID:22519531

Cespedes, Graziely Ferreira; Lorenzón, Esteban Nicolás; Vicente, Eduardo Festozo; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares; Fontes, Wagner; Castro, Mariana Souza; Cilli, Eduardo Maffud

2012-06-01

366

The fucoidans from brown algae of Far-Eastern seas: anti-tumor activity and structure-function relationship.  

PubMed

The sulfated polysaccharides from brown algae - the fucoidans - are known to be a topic of numerous studies, due to their beneficial biological activities including anti-tumour activity. In this study the effect of fucoidans isolated from brown algae Saccharina cichorioides, Fucus evanescens, and Undaria pinnatifida on the proliferation, neoplastic transformation, and colony formation of mouse epidermal cells JB6 Cl41, human colon cancer DLD-1, breast cancer T-47D, and melanoma RPMI-7951 cell lines was investigated. The algal fucoidans specifically and markedly suppressed the proliferation of human cancer cells with less cytotoxic effects against normal mouse epidermal cells. The highly sulfated (1?3)-?-l-fucan from S. cichorioides was found to be vitally important in the inhibition of EGF-induced neoplastic transformation of JB6 Cl41 cells. In colony formation assay the fucoidans from different species of brown algae showed selective anti-tumour activity against different types of cancer, which depended on unique structures of the investigated polysaccharides. These results provide evidence for further exploring the use of the fucoidans from S. cichorioides, F. evanescens, and U. pinnatifida as novel chemotherapeutics against different types of cancer. PMID:23790906

Vishchuk, Olesya S; Ermakova, Svetlana P; Zvyagintseva, Tatyana N

2013-11-15

367

Parallel synthesis, molecular modelling and further structure-activity relationship studies of new acylthiocarbamates as potent non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors.  

PubMed

The structure-activity relationships (SARs) of acylthiocarbamates (ATCs), a new class of non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors, have been expanded. Sixty-six new analogues were prepared by parallel solution-phase synthesis. In general, the potency of new ATCs was better than that of the first series and O-[2-phthalimidoethyl] 4-chlorophenyl(3-nitrobenzoyl) thiocarbamate turned out to be the most potent ATC so far synthesized (EC(50)=1.5nM). Several ATCs were active at micromolar concentrations against HIV-1 strains carrying the RT Y181C mutation and one of them was also moderately active against the K103R variant. Docking simulations were carried out to rationalize the most relevant SARs. PMID:19058881

Spallarossa, Andrea; Cesarini, Sara; Ranise, Angelo; Schenone, Silvia; Bruno, Olga; Borassi, Alberto; La Colla, Paolo; Pezzullo, Margherita; Sanna, Giuseppina; Collu, Gabriella; Secci, Barbara; Loddo, Roberta

2009-05-01

368

Structure–Activity Relationship of Adenosine 5?-diphosphoribose at the Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 2 (TRPM2) Channel: Rational Design of Antagonists  

PubMed Central

Adenosine 5?-diphosphoribose (ADPR) activates TRPM2, a Ca2+, Na+, and K+ permeable cation channel. Activation is induced by ADPR binding to the cytosolic C-terminal NudT9-homology domain. To generate the first structure–activity relationship, systematically modified ADPR analogues were designed, synthesized, and evaluated as antagonists using patch-clamp experiments in HEK293 cells overexpressing human TRPM2. Compounds with a purine C8 substituent show antagonist activity, and an 8-phenyl substitution (8-Ph-ADPR, 5) is very effective. Modification of the terminal ribose results in a weak antagonist, whereas its removal abolishes activity. An antagonist based upon a hybrid structure, 8-phenyl-2?-deoxy-ADPR (86, IC50 = 3 ?M), is more potent than 8-Ph-ADPR (5). Initial bioisosteric replacement of the pyrophosphate linkage abolishes activity, but replacement of the pyrophosphate and the terminal ribose by a sulfamate-based group leads to a weak antagonist, a lead to more drug-like analogues. 8-Ph-ADPR (5) inhibits Ca2+ signalling and chemotaxis in human neutrophils, illustrating the potential for pharmacological intervention at TRPM2. PMID:24304219

2013-01-01

369

The O-methylation of chrysin markedly improves its intestinal anti-inflammatory properties: Structure-activity relationships of flavones.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate whether methoxylated flavones versus their unmethylated analogs can modulate the intestinal inflammatory response. Flavone effects were assessed on soluble pro-inflammatory mediator (IL-8, IL-6, macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-derived PGE2) production and on nuclear factor (NF)-?B activation in 3d-confluent and 21d-differentiated Caco-2 cells stimulated with interleukin (IL)-1?. Chrysin (CHRY) showed anti-inflammatory properties by decreasing COX-2-derived PGE2 and reducing NF-?B activation. Compared to CHRY, the dimethoxylated form (CHRY-DM) significantly reduced the secretion of all pro-inflammatory mediators, except IL-8, at both cellular stages (P<0.05); these effects being dose-dependent in 3d-cells. The reduction of NF-?B activation was significantly more pronounced with CHRY-DM. By evaluating other flavones, it was established that several structural dispositions of flavones seemed to be determinant in order to attenuate the intestinal inflammatory response, such as methoxylation of the 5- and 7-hydroxyl groups on the A-ring, non-methoxylation of the 3'-hydroxyl groups on the B-ring, and methoxylation of the 3-hydroxyl group on the C-ring. Of all flavones examined, CHRY-DM exhibited the strongest anti-inflammatory activity. These data indicate that, in the Caco-2 cell model, methoxylation of CHRY greatly improves its anti-inflammatory properties, probably through a more pronounced inhibition of the NF-?B signaling pathway. Nevertheless, methoxylation of other flavones was not systematically beneficial. PMID:24134915

During, Alexandrine; Larondelle, Yvan

2013-12-15

370

Studies on Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) of Derivatives of a New Natural Product from Marine Fungi as Inhibitors of Influenza Virus Neuraminidase  

PubMed Central

Based on the natural isoprenyl phenyl ether from a mangrove-derived fungus, 32 analogues were synthesized and evaluated for inhibitory activity against influenza H1N1 neuraminidase. Compound 15 (3-(allyloxy)-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde) exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity, with IC50 values of 26.96 ?M for A/GuangdongSB/01/2009 (H1N1), 27.73 ?M for A/Guangdong/03/2009 (H1N1), and 25.13 ?M for A/Guangdong/ 05/2009 (H1N1), respectively, which is stronger than the benzoic acid derivatives (~mM level). These are a new kind of non-nitrogenous aromatic ether Neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors. Their structures are simple and the synthesis routes are not complex. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis revealed that the aryl aldehyde and unsubstituted hydroxyl were important to NA inhibitory activities. Molecular docking studies were carried out to explain the SAR of the compounds, and provided valuable information for further structure modification. PMID:22073001

Li, Jing; Zhang, Dingmei; Zhu, Xun; He, Zhenjian; Liu, Shu; Li, Mengfeng; Pang, Jiyan; Lin, Yongcheng

2011-01-01

371

Structure-Activity Relationship of Au/ZrO2 Catalyst on Formation of Hydroxyl Groups and Its Influence on CO Oxidation  

SciTech Connect

The effect of changes in morphology and surface hydroxyl species upon thermal treatment of zirconia on the oxidation activity of Au/ZrO2 catalyst was studied. We observed using transmission fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy progressive changes in the presence of monodentate (type I), bidentate (type II) and hydrogen bridged species (type III) for each of the thermally treated (85 to 500 C) supports consisting of bare zirconia and Au/ZrO2 catalysts. Furthermore, structural changes in zirconia were accompanied by an increase in crystal size (7 to 58 nm) and contraction of the supports porosity (SSA 532 to 7 m2/g) with increasing thermal treatment. Deposition of gold nanoparticles under similar preparation conditions on different thermally treated zirconia resulted in changes in the mean gold cluster size, ranging from 3.7 to 5.6 nm. Changes in the surface hydroxyl species, support structure and size of the gold centers are important parameters responsible for the observed decrease (> 90 %) in CO conversion activity for the Au/ZrO2 catalysts. Density functional theory calculations provide evidence of increased CO binding to Au nanoclusters in the presence of surface hydroxyls on zirconia, which increases charge transfer at the perimeter of the gold nanocluster on zirconia support. This further helps in reducing a model CO-oxidation reaction barrier in the presence of surface hydroxyls. This work demonstrates the need to understand the structure-activity relationship of both the support and active particles for the design of catalytic materials.

Karwacki, Christopher J [US Army Aberdeen Proving Ground; Ganesh, Panchapakesan [ORNL; Gordon, Wesley O [ORNL; Peterson, Gregory W [US Army Aberdeen Proving Ground; Niu, Jun Jie [Drexel University; Gogotsi, Yury G. [Drexel University

2013-01-01

372

Preliminary structure-activity relationship on theonellasterol, a new chemotype of FXR antagonist, from the marine sponge Theonella swinhoei.  

PubMed

Using theonellasterol as a novel FXR antagonist hit, we prepared a series of semi-synthetic derivatives in order to gain insight into the structural requirements for exhibiting antagonistic activity. These derivatives are characterized by modification at the exocyclic carbon-carbon double bond at C-4 and at the hydroxyl group at C-3 and were prepared from theonellasterol using simple reactions. Pharmacological investigation showed that the introduction of a hydroxyl group at C-4 as well as the oxidation at C-3 with or without concomitant modification at the exomethylene functionality preserve the ability of theonellasterol to inhibit FXR transactivation caused by CDCA. Docking analysis showed that the placement of these molecules in the FXR-LBD is well stabilized when on ring A functional groups, able to form hydrogen bonds and ? interactions, are present. PMID:23203270

Sepe, Valentina; Ummarino, Raffaella; D'Auria, Maria Valeria; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Marino, Simona De; D'Amore, Claudio; Renga, Barbara; Chini, Maria Giovanna; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Nakao, Yoichi; Fusetani, Nobuhiro; Fiorucci, Stefano; Zampella, Angela

2012-11-01

373

Structure-Activity Relationships of Bifunctional Cyclic Disulfide Peptides Based on Overlapping Pharmacophores at Opioid and Cholecystokinin Receptors  

PubMed Central

Prolonged opioid exposure increases the expression of cholecystokinin (CCK) and its receptors in the central nervous system, where CCK may attenuate the antinociceptive effects of opioids. The complex interactions between opioid and CCK may play a role in the development of opioid tolerance. We designed and synthesized cyclic disulfide peptides and determined their agonist properties at opioid receptors and antagonist properties at CCK receptors. Compound 1 (Tyr-c[D-Cys-Gly-Trp-Cys]-Asp-Phe-NH2) showed potent binding and agonist activities at ? and µ opioid receptors while displaying some binding to CCK receptors. The NMR structure of the lead compound displayed similar conformational features of opioid and CCK ligands. PMID:18502541

Agnes, Richard S.; Ying, Jinfa; Kövér, Katalin E.; Lee, Yeon Sun; Davis, Peg; Ma, Shou-wu; Badghisi, Hamid; Porreca, Frank; Lai, Josephine; Hruby, Victor J.

2008-01-01

374

Honaucins A-C, potent inhibitors of inflammation and bacterial quorum sensing: synthetic derivatives and structure-activity relationships.  

PubMed

Honaucins A-C were isolated from the cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya crossbyana which was found overgrowing corals on the Hawaiian coast. Honaucin A consists of (S)-3-hydroxy-?-butyrolactone and 4-chlorocrotonic acid, which are connected via an ester linkage. Honaucin A and its two natural analogs exhibit potent inhibition of both bioluminescence, a quorum-sensing-dependent phenotype, in Vibrio harveyi BB120 and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated nitric oxide production in the murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7. The decrease in nitric oxide production was accompanied by a decrease in the transcripts of several proinflammatory cytokines, most dramatically interleukin-1?. Synthesis of honaucin A, as well as a number of analogs, and subsequent evaluation in anti-inflammation and quorum-sensing inhibition bioassays revealed the essential structural features for activity in this chemical class and provided analogs with greater potency in both assays. PMID:22633410

Choi, Hyukjae; Mascuch, Samantha J; Villa, Francisco A; Byrum, Tara; Teasdale, Margaret E; Smith, Jennifer E; Preskitt, Linda B; Rowley, David C; Gerwick, Lena; Gerwick, William H

2012-05-25

375

Honaucins A–C, Potent Inhibitors of Eukaryotic Inflammation and Bacterial Quorum Sensing: Synthetic Derivatives and Structure-Activity Relationships  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Honaucins A–C were isolated from the cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya crossbyana which was found overgrowing corals on the Hawaiian coast. Honaucin A consists of (S)-3-hydroxy-?-butyrolactone and 4-chlorocrotonic acid which are connected via an ester linkage. Honaucin A and its two natural analogs exhibit potent inhibition of bioluminescence, a quorum sensing-dependent phenotype, in Vibrio harveyi BB120 as well as of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated nitric oxide production in the murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7. The decrease in nitric oxide production was accompanied by a decrease in the transcripts of several pro-inflammatory cytokines, most dramatically interleukin-1?. Synthesis of honaucin A as well as a number of analogs and subsequent evaluation in anti-inflammation and quorum sensing inhibition bioassays revealed the essential structural features for activity in this chemical class, and provided analogs with greater potency in both assays. PMID:22633410

Choi, Hyukjae; Mascuch, Samantha J.; Villa, Francisco A.; Byrum, Tara; Teasdale, Margaret E.; Smith, Jennifer E.; Preskitt, Linda B.; Rowley, David C.; Gerwick, Lena; Gerwick, William H.

2012-01-01

376

Preliminary Structure-Activity Relationship on Theonellasterol, a New Chemotype of FXR Antagonist, from the Marine Sponge Theonella swinhoei  

PubMed Central

Using theonellasterol as a novel FXR antagonist hit, we prepared a series of semi-synthetic derivatives in order to gain insight into the structural requirements for exhibiting antagonistic activity. These derivatives are characterized by modification at the exocyclic carbon-carbon double bond at C-4 and at the hydroxyl group at C-3 and were prepared from theonellasterol using simple reactions. Pharmacological investigation showed that the introduction of a hydroxyl group at C-4 as well as the oxidation at C-3 with or without concomitant modification at the exomethylene functionality preserve the ability of theonellasterol to inhibit FXR transactivation caused by CDCA. Docking analysis showed that the placement of these molecules in the FXR-LBD is well stabilized when on ring A functional groups, able to form hydrogen bonds and ? interactions, are present. PMID:23203270

Sepe, Valentina; Ummarino, Raffaella; D’Auria, Maria Valeria; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Marino, Simona De; D’Amore, Claudio; Renga, Barbara; Chini, Maria Giovanna; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Nakao, Yoichi; Fusetani, Nobuhiro; Fiorucci, Stefano; Zampella, Angela

2012-01-01

377

Structure-activity relationships of the intramolecular disulfide bonds in coprisin, a defensin from the dung beetle  

PubMed Central

Defensins, which are small cationic molecules produced by organisms as part of their innate immune response, share a common structural scaffold that is stabilized by three disulfide bridges. Coprisin is a 43-amino acid defensin-like peptide from Copris tripartitus. Here, we report the intramolecular disulfide connectivity of cysteine-rich coprisin, and show that it is the same as in other insect defensins. The disulfide bond pairings of coprisin were determined by combining the enzymatic cleavage and mass analysis. We found that the loss of any single disulfide bond in coprisin eliminated all antibacterial, but not antifungal, activity. Circular dichroism (CD) analysis showed that two disulfide bonds, Cys20-Cys39 and Cys24-Cys41, stabilize coprisin’s ?-helical region. Moreover, a BLAST search against UniProtKB database revealed that coprisin’s ?-helical region is highly homologous to those of other insect defensins. [BMB Reports 2014; 47(11): 625-630] PMID:24393527

Lee, Daeun; Choi, Hyemin; Kim, Ha Hyung; Kim, Ho; Hwang, Jae Sam; Lee, Dong Gun; Kim, Jae Il

2014-01-01

378

Arylpiperazines for management of benign prostatic hyperplasia: design, synthesis, quantitative structure-activity relationships, and pharmacokinetic studies.  

PubMed

A series of 27 aryl/heteroaryl/aralkyl/aroyl piperazines were synthesized, and most of these compounds reduced prostate weight of mature rats by 15-47%. Three compounds, 10, 12, and 18, had better activity profile (reduced prostate weight by 47%, 43%, and 39%, respectively) than the standard drug flutamide (24% reduction). QSAR suggested structures with more cyclic and branched moieties, increased topological separation of O and N therein, and reduced solvation connectivity index for better activity. Pharmacokinetic study with compound 10 at an oral dose of 10.0 mg/kg indicated good absorption, negligible extrahepatic elimination, and rapid distribution to the target organ (prostate) but restricted entry through the blood-brain barrier. A 10-fold decrease in PSA and 15-fold increase in ER-? gene expressions of human prostate cancer cells (LNCaP) by compound 10 in vitro indicated AR and ER-? mediated actions. The findings may stimulate further explorations of identified lead for the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. PMID:21128595

Sarswat, Amit; Kumar, Rajeev; Kumar, Lalit; Lal, Nand; Sharma, Smriti; Prabhakar, Yenamandra S; Pandey, Shailendra K; Lal, Jawahar; Verma, Vikas; Jain, Ashish; Maikhuri, Jagdamba P; Dalela, Diwakar; Kirti; Gupta, Gopal; Sharma, Vishnu L

2011-01-13

379

Identification, structure, and phylogenetic relationships of a mitogen-activated protein kinase homologue from the parasitic protist Entamoeba histolytica.  

PubMed

A gene encoding mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) from the human enteric parasite, Entamoeba histolytica has been identified. Sequence analyses of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) products reveal that the EhMAPK gene is intronless and encodes a protein of 352 amino acids. EhMAPK shows significant homology with other MAPKs and contains the 11 subdomains including the invariant residues characteristic of serine/threonine protein kinases. The MAPK signature residues and motifs are also present in EhMAPK. The atomic model of EhMAPK built with rat ERK2 as template exhibits the conservation of all major secondary structural features. However, a deletion in close proximity to the dual phosphorylation/activation site is of particular interest as it may have functional implications. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that EhMAPK is tightly clustered with Giardia intestinalis ERK2 and Dictyostelium discoideum ERK2. Detailed sequence analysis and phylogenetic study aided us to postulate that EhMAPK belongs to the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) family. Although EhMAPK bears good homology and phylogenetic closeness with human ERK8 and rat ERK7, sequence analysis indicates that they may be functionally different. The significant differences such as the deletions in the vicinity of the phosphorylation lip, variations in the P+1 specificity pocket, presence of additional acidic amino acids in the common docking domain provide a ground for postulations that activators and substrates for EhMAPK may be to some extent divergent from that of the ERKs of the mammalian host. Although functional characterization of EhMAPK remains to be done, this is the first study of any member of the MAPK signaling system in this organism. PMID:15716029

Ray, Doel; Dutta, Suman; Banerjee, Sampali; Banerjee, Rahul; Raha, Sanghamitra

2005-02-14

380

Synthesis and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study of novel 4-acyloxypodophyllotoxin derivatives modified in the A and C rings as insecticidal agents.  

PubMed

In continuation of our program aimed at the discovery and development of natural-product-based insecticidal agents, we have synthesized three series of novel 4-acyloxy compounds derived from podophyllotoxin modified in the A and C rings, which is isolated as the main secondary metabolite from the roots and rhizomes of Podophyllum hexandrum . Their insecticidal activity was preliminarily evaluated against the pre-third-instar larvae of Mythimna separata in vivo. Compound 9g displayed the best promising insecticidal activity. It revealed that cleavage of the 6,7-methylenedioxy group of podophyllotoxin will lead to a less active compound and that the C-4 position of podophyllotoxin was the important modification location. A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model was developed by genetic algorithm combined with multiple linear regression (GA-MLR). For this model, the squared correlation coefficient (R(2)) is 0.914, the leave-one-out cross-validation correlation coefficient (Q(2)(LOO)) is 0.881, and the root-mean-square error (RMSE) is 0.024. Five descriptors, BEHm2, Mor14v, Wap, G1v, and RDF020e, are likely to influence the biological activity of these compounds. Among them, two important ones are BEHm2 and Mor14v. This study will pave the way for further design, structural modification, and development of podophyllotoxin derivatives as insecticidal agents. PMID:23278333

He, Shuzhen; Shao, Yonghua; Fan, Lingling; Che, Zhiping; Xu, Hui; Zhi, Xiaoyan; Wang, Juanjuan; Yao, Xiaojun; Qu, Huan

2013-01-23

381

Structure-activity relationships for contact allergenic potential of gamma,gamma-dimethyl-gamma-butyrolactone derivatives. 2. Quantitative structure-skin sensitization relationships for alpha-substituted-alpha-methyl-gamma,gamma-dimethyl-gamma-butyrolactone s.  

PubMed

A skin sensitization cross-challenge dataset for a series of alpha-(X-substituted-methyl)-gamma,gamma-dimethyl-gamma-butyrolactones is analyzed in terms of the relative alkylation index (RAI) model. The data analyzed consist of guinea pig sensitization response data for tests in which one lactone derivative is used for the induction stage and then the animals are challenged with another lactone derivative to elicit the response. RAI values are based on calculated log P (octanol/water) values together with measured relative rate constants for reactions of the lactones with n-butylamine to form alpha-methylene-gamma,gamma-dimethyl-gamma-butyrolactone. Plots of biological response against RAI for induction (RAIi) for sets of data in which the same compound is used for challenge have the double-sigmoid shape typical of sensitization response--RAIi plots, with some points in the overload region. Relative elicitation potential (REP) values, defined in terms of the biological response when sensitized animals are challenged with the compound in question relative to the response when the same animals are challenged with a chosen reference compound, are obtained. Consistent with the RAI model, plots of REP against RAIc, the RAI value corresponding to challenge, are linear and the slopes of plots corresponding to different reference compounds are, within the limits of experimental error, in the same ratio as the REP values of the reference compounds. Finally, multiple linear regression analysis gives a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) covering the complete set of cross-challenge data, relating the biological responses to the RAIi and RAIc values.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8075361

Franot, C; Roberts, D W; Basketter, D A; Benezra, C; Lepoittevin, J P

1994-01-01

382

Molecular recognition of CYP26A1 binding pockets and structure-activity relationship studies for design of potent and selective retinoic acid metabolism blocking agents.  

PubMed

All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), the biologically most active metabolite of vitamin A, plays a major role in the regulation of cellular differentiation and proliferation, and it is also an important pharmacological agent particularly used in the treatment of cancer, skin, neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases. However, ATRA is very easy to be metabolized into 4-hydroxyl-RA in vivo by CYP26A1, an inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme, eventually into more polar metabolites. Therefore, it is vital to develop specific retinoic acid metabolism blocking agents (RAMBAs) to inhibit the metabolic enzyme CYP26A1 in the treatment of relevant diseases aforementioned. In this study, CYP26A1 and its interactions with retinoic acid-competitive metabolism blocking agents were investigated by a combined ligand- and structure-based approach. First, since the crystal structure of CYP26A1 protein has not been determined, we constructed the 3D structure of CYP26A1 using homology modeling. In order to achieve a deeper insight into the mode of action of RAMBAs in the active site, the molecular superimposition model and the common feature pharmacophore model were constructed, and molecular docking was performed. The molecular superimposition model is composed of three features: the main chain groups, side chain groups, and azole groups. The common feature pharmacophore model consists of five chemical features: four hydrophobic groups and one hydrogen acceptor (HHHHA). The results of molecular docking show that the characteristic groups of RAMBAs were mapped into three different active pockets, respectively. A structure-activity relationship (SAR) was obtained by a combination of the molecular superimposition and docking results with the pharmacophore model. This study gives more insight into the interaction model inside the CYP26A1 active site and provides guidance for the design of more potent and possibly more selective RAMBAs. PMID:25541526

Sun, Bin; Song, Shuai; Hao, Chen-Zhou; Huang, Wan-Xu; Liu, Chun-Chi; Xie, Hong-Lei; Lin, Bin; Cheng, Mao-Sheng; Zhao, Dong-Mei

2015-03-01

383

The insulin secretory action of novel polycyclic guanidines: discovery through open innovation phenotypic screening, and exploration of structure-activity relationships.  

PubMed

We report the discovery of the glucose-dependent insulin secretogogue activity of a novel class of polycyclic guanidines through phenotypic screening as part of the Lilly Open Innovation Drug Discovery platform. Three compounds from the University of California, Irvine, 1-3, having the 3-arylhexahydropyrrolo[1,2-c]pyrimidin-1-amine scaffold acted as insulin secretagogues under high, but not low, glucose conditions. Exploration of the structure-activity relationship around the scaffold demonstrated the key role of the guanidine moiety, as well as the importance of two lipophilic regions, and led to the identification of 9h, which stimulated insulin secretion in isolated rat pancreatic islets in a glucose-dependent manner. PMID:24484900

Shaghafi, Michael B; Barrett, David G; Willard, Francis S; Overman, Larry E

2014-02-15

384

Further Structure-Activity Relationship Studies on 8-Substituted-3-[2-(diarylmethoxyethylidenyl)]-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane Derivatives at Monoamine Transporters  

PubMed Central

The synthesis and structure-activity relationships of 8-substituted-3-[2-(diarylmethoxyethylidenyl)]-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane derivatives were investigated at the dopamine transporter(DAT), the serotonin transporter (SERT) and norepinephrine transporter (NET). The rigid ethylidenyl-8-azabicyclic[3.2.1]octane skeleton imparted modestly stereoselective binding and uptake inhibition at the DAT. Additional structure-activity studies provided a transporter affinity profile that was reminiscent of the structure-activity of GBR 12909. From these studies, the 8-cyclopropylmethyl group has been identified as a unique moiety that imparts high SERT/DAT selectivity. In this study the 8-cyclopropylmethyl derivative 22e (DAT Ki of 4.0 nM) was among the most potent compounds of the series at the DAT and was the most DAT selective ligand of the series (SERT/DAT:1060). Similarly, the 8-chlorobenzyl derivative 22g (DAT Ki of 3.9 nM) was found to be highly selective for the DAT over the NET (NET/DAT: 1358). PMID:22055716

Cararas, Shaine A.; Izenwasser, Sari; Wade, Dean; Housman, Amy; Verma, Abha; Lomenzo, Stacey A.; Trudell, Mark L.

2011-01-01

385

Dietary protection against free radicals: a case for multiple testing to establish structure-activity relationships for antioxidant potential of anthocyanic plant species.  

PubMed

DNA damage by reactive species is associated with susceptibility to chronic human degenerative disorders. Anthocyanins are naturally occurring antioxidants, that may prevent or reverse such damage. There is considerable interest in anthocyanic food plants as good dietary sources, with the potential for reducing susceptibility to chronic disease. While structure-activity relationships have provided guidelines on molecular structure in relation to free hydroxyl-radical scavenging, this may not cover the situation in food plants where the anthocyanins are part of a complex mixture, and may be part of complex structures, including anthocyanic vacuolar inclusions (AVIs). Additionally, new analytical methods have revealed new structures in previously-studied materials. We have compared the antioxidant activities of extracts from six anthocyanin-rich edible plants (red cabbage, red lettuce, blueberries, pansies, purple sweetpotato skin, purple sweetpotato flesh and Maori potato flesh) using three chemical assays (DPPH, TRAP and ORAC), and the in vitro Comet assay. Extracts from the flowering plant, lisianthus, were used for comparison. The extracts showed differential effects in the chemical assays, suggesting that closely related structures have different affinities to scavenge different reactive species. Integration of anthocyanins to an AVI led to more sustained radical scavenging activity as compared with the free anthocyanin. All but the red lettuce extract could reduce endogenous DNA damage in HT-29 colon cancer cells. However, while extracts from purple sweetpotato skin and flesh, Maori potato and pansies, protected cells against subsequent challenge by hydrogen peroxide at 0 degrees C, red cabbage extracts were pro-oxidant, while other extracts had no effect. When the peroxide challenge was at 37 degrees C, all of the extracts appeared pro-oxidant. Maori potato extract, consistently the weakest antioxidant in all the chemical assays, was more effective in the Comet assays. These results highlight the dangers of generalising to potential health benefits, based solely on identification of high anthocyanic content in plants, results of a single antioxidant assay and traditional approaches to structure activity relationships. Subsequent studies might usefully consider complex mixtures and a battery of assays. PMID:19399239

Philpott, Martin; Lim, Chiara Cheng; Ferguson, Lynnette R

2009-03-01

386

Dietary Protection Against Free Radicals: A Case for Multiple Testing to Establish Structure-activity Relationships for Antioxidant Potential of Anthocyanic Plant Species  

PubMed Central

DNA damage by reactive species is associated with susceptibility to chronic human degenerative disorders. Anthocyanins are naturally occurring antioxidants, that may prevent or reverse such damage. There is considerable interest in anthocyanic food plants as good dietary sources, with the potential for reducing susceptibility to chronic disease. While structure-activity relationships have provided guidelines on molecular structure in relation to free hydroxyl-radical scavenging, this may not cover the situation in food plants where the anthocyanins are part of a complex mixture, and may be part of complex structures, including anthocyanic vacuolar inclusions (AVIs). Additionally, new analytical methods have revealed new structures in previously-studied materials. We have compared the antioxidant activities of extracts from six anthocyanin-rich edible plants (red cabbage, red lettuce, blueberries, pansies, purple sweetpotato skin, purple sweetpotato flesh and Maori potato flesh) using three chemical assays (DPPH, TRAP and ORAC), and the in vitro Comet assay. Extracts from the flowering plant, lisianthus, were used for comparison. The extracts showed differential effects in the chemical assays, suggesting that closely related structures have different affinities to scavenge different reactive species. Integration of anthocyanins to an AVI led to more sustained radical scavenging activity as compared with the free anthocyanin. All but the red lettuce extract could reduce endogenous DNA damage in HT-29 colon cancer cells. However, while extracts from purple sweetpotato skin and flesh, Maori potato and pansies, protected cells against subsequent challenge by hydrogen peroxide at 0°C, red cabbage extracts were pro-oxidant, while other extracts had no effect. When the peroxide challenge was at 37°C, all of the extracts appeared pro-oxidant. Maori potato extract, consistently the weakest antioxidant in all the chemical assays, was more effective in the Comet assays. These results highlight the dangers of generalising to potential health benefits, based solely on identification of high anthocyanic content in plants, results of a single antioxidant assay and traditional approaches to structure activity relationships. Subsequent studies might usefully consider complex mixtures and a battery of assays. PMID:19399239

Philpott, Martin; Lim, Chiara Cheng; Ferguson, Lynnette R.

2009-01-01

387

Inhibition of Siderophore Biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis with Nucleoside Bisubstrate Analogues: Structure–Activity Relationships of the Nucleobase Domain of 5?-O-[N-(Salicyl)sulfamoyl]adenosine  

PubMed Central

5?-O-[N-(salicyl)sulfamoyl]adenosine (Sal-AMS) is a prototype for a new class of antitubercular agents that inhibit the aryl acid adenylating enzyme (AAAE) known as MbtA involved in biosynthesis of the mycobactins. Herein, we report the structure-based design, synthesis, biochemical, and biological evaluation of a comprehensive and systematic series of analogues, exploring the structure–activity relationship of the purine nucleobase domain of Sal-AMS. Significantly, 2-phenyl-Sal-AMS derivative 26 exhibited exceptionally potent antitubercular activity with an MIC99 under iron-deficient conditions of 0.049 µM while the N-6-cyclopropyl-Sal-AMS 16 led to improved potency and to a 64-enhancement in activity under iron-deficient conditions relative to iron-replete conditions, a phenotype concordant with the designed mechanism of action. The most potent MbtA inhibitors disclosed here display in vitro antitubercular activity superior to most current first line TB drugs, and these compounds are also expected to be useful against a wide range of pathogens that require aryl-capped siderphores for virulence. PMID:18690677

Neres, João; Labello, Nicholas P.; Somu, Ravindranadh V.; Boshoff, Helena I.; Wilson, Daniel J.; Vannada, Jagadeshwar; Chen, Liqiang; Barry, Clifton E.; Bennett, Eric M.; Aldrich, Courtney C.

2009-01-01

388

In vitro anti-plasmodial activity of Dicoma anomala subsp. gerrardii (Asteraceae): identification of its main active constituent, structure-activity relationship studies and gene expression profiling  

PubMed Central

Background Anti-malarial drug resistance threatens to undermine efforts to eliminate this deadly disease. The resulting omnipresent requirement for drugs with novel modes of action prompted a national consortium initiative to discover new anti-plasmodial agents from South African medicinal plants. One of the plants selected for investigation was Dicoma anomala subsp. gerrardii, based on its ethnomedicinal profile. Methods Standard phytochemical analysis techniques, including solvent-solvent extraction, thin-layer- and column chromatography, were used to isolate the main active constituent of Dicoma anomala subsp. gerrardii. The crystallized pure compound was identified using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and X-ray crystallography. The compound was tested in vitro on Plasmodium falciparum cultures using the parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) assay and was found to have anti-malarial activity. To determine the functional groups responsible for the activity, a small collection of synthetic analogues was generated - the aim being to vary features proposed as likely to be related to the anti-malarial activity and to quantify the effect of the modifications in vitro using the pLDH assay. The effects of the pure compound on the P. falciparum transcriptome were subsequently investigated by treating ring-stage parasites (alongside untreated controls), followed by oligonucleotide microarray- and data analysis. Results The main active constituent was identified as dehydrobrachylaenolide, a eudesmanolide-type sesquiterpene lactone. The compound demonstrated an in vitro IC50 of 1.865 ?M against a chloroquine-sensitive strain (D10) of P. falciparum. Synthetic analogues of the compound confirmed an absolute requirement that the ?-methylene lactone be present in the eudesmanolide before significant anti-malarial activity was observed. This feature is absent in the artemisinins and suggests a different mode of action. Microarray data analysis identified 572 unique genes that were differentially expressed as a result of the treatment and gene ontology analysis identified various biological processes and molecular functions that were significantly affected. Comparison of the dehydrobrachylaenolide treatment transcriptional dataset with a published artesunate (also a sesquiterpene lactone) dataset revealed little overlap. These results strengthen the notion that the isolated compound and the artemisinins have differentiated modes of action. Conclusions The novel mode of action of dehydrobrachylaenolide, detected during these studies, will play an ongoing role in advancing anti-plasmodial drug discovery efforts. PMID:21985233

2011-01-01

389

Synthesis and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study of novel N-arylsulfonyl-3-acylindole arylcarbonyl hydrazone derivatives as nematicidal agents.  

PubMed

In continuation of our program aimed at the discovery and development of natural-product-based pesticidal agents, 54 novel N-arylsulfonyl-3-acylindole arylcarbonyl hydrazone derivatives were prepared, and their structures were well characterized by ¹H NMR, ¹³C NMR, HRMS, ESI-MS, and mp. Their nematicidal activity was evaluated against that of the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in vivo. Among all of the derivatives, especially V-12 and V-39 displayed the best promising nematicidal activity with LC?? values of 1.0969 and 1.2632 mg/L, respectively. This suggested that introduction of R¹ and R² together as the electron-withdrawing substituents, R³ as the methyl group, and R? as the phenyl with the electron-donating substituents could be taken into account for further preparation of these kinds of compounds as nematicidal agents. Six selected descriptors are a WHIM descriptor (E1m), two GETAWAY descriptors (R1m+ and R3m+), a Burden eigenvalues descriptor (BEHm8), and two edge-adjacency index descriptors (EEig05x and EEig13d). Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies demonstrated that the structural factors, such as molecular mass (a negative correlation with the bioactivity) and molecular polarity (a positive correlation with bioactivity), are likely to govern the nematicidal activities of these compounds. For this model, the correlation coefficient (R²(training set)), the leave-one-out cross-validation correlation coefficient (Q²(LOO)), and the 7-fold cross-validation correlation coefficient (Q²(7-fold)) were 0.791, 0.701, and 0.715, respectively. The external cross-validation correlation coefficient (Q²ext) and the root-mean-square error for the test set (RMSE(test set)) were 0.774 and 3.412, respectively. This study will pave the way for future design, structural modification, and development of indole derivatives as nematicidal agents. PMID:23738496

Che, Zhiping; Zhang, Shaoyong; Shao, Yonghua; Fan, Lingling; Xu, Hui; Yu, Xiang; Zhi, Xiaoyan; Yao, Xiaojun; Zhang, Rui

2013-06-19

390

Plant extracts with anti-inflammatory properties--a new approach for characterization of their bioactive compounds and establishment of structure-antioxidant activity relationships.  

PubMed

Geranium robertianum L. (Geraniacea) and Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. (Rubiaceae) plant extracts, frequently used in traditional medicine for treatment of inflammatory and cancer diseases, were studied to identify potential bioactive compounds that may justify their therapeutic use and their underlying mechanisms of action. Since some of the pharmacological properties of these plant extracts may be linked to their antioxidant potential, the antioxidant activity, in relation to free radical scavenging, was measured by the ABTS/HRP and DPPH() assays, presenting U. tomentosa the higher activity. The antioxidant activity was also evaluated by scavenging of HOCl, the major strong oxidant produced by neutrophils and a potent pro-inflammatory agent. U. tomentosa was found to be a better protector against HOCl, which may justify its effectiveness against inflammatory diseases. SPE/LC-DAD was used for separation/purification purposes and ESI-MS/MS for identification/characterization of the major non-volatile components, mainly flavonoids and phenolic acids. The ESI-MS/MS methodology proposed can be used as a model procedure for identification/characterization of unknowns without the prerequisite for standard compounds analysis. The ESI-MS/MS data obtained were consistent with the antioxidant activity results and structure-activity relationships for the compounds identified were discussed. PMID:19201196

Amaral, Sónia; Mira, Lurdes; Nogueira, J M F; da Silva, Alda Pereira; Helena Florêncio, M

2009-03-01

391

Structure-activity relationship for the estimation of OH-oxidation rate constants of aliphatic organic compounds in the aqueous phase: alkanes, alcohols, organic acids and bases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A robust estimation method of aqueous phase OH-oxidation rate constants of organic compounds would be of high benefit to a wide community relevant to atmospheric chemistry. Here, we propose an aqueous phase structure-reactivity relationship (SAR) for aliphatic organic compounds including alkanes, alcohols, organic acids, bases and polyfunctional compounds containing at least two of these functions. The methodology used is based on Atkinson's group-addivity SAR [Atkinson, R., 1987. A structure-activity relationship for the estimation of rate constants for the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals with organic compounds. International Journal of Chemical Kinetics 19, 799-828] for the gas phase reactions, with slight differences. It is constructed using an automatic solver, and using a wide database which includes 72 aliphatic compounds, and 7 functions, for reactions studied at room temperature in the aqueous phase. The results show a satisfactory efficiency of the proposed SAR as 60% of the estimated values were found within the range of 80% of the experimental values. The obtained parameters are discussed, and the performances of the method are compared to other estimation methods.

Monod, A.; Doussin, J. F.

392

Conformational analysis of the anti-HIV Nikavir prodrug: comparisons with AZT and Thymidine, and establishment of structure-activity relationships/tendencies in other 6'-derivatives.  

PubMed

A comprehensive theoretical conformational analysis of the anti-HIV Nikavir prodrug was carried out; this prodrug has noticeable advantage over the approved drug AZT. The whole conformational parameters (?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, P and ?max) were analysed as well as the NBO natural atomic charges. The calculations were carried out by means of DFT/B3