Sample records for structure utilizing 8-hydroxyquinoline

  1. Soft X-Ray Spectroscopic Studies of the Electronic Structure of Aluminum tris-8-hydroxyquinoline (Alq3)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Demasi; L. F. J. Piper; Y. Zhang; I. Reid; S. Wang; K. E. Smith; J. Downes; N. Peltekis; C. McGuinness; A. Matsuura

    2008-01-01

    The valence and core level electronic structure of the organic semiconductor aluminum tris-8-hydroxyquinoline (Alq3) has been measured using synchrotron radiation-excited resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy (RXES), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Samples were in the form of thin films, grown in-situ in an organic molecular beam deposition chamber attached to the spectrometer system. The films were found to be highly sensitive

  2. Synthesis, structure, and spectral and electrochemical properties of chromium(iii) tris-(8-hydroxyquinolinate).

    PubMed

    Freitas, Ana R; Silva, Mónica; Ramos, M Luísa; Justino, Licínia L G; Fonseca, Sofia M; Barsan, Madalina M; Brett, Christopher M A; Silva, M Ramos; Burrows, Hugh D

    2015-06-17

    The kinetically inert chromium(iii) tris-(8-hydroxyquinolinate), Crq3, has been synthesized, crystallized from 90% methanol-water, and characterized by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, thermogravimetry, FTIR, NMR spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. It is formed as a methanol solvate, but the solvent can be removed by heating. Large paramagnetic shifts and spectral broadening in (1)H NMR spectra indicate electron delocalization between the metal and the ligand. DFT calculations show it is present as the meridional isomer, with the HOMO largely based on one of the metal 3d orbitals and the LUMO essentially localized on the ligands. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) in acetonitrile solutions shows four oxidation peaks and two, less intense reduction waves on the first scan. The HOMO energy determined from the first oxidation peak is fairly close to that obtained by DFT, in agreement with this being mainly metal based. Although the number of peaks decreases on subsequent CV scans, the complex shows markedly enhanced electrochemical stability compared with aluminium(iii) tris-(8-hydroxyquinolinate). Solution UV/visible absorption and solid diffuse reflectance spectra have a weak, long wavelength band, assigned to the metal based d-d transition, in addition to the normal, ligand based bands seen in metal quinolates. The energy of the lowest energy band is identical to the HOMO-LUMO separation obtained by cyclic voltammetry, in agreement with the above description. The compound is only weakly luminescent, in contrast to many other metal quinolates, due to the lowest energy transition being metal rather than ligand based. The potential of this compound as an electron transporting/hole blocking layer in optoelectronic devices is indicated. PMID:26030802

  3. Synthesis, molecular structure, theoretical calculation, DNA/protein interaction and cytotoxic activity of manganese(III) complex with 8-hydroxyquinoline.

    PubMed

    Thamilarasan, V; Sengottuvelan, N; Sudha, A; Srinivasan, P; Siva, A

    2015-01-01

    Manganese(III) complex (1) [Mn(8-hq)3] (where 8-hq=8-hydroxyquinoline) has been synthesized and characterized by elemental, spectral (UV-vis, FT-IR) and thermal analysis. The structure of complex (1) has been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies and the configuration around manganese(III) ion was elongated octahedral coordination geometry. Density functional theory calculations were performed for ligand and its complex. Binding studies of ligand and complex 1 with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was investigated by absorption, fluorescence, circular dichroic (CD) spectroscopy and viscosity measurements. Absorption spectral studies revealed that ligand and complex 1 binds to DNA groove and its intrinsic binding strength has been found to be 2.57×10(4) and 2.91×10(4)M(-1). A molecular docking study confirm that the complex 1 is a minor groove binder and was stabilized through hydrogen bonding interactions. Complex 1 exhibits a good binding propensity to bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein. The in vitro cytotoxicity study of complex 1 on breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) indicate that it has the potential to act as effective anticancer drug, with IC50 values of 3.25?M. The ligand and its complex have been screened for antimicrobial activities and the complex showed better antimicrobial activity than the free ligand. PMID:25550122

  4. Structural and vibrational study of 8-hydroxyquinoline-2-carboxaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone - A potential metal-protein attenuating compound (MPAC) for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Freitas, Leonardo Viana; da Silva, Cecilia C. P.; Ellena, Javier; Costa, Luiz Antônio Sodré; Rey, Nicolás A.

    2013-12-01

    A comprehensive structural and vibrational study of the potential metal-protein attenuating compound 8-hydroxyquinoline-2-carboxaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone is reported. X-ray diffraction data, as well as FT-IR and Raman frequencies, were compared with the respective theoretical values obtained from DFT calculations. Theory agrees well with experiment. In this context, an attempt of total assignment concerning the FT-IR and Raman spectra of the title compound was performed, shedding new light on previous partial assignments published elsewhere.

  5. Electronic structure of the organic semiconductor Alq3 (aluminum tris-8-hydroxyquinoline) from soft x-ray spectroscopies and density functional theory calculations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Demasi; L. F. J. Piper; Y. Zhang; I. Reid; S. Wang; K. E. Smith; J. E. Downes; N. Peltekis; C. McGuinness; A. Matsuura

    2008-01-01

    The element-specific electronic structure of the organic semiconductor aluminum tris-8-hydroxyquinoline (Alq3) has been studied using a combination of resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Resonant and nonresonant x-ray emission spectroscopy were used to measure directly the carbon, nitrogen and oxygen 2p partial densities of states in Alq3, and good agreement

  6. Single-crystal structure determination of a new polymorph (?-Alq 3 ) of the electroluminescence OLED (organic light-emitting diode) material, tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq 3 )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manju Rajeswaran; Thomas N. Blanton

    2005-01-01

    Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum, Alq3, is the most widely used electroluminescent material in organic light-emitting diode (OLED), chemistry. Single-crystal structure determination of a new polymorph of Alq3, designated as e-Alq3, is described. There are three molecules of Alq3 in the asymmetric unit. This octahedrally coordinated complex crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-1, lattice parameters a = 13.5190(5) Å, b = 15.8550(6)~Å,

  7. Investigation on growth, structure and characterization of succinate salt of 8-hydroxyquinoline: an organic NLO crystal.

    PubMed

    Thirumurugan, R; Babu, B; Anitha, K; Chandrasekaran, J

    2015-04-01

    8-Hydroxyquinolinium succinate (8-HQSU) has been synthesized and single crystals were grown from ethanol solvent by employing the technique of slow evaporation at room temperature. The structure of the grown crystal has been elucidated by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. It reveals that 8-HQSU crystallizes in monoclinic system with non-centro symmetric space group P2(1). FTIR, 1H and 13C NMR spectral investigations have been carried out to identify the vibrational modes of various functional groups and placement of proton and carbon in the 8-HQSU compound, respectively. UV-vis-NIR transmission spectrum shows the cutoff wavelength around 357 nm. In addition, a photoluminescence spectral analysis was carried out for 8-HQSU crystals. The thermal properties of crystals were evaluated from TGA and DTA techniques and the crystal was found to be stable up to 145°C. The dielectric studies show that the dielectric constant and dielectric loss decrease exponentially with frequency at different temperatures. Photoconductivity studies were carried out on the grown crystals it reveals the positive photo conducting nature. Powder second harmonic generation property of the crystal was confirmed by Kurtz and Perry powder SHG technique and it is found to be 1.3 times greater than that of KDP. PMID:25589396

  8. Investigation on growth, structure and characterization of succinate salt of 8-hydroxyquinoline: An organic NLO crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirumurugan, R.; Babu, B.; Anitha, K.; Chandrasekaran, J.

    2015-04-01

    8-Hydroxyquinolinium succinate (8-HQSU) has been synthesized and single crystals were grown from ethanol solvent by employing the technique of slow evaporation at room temperature. The structure of the grown crystal has been elucidated by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. It reveals that 8-HQSU crystallizes in monoclinic system with non-centro symmetric space group P21. FTIR, 1H and 13C NMR spectral investigations have been carried out to identify the vibrational modes of various functional groups and placement of proton and carbon in the 8-HQSU compound, respectively. UV-vis-NIR transmission spectrum shows the cutoff wavelength around 357 nm. In addition, a photoluminescence spectral analysis was carried out for 8-HQSU crystals. The thermal properties of crystals were evaluated from TGA and DTA techniques and the crystal was found to be stable up to 145 °C. The dielectric studies show that the dielectric constant and dielectric loss decrease exponentially with frequency at different temperatures. Photoconductivity studies were carried out on the grown crystals it reveals the positive photo conducting nature. Powder second harmonic generation property of the crystal was confirmed by Kurtz and Perry powder SHG technique and it is found to be 1.3 times greater than that of KDP.

  9. Studies on the growth, structural, optical, mechanical properties of 8-hydroxyquinoline single crystal by vertical Bridgman technique

    SciTech Connect

    Prabhakaran, SP. [Crystal Growth and Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024, Tamil Nadu (India)] [Crystal Growth and Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024, Tamil Nadu (India); Babu, R. Ramesh, E-mail: rampap2k@yahoo.co.in [Crystal Growth and Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024, Tamil Nadu (India); Velusamy, P.; Ramamurthi, K. [Crystal Growth and Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024, Tamil Nadu (India)] [Crystal Growth and Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} Growth of bulk single crystal of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) by vertical Bridgman technique for the first time. {yields} The crystalline perfection is reasonably good. {yields} The photoluminescence spectrum shows that the material is suitable for blue light emission. -- Abstract: Single crystal of organic nonlinear optical material, 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) of dimension 52 mm (length) x 12 mm (dia.) was grown from melt using vertical Bridgman technique. The crystal system of the material was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction analysis. The crystalline perfection of the grown crystal was examined by high-resolution X-ray diffraction study. Low angular spread around 400'' of the diffraction curve and the low full width half maximum values show that the crystalline perfection is reasonably good. The recorded photoluminescence spectrum shows that the material is suitable for blue light emission. Optical transmittance for the UV and visible region was measured and mechanical strength was estimated from Vicker's microhardness test along the growth face of the grown crystal.

  10. Comparative Study of Photoluminescence Dynamics of Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) Aluminum-Based Organic Multilayer Structures with Different Types of Energy Lineups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shizuo Fujita; Tadahiro Nakazawa; Mitsuru Asano; Shigeo Fujita

    2000-01-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) dynamics of aluminumquinoline (Alq3; tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum)-based organic multilayer structures, i.e., Alq3\\/oxadiazole (t-BuPBD; (2-(4-biphenylyl)-5-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole), Alq3\\/cyclopentadiene (PPCP; 1,2,3,4,5-pentaphenyl-1,3-cyclopentadiene), and Alq3\\/diamine (TPD; N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis-(3-methylphenyl)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-diamine), which possess different types of energy lineups (equivalent to types I and II of inorganic semiconductor multilayer structures) of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy levels, were investigated and compared.

  11. Electronic structure of the organic semiconductor Alq3 (aluminum tris-8-hydroxyquinoline) from soft x-ray spectroscopies and density functional theory calculations.

    PubMed

    DeMasi, A; Piper, L F J; Zhang, Y; Reid, I; Wang, S; Smith, K E; Downes, J E; Peltekis, N; McGuinness, C; Matsuura, A

    2008-12-14

    The element-specific electronic structure of the organic semiconductor aluminum tris-8-hydroxyquinoline (Alq(3)) has been studied using a combination of resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Resonant and nonresonant x-ray emission spectroscopy were used to measure directly the carbon, nitrogen and oxygen 2p partial densities of states in Alq(3), and good agreement was found with the results of DFT calculations. Furthermore, resonant x-ray emission at the carbon K-edge is shown to be able to measure the partial density of states associated with individual C sites. Finally, comparison of previous x-ray emission studies and the present data reveal the presence of clear photon-induced damage in the former. PMID:19071937

  12. Electronic Structure of the Organic Semiconductor Alq3 (aluminum tris-8-hydroxyquinoline) from Soft X-ray Spectroscopies and Density Functional Theory Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    DeMasi, A.; Piper, L; Zhang, Y; Reid, I; Wang, S; Smith, K; Downes, J; Pelkekis, N; McGuinness, C; Matsuura, A

    2008-01-01

    The element-specific electronic structure of the organic semiconductor aluminum tris-8-hydroxyquinoline (Alq3) has been studied using a combination of resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Resonant and nonresonant x-ray emission spectroscopy were used to measure directly the carbon, nitrogen and oxygen 2p partial densities of states in Alq3, and good agreement was found with the results of DFT calculations. Furthermore, resonant x-ray emission at the carbon K-edge is shown to be able to measure the partial density of states associated with individual C sites. Finally, comparison of previous x-ray emission studies and the present data reveal the presence of clear photon-induced damage in the former.

  13. Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of 8-hydroxyquinoline-based small molecules TMQx (TM=Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, and x=2 or 3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Huimin; Jiang, Feng; Xie, Wanfeng; Zhang, Xijian; Pang, Zhiyong; Han, Shenghao

    2015-06-01

    The structural, electronic and magnetic properties of 8-hydroxyquinoline-based small molecules TMQx (TM=Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn, and x=2 or 3) are systemically studied from first principles. These small molecules are spin-polarized semiconductors except for NiQ2, ZnQ2, and CoQ3. For TMQ2, the magnetic moments can be expressed as 8-n?B (n is the number of 3d electrons of TM ions. For Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni, n=5, 6, 7, and 8 respectively) and 10-n?B (n=9 and 10 for Cu and Zn, respectively). For TMQ3, the magnetic moments can be expressed as 6-n?B (n=3, 4, 5, 6 for Cr, Mn, Fe, and Co, respectively). The magnetism can be explained by the spin-polarized filling of splitting d orbitals on the basis of the crystal field theory. This provides theoretical insight for better understanding of 8-hydorquinoline-based complexes (TMQx).

  14. Synthesis and characterization of a new nano lead(II) three-dimensional coordination polymer with 8-hydroxyquinolin ligand by sonochemical method: A precursor for preparation of PbO nano-structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltanian Fard, Mohammad Jaafar; Rastaghi, Fatemeh

    2014-04-01

    Nano-structure of a new 3D Pb(II) coordination polymer, [Pb3(8-HQuin)2(?-Br)4]n (1), 8-HQuin = 8-hydroxyquinolin ligand was synthesized by a sonochemical method. The new nano-structure was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), IR spectroscopy and elemental analyses. The structure of compound 1 was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and shown to consist of 3D polymeric units. The lead atoms have two different coordination numbers 4 and 6 in compound 1. The Lead centers are four-coordinated by two oxygen atoms and one nitrogen atom of 8-hydroxyquinolin ligands, and one bridged Br- atom. The six-coordinated lead centers are coordinated by nitrogen and oxygen atoms of 8-hydroxyquinolin ligands and 4 or 5 bridged Br- anions. The thermal stability of the bulk materials of compound 1 was studied by thermal gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA). Calcination of the nano compound 1 at 500 °C under air atmosphere yielded nano-sized particles of PbO characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD).

  15. Effect of thermal annealing on the structural and optical properties of tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum(III) (Alq3 ) films.

    PubMed

    Cuba, M; Muralidharan, G

    2015-05-01

    Tris-(8-hydroxyquionoline)aluminum (Alq3 ) was synthesized and coated on to a glass substrate using the dip coating method. The structural and optical properties of the Alq3 film after thermal annealing from 50°C to 300°C in 50° steps was studied. The films have been prepared with 2 to 16 layers (42-324 nm). The thickness and thermal annealing of Alq3 films were optimized for maximum luminescence yield. The Fourier transform infrared spectrum confirms the formation of quinoline with absorption in the region 700?-?500/cm. Partial sublimation and decomposition of quinoline ion was observed with the Alq3 films annealed at 300°C. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the Alq3 film annealed at 50°C to 150°C reveals the amorphous nature of the films. The Alq3 film annealed above 150°C were crystalline nature. Film annealed at 150°C exhibits a photoluminescence intensity maximum at 512 nm when excited at 390 nm. The Alq3 thin film deposited with 10 layers (220 nm) at 150°C exhibited maximum luminescence yield. PMID:25044340

  16. Complexation efficiency of differently fixed 8-hydroxyquinoline and salicylic acid ligand groups for labile aluminium species determination in soils—comparison of two methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Matúš; Jana Kubová

    2006-01-01

    Two methods utilizing the complexation of labile Al species by 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQN) and salicylic acid (SA) ligand groups were developed for aluminium operationally defined fractionation in acid soils. First, the solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure by a short-term ion-exchange batch reaction with chelating resins Iontosorb Oxin and Iontosorb Salicyl containing both ligand groups was used previously. Second, the 8-hydroxyquinoline, salicylic

  17. New approach to synthesize 8-hydroxyquinoline-based complexes with Zn2+ and their luminescent properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ruifang; Cao, Yali; Jia, Dianzeng; Liu, Lang; Li, Fang

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, zinc(II) bis-(8-hydroxyquinoline) dihydrate (ZnQ2·2H2O) and zinc(II) bis-(2-methyl-8-hydroxyquinoline) monohydrate (Zn(MQ)2·H2O) were successfully prepared by a room-temperature solid-state chemical reaction using zinc acetate (Zn(CH3COO)2·2H2O), 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ) and 2-methyl-8-hydroxyquinoline (2-methyl-8-HQ) as the starting materials. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal analysis (TG/DSC) demonstrated that the chemical composition of the products were ZnQ2·2H2O and Zn(MQ)2·H2O. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that the products ZnQ2·2H2O and Zn(MQ)2·H2O had sheet-like morphology with a thickness of about 50 nm. The UV-vis absorption spectra of ZnQ2·2H2O and Zn(MQ)2·H2O indicated that they existed charge transfer from the metal to the ligand (MLCT bands). The room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra of ZnQ2·2H2O revealed that the sample possessed largely blue shift compared with the previous reports. Besides, the two complexes presented a consistent decline situation along with the decline concentration in chloroform solution, which due to solvate effect and structural similarity. The fluorescence quantum yields were measured at 36.58% and 0.07%, and the emission colors were blue-green and light-blue, respectively. The fluorescence quantum yield of ZnQ2·2H2O was higher than some reported similar structure. The method was believed to largely facilitate the fabrication and application of organometallic complex nanomaterials.

  18. Gluconjugates of 8-hydroxyquinolines as potential anti-cancer prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Oliveri, Valentina; Giuffrida, Maria Laura; Vecchio, Graziella; Aiello, Cinzia; Viale, Maurizio

    2012-04-21

    8-Hydroxyquinolines are systems of great interest in the field of inorganic and bioinorganic chemistry. They are metal-binding compounds and are known to exhibit a variety of biological activities, such as antibacterial and anticancer activities. Among these systems, clioquinol has been the focus of a renewed interest in recent years. In this scenario, we synthesized and characterized the new clioquinol glucoconjugate, 5-chloro-7-iodo-8-quinolinyl-?-D-glucopyranoside in order to compare this system to that of clioquinol. We also synthesized, 8-quinolinyl-?-D-glucopyranoside, an 8-hydroxyquinoline glucoconjugate. The reason for the development of glucoconjugates is the glucose avidity, and the over-expression of glucose transporters in cancer cells. Here we demonstrate that glycoconjugates are cleaved in vitro by ?-glucosidase and these systems exhibit antiproliferative activity against different tumor cell lines in the presence of copper(II) ions. PMID:22354329

  19. 8-Hydroxyquinolines: a review of their metal chelating properties and medicinal applications

    PubMed Central

    Prachayasittikul, Veda; Prachayasittikul, Supaluk; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2013-01-01

    Metal ions play an important role in biological processes and in metal homeostasis. Metal imbalance is the leading cause for many neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and multiple sclerosis. 8-Hydroxyquinoline (8HQ) is a small planar molecule with a lipophilic effect and a metal chelating ability. As a result, 8HQ and its derivatives hold medicinal properties such as antineurodegenerative, anticancer, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic activities. Herein, diverse bioactivities of 8HQ and newly synthesized 8HQ-based compounds are discussed together with their mechanisms of actions and structure–activity relationships. PMID:24115839

  20. Experimental and Theoretical Study of O-Substituent Effect on the Fluorescence of 8-Hydroxyquinoline

    PubMed Central

    Zayed, Mohie E. M.; El-Shishtawy, Reda M.; Elroby, Shaaban A.; Obaid, Abdullah Y.; Al-amshany, Zahra M.

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of different ether and ester derivatives of 8-hydroxyquinoline have been made. UV-visible and fluorescence spectra of these compounds have revealed spectral dependence on both solvent and O-substituent. The fluorescence intensity of ether derivatives revealed higher intensity for 8-octyloxyquinoline compared with 8-methoxyquinoline, whereas those of ester derivatives had less fluorescence than 8-hydroxyquinoline. Theoretical calculations based on Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) were carried out for the quinolin-8-yl benzoate(8-OateQ) compound to understand the effect of O-substituent on the electronic absorption of 8-hydroxyquinaline (8-HQ). The calculations revealed comparable results with those obtained from the experimental data. Optimized geometrical structure was calculated with DFT at B3LYP/6-311++G** level of theory. The results indicated that 8-OateQ is not a coplanar structure. The absorption spectra of the compound were computed in gas-phase and solvent using B3LYP and CAM-B3LYP methods with 6-311++G ** basis set. The agreement between calculated and experimental wavelengths was very good at CAM-B3LYP/6-311++G** level of theory. PMID:25674853

  1. Experimental and theoretical study of o-substituent effect on the fluorescence of 8-hydroxyquinoline.

    PubMed

    Zayed, Mohie E M; El-Shishtawy, Reda M; Elroby, Shaaban A; Obaid, Abdullah Y; Al-amshany, Zahra M

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of different ether and ester derivatives of 8-hydroxyquinoline have been made. UV-visible and fluorescence spectra of these compounds have revealed spectral dependence on both solvent and O-substituent. The fluorescence intensity of ether derivatives revealed higher intensity for 8-octyloxyquinoline compared with 8-methoxyquinoline, whereas those of ester derivatives had less fluorescence than 8-hydroxyquinoline. Theoretical calculations based on Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) were carried out for the quinolin-8-yl benzoate (8-OateQ) compound to understand the effect of O-substituent on the electronic absorption of 8-hydroxyquinaline (8-HQ). The calculations revealed comparable results with those obtained from the experimental data. Optimized geometrical structure was calculated with DFT at B3LYP/6-311++G** level of theory. The results indicated that 8-OateQ is not a coplanar structure. The absorption spectra of the compound were computed in gas-phase and solvent using B3LYP and CAM-B3LYP methods with 6-311++G ** basis set. The agreement between calculated and experimental wavelengths was very good at CAM-B3LYP/6-311++G** level of theory. PMID:25674853

  2. Polynorbornene derived 8-hydroxyquinoline paper strips for ultrasensitive chemical nerve agent surrogate sensing.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Santu; Shunmugam, Raja

    2014-08-11

    The detection of nerve agent simulants is achieved by the photoinduced electron transfer (PET) mechanism. A "turn-on" fluorescence response upon phosphorylation at 8-hydroxyquinoline of norbornene-based triazolyl functionalized 8-hydroxyquinoline () followed by intramolecular rearrangement provides very intense green emission. The detection limit of polymer () coated paper strips is 25 ppb with instantaneous response. PMID:24948420

  3. Molecular Orbital Study of the First Excited State of the OLED Material Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum(III)

    E-print Network

    Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    Molecular Orbital Study of the First Excited State of the OLED Material Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum, Michigan 48202 Received February 6, 2001. Revised Manuscript Received May 16, 2001 Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum

  4. Synthesis and antiproliferative activity of 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives containing a 1,2,3-triazole moiety.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Luiza B de O; Borgati, Thiago F; de Freitas, Rossimiriam P; Ruiz, Ana L T G; Marchetti, Gabriela M; de Carvalho, João E; da Cunha, Elaine F F; Ramalho, Teodorico C; Alves, Rosemeire B

    2014-09-12

    Twelve novel 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives were synthesized with good yields by performing copper-catalyzed Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition ("click" reaction) between an 8-O-alkylated-quinoline containing a terminal alkyne and various aromatic or protected sugar azides. These compounds were evaluated in vitro for their antiproliferative activity on various cancer cell types. Protected sugar derivative 16 was the most active compound in the series, exhibiting potent antiproliferative activity and high selectivity toward ovarian cancer cells (OVCAR-03, GI50 < 0.25 ?g mL(-1)); this derivative was more active than the reference drug doxorubicin (OVCAR-03, GI50 = 0.43 ?g mL(-1)). In structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies, the physico-chemical parameters of the compounds were evaluated and docking calculations were performed for the ?-glucosidase active site to predict the possible mechanism of action of this series of compounds. PMID:25062010

  5. Chemistry between Magnesium and Multiple Molecules in Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) Aluminum Films

    E-print Network

    Schwartz, Jeffrey

    -hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) is widely used in modern organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) because of itsChemistry between Magnesium and Multiple Molecules in Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) Aluminum Films

  6. Theoretical study of intramolecular proton transfer in 8-hydroxyquinoline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, S.; Coquerel, G.; Langlet, J.; Kassab, E.

    1995-04-01

    8-Hydroxyquinoline (oxine, Figure 1) is a powerful bidentate ligand which allows extraction of metallic traces. Some of the organo-metallic complexes formed with oxine are also known for their biological activity, and are extensively used for their fungicide properties. This theoretical study deals with the intra-molecular hydrogen bonding in oxine: the intramolecular proton transfer pathways from the neutral to the zwitterionic form are computed using ab initio methods for the isolated system and semi-empirical methods (AM1, PM3) for the molecule solvated by nH2O water molecules (nH2O=1 to 3). The most accurate ab initio calculation indicates that the zwitterionic form is less stable than the neutral form, and a minimum on the proton transfer potential energy surface is found. Up to three water molecules, the hydrated zwitterion is still less stable than the neutral form, but the energy difference (?E) diminishes with the number of water molecules nH2O. Extrapolation of the ?E versus nH2O law indicates that the zwitterionic form should be more stable for n?5. The proton transfer barrier and energy differences are strongly sensitive to correlation.

  7. Design and synthesis of 8-hydroxyquinoline-based radioprotective agents.

    PubMed

    Ariyasu, Shinya; Sawa, Akiko; Morita, Akinori; Hanaya, Kengo; Hoshi, Misato; Takahashi, Ippei; Wang, Bing; Aoki, Shin

    2014-08-01

    In radiation therapy, adverse side effects are often induced due to the excessive cell death that occurs in radiosensitive normal cells. The radiation-induced cell death of normal cells is caused, at least in part, by apoptosis, which undergoes via activation of p53 and increase in the p53 protein, a zinc-containing transcriptional factor, in response to cellular damage. Therefore, radioprotective drugs that can protect normal cells from radiation and thus suppress adverse side effects would be highly desirable. We report herein on the radioprotective activity of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ) derivatives that were initially designed so as to interact with the Zn(2+) in p53. Indeed, the 5,7-bis(methylaminosulfonyl)-8HQ and 8-methoxyquinoline derivatives considerably protected MOLT-4 cells against ?-ray radiation (10 Gy), accompanied by a low cytotoxicity. However, mechanistic studies revealed that the interaction of these drugs with p53 is weak and the mechanism for inhibiting apoptosis appears to be different from that of previously reported radioprotectors such as bispicen, which inhibits apoptosis via the denaturation of p53 as well as by blocking both transcription-dependent and -independent apoptotic pathways. PMID:25002230

  8. Synthesis and photophysical properties of aluminium tris-(4-morpholine-8-hydroxyquinoline).

    PubMed

    Omar, Walaa A E

    2013-11-01

    Aluminium tris(4-morpholinyl-8-hydroxyquinoline) has been synthesized and characterized. The photoluminescence measurements showed that the new derivative is blue shifted and has relative photoluminescence quantum yield two times higher compared to the pristine Al tris(8-hydroxyquinoline). Deferential scanning colorimetric studies revealed that the newly synthesized Alq3 derivative in this work is amorphous material with the highest transition glass temperature value among the reported amorphous Alq3 derivatives. PMID:25685461

  9. Synthesis and electroluminescence properties of tris-[5-choloro-8-hydroxyquinoline] aluminum Al(5-Clq)3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rahul; Bhargava, Parag; Srivastava, Ritu; Tyagi, Priyanka

    2015-06-01

    A new electroluminescent material tris-[5-choloro-8-hydroxyquinoline] aluminum has been synthesized and characterized. Solution of this material Al(5-Clq)3 in toluene showed absorption maxima at 385 nm which was attributed to the moderate energy (?–?*) transitions of the aromatic rings. The photoluminescence spectrum of Al(5-Clq)3 in toluene solution showed a peak at 522 nm. This material shows thermal stability up to 400 °C. The structure of the device is ITO/0.4 wt%F4-TCNQ doped ?-NPD (35 nm) / Al(5-Clq)3 (30 nm) / BCP (6 nm) / Alq3 (30 nm) / LiF (1 nm) / Al (150 nm). This device exhibited a luminescence peak at 585 nm (CIE coordinates, x = 0.39, y = 0.50). The maximum luminescence of the device was 920 Cd/m2 at 25 V. The maximum current efficiency of OLED was 0.27 Cd/A at 20 V and maximum power efficiency was 0.04 lm/W at 18 V.

  10. Hole transporting properties of tris,,8-hydroxyquinoline... aluminum ,,Alq3... H. H. Fonga

    E-print Network

    So, Shu K.

    3 is one of the most commonly used materials used in organic light-emitting diodes OLEDs . Alq3 recombination of electrons and holes inside an organic light-emitting material. This process is restrictedHole transporting properties of tris,,8-hydroxyquinoline... aluminum ,,Alq3... H. H. Fonga and S. K

  11. Effects of nitrogen, oxygen, and moisture on the electron transport in tris,,8-hydroxyquinoline... aluminum

    E-print Network

    So, Shu K.

    Organic light-emitting diodes OLEDs for display ap- plication are generally encapsulated immediately after... aluminum H. H. Fong and S. K. Soa Department of Physics and Centre for Advanced Luminescence Materials mobilities of tris 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum Alq3 have been examined by time-of-flight TOF technique

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Hemicage 8-Hydroxyquinoline Chelates with Enhanced Electrochemical and Photophysical Properties

    E-print Network

    Bernhard, Stefan

    report on small molecule-based organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) by Tang and VanSlyke, tris- (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) has become an archetype molecule used as an electron-transport and light the metal-ligand bond strength, which is largest in the case of aluminum. Introduction Since the first

  13. New 8-hydroxyquinoline galactosides. The role of the sugar in the antiproliferative activity of copper(II) ionophores.

    PubMed

    Oliveri, Valentina; Viale, Maurizio; Aiello, Cinzia; Vecchio, Graziella

    2014-10-17

    8-Hydroxyquinoline derivatives and their metal complexes have recently awakened interest as promising therapeutic agents in cancer therapy. We have previously synthesized and evaluated glucoconjugated 8-hydroxyquinolines as copper ionophores activated by ?-glucosidases. In order to further evaluate the crucial role of the sugar, we designed and synthesized a series of new galactoconjugates of 8-hydroxyquinolines and investigated their biological properties in comparison with the 8-hydroxyquinoline analogs. The effect of copper(II) ions on their biological activities was evaluated. In particular, two compounds possess a pharmacologically relevant antiproliferative activity against specific tumor cells in the presence of copper(II) ions. Furthermore, the antiproliferative activity of the selected galactosides was successfully investigated in the presence of ?-galactosidase as a preliminary model of antibody directed enzyme prodrug therapy. PMID:25450024

  14. Photoluminescence quenching of tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum thin films at interfaces with metal oxide films of different conductivities

    E-print Network

    Mei, Jun

    We report a comprehensive study of photoluminescence (PL) quenching of tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq[subscript ]3) at interfaces with thin films of tin oxide (SnO[subscript 2]) using both steady-state and ...

  15. Spectrofluorimetric Determination of Nucleic Acids with Aluminum(III)\\/8Hydroxyquinoline Complex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheng Zhi Huang; Yuan Fang Li; Shen Yang Tong

    1997-01-01

    On the basis of the fluorescence enhancement effect of nucleic acids on the aluminum (III) \\/ 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) complex, a spectrofluorimetric method for nucleic acids is proposed in the present paper. In the pH range 5.8–7.0, the fluorescence of the Al(III)\\/8-HQ complex, excited at 265 nm or at 365 nm, is enhanced by nucleic acids. The calibration curve was linear

  16. Fluorescent Complexes of Nucleic Acids\\/8Hydroxyquinoline\\/Lanthanum(III) and the Fluorometry of Nucleic Acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheng Zhi Huang; Ke An Li; Shen Yang Tong

    1996-01-01

    The ternary fluorescent complexes of nucleic acids\\/8-hydroxyquinoline\\/ lanthanum (III) were studied. Nucleic acids in the study involve natured and thermally denatured calf thymus DNA, fish sperm DNA and yeast RNA. In the range of pH 8.0–8.4 (controlled by NH3-NH4Cl buffer) ternary fluorescent complexes are formed which emit at 485.0 nm for calf thymus DNA and at 480.0 nm for yeast

  17. Spectrofluorimetric determination of nucleic acids as 8-hydroxyquinoline\\/ yttrium ternary complexes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheng Zhi Huang; Ke An Li; Shen Yang Tong

    1997-01-01

    The formation of nucleic acids\\/8-hydroxyquinoline\\/yttrium(III) ternary complexes and their fluorescent properties have been studied. The nucleic acids studied include native and thermally denatured calf thymus DNA, fish sperm DNA and yeast RNA. In the range of pH 7.6–8.5, controlled by NH3-NH4C1 buffer, ternary complexes are formed that fluoresce at different wavelengths with different nucleic acids. Based on the fluorescence reactions,

  18. Effect of Swift heavy ion irradiation on Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Thangaraju; D. Kanjilal; J. Kumar

    Tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) is the most widely used light-emitting and electron transport materials in organic electroluminescent (EL) devices to date. Alq3 thin films have been deposited on glass substrates by thermal evaporation process. The deposited Alq3 thin films have been irradiated with Swift heavy ion (SHI) of Li3+ 40 MeV with various ion fluences. The effect of SHI irradiation on Alq3

  19. [Synthesis and adsorption property of Cd(II) - 8-hydroxyquinoline molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres].

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun-Yan; Chen, Fu-Bin; Zhao, Hui; Chang, Zi-Qiang; Zhang, Zhu-Jun

    2014-06-01

    Cd(II) ion could form a stable complex with 8-hydroxyquinoline (molar rate = 1 : 1) in ethanol solution as revealed by ultraviolet spectrum analysis. Based on this molar rate of Cd(II) ions and 8-hydroxyquinoline, Cd(II) ions imprinting polymer microspheres were synthesized by water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsions polymerization, using metal Cd(II) ions as template, 8-hydroxyquinoline as ligand, methacrylic acid as functional monomer, ethylene acrylic acid methyl ester as cross-linker, and azodiisobutyronitrile as initiator in aqueous phase. The influences of the dosage of emulsifier, porogen and outer aqueous phase on the morphology and adsorption property of MIP were studied. The morphology of MIP was characterized by SEM which showed that the diameter of MIP was of micrometer grade and the shape was homogeneous under some operating conditions. The adsorption properties of MIP synthesized under different conditions were compared. The influences of solution pH, adsorption time, initial concentration and temperature on MIP adsorbed Cd(II) ions were assessed. The results showed that MIP showed fast kinetics for adsorption and desorption of Cd(II) ions. It was concluded that MIP could be employed as an effective material for the selective removal of Cd(II) ions from waste water. PMID:25158499

  20. The synergistic inhibition between 8-hydroxyquinoline and chloride ion for the corrosion of cold rolled steel in 0.5 M sulfuric acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Libin Tang; Xueming Li; Yunsen Si; Guannan Mu; Guangheng Liu

    2006-01-01

    The corrosion inhibition of cold rolled steel in 0.5M sulfuric acid in the presence of 8-hydroxyquinoline and sodium chloride (NaCl) has been investigated by using weight loss and electrochemical techniques. The inhibition efficiency increases with increasing concentration of 8-hydroxyquinoline at the same temperature, but decreases with increasing temperature studied. A synergistic effect exists when 8-hydroxyquinoline and chloride ions are used

  1. Emissive Interface States in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) Aluminum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshitaka Nakano; Koji Noda; Hisayoshi Fujikawa; Takeshi Morikawa

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated emissive interface states in fabricated indium-tin-oxide (ITO)\\/N,N'-di-1-naphthyl-N,N'-diphenyl-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'diamine (alpha-NPD)\\/tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3)\\/LiF\\/Al organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) by modified deep-level optical spectroscopy (DLOS). DLOS after hole injection into the OLEDs revealed a discrete trap level located at ˜1.77 eV below the conduction band of Alq3 in the emissive interface region, in addition to the band-to-band transitions of charge carriers from

  2. Pulse radiolysis studies on 8-hydroxyquinoline 5-sulphonic acid in aqueous solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. B. Naik; G. R. Dey; P. Dwibedy; K. Kishore

    2001-01-01

    Reactions of e?aq, H atoms, OH\\/O? radicals and specific one-electron reductants\\/oxidants such as CO2?, (CH3)2COH, CH3CHOH, CH2OH, N3., Br2? and SO4? radicals with 8-hydroxyquinoline 5-sulphonic acid (8-HQSA) were studied at different pHs using pulse radiolysis technique. e?aq was found to react with 8-HQSA with rate constants of 1.1×1010 and 4.3×109dm3mol?1s?1 at pH 7 and 13, respectively. CO2?·radicals transfer an electron

  3. Pulse radiolysis studies on 8-hydroxyquinoline 5-sulphonic acid in aqueous solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. B. Naik; G. R. Dey; P. Dwibedy; K. Kishore

    2001-01-01

    Reactions of e-aq, H atoms, OH\\/O- radicals and specific one-electron reductants\\/oxidants such as CO2-, (CH3)2COH, CH3CHOH, CH2OH, N3., Br2- and SO4- radicals with 8-hydroxyquinoline 5-sulphonic acid (8-HQSA) were studied at different pHs using pulse radiolysis technique. e-aq was found to react with 8-HQSA with rate constants of 1.1×1010 and 4.3×109dm3mol-1s-1 at pH 7 and 13, respectively. CO2-.radicals transfer an electron

  4. Preconcentration of some metal ions with lanthanum-8-hydroxyquinoline co-precipitation system.

    PubMed

    Feist, Barbara; Mikula, Barbara

    2014-03-15

    A method of separation and preconcentration of cadmium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc at trace level using 8-hydroxyquinoline as a chelating agent and lanthanum(III) as a carrier element is proposed. The heavy metals were determined after preconcentration by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The results were compared with those obtained using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (F-AAS). The influence of several parameters such as pH, amount of lanthanum(III) as a carrier element, amount of 8-hydroxyquinoline, duration of co-precipitation was examined. Moreover, effects of inorganic matrix on recovery of the determined elements were studied. The detection limits (DL) for ICP-OES were 0.31, 2.9, 1.4, 3.2 and 1.2 ?g L(-1) for Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, respectively, whereas for F-AAS DL were 0.63, 1.1, 3.2, 2.7 and 0.74 ?g L(-1). The recovery of the method for the determined elements was better than 94% with relative standard deviation between 0.63% and 2.9%. The preconcentration factor was 60. The proposed method was successfully applied for determination of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in plant materials. Accuracy of the proposed method was verified using certified reference material (NCS ZC85006 Tomato). PMID:24206710

  5. Synthesis and third-order optical nonlinearities of nickel complexes of 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Yan; Cai, Minmin; Wang, Shuangqing; Yi, Yuanping; Shuai, Zhigang; Yang, Guoqiang

    2010-05-01

    A nickel complex of 5-(acrylamido)methyl-8-hydroxyquinoline, bis-(5-(acrylamido)methyl-8-hydroxyquinolino) nickel(II) (Ni(AAMQ) 2) has been synthesized and its third-order nonlinear optical properties was investigated with respect to that of bis-(8-hydroxyquinolino) nickel(II) (NiQ 2) by single beam Z-scan technique. The real parts ( ?R) of the molecular second-order hyperpolarizabilities were -6.0 × 10 -46 and -5.5 × 10 -46 m 5/v 2 for NiQ 2 and Ni(AAMQ) 2, respectively, indicative of similar nonlinear refraction both in sign and in magnitude. After substitution of an acrylamidomethyl group to the 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) ligand, the nonlinear absorption coefficient of Ni(AAMQ) 2 was enhanced by more than two times. The corresponding imaginary part ( ?I) of the molecular second-order hyperpolarizability was 3.4 × 10 -46 m 5/v 2 for Ni(AAMQ) 2 while 1.6 × 10 -46 m 5/v 2 for NiQ 2. The increase in nonlinear absorption was attributed to the substitution effect and the enhanced transition dipole moment due to the participation of ?-donor group of CH 2 in the molecular conjugation.

  6. Multicolor organic electroluminescent device utilizing vapor-deposited fluorescent dye films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norio Tada; Akihiko Fujii; Yutaka Ohmori; Katsumi Yoshino

    1997-01-01

    Multicolor-emitting organic electroluminescent (EL) diodes have been realized utilizing a vapor-deposited multilayer structure. Two types of layer structure have been employed to realize multicolor emission. One type has a three-layer structure (Type I) to emit two different colors; the other type has five layers (Type II) to emit three different colors. The Type I devices contain 1,2,3,4,5-pentaphenyl-1,3-cyclopentadiene (PPCP), 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum

  7. Photoemission study of interface formation between ytterbium and tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, J. X.; Tong, S. W.; Lee, C. S.; Lee, S. T.; He, P. M.

    2003-10-01

    Interface formation between Yb and tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq 3) was systematically investigated using X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopies (XPS and UPS). The interface formation depended critically on the way it was prepared. For the case of Yb deposited on Alq 3, the XPS results revealed staged interface reactions. Upon oxygen exposure, the effect of Yb/Alq 3 interaction can be eliminated. By proper oxidation, the interface of Yb/Alq 3 can form an ohmic contact, leading to good electron injection. On the other hand, when Alq 3 was deposited on Yb, it was considered that the large ratio of Yb to Alq 3 resulted in substantial charge transfer to the Alq 3 molecules to form even the trivalent Alq 3-3 radical anions.

  8. The dielectric response of 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum used in multilayer organic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Niko, A.; Hochfilzer, C.; Jost, T.; Graupner, W.; Leising, G.

    1998-07-01

    The authors present optical measurements of 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum (Alq{sub 3}) a metal-chelate complex which is an important material used for multilayer light emitting diodes. Thin films of Alq{sub 3} produced by vacuum deposition were investigated by transmission and reflectance spectroscopy, and the dielectric coefficients in the near IR to UV-Vis energy range were calculated. Kramers-Kronig analysis was used to determine the real and imaginary dielectric spectral dependence of the thin films. Values obtained by internal field distribution measurements in organic double layer LED's are compared to those determined from optical data. A near-IR value of epsilon (real component) close to 3 was obtained from optical measurements.

  9. Degradation of luminescence of tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) on exposure to sunlight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuba, M.; Muralidharan, G.

    2015-06-01

    Tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) (Alq3) has been synthesized by simple precipitate method. As-prepared Alq3 samples were exposed to Sunlight for various durations under ambient conditions. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrum confirms the formation of quinoline in as-prepared Alq3 sample. The sunlight exposed Alq3 sample shows the presence of carbonyl group along with the quinoline band. The band gap (HOMO-LUMO) of sunlight exposed Alq3 samples were calculated using absorption spectra and it is around 2.97 eV. The photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of Alq3 particle exhibits a green emission at 507 nm when excited at 390 nm. The Alq3 samples exposed by sunlight reveal the luminescence intensity decreases with increasing exposure to Sun.

  10. NMR, DFT and luminescence studies of the complexation of Al(III) with 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonate.

    PubMed

    Ramos, M Luísa; Justino, Licínia L G; Salvador, Andreia I N; de Sousa, Andreia R E; Abreu, Paulo E; Fonseca, Sofia M; Burrows, Hugh D

    2012-10-28

    Multinuclear ((1)H, (13)C and (27)Al) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1D and 2D), DFT calculations and fluorescence have been used to study the complexation of 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonate (8-HQS) with Al(III). The study combines the high sensitivity of luminescence techniques, the selectivity of multinuclear NMR spectroscopy with the structural details accessible through DFT calculations, and aims to provide a detailed understanding of the complexation between the Al(3+) ion and 8-HQS. A full speciation study has been performed and over the concentration region studied, the Al(3+) ion forms complexes with 8-HQS in an aqueous solution in the pH range 2-6. At higher pH, the extensive hydrolysis of the metal limits complexation. Using Job's method, three complexes were detected, with 1 : 1, 1 : 2 and 1 : 3 (metal : ligand) stoichiometries. These results are in agreement with those previously reported using potentiometric and electrochemical techniques. The geometries of the complexes are proposed based on the combination of NMR results with optimized DFT calculations. All the complexes in aqueous solutions at 25 °C are mononuclear species, and have an approximately octahedral geometry with the metal coordinated to one molecule of 8-HQS and four molecules of water (1 : 1 complex), two molecules of 8-HQS and two molecules of water mutually cis (1 : 2 complex), and to three molecules of 8-HQS in non-symmetrical arrangement (mer-isomer), for the 1 : 3 (metal : ligand) complex. On binding to Al(III), 8-HQS shows a more marked fluorescence than the weakly fluorescent free ligand. In addition, as previously noted, there are marked changes in the absorption spectra, which support the use of 8-HQS as a sensitive optical sensor to detect Al(3+) metal ions in surface waters and biological fluids. These complexes also show potential for applications in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). PMID:22955198

  11. Comparative vibrational spectroscopic studies, HOMO-LUMO and NBO analysis of 5,7-dibromo-8-hydroxyquinoline and 5,7-dichloro-8-hydroxyquinoline based on Density Functional Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshmi, A.; Balachandran, V.; Janaki, A.

    2011-10-01

    Comparative studies of the Raman and infrared spectra, the geometry, frequency and intensity of the vibrational bands of 5,7-dibromo-8-hydroxyquinoline (DBHQ) and 5,7-dichloro-8-hydroxyquinoline (DCHQ) were obtained by using Density Functional Theory calculations (DFT) with B3LYP functional and 6-311++G ** basis set. The effects of bromine and chlorine substituents on the vibrational frequencies of 8-hydroxyquinoline have been investigated. The assignments have been proposed with aid of the results of normal coordinate analysis. Coupling of vibrations have been determined by calculating potential energy distributions (PEDs). The molecular stability and bond strength was investigated by applying the Natural Bond Orbital analysis (NBO). The other molecular properties like Mulliken population analysis, thermodynamic functions and polarizabilities of the title compounds have been reported. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occur in the molecules. Information about the size, shape, charge density distribution and site of chemical reactivity of the molecules has been obtained by mapping electron density isosurface with electrostatic potential (ESP).

  12. Color-Variable Light-Emitting Diode Utilizing Conducting Polymer Containing Fluorescent Dye

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masao Uchida; Yutaka Ohmori; Takanobu Noguchi; Toshihiro Ohnishi; Katsumi Yoshino

    1993-01-01

    A color-variable light-emitting diode has been realized utilizing conducting polymer, poly(2,5-dioctyloxy-p-phenylene vinylene) (ROPPV-8), mixed with fluorescent dye, 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum (Alq3). The electroluminescence of the diode changes from orange to greenish-yellow in color with increasing applied voltage. On the other hand, a light-emitting diode with the two-layer structure of ROPPV-8 and Alq3 shows only light emission from the ROPPV-8 layer. This

  13. Morphological effects in the chemical and photoluminescent behavior of aluminum tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) (AlQ{sub 3})

    SciTech Connect

    Higginson, K.A.; Zhang, X.M.; Papadimitrakopoulos, F.

    1998-07-01

    Light emitting diodes (LEDs) based either on sublimable organics or polymeric materials have attracted considerable attention from both the scientific and technological fields. Aluminum tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) (Alq{sub 3}) is presently considered one of the most reliable electron transporting and emitting materials for molecular-based organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). This paper discusses the effects of sample morphology on the hydrolysis and photoluminescence response of Alq{sub 3}. The evolution of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-Hq), a volatile byproduct of the hydrolysis of Alq{sub 3}, was quantified using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) analysis on samples of different morphology. Annealed (more crystalline) samples exhibited greater chemical stability than freshly sublimed films, at the expense of photoluminescence efficiency. These phenomena are discussed with respect to possible failure mechanisms that Alq{sub 3}-based OLEDs might undergo during prolonged operation.

  14. Dependence of the emission from tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum based microcavity on device thickness and the emission layer position

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. H. Cheung; A. B. Djuriši?; C. Y. Kwong; J. Chan; A. D. Raki?; H. L. Tam; K. W. Cheah; Z. T. Liu; W. K. Chan; P. C. Chui

    2005-01-01

    In this work, we present a systematic study of the emission from bilayer organic microcavity light emitting diodes with two metal mirrors. The devices consisting of two organic layers, N,N?-di(naphthalene-1-yl)-N,N?-diphenylbenzidine as the hole transport layer and tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum as the emitting layer, and two metal mirrors were fabricated and characterized by transmittance, reflectance, photoluminescence, and electroluminescence measurements. The effects

  15. Physical and chemical aging of aluminum(III) 8-hydroxyquinoline: Failure and materials design in organic light-emitting diodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith Andrew Higginson

    1999-01-01

    The chemical and physical aging of aluminum(III) 8-hydroxyquinoline (Alq3) films was studied by a variety of techniques. The products of these mechanisms produce electron trap states below the conduction band, or lowest unoccupied molecular orbital level (LUMO), of Alq3. The distribution of these trap states was shown to affect the charge transport and luminescence characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs)

  16. Adsorption and solid phase extraction of 8-hydroxyquinoline from aqueous solutions by using natural bentonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdem, Bilge; Özcan, Adnan; Özcan, A. Safa

    2010-06-01

    The nitrogen-heterocyclic compound 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ) is one of the components of coal tar and has a wide variety of uses in industry. Because of its toxicity for aquatic organisms and harmful effects for human health, the removal of 8HQ from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto natural bentonite was investigated in the present work. The experimental results show that the optimum pH value of 2.5 is favourable for the 8HQ adsorption. The experimental data were fitted well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic and Langmuir adsorption isotherm models at all studied temperatures. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained from the Langmuir isotherm model at 20 °C was 120.6 mg g -1. The calculated thermodynamic results such as ? G° (-24.3 kJ mol -1) and ? H° (-9.56 kJ mol -1) indicate that the adsorption process is spontaneous and exothermic in nature. Solid phase extraction of 8HQ was also performed. The X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and thermogravimetric (TG) analyses were carried out in order to confirm the 8HQ adsorption onto bentonite. According to the obtained results, natural bentonite can be a reusable and effective adsorbent for the removal of 8HQ.

  17. DFT study of paramagnetic adducts of tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (III).

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Iain

    2010-12-01

    Radicals formed by the addition of hydrogen (H) or muonium (Mu) to tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum(III) (Alq(3)) have been studied using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Drew et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 2008, 100, 116601) studied Alq(3) using the longitudinal field muon spin relaxation technique and assumed the formation of muoniated radicals and rapid intermolecular electron hopping with a rate of (1.4 ± 0.2) × 10(12) s(-1). In this work, the results of DFT calculations on Alq(3), the H/Mu adducts of Alq(3), and the corresponding anions and cations are reported. The energy required to transfer an electron to or from the H/Mu adducts of Alq(3) is prohibitively large, ranging from 4.09 to 5.68 eV, which suggests that the unpaired electron does not hop onto neighboring molecules and that there is no long-range diffusion of the unpaired electron. The hyperfine coupling constants for the muoniated radicals were calculated and used to predict avoided level crossing resonance fields, which will allow experimenters to confirm that the unpaired electron is localized in close proximity to the muon. PMID:21067163

  18. Experimental and theoretical charge density studies of 8-hydroxyquinoline cocrystallized with salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh Ha; Groundwater, Paul W; Platts, James A; Hibbs, David E

    2012-04-01

    The experimental electron density distribution (EDD) in 8-hydroxyquinoline cocrystallized with salicylic acid, 1, has been determined from a multipole refinement of high-resolution X-ray diffraction data collected at 100 K. The experimental EDD is compared with theoretical densities resulting from high-level ab initio and BHandH calculations using Atoms in Molecules theory. 1 crystallizes in the triclinic crystal system, and the asymmetric unit consists of a neutral salicylic acid molecule, a salicylate anion, and an 8-hydroxyquinolinium cation exhibiting a number of inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonds and ?-? interactions. Topological analysis reveals that ?-? interactions are of the "closed-shell" type, characterized by rather low and flat charge density. In general, the agreement of the topological values (?(bcp) and ?(2)?(bcp)) between experiment and theory is good, with mean differences of 0.010 e Å(-3) and 0.036 e Å(-5), respectively. The energetics of the ?-? interactions have been estimated, and excellent agreement is observed between the relative energy and the strength of ?-stacking derived from the Espinosa approach, with an average difference of only 4.4 kJ mol(-1). PMID:22329666

  19. Interaction of 8-Hydroxyquinoline with Soil Environment Mediates Its Ecological Function

    PubMed Central

    Inderjit; Bajpai, Devika; Rajeswari, M. S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Allelopathic functions of plant-released chemicals are often studied through growth bioassays assuming that these chemicals will directly impact plant growth. This overlooks the role of soil factors in mediating allelopathic activities of chemicals, particularly non-volatiles. Here we examined the allelopathic potential of 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ), a chemical reported to be exuded from the roots of Centaurea diffusa. Methodology/Principal Findings Growth bioassays and HQ recovery experiments were performed in HQ-treated soils (non-sterile, sterile, organic matter-enriched and glucose-amended) and untreated control soil. Root growth of either Brassica campestris or Phalaris minor was not affected in HQ-treated non-sterile soil. Soil modifications (organic matter and glucose amendments) could not enhance the recovery of HQ in soil, which further supports the observation that HQ is not likely to be an allelopathic compound. Hydroxyquinoline-treated soil had lower values for the CO2 release compared to untreated non-sterile soil. Soil sterilization significantly influenced the organic matter content, PO4-P and total organic nitrogen levels. Conclusion/Significance Here, we concluded that evaluation of the effect of a chemical on plant growth is not enough in evaluating the ecological role of a chemical in plant-plant interactions. Interaction of the chemical with soil factors largely determines the impact of HQ on plant growth. PMID:20877629

  20. Some features of electro-optical properties of polymeric compositions doped with 8-hydroxyquinoline based azodyes and their cobalt complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidenko, N. A.; Davidenko, I. I.; Savchenko, I. A.; Sinyugina, A. T.; Studzinsky, S. L.; Tonkopieva, L. S.; Deberdeev, T. R.; Kolendo, A. Yu.; Zaikov, G. E.

    2014-05-01

    Polymeric composites based on the copolymer butyl methacrylate: nonyl methacrylate (3:1) doped 8-hydroxyquinoline azo dyes with donor and acceptor substitutes and their complexes with cobalt are obtained. The influence of the external electric field on the polymeric films transmission of linear polarized light in the long-wave part of the azo dyes absorption range, (corresponding ??* azo fragments absorption range) and their metal complexes are observed. The influence of the electric field on the transmission is connected with the aligning forces for dipole moments of azobenzene groups and metal ions.

  1. Driving conditions dependence of magneto-electroluminescence in tri-(8-hydroxyquinoline)-aluminum based organic light emitting diodes

    E-print Network

    Peng, Qiming; Li, Xianjie; Li, Mingliang; Li, Feng

    2011-01-01

    we investigated the magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) in tri-(8-hydroxyquinoline)-aluminum based organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) through the steady-state and transient method simultaneously. The MELs show the great different behaviors when we turn the driving condition from a constant voltage to a pulse voltage. For devices driven by the constant voltage, the MELs are similar with the literature data; for devices driven by the pulse voltage, the MELs are quite different, they firstly increase to a maximum then decrease as the magnetic field increases continuously. Negative MELs can be seen when both the magnetic field and driving voltage are high enough.

  2. Regularities of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis in the solid 8-hydroxyquinoline—chloramine B system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. G. Klimchuk; G. M. Avetisyan; A. A. Khodak; V. T. Minasyan; K. G. Gazaryan; A. S. Mukas'yan; A. G. Merzhanov

    1999-01-01

    The regularities of chemical reactions in solid 8-hydroxyquinoline—chloramine B mixtures were studied under conditions of\\u000a organic self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS), isothermal reaction, and thermal explosion in the 20–220 C temperature\\u000a range. Comprehensive physicochemical analysis and microstructural study of the reaction products were carried out. The temperature\\u000a of SHS initiation (58 C), the heat of the reaction (1299 kJ mol?1), the

  3. TAME5OX, abiotic siderophore analogue to enterobactin involving 8-hydroxyquinoline subunits: Thermodynamic and photophysical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbar, Rifat; Baral, Minati; Kanungo, B. K.

    2015-05-01

    The synthesis, thermodynamic and photophysical properties of trivalent metal complexes of biomimetic nonadentate analogue, 5,5?-(2-(((8-hydroxyquinolin-5-yl)methylamino)methyl)-2-methylpropane-1,3-diyl)bis(azanediyl)bis(methylene)diquinolin-8-ol (TAME5OX), have been described. Combination of absorption and emission spectrophotometry, potentiometry, electrospray mass spectrometry, IR, and theoretical investigation were used to fully characterize metal (Fe+3, Al+3 and Cr+3) chelates of TAME5OX. In solution, TAME5OX forms protonated complexes [M(H3L)]3+ below pH 3.4, which consecutively deprotonates through one to three-proton processes with rise of pH. The formation constants (Log ?11n) of neutral complexes formed at or above physiological pH, have been determined to be 30.18, 23.27 and 22.02 with pM values of 31.16, 18.07 and 18.12 for Fe+3, Al+3 and Cr+3 ions, respectively, calculated at pH 7.4, indicating TAME5OX is a powerful among synthetic metal chelator. The results clearly demonstrate that the ligand in a tripodal orchestration firmly binds these ions over wide pH range and forms distorted octahedral complexes. The binding and the coordination event could be monitored from absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The high thermodynamic stability in water at physiological pH of ferric complex of TAME5OX indicates that these complexes are resistant to hydrolysis and therefore are well suited for the development of device for applications as probes. The ligand displays high sensitive fluorescence enhancement to Al3+ at pH 7.4, in water. Moreover, TAME5OX can distinguish Al3+ from Fe3+ and Cr3+ via two different sensing mechanisms: photoinduced electron transfer (PET) for Al3+ and internal charge transfer (ICT) for Fe3+ and Cr3+. Density functional theory was employed for optimization and evaluation of vibrational modes, NBO analysis, excitation and emission properties of the different species of metal complexes observed by solution studies.

  4. Comparative solution equilibrium studies of anticancer gallium(III) complexes of 8-hydroxyquinoline and hydroxy(thio)pyrone ligands.

    PubMed

    Enyedy, Éva A; Dömötör, Orsolya; Varga, Erika; Kiss, Tamás; Trondl, Robert; Hartinger, Christian G; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2012-12-01

    The stoichiometry and stability constants of the Ga(III) complexes of 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ), 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonate (HQS), maltol, thiomaltol, allomaltol and thioallomaltol were determined by means of pH-potentiometry, UV-vis spectrophotometry, spectrofluorometry and (1)H NMR spectroscopy in aqueous solution. Spectrofluorometry was used to determine the stability constants of the Ga(III)-HQ species in water. Formation of [GaL](2+), [GaL(2)](+) and [GaL(3)] complexes was found and the Ga(III) binding ability of the ligands followed the order: thioallomaltol

  5. In vivo schistosomicidal activity of three novels 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives against adult and immature worms of Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Allam, Gamal; Eweas, Ahmad F; Abuelsaad, Abdelaziz S A

    2013-09-01

    Schistosomiasis control is widely dependent on a single drug, praziquantel (PZQ). The potential for development of resistance to PZQ has justified the search for new alternative chemotherapies. In a previous study, we have been reported that three of 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives namely: 3-((8-hydroxyquinolin-5-yl) sulfonyl) pentane-2,4-dione (HQSP), 5-((2,4-diphenyl-3H-benzo[b][1,4]diazepin-3-yl) sulfonyl) quinolin-8-ol (HQBD), and 5-((2,4-diphenyl-3H-pyrido[3,4-b][1,4] diazepin-3-yl) sulfonyl) quinolin-8-ol (HQPD) possess a potent anti-schistosomal activity in vitro. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vivo schistosomicidal effect of these three compounds on adult and immature worms of Schistosoma mansoni and their induced pathology. Treatment of S. mansoni-infected mice with 1000, 250, 150, and 200 mg/kg body weight of PZQ, HQSP, HQBD, and HQPD, respectively, reduced adult and immature worm burden by 94.63 and 31.32%, 73.63 and 5.45%, 76.5 and 28.11%, and 81.25 and 56.84%, respectively, compared to infected untreated mice. Moreover, numbers of egg per gram liver and intestine were decreased by 84 and 95.51%, 47.84 and 46.28 %, 53.18 and 59.37 %, and 54.22 and 67.26 as a result of PZQ, HQSP, HQBD, and HQPD treatment, respectively. Hepatic granuloma volume was also reduced by 40.10, 42.96, 35.72, and 72.09% due to PZQ, HQSP, HQBD, and HQPD treatment, respectively. In addition, hepatic histopathological alterations and collagen fiber deposition that accompanied with S. mansoni infection were largely retrieved with different treatments, especially HQPD treatment. Furthermore, humoral immune response, especially IgG response against S. mansoni antigens, was augmented with different treatments. This study concluded that among the three tested 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives, HQPD is the most effective compound against adult and pre-mature worms of S. mansoni and can be used for the development of a new schistosomicidal drug. PMID:23793335

  6. An Introduction to Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares: Spectrophotometric Study of the Acid-Base Equilibria of 8-Hydroxyquinoline-5-Sulfonic Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Cristina; Amigo, Jose Manuel; Coello, Jordi; Maspoch, Santiago

    2007-01-01

    A spectrophotometric study of the acid-base equilibria of 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid to describe the multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares algorithm (MCR-ALS) is described. The algorithm provides a lot of information and hence is of great importance for the chemometrics research.

  7. In situ monitoring of thermal crystallization of ultrathin tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum films using surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Muraki, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    Thermal crystallization of 3, 10, and 60 nm-thick tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) films is studied using surface-enhanced Raman scattering with a constant heating rate. An abrupt higher frequency shift of the quinoline-stretching mode is found to be an indication of a phase transition of Alq3 molecules from amorphous to crystalline. While the 60 nm-thick film shows the same crystallization temperature as a bulk sample, the thinner films were found to have a lower crystallization temperature and slower rate of crystallization. Non-isothermal kinetics analysis is performed to quantify kinetic properties such as the Avrami exponent constants and crystallization rates of ultrathin Alq3 films. PMID:24405952

  8. Experimental and DFT studies of (E)-2-[2-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)ethenyl]-8-hydroxyquinoline: Electronic and vibrational properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wenqi; Yuan, Guozan; Liu, Jingxin; Ma, Li; Liu, Chengbu

    2013-04-01

    The title molecule (E)-2-[2-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)ethenyl]-8-hydroxyquinoline (DPEQ) was synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, UV-vis, NMR spectroscopy. The molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies and gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) 1H and 13C NMR chemical shift values of the compound in the ground state have been calculated by using the density functional theory (DFT) method. All the assignments of the theoretical frequencies were performed by potential energy distributions using VEDA 4 program. The calculated results indicate that the theoretical vibrational frequencies, 1H and 13C NMR chemical shift values show good agreement with experimental data. The electronic properties like UV-vis spectral analysis and HOMO-LUMO analysis of DPEQ have been reported and compared with experimental data. Information about the size, shape, charge density distribution and site of chemical reactivity of the molecule has been obtained by mapping electron density isosurface with molecular electrostatic potential (MEP).

  9. Biosynthesis of 8-hydroxyquinoline-2-carboxylic acid, an iron chelator from the gut of the lepidopteran Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Pesek, Jelena; Svoboda, Ji?í; Sattler, Martina; Bartram, Stefan; Boland, Wilhelm

    2015-01-01

    In the regurgitate (foregut content) of Spodoptera larvae we found high concentrations (0.5-5 mM) of 8-hydroxyquinoline-2-carboxylic acid (8-HQA). In a survey of different lepidopteran species, this compound was only detected in species belonging to the family of Noctuidae. 8-HQA was shown to derive from tryptophan metabolism. The amount of 8-HQA in the regurgitate was strongly dependent on the tryptophan content of the diet. In the insect 8-HQA is generated from tryptophan via kynurenine and 3-hydroxykynurenine. 8-HQA is produced by the larvae and not by their commensal gut bacteria. Analysis of different life stages of Spodoptera larvae revealed that 8-HQA is formed during the larval stage, probably acting as an iron chelator to control the gut microbiome. PMID:25356857

  10. Determination of trace metals in seawater by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with preconcentration on silica-immobilized 8-hydroxyquinoline

    SciTech Connect

    McLaren, J.W.; Mykytiuk, A.P.; Willie, S.N.; Berman, S.S.

    1985-12-01

    The application of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to the determination of eight trace metals in a coastal seawater reference material is described. Accurate calibration has been achieved for Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb by standard additions techniques, while stable isotopes dilution has been applied for Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb. In both cases the race metals were separated from the seawater and concentrated 50-fold by adsorption on silica-immobilized 8-hydroxyquinoline prior to instrumental determination. Detection limits are in the range from 0.2 to 2 ng L/sup -1/, low enough to permit the analysis of even open ocean samples. 12 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  11. Indium-tin-oxide-free tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) Al organic light-emitting diodes with 80% enhanced power efficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min Cai; Teng Xiao; Rui Liu; Ying Chen; Ruth Shinar; Joseph Shinar

    2011-01-01

    Efficient indium tin oxide (ITO)-free small molecule organic light-emitting diodes (SMOLEDs) with multilayered highly conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as the anode are demonstrated. PEDOT:PSS\\/MoO3\\/N,N'-diphenyl- N,N'-bis(1-naphthylphenyl)-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (NPD)\\/tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) Al (Alq3)\\/4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BPhen)\\/LiF\\/Al SMOLEDs exhibited a peak power efficiency of 3.82 lm\\/W, 81% higher than that of similar ITO-based SMOLEDs (2.11 lm\\/W). The improved performance is believed to be due to the higher work

  12. Ultrafast energy transfer in oligofluorene-aluminum bis(8-hydroxyquinoline)acetylacetone coordination polymers.

    PubMed

    Montes, Victor A; Zyryanov, Grigory V; Danilov, Evgeny; Agarwal, Neeraj; Palacios, Manuel A; Anzenbacher, Pavel

    2009-02-11

    Understanding the excited-state dynamics in conjugated systems can lead to their better utilization in optical sensors, organic photovoltaics (OPVs), and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). We present the synthesis of self-assembled coordination polymers comprising two types of fluorescent moieties: discrete fluorene oligomers of a well-defined length (n = 1-9) connected via aluminum(III) bis(8-quinolinolate)acetylacetone joints. Due to their well-defined structure, these materials allowed for a detailed study of energy migration processes within the materials. Thus, femtosecond transient spectroscopy was used to study the ultrafast energy transfer from the oligofluorene to the quinolinolate moieties, which was found to proceed at a rate of 10(11) s(-1). The experimental results were found to be in agreement with the behavior predicted according to the Beljonne's improved Forster model of energy transfer. In addition, the solid-state and semiconductor properties of these coordination polymers allowed for the fabrication of OLEDs. Preliminary experiments with simple two- and three-layer devices fabricated by spin-coating yield bright yellow electroluminescence with maximum brightness of 6000 cd/m(2), with a turn-on voltage of approximately 6 V and a maximum external quantum efficiency of up to 1.2%, suggesting their potential for use in PLED applications. PMID:19146416

  13. Novel method for rapid copper chelation assessment confirmed low affinity of D-penicillamine for copper in comparison with trientine and 8-hydroxyquinolines.

    PubMed

    ?íha, Michal; Karlí?ková, Jana; Filipský, Tomáš; Macáková, Kate?ina; Hrdina, Radomír; Mlad?nka, P?emysl

    2013-06-01

    Copper is an essential trace element involved in many physiological processes. Since disorder of copper homeostasis is observed in various pathologies, copper chelators may represent a promising therapeutic tool. This study was aimed at: 1) formation of an in vitro methodology for screening of copper chelators, and 2) detailed analysis of the interaction of copper with clinically used D-penicillamine (D-PEN), triethylenetetramine (trientine), experimentally tested 8-hydroxyquinolines, and the disodium salt of EDTA as a standard chelator. Methodology based on bathocuproinedisulfonic acid disodium salt (BCS), usable at (patho)physiologically relevant pHs (4.5-7.5), enabled assessment of both cuprous and cupric ions chelation and comparison of the relative affinities of the tested compounds for copper. In the case of potent chelators, the stoichiometry could be estimated too. Clioquinol, chloroxine and EDTA formed very stable complexes with Cu(+)/Cu(2+) at all tested pHs, while copper complexes with trientine were stable only under neutral or slightly acidic conditions. Non-substituted 8-hydroxyquinoline was a less efficient copper chelator, but still unequivocally more potent than D-PEN. Both 8-hydroxyquinoline and D-PEN chelation potencies, similarly to that of trientine, were pH-dependent and decreased with pH. Moreover, only D-PEN was able to reduce cupric ions. Conclusively, BCS assay represents a rapid, simple and precise method for copper chelation measurement. In addition, lower binding affinity of D-PEN compared with 8-hydroxyquinolines and trientine was demonstrated. PMID:23563391

  14. 8Hydroxyquinoline anchored to silica gel via new moderate size linker: synthesis and applications as a metal ion collector for their flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anupama Goswami; Ajai K. Singh; B. Venkataramani

    2003-01-01

    The silica gel modified with (3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane) was reacted with 5-formyl-8-hydroxyquinoline (FHOQx) to anchor 8-quinolinol ligand on the silica gel. It was characterised with cross polarisation magic angle spinning (CPMAS) NMR and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transformation (DRIFT) spectroscopy and used for the preconcentration of Cu(II), Pb(II), Ni(II), Fe(III), Cd(II), Zn(II) and Co(II) prior to their determination by flame atomic absorption

  15. Direct measurement of the magnetic field effects on carrier mobilities and recombination in tri-(8-hydroxyquinoline)-aluminum based light-emitting diodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feng Li; Linyuan Xin; Shiyong Liu; Bin Hu

    2010-01-01

    The magnetic field effects on the carrier mobilities and recombination in tri-(8-hydroxyquinoline)-aluminum (Alq3) based light-emitting diodes have been measured by the method of transient electroluminescence. It is confirmed that the magnetic field has no effect on the electron and hole mobilities in Alq3 layers and can decrease the electron-hole recombination coefficient. The results imply that the dominant mechanism for the

  16. Toxicity of 8-Hydroxyquinoline in Cryprinus carpio Using the Acute Toxicity Test, Hepatase Activity Analysis and the Comet Assay.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuaiguo; Chen, Lili; Dou, Xiaofei; Qi, Meng; Du, Qiyan; He, Qiaoqiao; Nan, Mingge; Chang, Zhongjie; Nan, Ping

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the environmental toxicity of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HOQ), an important industrial raw material found in China's major ornamental fish, Cryprinus carpio, using the acute toxicity test, hepatase activity analysis and the comet assay. The results indicated that 8-HOQ had significant acute toxicity in adult C. carpio with a 96 h-LC50 of 1.15 and 0.22 mg L(-1) hepatic quinoline residues as assessed by HPLC. 8-HOQ also induced genotoxicity in the form of strand breaks in the DNA of hepatic cells as shown by the comet assay. With regard to physiological toxicity, 8-HOQ induced a decrease in the activities of hepatic GOT and GPT with increased exposure concentration and time. These data suggest that 8-HOQ may be toxic to the health of aquatic organisms when accidentally released into aquatic ecosystems. The data also suggest that the comet assay may be used in biomonitoring to determine 8-HOQ genotoxicity and hepatic GPT and GOT activities may be potential biomarkers of physiological toxicity. PMID:26067700

  17. 8-Hydroxyquinoline Schiff-base compounds as antioxidants and modulators of copper-mediated A? peptide aggregation.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Luiza M F; Vieira, Rafael P; Jones, Michael R; Wang, Michael C P; Dyrager, Christine; Souza-Fagundes, Elaine M; Da Silva, Jeferson G; Storr, Tim; Beraldo, Heloisa

    2014-10-01

    One of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the brain are amyloid-? (A?) plaques, and metal ions such as copper(II) and zinc(II) have been shown to play a role in the aggregation and toxicity of the A? peptide, the major constituent of these extracellular aggregates. Metal binding agents can promote the disaggregation of A? plaques, and have shown promise as AD therapeutics. Herein, we describe the syntheses and characterization of an acetohydrazone (8-H2QH), a thiosemicarbazone (8-H2QT), and a semicarbazone (8-H2QS) derived from 8-hydroxyquinoline. The three compounds are shown to be neutral at pH7.4, and are potent antioxidants as measured by a Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) assay. The ligands form complexes with Cu(II), 8-H2QT in a 1:1 metal:ligand ratio, and 8-H2QH and 8-H2QS in a 1:2 metal:ligand ratio. A preliminary aggregation inhibition assay using the A?1-40 peptide showed that 8-H2QS and 8-H2QH inhibit peptide aggregation in the presence of Cu(II). Native gel electrophoresis/Western blot and TEM images were obtained to give a more detailed picture of the extent and pathways of A? aggregation using the more neurotoxic A?1-42 in the presence and absence of Cu(II), 8-H2QH, 8-H2QS and the drug candidate PBT2. An increase in the formation of oligomeric species is evident in the presence of Cu(II). However, in the presence of ligands and Cu(II), the results match those for the peptide alone, suggesting that the ligands function by sequestering Cu(II) and limiting oligomer formation in this assay. PMID:25019963

  18. Antiproliferative and iron chelating efficiency of the new bis-8-hydroxyquinoline benzylamine chelator S1 in hepatocyte cultures.

    PubMed

    Lescoat, Gérard; Léonce, Stéphane; Pierré, Alain; Gouffier, Lucie; Gaboriau, François

    2012-01-25

    If a new generation of iron chelators specifically devoted for cancer chemotherapy emerged these last years, any of them has not yet been approved at this time. Accordingly, there is a need to optimize new chelating molecules for iron chelation therapy and cancer treatment. So, the objective of the present investigation was to characterize the antiproliferative activity and the iron chelating capacity of the iron chelator S1 [bis-N-(8-hydroxyquinoline-5-ylmethyl)benzylamine]. Its effects were compared to O-trensox which binds ferric iron with a very high affinity (pFe(3+)=29.5). For this purpose, primary rat hepatocyte stimulated by EGF and human hepatoma HepaRG cell cultures were used. In these models, the anti-proliferative effect, the inhibition of DNA synthesis and the iron-chelating efficiency of increasing concentrations of S1 and O-trensox (0 up to 200 ?M) were investigated. In the two cell culture models, we observed that S1 was about 100 times more efficient than O-trensox and the antiproliferative effect of S1 in HepaRG cells appeared at concentrations as low as 0.1 ?M without cytotoxicity. Moreover, the stoichiometry of S1 for iron seemed to be in the range S1/Fe(3+)=1. Using the calcein fluorescence assay, we demonstrated that the affinity of S1 for iron was better than that of O-trensox since it was at least two times more effective to restore the fluorescence of calcein previously quenched by iron. So, the iron chelating efficiency of S1 could explain at least partially its higher anti-proliferative effect compared to O-trensox. Finally, these results suggest that molecules such as S1 may constitute a promising starting point to improve cancer treatment. PMID:22197641

  19. Characterization of the interface between metal and tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum using surface-enhanced Raman scattering with glass cap encapsulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muraki, Naoki; Yoshikawa, Masanobu

    2010-08-01

    Encapsulation with a glass cover in a dry nitrogen atmosphere after metal deposition is found to be effective for obtaining reproducible and stable surface-enhanced Raman spectra of tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq 3). Vapor deposition of Au onto Alq 3 films shows enhanced Raman bands of neutral Alq 3, whereas deposition of Ag results in the appearance of new vibrational modes assigned to radical anions of Alq 3. The Raman intensity of the encapsulated sample was stable for 2 months. The effect of the insertion of a sub-nm layer of LiF, Mg, or Al between the deposited Au and the Alq 3 layer is also investigated.

  20. Effect of Ca and buffer layers on the performance of organic light-emitting diodes based on tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shengwei Shi; Dongge Ma

    2010-01-01

    The effects of buffer layers, including LiF, LiCl, NaF, NaCl, NaI, KI, RbF, RbCl, CsF, CsCl, MgF2, CaF2, BaF2, and BaCl2 on electron injection and device performance in organic light-emitting diodes based on tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum, were investigated systematically. The insertion of the buffer layers at the organic\\/cathode interface not only reduced the operating voltage, but also enhanced the luminance and

  1. Solid Phase Extraction of Inorganic Mercury Using 5-Phenylazo-8-hydroxyquinoline and Determination by Cold Vapor Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy in Natural Water Samples

    PubMed Central

    Daye, Mirna; Halwani, Jalal; Hamzeh, Mariam

    2013-01-01

    8-Hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) was chosen as a powerful ligand for Hg solid phase extraction. Among several chelating resins based on 8-HQ, 5-phenylazo-8-hydroxyquinoline (5Ph8HQ) is used for mercury extraction in which the adsorption dynamics were fully studied. It has been shown that Hg(II) is totally absorbed by 5Ph8HQ within the first 30 minutes of contact time with t1/2 5 minutes, following Langmuir adsorption model. At pH 4, the affinity of mercury is unchallenged by other metals except, for Cu(II), which have shown higher Kd value. With these latter characteristics, 5Ph8HQ was examined for the preconcentration of trace levels of Hg(II). The developed method showed quantitative recoveries of Hg(II) with LOD = 0.21?pg?mL?1 and RSD = 3–6% using cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (CV-AFS) with a preconcentration factor greater than 250. PMID:24459417

  2. Extraction of Pm(III) and Gd(III) by 8-hydroxyquinoline and some related amines in chloroform from nitrate medium

    SciTech Connect

    Shehata, F.A.; Khalifa, S.M.; El-Dessouky, S.I.; Aly, H.F. [Atomic Energy Authority (Egypt)

    1993-10-01

    The extraction of the trivalent radioactive lanthanides (Ln), Pm and Gd from nitrate aqueous medium by 8-hydroxyquinoline (HOX) and/or trilaurylamine (TLA), trioctylamine (TOA), tributylamine (TBA), tripropylamine (TPA) or triallylamine (TAA),L, in chloroform was investigated. The chemical formulae of the extracted organic phase species for both lanthanides were found Ln.NO{sub 3}.(OX){sub 2} for the chelate and Ln.NO{sub 3}(OX){sub 2}.L for the adduct. The respective extraction and formation constants were evaluated. The synergic extraction of Pm and Gd by HOX-amine was investigated as a function of temperature. The thermodynamic parameters, free energy change, enthalpy change and entropy change were evaluated. The stoichiometry of the extracted organic phase species was established and the different data obtained were discussed. 15 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Large magnetic field effects in organic light emitting diodes based on tris(8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum) (Alq3)\\/N,N'Di(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N'diphenylbenzidine (NPB) bilayers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert H. Davis; Konrad Bussmann

    2004-01-01

    Magnetic field effects (MFEs) in the luminescence and photoconductivity of organic crystals such as anthracene have been known since the 1960s. While engaged in a project to use spin polarized current to manipulate electroluminescence (EL) in organic light emitting diodes based on a bilayer of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) and N,N'-Di(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N'diphenyl-benzidine (NPB), we observed MFE similar to those reported in anthracene.

  4. Novel polymeric metal complexes as dye sensitizers for Dye-sensitized solar cells based on poly thiophene containing complexes of 8-hydroxyquinoline with Zn(II),Cu(II) and Eu(III) in the side chain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lifen Xiao; Yuan Liu; Qian Xiu; Lirong Zhang; Lihui Guo; Hailiang Zhang; Chaofan Zhong

    2010-01-01

    Novel polymeric metal complexes as dye sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on poly thiophene containing complexes of 8-hydroxyquinoline with Zn(II),Cu(II), and Eu(III) in the side chain have been synthesized according to the Stille coupling method and characterized by FTIR, GPC, and Elemental analysis. The UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and the applications in dye-sensitized solar cells

  5. Synthesis, spectral, thermal and antibacterial investigations of mixed ligand complexes of thorium(IV) derived from 8-hydroxyquinoline and some amino acids.

    PubMed

    Patil, Sunil S; Thakur, Ganesh A; Shaikh, Manzoor M

    2012-01-01

    Mixed ligand Th(IV) complexes of the type [M(Q)(L)(NO3)2] x 2 H2O have been synthesized using 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ) as a primary ligand and N- and/or O- donor amino acids (HL) such as L-lysine, L-aspartic acid and L-cysteine as secondary ligands. The metal complexes have been characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, electrical conductance, room temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements,spectral and thermal studies. The electrical conductance studies of the complexes in DMF in 10(-3) M concentration indicate their non-electrolytic nature. Room temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements revealed diamagnetic nature of the complexes. Electronic absorption spectra of the complexes show intra-ligand and charge transfer transitions, respectively. Bonding of the metal ion through N- and O- donor atoms of the ligands revealed by IR studies and the chemical environment of the protons is also confirmed by NMR studies. The thermal analysis data of the complexes indicate the presence of crystallized water molecules. The agar cup and tube dilution method have been used to study the antibacterial activity of the complexes against the pathogenic bacteria S. aureus, C. diphtheriae, S. typhi and E. coli. PMID:23285669

  6. Detection of charge storage on molecular thin films of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) by Kelvin force microscopy: a candidate system for high storage capacity memory cells.

    PubMed

    Paydavosi, Sarah; Aidala, Katherine E; Brown, Patrick R; Hashemi, Pouya; Supran, Geoffrey J; Osedach, Timothy P; Hoyt, Judy L; Bulovi?, Vladimir

    2012-03-14

    Retention and diffusion of charge in tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq(3)) molecular thin films are investigated by injecting electrons and holes via a biased conductive atomic force microscopy tip into the Alq(3) films. After the charge injection, Kelvin force microscopy measurements reveal minimal changes with time in the spatial extent of the trapped charge domains within Alq(3) films, even for high hole and electron densities of >10(12) cm(-2). We show that this finding is consistent with the very low mobility of charge carriers in Alq(3) thin films (<10(-7) cm(2)/(Vs)) and that it can benefit from the use of Alq(3) films as nanosegmented floating gates in flash memory cells. Memory capacitors using Alq(3) molecules as the floating gate are fabricated and measured, showing durability over more than 10(4) program/erase cycles and the hysteresis window of up to 7.8 V, corresponding to stored charge densities as high as 5.4 × 10(13) cm(-2). These results demonstrate the potential for use of molecular films in high storage capacity nonvolatile memory cells. PMID:22332966

  7. TDDFT study on the excited-state proton transfer of 8-hydroxyquinoline: Key role of the excited-state hydrogen-bond strengthening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Sheng-Cheng; Liu, Yu-Hui

    2015-03-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations have been employed to study the excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) reaction of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ). Infrared spectra of 8HQ in both the ground and the lowest singlet excited states have been calculated, revealing a red-shift of the hydroxyl group (-OH) stretching band in the excited state. Hence, the intramolecular hydrogen bond (O-H···N) in 8HQ would be significantly strengthened upon photo-excitation to the S1 state. As the intramolecular proton-transfer reaction occurs through hydrogen bonding, the ESIPT reaction of 8HQ is effectively facilitated by strengthening of the electronic excited-state hydrogen bond (O-H···N). As a result, the intramolecular proton-transfer reaction would occur on an ultrafast timescale with a negligible barrier in the calculated potential energy curve for the ESIPT reaction. Therefore, although the intramolecular proton-transfer reaction is not favorable in the ground state, the ESIPT process is feasible in the excited state. Finally, we have identified that radiationless deactivation via internal conversion (IC) becomes the main dissipative channel for 8HQ by analyzing the energy gaps between the S1 and S0 states for the enol and keto forms.

  8. Synthesis, spectroscopic, thermal, voltammetric studies and biological activity of crystalline complexes of pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid and 8-hydroxyquinoline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çolak, Alper Tolga; Çolak, Ferda?; Ye?ilel, Okan Zafer; Büyükgüngör, Orhan

    2009-11-01

    Two new compounds (8-H 2Q) 2[M(dipic) 2]·6H 2O (M = Co ( 1) and Ni ( 2), 8-HQ = 8-hydroxyquinoline, dipic = dipicolinate) have been prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, spectral (IR and UV-vis), thermal analyses, magnetic measurements and single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. Both 1 and 2 consist two 8-hydroxyquinolinium cations, one bis(dipicolinate)M(II) anion [M = Co(II), Ni(II)] and six uncoordinated water molecules. Both 1 and 2 crystallize in the monoclinic space group C2/c. In the compounds anion, each dipic ligand simultaneously exhibits tridentate coordination modes through N atom of pyridine ring and oxygen atoms of the carboxylate groups. The crystal packing of 1 and 2 is a composite of intermolecular hydrogen bonding and C-O⋯? interactions. The in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of 1 and 2 were evaluated by the agar well diffusion method by MIC tests. Both new compounds showed the same antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria and yeast and fungi expect Gram-negative bacteria.

  9. Selective growth-inhibitory effect of 8-hydroxyquinoline towards Clostridium difficile and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum in co-culture analysed by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Novakova, Jitka; Džunková, Mária; Musilova, Sarka; Vlkova, Eva; Kokoska, Ladislav; Moya, Andrés; D'Auria, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    The major risk factor for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the use of antibiotics owing to the disruption of the equilibrium of the host gut microbiota. To preserve the beneficial resident probiotic bacteria during infection treatment, the use of molecules with selective antibacterial activity enhances the efficacy by selectively removing C. difficile. One of them is the plant alkaloid 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ), which has been shown to selectively inhibit clostridia without repressing bifidobacteria. Selective antimicrobial activity is generally tested by culture techniques of individual bacterial strains. However, the main limitation of these techniques is the inability to describe differential growth dynamics of more bacterial strains in co-culture within the same experiment. In the present study, we combined fluorescent in situ hybridization and flow cytometry to describe the changes in active and non-active cells of a mixed culture formed by the opportunistic pathogen C. difficile CECT 531 and the beneficial Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum CCMDMND BL1 after exposure to 8HQ. It was observed that without 8HQ, the proportion of both strains was almost equal, oscillating between 22.7 and 77.9?% during a time lapse of 12 h, whereas with 8HQ the proportion of active C. difficile decreased after 4 h, and persisted only between 8.8 and 17.5?%. In contrast, bifidobacterial growth was not disturbed by 8HQ. The results of this study showed the selective inhibitory effect of 8HQ on clostridial and bifidobacterial growth dynamics, and the potential of this compound for the development of selective agents to control CDIs. PMID:25298160

  10. Synthesis and photovoltaic properties of polymeric metal complexes containing 8-hydroxyquinoline as dye sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lirong Zhang; Gaojun Wen; Qian Xiu; Lihui Guo; Jinyan Deng; Chaofan Zhong

    2012-01-01

    Four new donor–acceptor type polymeric metal complexes (P1, P2, P3, and P4) with the same Cd(II) complex in side chain and different conjugated backbone structures were synthesized by Yamamoto coupling and applied in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) as photosensitizers. The photophysical, electrochemical, and thermal properties were investigated in detail, showing that conjugated backbone containing fluorene improved intramolecular charge transfer and

  11. Very low turn-on voltage and high brightness tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum-based organic light-emitting diodes with a MoOx p-doping layer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guohua Xie; Yanlong Meng; Fengmin Wu; Chen Tao; Dandan Zhang; Mingjun Liu; Qin Xue; Wen Chen; Yi Zhao

    2008-01-01

    We have demonstrated an organic light-emitting diode based on molybdenum oxide (MoOx) doped 4,4',4''-tris(3-methylphenylphenylamino)triphenylamine (m-MTDATA) as a p-type doping hole injection layer. The tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3)-based organic light-emitting diodes show high brightness at very low operating voltage, 100 cd\\/m2 at 3.2 V and 1000 cd\\/m2 at 4.4 V, corresponding to a low turn-on voltage of 2.4 V. Such improved properties

  12. Singlet oxygen quenching of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq 3) and N, N?-diphenyl- N, N?-bis(3-methylphenyl)-[1,1-biphenyl]-4,4-diamine (TPD)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wade N Sisk; William L Lawrence

    2004-01-01

    Singlet oxygen (1O2, O2 (a1?g)) quenching by the organic light emitting device (OLED) electron transport material tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) and hole transport material N,N?-diphenyl-N,N?-bis(3-methylphenyl)-[1,1-biphenyl]-4,4-diamine (TPD) in benzene has been investigated by measuring the 1270nm phosphorescence of O2 (a1?g?X3?g?) following 532nm irradiation of a C60 benzene solution. A 1O2 quenching rate constant of 1.65±0.20×108lmol?1s?1 is obtained for Alq3 with evidence of chemical

  13. 8-Hydroxyquinoline anchored to silica gel via new moderate size linker: synthesis and applications as a metal ion collector for their flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Anupama; Singh, Ajai K; Venkataramani, B

    2003-08-29

    The silica gel modified with (3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane) was reacted with 5-formyl-8-hydroxyquinoline (FHOQ(x)) to anchor 8-quinolinol ligand on the silica gel. It was characterised with cross polarisation magic angle spinning (CPMAS) NMR and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transformation (DRIFT) spectroscopy and used for the preconcentration of Cu(II), Pb(II), Ni(II), Fe(III), Cd(II), Zn(II) and Co(II) prior to their determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The surface area of the modified silica gel has been found to be 227 m(2) g(-1) and the two pKa values as 3.8 and 8.0. The optimum pH ranges for quantitative sorption are 4.0-7.0, 4.5-7.0, 3.0-6.0, 5.0-8.0, 5.0-8.0, 5.0-8.0 and 4.0-7.0 for Cu, Pb, Fe, Zn, Co, Ni and Cd, respectively. All the metals can be desorbed with 2.5 mol l(-1) HCl or HNO(3). The sorption capacity for these metal ions is in range of 92-448.0 micromol g(-1) and follows the order Cd

  14. Studies on mixed ligand complexes of cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) involving 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulphonic acid as a primary ligand and substituted catechols as secondary ligands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asim K. Das

    1989-01-01

    Summary Stability constants (KMALMA) and other thermodynamic parameters of the MAL complexes (charges omitted) [M=CoII, NiII, CuII or ZnII; AH2=8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulphonic acid; LH2=catechol (L1H2), 1,2-dihydroxybenzene-sulphonate (L2H2), 1,2-dihydroxybenzene-3, 5-disulphonate (L3H2), 4-nitro-1,2-dihydroxybenzene (L4H2)] have been determined at 25°C and at an 0.1 M KNO3 ionic strength by the extended Irying-Rossotti technique. The stability constants lie in the sequences:\\u000a$$K_{ML}^M > K_{MAL}^{MA} ?K_{ML_2 }^{ML}

  15. Anisotropie optical properties of an organic electroluminescent diode with a periodic multilayer structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akihiko Fujii; Masayoshi Yoshida; Yutaka Ohmori; Katsumi Yoshino

    1996-01-01

    An electroluminescent diode with a periodic multilayer structure consisting of alternating layers of 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum and aromatic diamine has been fabricated by organic molecular beam deposition. The polarization anisotropy of the emission spectrum and intensity of the light propagating in the organic layers of the diode have been observed. The mechanism of the emission anisotropy in the periodic multilayer structure

  16. EGA urges regulators to rethink utility structure

    SciTech Connect

    O'Driscoll, M.

    1994-03-04

    State and federal regulators need to rethink the existing structure of the electric power industry because the continued application of traditional processes to its emerging competitive nature is creating a conflict between market-driven generators and regulated utilities, the Electric Generation Association says. Indeed, because of the current regulatory structure, many utilities have been forced to actively resist the development of a competitive market place, the group says in a paper published for this week's National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners winter meetings. In place of the existing structure, the industry needs a [open quotes]new, more discerning model of regulation[close quotes] that unbundles generation from transmission and realizes that, at least during the transition, all generation facilities are at risk of being considered stranded assets. A transition policy must minimize costs overall by achieving an early and smooth resolution of the stranded investment issue. One approach looks promising: Utilities that spin off high-cost assets would be preauthorized to enter into a binding contract to buy the output of the facility for an established period at rates slightly below what the cost of power would have been, assuming continued rate base treatment of the facility. Another alternative would reflect the rate design mechanisms used in the unbundling of gas supply from transportation service: A utility calculates the differential between the book value and market value of a high-cost asset, and then converts it from a generation-related charge into a form of transition surcharge. This is added to the inelastic portion of its system rates, which most logically is the distribution charge for retail and wholesale requirements customers. The charge would be applied over a specific period of time or to a specific volume of sales.

  17. CoFe2O4 nano-particles functionalized with 8-hydroxyquinoline for dispersive solid-phase micro-extraction and direct fluorometric monitoring of aluminum in human serum and water samples.

    PubMed

    Abdolmohammad-Zadeh, Hossein; Rahimpour, Elaheh

    2015-06-30

    A simple dispersive solid-phase micro-extraction method based on CoFe2O4 nano-particles (NPs) functionalized with 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) with the aid of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was developed for separation of Al(III) ions from aqueous solutions. Al(III) ions are separated at pH 7 via complex formation with 8-HQ using the functionalized CoFe2O4 nano-particles sol solution as a dispersed solid-phase extractor. The separated analyte is directly quantified by a spectrofluorometric method at 370nm excitation and 506nm emission wavelengths. A comparison of the fluorescence of Al(III)-8-HQ complex in bulk solution and that of Al(III) ion interacted with 8-HQ/SDS/CoFe2O4 NPs revealed a nearly 5-fold improvement in intensity. The experimental factors influencing the separation and in situ monitoring of the analyte were optimized. Under these conditions, the calibration graph was linear in the range of 0.1-300ngmL(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9986. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were 0.03ngmL(-1) and 0.10ngmL(-1), respectively. The inter-day and intra-day relative standard deviations for six replicate determinations of 150ngmL(-1) Al(III) ion were 2.8% and 1.7%, respectively. The method was successfully applied to direct determine Al(III) ion in various human serum and water samples. PMID:26041520

  18. Synthesis and characterization of 5,7-dimethyl-8-hydroxyquinoline and 2-(2-pyridyl)benzimidazole complexes of zinc(II) for optoelectronic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Kapoor; Kumar, Amit; Srivastava, Ritu; Kadyan, Partap S.; Kamalasanan, Modeeparampil N.; Singh, Ishwar

    2011-11-01

    Bis(5,7-dimethyl-8-hydroxyquinolinato)zinc(II) (Me 2q) 2Zn and 5,7-dimethyl-8-hydroxyquinolinato(2-(2-pyridyl)benzimidazole) zinc(II) Me 2q(pbi)Zn have been synthesized and characterized by various techniques. These metal complexes have high thermal stability (>300 °C) and high glass transition temperatures (>150 °C). The vacuum deposited films of these materials show good film forming property and are suitable for opto-electronic applications. Multilayered organic electroluminescent (EL) devices have been fabricated having structure ITO/?-NPD/zinc complex/BCP/Alq 3/LiF/Al, which produce emission with chromaticity having Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates x = 0.506 and y = 0.484 for (Me 2q) 2Zn; x = 0.47 and y = 0.52 for (Me 2q)(pbi)Zn complex. The electroluminescence spectra show peak emission centered at 572 and 561 nm respectively for these materials.

  19. Improving resource utilization in hierarchy network by optimizing topological structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, G. L.; Peng, H. P.; Li, L. X.; Sun, F.; Yang, Y. X.

    2012-02-01

    We study the performance of peer-to-peer (P2P) network built on the top of hierarchy topological structure of local area networks (LAN). We find that the topological structure of the underlying physical network has significant impacts on the resource utilization of the P2P overlay network. The larger size of the physical network is, the lower resource utilization of the overlay network is. Through optimizing the topological structure of physical network, we propose two novel schemes to improve the resource utilization. The experimental results show that in any case the resource utilization of P2P network can always achieve 100% by these two schemes.

  20. The Causal Structure of Utility Conditionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnefon, Jean-Francois; Sloman, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    The psychology of reasoning is increasingly considering agents' values and preferences, achieving greater integration with judgment and decision making, social cognition, and moral reasoning. Some of this research investigates utility conditionals, ‘"if 'p' then 'q'’" statements where the realization of "p" or "q" or both is valued by some agents.…

  1. Manipulating the Microcavity Structure for Highly Efficient Inverted Top-Emitting Organic Light-Emitting Diodes: Simulation and Experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiang Wang; Zhaoqi Deng; Jiangshan Chen; Dongge Ma

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive theoretical and experimental study on inverted top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes (ITOLEDs) with a microcavity structure is demonstrated. In the ITOLEDs, tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) is used as the emitting material and the outcoupling capping layer, and the 2, 9-dimethyl-4, 7-diphenyl-1, 10-phenanthroline is used as the hole\\/exciton-blocking layer to confine most emitting dipoles exactly at the desired resonant position. A

  2. Structuring Knowledge Production Activities to Facilitate Knowledge Utilization: Thoughts on Important Utilization Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, Ross F.

    1988-01-01

    A Peace Corps evaluator describes ways of improving utilization of evaluation results. Focus is on structural/organizational changes to facilitate knowledge and researcher use. Methods for use within and outside agencies; agency decision makers as end users; and the importance of context, as opposed to philosophy or methodology, are discussed.…

  3. On the Structure, Properties and Utility of Internal Corporate Blogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pranam Kolari; Tim Finin; Kelly Lyons; Yelena Yesha; Yaacov Yesha; Stephen Perelgut; Jen Hawkins

    2007-01-01

    Weblogs, or blogs are radically changing the face of communica- tion within enterprises. While at the minimum blogs empower em- ployees to publicly voice opinion and share expertise, coll ectively they improve collaboration and enable internal business intelligence. Though the power of blogs within organizations is well accepted, their properties, structure and utility has not yet been for mally an-

  4. Dynamic and structural control utilizing smart materials and structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, C. A.; Robertshaw, H. H.

    1989-01-01

    An account is given of several novel 'smart material' structural control concepts that are currently under development. The thrust of these investigations is the evolution of intelligent materials and structures superceding the recently defined variable-geometry trusses and shape memory alloy-reinforced composites; the substances envisioned will be able to autonomously evaluate emergent environmental conditions and adapt to them, and even change their operational objectives. While until now the primary objective of the developmental efforts presently discussed has been materials that mimic biological functions, entirely novel concepts may be formulated in due course.

  5. Utilizing the Structure and Content Information for XML Document Clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Tien; Kutty, Sangeetha; Nayak, Richi

    This paper reports on the experiments and results of a clustering approach used in the INEX 2008 document mining challenge. The clustering approach utilizes both the structure and content information of the Wikipedia XML document collection. A latent semantic kernel (LSK) is used to measure the semantic similarity between XML documents based on their content features. The construction of a latent semantic kernel involves the computing of singular vector decomposition (SVD). On a large feature space matrix, the computation of SVD is very expensive in terms of time and memory requirements. Thus in this clustering approach, the dimension of the document space of a term-document matrix is reduced before performing SVD. The document space reduction is based on the common structural information of the Wikipedia XML document collection. The proposed clustering approach has shown to be effective on the Wikipedia collection in the INEX 2008 document mining challenge.

  6. Vibration Based Structural Health Monitoring for Utility Scale Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassett, Kyle

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) is a process of implementing a damage detection strategy for a mechanical system. Wind turbine machinery stands to benefit from SHM significantly as the ability to detect early stages of damage before serious malfunction or collapse reduces the overall operating costs of wind power projects. Vibration analysis of dynamic structural response is an approach to SHM that has been successfully applied to mechanical and civil systems and shows promise for wind turbine application due to availability of instruments, ease of installation, and overall affordability. This study presents the development of vibration based wind turbine structural health monitoring through experimental analysis of an operating wind turbine. A database of acquired vibration response signals detailing over 3 hours of turbine operation was assembled and a Daubachies 6th order wavelet was used to perform a 12 level discrete wavelet decomposition such that general trends and patterns within the signals could be identified. After determining response behavior of a healthy turbine, a novel vibration based SHM scheme is developed based on findings from experimental work. Specific interest has been paid to monitoring yaw and braking systems as they have been identified as problematic. With further development this vibration scheme can be applied by wind farm operators to reduce downtime and failure frequency of utility scale wind turbines.

  7. Design of intelligent mesoscale periodic array structures utilizing smart hydrogel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunkara, H. B.; Penn, B. G.; Frazier, D. O.; Weissman, J. M.; Asher, S. A.

    1996-01-01

    Mesoscale Periodic Array Structures (MPAS, also known as crystalline colloidal arrays), composed of aqueous or nonaqueous dispersions of self-assembled submicron colloidal spheres are emerging toward the development of advanced optical devices for technological applications. This is because of their unique optical diffraction properties and the ease with which these intriguing properties can be modulated experimentally. Moreover our recent advancements in this area which include 'locking' the liquid MPAS into solid or semisolid polymer matrices for greater stability with longer life span, and incorporation of CdS quantum dots and laser dyes into colloidal spheres to obtain nonlinear optical (NLO) responses further corroborate the use of MPAS in optical technology. Our long term goal is fabrication of all-optical and electro-optical devices such as spatial light modulators for optical signal processing and flat panel display devices by utilizing intelligent nonlinear periodic array structural materials. Here we show further progress in the design of novel linear MPAS which have the ability to sense and respond to an external source such as temperature. This is achieved by combining the self-assembly properties of polymer colloidal spheres and thermoshrinking properties of smart polymer gels. At selected temperatures the periodic array efficiently Bragg diffracts light and transmits most of the light at other temperatures. Hence these intelligent systems are of potential use as fixed notch filters optical switches or limiters to protect delicate optical sensors from high intensity laser radiation.

  8. Electronic, magnetic, and physical structure of cobalt deposited on aluminum tris(8-hydroxy quinoline)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Weihao; Brauer, Jonathan; Szulczewski, Greg; Sky Driver, M.; Caruso, A. N.

    2009-06-01

    X-ray and ultraviolet photoemission of Co deposited onto aluminum tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) (Alq3) is investigated in situ. The initial Co deposited onto Alq3 reacts to form a complex. After 1 nm of Co is deposited core level and valence band spectra show evidence for the formation of metallic cobalt. After 2 nm of Co is deposited onto Alq3 x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectra reveals the Co is ferromagnetic at 300 K. Transmission electron microscopy images show an abrupt interface between Co and Alq3 with minimal intermixing. These results provide valuable insight into the electronic, magnetic, and physical structure of the Co/Alq3 interface.

  9. Utility of Structured Care Approaches in Education and Clinical Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Eileen S.; Dluhy, Nancy M.

    2000-01-01

    Describes structured care approaches, such as protocols, clinical pathways, and algorithms, which are being used increasingly to organize clinical knowledge and guide patient care. Reviews the types of structured care approaches available to the clinician and explores the value of structured care approaches in practice and education. (Contains 32…

  10. Progress Report on Electron Interferometry Utilizing Nano-Fabricated Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronniger, Glen; Barwick, Brett; Gao, Hong; Batelaan, Herman

    2004-05-01

    This work involves three separate attempts to determine if the diffracted beams from a nano-fabricated grating are coherent. The first attempt involved a 100 nanometer periodicity grating combined with a 12 micron gold wire to form a bi-prism. A voltage was applied to the wire allowing the diffracted beams to be overlapped. No interference fringes have been detected. Possible reasons for this failure will be discussed. The second attempt involved a three grating Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Diffraction was observed through all three gratings. No interference fringes have been detected. Possible reasons for this failure will also be discussed. The third attempt utilizes a 100 nanometer slit and a 100 periodicity nanometer grating. This attempt utilizes the divergence from the single slit to overlap the diffracted beams at the detector. Current experiments are underway. This work supported by NSF and DOD-EPSCoR.

  11. Structure, constitution and utilization of low rank Indian coal

    SciTech Connect

    Iyengar, M.S.; Iyengar, V.A. [M.S. Iyengar and Associates, New Delhi (India)

    1996-12-31

    This paper briefly reviews the work done on lignite and sub-bituminous coals. Surface area and moisture adsorption dependency on functional group is described. The role of hydrogen bonding in the briquetting of lignite and of alkyl groups in inducing caking properties are discussed. The dualistic behavior of abnormal coals as both a low and high rank coal is also discussed in relation to the nature of their sulphur groups. On the utilization side, processes are described for: (1) Utilization of non-caking coal in the reduction of iron ore. Coal is first briquetted using a lime-tar binder. It is then carbonized for reducing iron ore. The bar is recovered and recycled. (2) Production of carbon black from low rank coals. In this process, coal is carbonized at high temperature in a fluidized bed. Carbon black, for tire industry, is obtained with char as by-product. (3) Utilization of flue gases of industry is also discussed. In this new approach, the flue gas is reduced to synthesis gas by additional fuel and the inevitable surplus heat. The viability of the process is illustrated by details of a recent study in a cement plant. In addition to the above, the implication of recycling flue gas in automobile engines to make them more environment friendly and cost effective, is also discussed.

  12. Structural Damage Alarm Utilizing Modified Back-Propagation Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xiaoma

    Damage alarm is an important step among structure damage identification. Its objective is to evaluate the structure health. The existing damage alarm methods are mostly based on Back-Propagation Neural Networks without thinking over testing noise. Therefore, in order to avoid the disadvantages of conventional Back-Propagation Neural Networks, a modified Back-Propagation Neural Networks was proposed for structure damage alarm system in this paper. The experiment results of steel truss girder bridge show that the improved method is better than BPNN for structural damage alarm.

  13. Reading Ability and the Utilization of Orthographic Structure in Reading. Technical Report No. 515.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massaro, Dominic W.; Taylor, Glen A.

    Previous research has demonstrated that readers utilize orthographic structure in their perceptual recognition of letter strings. Two experiments were conducted to assess whether this utilization varied with reading ability. Anagrams of words were made to create strings that orthogonally combined high and low single letter positional frequency and…

  14. Contrastive study between the biomass energy utilization structure and the ecotype energy utilization structure in rural residences — A case in Hunan province, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Q. Chen; N. P. Li; J. Guan; J. Ni; H. Zhou; F. M. Sun; Y. Q. Xie

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this study are to look into the actuality of rural residential energy consumption in Hunan province, China, to improve rural residential energy utilization structures, and to protect the environment. An investigation on rural residential energy consumption was carried out in the villages of Xintian and Jiangwan in the spring and summer of 2005. Biomass energy is used

  15. High performance encapsulation structures utilizing Russian Doll architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granstrom, Jimmy; Villet, Michael; Chatterjee, Tirtha

    2010-03-01

    A Russian Doll encapsulation architecture utilizing pairs of free-standing barrier films and epoxy seals separated by nitrogen spacers is presented, enabling the use of low-cost epoxy to attach two or more free-standing barrier films to a substrate with improved barrier performance. The performance of various Russian Doll encapsulations was evaluated with the calcium thin film optical transmission test, showing improved performance of the Russian doll configuration relative to a non-nested barrier/spacer architecture, and demonstrating that water vapor transmission rates of 0.0021 g/(m^2, day) or below can be achieved with low-cost materials in this architecture. This WVTR correlates to a predicted lifetime of more than 10 years for inverted organic P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction solar cell modules fabricated and tested by Konarka Technologies (Lowell, MA, USA).

  16. Materials and structure synergistic with in-space materials utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramohalli, Kumar; Shadman, Farhang; Sridhar, K. R.

    The significant advances made recently toward actual hardware realizations of various concepts for the application of in-space materials utilization (ISMU) are demonstrated. The overall plan for taking innovative concepts through technical feasibility, small-scale tests, scale-up, computer modeling, and larger-scale execution is outlined. Two specific fields of endeavor are surveyed: one has direct applications to construction on the moon, while the other has more basic implications, in addition to the practical aspects of lunar colonies. Several fundamental scientific advances made in the characterization of the physical and chemical processes that need to be elucidated for any intelligent application of the ISMU concepts in future space missions are described. A rigorous quantitative technique for the unambiguous evaluation of various components and component technology that form any space (or terrestrial mission) is also described.

  17. Preparation and properties of hybrid bilayer structures based on organic Alq3, ferromagnetic La2\\/3Sr1\\/3MnO3 and Fe3O4

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Vengalis; K. Sliuziene; I. Cerniuke; R. Butkute; V. Lisauskas; A. Maneikis

    2008-01-01

    We report preparation and properties of hybrid bilayer structures composed of the organic semiconductor, 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum (Alq3), p-type Si and two ferromagnetic oxides, namely, colossal magnetoresistance manganite, La2\\/3Sr1\\/3MnO3 (LSMO), and magnetite (Fe3O4). Thin Alq3 films were thermally evaporated in vacuum. The bottom LSMO films were grown in-situ at 750°C by dc magnetron sputtering on crystalline SrTiO3 while Fe3O4 films were

  18. Multifunctional composite sandwich structures utilizing embedded microvascular networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tye, Jordan

    Sandwich composites possess exceptional specific flexural strengths, but currently lack the capability for multifunctional use of the volumes encapsulated within their cores. The objectives of this research are to (1) fabricate sacrificial fiber with increased production rates and decreased degradation times, (2) integrate sacrificial fibers into sandwich composite skins, and (3) transport, store, and recover fluid from cells within a honeycomb composite core. Melt-mixing and extrusion of PLA and tin (II) oxalate catalyst is used to increase production rates by five orders of magnitude and reduce evacuation times by a factor of four, while substantially lowering costs and eliminating hazardous chemical waste. Sacrificial fibers are woven into and fully evacuated from sandwich composite structures. Finally, fluid is successfully transported via the patterned microvascular pathways and stored within the core compartments, enabling sandwich composites suitable for applications such as structural fluid storage, heat dissipation, and damage sensing.

  19. Construction of DNA logic gates utilizing a H+/Ag+ induced i-motif structure.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yunhua; Sun, Hongxia; Xiang, Junfeng; Chen, Hongbo; Yang, Qianfan; Guan, Aijiao; Li, Qian; Yu, Lijia; Tang, Yalin

    2014-12-18

    A simple technology to construct diverse DNA logic gates (OR and INHIBIT) has been designed utilizing a H(+) and/or Ag(+) induced i-motif structure. The logic gates are easily controlled and also show a real time response towards inputs. The research provides a new insight for designing DNA logic gates using an i-motif DNA structure. PMID:25349963

  20. Precession electron diffraction and its utility for structural fingerprinting in the transmission electron microscope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Moeck; Sergei Rouvimov; Stavros Nicolopoulos

    2009-01-01

    Precession electron diffraction (PED) in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) is discussed in order to illustrate its utility for structural fingerprinting of nanocrystals. While individual nanocrystals may be fingerprinted structurally from PED spot patterns, ensembles of nanocrystals may be fingerprinted from powder PED ring patterns.

  1. Precession electron diffraction and its utility for structural fingerprinting in the transmission electron microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeck, Peter; Rouvimov, Sergei; Nicolopoulos, Stavros

    2009-09-01

    Precession electron diffraction (PED) in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) is discussed in order to illustrate its utility for structural fingerprinting of nanocrystals. While individual nanocrystals may be fingerprinted structurally from PED spot patterns, ensembles of nanocrystals may be fingerprinted from powder PED ring patterns.

  2. Utilization of a very large mobile offshore structure for clean energy conversion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken Takagi; Wataru Yano; Koichi Yamamoto

    2003-01-01

    We proposed a new design concepts of a very large floating structure with thrusters (we call it VLMOS; Very Large Mobile Offshore Structure) that is utilized as a carrier of the renewable energy plant In order to get good mobility, VLMOS has a configuration that a broad deck is supported by many slender lower hulls and vertical columns. Green function

  3. Tetranuclear stiboxanes (RSb)4O6, exhibiting an adamantane-type structure.

    PubMed

    Jami, Ananda Kumar; Baskar, Viswanathan

    2012-10-28

    Depolymerization reactions of organostibonic acids with protic ligands have been investigated. Reaction of arylstibonic acids with 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ), or {2-[1H-pyrazol-5(3)-yl]naphthalene-1-ol} (H(2)naphpz) in a 1 : 1 stoichiometry in refluxing toluene affords adamantane-like L(4)(RSb)(4)O(6) clusters [(p-XC(6)H(4)Sb)(4)(O)(6)(Q)(4)] (where X = Cl (1), Br (2), QH = 8-hydroxyquinoline), [(p-ClC(6)H(4)Sb)(4)(O)(6)(Hnaphpz)(4)]·H(2)naphpz (3) and [(p-Br-C(6)H(4)Sb)(4)(O)(6)(Hnaphpz)(4)](2)·H(2)naphpz (4). Further a tetrameric organoantimony oxo cluster, L(4)(RSb)(4)O(4) [(p-ClC(6)H(4)Sb)(4)(O)(4)(naphpz)(4)] (5) has also been isolated as a side product in the reaction of arylstibonic acid with naphthylphenolic pyrazole. Interestingly 1-4 structurally resemble the dimeric form of the antimony oxide Sb(2)O(3) and its mineral senarmontite. PMID:22956008

  4. Electronic and structural characterization of LiF tunnel barriers in organic spin-valve structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szulczewski, Greg; Brauer, Jonathan; Ellingsworth, Edward; Kreil, Justin; Ambaye, Hailemariam; Lauter, Valeria

    2011-04-01

    The electronic, magnetic, and structural properties of Ni80Fe20 and Co electrodes at LiF and aluminum tris(8-hydroxyquinoline), or Alq3, interfaces were investigated with photoemission spectroscopy and polarized neutron reflectivity measurements. When LiF was deposited onto Ni80Fe20 films and Co was deposited onto thin LiF layers, the work function of both metals decreased. Polarized neutron reflectivity measurements were used to probe the buried interfaces of multilayers resembling a spin-valve structure. The results indicate that LiF is an effective barrier layer to block diffusion of Co into the Alq3 film. X-ray absorption spectra at the fluorine K edge indicate that no chemical reactions occur between Co and LiF. Despite these positive effects derived from the LiF tunnel barriers, there was no magnetoresistance in spin valves when the Alq3 layer was greater than 50 nm.

  5. Study on utilization of advanced composites in commercial aircraft wing structures, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Ostrom, R. B.

    1978-01-01

    A plan is defined for a composite wing development effort which will assist commercial transport manufacturers in reaching a level of technology readiness where the utilization of composite wing structure is a cost competitive option for a new aircraft production plan. The recommended development effort consists of two programs: a joint government/industry material development program and a wing structure development program. Both programs are described in detail.

  6. Microassembly of 3-D MEMS Structures Utilizing a MEMS Microgripper with a Robotic Manipulator

    E-print Network

    Dechev, Nikolai

    Microassembly of 3-D MEMS Structures Utilizing a MEMS Microgripper with a Robotic Manipulator@mie.utoronto.ca, cleghrn@mie.utoronto.ca, mills@mie.utoronto.ca Abstract This paper describes the process of bonding a MEMS MEMS sub- components. The microgrippers bonded using the method described here are 1.5 mm by 0.6 mm

  7. Comparing the structural topology of integral and peripheral membrane proteins utilizing electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Daniel J; Inbaraj, Johnson J; Subbaraman, Nidhi; Grosser, Stuart M; Chan, Christopher A; Lorigan, Gary A

    2008-07-30

    The alignment of membrane proteins provides pertinent structural and dynamic information. Structural topology data gleaned from such studies can be used to determine the functional mechanisms associated with a wide variety of integral membrane proteins. In this communication, we successfully demonstrate, for the first time, the determination of the structural topology and helical tilt of an antimicrobial peptide magainin 2 using aligned X-band spin-label EPR spectroscopic techniques. This novel comparison unlocks many possibilities utilizing EPR spectroscopy to probe antimicrobial peptide topologies with increased sensitivity and may also give further clues to elucidate their corresponding mechanisms. PMID:18598031

  8. Impacts of Commercial Electric Utility Rate Structure Elements on the Economics of Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, S.; Denholm, P.; Doris, E.

    2010-06-01

    This analysis uses simulated building data, simulated solar photovoltaic (PV) data, and actual electric utility tariff data from 25 cities to understand better the impacts of different commercial rate structures on the value of solar PV systems. By analyzing and comparing 55 unique rate structures across the United States, this study seeks to identify the rate components that have the greatest effect on the value of PV systems. Understanding the beneficial components of utility tariffs can both assist decision makers in choosing appropriate rate structures and influence the development of rates that favor the deployment of PV systems. Results from this analysis show that a PV system's value decreases with increasing demand charges. Findings also indicate that time-of-use rate structures with peaks coincident with PV production and wide ranges between on- and off-peak prices most benefit the types of buildings and PV systems simulated. By analyzing a broad set of rate structures from across the United States, this analysis provides an insight into the range of impacts that current U.S. rate structures have on PV systems.

  9. Effects of a major earthquake on the PEP housing, structures, and utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Weidner, H.

    1990-08-01

    The PEP tunnel, above-ground structures, and utility structures have been designed to withstand a major earthquake. This means they will experience minor or moderate damage in an earthquake which will cause widespread devastation in the surrounding region. The earthquake on October 17, 1989, which was not very severe locally, caused no damage to the PEP tunnel, buildings, or utilities. There was apparently some permanent displacement of the PEP tunnel. The PEP ring magnets moved enough to require re-alignment. A major earthquake will probably cause sufficient displacement of the PEP tunnel and magnet systems to necessitate extensive re-alignment. This may be the dominant factor determining the length of the shutdown after the quake.

  10. A study on the utilization of advanced composites in commercial aircraft wing structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    A study was conducted to define the technology and data needed to support the introduction of advanced composite materials in the wing structure of future production aircraft. The study accomplished the following: (1) definition of acceptance factors, (2) identification of technology issues, (3) evaluation of six candidate wing structures, (4) evaluation of five program options, (5) definition of a composite wing technology development plan, (6) identification of full-scale tests, (7) estimation of program costs for the total development plan, (8) forecast of future utilization of composites in commercial transport aircraft and (9) identification of critical technologies for timely program planning.

  11. Finite element prediction of seismic response modification of monumental structures utilizing base isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanos, Konstantinos; Anifantis, Nikolaos; Kakavas, Panayiotis

    2015-05-01

    The analysis of the mechanical behavior of ancient structures is an essential engineering task concerning the preservation of architectural heritage. As many monuments of classical antiquity are located in regions of earthquake activity, the safety assessment of these structures, as well as the selection of possible restoration interventions, requires numerical models capable of correctly representing their seismic response. The work presented herein was part of a research project in which a better understanding of the dynamics of classical column-architrave structures was sought by means of numerical techniques. In this paper, the seismic behavior of ancient monumental structures with multi-drum classical columns is investigated. In particular, the column-architrave classical structure under strong ground excitations was represented by a finite element method. This approach simulates the individual rock blocks as distinct rigid blocks interconnected with slidelines and incorporates seismic isolation dampers under the basement of the structure. Sliding and rocking motions of individual stone blocks and drums are modeled utilizing non-linear frictional contact conditions. The seismic isolation is modeled through the application of pad bearings under the basement of the structure. These pads are interpreted by appropriate rubber and steel layers. Time domain analyses were performed, considering the geometric and material non-linear behavior at the joints and the characteristics of pad bearings. The deformation and failure modes of drum columns subject to seismic excitations of various types and intensities were analyzed. The adverse influence of drum imperfections on structural safety was also examined.

  12. Integrating models and data to estimate the structural reliability of utility poles during hurricanes.

    PubMed

    Han, Seung-Ryong; Rosowsky, David; Guikema, Seth

    2014-06-01

    Utility systems such as power and communication systems regularly experience significant damage and loss of service during hurricanes. A primary damage mode for these systems is failure of wooden utility poles that support conductors and communication lines. In this article, we present an approach for combining structural reliability models for utility poles with observed data on pole performance during past hurricanes. This approach, based on Bayesian updating, starts from an imperfect but informative prior and updates this prior with observed performance data. We consider flexural and foundation failure mechanisms in the prior, acknowledging that these are an incomplete, but still informative, subset of the possible failure mechanisms for utility poles during hurricanes. We show how a model-based prior can be updated with observed failure data, using pole failure data from Hurricane Katrina as a case study. The results of this integration of model-based estimates and observed performance data then offer a more informative starting point for power system performance estimation for hurricane conditions. PMID:23952685

  13. Study on utilization of advanced composites in fuselage structures of large transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.; Thomson, L. W.; Wilson, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    The potential for utilizing advanced composites in fuselage structures of large transports was assessed. Six fuselage design concepts were selected and evaluated in terms of structural performance, weight, and manufacturing development and costs. Two concepts were selected that merit further consideration for composite fuselage application. These concepts are: (1) a full depth honeycomb design with no stringers, and (2) an I section stringer stiffened laminate skin design. Weight reductions due to applying composites to the fuselages of commercial and military transports were calculated. The benefits of applying composites to a fleet of military transports were determined. Significant technology issues pertinent to composite fuselage structures were identified and evaluated. Program plans for resolving the technology issues were developed.

  14. Thermal analysis of the Spacelab mission D2 utility support structure and its payloads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessels, W.

    1991-12-01

    The Utility Support Structure (USS) with its mounted payloads will be located in the Space Transportation System (STS) cargo bay behind the Spacelab module during the 2nd German Spacelab Mission (D2), currently foreseen for STS flight 55 in January 1993. The most critical USS payloads from the thermal point of view are two optical experiments, Galactical Ultrawide Angle Schmidt System (GAUSS) camera and Modular Optical Multispectral Scanner (MOMS-O2). The interaction between USS and payload thermal analyses and the definition of effective passive thermal control concepts are described.

  15. Process Developed for Fabricating Engineered Pore Structures for High- Fuel-Utilization Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sofie, Stephen W.; Cable, Thomas L.; Salamone, Sam M.

    2005-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have tremendous commercial potential because of their high efficiency, high energy density, and flexible fuel capability (ability to use fossil fuels). The drive for high-power-utilizing, ultrathin electrolytes (less than 10 microns), has placed an increased demand on the anode to provide structural support, yet allow sufficient fuel entry for sustained power generation. Concentration polarization, a condition where the fuel demand exceeds the supply, is evident in all commercial-based anode-supported cells, and it presents a significant roadblock to SOFC commercialization.

  16. A study on the utilization of advanced composites in commercial aircraft wing structure: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    The overall wing study objectives are to study and plan the effort by commercial transport aircraft manufacturers to accomplish the transition from current conventional materials and practices to extensive use of advanced composites in wings of aircraft that will enter service in the 1985-1990 time period. Specific wing study objectives are to define the technology and data needed to support an aircraft manufacturer's commitment to utilize composites primary wing structure in future production aircraft and to develop plans for a composite wing technology program which will provide the needed technology and data.

  17. Structural and spectroscopic characterizations of tetra-nuclear niobium(V) complexes of quinolinol derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amini, Mostafa M.; Fazaeli, Yousef; Mohammadnezhad, Gholamhossein; Khavasi, Hamid Reza

    2015-06-01

    Reactions between niobium ethoxide and 8-hydroxy-2-methylquinoline or 5-chloro-8-hydroxyquinoline have been explored. Two new tetranuclear heteroleptic niobium complexes containing oxo, ethoxo, and quinolinate chelate rings have been synthesized and characterized by 1H, 13C and 93Nb NMR, UV-Vis, and FT-IR spectroscopies, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The molecular structures of the niobium complexes, [Nb4(?-O)4(?-OEt)2(ONC10H8)2(OEt)8] (I) and [Nb4(?-O)4(?-OEt)2(ONC9H5Cl)2(OEt)8] (II), are composed of a pair of edge-sharing bioctahedral moieties in which connected via two almost linear oxo-bridges, with a large difference in the NbO distances. Single-crystal structures showed both complexes are centrosymmetric and contain two distinct Nb centers, and results confirmed by observation of two niobium signals in the 93Nb NMR spectra of complexes.

  18. Structure of Escherichia coli aminodeoxychorismate synthase: architectural conservation and diversity in chorismate-utilizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Parsons, James F; Jensen, Pia Y; Pachikara, Abraham S; Howard, Andrew J; Eisenstein, Edward; Ladner, Jane E

    2002-02-19

    Aminodeoxychorismate synthase is part of a heterodimeric complex that catalyzes the two-step biosynthesis of 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate, a precursor of p-aminobenzoate and folate in microorganisms. In the first step, a glutamine amidotransferase encoded by the pabA gene generates ammonia as a substrate that, along with chorismate, is used in the second step, catalyzed by aminodeoxychorismate synthase, the product of the pabB gene. Here we report the X-ray crystal structure of Escherichia coli PabB determined in two different crystal forms, each at 2.0 A resolution. The 453-residue monomeric PabB has a complex alpha/beta fold which is similar to that seen in the structures of homologous, oligomeric TrpE subunits of several anthranilate synthases of microbial origin. A comparison of the structures of these two classes of chorismate-utilizing enzymes provides a rationale for the differences in quaternary structures seen for these enzymes, and indicates that the weak or transient association of PabB with PabA during catalysis stems at least partly from a limited interface for protein interactions. Additional analyses of the structures enabled the tentative identification of the active site of PabB, which contains a number of residues implicated from previous biochemical and genetic studies to be essential for activity. Differences in the structures determined from phosphate- and formate-grown crystals, and the location of an adventitious formate ion, suggest that conformational changes in loop regions adjacent to the active site may be needed for catalysis. A surprising finding in the structure of PabB was the presence of a tryptophan molecule deeply embedded in a binding pocket that is analogous to the regulatory site in the TrpE subunits of the anthranilate synthases. The strongly bound ligand, which cannot be dissociated without denaturation of PabB, may play a structural role in the enzyme since there is no effect of tryptophan on the enzymic synthesis of aminodeoxychorismate. Extensive sequence similarity in the tryptophan-binding pocket among several other chorismate-utilizing enzymes, including isochorismate synthase, suggests that they too may bind tryptophan for structural integrity, and corroborates early ideas on the evolution of this interesting enzyme family. PMID:11841211

  19. Spatial Ecology of and Public Attitudes toward Monk Parakeets Nesting on Electric Utility Structures in Dallas and Tarrant Counties, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Reed, Janet Elaine

    2014-07-29

    Monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus) were introduced to the United States (US) where they established naturalized populations. They often build their bulky twig nests on electric utility structures, causing economic damage. ...

  20. Utilizing in-situ resources and 3D printing structures for a manned Mars mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kading, Benjamin; Straub, Jeremy

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a manned Mars mission, which is based on the use of in-situ resources for the fabrication of structures. First, it provides an overview of the two-phase mission. In phase one, robotic construction units prepare a functional base for phase-two human habitation. Then, it describes a set of prospective structures that can be created utilizing additive manufacturing (commonly known as 3D printing) techniques and in situ materials. Next, the technological advancements required to allow this type of mission are considered and their feasibility is discussed. Specific focus is given to the topics of basalt 3D printing and the maintenance of the pressure environment. The process of the construction of the base is also discussed. Finally the proposed approach is analyzed through comparison to prior missions, before concluding.

  1. Vibration Based Wind Turbine Tower Foundation Design Utilizing Soil-Foundation-Structure Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Satari, P. E. Mohamed; Hussain, S. E. Saif

    2008-07-01

    Wind turbines have been used to generate electricity as an alternative energy source to conventional fossil fuels. This case study is for multiple wind towers located at different villages in Alaska where severe arctic weather conditions exist. The towers are supported by two different types of foundations; large mat or deep piles foundations. Initially, a Reinforced Concrete (RC) mat foundation was utilized to provide the system with vertical and lateral support. Where soil conditions required it, a pile foundation solution was devised utilizing a 30? thick RC mat containing an embedded steel grillage of W18 beams supported by 20?-24? grouted or un-grouted piles. The mixing and casting of concrete in-situ has become the major source of cost and difficulty of construction at these remote Alaska sites. An all-steel foundation was proposed for faster installation and lower cost, but was found to impact the natural frequencies of the structural system by significantly softening the foundation system. The tower-foundation support structure thus became near-resonant with the operational frequencies of the wind turbine leading to a likelihood of structural instability or even collapse. A detailed 3D Finite-Element model of the original tower-foundation-pile system with RC foundation was created using SAP2000. Soil springs were included in the model based on soil properties obtained from the geotechnical consultant. The natural frequency from the model was verified against the tower manufacturer analytical and the experimental values. Where piles were used, numerous iterations were carried out to eliminate the need for the RC and optimize the design. An optimized design was achieved with enough separation between the natural and operational frequencies to prevent damage to the structural system eliminating the need for any RC encasement to the steel foundation or grouting to the piles.

  2. Trust-oriented Utility-based Community Structure in Multiagent Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastidou, Georgia; Cohen, Robin

    The problem we address in this chapter is how to design the community structure of a multiagent system in such a way that agents join the communities that will maximize their utility and communities accept the agents that will maximize their utility, towards a stable and productive multiagent system. In order to accomplish this goal, we propose allowing communities to exchange information about the reputability of agents. In particular, it agent a 1 exists in community c 1 and would now like to join c 2, c 2 will ask c 1 for the reputation rating of a 1 and then decide whether to allow the agent to join. Allowing for the sharing of reputation ratings then requires i) a method for determining the truthfulness of the reputation reports ii) an incentive mechanism to encourage the sharing of information iii) some consideration of privacy of information within the system. In order for agents to make effective selection of communities in which to participate, it is also ideal community enjoy and about the tendency for the community to be truthful, when it reports reputation ratings of agents. We present a reputation sharing system that promotes effective community structure, along with examples to demonstrate the benefit of this particular approach.

  3. Utilization of the Building-Block Approach in Structural Mechanics Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, Marshall; Jegley, Dawn C.; McGowan, David M.; Bush, Harold G.; Waters, W. Allen

    2005-01-01

    In the last 20 years NASA has worked in collaboration with industry to develop enabling technologies needed to make aircraft safer and more affordable, extend their lifetime, improve their reliability, better understand their behavior, and reduce their weight. To support these efforts, research programs starting with ideas and culminating in full-scale structural testing were conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center. Each program contained development efforts that (a) started with selecting the material system and manufacturing approach; (b) moved on to experimentation and analysis of small samples to characterize the system and quantify behavior in the presence of defects like damage and imperfections; (c) progressed on to examining larger structures to examine buckling behavior, combined loadings, and built-up structures; and (d) finally moved to complicated subcomponents and full-scale components. Each step along the way was supported by detailed analysis, including tool development, to prove that the behavior of these structures was well-understood and predictable. This approach for developing technology became known as the "building-block" approach. In the Advanced Composites Technology Program and the High Speed Research Program the building-block approach was used to develop a true understanding of the response of the structures involved through experimentation and analysis. The philosophy that if the structural response couldn't be accurately predicted, it wasn't really understood, was critical to the progression of these programs. To this end, analytical techniques including closed-form and finite elements were employed and experimentation used to verify assumptions at each step along the way. This paper presents a discussion of the utilization of the building-block approach described previously in structural mechanics research and development programs at NASA Langley Research Center. Specific examples that illustrate the use of this approach are included from recent research and development programs for both subsonic and supersonic transports.

  4. Structural Features of a Bacteroidetes-Affiliated Cellulase Linked with a Polysaccharide Utilization Locus.

    PubMed

    Naas, A E; MacKenzie, A K; Dalhus, B; Eijsink, V G H; Pope, P B

    2015-01-01

    Previous gene-centric analysis of a cow rumen metagenome revealed the first potentially cellulolytic polysaccharide utilization locus, of which the main catalytic enzyme (AC2aCel5A) was identified as a glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 5 endo-cellulase. Here we present the 1.8?Å three-dimensional structure of AC2aCel5A, and characterization of its enzymatic activities. The enzyme possesses the archetypical (?/?)8-barrel found throughout the GH5 family, and contains the two strictly conserved catalytic glutamates located at the C-terminal ends of ?-strands 4 and 7. The enzyme is active on insoluble cellulose and acts exclusively on linear ?-(1,4)-linked glucans. Co-crystallization of a catalytically inactive mutant with substrate yielded a 2.4?Å structure showing cellotriose bound in the -3 to -1 subsites. Additional electron density was observed between Trp178 and Trp254, two residues that form a hydrophobic "clamp", potentially interacting with sugars at the +1 and +2 subsites. The enzyme's active-site cleft was narrower compared to the closest structural relatives, which in contrast to AC2aCel5A, are also active on xylans, mannans and/or xyloglucans. Interestingly, the structure and function of this enzyme seem adapted to less-substituted substrates such as cellulose, presumably due to the insufficient space to accommodate the side-chains of branched glucans in the active-site cleft. PMID:26133573

  5. Structural Features of a Bacteroidetes-Affiliated Cellulase Linked with a Polysaccharide Utilization Locus

    PubMed Central

    Naas, A.E.; MacKenzie, A.K.; Dalhus, B.; Eijsink, V.G.H.; Pope, P.B.

    2015-01-01

    Previous gene-centric analysis of a cow rumen metagenome revealed the first potentially cellulolytic polysaccharide utilization locus, of which the main catalytic enzyme (AC2aCel5A) was identified as a glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 5 endo-cellulase. Here we present the 1.8?Å three-dimensional structure of AC2aCel5A, and characterization of its enzymatic activities. The enzyme possesses the archetypical (?/?)8-barrel found throughout the GH5 family, and contains the two strictly conserved catalytic glutamates located at the C-terminal ends of ?-strands 4 and 7. The enzyme is active on insoluble cellulose and acts exclusively on linear ?-(1,4)-linked glucans. Co-crystallization of a catalytically inactive mutant with substrate yielded a 2.4?Å structure showing cellotriose bound in the ?3 to ?1 subsites. Additional electron density was observed between Trp178 and Trp254, two residues that form a hydrophobic “clamp”, potentially interacting with sugars at the +1 and +2 subsites. The enzyme’s active-site cleft was narrower compared to the closest structural relatives, which in contrast to AC2aCel5A, are also active on xylans, mannans and/or xyloglucans. Interestingly, the structure and function of this enzyme seem adapted to less-substituted substrates such as cellulose, presumably due to the insufficient space to accommodate the side-chains of branched glucans in the active-site cleft. PMID:26133573

  6. Probability-based design of wood transmission structures. Volume 2. Analysis and probability-based design of wood utility structures. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Goodman; M. D. Vanderbilt; M. E. Criswell; J. Bodig

    1981-01-01

    This report (Volume 2) presents the results of EPRI RP1352-1 which pertain to the analysis and probability-based design of wood utility structures. A separate report (Volume 1) describes project research on the strength and stiffness of wood utility poles. In Volume 2, the feasibility of applying a new method of design of single-pole wood transmission structures is established. Background developments

  7. Inpatient treatment for pathological gamblers in Germany: setting, utilization, and structure.

    PubMed

    Buchner, Ursula Gisela; Erbas, Beate; Stürmer, Marco; Arnold, Melanie; Wodarz, Norbert; Wolstein, Jörg

    2015-03-01

    In Germany, there are two different approaches to inpatient treatment of pathological gambling (PG): Facilities focusing on addiction or on psychosomatic illness. However, little is known about how these differences influence utilization and structure of treatment. Therefore, in our study, we analyzed all known German gambling inpatient treatment centers concerning patients' sex, age and number of comorbid disorders and evaluated an expert assessment of the treatment system, access to treatment, and structure characteristics of inpatient treatment facilities. In 2011, 2,229 pathological gamblers were treated. This amounts to 1 % of all past-year pathological gamblers. 90 % of the patients were men, 93 % had at least one comorbid disorder. Access to treatment was mostly gained via psychosocial counseling centers, but was not readily available. Facilities with addiction departments treated less pathological gamblers per year (29.3 gamblers) than facilities with psychosomatic departments (53.3 gamblers) or with both departments (76.4 gamblers). Treatment duration was significantly longer in addiction departments treating PG as secondary diagnosis only, with a low rate of gamblers on all patients, or treating few gamblers. Some facilities specialized on PG and treated more gamblers, had a higher rate of gamblers on all patients, and offered specific treatment programs. The impact of this specialization on treatment outcome is still unclear. Although treatment numbers have risen steadily for the past years, only a small fraction of affected gamblers seek inpatient treatment. Therefore, awareness to the disease and access to treatment needs to be improved. PMID:24375259

  8. Utilizing electron microscopy and spectroscopy methods to understand water structure and water doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Lior

    Water is the second most common element in the universe and the most studied material on earth. Most of the studies concerning water are from the fields of chemistry and biology. Hence, the structure of water molecules and short range order and interactions are well characterized and understood. However, the collective arrangement of water molecules and the long range order are still missing. Understanding of this long range order in water is needed, as it is the key to many water activities. To fill this gap, this study utilizes a new direct method for characterization of water in the vapor phase. Water samples from different water types were characterized using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) within a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Prior to characterizing water vapor, the measurement method for in-situ gas analysis was developed using pure gases. Water samples were also characterized using more conventional techniques, including: using cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (Cryo-SEM) in the solid state, after rapid freezing; and using high resolution TEM (HRTEM) and scanning TEM (STEM) after drying. Many other characterization techniques were evaluated but most of them were found to be not suitable, mainly due to detection limits. EELS characterization showed that samples from different water types have different electronic configurations, and they all have structures that are large enough in order to scatter electrons. From cryo SEM characterization it was found that water has nanoparticles inside with a size range of 10-100 nm, and these particles are ~500 nm apart. HRTEM/STEM characterization showed that particles from different water types have different shapes. The presence of particles provide surfaces to support water structures and the difference between the particles can explain the different properties of different water types Using tools and methods that are conventional in materials science for characterization of bulk materials and long range orders, resulted in characterization of water clusters that are significantly larger than what was known until now. By this we contribute a new point of view for water structure, which together with new insights on water properties can potentially advance later use of water as an active ingredient.

  9. Phospholipid fatty acid profiles and carbon utilization patterns for analysis of microbial community structure under field and greenhouse conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abasiofiok M Ibekwe; Ann. C Kennedy

    1998-01-01

    The description of soil microbial community structure by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles is based on the relationship between the phylogeny of microorganisms and their PLFA profiles. Based on this relationship, two community based microbiological measurements, namely, potential C source utilization patterns in Biolog microtiter plates and PLFA profiles were used to examine metabolic fingerprints of soil microbial communities and

  10. Electroluminescence property of highly soluble Ir(III) complex utilized by various hole blocking layers in polymer light emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Wook; Kim, Young Min; Choi, Jin Hwan; Park, Tae Hyun; Jeong, Jin-Wook; Cho, Min Ju; Choi, Dong Hoon; Ju, Byeong Kwon

    2010-05-01

    The tris(2-phenylpyridine)iridium(III) [Ir(ppy)3] is a well known highly efficient green light-emitting phosphorescent guest dye dopant, but its relatively low solubility has been obstructing it to be used in polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs). According to our latest reports the solubility of Ir(ppy)3 complexes with the carbazole ligands, i.e., Ir(Czppy)3, was improved significantly in organic solvents, and was sufficient to be used in soluble process. This highly soluble Ir(Czppy)3 complex showed remarkably higher photoluminescence characteristics than conventional Ir(ppy)3, but it showed similar or comparably better electroluminescence (EL) characteristics, when the PLED was composed by widely used conventional hole blocking layer (HBL) and electron transport layer; 2,9-Dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline and tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum, respectively. In this report, we applied various HBLs to improve the EL characteristics of soluble Ir(III) complex based phosphorescent PLEDs. The PLEDs utilized by the wide band-gap 3-(4-biphenylyl)-4-phenyl-5-tert-butylphenyl-1,2,4-triazole demonstrated highly improved the current and the external quantum efficiency of 17.61 cd/A and 6.42%, respectively. PMID:20358933

  11. Size-exclusion chromatographic behaviour of metal chelates of 8-hydroxyquinoline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masami Shibukawa; Masanori Saito; Rokuro Kuroda

    1984-01-01

    \\u000a Zusammenfassung  Das gel-chromatographische Verhalten von 8-Hydroxychinolin (HOx) und seinen Metall(II,III)-chelaten an Fractogel PVA 2000\\u000a in p-Dioxan oder 1,2-Dichlorethan wurde untersucht. Durch Zusatz einer kleinen Menge des Liganden zum Lösungsmittel konnten\\u000a die Metallchelate stabilisiert werden, so daß sich symmetrische Elutionspeaks ergaben. Eine Beziehung zwischen dem Verteilungskoeffizienten\\u000a und dem Molekularvolumen (abgeleitet aus dem Ogston-Laurent-Modell) deutet darauf hin, daß Cu(Ox)2 und Zn(Ox)2 in p-Dioxan

  12. Organic Electroluminescent Devices with 8Hydroxyquinoline Derivative-Metal Complexes as an Emitter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuji Hamada; Takeshi Sano; Masayuki Fujita; Takanori Fujii; Yoshitaka Nishio; Kenichi Shibata

    1993-01-01

    Organic electroluminescent (EL) devices with 8-hydroxy-quinoline derivative-metal complexes (Znq2, Beq2, Mgq2, ZnMq2, BeMq2 and AlPrq3) as the emitter have been developed. The emissions of these devices are green or yellow. These devices have a luminance of more than 3000 cd\\/m2. In particular, the EL device with Znq2 has a luminance of 16200 cd\\/m2.

  13. Development of 8-hydroxyquinoline metal based organic light-emitting diodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaodong Feng

    2008-01-01

    Because of its potential application for flat panel displays, solid-state lighting and 1.5 mum emitter for fiber optical communications, organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have been intensively researched. One of the major problems with current OLED technology relates to inefficient electron injection at the cathode interface, which causes high driving voltage and poor device stability. Making a low resistance cathode contact

  14. Methods of application of 8-Hydroxyquinoline preservative on seed cotton during the harvesting operation

    E-print Network

    Morvant, Clifton Joseph

    1964-01-01

    's Staple Length . . 7 ~ Fiber Fineness. . . . ~. . . . . . . . . . . ?. . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ ~ 37 Fiber Strength ~ ~ ~ ? ~ ? ~ ~ ? ~ ~ ? ~ ~ ~ ?? ~ ~ ~ ? 38 Fiber Mean Length. . . ~ . . ~ . . ~ . . 39 10. Fiber Upper Half Mean Length... in Test II. . . . . . . . ~ ~. . . . ~ . . ~ . . ~ 86 48. Test II Classer's Grade Index. ~ . . ~. . . . ~ ~. . . . . ~. . . 89 49. Test II Classer's Staple Length . . 90 50. 51 ~ Test II Fiber Fineness ~ Test II Fiber Strength 90...

  15. Structural and Function Correlation of Cone Packing Utilizing Adaptive Optics and Microperimetry

    PubMed Central

    Supriya, Dabir; Shwetha, Mangalesh; Kiran Anupama, Kumar; Kummelil Mathew, Kurian; Berendschot, Tos T. J. M.; Schouten, Jan S. A. G.; Bharamshetter, Roopa; Naresh, Yadav K.; Rohit, Shetty; Hegde, Bharath

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To assess the functional aspects of cone mosaic and correlate cone packing with retinal sensitivity utilizing microperimetry in emmetropes at different eccentricities. Methods. Twenty-four healthy volunteers underwent microperimetry (MAIA Centervue, Italy) and assessment of photoreceptors using adaptive optics retinal camera, rtx1 (Imagine Eyes, Orsay, France), at 2 and 3 degrees from the foveal centre in 4 quadrants: superior, inferior, temporal, and nasal. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 17 (IBM). Spearman's correlation tests were used to establish correlation between mean cone packing density and retinal sensitivity at different quadrants. Results. Thirteen females and 11 males (age range 20–40 years) were included. The cone density was found to be significantly different among all quadrants (temporal = 25786.68/mm2?±?4367.07/mm2, superior = 23009.35/mm2?±?5415.81/mm2, nasal = 22838.09/mm2?±?4166.22/mm2, and inferior = 21097.53/mm2?±?4235.84/mm2). A statistical significance (P < 0.008) was found between orthogonal meridians, that is, temporal, nasal (48624.77/mm2)> superior, inferior (44106.88/mm2). A drop in retinal sensitivity was observed as the eccentricity increased (P < 0.05). It was also found that as cone packing density decreased retinal sensitivity also decreased (P < 0.05) in all quadrants. This was observed at both 2 and 3 degrees. Conclusion. It is of crucial importance to establish normative variations in cone structure-function correlation. This may help in detection of subtle pathology and its early intervention.

  16. Assessment of multiple physician competencies in postgraduate training: utility of the structured oral examination.

    PubMed

    Jefferies, Ann; Simmons, Brian; Ng, Eugene; Skidmore, Martin

    2011-12-01

    Competency based medical education involves assessing physicians-in-training in multiple roles. Training programs are challenged by the need to introduce appropriate yet feasible assessment methods. We therefore examined the utility of a structured oral examination (SOE) in the assessment of the 7 CanMEDS roles (Medical Expert, Communicator, Collaborator, Manager, Health Advocate, Scholar and Professional) in a Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine subspecialty training program. Between 2004 and 2008, 68 trainees participated in an annual SOE. Each SOE consisted of 4 1st year and 4 2nd year clinical scenarios with standardized questions written by neonatologists that addressed all 7 CanMEDS roles. Examiners assigned a checklist score and global rating scores for knowledge and organization. A satisfaction survey was completed at the end of 3 examinations. Across the 5 SOEs, questions related to each competency were tabulated and an overall checklist score for each competency calculated. Inter-station reliability was determined for each CanMEDS role. Values for Cronbach's alpha were 0.62 ± 0.2 (Medical Expert), 0.43 (Communicator), 0.40 ± 0.34 (Collaborator), 0.19 ± 0.17 (Manager), 0.46 ± 0.32 (Advocate), 0.67 ± 0.18 (Scholar) and 0.79 (Professional). Inter-rater reliability, determined for the first examination when there were 2 examiners per case, was moderate to substantial for 67% of cases. Participant satisfaction was high. Electronic communication facilitated exam development and costs were minimal. The SOE demonstrates psychometric properties suitable for a formative, in-training assessment as well as low cost, ease of administration and acceptability. It may be a useful way to assess physician competencies in training programs. PMID:21279437

  17. Utilizing structural family therapy and systems theory in the business world

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon A. Deacon

    1996-01-01

    The structure of businesses and the structure of families are very similar, considering the fact that so many businesses are owned or operated by families. Structural family therapists who are knowledgeable in systems theory and have an adequate understanding of the underlying concepts of structural family theory (including hierarchy, boundaries, and coalitions) can translate their knowledge to the structure of

  18. Restriction of enhanced (2-/sup 14/C)deoxyglucose utilization to rhinencephalic structures in immature amygdala-kindled rats

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, R.F.; Moshe, S.L.; Albala, B.J.

    1989-04-01

    Sixteen-day-old albino rat pups were kindled to varying degrees of seizure severity with amygdala stimulations spaced 15 to 20 min apart. Subsequently, each rat pup was injected (ip) with 10 microCi of (2-/sup 14/C)-deoxyglucose, and received several additional kindled seizures at regular intervals throughout the following 80 min, at which time it was killed and processed for deoxyglucose autoradiography. Increased seizure severity was associated with correspondingly increased deoxyglucose utilization in many rhinencephalic limbic structures. However, unlike adults, rat pups did not show discernibly increased neocortical, thalamic, or substantia nigra utilization. We postulate that the apparent confinement of seizure activity to limbic structures in pups is related to their relative lack of postictal seizure refractoriness, as well as to other indices of increased seizure susceptibility in immature animals.

  19. Impact of Industrial Electric Rate Structure on Energy Conservation - A Utility Viewpiont

    E-print Network

    Williams, M. M.

    1981-01-01

    the incremebal cost. This rate penalizes efficient, high Ibad factor operations. I marginal cost rates - Marginal or incrementa~ rates are based on the cost of the last unit' of energy supplied by the utility. This is a con cept promoted by DOE...

  20. Utilizing elevator for wireless sensor data collection in high-rise structure monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feng Wang; Jiangchuan Liu; Dan Wang

    2011-01-01

    Recently wireless sensor networks have been widely suggested for Structural Health Monitoring. In such applications, diverse sensor nodes are deployed in a building structure, collecting ambient data such as temperature and strain from various locations and reporting them to a central base station for processing and diagnosing. For today's high-rise structures (e.g., the Guangzhou New TV Tower, a project that

  1. Confirming the Factor Structure of the Cognitive Test Anxiety Scale: Comparing the Utility of Three Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassady, Jerrell C.; Finch, W. Holmes

    2014-01-01

    This study validated the factor structure of a popular assessment of learner's cognitive test anxiety. Following recent findings in a study with Argentinean students' use of the Spanish version of the Cognitive Test Anxiety Scale (CTAS), this study tested the factor structure using data from 742 students who completed the original…

  2. Utilization of full waveform LIDAR and hyperspectral data for forest structure characterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinha Jung

    2011-01-01

    Understanding characteristics of forest structure at regional, continental, and global scales is of increasing importance because of its critical role in addressing diverse issues such as global carbon cycle model, forest management, and studies of wildlife habitat. Structural characteristics provide valuable insights related to forest ecosystem function at individual tree, stand, forest, and global scales. Although field sampling based approaches

  3. Panel session: structural reliability-based design of utility poles and the national electrical safety code

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Bingel; H. Dagher; R. Randle; R. Wolfe; L. Slavin; M. Voda; J. Wong

    2003-01-01

    The 2002 Edition of the national electrical safety code provides basic safety rules for outdoor electric power and telecommunications lines and structures. The NESC specifies overload factors and strength factors in its strength and loading rules for transmission and distribution structures and poles. These factors have been selected based upon subjective criteria, including a combination of engineering judgment and experience.

  4. Analyzing and Utilizing the Collaboration Structure for Reliable Router-Level Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, Yu; Arakawa, Shin'ichi; Murata, Masayuki

    As the Internet represents a key social infrastructure, its reliability is essential if we are to survive failures. Physical connectivity of networks is also essential as it characterizes reliability. There are collaboration structures, which are topological structures where two or more nodes are connected to a node, and collaboration structures are observed in transcriptional regulatory networks and the router-level topologies of ISPs. These collaboration structures are related to the reliability of networks. The main objective of this research is to find whether an increase in collaboration structures would improve reliability or not. We first categorize the topology into a three-level hierarchy for this purpose, i.e., top-level, middle-level, and bottom-level layers. We then calculate the reliability of networks. The results indicate that the reliability of most transcriptional regulatory networks is higher than that of one of router-level topologies. We then investigate the number of collaboration structures. It is apparent that there are much fewer collaboration structures between top-level nodes and middle-level nodes in router-level topologies. Finally, we confirm that the reliability of router-level topologies can be improved by rewiring to increase the collaboration structures between top-level and middle-level nodes.

  5. Prismatic sealed nickel-cadmium batteries utilizing fiber structured electrodes. II - Applications as a maintenance free aircraft battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderman, Menahem; Benczur-Urmossy, Gabor; Haschka, Friedrich

    Test data on prismatic sealed Ni-Cd batteries utilizing fiber structured electrodes (sealed FNC) is discussed. It is shown that, under a voltage limited charging scheme, the charge acceptance of the sealed FNC battery is far superior to that of the standard vented aircraft Ni-Cd batteries. This results in the sealed FNC battery maintaining its capacity over several thousand cycles without any need for electrical conditioning or water topping. APU start data demonstrate superior power capabilities over existing technologies. Performance at low temperature is presented. Abuse test results reveal a safe fail mechanism even under severe electrical abuse.

  6. Utilization of Structured Packing for Energy Savings in Distillation and Absorption Columns 

    E-print Network

    Berven, O. J.; Howard, W. E.

    1986-01-01

    of structured packing make it an effective choice for relieving overloaded conditions in key column zones. Sulzer and Koch Engineering can cite over 35 different installations of this nature, including a crude column in Koch's Rosemount, Minnesota refi nery...

  7. Waterfowl utilization characteristics of floodwater retarding structures in north-central Texas 

    E-print Network

    Hobaugh, William Carl

    1977-01-01

    aquatic plant both in terms of frequency of occurrence (71 percent) and relative abundance. Large beds of muskgrass covering 2 to 3 ha were common on some flood prevention lakes. Other submerged aquatics included southern naiad (Najas ~ud 1 is) o 11 1... structures in north-central Texas. 2. To relate the variations in waterfowl use to d1fferences in management practices and biological, 11mnological and structural differences between lakes, LITERATURE REVIEW The construction of flood prevention lakes has...

  8. Detection of spin-resolved electronic structures from a buried ferromagnetic layer utilizing forward Mott scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, S. [Synchrotron X-ray Station at SPring-8, National Institute for Materials Science, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Mizuguchi, M.; Kojima, T.; Takanashi, K. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Ishimaru, S. [SPring-8 Service Co. Ltd., Tatsuno, Hyogo 679-5165 (Japan); Tsujikawa, M. [Center for Spintronics Integrated Systems (CSIS), Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Shirai, M. [Center for Spintronics Integrated Systems (CSIS), Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Research Institute of Electrical Communication (RIEC), Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-03-31

    We report ultrahigh-resolution spin-resolved hard X-ray photoemission (HAXPES) for a buried FeNi alloy film. By utilizing the forward Mott scattering in a Au layer on FeNi, our spin-resolved HAXPES method does not require a standard spin detector and allows us to use the multi-channel electron detection system for the high-efficient electron detection as used in conventional photoemission spectroscopy. A combination of the forward Mott scattering and multi-channel detection leads us to measure a clear spin polarization as well as spin-resolved majority and minority states in the Fe 2p core-level spectra without using the standard spin detector. This method enables us to measure spin-resolved core-level spectra for buried ferromagnetic materials.

  9. Parameter and structure-activity data bases: management for maximum utility.

    PubMed Central

    Leo, A

    1985-01-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) in the fields of medicinal chemistry, pesticide science, biochemistry and toxicology are being published at an ever increasing rate. In addition to these biological correlation equations, thousands of such equations have been published for all kinds of organic reactions. There is a great need to develop a computerized system to enable one to make comparisons and to draw generalizations about the effects of structure on chemical and biological activity. A proposal is made for a systematic approach to this problem based on the physicochemical properties of organic compounds. PMID:4065069

  10. A study on utilizing a chloride bath to electroform MEMS devices with high aspect ratio structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hong; Tang, Jun; Li, Guangyang; Zhang, Congchun; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Zhimin; Ding, GuiFu; Zhao, Xiaolin

    2010-11-01

    Addressing the problems that occurred for electroforming of MEMS devices with high aspect ratio and geometry-complex structures, the electrochemical properties of a chloride bath are studied in this paper. It has been found that the tensile stress of nickel film from the chloride bath with the addition of saccharine is significantly reduced. Our results also suggested that, compared to the commonly used sulfamate bath, the chloride bath has higher throwing power and covering power, possibly due to its higher conductivity and polarizability. In addition, the presence of saccharine provided a finer grain nickel film with a smoother surface. Furthermore, the MEMS-based latching devices with narrow bars of 50 µm width and 500 µm thickness were obtained from the chloride bath, while the same devices with structure deficiency (incomplete structures) were frequently observed from the sulfamate bath. The finite element method simulations using the ANSYS software for the current density distribution on the surface of different aspect ratio latching structures were carried out. After considering the electrochemical perspectives from both baths, the mechanisms for the deficiency formation from the sulfamate bath and the absence of the deficiencies from the chloride bath were proposed and discussed.

  11. An assessment of children's concepts of the earth utilizing structured interviews

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Nussbaum; Joseph D. Novak

    1976-01-01

    Structured interviews with second graders in the U.S. about the shape of Earth and the effects of gravity at the surface. Describes a highly effective and systematic interviewing strategy aropriate for investigating student conceptions. Most students consistently hold one of five notions: Earth is flat, Earth is round with flat places where people live, Earth is round and people can

  12. Properties of seismic fault zone waves and their utility for imaging low-velocity structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yehuda Ben-Zion

    1998-01-01

    A two-dimensional solution for the scalar wave equation in a model of two vertical layers between two quarter spaces is used to study properties of seismic waves in a laterally heterogeneous low-velocity structure. The waves, referred to as seismic fault zone waves, include head waves, internal fault zone reflections, and trapped waves. The analysis aims to clarify the dependency of

  13. A Study of the Utilization of Advanced Composites in Fuselage Structures of Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, D. J.; Sumida, P. T.; Bunin, B. L.; Janicki, G. S.; Walker, J. V.; Fox, B. R.

    1985-01-01

    A study was conducted to define the technology and data needed to support the introduction of advanced composites in the future production of fuselage structure in large transport aircraft. Fuselage structures of six candidate airplanes were evaluated for the baseline component. The MD-100 was selected on the basis of its representation of 1990s fuselage structure, an available data base, its impact on the schedule and cost of the development program, and its availability and suitability for flight service evaluation. Acceptance criteria were defined, technology issues were identified, and a composite fuselage technology development plan, including full-scale tests, was identified. The plan was based on composite materials to be available in the mid to late 1980s. Program resources required to develop composite fuselage technology are estimated at a rough order of magnitude to be 877 man-years exclusive of the bird strike and impact dynamic test components. A conceptual composite fuselage was designed, retaining the basic MD-100 structural arrangement for doors, windows, wing, wheel wells, cockpit enclosure, major bulkheads, etc., resulting in a 32 percent weight savings.

  14. Utilizing Vertebrates to Understand the Factors that Influence Terrestrial Ecosystem Structure 

    E-print Network

    Redman, Cory

    2012-07-16

    and are therefore poorly understood. However, fossil data preserve a vast archive of information on past ecosystems and how they have changed through time. My PhD research is composed of three studies that look at biogeogaphic distribution, ecosystem structure...

  15. Properties of seismic fault zone waves and their utility for imaging low-velocity structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Zion, Yehuda

    1998-06-01

    A two-dimensional solution for the scalar wave equation in a model of two vertical layers between two quarter spaces is used to study properties of seismic waves in a laterally heterogeneous low-velocity structure. The waves, referred to as seismic fault zone waves, include head waves, internal fault zone reflections, and trapped waves. The analysis aims to clarify the dependency of the waves on media velocities, media attenuation coefficients, layer widths, and source-receiver geometry. Additional calculations with extreme low-velocity layers provide examples that may be relevant for volcanic and geothermal domains. The interference patterns controlling seismic fault zone waves change with the number of internal reflections in the low-velocity structure. This number increases with propagation distance along the structure, decreases with fault zone width, and increases (for given length scales) with the velocity contrast. The relative lateral position of the source within the low-velocity layer modifies die length scales associated with internal reflections and influences the resulting interference pattern. Low values of Q affect considerably the dominant period and overall duration of the waves. Thus there are significant tradeoffs between propagation distance along the structure, fault zone width, velocity contrast, source location within the fault zone, and Q. The lateral and depth receiver coordinates determine the particular point where the interference pattern is sampled and observed motion is a strong function of both coordinates. The zone connecting sources generating fault zone waves and observation points with appreciable wave amplitude can be over an order of magnitude larger than the fault zone width. Calculations for cases with layer P wave velocity of ˜200 m s-1, modeling a vertical dike or crack with fluid and gas, show conspicuous persisting oscillations. The results resemble aspects of seismic data in volcanic domains. If these waves exist in observed records, their explicit recognition and modeling will help to separate source and structural effects and aid in the interpretation of volcano-seismology signals. Although the tradeoffs in parameters governing seismic fault zone waves are significant, each variable has its own signature, and the parameters may be constrained by additional geophysical data. Simultaneous modeling of many waveforms with an appropriate solution can resolve the various parameters and provide a high-resolution structural image.

  16. Analysis of options for structural reform in electric-utility regulation. Report of the NGA Task Force on electric utility regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-07

    In June of 1982, an Electric Utility Task Force was formed under the auspices of the National Governors' Association. The Task Force members were charged with developing recommendations for any needed changes in the regulation of electric utilities and with identifying consensus solutions to the myriad of associated regulatory problems. This report represents the consensus view of the Task Force on the problems and potential options for addressing these problems. The Task Force members agree that the primacy of state regulation has been a desirable aspect of our traditional electric utility regulatory system and that any preemption of state authority in this field should be vigorously opposed. They also concluded that changes in three areas - regional power planning and regulation, sorting out of federal and state responsibilities, and benefit-sharing approaches - would be desirable in order to reduce multi-state conflicts and increase the opportunity for regulation which insures system reliability at the lowest possible long term cost. (DMC)

  17. Biomass utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Coute, W.A. (ed.)

    1983-01-01

    Forty papers are presented in 6 sections: Biomass utilization - the concept; The raw material and its preparation; The structure and chemical composition of biomass; Conversion methods - biological; Conversion methods - thermochemical; and Engineering and economics in biomass utilization. Ten papers are of particular forestry interest: Forest inventories as the basis for a continuous monitoring of forest biomass resources (Cunia, T.); Aerial photo biomass equation (Kasile, J.); Forest biomass utilization in Greece (Tsoumis, C.); Mass propagation of selected trees for biomass by tissue culture (Venketeswaran, S. et al.); The anatomy, ultrastructure and chemical composition of wood (Coete, W.A.); Some structural characteristics of acid hydrolysis lignins (Papadopoulos, J.); Thermochemical routes to chemicals, fuels and energy from forestry and agricultural residues (Soltes, E.J.); Pyrolysis of wood wastes (Figueiredo, J.L. et al.); Efficient utilization of woody biomass: a cellulose-particleboard-synfuels model (Young, R.A.; Achmadi, S.); and Methanol from wood, a state of the art review (Beenackers, A.A.C.M.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van).

  18. Chemical conversion processes utilizing catalyst containing crystalline gallosilicate molecular sieves having the erionite-type structure

    SciTech Connect

    Occelli, M.J.

    1990-08-07

    This patent describes a process for the acid catalyzed chemical conversion of a feedstock containing organic compounds into reaction products. It comprises: contacting the feedstock under acid catalyzed conversion conditions with a catalyst comprising a catalytically active, crystalline, galliosilicate molecular sieve, wherein the molecular sieve comprises silicon, gallium as oxygen, has an x-ray powder diffraction pattern characteristic of the erionite structure and contains less than about 0.10 weight percent alumina.

  19. The utility of comparative models and the local model quality for protein crystal structure determination by Molecular Replacement

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Computational models of protein structures were proved to be useful as search models in Molecular Replacement (MR), a common method to solve the phase problem faced by macromolecular crystallography. The success of MR depends on the accuracy of a search model. Unfortunately, this parameter remains unknown until the final structure of the target protein is determined. During the last few years, several Model Quality Assessment Programs (MQAPs) that predict the local accuracy of theoretical models have been developed. In this article, we analyze whether the application of MQAPs improves the utility of theoretical models in MR. Results For our dataset of 615 search models, the real local accuracy of a model increases the MR success ratio by 101% compared to corresponding polyalanine templates. On the contrary, when local model quality is not utilized in MR, the computational models solved only 4.5% more MR searches than polyalanine templates. For the same dataset of the 615 models, a workflow combining MR with predicted local accuracy of a model found 45% more correct solution than polyalanine templates. To predict such accuracy MetaMQAPclust, a “clustering MQAP” was used. Conclusions Using comparative models only marginally increases the MR success ratio in comparison to polyalanine structures of templates. However, the situation changes dramatically once comparative models are used together with their predicted local accuracy. A new functionality was added to the GeneSilico Fold Prediction Metaserver in order to build models that are more useful for MR searches. Additionally, we have developed a simple method, AmIgoMR (Am I good for MR?), to predict if an MR search with a template-based model for a given template is likely to find the correct solution. PMID:23126528

  20. Innovative design of composite structures: Design, manufacturing, and testing of plates utilizing curvilinear fiber trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyer, M. W.; Rust, R. J.; Waters, W. A., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    As a means of improving structural design, the concept of fabricating flat plates containing holes by incorporating curvilinear fiber trajectories to transmit loads around the hole is studied. In the present discussion this concept is viewed from a structural level, where access holes, windows, doors, and other openings are of significant size. This is opposed to holes sized for mechanical fasteners. Instead of cutting the important load-bearing fibers at the hole edge, as a conventional straightline design does, the curvilinear design preserves the load-bearing fibers by orienting them in smooth trajectories around the holes, their loading not ending abruptly at the hole edge. Though the concept of curvilinear fiber trajectories has been studied before, attempts to manufacture and test such plates have been limited. This report describes a cooperative effort between Cincinnati Milacron Inc., NASA Langley Research Center, and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University to design, manufacture, and test plates using the curvilinear fiber trajectory concept. The paper discusses details of the plate design, details of the manufacturing, and a summary of results from testing the plates with inplane compressive buckling loads and tensile loads. Comparisons between the curvilinear and conventional straightline fiber designs based on measurements and observation are made. Failure modes, failure loads, strains, deflections, and other key responses are compared.

  1. A structural analysis of the Midcontinent Rift in Michigan, based on a fault array analysis utilizing slickenside

    SciTech Connect

    Witthuhn, K.M.; Teyssier, C. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1992-01-01

    The Midcontinent Rift is a 1.1 billion year old crustal structure which has been defined primarily on the basis of geophysical studies. It displays evidence of both rifting and subsequent closure. Many studies have examined the rift from a petrologic view but few have examined it in any detail from a structural geological viewpoint. This paper examines the structural aspects of the rift, elucidates the direction of closing, and constrains the timing of the system by utilizing paleostress stratigraphy. Establishment of the relative age and sense of movement on faults was accomplished by analyzing slickensides and crystallization on the fault plane. Detailed work on the Keweenaw Peninsula of Michigan suggests a southerly direction for the closing of the rift system, while similar work on Isle Royale suggests an east-southeasterly closing direction. Faults in both areas with opposite sense of movement (dextral vs. sinistral, normal vs. reverse) have similar attitudes indicating a reversal of maximum and minimum stress directions. Stress tensors from both limbs of the Lake Superior syncline were isolated using identical methods, suggesting the geometry or lithology of the system interfered with the manifestation of the far-field stresses. The results suggest then the direction of opening and closing of the rift was constrained by the geometry of the major and minor fault systems and anisotropies in the lava flows.

  2. End-to-end communication test on variable length packet structures utilizing AOS testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Warner H.; Sank, V.; Fong, Wai; Miko, J.; Powers, M.; Folk, John; Conaway, B.; Michael, K.; Yeh, Pen-Shu

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a communication test, which successfully demonstrated the transfer of losslessly compressed images in an end-to-end system. These compressed images were first formatted into variable length Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) packets in the Advanced Orbiting System Testbed (AOST). The CCSDS data Structures were transferred from the AOST to the Radio Frequency Simulations Operations Center (RFSOC), via a fiber optic link, where data was then transmitted through the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). The received data acquired at the White Sands Complex (WSC) was transferred back to the AOST where the data was captured and decompressed back to the original images. This paper describes the compression algorithm, the AOST configuration, key flight components, data formats, and the communication link characteristics and test results.

  3. Study on utilization of advanced composites in commercial aircraft wing structures. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Ostrom, R. B.; Cardinale, S. V.

    1978-01-01

    The effort required by commercial transport manufacturers to accomplish the transition from current construction materials and practices to extensive use of composites in aircraft wings was investigated. The engineering and manufacturing disciplines which normally participate in the design, development, and production of an aircraft were employed to ensure that all of the factors that would enter a decision to commit to production of a composite wing structure were addressed. A conceptual design of an advanced technology reduced energy aircraft provided the framework for identifying and investigating unique design aspects. A plan development effort defined the essential technology needs and formulated approaches for effecting the required wing development. The wing development program plans, resource needs, and recommendations are summarized.

  4. Alignment and structural control of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes by utilizing precursor concentration effect.

    PubMed

    Deng, Weina; Chen, Xiaohua; Chen, Xian; Liu, Zheng; Zeng, Ying; Hu, Aiping; Xiong, Yina; Li, Zhe; Tang, Qunli

    2014-11-28

    Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNTs) were prepared using a simple ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method. The precursor concentration effect was examined to effectively control alignment, open tip and diameter of the NCNTs by changing xylene/cyclohexylamine ratio. The structure and morphology of the resultant NCNTs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The degree of alignment and the diameter of the NCNTs increased as the xylene/cyclohexylamine precursor mixture was changed from 0 to 35% cyclohexylamine. This precursor composition also caused a large number of open-ended nanotubes to form with graphite layers inside the cavities of the NCNTs. However, further increase cyclohexylamine content in the precursor reduced the degree of alignment and diameter of the NCNTs. We demonstrate control over the NCNT alignment and diameter, along with the formation of open-ended nanotube tips, and propose a growth mechanism to understand how these properties are interlinked. PMID:25369800

  5. Alignment and structural control of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes by utilizing precursor concentration effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Weina; Chen, Xiaohua; Chen, Xian; Liu, Zheng; Zeng, Ying; Hu, Aiping; Xiong, Yina; Li, Zhe; Tang, Qunli

    2014-11-01

    Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNTs) were prepared using a simple ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method. The precursor concentration effect was examined to effectively control alignment, open tip and diameter of the NCNTs by changing xylene/cyclohexylamine ratio. The structure and morphology of the resultant NCNTs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The degree of alignment and the diameter of the NCNTs increased as the xylene/cyclohexylamine precursor mixture was changed from 0 to 35% cyclohexylamine. This precursor composition also caused a large number of open-ended nanotubes to form with graphite layers inside the cavities of the NCNTs. However, further increase cyclohexylamine content in the precursor reduced the degree of alignment and diameter of the NCNTs. We demonstrate control over the NCNT alignment and diameter, along with the formation of open-ended nanotube tips, and propose a growth mechanism to understand how these properties are interlinked.

  6. Beam modifications of structural systems utilizing the receptance method with static flexibility 

    E-print Network

    Lin, Reng Rong

    1987-01-01

    ) If the response vectors, (z(tc)}2 are measured at m different times ( where m is always set equal to 2n, but this is not necessary), the 2n response vectors can be written as &*1, *2, " , *2. } = Pl 1 P12 P21 P22 P1, 2s e52 t1 e824 82 tt 82 t2 e824 e82...) ~~' = --(@') [M, ;NC't) (2 ? 80) Therefore, the i'" eigenvector can be written ss [17] (C;) = (Cir) + Q Q a;, s{Cs)Ab, 1=1 i=1 (2 ? 81) where a, is are constants and can be derived from Eq. (2-75) and Eq. (2-80). Theoretically, a structure has sn infinite...

  7. Development of Antiwear Shim Inserts Utilizing Segment-Structured DLC Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takashima, Mai; Kuroda, Tsuyoshi; Saito, Masanori; Ohtake, Naoto; Matsuo, Makoto; Iwamoto, Yoshinao

    Wear and fretting fatigue are important technological problems in automotive, railway and aerospace fields. The purpose of this study is to find a method of reducing the wear of cast-iron (FCD)/aluminum components, which are often applied to automotives, and thus extend their lifetime. First, a stainless-steel (SUS) shim was designed, which can be inserted between an FCD plate and an aluminum plate. Second, diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings were applied to the shim inserts to prevent the FCD and aluminum plates from wear. Then, the tribological and fatigue characteristics of the shim were evaluated by a ball-on-disk (BoD) test and a bending fatigue test of up to 1×106 cycles. Each substrate was coated with DLC by Plasma-Based Ion Implantation and Deposition (PBII&D). A unique feature of our shim is that a segment-structured DLC film (S-DLC) is employed as well as a continuous DLC (C-DLC) film. The effect of the DLC coating on reducing the damage to the Al plate was apparent, because the surface roughness of the Al plate abraded with the DLC-coated shim was significantly smaller than that abraded directly with the FCD plate. Moreover, the average damage fraction to the C-DLC coating is approximately 20-fold larger than that to the S-DLC coating. The C-DLC film suffers severe damage near the bolt hole, whereas the S-DLC film suffered almost no damage even after 1×106 bending cycles. In conclusion, an S-DLC-coated SUS shim has a marked effect on reducing the wear of Al/FCD components and improving their lifetime.

  8. Microcapillary electrophoresis chips utilizing controllable micro-lens structures and buried optical fibers for on-line optical detection.

    PubMed

    Hsiung, Suz-Kai; Lee, Chun-Hong; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2008-05-01

    In this study, a new design of a controllable micro-lens structure capable of the enhancement of LIF detection system has been demonstrated, which can be further integrated with buried optical fibers on a micro-CE chip for sample separation and detection. Two pneumatic side-chambers were placed between a micro-CE channel and an optical fiber channel. The intervals between the side-chamber and the microchannel were used to form two surfaces of the controllable micro-lens structure. Deformations of the two surfaces can be generated after pressurized index-matching fluid was injected into the pneumatic side-chambers. The side-chambers can be deflected as a double convex lens to focus both the excitation light source and the fluorescent emission signal. The profile and the focal length of the micro-lens structure can be actively adjusted by applying different liquid pressures so that biosamples with a low concentration can be detected. Using low-cost polymeric materials such as polydimethylsiloxane, rapid and reliable fabrication techniques involving standard lithography and replication process was employed for the formation of the proposed chip device. Experimental results revealed the controllable micro-lens structure can be successfully deformed as a convex lens to focus the laser light source and the collected fluorescence signal can be enhanced accordingly. The power amplitude of excitation laser light can be enhanced by 5.4-fold. FITC dye and DNA markers were then utilized for micro-CE testing. The results indicated that the signal amplitude could be enhanced 2.5-fold when compared to the case without the activation of the micro-lens. According to the experimental results, the developed device has a great potential to be integrated with other microfluidic devices for further biomedical applications. PMID:18393334

  9. Utilizing Changes in Repeating Earthquakes to Monitor Evolving Processes and Structure Before and During Volcanic Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotovec-Ellis, Alicia

    Repeating earthquakes are two or more earthquakes that share the same source location and source mechanism, which results in the earthquakes having highly similar waveforms when recorded at a seismic instrument. Repeating earthquakes have been observed in a wide variety of environments: from fault systems (such as the San Andreas and Cascadia subduction zone), to hydrothermal areas and volcanoes. Volcano seismologists are particularly concerned with repeating earthquakes, as they have been observed at volcanoes along the entire range of eruptive style and are often a prominent feature of eruption seismicity. The behavior of repeating earthquakes sometimes changes with time, which possibly reflects subtle changes in the mechanism creating the earthquakes. In Chapter 1, we document an example of repeating earthquakes during the 2009 eruption of Redoubt volcano that became increasingly frequent with time, until they blended into harmonic tremor prior to several explosions. We interpreted the source of the earthquakes as stick-slip on a fault near the conduit that slipped increasingly often as the explosion neared in response to the build-up of pressure in the system. The waveforms of repeating earthquakes may also change, even if the behavior does not. We can quantify changes in waveform using the technique of coda wave interferometry to differentiate between changes in source and medium. In Chapters 2 and 3, we document subtle changes in the coda of repeating earthquakes related to small changes in the near-surface velocity structure at Mount St. Helens before and during its eruption in 2004. Velocity changes have been observed prior to several volcanic eruptions, are thought to occur in response to volumetric strain and the opening or closing of cracks in the subsurface. We compared continuous records of velocity change against other geophysical data, and found that velocities at Mount St. Helens change in response to snow loading, fluid saturation, shaking from large distant earthquakes, shallow pressurization, and possibly lava extrusion. Velocity changes at Mount St. Helens are a complex mix of many different effects, and other complementary data are required to interpret the signal.

  10. Teaching Three-Dimensional Structural Chemistry Using Crystal Structure Databases. 2. Teaching Units that Utilize an Interactive Web-Accessible Subset of the Cambridge Structural Database

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battle, Gary M.; Allen, Frank H.; Ferrence, Gregory M.

    2010-01-01

    A series of online interactive teaching units have been developed that illustrate the use of experimentally measured three-dimensional (3D) structures to teach fundamental chemistry concepts. The units integrate a 500-structure subset of the Cambridge Structural Database specially chosen for their pedagogical value. The units span a number of key…

  11. Co thickness dependence of structural and magnetic properties in spin quantum cross devices utilizing stray magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiju, H.; Kasa, H.; Komine, T.; Mori, S.; Misawa, T.; Abe, T.; Nishii, J.

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the Co thickness dependence of the structural and magnetic properties of Co thin-film electrodes sandwiched between borate glasses in spin quantum cross (SQC) devices that utilize stray magnetic fields. We also calculate the Co thickness dependence of the stray field between the two edges of Co thin-film electrodes in SQC devices using micromagnetic simulation. The surface roughness of Co thin films with a thickness of less than 20 nm on borate glasses is shown to be as small as 0.18 nm, at the same scanning scale as the Co film thickness, and the squareness of the hysteresis loop is shown to be as large as 0.96-1.0. As a result of the establishment of polishing techniques for Co thin-film electrodes sandwiched between borate glasses, we successfully demonstrate the formation of smooth Co edges and the generation of stray magnetic fields from Co edges. Theoretical calculation reveals that a strong stray field beyond 6 kOe is generated when the Co thickness is greater than 10 nm at a junction gap distance of 5 nm. From these experimental and calculation results, it can be concluded that SQC devices with a Co thickness of 10-20 nm can be expected to function as spin-filter devices.

  12. Microbial resource utilization traits and trade-offs: implications for community structure, functioning, and biogeochemical impacts at present and in the future

    PubMed Central

    Litchman, Elena; Edwards, Kyle F.; Klausmeier, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Trait-based approaches provide a mechanistic framework to understand and predict the structure and functioning of microbial communities. Resource utilization traits and trade-offs are among key microbial traits that describe population dynamics and competition among microbes. Several important trade-offs have been identified for prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial taxa that define contrasting ecological strategies and contribute to species coexistence and diversity. The shape, dimensionality, and hierarchy of trade-offs may determine coexistence patterns and need to be better characterized. Laboratory measured resource utilization traits can be used to explain temporal and spatial structure and dynamics of natural microbial communities and predict biogeochemical impacts. Global environmental change can alter microbial community composition through altering resource utilization by different microbes and, consequently, may modify biogeochemical impacts of microbes. PMID:25904900

  13. Influencing Self-Reported Health among Rural Low-Income Women through Health Care and Social Service Utilization: A Structural Equation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bice-Wigington, Tiffany; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Using structural equation modeling, this study examined the mesosystemic processes among rural low-income women, and how these processes subsequently influenced self-reported health. Acknowledging the behavioral processes inherent in utilization of health care and formal social support services, this study moved beyond a behavioral focus by…

  14. Phospholipid fatty acid pro¢les and carbon utilization patterns for analysis of microbial community structure under ¢eld and greenhouse conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ibekwe; C. Kennedy

    The description of soil microbial community structure by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles is based on the relationship between the phylogeny of microorganisms and their PLFA profiles. Based on this relationship, two community based microbiological measurements, namely, potential C source utilization patterns in Biolog microtiter plates and PLFA profiles were used to examine metabolic fingerprints of soil microbial communities and

  15. A Dual Band 1.8GHz/900MHz, 750kb/s GMSK Transmitter Utilizing a Hybrid PFD/DAC Structure for Reduced Broadband Phase Noise

    E-print Network

    Perrott, Michael

    A Dual Band 1.8GHz/900MHz, 750kb/s GMSK Transmitter Utilizing a Hybrid PFD/DAC Structure This paper presents the key circuits of a 1MHz bandwidth, 750kb/s GMSK transmitter. The fractional MHz offset for 3.565GHz output) synthesis possible, allowing direct modulation transmission of GMSK

  16. Innovative Utility Pricing for Industry

    E-print Network

    Ross, J. A.

    INNOVATIVE UTILITY PRICING FOR INDUSTRY James A. Ross Drazen-Brubaker &Associates, Inc. St. Louis, Missouri ABSTRACT The electric utility industry represents only one source of power available to industry. Al though the monopolistic... structure of the electric utility industry may convey a perception that an electric utility is unaffected by competition, this is an erroneous perception with regard to in dustry. Electric utilities face increased compe tition, both from other utilities...

  17. Biofunctional constituent isolated from Citrullus colocynthis fruits and structure-activity relationships of its analogues show acaricidal and insecticidal efficacy.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2014-08-27

    The acaricidal and insecticidal potential of the active constituent isolated from Citrullus colocynthis fruits and its structurally related analogues was evaluated by performing leaf disk, contact toxicity, and fumigant toxicity bioassays against Tetranychus urticae, Sitophilus oryzae, and Sitophilus zeamais adults. The active constituent of C. colocynthis fruits was isolated by chromatographic techniques and was identified as 4-methylquinoline on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. To investigate the structure-activity relationships, 4-methylquinoline and its structural analogues were tested against mites and two insect pests. On the basis of the LC50 values, 7,8-benzoquinoline was the most effective against T. urticae. Quinoline, 8-hydroxyquinoline, 2-methylquinoline, 4-methylquinoline, 6-methylquinoline, 8-methylquinoline, and 7,8-benzoquinoline showed high insecticidal activities against S. oryzae and S. zeamais regardless of the application method. These results indicate that introduction of a functional group into the quinoline skeleton and changing the position of the group have an important influence on the acaricidal and insecticidal activities. Furthermore, 4-methylquinoline isolated from C. colocynthis fruits, along with its structural analogues, could be effective natural pesticides for managing spider mites and stored grain weevils. PMID:25110971

  18. Interaction of the anticancer gallium(III) complexes of 8-hydroxyquinoline and maltol with human serum proteins.

    PubMed

    Enyedy, Éva A; Dömötör, Orsolya; Bali, Krisztina; Hetényi, Anasztázia; Tuccinardi, Tiziano; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2015-01-01

    Tris(8-quinolinolato)gallium(III) (KP46) and tris(maltolato)gallium(III) (GaM) are promising orally active antitumor metallodrugs currently undergoing clinical trials. Their interaction with human serum albumin (HSA) and transferrin (Tf) was studied in detail in aqueous solution by the combination of various methods such as spectrofluorometry, UV-vis spectrophotometry, (1)H and saturation transfer difference NMR spectroscopy, and ultrafiltration-UV-vis spectrophotometry. Binding data were evaluated quantitatively. Tf was found to replace the original ligand much less efficiently in KP46 than in GaM, whereas a significant noncovalent binding of KP46 with HSA (log K' = 4.04) retaining the coordination environment around gallium(III) was found. The interaction between HSA and KP46 was also confirmed by protein-complex modeling calculations. On the basis of the conditional stability constants, the distribution of gallium(III) in serum was computed and compared for these metallodrugs under physiological conditions, and revealed the prominent role of HSA in the case of KP46 and that of Tf for GaM. PMID:25398250

  19. Antimony speciation at ultra trace levels using hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry and 8-hydroxyquinoline as an efficient masking agent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tian-Long Deng; Yu-Wei Chen; Nelson Belzile

    2001-01-01

    Depending on the pH of the matrix and the concentration of Sb(V), we observed that the atomic fluorescence emission due to Sb(V) could contribute up to 40% of the emission signal during the determination of Sb(III). This can cause significant errors in Sb speciation analyses. Besides, interferences from heavy metals such as Mn(II), Cu(II), Fe(III), Co(II) and Ni(II) can cause

  20. Photoluminescence quenching of tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum thin films at interfaces with metal oxide films of different conductivities

    E-print Network

    measure- ment of Ld. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.79.235205 PACS number s : 71.35.Aa, 78.55.Kz, 78.20. e I contents were deposited by varying the oxygen flow rate while fixing the total flow rate at 10 SCCM SCCM

  1. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    for use of wood ash generated by the forest products industry in concrete (structural-grade concreteCenter for By-Products Utilization DEMONSTRATION OF MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY FOR CONCRETE AND CLSM Principal Investigator: Tarun R. Naik UWM Center for By-Products Utilization University of Wisconsin

  2. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    generated by the Wisconsin forest products industry in concrete (structural-grade concrete) and flowableCenter for By-Products Utilization DEMONSTRATION OF MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY FOR CONCRETE AND CLSM. Naik UWM Center for By-Products Utilization University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee Other Project Personnel

  3. Impact crash analyses of an off-road utility vehicle – part I: validation of finite-element model for body structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huiwen Hu; Zhenyuan Lu; Jieming Wang; Wei-Jun Lu

    2012-01-01

    A Taiwanese manufacturer of off-road utility vehicles (OUVs) was so concerned by the increased number in U.S. accidents and federal probes, involving OUVs from other manufacturers in the industry that it recently funded a thorough, analytical crashworthiness evaluation of its production vehicle body structure. The approach is to employ a transient dynamic, large-strain, material nonlinear finite-element modelling and analysis using

  4. Impact crash analyses of an off-road utility vehicle – part I: validation of finite-element model for body structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huiwen Hu; Zhenyuan Lu; Jieming Wang; Wei-Jun Lu

    2011-01-01

    A Taiwanese manufacturer of off-road utility vehicles (OUVs) was so concerned by the increased number in U.S. accidents and federal probes, involving OUVs from other manufacturers in the industry that it recently funded a thorough, analytical crashworthiness evaluation of its production vehicle body structure. The approach is to employ a transient dynamic, large-strain, material nonlinear finite-element modelling and analysis using

  5. Utility spot pricing study : Wisconsin

    E-print Network

    Caramanis, Michael C.

    1982-01-01

    Spot pricing covers a range of electric utility pricing structures which relate the marginal costs of electric generation to the prices seen by utility customers. At the shortest time frames prices change every five ...

  6. A structural analysis of the Midcontinent Rift in Michigan, based on a fault array analysis utilizing slickenside

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M. Witthuhn; C. Teyssier

    1992-01-01

    The Midcontinent Rift is a 1.1 billion year old crustal structure which has been defined primarily on the basis of geophysical studies. It displays evidence of both rifting and subsequent closure. Many studies have examined the rift from a petrologic view but few have examined it in any detail from a structural geological viewpoint. This paper examines the structural aspects

  7. Utilization of honeycomb structures for a flat-plate solar collector by reduction of natural convection heat loss

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tae-Jin Kim; Chong-Bo Kim

    1989-01-01

    A most common and economical way of utilizing solar energy is to use a flatplate collector to capture incoming solar energy\\u000a by heating either liquids or gases. Therefore, a solar collector should be the most critical part of the performance necessary\\u000a for the system, since maximum available heat depends solely on the collector. In the present investigation, considering that\\u000a most

  8. Molecular cloning, structure, promoters and regulatory elements for transcription of the Bacillus megaterium encoded regulon for xylose utilization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Rygus; A. Scheler; R. Allmansberger; W. Hillen

    1991-01-01

    The xylA and xylB genes of Bacillus subtilis BR151 encoding xylose isomerase and xylulokinase, respectively, were disrupted by gene replacement rendering the constructed mutant strain unable to grow on xylose as the sole carbon source. The Bacillus megaterium encoded xyl genes were cloned by complementation of this strain to xylose utilization. The nucleotide sequence of about 4 kbp of the

  9. Enzymology and Structure of the GH13_31 Glucan 1,6-?-Glucosidase That Confers Isomaltooligosaccharide Utilization in the Probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Marie S.; Fredslund, Folmer; Majumder, Avishek; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Poulsen, Jens-Christian N.; Lo Leggio, Leila; Svensson, Birte

    2012-01-01

    Isomaltooligosaccharides (IMO) have been suggested as promising prebiotics that stimulate the growth of probiotic bacteria. Genomes of probiotic lactobacilli from the acidophilus group, as represented by Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, encode ?-1,6 glucosidases of the family GH13_31 (glycoside hydrolase family 13 subfamily 31) that confer degradation of IMO. These genes reside frequently within maltooligosaccharide utilization operons, which include an ATP-binding cassette transporter and ?-glucan active enzymes, e.g., maltogenic amylases and maltose phosphorylases, and they also occur separated from any carbohydrate transport or catabolism genes on the genomes of some acidophilus complex members, as in L. acidophilus NCFM. Besides the isolated locus encoding a GH13_31 enzyme, the ABC transporter and another GH13 in the maltooligosaccharide operon were induced in response to IMO or maltotetraose, as determined by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) transcriptional analysis, suggesting coregulation of ?-1,6- and ?-1,4-glucooligosaccharide utilization loci in L. acidophilus NCFM. The L. acidophilus NCFM GH13_31 (LaGH13_31) was produced recombinantly and shown to be a glucan 1,6-?-glucosidase active on IMO and dextran and product-inhibited by glucose. The catalytic efficiency of LaGH13_31 on dextran and the dextran/panose (trisaccharide) efficiency ratio were the highest reported for this class of enzymes, suggesting higher affinity at distal substrate binding sites. The crystal structure of LaGH13_31 was determined to a resolution of 2.05 Å and revealed additional substrate contacts at the +2 subsite in LaGH13_31 compared to the GH13_31 from Streptococcus mutans (SmGH13_31), providing a possible structural rationale to the relatively high affinity for dextran. A comprehensive phylogenetic and activity motif analysis mapped IMO utilization enzymes from gut microbiota to rationalize preferential utilization of IMO by gut residents. PMID:22685275

  10. SIAscopy assists in the diagnosis of melanoma by utilizing computer vision techniques to visualise the internal structure of the

    E-print Network

    Claridge, Ela

    the internal structure of the skin Marc Moncrieff1* , Symon Cotton2 , Per Hall1 , R. Schiffner4 , U.Lepski4 for structurally decomposing skin is presented in the form of SIAscopy. Its use in removing some of the subjective decisions required to diagnose melanoma at an early stage is discussed. An increase in the diagnostic

  11. Molecular modeling of metal hydrides: 2. Calculation of lattice defect structures and energies utilizing the Embedded Atom Method

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, R.J.; Mansour, K.A.

    1990-12-01

    Lattice defect structures and energies for palladium, nickel and aluminum computed include: single vacancy, self-interstitial, intrinsic stacking fault, coherent twin boundary and (100), (110), and (111) free surfaces. The importance of considering lattice defects in obtaining an accurate Embedded Atom Method (EAM) description of real materials, and the application of the EAM to the computation of lattice defect structures for palladium, nickel and aluminium is discussed. The EAM functions developed in this study reproduce defect properties well and are suitable for future investigations of metal hydrides involving defect related structures. 24 refs., 6 tabs.

  12. Improved optical transmission and current matching of a triple-junction solar cell utilizing sub-wavelength structures.

    PubMed

    Chiu, M-Y; Chang, C-H; Tsai, M-A; Chang, F-Y; Yu, Peichen

    2010-09-13

    Sub-wavelength antireflective structures are fabricated on a silicon nitride passivation layer of a Ga?.?In?.?P/GaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cell using polystyrene nanosphere lithography followed by anisotropic etching. The fabricated structures enhance optical transmission in the ultraviolet wavelength range, compared to a conventional single-layer antireflective coating (ARC). The transmission improvement contributes to an enhanced photocurrent, which is also verified by the external quantum efficiency characterization of the fabricated solar cells. Under one-sun illumination, the short-circuit current of a cell with sub-wavelength structures is enhanced by 46.1% and 3.4% due to much improved optical transmission and current matching, compared to cells without an ARC and with a conventional SiN(x) ARC, respectively. Further optimizations of the sub-wavelength structures including the periodicity and etching depth are conducted by performing comprehensive calculations based on a rigorous couple-wave analysis method. PMID:21165062

  13. Spectroscopic study of Pbs nano-structured layer prepared by Pld utilized as a Hall-effect magnetic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwa, D. M.; Aboulfotoh, N.; El-magd, A. Abo; Badr, Y.

    2013-10-01

    Lead sulfide (PbS) nano-structured films have been grown on quartz substrates using PLD technique. The deposited films were characterized by several structural techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Selected-area electron diffraction patterns (SAED). The results prove the formation of cubic phase of PbS nanocrystals. Elemental analysis of the deposited films compared to the bulk target was obtained via laser induced fluorescence of the produced plasma particles and the energy dispersive X-ray "EDX" technique. The Hall coefficient measurements indicate an efficient performance of the deposited films as a magnetic sensor.

  14. The evolution of nighttime mid-latitude mesoscale F-region structures: A case study utilizing numerical solution of the Perkins instability equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qina; Mathews, John D.; Miller, Clark A.; Seker, Ilgin

    2006-07-01

    In recent years, all-sky camera airglow observations of evolving nighttime F-region structures have raised questions regarding the formation and apparent motion of these often wave-like structures. We address these issues using a pseudo-spectral method code developed to numerically solve the Perkins (1973. Spread F and ionospheric currents. J. Geophys. Res. 78, 218-226) moment equations modeling F-region electrodynamics. To aid in interpretation of the results, we utilize a Gaussian shape initial condition of the (geomagnetic field, B, parallel) integrated conductivity under the homogeneous TEC ( B-parallel total electron content) condition and a northeastward DC electric field (E-field). We find that the initial Gaussian shape conductivity structure gradually evolves into banded structures oriented along the northwest-southeast direction while the amplitude of the banded structures continues growing and the peak of the structure moves to the northwest due to the E× B drift. The potential distribution corresponding to the initial Gaussian conductivity distribution is more complex but also becomes banded with the same orientation and growing trend as the conductivity. Wave vector domain plots show structure growth in approximately the first and third quadrants and damping in the second and fourth quadrants for both the conductivity and potential, as Perkins predicts - this leads to the orientation of the structures. We note that the evolved banded structures in conductivity and potential are oriented perpendicular to the direction given by half the angle between the DC E-field and east - the direction of maximum instability growth rate predicted by Perkins. The polarization (perturbation) E-field is seen mainly perpendicular to the long axis of the banded structures - i.e., no obvious structure-parallel E-field is observed in the simulation. By tracking the maximum point of the conductivity as a function of time, it is found that the localized structures move northwestward at a nearly constant speed that corresponds to the E× B drift velocity (to within relative errors on the direction and magnitude of ?4%). We also note that the E× B drift velocity has a dominant effect on the speed and propagation direction of the wave-like bands. The "wave" velocity is the projection of the E× B drift velocity on the line perpendicular to the wave front. Thus, the movement of a northwest-southeast oriented band can be decomposed into two components - parallel (to the band, northwestward) and perpendicular (southwestward) motions. A preliminary comparison of these results with an Arecibo all-sky camera observations shows good agreement.

  15. Novel high surface area oxide compositions with a pyrochlore structure, methods for their preparation, and conversion processes utilizing samesame

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Jacobson; R. B. Hall; C. A. Mims; J. T. Lewandowski

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes an oxide compound with a pyrochlore structure and a surface area greater than about 20 m²\\/g having the formula AâBâOâ wherein A is a divalent metal catio and B is a metal cation selected from the group consisting of niobium, tantalum and mixtures thereof.

  16. Novel high surface area oxide compositions with a pyrochlore structure, methods for their preparation, and conversion processes utilizing samesame

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, A.J.; Hall, R.B.; Mims, C.A.; Lewandowski, J.T.

    1991-05-14

    This paper describes an oxide compound with a pyrochlore structure and a surface area greater than about 20 m{sup 2}/g having the formula A{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 7} wherein A is a divalent metal catio and B is a metal cation selected from the group consisting of niobium, tantalum and mixtures thereof.

  17. An Inverse Interpolation Method Utilizing In-Flight Strain Measurements for Determining Loads and Structural Response of Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shkarayev, S.; Krashantisa, R.; Tessler, A.

    2004-01-01

    An important and challenging technology aimed at the next generation of aerospace vehicles is that of structural health monitoring. The key problem is to determine accurately, reliably, and in real time the applied loads, stresses, and displacements experienced in flight, with such data establishing an information database for structural health monitoring. The present effort is aimed at developing a finite element-based methodology involving an inverse formulation that employs measured surface strains to recover the applied loads, stresses, and displacements in an aerospace vehicle in real time. The computational procedure uses a standard finite element model (i.e., "direct analysis") of a given airframe, with the subsequent application of the inverse interpolation approach. The inverse interpolation formulation is based on a parametric approximation of the loading and is further constructed through a least-squares minimization of calculated and measured strains. This procedure results in the governing system of linear algebraic equations, providing the unknown coefficients that accurately define the load approximation. Numerical simulations are carried out for problems involving various levels of structural approximation. These include plate-loading examples and an aircraft wing box. Accuracy and computational efficiency of the proposed method are discussed in detail. The experimental validation of the methodology by way of structural testing of an aircraft wing is also discussed.

  18. Edge geometry superconducting tunnel junctions utilizing an NbN\\/MgO\\/NbN thin film structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian D. Hunt; Henry G. Leduc

    1992-01-01

    An edge defined geometry is used to produce very small area tunnel junctions in a structure with niobium nitride superconducting electrodes and a magnesium oxide tunnel barrier. The incorporation of an MgO tunnel barrier with two NbN electrodes results in improved current-voltage characteristics, and may lead to better junction noise characteristics. The NbN electrodes are preferably sputter-deposited, with the first

  19. Edge geometry superconducting tunnel junctions utilizing an NbN\\/MgO\\/NbN thin film structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian D. Hunt; Henry G. Leduc

    1989-01-01

    An edge defined geometry is used to produce very small area tunnel junctions in a structure with niobium nitride superconducting electrodes and a magnesium oxide tunnel barrier. The incorporation of an MgO tunnel barrier with two NbN electrodes results in improved current-voltage characteristics, and may lead to better junction noise characteristics. The NbN electrodes are preferably sputter-deposited, with the first

  20. Optimization of organic light emitting diode structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesse C. Chan; Aleksandar D. Rakic; C. Y. Kwong; A. B. Djurisic; M. L. Majewski; W. K. Chan; Po Ching Chui

    2004-01-01

    In this work we present detailed analysis of the emitted radiation spectrum from tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) based OLEDs as a function of: the choice of cathode, the thickness of organic layers, and the position of the hole transport layer\\/Alq3 interface. The calculations fully take into account dispersion in glass substrate, indium tin oxide anode, and in the organic layers, as

  1. Edge geometry superconducting tunnel junctions utilizing an NbN/MgO/NbN thin film structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Brian D. (inventor); Leduc, Henry G. (inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An edge defined geometry is used to produce very small area tunnel junctions in a structure with niobium nitride superconducting electrodes and a magnesium oxide tunnel barrier. The incorporation of an MgO tunnel barrier with two NbN electrodes results in improved current-voltage characteristics, and may lead to better junction noise characteristics. The NbN electrodes are preferably sputter-deposited, with the first NbN electrode deposited on an insulating substrate maintained at about 250 to 500 C for improved quality of the electrode.

  2. Utilizing the GAAA tetraloop/receptor to facilitate crystal packing and determination of the structure of a CUG RNA helix.

    PubMed

    Coonrod, Leslie A; Lohman, Jeremy R; Berglund, J Andrew

    2012-10-23

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a microsatellite expansion disorder caused by the aberrant expansion of CTG repeats in the 3'-untranslated region of the DMPK gene. When transcribed, the toxic RNA CUG repeats sequester RNA binding proteins, which leads to disease symptoms. The expanded CUG repeats can adopt a double-stranded structure, and targeting this helix is a therapeutic strategy for DM1. To improve our understanding of the 5'CUG/3'GUC motif and how it may interact with proteins and small molecules, we designed a short CUG helix attached to a GAAA tetraloop/receptor to facilitate crystal packing. Here we report the highest-resolution structure (1.95 Å) to date of a GAAA tetraloop/receptor and the CUG helix it was used to crystallize. Within the CUG helix, we identify two different forms of noncanonical U-U pairs and reconfirm that CUG repeats are essentially A-form. An analysis of all noncanonical U-U pairs in the context of CUG repeats revealed six different classes of conformations that the noncanonical U-U pairs are able to adopt. PMID:23025897

  3. A cost-effective structure of a centralized-light-source WDM-PON utilizing inverse-duobinary-RZ downstream and DPSK upstream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Long-Quan; Qiao, Yao-Jun; Ji, Yue-Feng

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a new structure of a centralized-light-source wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) utilizing inverse-duobinary-return-to-zero (inverse-duobinary-RZ) downstream and DPSK upstream. It reuses downstream light for the upstream modulation, which retrenches lasers assembled at each optical network unit (ONU), and ultimately cuts down the cost of ONUs a great deal. Meanwhile, a 50-km-reach WDM-PON experiment with 10-Gb/s inverse-duobinary-RZ downstream and 6-Gb/s DPSK upstream is demonstrated here. It is revealed to be a novel cost-effective alternative for the next generation access network.

  4. High-Resolution Structural Insights into Bone: A Solid-State NMR Relaxation Study Utilizing Paramagnetic Doping

    PubMed Central

    Mroue, Kamal H.; MacKinnon, Neil; Xu, Jiadi; Zhu, Peizhi; McNerny, Erin; Kohn, David H.; Morris, Michael D.; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2012-01-01

    The hierarchical heterogeneous architecture of bone imposes significant challenges to structural and dynamic studies conducted by traditional biophysical techniques. High-resolution solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) spectroscopy is capable of providing detailed atomic-level structural insights into such traditionally challenging materials. However, the relatively long data-collection time necessary to achieve a reliable signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) remains a major limitation for the widespread application of SSNMR on bone and related biomaterials. In this study, we attempt to overcome this limitation by employing the paramagnetic relaxation properties of copper(II) ions to shorten the 1H intrinsic spin-lattice (T1) relaxation times measured in natural-abundance 13C cross-polarization (CP) magic-angle-spinning (MAS) NMR experiments on bone tissues for the purpose of accelerating the data acquisition time in SSNMR. To this end, high-resolution solid-state 13C CPMAS experiments were conducted on type I collagen (bovine tendon), bovine cortical bone, and demineralized bovine cortical bone, each in powdered form, to measure the 1H T1 values in the absence and in the presence of 30 mM Cu(II)(NH4)2EDTA. Our results show that the 1H T1 values were successfully reduced by a factor of 2.2, 2.9, and 3.2 for bovine cortical bone, type I collagen, and demineralized bone, respectively, without reducing the spectral resolution and thus enabling faster data acquisition. In addition, paramagnetic quenching of particular 13C NMR resonances on exposure to Cu2+ ions in the absence of mineral was also observed, potentially suggesting the relative proximity of three of the main amino acids in the protein backbone (glycine, proline, and alanine) to the bone mineral surface. PMID:22953757

  5. Small-angle X-ray scattering studies of the oligomeric state and quaternary structure of the trifunctional proline utilization A (PutA) flavoprotein from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ranjan K; Larson, John D; Zhu, Weidong; Rambo, Robert P; Hura, Greg L; Becker, Donald F; Tanner, John J

    2011-12-16

    The trifunctional flavoprotein proline utilization A (PutA) links metabolism and gene regulation in Gram-negative bacteria by catalyzing the two-step oxidation of proline to glutamate and repressing transcription of the proline utilization regulon. Small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and domain deletion analysis were used to obtain solution structural information for the 1320-residue PutA from Escherichia coli. Shape reconstructions show that PutA is a symmetric V-shaped dimer having dimensions of 205 × 85 × 55 ?. The particle consists of two large lobes connected by a 30-? diameter cylinder. Domain deletion analysis shows that the N-terminal DNA-binding domain mediates dimerization. Rigid body modeling was performed using the crystal structure of the DNA-binding domain and a hybrid x-ray/homology model of residues 87-1113. The calculations suggest that the DNA-binding domain is located in the connecting cylinder, whereas residues 87-1113, which contain the two catalytic active sites, reside in the large lobes. The SAXS data and amino acid sequence analysis suggest that the ?(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase domains lack the conventional oligomerization flap, which is unprecedented for the aldehyde dehydrogenase superfamily. The data also provide insight into the function of the 200-residue C-terminal domain. It is proposed that this domain serves as a lid that covers the internal substrate channeling cavity, thus preventing escape of the catalytic intermediate into the bulk medium. Finally, the SAXS model is consistent with a cloaking mechanism of gene regulation whereby interaction of PutA with the membrane hides the DNA-binding surface from the put regulon thereby activating transcription. PMID:22013066

  6. Technical decision making with higher order structure data: utilization of differential scanning calorimetry to elucidate critical protein structural changes resulting from oxidation.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Kelly K; Dinh, Nikita; Gabrielson, John P

    2015-04-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a useful tool for monitoring thermal stability of the molecular conformation of proteins. Here, we present an example of the sensitivity of DSC to changes in stability arising from a common chemical degradation pathway, oxidation. This Note is part of a series of industry case studies demonstrating the application of higher order structure data for technical decision making. For this study, six protein products from three structural classes were evaluated at multiple levels of oxidation. For each protein, the melting temperature (Tm ) decreased linearly as a function of oxidation; however, differences in the rate of change in Tm , as well as differences in domain Tm stability were observed across and within structural classes. For one protein, analysis of the impact of oxidation on protein function was also performed. For this protein, DSC was shown to be a leading indicator of decreased antigen binding suggesting a subtle conformation change may be underway that can be detected using DSC prior to any observable impact on product potency. Detectable changes in oxidized methionine by mass spectrometry (MS) occurred at oxidation levels below those with a detectable conformational or functional impact. Therefore, by using MS, DSC, and relative potency methods in concert, the intricate relationship between a primary structural modification, changes in conformational stability, and functional impact can be elucidated. PMID:25561411

  7. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    . Generally, the concrete mixtures containing Class F fly ash exhibited higher resistance to chloride ionCenter for By-Products Utilization DURABILITY OF CONCRETE WITH HIGH- VOLUMES OF FLY ASH By Tarun R of Structures - 2004 DURABILITY OF CONCRETE WITH HIGH-VOLUMES OF FLY ASH Tarun R. Naik UWM Center for By

  8. Glary Utilities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-01-01

    Glary Utilities offers this free application to help users improve their system's performance and also protect their privacy. After installing the application, users can remove and back up faculty registry entries, along with offering a secure file deletion feature. This version is compatible with computers running Windows 98 and newer.

  9. BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biomass utilization task consists of the evaluation of a biomass conversion technology including research and development initiatives. The project is expected to provide information on co-control of pollutants, as well as, to prove the feasibility of biomass conversion techn...

  10. Preparation and properties of hybrid bilayer structures based on organic Alq3, ferromagnetic La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 and Fe3O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vengalis, B.; Šliužien?, K.; ?erniuk?, I.; Butkut?, R.; Lisauskas, V.; Maneikis, A.

    2008-09-01

    We report preparation and properties of hybrid bilayer structures composed of the organic semiconductor, 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum (Alq3), p-type Si and two ferromagnetic oxides, namely, colossal magnetoresistance manganite, La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 (LSMO), and magnetite (Fe3O4). Thin Alq3 films were thermally evaporated in vacuum. The bottom LSMO films were grown in-situ at 750°C by dc magnetron sputtering on crystalline SrTiO3 while Fe3O4 films were magnetron sputtered at 400°C on glass. Current versus voltage in a case of vertical current flow has been investigated for the heterojunctions. The investigations revealed dominating role of thermoionic emission in a barrier of Schottky type for the Alq3/p-Si heterojunction while a mechanism based on carrier tunnelling through an interface and space charge limited current processes were considered to explain nonlinear electrical transport in the Alq3/LSMO, Alq3/ Fe3O4 heterojunctions. The Alq3/LSMO demonstrated magnetoresistance values up to 11 % (at T=240 K and B=1 T).

  11. Interferometer-based structured-illumination microscopy utilizing complementary phase relationship through constructive and destructive image detection by two cameras.

    PubMed

    Shao, L; Winoto, L; Agard, D A; Gustafsson, M G L; Sedat, J W

    2012-06-01

    In an interferometer-based fluorescence microscope, a beam splitter is often used to combine two emission wavefronts interferometrically. There are two perpendicular paths along which the interference fringes can propagate and normally only one is used for imaging. However, the other path also contains useful information. Here we introduced a second camera to our interferometer-based three-dimensional structured-illumination microscope (I(5)S) to capture the fringes along the normally unused path, which are out of phase by ? relative to the fringes along the other path. Based on this complementary phase relationship and the well-defined phase interrelationships among the I(5)S data components, we can deduce and then computationally eliminate the path length errors within the interferometer loop using the simultaneously recorded fringes along the two imaging paths. This self-correction capability can greatly relax the requirement for eliminating the path length differences before and maintaining that status during each imaging session, which are practically challenging tasks. Experimental data is shown to support the theory. PMID:22472010

  12. Interferometer-based structured-illumination microscopy utilizing complementary phase relationship through constructive and destructive image detection by two cameras

    PubMed Central

    Shao, L; Winoto, L; Agard, DA; Gustafsson, MGL; Sedat, JW

    2012-01-01

    In an interferometer-based fluorescence microscope, a beam splitter is often used to combine two emission wavefronts interferometrically. There are two perpendicular paths along which the interference fringes can propagate and normally only one is used for imaging. However, the other path also contains useful information. Here we introduced a second camera to our interferometer-based three-dimensional structured-illumination microscope (I5S) to capture the fringes along the normally unused path, which are out of phase by ? relative to the fringes along the other path. Based on this complementary phase relationship and the well-defined phase interrelationships among the I5S data components, we can deduce and then computationally eliminate the path length errors within the interferometer loop using the simultaneously recorded fringes along the two imaging paths. This self-correction capability can greatly relax the requirement for eliminating the path length differences before and maintaining that status during each imaging session, which are practically challenging tasks. Experimental data is shown to support the theory. PMID:22472010

  13. Analytical studies of a parabolic line concentrator utilizing an aluminum honeycomb support structure and a thin glass reflector laminate

    SciTech Connect

    Koteras, J.R.

    1981-03-01

    Results (stresses, displacements, and equivalent slope errors) are presented from finite element analyses made to evaluate a design for a parabolic trough solar concentrator. The concentrator consists of a reflector laminate (made of thin glass bonded to sheet metal backing) which is mechanically formed and bonded to a stiff parabolic support (made of aluminum honeycomb bonded to steel skins) with a 2 meter (6.6 foot) aperture. Analyses were first made to determine a length for the concentrator such that it would meet certain performance and survivability criteria under wind and gravity loadings. These studies were made with a model for the concentrator only. The concentrator model was then combined with a model for a support mechanism, and this combined structure was studied for several wind and gravity loadings. A design characterized by a six meter (twenty foot) long concentrator was found to meet performance criteria and had sufficiently low glass stresses in a 40.23 meter per second ((ninety mile per hour) wind.

  14. Xylose utilization in recombinant Zymomonas

    DOEpatents

    Kahsay, Robel Y; Qi, Min; Tao, Luan; Viitanen, Paul V; Yang, Jianjun

    2013-01-07

    Zymomonas expressing xylose isomerase from A. missouriensis was found to have improved xylose utilization, growth, and ethanol production when grown in media containing xylose. Xylose isomerases related to that of A. missouriensis were identified structurally through molecular phylogenetic and Profile Hidden Markov Model analyses, providing xylose isomerases that may be used to improve xylose utilization.

  15. Estimation of phytotoxic aluminum in soil solution using three spectrophotometric methods

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, R.J.; Wright, S.F.

    1987-09-01

    In the current investigation three spectrophotometric techniques -8-hydroxyquinoline, aluminon, and ferron- were compared for their ability to estimate phytotoxic Al in soil solution. Soil solution Al reacting with 8-hydroxyquinoline in 15 s, ferron in 30 s, and aluminon in 30 min were related to root and shoot growth of subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L. cv. Mt. Barket) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L. cv. Cave-in-Rock) in limed and unlimed treatments of 10 acidic subsoil horizons. Across all 10 soils the amount of Al reacting with 8-hydroxyquinoline was generally the lowest, and that reacting with ferron the highest, although overlap among methods did occur. Manganese interference in several of the soil solutions limited the utility of the ferron method. The amounts of Al reacting with 8-hydroxyquinoline and aluminon were significantly related (P < 0.05) to root and shoot growth limitations exhibited by subterranean clover and switch-grass. Activities of Al/sup 3 +/ (a/sub Al/sup 3 +//) calculated from the GEOCHEM program using the Al reacting with 8-hydroxyquinoline and aluminon as the Al inputs were generally the best predictors of root and shoot growth.

  16. 3D imaging of geological structures by R-VSP utilizing vibrations caused by shaft excavations at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, T.; Hodotsuka, Y.; Ishigaki, K.; Lee, C.

    2009-12-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency is now conducting the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) project. The MIU consists of two shafts (main shaft: 6.5m, ventilation shaft: 4.5m diameter) and horizontal research galleries, in sedimentary and granitic rocks at Mizunami City, Central Japan. The MIU project is a broad scientific study of the deep geological environment providing the basis for research and development for geological disposal of high level radioactive waste. One of the main goals is to establish techniques for investigation, analysis and assessment of the deep geological environment in fractured crystalline rock. As a part of the MIU project, we carried out the Reverse-Vertical Seismic Profile (R-VSP) using vibrations from the blasting for the shaft excavations and drilling of boreholes in the horizontal research galleries and examined the applicability of this method to imaging of geological structures around underground facilities, such as the unconformity between the sedimentary rocks and the basal granite, and faults and fracture zones in the granite. R-VSP method is a seismic method utilizing the receiver arrays on surface and seismic sources underground (e.g. in boreholes). This method is advantageous in that planning of 3-dimensional surveys is easy compared with reflection seismic surveying and conventional VSP because seismic source arrays that are major constraint for conducting surveys on surface are unnecessary. The receiver arrays consist of six radial lines on surface with a central focus on the main shaft. Seven blast rounds for the main shaft excavation from GL-52.8m to GL-250m and the borehole drilling in the GL-200m horizontal research gallery were observed. Three types of data processing, conventional VSP data processing (VSP-CDP transform and VSP migration), Reflection data processing utilizing Seismic interferometry method (“Seismic interferometry”) and Reflection mapping utilizing Image Point transform method (“IP transform”), were performed to obtain reflection images from heterogeneous geological structure. As the results, the reflective events that seemed to correspond with sedimentary layers, the unconformity between sedimentary rocks and granite, and fracture zones in granite could be detected by reflection profiles using “conventional VSP data processing” and “Seismic interferometry”. However, it is difficult to identify the faults around the MIU because they are generally at a high-angle. “IP transform” is one type of Radon transform which change common shot gather to IP domain. Image Points are defined through geometries of sources and reflectors. Reflection signals in time domain can be accumulated and enhanced in IP domain by “IP transform” on the condition of the right angle to a fault. So, by a search of the direction that reflection signals are enhanced using “IP transform”, the locations of faults can be inferred. By this method, the distribution of faults that correspond with faults in the current geological model constructed from investigation data in the MIU project could be detected.

  17. Utility of reaction intermediate monitoring with photodissociation multi-stage (MSn) time-of-flight mass spectrometry for mechanistic and structural studies: Phosphopeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Jeong Hee; Shin, Young Sik; Kim, Myung Soo

    2009-12-01

    In tandem mass spectra of phosphopeptides, intact sequence ions are often missing or appear weakly. Instead, dephosphorylated sequence ions appear prominently. In this work, we used photodissociation (PD) multi-stage (MSn) time-of-flight mass spectrometry that can monitor reaction intermediates with lifetime as short as 100 ns to study the formation of dephosphorylated sequence ions such as yn-H3PO4. yn-H3PO4 was found to be formed mainly by H3PO4 loss from yn. For doubly phosphorylated peptides, yn seemed to lose H3PO4 stepwise and form yn-H3PO4 and yn-2H3PO4. Even when yn was absent in PD-MS2 spectrum, its m/z could be predicted from those of yn-H3PO4 and/or yn-2H3PO4. Complete sequence coverage was possible when the data from PD-MS2 and PD-MS3 were combined, demonstrating the utility of transient ion detection by PD-MS3 for structure analysis.

  18. Beginning Tuesday, April 15th, Oak Road will close to through traffic in order to accommodate ongoing Stanford University SESI utility work. Access to the Stock Farm garage (Parking Structure 5)

    E-print Network

    Raymond, Jennifer L.

    ongoing Stanford University SESI utility work. Access to the Stock Farm garage (Parking Structure 5) and parking lots will be maintained via Stock Farm between Oak and Welch Roads. Welch Road will reopen between Pasteur Drive and Oak Road, allowing access to the Stock Farm surface parking lot. This phase of work

  19. Utility spot-pricing study: Wisconsin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Caramanis; R. Tabors; R. Stevenson

    1982-01-01

    This research project evaluated the potential for spot pricing of electric power for industrial customers in Wisconsin from the perspective both of the utility and its customers. 1980 demand level and tariff structures were assumed. The utility system was simplified to include limited interconnection and exchange of power with surrounding utilities. The analysis was carried out using an hourly simulation

  20. A simple visual and highly selective colorimetric detection of Hg2+ based on gold nanoparticles modified by 8-hydroxyquinolines and oxalates.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuexia; Li, Xing; Li, Yonglong; Li, Tianhua; Zhao, Yayun; Wu, Aiguo

    2014-06-21

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) modified by 8-hydroxy-quinoline (8-HQ) and stabilized by polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were used for highly selective and sensitive colorimetric detection of Hg(2+) based on the quick aggregation of AuNPs leading to a color change from wine red to gray. The limit of Hg(2+) detection in real environmental water samples is 4.0 × 10(-7) M by the naked eyes and 1.0 × 10(-8) M by UV-vis spectroscopy. PMID:24622578

  1. Environmental status of cobalt and its microdetermination with 7-nitroso-8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid in waters, aquatic weeds and animal tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Abbasi, S.A.; Nipaney, P.C.; Soni, R.

    1989-01-01

    A method is presented for the spectrophotometric microdetermination of cobalt (II) in fresh waters, aquatic weeds, and animal tissues employing 7-nitroso-8-hydroxy-quinoline-5-sulfonic acid. The method enables direct determination of cobalt (II) in presence of a large number of anions and cations commonly associated with cobalt, and is adequate for determining the metal in the concentration range of 0.001-10 ppm, which is commonly encountered in environmental samples.

  2. Multi-elemental analysis in biological samples by on-line preconcentration on 8-hydroxyquinoline-cellulose microcolumn coupled to simultaneous ICP-AES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Schramel; Li-giang Xu; Günter Knapp; Markus Michaelis

    1993-01-01

    The analytical performance of an on-line oxine-cellulose microcolumn preconcentration system coupled to simultaneous ICP was investigated. Different factors including the pH of the sample solution, the flow rates of sample loading and eluation, the acidity of eluent and different eluents were investigated and optimized. In comparison with continuous aspiration, the signal enhancement factors of eleven elements (Zn, Cu, Ni, V,

  3. The novel mitochondrial iron chelator 5-((methylamino)methyl)-8-hydroxyquinoline protects against mitochondrial-induced oxidative damage and neuronal death.

    PubMed

    Mena, Natalia P; García-Beltrán, Olimpo; Lourido, Fernanda; Urrutia, Pamela J; Mena, Raúl; Castro-Castillo, Vicente; Cassels, Bruce K; Núñez, Marco T

    2015-08-01

    Abundant evidence indicates that iron accumulation, oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction are common features of Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, Friedreich's ataxia and a group of disorders known as Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of two novel 8-OH-quinoline-based iron chelators, Q1 and Q4, to decrease mitochondrial iron accumulation and oxidative damage in cellular and animal models of PD. We found that at sub-micromolar concentrations, Q1 selectively decreased the mitochondrial iron pool and was extremely effective in protecting against rotenone-induced oxidative damage and death. Q4, in turn, preferentially chelated the cytoplasmic iron pool and presented a decreased capacity to protect against rotenone-induced oxidative damage and death. Oral administration of Q1 to mice protected substantia nigra pars compacta neurons against oxidative damage and MPTP-induced death. Taken together, our results support the concept that oral administration of Q1 is a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of NBIA. PMID:26051278

  4. Absorption Spectra of 4f Electron Transitions of Neodymium and Erbium with 8Hydroxyquinoline5-sulphonic Acid and Diethylamine Systems and Its Analytical Application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Naixing; Qi Ping

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the absorption spectra of 4f electron transitions of the systems of neodymium and erbium with 8-hydroxyquino-line-5-sulphonic acid and diethylamine have been studied by normal and third-derivative spectrophotometry. Their molar absorptivities are 80 l.mol.cm for neodymium and 65 l.mol.cm for erbium. Use of the third-derivative spectra, eliminates the interference by other rare earths and increases the sensitivity for

  5. Electric utility companies and geothermal power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pivirotto, D. S.

    1976-01-01

    The requirements of the electric utility industry as the primary potential market for geothermal energy are analyzed, based on a series of structured interviews with utility companies and financial institution executives. The interviews were designed to determine what information and technologies would be required before utilities would make investment decisions in favor of geothermal energy, the time frame in which the information and technologies would have to be available, and the influence of the governmental politics. The paper describes the geothermal resources, electric utility industry, its structure, the forces influencing utility companies, and their relationship to geothermal energy. A strategy for federal stimulation of utility investment in geothermal energy is suggested. Possibilities are discussed for stimulating utility investment through financial incentives, amelioration of institutional barriers, and technological improvements.

  6. Device optimization of tris-aluminum (Alq3) based bilayer organic light emitting diode structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Chan; A D Raki?; C Y Kwong; Z T Liu; A B Djuriši?; M L Majewski; W K Chan; P C Chui

    2006-01-01

    In this work we present a detailed analysis of the emitted radiation spectrum from tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) based bilayer organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) as a function of the choice of cathode, the thickness of the organic layers, and the position of the hole transport layer\\/Alq3 interface. The calculations fully take into account dispersion in the glass substrate, the indium

  7. Correlation between microstructure and magnetotransport in organic semiconductor spin-valve structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yaohua Liu; Shannon M. Watson; Taegweon Lee; Justin M. Gorham; Howard E. Katz; Julie A. Borchers; Howard D. Fairbrother; Daniel H. Reich

    2009-01-01

    We have studied magnetotransport in organic-inorganic hybrid multilayer junctions. In these devices, the organic semiconductor tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) formed a spacer layer between ferromagnetic (FM) Co and Fe layers. The thickness of the Alq3 layer was in the range of 50-150 nm. Positive magnetoresistance (MR) was observed at 4.2 K in a current perpendicular to plane geometry, and this effect

  8. Deregulation allows new opportunities for utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, T.

    1996-10-01

    The changes electric utilities face today are both scary and exciting. In the past several years utilities have faced uncertainties that have caused major upheaval in their structures and business processes. There has been an increase in the number of mergers and acquisitions as utilities position themselves for competition. many utility employees have faced layoffs, resulting form reengineering and downsizing. Similar events and uncertainties were faced by the airline and telecommunications industries during their transformations form monopolistic to competitive environments. Even though these events have been difficult and unpleasant, there is a bright side. Today`s electric utilities have the opportunities to cash in on some innovative new ideas and technologies.

  9. Glucose utilization by Streptomyces griseus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. D. Hockenhull; K. H. Fantes; MARY HERBERT; BELINDA WHITEHEAD

    1954-01-01

    SUMMARY: Glucose utilization by a strain of Streptomyces griseus was studied. Under highly aerobic conditions, glucose was converted mainly to structural material and CO,, but under restricted aeration, lactic acid was formed. Pyruvic acid was also formed during the stages of most rapid growth. The metabolism of glucose was dependent upon the presence of phosphate, and the optimal hydrogen- ion

  10. Design, fabrication, and validity verification of polarization-selective holographic element with a novel structure utilized in magneto-optical pickup heads

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Viet-Tien Vu; Nam Kim; Jun-Won An; Chang-Won Shin; Seok-Hee Jeon; Dongwoo Suh; Hojun Rue; Mun-Cheol Paek; Hyeon-Bong Pyo

    2004-01-01

    A new structure of polarization-selective elements consisting of two holographic gratings and a dove prism coupler is proposed. The absence of a multi-stage wave-guide, compact size, and lightweight volume are the outstanding features of the new structure. Based on the coupled-wave theory, the analysis and design of the structure are discussed in detail to calculate the required index modulation. Several

  11. Realization of white organic light-emitting devices using single green emitter by coupled microcavities with two modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yue; Wu, Zhaoxin; Jiao, Bo; Ma, Lin; Chen, Han; Hou, Xun

    2015-02-01

    We fabricated a novel white organic light-emitting diode (WOLED) structure based on a single green emitting layer through coupled microcavities with two modes. By optical simulation and experiment, we showed that the two resonant modes can be adjusted by varying the thickness of the special layer to shape white light using only a single green emitter. Utilizing tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) as an emitting layer, we obtained a series of WOLEDs whose Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates are on the Planckian curve from (0.334,0.343) to (0,412,0.393) with current efficiencies in the range of 1.45–2.52 cd A?1. A maximum current efficiency of 10.12 cd A?1 and warm white emission at CIE (0.439,0.461) have been demonstrated using bis(2-phenylpyridine)(acetylacetonate)iridium(III) [Ir(ppy)2(acac)] as an emitter material.

  12. Voltage reduction in organic light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, L. S.; Mason, M. G.

    2001-06-04

    For practical applications, it is important to operate organic light-emitting devices at low voltages and low power consumption. When both the cathode and anode are perfectly injecting, low electron mobility in electron-transport materials, such as tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq), becomes a limiting factor on voltage reduction. In this letter copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) is replaced for Alq as an electron-transport layer, and interfacial modification is utilized to enhance electron injection from the CuPc electron-transport layer into the Alq emissive layer. The outcome of this structure significantly facilitates electron transport through the organic materials, thus resulting in substantial reduction in operating voltages and power consumption. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  13. Asteroid exploration and utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radovich, Brian M.; Carlson, Alan E.; Date, Medha D.; Duarte, Manny G.; Erian, Neil F.; Gafka, George K.; Kappler, Peter H.; Patano, Scott J.; Perez, Martin; Ponce, Edgar

    1992-01-01

    The Earth is nearing depletion of its natural resources at a time when human beings are rapidly expanding the frontiers of space. The resources possessed by asteroids have enormous potential for aiding and enhancing human space exploration as well as life on Earth. Project STONER (Systematic Transfer of Near Earth Resources) is based on mining an asteroid and transporting raw materials back to Earth. The asteroid explorer/sample return mission is designed in the context of both scenarios and is the first phase of a long range plan for humans to utilize asteroid resources. Project STONER is divided into two parts: asteroid selection and explorer spacecraft design. The spacecraft design team is responsible for the selection and integration of the subsystems: GNC, communications, automation, propulsion, power, structures, thermal systems, scientific instruments, and mechanisms used on the surface to retrieve and store asteroid regolith. The sample return mission scenario consists of eight primary phases that are critical to the mission.

  14. Comparative Genomics of Ethanolamine Utilization? † ‡

    PubMed Central

    Tsoy, Olga; Ravcheev, Dmitry; Mushegian, Arcady

    2009-01-01

    Ethanolamine can be used as a source of carbon and nitrogen by phylogenetically diverse bacteria. Ethanolamine-ammonia lyase, the enzyme that breaks ethanolamine into acetaldehyde and ammonia, is encoded by the gene tandem eutBC. Despite extensive studies of ethanolamine utilization in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, much remains to be learned about EutBC structure and catalytic mechanism, about the evolutionary origin of ethanolamine utilization, and about regulatory links between the metabolism of ethanolamine itself and the ethanolamine-ammonia lyase cofactor adenosylcobalamin. We used computational analysis of sequences, structures, genome contexts, and phylogenies of ethanolamine-ammonia lyases to address these questions and to evaluate recent data-mining studies that have suggested an association between bacterial food poisoning and the diol utilization pathways. We found that EutBC evolution included recruitment of a TIM barrel and a Rossmann fold domain and their fusion to N-terminal ?-helical domains to give EutB and EutC, respectively. This fusion was followed by recruitment and occasional loss of auxiliary ethanolamine utilization genes in Firmicutes and by several horizontal transfers, most notably from the firmicute stem to the Enterobacteriaceae and from Alphaproteobacteria to Actinobacteria. We identified a conserved DNA motif that likely represents the EutR-binding site and is shared by the ethanolamine and cobalamin operons in several enterobacterial species, suggesting a mechanism for coupling the biosyntheses of apoenzyme and cofactor in these species. Finally, we found that the food poisoning phenotype is associated with the structural components of metabolosome more strongly than with ethanolamine utilization genes or with paralogous propanediol utilization genes per se. PMID:19783625

  15. The Potential Utility of Predicted One Bond Carbon-Proton Coupling Constants in the Structure Elucidation of Small Organic Molecules by NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Venkata, Chandrasekhar; Forster, Mark J.; Howe, Peter W. A.; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy is the most popular technique used for structure elucidation of small organic molecules in solution, but incorrect structures are regularly reported. One-bond proton-carbon J-couplings provide additional information about chemical structure because they are determined by different features of molecular structure than are proton and carbon chemical shifts. However, these couplings are not routinely used to validate proposed structures because few software tools exist to predict them. This study assesses the accuracy of Density Functional Theory for predicting them using 396 published experimental observations from a diverse range of small organic molecules. With the B3LYP functional and the TZVP basis set, Density Functional Theory calculations using the open-source software package NWChem can predict one-bond CH J-couplings with good accuracy for most classes of small organic molecule. The root-mean-square deviation after correction is 1.5 Hz for most sp3 CH pairs and 1.9 Hz for sp2 pairs; larger errors are observed for sp3 pairs with multiple electronegative substituents and for sp pairs. These results suggest that prediction of one-bond CH J-couplings by Density Functional Theory is sufficiently accurate for structure validation. This will be of particular use in strained ring systems and heterocycles which have characteristic couplings and which pose challenges for structure elucidation. PMID:25365289

  16. I-III-VI.sub.2 based solar cell utilizing the structure CuInGaSe.sub.2 CdZnS\\/ZnO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen S. Chen; John M. Stewart

    1992-01-01

    A thin film I-III-VI.sub.2 based solar cell having a first layer of copper indium gallium selenide, a second layer of cadmium zinc sulfide, a double layer of zinc oxide, and a metallization structure comprised of a layer of nickel covered by a layer of aluminum. An optional antireflective coating may be placed on said metallization structure. The cadmium zinc sulfide

  17. A Utility View of Energy Conservation

    E-print Network

    Grant, S. A.

    1979-01-01

    % of the total bill. Utilities that use KW demand have rate structures geared to high power factor levels. Many of these companies penalize a customer when the power factor falls below a given level. In Texas, there are several utilities with demand charges...

  18. Drosophila melanogaster mini spindles TOG3 utilizes unique structural elements to promote domain stability and maintain a TOG1- and TOG2-like tubulin-binding surface.

    PubMed

    Howard, Amy E; Fox, Jaime C; Slep, Kevin C

    2015-04-17

    Microtubule-associated proteins regulate microtubule (MT) dynamics spatially and temporally, which is essential for proper formation of the bipolar mitotic spindle. The XMAP215 family is comprised of conserved microtubule-associated proteins that use an array of tubulin-binding tumor overexpressed gene (TOG) domains, consisting of six (A-F) Huntingtin, elongation factor 3, protein phosphatase 2A, target of rapamycin (HEAT) repeats, to robustly increase MT plus-end polymerization rates. Recent work showed that TOG domains have differentially conserved architectures across the array, with implications for position-dependent TOG domain tubulin binding activities and function within the XMAP215 MT polymerization mechanism. Although TOG domains 1, 2, and 4 are well described, structural and mechanistic information characterizing TOG domains 3 and 5 is outstanding. Here, we present the structure and characterization of Drosophila melanogaster Mini spindles (Msps) TOG3. Msps TOG3 has two unique features as follows: the first is a C-terminal tail that stabilizes the ultimate four HEAT repeats (HRs), and the second is a unique architecture in HR B. Structural alignments of TOG3 with other TOG domain structures show that the architecture of TOG3 is most similar to TOG domains 1 and 2 and diverges from TOG4. Docking TOG3 onto recently solved Stu2 TOG1· and TOG2·tubulin complex structures suggests that TOG3 uses similarly conserved tubulin-binding intra-HEAT loop residues to engage ?- and ?-tubulin. This indicates that TOG3 has maintained a TOG1- and TOG2-like TOG-tubulin binding mode despite structural divergence. The similarity of TOG domains 1-3 and the divergence of TOG4 suggest that a TOG domain array with polarized structural diversity may play a key mechanistic role in XMAP215-dependent MT polymerization activity. PMID:25720490

  19. Designing a Thermal Energy Storage Program for Electric Utilities 

    E-print Network

    Niehus, T. L.

    1994-01-01

    Electric utilities are looking at thermal energy storage technology as a viable demand side management (DSM) option. In order for this DSM measure to be effective, it must be incorporated into a workable, well-structured utility program. This paper...

  20. Exploring the Structural Relationships between High School Students' Scientific Epistemological Views and Their Utilization of Information Commitments toward Online Science Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chia-Ching; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the structural relationships between scientific epistemological views (SEVs) and information commitments (ICs) of high school students in Taiwan. Data were collected from 486 Taiwanese high school students via two self-reporting instruments: one was the SEV questionnaire, including five scales for…

  1. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization DURABILITY OF CAST-CONCRETE PRODUCTS UTILIZING RECYCLED MATERIAL of Engineering and Applied Science THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONISN-MILWAUKEE #12;Strength and Durability of Cast-Concrete Products Utilizing Recycled Materials Tarun R. Naik, Rudolph N. Kraus, Yoon-Moon Chun, and Bruce R. Ramme

  2. Miscellaneous Mathematical Utilities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Several online mathematical utilities intended for college and university students (math, physics, engineering, etc. students). Numerical utilities to solve (among others): N Equations in N Unknowns, Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors, Roots of Functions, and Numerical Integration. More utilities are constantly being added.

  3. Utilization of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for structural studies related to biology and disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costello, Catherine E.; Helin, Jari; Ngoka, Lambert C. M.

    1996-04-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), because of its high sensitivity and relatively straightforward requirements for sample preparation, is contributing to the solution of structural problems in biology and to the development of therapeutic approaches through increased understanding of pharmacology and enhanced capabilities for quality control of pharmaceuticals. We are using a reflectron TOF- MS for the determination of molecular weights of individual compounds and the components of mixtures that are naturally occurring or are generated through enzymic digests, and employing the post-source decay mode to elucidate structural details. To maximize the sensitivity and information content of the spectra, varied matrices, derivative, and stepwise degradation procedures are being explored. Present studies include investigations of oligosaccharides, neutral glycolipids, gangliosides, glycoproteins, neuropeptides and proteins. Rules for fragmentation are being developed with model compounds and used for the structural elucidation of unknowns. When adequate sample amounts are available, the results are compared with low- and high-energy collision-induced decomposition spectra obtained with tandem MS in order to provide a data base for the correlation of spectral features and guidance in selection of approaches for scarce biological samples. Current projects include biophysical studies of glycoplipids, glycoproteins and oligosaccharides and investigations of the substance P receptor, transthyretin genetic variants and cisplatin-DNA interactions.

  4. Development and utilization of digital image correlation techniques for the study of structural isomerism effects on strain development in epoxy network glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, Stephen Robert

    The specific aim of this dissertation is to present the findings regarding the effects of molecular structure on macroscopic mechanical performance and strain development in epoxy networks. Network molecular structure was altered through monomer isomerism and crosslink density/molecular weight between crosslinks. The use of structural isomerism provided a pathway for altering mechanical performance while maintaining identical chemical composition within the network. Isomerism was investigated primarily by the curing of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) using either the para- or meta-substituted derivatives of diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS). Additional insights into isomerism were gained through the investigation of networks composed of either para- or meta-triglycidyl aminophenol (TGAP) cured with 3,3'- or 4,4'-DDS. Crosslink density of the network was varied through two different methods: (a) increasing the equivalent weight of the linear DGEBA epoxy resin and (b) increasing the functionality of the epoxy resin through the use of TGAP. The effects of molecular structure on mechanical properties and strain development were monitored using a relatively new strain measurement technique known as digital image correlation (DIC). Strain measurement via DIC was particularly useful for the development of strain recovery procedures, which provided key insights to the deformation of epoxy network glasses of varying molecular structure by providing full field analysis of the epoxy specimens. Specific findings of this research revealed that network isomerism plays an important role in the deformation of epoxy network glasses. Networks containing meta-substituted monomers possessed higher modulus and yield stress values and lower yield strains. On the contrary, networks with para-substituted monomers displayed lower modulus and yield stress values, but increased ability to store energy through anelastic strain mechanisms, thereby delaying the onset of yielding. The increased energy storage of these networks was related to sub-Tg molecular motions and the ability for para-substituted phenyl rings to rotate along an axis of symmetry, thus creating more cooperative motion within the network. Insights into post-yield deformation of epoxy glasses were also gained where networks with meta-substitution were able to dissipate more stress post-yield through large segmental rearrangements.

  5. Utility Solar Generation Valuation Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Thomas N.; Dion, Phillip J.

    2009-06-30

    Tucson Electric Power (TEP) developed, tested and verified the results of a new and appropriate method for accurately evaluating the capacity credit of time variant solar generating sources and reviewed new methods to appropriately and fairly evaluate the value of solar generation to electric utilities. The project also reviewed general integrated approaches for adequately compensating owners of solar generation for their benefits to utilities. However, given the limited funding support and time duration of this project combined with the significant differences between utilities regarding rate structures, solar resource availability and coincidence of solar generation with peak load periods, it is well beyond the scope of this project to develop specific rate, rebate, and interconnection approaches to capture utility benefits for all possible utilities. The project developed computer software based evaluation method models to compare solar generation production data measured in very short term time increments called Sample Intervals over a typical utility Dispatch Cycle during an Evaluation Period against utility system load data. Ten second resolution generation production data from the SGSSS and actual one minute resolution TEP system load data for 2006 and 2007, along with data from the Pennington Street Garage 60 kW DC capacity solar unit installed in downtown Tucson will be applied to the model for testing and verification of the evaluation method. Data was provided by other utilities, but critical time periods of data were missing making results derived from that data inaccurate. The algorithms are based on previous analysis and review of specific 2005 and 2006 SGSSS production data. The model was built, tested and verified by in house TEP personnel. For this phase of the project, TEP communicated with, shared solar production data with and collaborated on the development of solar generation valuation tools with other utilities, including Arizona Public Service, Salt River Project, Xcel and Nevada Power Company as well as the Arizona electric cooperatives. In the second phase of the project, three years of 10 second power output data of the SGSSS was used to evaluate the effectiveness of frequency domain analysis, normal statistical distribution analysis and finally maximum/minimum differential output analysis to test the applicability of these mathematic methods in accurately modeling the output variations produced by clouds passing over the SGSSS array.

  6. Structural and Functional Characterization of an Orphan ATP-Binding Cassette ATPase Involved in Manganese Utilization and Tolerance in Leptospira spp.

    PubMed Central

    Saul, Frederick; Bellalou, Jacques; Miras, Isabelle; Weber, Patrick; Bondet, Vincent; Murray, Gerald L.; Adler, Ben; Ristow, Paula; Louvel, Hélène; Haouz, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenic Leptospira species are the etiological agents of the widespread zoonotic disease leptospirosis. Most organisms, including Leptospira, require divalent cations for proper growth, but because of their high reactivity, these metals are toxic at high concentrations. Therefore, bacteria have acquired strategies to maintain metal homeostasis, such as metal import and efflux. By screening Leptospira biflexa transposon mutants for their ability to use Mn2+, we have identified a gene encoding a putative orphan ATP-binding cassette (ABC) ATPase of unknown function. Inactivation of this gene in both L. biflexa and L. interrogans strains led to mutants unable to grow in medium in which iron was replaced by Mn2+, suggesting an involvement of this ABC ATPase in divalent cation uptake. A mutation in this ATPase-coding gene increased susceptibility to Mn2+ toxicity. Recombinant ABC ATPase of the pathogen L. interrogans exhibited Mg2+-dependent ATPase activity involving a P-loop motif. The structure of this ATPase was solved from a crystal containing two monomers in the asymmetric unit. Each monomer adopted a canonical two-subdomain organization of the ABC ATPase fold with an ?/? subdomain containing the Walker motifs and an ? subdomain containing the ABC signature motif (LSSGE). The two monomers were arranged in a head-to-tail orientation, forming a V-shaped particle with all the conserved ABC motifs at the dimer interface, similar to functional ABC ATPases. These results provide the first structural and functional characterization of a leptospiral ABC ATPase. PMID:24123817

  7. New method for obtaining position and time structure of source in HDR remote afterloading brachytherapy unit utilizing light emission from scintillator.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Haruna; Hanada, Takashi; Katsuta, Shoichi; Yorozu, Atsunori; Maruyama, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    When using a HDR remote afterloading brachytherapy unit, results of treatment can be greatly influenced by both source position and treatment time. The purpose of this study is to obtain information on the source of the HDR remote afterloading unit, such as its position and time structure, with the use of a simple system consisting of a plastic scintillator block and a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The CCD camera was used for recording images of scintillation luminescence at a fixed rate of 30 frames per second in real time. The source position and time structure were obtained by analyzing the recorded images. For a preset source-step-interval of 5 mm, the measured value of the source position was 5.0 +/- 1.0 mm with a pixel resolution of 0.07 mm in the recorded images. For a preset transit time of 30 s, the measured value was 30.0 +/- 0.6 s, when the time resolution of the CCD camera was 1/30 s. This system enables us to obtain the source dwell time and movement time. Therefore, parameters such as 192Ir source position, transit time, dwell time, and movement time at each dwell position can be determined quantitatively using this plastic scintillator-CCD camera system. PMID:19692981

  8. Effective host materials for blue/white organic light-emitting diodes by utilizing the twisted conjugation structure in 10-phenyl-9,10-dihydroacridine block.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang-Yang; Liang, Feng; Cui, Lin-Song; Yuan, Xiao-Dong; Jiang, Zuo-Quan; Liao, Liang-Sheng

    2015-06-01

    Two new 10-phenyl-9,10-dihydroacridine derivatives attached by dibenzothiophene (DBT) and dibenzofuran (DBF) were synthesized. The influence of the substituents of these materials was studied by theoretical calculations (DFT calculation) and experimental measurements. Owing to the twisted N-phenyl ring, both molecules possess sufficiently high triplet energies and are suitable as hosts for phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes. To evaluate the electroluminescent (EL) performance of these materials, FIrpic-based blue PHOLEDs and two-color white PHOLEDs (FIrpic and PO-01 as the dopants) were fabricated using the common device structures. High external quantum efficiencies (EQE) of 21.1?% and 20.9?% for FIrpic-based blue PHOLEDs were achieved by FPhAc and TPhAc, respectively. The white device based on the host FPhAc achieved a higher performance, with a maximum EQE of 24.7?% than the device with TPhAc as host material. PMID:25871535

  9. Miscellaneous Mathematical Utilities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This outstanding collection of online mathematical utilities allows users to perform fairly complex computations based upon calculus, linear algebra, quadratic programming, and trigonometry. Each utility is presented its own Webpage, which includes a brief description of the purpose of the utility and instructions about how to use it. An interesting discussion about computer precision is also provided, explaining how accurately numerical data can be represented on a computer. Two papers on quadratic programming are available for download as well.

  10. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization PRELIMINARY DRAFT ­ NOT EDITED VERSION USES OF CKD OTHER THAN..........................................................................................................................ii CEMENT KILN DUST (CKD.....................................................................................................................2 The Generation of CKD

  11. The structure of state utility commissions and protection of the captive ratepayer: Is there a connection? Occasional paper {number_sign}23

    SciTech Connect

    Zearfoss, N.N.

    1998-06-01

    While there is a considerable body of literature on regulatory decision making, the dominant theories have emphasized the influence of external factors on commissioners, which largely result in capture. Underlying these theories is the assumption that resources translate into influence. The theory proposed in this research is that while resources are necessary in order to influence commission decisions, they are not sufficient. Instead, their effects are mediated by two conditions: one, the structural characteristics of each state commission, which enable it to acquire and analyze information and two, the attributes of the type of consumer safeguards, e.g. a rate freeze or quality-of-service standards with attached financial penalties, which commissions could have adopted. The guiding research hypothesis is that the greater the ability of the commission to acquire and analyze information, the more likely it is to enact more stringent measures to protect the captive ratepayer. The major implications of this research are two. (1) This research suggests that commissions react not just to political pressure and economic incentives, but also to information. Indeed, this research asserts that information is a significant determinant in the decision making process. (2) Where the general public has neither the knowledge nor the understanding to take a position with regard to an issue, a regulatory commission with greater resources and more professional personnel is more likely to be its champion than is a commission with fewer resources and less professional personnel.

  12. context view of building 2606, utility building, also showing the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    context view of building 2606, utility building, also showing the chapel, at far left, the transformers on the east side of the utility building, the combat operations center behind, and the cooling tower structure at the right, behind the parked trucks - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Utility Building, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  13. Utilization of Fish Waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raul Perez Galvez; Jean-Pascal Berge

    2013-01-01

    The shortage of marine resources calls for the implementation of new technological processes for providing a better utilization of waste and by-products from fisheries and fish processing activities. Most of these by-products are currently used as raw materials for animal feed. It is estimated that their utilization in human foodstuffs, nutraceuticals, pharmacy, or cosmetics would increase their value fivefold. This

  14. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    1 Center for By-Products Utilization DURABILITY OF CAST-CONCRETE PRODUCTS UTILIZING RECYCLED of Concrete in Barcelona, Spain, June 2000 Department of Civil Engineering and Mechanics College of Engineering and Applied Science THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONISN-MILWAUKEE #12;1 Durability of Cast-Concrete

  15. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization RECYCLED MATERIALS IN CONCRETE INDUSTRY By Tarun R. Naik-consumer activities along with their possible recycling for the utilization in concrete industry. These by, plastics, glass, recycled concrete pavements for aggregates, recycled asphalt pavement for asphalt

  16. Nonparametric Predictive Utility Inference

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Houlding; F. P. A. Coolen

    This work considers the combination of two strands of recent statistical research: that of decision making with uncertain utility and that of nonparametric predictive inference. In doing so we discuss the use of Nonparametric Predictive Utility Inference (NPUI) within a sequential decision selection problem for the situation of a Decision Maker (DM) who is confronted with a choice set that

  17. Utility and Happiness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miles Kimball; Robert Willis

    Psychologists have developed effective survey methods of measuring how happy people feel at a given time. The relationship between how happy a person feels and utility is an unresolved question. Existing work in Economics either ignores happiness data or assumes that felt happiness is more or less the same thing as flow utility. The approach we propose in this paper

  18. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization USE OF CLASS F FLY ASH AND CLEAN-COAL ASH BLENDS FOR CAST OF CLASS F FLYASHAND CLEAN-COAL ASHBLENDS FOR CAST CONCRETE PRODUCTS Authors: TarunR.Naik, Director, Center,Illinois Clean Coal Institute RudolphN.Kraus, Research Associate, UWM Center forBy-Products Utilization Shiw S

  19. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    , and chloride-ion penetration as a function #12;-ii- of age. For air entrained concrete mixtures, test specimensCenter for By-Products Utilization DEVELOPMENT OF LOW-COST CONCRETE UTILIZING FOUNDRY INDUSTRY BY TECHNICAL REPORT October 15, 1996, through October 14, 1997 Project Title: DEVELOPMENT OF LOW-COST CONCRETE

  20. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    -Milwaukee, P.O. Box 784, Milwaukee, WI 53201 d Project Manager, Illinois Clean Coal Institute * Director UWM products containing clean coal ash compared to conventional coal ash. Utilization of clean coal ash is much products that utilize clean coal ash. With increasing federal regulations on power plant emissions, finding

  1. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization CLEAN COAL BY-PRODUCTS UTILIZATION IN ROADWAY, EMBANKMENTS-fueled plants, particularly use of eastern coals, has lead to the use of clean coal and using advanced sulfur dioxide control technologies. Figure 1 shows clean coal technology benefits(2) . In 1977, the concept

  2. Utilization of Resources from NEAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, J. S.

    2000-01-01

    Materials extracted from Near-Earth Asteroids may find use in future space-based activities as propellants, life-support fluids, or structures. The utility of any space resource is governed by several factors, including energetic accessibility from Low Earth Orbit (LEO), resource concentration, availability of appropriate microgravity extraction and processing techniques, process energy efficiency, process independence of consumables from Earth, and the energetic accessibility of the intended site of use from the asteroid being processed. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  3. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF HIGH- CARBON CCPs AND FGD BY..................................................................................................................................10 Coal Combustion Products (CCPs.......................................................................................................28 Full-Scale Manufacturing and Technology Transfer Activities

  4. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization PRELIMINARY DRAFT REPORT CEMENT KILN DUST (CKD) - BASED SORBENT Science THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN ­ MILWAUKEE #12;i TABLE OF CONTENTS Cement Kiln Dust (CKD) - Based ;.......................................................................................................... 4 Why Use CKD

  5. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    -Products Utilization E-mail: ymchun@uwm.edu and F. D. Botha Project Manager, Illinois Clean Coal Institute 5776 Coal, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI, USA. 4 Project Manager, Illinois Clean Coal Institute

  6. Utility Terrestrial Biodiversity Issues

    PubMed

    BREECE; WARD

    1996-11-01

    / Results from a survey of power utility biologists indicate that terrestrial biodiversity is considered a major issue by only a few utilities; however, a majority believe it may be a future issue. Over half of the respondents indicated that their company is involved in some management for biodiversity, and nearly all feel that it should be a goal for resource management. Only a few utilities are funding biodiversity research, but a majority felt more research was needed. Generally, larger utilities with extensive land holdings had greater opportunities and resources for biodiversity management. Biodiversity will most likely be a concern with transmission rights-of-way construction and maintenance, endangered species issues and general land resource management, including mining reclamation and hydro relicensing commitments. Over half of the companies surveyed have established voluntary partnerships with management groups, and biodiversity is a goal in nearly all the joint projects. Endangered species management and protection, prevention of forest fragmentation, wetland protection, and habitat creation and protection are the most common partnerships involving utility companies. Common management practices and unique approaches are presented, along with details of the survey.KEY WORDS: Biodiversity; Utilities; Rights-of-way; Terrestrial; Management PMID:8895401

  7. A novel bionic design of dental implant for promoting its long-term success using nerve growth factor (NGF): Utilizing nano-springs to construct a stress-cushioning structure inside the implant

    PubMed Central

    He, Hao; Yao, Yang; Wang, Yanying; Wu, Yingying; Yang, Yang; Gong, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Summary The absence of periodontium causes masticatory load in excess of the self-repairing potential of peri-implant bone; peri-implant bone loss caused by occlusal overload is not uncommon in patients and greatly diminishes chances of long-term success. Regenerative treatments may be useful in inducing peri-implant bone regeneration, but are only stopgap solutions to the aftermaths caused by the imperfect biomechanical compatibility of the dental implant. Despite promising success, the tissue-engineered periodontal ligament still needs a period of time to be perfected before being clinically applied. Hence, we propose a novel design of dental implant that utilizes nano-springs to construct a stress-cushioning structure inside the implant. Many studies have shown that NGF, a neurotrophin, is effective for nerve regeneration in both animal and clinical studies. Moreover, NGF has the potential to accelerate bone healing in patients with fracture and fracture nonunion and improve osseointegration of the implant. The key point of the design is to reduce stress concentrated around peri-implant bone by cushioning masticatory forces and distributing them to all the peri-implant bone through nano-springs, and promote osseoperception and osseointegration by NGF-induced nerve regeneration and new bone formation. This design, which transfers the main biomechanical interface of the implant from outside to inside, if proven to be valid, may to some extent compensate for the functions of lost periodontium in stress cushioning and proprioception. PMID:22847209

  8. Utility terrestrial biodiversity issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breece, Gary Allen; Ward, Bobby J.

    1996-11-01

    Results from a survey of power utility biologists indicate that terrestrial biodiversity is considered a major issue by only a few utilities; however, a majority believe it may be a future issue. Over half of the respondents indicated that their company is involved in some management for biodiversity, and nearly all feel that it should be a goal for resource management. Only a few utilities are funding biodiversity research, but a majority felt more research was needed. Generally, larger utilities with extensive land holdings had greater opportunities and resources for biodiversity management. Biodiversity will most likely be a concern with transmission rights-of-way construction and maintenance, endangered species issues and general land resource management, including mining reclamation and hydro relicensing commitments. Over half of the companies surveyed have established voluntary partnerships with management groups, and biodiversity is a goal in nearly all the joint projects. Endangered species management and protection, prevention of forest fragmentation, wetland protection, and habitat creation and protection are the most common partnerships involving utility companies. Common management practices and unique approaches are presented, along with details of the survey.

  9. Utility terrestrial biodiversity issues

    SciTech Connect

    Breece, G.A. [Southern Company, Atlanta, GA (United States); Ward, B.J. [Carolina Power and Light Company, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Results from a survey of power utility biologists indicate that terrestrial biodiversity is considered a major issued by only a few utilities; however, a majority believe it may be a future issue. Over half of the respondents indicated that their company is involved in some management for biodiversity, and nearly all feel that it should be a goal for resource management. Only a few utilities are funding biodiversity research, but a majority felt more research was needed. Generally, larger utilities with extensive land holdings had greater opportunities and resources for biodiversity management. Biodiversity will most likely be a concern with transmission rights-of-way construction and maintenance, endangered species issues and general land resource management, including mining reclamation and hydro relicensing commitments. Over half of the companies surveyed have established voluntary partnerships with management groups, and biodiversity is a goal in nearly all the joint projects. Endangered species management and protection, prevention of forest fragmentation, wetland protection, and habitat creation and protection are the most common partnerships involving utility companies. Common management practices and unique approaches are presented, along with details of the survey. 4 refs.

  10. Utility View of Risk Assessment 

    E-print Network

    Bickham, J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper will address a utility perspective in regard to risk assessment, reliability, and impact on the utility system. Discussions will also include the critical issues for utilities when contracting for energy and capacity from cogenerators...

  11. Helping Water Utilities Grapple with Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, D.; Gracely, B.; Miller, K.

    2008-12-01

    The Water Research Foundation (WRF), serving the drinking water industry and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) are collaborating on an effort to develop and implement locally-relevant, structured processes to help water utilities consider the impacts and adaptation options that climate variability and change might have on their water systems. Adopting a case-study approach, the structured process include 1) a problem definition phase, focused on identifying goals, information needs, utility vulnerabilities and possible adaptation options in the face of climate and hydrologic uncertainty; 2) developing and/or modifying system-specific Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) models and conducting sensitivity analysis to identify critical variables; 3) developing probabilistic climate change scenarios focused on exploring uncertainties identified as important in the sensitivity analysis in step 2; and 4) implementing the structured process and examining approaches decision making under uncertainty. Collaborators include seven drinking water utilities and two state agencies: 1) The Inland Empire Utility Agency, CA; 2) The El Dorado Irrigation District, Placerville CA; 2) Portland Water Bureau, Portland OR; 3) Colorado Springs Utilities, Colo Spgs, CO; 4) Cincinnati Water, Cincinnati, OH; 5) Massachusetts Water Resources Authority (MWRA), Boston, MA; 6) Durham Water, Durham, NC; and 7) Palm Beach County Water (PBCW), Palm Beach, FL. The California Department of Water Resources and the Colorado Water Conservation Board were the state agencies that we have collaborated with.

  12. Double Shell Tank (DST) Utilities Specification

    SciTech Connect

    SUSIENE, W.T.

    2000-04-27

    This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides the references to the requisite codes and standards to he applied during the design of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Utilities Subsystems that support the first phase of waste feed delivery (WFD). The DST Utilities Subsystems provide electrical power, raw/potable water, and service/instrument air to the equipment and structures used to transfer low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) to designated DST staging tanks. The DST Utilities Subsystems also support the equipment and structures used to deliver blended LAW and HLW feed from these staging tanks to the River Protection Project (RPP) Privatization Contractor facility where the waste will be immobilized. This specification is intended to be the basis for new projects/installations. This specification is not intended to retroactively affect previously established project design criteria without specific direction by the program.

  13. Proceedings of the distributed utility valuation project institutional issues workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    These proceedings summarize the discussions during a one-day working session on institutional issues related to the distributed utility (DU) concept. The purpose of the session was to provide an initial assessment of the {open_quotes}institutional{close_quotes} issues, including legal, regulatory, industry structure, utility organization, competition, and related matters that may affect the development and the relationships among distributed utility stakeholders. The assessment was to identify institutional barriers to utilities realizing benefits of the distributed concept (should these benefits be confirmed), as well as to identify opportunities for utilities and other stakeholders for moving ahead to more easily capture these benefits.

  14. Helping Utilities Make Smart Solar Decisions Utility Barriers

    E-print Network

    Homes, Christopher C.

    and how much · Solar industry is beginning to recognize the value of utilities as partners · DecliningHelping Utilities Make Smart Solar Decisions Utility Barriers Key issues facing deployment of utility-scale solar PV plants. Sandra Burton Regional Director March 8 ­ 9, 2011 Brookhaven National Lab

  15. Utility spot-pricing study: Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Caramanis, M.; Tabors, R.; Stevenson, R.

    1982-06-01

    This research project evaluated the potential for spot pricing of electric power for industrial customers in Wisconsin from the perspective both of the utility and its customers. 1980 demand level and tariff structures were assumed. The utility system was simplified to include limited interconnection and exchange of power with surrounding utilities. The analysis was carried out using an hourly simulation model, ENPRO, to evaluate the marginal operating cost for any hour. The industrial energy demand was adjusted to reflect the price (relative to the present time-of-use pricing system). The simulation was then rerun to calculate the change in revenues (and customer bill) and the amount of consumer surplus generated. A second analysis assumed a 5% increase in demand with no increase in capacity. Each analysis was carried out for an assumed low and high industrial response to price changes. Analyses were also performed to evaluate the likely implications of a flexible pricing scheme relative to a utility system with a greater level of oil generation. The results of the analysis showed that the flexible pricing system produced both utility and customer savings. At lower capacity utilization the utility recovered less revenue than it did under the present time-of-use rates. While at higher utilization it recovered more. Under all scenarios tested, consumer surplus benefits were five to ten times greater than were simple fuel savings for the utility. These results suggest that the ability of the customer to choose his pattern more flexibly holds a significant potential for customers to achieve greater surplus--even if their bill may in fact increase. These results are discussed in detail as are a number of customer bill impact considerations and the issues associated with revenue reconciliation.

  16. Utility-Directed Allocation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terence Kelly

    This paper considers the problem of allocating discrete res ources according to utility functions reported by potential recip ients and relates this abstract problem to resource allocation in a Ut ility Data Center (UDC). A simple integer program formulation, which gen- eralizes well-known knapsack problems, permits a remarkable breadth of expression while retaining clarity and analytic tractab ility. In the

  17. Utilization of pelletized slags

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramesh Prakash Gupta

    1976-01-01

    The utilization of various pelletized slags (Phosphorus, Finnish and Local Iron Blast-Furnace) in a base stabilization process and for autoclaved block manufacture was studied. For the limited number of slags considered, no clear strength development-hydraulic moduli relationship was found. A pelletized phosphorus slag was considered, but due to the adverse influence of minor constituents such as fluorine, satisfactory product strengths

  18. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    ); 232, Fly Ash and Natural Pozzolans in Concrete; and 555, Concrete with Recycled Materials. He is alsoCenter for By-Products Utilization CO2 SEQUESTRATION IN NON-AIR ENTRAINED CONCRETE By Tarun R. Naik and Natural Pozzolans in Concrete, Poland, May 27 - June 1, 2007. Department of Civil Engineering

  19. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    -Strength Materials (CLSM); 232, Fly Ash and Natural Pozzolans in Concrete; and 555, Concrete with Recycled MaterialsCenter for By-Products Utilization SHRINKAGE OF CONCRETE WITH AND WITHOUT FLY ASH By Tarun R. Naik Pozzolans in Concrete, Poland, May - June 2007. Department of Civil Engineering and Mechanics College

  20. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization CONCRETE CONTAINING RECYCLED FIBERS FROM PULP AND PAPER MILLS.; Chun, Y.; and Kraus, R. N. Concrete Containing Recycled Fibers From Pulp and Paper Mills 1 Concrete in strength. #12;Naik, T. R.; Chun, Y.; and Kraus, R. N. Concrete Containing Recycled Fibers From Pulp

  1. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    -air entrained concrete could be made highly resistant to FT with the use of the recycled fibrous residuals fromCenter for By-Products Utilization RECYCLING OF PULP AND PAPER MILL RESIDUALS TO INCREASE FREEZING AND THAWING DURABILITY OF CONCRETE PAVEMENTS By Tarun R. Naik, Yoon-moon Chun, and Rudolph N. Kraus Report No

  2. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization IN-SITU RECYCLING OF DETERIORATED ASPHALT CONCRETE FOR NEW-Situ Recycling of Deteriorated Asphalt Concrete For New Pavement Base Courses Bruce W. Ramme Haifang Wen Tarun R; and 555, Concrete with Recycled Materials. He was also Chairman of the ASCE Technical Committee

  3. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Committee 555, Concrete with Recycled Materials. He is also a member of ACI Board Advisory CommitteeCenter for By-Products Utilization COAL-COMBUSTION BOTTOM ASH FOR REDUCING SHRINKAGE OF CONCRETE at the Jean Pera symposium during the Ninth CANMET/ACI International Conference on Recent Advances in Concrete

  4. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    , Fly Ash and Natural Pozzolans in Concrete; and 555, Concrete with Recycled Materials. He is alsoCenter for By-Products Utilization USE OF FBC ASH AND PONDED COAL-ASH IN READY-MIXED CONCRETE on Recent Advances in Concrete Technology, Montreal, Canada, May 31-June 3, 2006. Department of Civil

  5. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    ; and 555, Concrete with Recycled Materials. He is also a member of ACI Board Advisory CommitteeCenter for By-Products Utilization PERFORMANCE OF CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS IN CONCRETE WITH SHRINKAGE Conference on Superplasticizers and other Chemical Admixtures in Concrete, Sorrento, ITALY, October 29

  6. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Pozzolans in Concrete; 555, Concrete with Recycled Materials; and a member of the ACI Board AdvisoryCenter for By-Products Utilization SUSTAINABILITY OF CEMENT AND CONCRETE INDUSTRIES By Tarun R Concrete Opportunities, July 2005, Dundee, Scotland. Department of Civil Engineering and Mechanics College

  7. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    ; and 555, Concrete with Recycled Materials. He is also a member of ACI Board Advisory CommitteeCenter for By-Products Utilization EFFECT OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF AGGREGATES ON SHRINKAGE IN CONCRETE/ACI International Conference on Superplasticizers and other Chemical Admixtures in Concrete, Sorrento, ITALY

  8. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization ENVIRONMENTAL-FRIENDLY DURABLE CONCRETE MADE WITH RECYCLED-Friendly Durable Concrete Made with Recycled Materials for Sustainable Concrete Construction By Tarun R. Naik MATERIALS FOR SUSTAINABLE CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION By Tarun R. Naik and Giacomo Moriconi Report No. CBU-2005

  9. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    , Concrete with Recycled Materials. Yoon-moon Chun is a postdoctoral fellow at the UWM-CBU. His researchCenter for By-Products Utilization PAPER INDUSTRY FIBROUS RESIDUALS IN CONCRETE AND CLSM By Tarun R Fibrous Residuals in Concrete and CLSM Tarun R. Naik1 , Yoon-moon Chun2 , and Rudolph N. Kraus3 1 Director

  10. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Committees 555, Concrete with Recycled Materials; 232, Fly Ash and Natural Pozzolans in Concrete; 229, CLSMCenter for By-Products Utilization CURING TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON HIGH-PERFORMANCE CONCRETE By Tarun For presentation and publication at the symposium entitled "High-Performance Concrete and Concrete for Marine

  11. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    of recycled or recyclable materials, and use less energy and resources. High performance cements and concreteCenter for By-Products Utilization ENVIRONMENTAL-FRIENDLY CONCRETE WITH INDUSTRIAL AND POST and Applied Science THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN ­ MILWAUKEE #12;1 Environmental-Friendly Concrete

  12. Underground Utilities Flag Markers

    E-print Network

    Wu, Mingshen

    Underground Utilities Flag Markers CALL 3 WORK DAYS BEFORE DIGGING Diggers Hotline: 1-800-242-8511 RED - electric power lines, cables, conduit and light- ing cables YELLOW - gas, oil, steam, petroleum or deeper Do not allow water to accu- mulate Competent person must be on site and have authority to remedy

  13. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    clay bricks. Based upon previous test data collected from other sources of coal ash, wood ash, and combined coal and wood ash, the Prince Albert ash could be used as a partial replacement of aggregates andCenter for By-Products Utilization EVALUATION OF PRINCE ALBERT MILL ASH AS A POTENTIAL SOURCE

  14. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    and for highly stressed precast members, or for prestressed and post- tensioned members in North AmericaCenter for By-Products Utilization EVALUATION OF HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE BY THE BREAK-OFF METHOD. Reference: Naik, T.R., Salameh, A., "Evaluation of High Strength Concrete by the Break-Off Method

  15. Utilities. [univac computer programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colquitt, W. N.

    1976-01-01

    Several sets of related Adage utility programs are described. A general description of the software group, instructions on how to use the programs, and a programmers description of the theory of operation are given along with a printed example of the program in use and a listing of the program.

  16. Forest Utilization in Oaxaca

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Wright; Adrian D. Leighton

    2002-01-01

    Two communities, Ixtlan and Chalchijapa, located in the Mexican state of Oaxaca, are compared based on their utilization of local forests. The long-settled community of Ixtlan, with its pine-oak forests, is compared to the recently established village of Chalchijapa which is located in rain forest on the edge of the Chimalapas nature reserve. Constraints such as forest type and management,

  17. Administrative Utility Analysis: Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co., San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    Appendixes to a study on administrative utility analysis and vocational education programs for the Area of Vocational and Technical Education (AVTE) in the Puerto Rico Department of Education contain the planning and budgeting system elements, position descriptions, and information on the growth of vocational education in Puerto Rico. The elements…

  18. Utilization review within PPS.

    PubMed

    Meyers, V W; Hober, F

    1984-05-01

    Requisite to managing the cost of treating medicare patients is a utilization review process that will decrease hospital risk under PPS. This review process is explained as well as the reimbursement schedules for hospital resource/cost or day outliers. PMID:10273503

  19. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    CONTAINING CLEAN-COAL ASH AND CLASS F FLY ASH By Tarun R. Naik, Rudolph N. Kraus, Rafat Siddique of HVFA Concrete Containing Clean-Coal Ash and Class F Fly Ash By Tarun R. Naik Director, UWM Center for By-Products Utilization and Francois Botha Project Manager, Illinois Clean Coal Institute Synopsis

  20. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    -ion penetration; compressive strength; concrete; fly ash; HPC; silica fume; sulfate attack; temperature-PERFORMANCE CONCRETE By Tarun R. Naik, Shiw S. Singh, William A. Olson, and John C. Beffel Report No. CBU-1997-07 July-PERFORMANCE CONCRETE By Tarun R. Naik Director, Center for By-Products Utilization Department of Civil Engineering

  1. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    The penetration resistance method was employed to determine setting time of concrete, and comparisons similarCenter for By-Products Utilization THE USE OF FLY ASH IN PUMPABLE MASS CONCRETE By Tarun R. Naik and Dean M. Golden, "The Use of Fly Ash in Pumpable Mass Concrete Department of Civil Engineering

  2. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    -Products Utilization Wisconsin Electric Power Company Abstract High-sulfur coal ash, particularly those obtained from products incorporating large amounts of ashes generated from combustion of high-sulfur coals generated from control technologies. Fifteen high-sulfur coal ash samples were obtained from eight different sources

  3. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    with their respective design strengths of 2500 psi and 4500 psi were tested for compressive strength. Concrete strength concretes through addition of fly ash. The use of fly ash in high strength concrete mixes reducesCenter for By-Products Utilization ABRASION RESISTANCE OF CONCRETE AS A FUNCTION OF INCLUSION

  4. Advanced fossil energy utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Shekhawat, D.; Berry, D.; Spivey, J.; Pennline, H.; Granite, E.

    2010-01-01

    This special issue of Fuel is a selection of papers presented at the symposium ‘Advanced Fossil Energy Utilization’ co-sponsored by the Fuels and Petrochemicals Division and Research and New Technology Committee in the 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) Spring National Meeting Tampa, FL, on April 26–30, 2009.

  5. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization LIST OF REFERENCENCES FOR CKD By Tarun R. Naik and Fethullah #12;1 LIST OF REFERENCES FOR CEMENT KILN DUST (CKD) 1. "An Analysis of Selected Trace Metals in Cement-418. 3. Al-Harthy, A. S., Taha, R., and Al-Maamary, F., 2003, "Effect of Cement Kiln Dust (CKD) on Mortar

  6. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    amounts of coal combustion products (CCPs), which include fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) products. In 1992, over 370 million tonnes (Mt) of fly ash and 90 Mt of bottom ash and boiler slag were produced; and, about 150 Mt (33 %) were utilized [1]. In 2000, over 59 Mt of CCPs were

  7. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    -Performance Concrete, Singapore, November 1994. 5. Naik, T. R., Olson, W. A., and, Singh, S. S., "Chloride Permeability., and, Singh, S. S., "Resistance of High-Quality Concrete (HQC) to Chloride Ion Penetration," Report NoCenter for By-Products Utilization CBU PUBLICATIONS REGARDING CHLORIDE-ION PENETRABILITY By Tarun R

  8. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    ; fly ash; concrete; temperature; compressive strength; chloride permeability; air permeability; waterCenter for By-Products Utilization Temperature Effects on Permeability of High-Performance Concrete - MILWAUKEE #12;TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON PERMEABILITY OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE CONCRETE* Tarun R. Naik**, William A

  9. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization RESISTANCE OF HIGH-QUALITY CONCRETE (HQC) TO CHLORIDE ION - MILWAUKEE #12;RESISTANCE OFHIGH-QUALITY CONCRETE (HQC) TO CHLORIDE IONPENETRATION * By TarunR.Naik Director-QUALITY CONCRETE (HQC) TO CHLORIDE IONPENETRATION by TarunR.Naik, FrederickH. Gustin,and Shiw S.Singh ABSTRACT

  10. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    resistance; chloride-ion penetration; concrete; freezing and thawing resistance; micro-fibers; paper millCenter for By-Products Utilization ENHANCING STRENGTH AND DURABILITY OF CONCRETE WITH PULP Demonstration for Use of Fibers from Paper Industry Residuals in Concrete," Wisconsin Rapids, WI, November 1

  11. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    resistance, and chloride ion permeability. Test results demonstrated that high-strength concretesCenter for By-Products Utilization EFFECTS OF AIR CONTENT AND FLY ASH ON PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE OF AIR CONTENT AND FLY ASH ON PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE By Tarun R. Naik, Ph.D., P.E. Director, Center

  12. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    permeability, chloride permeability and salt scaling resistance of concrete. A reference concrete AND DURABILITY PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE By TarunR. Naik, Shiw S. Singh, and Bruce W. Ramme CBUREPORT NO.REP-282 OF CONCRETE* By TarunR.Naik, Ph.D., P.E. Director, Center forBy-Products Utilization Department of Civil

  13. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    strength contribution and higher resistance to chloride-ion penetration for concrete mixtures madeCenter for By-Products Utilization MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND DURABILITY OF CONCRETE PAVEMENTS Conference on Durability of Concrete, Thessaloniki, Greece, June 2003 Department of Civil Engineering

  14. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    permeability, chloride permeability and salt scaling resistance of concrete. A reference concreteCenter for By-Products Utilization MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND DURABILITY OF CONCRETE MADE WITH CLASS OF CONCRETE MADE WITH CLASS C FLY ASH FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES OF WISCONSIN By Tarun R. Naik Director, Center

  15. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    , and chloride-ion penetrability. A preliminary concrete mixture made with Valley ash and fibrous residual showedCenter for By-Products Utilization Interim Report HIGH-DURABILITY CONCRETE USING HIGH- CARBON FLY and Objectives This testing work will evaluate use of high-carbon fly ash in non-air entrained concrete

  16. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization USE OF CLEAN COAL ASH AS SETTING TIME REGULATOR IN PORTLAND OF WISCONSIN ­ MILWAUKEE #12;2 Use of Clean Coal Ash as Setting Time Regulator in Portland Cement by Zichao Wu as setting time regulator for portland cement production. In this paper a source of clean coal ash (CCA

  17. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization HIGH-STRENGTH HVFA CONCRETE CONTAINING CLEAN COAL ASH By Tarun R #12;1 HIGH-STRENGTH HVFA CONCRETE CONTAINING CLEAN COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik, Shiw S. Singh, and Bruce for manufacture of cement-based products using ashes generated from combustion of high-sulfur coals. A clean coal

  18. Planning Community Information Utilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sackman, Harold, Ed.; Boehm, Barry W., Ed.

    Massive social changes are bound to occur with the extension of mass information utilities: the fundamental question is how shall this massive reconstruction of social information power be designed for the best interest of people. This book grew out of an American Federation of Information Processing Societies (AFIPS) conference, and is organized…

  19. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FOR THE FOREST PRODUCTS INDUSTRY: USE Paper APPLICABLE WISCONSIN INDUSTRIES OF THE FUTURE CLUSTER(S): Forest Products #12;-2- TITLE: SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FOR THE FOREST PRODUCTS INDUSTRY: USE OF WOOD ASH IN CONCRETE AND FLOWABLE SLURRY

  20. Module utilization committee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volkmer, K.; Praver, G.

    1984-01-01

    Photovoltaic collector modules were declared surplus to the needs of the U.S. Dept. of Energy. The Module Utilization Committee was formed to make appropriate disposition of the surplus modules on a national basis and to act as a broker for requests for these modules originating outside of the National Photovoltaics Program.

  1. Correlation between microstructure and magnetotransport in organic semiconductor spin-valve structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yaohua Liu; Shannon M. Watson; Taegweon Lee; Justin M. Gorham; Howard E. Katz; Julie A. Borchers; Howard D. Fairbrother; Daniel H. Reich

    2009-01-01

    We have studied magnetotransport in organic-inorganic hybrid multilayer\\u000ajunctions. In these devices, the organic semiconductor (OSC) Alq$_3$\\u000a(tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum) formed a spacer layer between ferromagnetic\\u000a(FM) Co and Fe layers. The thickness of the Alq$_3$ layer was in the range of\\u000a50-150 nm. Positive magnetoresistance (MR) was observed at 4.2 K in a current\\u000aperpendicular to plane geometry, and these

  2. Coal science: An introduction to chemistry, technology and utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Hessley, R.K.; Reasoner, J.W.; Riley, J.T.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the chemistry and geology of coal. It describes aspects of the petrology and petrographic characterization of coal, the processes involved in coal conversion and utilization, and the testing and analysis of coal. It includes recent statistics regarding production and utilization, as well as recent developments in structure, reactivity and routine analysis.

  3. Space Resources Utilization Roundtable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the Space Resources Utilization Roundtable, October 27-29, 1999, in Golden, Colorado. The program committee consisted of M. B. Duke (Lunar and Planetary Institute), G. Baughman (Colorado School of Mines), D. Criswell (University of Houston), C. Graham (Canadian Mining Industry Research Organization), H. H. Schmitt (Apollo Astronaut), W. Sharp (Colorado School of Mines), L. Taylor (University of Tennessee), and a space manufacturing representative. Administration and publications support for this meeting were provided by the staff of the Publications and Program Services Department at the Lunar and Planetary Institute.

  4. Lunar construction utility vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The lunar construction utility vehicle (LCUV) is an all-purpose construction vehicle which will aid in the robotic assembly of a lunar outpost. The LCUV will have the following capabilities: (1) must be self supporting including repairs; (2) must offload itself from a lunar lander; (3) must be telerobotic and semi-autonomous; (4) must be able to transport one space station common module; (5) must allow for man-rated operation; and (6) must be able to move lunar regolith for site preparation. This study recommends the use of an elastic tracked vehicle. Detailed material analyses of most of the LCUV components were accomplished. The body frame, made of pinned truss elements, was stress analyzed using NASTRAN. A track connection system was developed; however, kinematic and stress analyses are still required. This design recommends the use of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells for power. Thermal control has proven to be a problem which may be the most challenging technically. A tentative solution has been proposed which utilizes an onboard and towable radiator. Detailed study of the heat dissipation requirements is needed to finalize radiator sizing. Preliminary work on a man-rated cabin has begun; however, this is not required during the first mission phase of the LCUV. Finally, still in the conceptual phases, are the communication, navigation and mechanical arm systems.

  5. The evolution of utilization management.

    PubMed

    Carneal, G

    2000-12-01

    Utilization management has been one of the most useful managed care tools since the early days of this health delivery model. Recently, utilization management has come under siege, not directly as a result of public outcry, but from within the industry itself. One expert describes how utilization management must evolve to keep pace with the changing managed care environment. PMID:11141731

  6. CONSORTIUM FOR CLEAN COAL UTILIZATION

    E-print Network

    Subramanian, Venkat

    CONSORTIUM FOR CLEAN COAL UTILIZATION Call for Proposals Date of Issue: July 29, 2013 The Consortium for Clean Coal Utilization (CCCU) at Washington University in St. Louis was established in January of Clean Coal Utilization. The format may be a conference or workshop, or a seminar given by a leading

  7. Thermal Properties of Conduction Current and Carrier Behaviors in Organic Electroluminescent Device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masahiro Minagawa; Kazunari Shinbo; Keizo Kato; Futao Kaneko

    2007-01-01

    Organic Electroluminescent device (OLED) was fabricated using a vacuum evaporation method and thermal properties were investigated. The OLED has an Indium Tin Oxide (ITO)\\/ N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'- bis(3-methylphenyl) 1- 1'biphenyl- 4,4'-diamine (TPD)\\/ tris- (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq)\\/ Lithium fluoride (LiF)\\/ aluminum (Al) structure. An electron dominant device of an Al\\/ Alq\\/ LiF\\/ Al structure, or a hole dominant device of an ITO\\/ TPD\\/

  8. A Crossover Mechanistic Investigation of the Wolff vs. photo-Favorskii Rearrangement of Diazo-p-Hydroxyacetophenone: Methoxy Substituent Effects on p-Hydroxyphenacyl Cage; Exploratory Studies of Hydroxyquinoline-Based Phototriggers

    E-print Network

    Senadheera, Sanjeewa N.

    2010-01-28

    .2 Structures of Some Metal Complexes of 8­Hydroxyquinoline­5­ sulfonic Acid 181 Figure 2.3 Structures of Aluminum and Zinc Complexes of 8­Hydroxy­ quinoline and 8­Hydroxy­5­piperydinylquinolinesulfonamide 182 Figure 2.4 8­Bromo­7­Hydroxycoumarin... (benzoate). Furthermore, no reaction occurs in the absence of oxygen. Finally, zinc chelated benzoate ester 2.40 was found to be photochemically inert. vi Affectionately dedicated tomy beloved father, my ever loving mother,myfamily, and son, Thenuja Akain...

  9. National Utility Rate Database: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, S.; McKeel, R.

    2012-08-01

    When modeling solar energy technologies and other distributed energy systems, using high-quality expansive electricity rates is essential. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a utility rate platform for entering, storing, updating, and accessing a large collection of utility rates from around the United States. This utility rate platform lives on the Open Energy Information (OpenEI) website, OpenEI.org, allowing the data to be programmatically accessed from a web browser, using an application programming interface (API). The semantic-based utility rate platform currently has record of 1,885 utility rates and covers over 85% of the electricity consumption in the United States.

  10. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Pozzolans in Concrete. He is Chairman of ACI Committee 555, Concrete with Recycled Materials. He is also OF AGGREGATES ON SHRINKAGE AND CHLORIDE-ION PENETRABILITY OF CONCRETE By Yoon-moon Chun, Rudolph N. Kraus International ACI/CANMET Conference on High-Performance Concrete Structures and Materials, Manaus, BRAZIL, June

  11. Administrative Utility Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co., San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    Puerto Rico's economic growth has accentuated the need for a larger vocational education program capable of handling the demand for occupationally-trained personnel. The Area of Vocational and Technical Education (AVTE) operates within the general structure of the Puerto Rico Department of Education, and AVTE programs must be adapted to the growth…

  12. YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2004-11-01

    This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover, and switchgrass--and Wyoming subbituminous coal were acquired for combustion tests in the 3-million-Btu/hr system. Blend levels were 20% biomass--80% coal on a heat basis. Hog fuel was prepared for the upcoming combustion test by air-drying and processing through a hammer mill and screen. A K-Tron biomass feeder capable of operating in both gravimetric and volumetric modes was selected as the HITAF feed system. Two oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys that would be used in the HITAF high-temperature heat exchanger were tested for slag corrosion rates. An alumina layer formed on one particular alloy, which was more corrosion-resistant than a chromia layer that formed on the other alloy. Research activities were completed in the development of an atmospheric pressure, fluidized-bed pyrolysis-type system called the controlled spontaneous reactor (CSR), which is used to process and condition biomass. Tree trimmings were physically and chemically altered by the CSR process, resulting in a fuel that was very suitable for feeding into a coal combustion or gasification system with little or no feed system modifications required. Experimental procedures were successful for producing hydrogen from biomass using the bacteria Thermotoga, a deep-ocean thermal vent organism. Analytical procedures for hydrogen were evaluated, a gas chromatography (GC) method was derived for measuring hydrogen yields, and adaptation culturing and protocols for mutagenesis were initiated to better develop strains that can use biomass cellulose. Fly ash derived from cofiring coal with waste paper, sunflower hulls, and wood waste showed a broad spectrum of chemical and physical characteristics, according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C618 procedures. Higher-than-normal levels of magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxide were observed for the biomass-coal fly ash, which may impact utilization in cement replacement in concrete under ASTM requirements. Other niche markets for biomass-derived fly ash were explored. Research was conducted to develop/optimize a catalytic partial oxidation-based concept for a simple, low-cost fuel processor (reformer). Work progressed to evaluate the effects of temperature and denaturant on ethanol catalytic partial oxidation. A catalyst was isolated that had a yield of 24 mole percent, with catalyst coking limited to less than 15% over a period of 2 hours. In biodiesel research, conversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel using an alternative alkaline catalyst was demonstrated without the need for subsequent water washing. In work related to biorefinery technologies, a continuous-flow reactor was used to react ethanol with lactic acid prepared from an ammonium lactate concentrate produced in fermentations conducted at the EERC. Good yields of ester were obtained even though the concentration of lactic acid in the feed was low with respect to the amount of water present. Esterification gave lower yields of ester, owing to the lowered lactic acid content of the feed. All lactic acid fermentation from amylose hydrolysate test trials was completed. Management activities included a decision to extend several projects to December 31, 2003, because of delays in receiving biomass feedstocks for testing and acquisition of commercial matching funds. In strategic studies, methods for producing acetate esters for high-value fibers, fuel additives, solvents, and chemical intermediates were discussed with several commercial entities. Commercial industries have an interest in efficient biomass gasification designs but are waiting for economic incentives. Utility, biorefinery, pulp and paper, or o

  13. Utility Computing: Reality and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Ivan I.

    Utility Computing is not a new concept. It involves organizing and providing a wide range of computing-related services as public utilities. Much like water, gas, electricity and telecommunications, the concept of computing as public utility was announced in 1955. Utility Computing remained a concept for near 50 years. Now some models and forms of Utility Computing are emerging such as storage and server virtualization, grid computing, and automated provisioning. Recent trends in Utility Computing as a complex technology involve business procedures that could profoundly transform the nature of companies' IT services, organizational IT strategies and technology infrastructure, and business models. In the ultimate Utility Computing models, organizations will be able to acquire as much IT services as they need, whenever and wherever they need them. Based on networked businesses and new secure online applications, Utility Computing would facilitate "agility-integration" of IT resources and services within and between virtual companies. With the application of Utility Computing there could be concealment of the complexity of IT, reduction of operational expenses, and converting of IT costs to variable `on-demand' services. How far should technology, business and society go to adopt Utility Computing forms, modes and models?

  14. Supplier Selection Using Weighted Utility Additive Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karande, Prasad; Chakraborty, Shankar

    2015-02-01

    Supplier selection is a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem which mainly involves evaluating a number of available suppliers according to a set of common criteria for choosing the best one to meet the organizational needs. For any manufacturing or service organization, selecting the right upstream suppliers is a key success factor that will significantly reduce purchasing cost, increase downstream customer satisfaction and improve competitive ability. The past researchers have attempted to solve the supplier selection problem employing different MCDM techniques which involve active participation of the decision makers in the decision-making process. This paper deals with the application of weighted utility additive (WUTA) method for solving supplier selection problems. The WUTA method, an extension of utility additive approach, is based on ordinal regression and consists of building a piece-wise linear additive decision model from a preference structure using linear programming (LP). It adopts preference disaggregation principle and addresses the decision-making activities through operational models which need implicit preferences in the form of a preorder of reference alternatives or a subset of these alternatives present in the process. The preferential preorder provided by the decision maker is used as a restriction of a LP problem, which has its own objective function, minimization of the sum of the errors associated with the ranking of each alternative. Based on a given reference ranking of alternatives, one or more additive utility functions are derived. Using these utility functions, the weighted utilities for individual criterion values are combined into an overall weighted utility for a given alternative. It is observed that WUTA method, having a sound mathematical background, can provide accurate ranking to the candidate suppliers and choose the best one to fulfill the organizational requirements. Two real time examples are illustrated to prove its applicability and appropriateness in solving supplier selection problems.

  15. Creative financing of landfill gas utilization projects

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, J.P. Jr.; Laughlin, M.F.; McGuigan, M.J.

    1996-11-01

    The landfill gas utilization industry has gone through profound change in the last ten years and is in for further changes in the coming years. The first change is the probable expiration of Section 29 tax credits for newly developed projects and the second is the upcoming NSPS mandate to capture fugitive LFG emission from our nations larger landfills. In order to provide for the capital needs of LFG utilization project developers, lenders and investors must adapt to the changing nature of the industry as well. Lyon Credit Corporation has provided senior and subordinated financing as well as lease financing for the LFG utilization industry for the last three years. During this time, LCC has had to adapt its product offerings to meet the continuing needs of the borrowers in this industry. This presentation will focus on the changing nature of the industry and its effect on the economics, capital and financing requirements of newly developed LFG utilization projects. The two fundamental changes which have drastically altered the way projects are structured and financed include the changing nature of the LFG project product end-user and various regulatory and legislative measures which have significantly impacted the responsibilities of the project owner/developer and the future profitability of all LFG utilization projects. The successful LFG utilization project developers will be those who recognize that these changes are permanent departures from past practices, and those who will seek to exploit opportunities created by these changes. The lenders and investors to this industry will likewise have to adapt with these changes in order to continue to provide needed capital to this growing industry.

  16. Space Resources Utilization Roundtable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts on various topics. These topics include; Economics of Lunar Mineral Exploration; Lunar Solar Power System and Lunar Development; Space Resource Roundtable Rationale; Successfully Mining Asteroids and Comets; Lunar Polar Ice: Method for Mining the New Resource for Exploration; Acoustic Shaping: Enabling Technology for a Space-based Economy; Return to the Moon: A New Strategic Evaluation; Spacewatch Discovery and Study of Accessible Asteroids; Role of Mining in Space Development; A Commercial/Lunar Resources Exploration Concept; Radar Reconnaissance of Near-Earth Asteroids; Solar Energy Conversion Using In Situ Lunar Soil; The Application of Thermal Plasmas to Ore Reduction for In Situ Resource Utilization; Prospecting Near-Earth Asteroids from the Ground; Some Implications of Space Tourism for Extraterrestrial Resources; An Overview of NASA's Current In Situ Consumable Production (ISCP) Development Activities and Goals; Prospectives on Lunar Helium-3; Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis for In Situ Materials Processing; Subsurface Exploration from Lander and Rover Platforms with Seismic Surface Waves; Space Weathering and the Formation of Lunar Soil: The Moon as the Model for all Airless Bodies in the Solar System; and Acoustic Shaping in Microgravity: Technology Issues.

  17. Morphology and photoluminescence properties of electrospun microfibers of poly(9-vinylcarbazole)/tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum and poly(9-vinylcarbazole)/4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, G. L.; Balderas, J. U.; Falcony, C.; Caro, R.; Salmerón-Quiroz, B. B.; Mondragón, M.

    2015-04-01

    Green fluorescent electrospun fibers of poly(9-vinylcarbazole) (PVK)/tris-(8-quinolinolato)aluminum (Alq3) and PVK/4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bphen) with widths on the micrometer scale were successfully obtained from solutions in dichloroethane (DCE). The concentration of the electron-transport molecules (Alq3 or Bphen) was from 0.5 to 60 (wt%). PVK/Alq3 fibers were thick and rough whereas PVK/Bphen fibers were thin and uniform; additionally, the electrospinnability of the solutions with Bphen was enhanced significantly. Studies of photoluminescence (PL) indicate an efficient energy transfer from PVK to Alq3 in electrospun PVK/Alq3 fibers. As for PVK/Bphen fibers, the consistent decrease of the broad PVK emission is mainly attributed to Bphen favoring the formation of fully overlapping, sandwich-like configurations in the PVK. The parallel decrease of the PLE spectra as Bphen increases corroborates the increment in excimer formation.

  18. The changing electric utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Wharton, J.B. [Brattel Group, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Opinions are presented regarding deregulation of the electricity market. A review of restructing in the U.S. natural gas and United Kingdom electric power industry is presented. Restructuring of the U.S. electric industry is analyzed with regard to changing relations between utilities, changing relations among a utility`s subsidiaries, and changing relationships between supplier and customer. The key issues impeding restructuring are identified as stranded cost recovery and forced divestiture.

  19. Utilities must do more communicating

    SciTech Connect

    Uhler, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    The dramatic changes within the electric-utility industry over the past decade require them to do a greater and more effective job of communicating with their customers. When the revenues and advertising burgets for investor-owned electric utilities over a six-year period are compared with the revenues and ad dollars of other large industries and selected companies, the discrepancy is apparent. The ad costs for just one brand of cigarette are three-fourths of all utility ad spending. The utilities need to use advertising to explain new service programs and rate strategies to the public. 3 figures.

  20. MACH2 File Space Allocation Utility MACH2 Utility

    E-print Network

    Mann, Tim

    space allocation for a long time. We know that you have needed MACH2 for a long time. We know that youMACH2 ­ File Space Allocation Utility MACH2 Utility - 1 - Copyright 1983 by Karl A. Hessinger is a trademark of Logical Systems Incorporated TRSDOS is a trademark of Tandy Corp. #12;MACH2 ­ File Space

  1. Direct deposition of magnetite thin films on organic semiconductors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emilia Arisi; Ilaria Bergenti; Massimiliano Cavallini; Alberto Riminucci; Giampiero Ruani; Valentin Dediu; Massimo Ghidini; Chiara Pernechele; Massimo Solzi

    2008-01-01

    Technological procedures able to produce high quality electrodes from magnetic oxides in vertical organic-inorganic hybrid devices is a challenging task in the field of organic spintronics. Thin films of magnetite (Fe3O4) have been successfully grown directly on top of organic semiconductor layers, tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminium(III) (Alq3), by pulsed-electron ablation technique. The films show ferromagnetic behavior and good structural quality, properties detected by

  2. On the improvement of the efficiency of organic photovoltaic cells by the presence of an ultra-thin metal layer at the interface organic\\/ITO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Berredjem; J. C. Bernède; S. Ouro Djobo; L. Cattin; M. Morsli; A. Boulmokh

    2008-01-01

    Organic photovoltaic cells based on the multilayers structure, indium tin oxide (ITO)\\/copper-phthalocyanine(CuPc)\\/fullerene(C{60})\\/aluminium tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) (Alq{3})\\/aluminium, have been studied. When an ultra-thin metal layer is deposited onto the surface of the ITO anode the power conversion efficiency of the cells is significantly improved. The improvement depends on the ITO used. These differences have been attributed to the difficulty to control the surface

  3. Robot task control utilizing human-in-the-loop perception

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wonpil Yu; Jae-Yeong Lee; Heesung Chae; Kyuseo Han; Yucheol Lee; Minsu Jang

    2008-01-01

    We propose a network robot application utilizing a human-in-the-loop structure. The proposed structure hybridizes robot perception with perception capability of a human, rendering a robot immune to the uncontrolled environment. Network infrastructure enables the user to intervene in the operation of a robot whenever necessary, enabling seamless transition of task control between the robot and the remote user. We have

  4. Subjective expected utility: A review of normative theories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter C. Fishburn

    1981-01-01

    This paper reviews theories of subjective expected utility for decision making under uncertainty. It focuses on normative interpretations and discusses the primitives, axioms and representation-uniqueness theorems for a number of theories. Similarities and differences among the various theories are highlighted. The interplay between realistic decision structures and structural axioms that facilitate mathematical derivations is also emphasized.

  5. Identifying and managing inappropriate hospital utilization: a policy synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Payne, S M

    1987-01-01

    Utilization review, the assessment of the appropriateness and efficiency of hospital care through review of the medical record, and utilization management, deliberate action by payers or hospital administrators to influence providers of hospital services to increase the efficiency and effectiveness with which services are provided, are valuable but relatively unfamiliar strategies for containing hospital costs. The purpose of this synthesis is to increase awareness of the scope of and potential for these approaches among health services managers and administrators, third-party payers, policy analysts, and health services researchers. The synthesis will assist the reader to trace the conceptual context and the historical development of utilization review from unstructured methods using individual physicians' professional judgment to structured methods using explicit criteria; to establish the context of utilization review and clarify its uses; to understand the concepts and tools used in assessing the efficiency of hospital use; and to select, design, and evaluate utilization review and utilization management programs. The extent of inappropriate (medical unnecessary) hospital utilization and the factors associated with it are described. Implications for managers, providers, and third-party payers in targeting utilization review and in designing and evaluating utilization management programs are discussed. PMID:3121538

  6. Acid rain & electric utilities II

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This document presents reports which were presented at the Acid Rain and Electric Utilities Conference. Topics include environmental issues and electric utilities; acid rain program overview; global climate change and carbon dioxide; emissions data management; compliance; emissions control; allowance and trading; nitrogen oxides; and assessment. Individual reports have been processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

  7. Utility supply portfolio diversity requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Hanser, Philip; Graves, Frank

    2007-06-15

    In general, diversification for its own sake by utilities is likely to come at significant cost from ignoring or having to overcome engineering reasons for preferring a less diversified portfolio of resources. Integrated utilities, distcos and merchant gencos are likely to pursue widely divergent strategies in this regard. (author)

  8. Xylose utilization in recombinant zymomonas

    DOEpatents

    Caimi, Perry G; McCole, Laura; Tao, Luan; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Viitanen, Paul V

    2014-03-25

    Xylose-utilizing Zymomonas strains studied were found to accumulate ribulose when grown in xylose-containing media. Engineering these strains to increase ribose-5-phosphate isomerase activity led to reduced ribulose accumulation, improved growth, improved xylose utilization, and increased ethanol production.

  9. Back to Bentham? Explorations of Experienced Utility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Kahneman; Peter P. Wakker; Rakesh Sarin

    1997-01-01

    Two core meanings of 'utility' are distinguished. 'Decision utility' is the weight of an outcome in a decision. 'Experienced utility' is a hedonic quality, as in J. Bentham's usage. Experienced utility can be reported in real time (instant utility) or in retrospective evaluations of past episodes (remembered utility). Psychological research has documented systematic errors in retrospective evaluations, which can induce

  10. Politics of public utility regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Gormley, W.T. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Since the early 1970s, energy and telecommunications policies have emerged as increasingly complex and conflictual issues in state government and have, consequently, brought about change in the politics of public utilities regulation. In this analysis, Gormley shows that state public utilities commissions, in determining the rates that can be charged by private utility companies, must confront elected government officials, members of the state bureaucracy, citizens' groups, and the regulated industries themselves in a very visible, highly technical, costly, and controversial process that pits investors against consumers, business groups against residential consumers, consumer groups against environmentalists, and low-income consumers against consumers as a whole.

  11. Variability Aware Network Utility Maximization

    E-print Network

    Joseph, Vinay

    2011-01-01

    Network Utility Maximization (NUM) provides the key conceptual framework to study resource allocation amongst a collection of users/entities across disciplines as diverse as economics, law and engineering. In network engineering, this framework has been particularly insightful towards understanding how Internet protocols allocate bandwidth, and motivated diverse research on distributed mechanisms to maximize network utility while incorporating new relevant constraints, on energy/power, storage, stability, etc., for systems ranging from communication networks to the smart-grid. However when the available resources and/or users' utilities vary over time, a user's allocations will tend to vary, which in turn may have a detrimental impact on the users' utility or quality of experience. This paper introduces a generalized NUM framework which explicitly incorporates the detrimental impact of temporal variability in a user's allocated rewards. It explicitly incorporates tradeoffs amongst the mean and variability in ...

  12. Ion-thruster propellant utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.

    1971-01-01

    The evaluation and understanding of maximum propellant utilization, with mercury used as the propellant are presented. The primary-electron region in the ion chamber of a bombardment thruster is analyzed at maximum utilization. The results of this analysis, as well as experimental data from a range of ion-chamber configurations, show a nearly constant loss rate for unionized propellant at maximum utilization over a wide range of total propellant flow rate. The discharge loss level of 1000 eV/ion was used as a definition of maximum utilization, but the exact level of this definition has no effect on the qualitative results and little effect on the quantitative results. There are obvious design applications for the results of this investigation, but the results are particularly significant whenever efficient throttled operation is required.

  13. IDENTIFYING VULNERABLE SURFACE WATER UTILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to provide a mechanism and framework with which utility managers could analyze the effects of upstream discharges on source waters. Specific components of the project included selection, implementation, and demonstration of a microcomputer-based commerci...

  14. Enduring values of municipal utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Telly, C.S.; Grove, J.F.

    1981-05-01

    The value of municipal utilities is assessed in terms of their social responsibility, the political responsiveness of the owners, and pricing policy - issues which conflict with the traditional concept of corporate responsibility to the shareholder and which reveal a growing demand for accountability. Although municipal utilities are only a small part of the economic, legal, and political setting, they contribute as a small, locally-controlled natural monopoly to the American goals of democracy and self-determination. (DCK)

  15. Hualapai Tribal Utility Development Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hualapai Tribal Nation

    2008-01-01

    The first phase of the Hualapai Tribal Utility Development Project (Project) studied the feasibility of establishing a tribally operated utility to provide electric service to tribal customers at Grand Canyon West (see objective 1 below). ;\\u000a;\\u000aThe project was successful in completing the analysis of the energy production from the solar power systems at Grand Canyon West and developing

  16. Kinesthetic Structures

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dong, Kevin

    This paper describes how students are engaged in hands-on activities that reinforce complex engineering principles. In addition to utilizing chalk board examples for design and analysis problems, physical modeling, not necessarily traditional laboratory testing, is implemented to link engineering theory with building behavior. Students design, build, and learn how structures behave in three dimensions.

  17. Identifying Chelators for Metalloprotein Inhibitors Using a Fragment-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Jennifer A.; Fullagar, Jessica; Miller, Melissa T.; Cohen, Seth M.

    2011-01-01

    Fragment-based lead design (FBLD) has been used to identify new metal-binding groups for metalloenzyme inhibitors. When screened at 1 mM, a chelator fragment library (CFL-1.1) of 96 compounds produced hit rates ranging from 29–43% for five matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), 24% for anthrax lethal factor (LF), 49% for 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), and 60% for tyrosinase (TY). The ligand efficiencies (LE) of the fragment hits are excellent, in the range of 0.4–0.8 kcal/mol. The MMP enzymes all generally elicit the same chelators as hits from CFL-1.1; however, the chelator fragments that inhibit structurally unrelated metalloenzymes (LF, 5-LO, TY) vary considerably. To develop more advanced hits, one hit from CFL-1.1, 8-hydroxyquinoline, was elaborated at four different positions around the ring system to generate new fragments. 8-Hydroxyquinoline fragments substituted at either the 5- or 7-positions gave potent hits against MMP-2, with IC50 values in the low micromolar range. The 8-hydroxyquinoline represents a promising, new chelator scaffold for the development of MMP inhibitors that was discovered by use of a metalloprotein-focused chelator fragment library. PMID:21189019

  18. Composite isogrid structures for parabolic surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverman, Edward M. (Inventor); Boyd, Jr., William E. (Inventor); Rhodes, Marvin D. (Inventor); Dyer, Jack E. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The invention relates to high stiffness parabolic structures utilizing integral reinforced grids. The parabolic structures implement the use of isogrid structures which incorporate unique and efficient orthotropic patterns for efficient stiffness and structural stability.

  19. Avian utilization of subsidence wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Nawrot, J.R.; Conley, P.S.; Smout, C.L. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Diverse and productive wetlands have resulted from coal mining in the midwest. The trend from surface to underground mining has increased the potential for subsidence. Planned subsidence of longwall mining areas provides increased opportunities for wetland habitat establishment. Planned subsidence over a 180 meter (590 foot) deep longwall mine in southern Illinois during 1984 to 1986 produced three subsidence wetlands totaling 15 hectares (38 acres). The resulting palustrine emergent wetlands enhanced habitat diversity within the surrounding palustrine forested unsubsided area. Habitat assessments and evaluations of avian utilization of the subsidence wetlands were conducted during February 1990 through October 1991. Avian utilization was greatest within the subsided wetlands. Fifty-three bird species representing seven foraging guilds utilized the subsidence wetlands. Wading/fishing, dabbling waterfowl, and insectivorous avian guilds dominated the subsidence wetlands. The subsidence wetlands represented ideal habitat for wood ducks and great blue herons which utilized snags adjacent to and within the wetlands for nesting (19 great blue heron nests produced 25 young). Dense cover and a rich supply of macroinvertebrates provide excellent brood habitat for wood ducks, while herpetofauna and ichthyofauna provided abundant forage in shallow water zones for great blue herons and other wetland wading birds. The diversity of game and non-game avifauna utilizing the subsidence areas demonstrated the unique value of these wetlands. Preplanned subsidence wetlands can help mitigate loss of wetland habitats in the midwest.

  20. Utility Roles in Preserving the Industrial Base 

    E-print Network

    Gilbert, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    large a problem could occur if a utility or public utility commission merely assumed that its industrial base just had to "grin and bear it?" This presentation highlights the history of utility roles and recent experiences in California, Houston...

  1. Photovoltaic utility/customer interface study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Eichler, C.H.; Hayes, T.P.; Matthews, M.M.; Wilraker, V.F.

    1980-12-01

    The technical, economic, and legal and regulatory issues of interconnecting small, privately-owned, on-site photovoltaic generating systems to an electric utility are addressed. Baseline residential, commercial and industrial class photovoltaic systems were developed. Technical issues of concern affecting this interconnection were identified and included fault protection, undervoltage protection, lamp flicker, revenue metering, loss of synchronism, electrical safety, prevention of backfeeding a de-energized utility feeder, effects of on-site generation on utility relaying schemes, effects of power conditioner harmonic distortion on the electric utility, system isolation, electromagnetic interference and site power factor as seen by the utility. Typical interconnection wiring diagrams were developed for interconnecting each class of baseline photovoltaic generating system. These diagrams incorporated typical protective features currently required by electric utilities. Areas requiring additional technical work are highlighted and include electrical safety, prevention of backfeeding a de-energized feeder, power factor requirements and permissible limits of harmonic injection. An economic evaluation methodology was developed to allow the potential photovoltaic system owner to compare various possible photovoltaic generating system configurations under different utility rate structures and varying economic climates on a consistent basis. The methodology permits calculation of the cost of meeting the customer's energy needs for a specific time period for any given equipment configuration and economic environment.

  2. Renewable energy and utility regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-10

    This report summarizes the results of a joint project on renewable energy of the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) and the US DOE. NARUC'S Task Force on Renewable Energy conducted a review of the current state of renewable energy technologies to evaluate their potential and extract key policy lessons from experience already gained in deployment of these technologies in numerous states. The main focus of this effort has been to clarify how utility regulators affect the development of renewable energy resources. The goal of the project was twofold: (1) identify the factors that have led to success or failure or renewable energy technologies in various energy markets, and (2) to develop an agenda on renewable energy and utility regulation for NARUC and the DOE. This report consists of three sections: renewable energy contributions, costs and potential; factors affecting development of renewable energy resources; and a renewable energy agenda for NARUC.

  3. Renewable energy and utility regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-10

    This report summarizes the results of a joint project on renewable energy of the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) and the US DOE. NARUC`S Task Force on Renewable Energy conducted a review of the current state of renewable energy technologies to evaluate their potential and extract key policy lessons from experience already gained in deployment of these technologies in numerous states. The main focus of this effort has been to clarify how utility regulators affect the development of renewable energy resources. The goal of the project was twofold: (1) identify the factors that have led to success or failure or renewable energy technologies in various energy markets, and (2) to develop an agenda on renewable energy and utility regulation for NARUC and the DOE. This report consists of three sections: renewable energy contributions, costs and potential; factors affecting development of renewable energy resources; and a renewable energy agenda for NARUC.

  4. Utility theory front to back inferring utility from agents' choices

    E-print Network

    Finance University of Oxford Oxford OX1 3LB January 20, 2011 Abstract We pursue an inverse approach) and ask if it is possible to derive a utility function for which the observed behaviour is optimal. We of investment and consumption problems in finance has a long history, and there is large literature relating

  5. Utilities` business plans include outsourcing

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    A panel discussion on the benefits and drawbacks of outsourcing information system functions and telecommunications operations drew much interest at the UTC (the Telecommunications Association) Annual Conference and Exhibition, held here in late summer. A panel, consisting of executives from utilities that have outsourced these services discussed this controversial business management trend. {open_quotes}Outsourcing decisions should be a balance between corporate functional requirements and cost reduction,{close_quotes} said panelist Richard Kubica, Northeast Utilities Service Co.`s manager of network planning and engineering.

  6. Moose (Alces alces) reacts to high summer temperatures by utilizing thermal shelters in boreal forests - an analysis based on airborne laser scanning of the canopy structure at moose locations.

    PubMed

    Melin, Markus; Matala, Juho; Mehtätalo, Lauri; Tiilikainen, Raisa; Tikkanen, Olli-Pekka; Maltamo, Matti; Pusenius, Jyrki; Packalen, Petteri

    2014-04-01

    The adaptation of different species to warming temperatures has been increasingly studied. Moose (Alces alces) is the largest of the ungulate species occupying the northern latitudes across the globe, and in Finland it is the most important game species. It is very well adapted to severe cold temperatures, but has a relatively low tolerance to warm temperatures. Previous studies have documented changes in habitat use by moose due to high temperatures. In many of these studies, the used areas have been classified according to how much thermal cover they were assumed to offer based on satellite/aerial imagery data. Here, we identified the vegetation structure in the areas used by moose under different thermal conditions. For this purpose, we used airborne laser scanning (ALS) data extracted from the locations of GPS-collared moose. This provided us with detailed information about the relationships between moose and the structure of forests it uses in different thermal conditions and we were therefore able to determine and differentiate between the canopy structures at locations occupied by moose during different thermal conditions. We also discovered a threshold beyond which moose behaviour began to change significantly: as day temperatures began to reach 20 °C and higher, the search for areas with higher and denser canopies during daytime became evident. The difference was clear when compared to habitat use at lower temperatures, and was so strong that it provides supporting evidence to previous studies, suggesting that moose are able to modify their behaviour to cope with high temperatures, but also that the species is likely to be affected by warming climate. PMID:24115403

  7. Utilization and utility of clinical laboratory reports with graphical elements

    PubMed Central

    Shirts, Brian H.; Larsen, Nichole; Jackson, Brian R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Graphical reports that contain charts, images, and tables have potential to convey information more effectively than text-based reports; however, studies have not measured how much clinicians value such features. We sought to identify factors that might influence the utilization of reports with graphical elements postulating that this is a surrogate for relative clinical utility of these graphical elements. Materials and Methods: We implemented a pilot project at ARUP laboratories to develop online enhanced laboratory test reports that contained graphical elements. We monitored on-demand clinician access to reports generated for 48 reportable tests over 22 months. We evaluated utilization of reports with graphical elements by clinicians at all institutions that use ARUP as a reference laboratory using descriptive statistics, regression, and meta-analysis tools to evaluate groups of similar test reports. Results: Median download rate by test was 8.6% with high heterogeneity in download rates between tests. Test reports with additional graphical elements were not necessarily downloaded more often than reports without these elements. Recently implemented tests and tests reporting abnormal results were associated with higher download rates (P < 0.01). Higher volume tests were associated with lower download rates (P = 0.03). Conclusions: In select cases graphical information may be clinically useful, particularly for less frequently ordered tests and in on reports of abnormal results. The utilization data presented could be used as a reference point for other laboratories planning on implementing graphical reporting. However, between-test heterogeneity was high and in many cases graphical elements may add little clinical utility, particularly if these merely reinforce information already contained in text based reports. PMID:23024885

  8. How focusing on value to customers changes a DSM portfolio: One utility`s example

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, P.; Chamberlin, J.

    1994-12-31

    The controversy continues as to the appropriate strategy for demand-side management (DSM) in integrated resource planning. This disagreement centers around whether the goal of DSM is the minimization of rates or the minimization of the cost of energy services (as measured by the Total Resource Cost [TRC] or all ratepayers test). Each strategy has its drawbacks. A fallacy of the RIM test strategy is that it fails conservation programs that cost less to implement than the power they replace and that provide benefits to ratepayers as a whole. A particular problem with the TRC test strategy is that any increase in energy use-whether due to off-peak load building, overall load growth, or even takeback, is regarded as a cost and is seen as having no value, even to program participants. As a consequence, utilities adopting the TRC test strategy have a very difficult time undertaking actions that increase (or retain) even when they increase customer value. This assumption of no value is not only nonsensical but is also conceptually wrong. This paper discusses an alternative DSM strategy that explicitly accounts for changes in customer value. The basis of this strategy is a new value test that was developed rigorously from the economic principles of efficiency. However, we have structured the Value test strategy within the general framework of the existing tests, and we have found that it generally does not require any more or different information than the current tests. The results of applying this value strategy, however, can have a significant impact on a utility`s DSM plan, This paper begins with a brief discussion of the Value test perspective. We then present an empirical example of the calculation of the Value test and demonstrate how a utility`s DSM plan would change going from a strategy of either rate reduction or energy service cost reduction to a strategy of customer value.

  9. Utilizing structures of CYP2D6 and BACE1 complexes to reduce risk of drug-drug interactions with a novel series of centrally efficacious BACE1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Brodney, Michael A; Beck, Elizabeth M; Butler, Christopher R; Barreiro, Gabriela; Johnson, Eric F; Riddell, David; Parris, Kevin; Nolan, Charles E; Fan, Ying; Atchison, Kevin; Gonzales, Cathleen; Robshaw, Ashley E; Doran, Shawn D; Bundesmann, Mark W; Buzon, Leanne; Dutra, Jason; Henegar, Kevin; LaChapelle, Erik; Hou, Xinjun; Rogers, Bruce N; Pandit, Jayvardhan; Lira, Ricardo; Martinez-Alsina, Luis; Mikochik, Peter; Murray, John C; Ogilvie, Kevin; Price, Loren; Sakya, Subas M; Yu, Aijia; Zhang, Yong; O'Neill, Brian T

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, the first generation of ?-secretase (BACE1) inhibitors advanced into clinical development for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the alignment of drug-like properties and selectivity remains a major challenge. Herein, we describe the discovery of a novel class of potent, low clearance, CNS penetrant BACE1 inhibitors represented by thioamidine 5. Further profiling suggested that a high fraction of the metabolism (>95%) was due to CYP2D6, increasing the potential risk for victim-based drug-drug interactions (DDI) and variable exposure in the clinic due to the polymorphic nature of this enzyme. To guide future design, we solved crystal structures of CYP2D6 complexes with substrate 5 and its corresponding metabolic product pyrazole 6, which provided insight into the binding mode and movements between substrate/inhibitor complexes. Guided by the BACE1 and CYP2D6 crystal structures, we designed and synthesized analogues with reduced risk for DDI, central efficacy, and improved hERG therapeutic margins. PMID:25781223

  10. Utility of an alternative bicycle commute route of lower proximity to motorised traffic in decreasing exposure to ultra-fine particles, respiratory symptoms and airway inflammation – a structured exposure experiment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bicycle commuting in an urban environment of high air pollution is known to be a potential health risk, especially for susceptible individuals. While risk management strategies aimed to reduce exposure to motorised traffic emissions have been suggested, only limited studies have assessed the utility of such strategies in real-world circumstances. Objectives The potential to lower exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP; < 0.1 ?m) during bicycle commuting by reducing proximity to motorised traffic was investigated with real-time air pollution and intermittent acute inflammatory measurements in healthy individuals using their typical higher proximity, and an alternative lower proximity, bicycle commute route. Methods Thirty-five healthy adults (mean ± SD: age = 39 ± 11 yr; 29% female) completed two return trips, one each in the condition of their typical route (HIGH) and a pre-determined alternative route of lower proximity to motorised traffic (LOW); proximity being determined by the proportion of on-road cycle paths. Particle number concentration (PNC) and diameter (PD) were monitored in-commute in real-time. Acute inflammatory indices of respiratory symptoms (as a scalar of frequency from very low to very high / 1 to 5), lung function and spontaneous sputum (for inflammatory cell analyses) were collected immediately pre-commute, and immediately and three hours post-commute. Results In the condition of LOW, compared to in the condition of HIGH, there was a significant decrease in mean PNC (1.91 x e4 ± 0.93 × e4 ppcc vs. 2.95 × e4 ± 1.50 × e4 ppcc; p ? 0.001), and the mean frequency of in-commute offensive odour detection (2.1 vs. 2.8; p = 0.019), dust and soot observation (1.7 vs. 2.3; p = 0.038) and nasopharyngeal irritation (1.5 vs. 1.9; p = 0.007). There were no significant differences between LOW and HIGH in the commute distance and duration (12.8 ± 7.1 vs. 12.0 ± 6.9 km and 44 ± 17 vs. 42 ± 17 min, respectively), or other indices of acute airway inflammation. Conclusions Exposure to PNC and offensive odour, and nasopharyngeal irritation, can be significantly lowered when utilising a route of lower proximity to motorised traffic whilst bicycle commuting, without significantly affecting commute distance or duration. This may bring health benefits for both healthy and susceptible individuals. PMID:23566176

  11. Enrichment, Isolation and Some Properties of Methane-utilizing Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Whittenbury; K. C. Phillips; J. F. Wilkinson

    1970-01-01

    SUMMARY More than IOO Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, methane-utilizing bacteria were isolated. All used only methane and methanol of the substrates tested for growth. The organisms were classified into five groups on the basis of mor- phology, fine structure, and type of resting stage formed (exospores and different types of cysts) and into subgroups on other properties. Methods of enrichment, isolation

  12. Utilization Deficiencies and Transfer of Strategies in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clerc, Jerome; Miller, Patricia H.

    2013-01-01

    Three studies examined whether strategy utilization deficiencies emerge during transfer to two tasks that differ superficially from the main task but have the same underlying structural logic. In Experiment 1, children aged 4, 4 1/2, and 5 spontaneously produced selective attention strategies (or were prompted to do so) on a selective memory task.…

  13. Unified Model for Generation Complex Networks with Utility Preferential Attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian-Jun; Gao, Zi-You; Sun, Hui-Jun

    2006-07-01

    In this paper, based on the utility preferential attachment, we propose a new unified model to generate different network topologies such as scale-free, small-world and random networks. Moreover, a new network structure named super scale network is found, which has monopoly characteristic in our simulation experiments. Finally, the characteristics of this new network are given.

  14. Increasing bandwidth utilization in next generation iptv networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulf Jennehag; Tingting Zhang

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel idea regarding transmission of next generation IPTV content. Today IPTV systems utilize a GOP structure to provide stream synchronization points for the clients, these are used when a channel switch occur. Since channel switches made by TV audiences are quite rare it is redundant to send synchronization opportunities in a GOP manner. The

  15. Utility Marketing Strategies & Pricing Trends

    E-print Network

    Gilbert, J. S.

    Marketing seems to have come out of the utility closet once again, but it is a far sight different from that of the 1970s. While some are still on a “sell, Sell, SELL!” campaign, most are soberly looking at their customers from a different...

  16. Coordination transactions among electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Earley, W.C.

    1984-09-13

    Coordination transactions are becoming an important part of electric-utility operations. Very little has been written about them, however, and they are generally not well understood, even by some within the industry. This article discusses what coordination transactions are, why they occur, how they are priced, and how they are regulated.

  17. Limits to Wind Power Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustavson, M. R.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses noneconomic factors limiting the total power that can be extracted from the wind. These factors are examined with a macroscopic approach. Some general conclusions are also reached regarding the sites that would have to be utilized and the usable wind energy potentials. (HM)

  18. Wind energy utilization: A bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Bibliography cites documents published to and including 1974 with abstracts and references, and is indexed by topic, author, organization, title, and keywords. Topics include: Wind Energy Potential and Economic Feasibility, Utilization, Wind Power Plants and Generators, Wind Machines, Wind Data and Properties, Energy Storage, and related topics.

  19. Dissemination and Utilization: An Imperative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, J. Dale

    A well-developed approach to dissemination and utilization (D&U) at the four levels of spread, exchange, choice, and implementation is essential if vocational education research and development (R&D) is to achieve the measurable impact found lacking in a Committee on Vocational Education Research and Development (COVERD) assessment (1956). Federal…

  20. Administrative Utility Analysis: Study Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co., San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    This document summarizes the recommendations made as a result of a study on administrative utility analysis and vocational education programs for Puerto Rico. The major recommendation was that the Area of Vocational and Technical Education (AVTE) in the Puerto Rico Department of Education be restructured at the central organizational level, for…

  1. Annual Electric Generator Report - Utility

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This recently updated database from the Energy Information Administration contains the information reported on the Annual Electric Generator Report - Utility form, or Form EIA-860A. The database holds information from 1992 to January 2000 and includes the fields capacity, energy source, and initial year of operation.

  2. TWRS LDUA utilization study report

    SciTech Connect

    Rieck, R.H.

    1994-09-01

    Tank Waste Remediation Systems functional requirements were reviewed. The Light Duty Utility Arm capabilities were considered as a means to support completion of these functional requirements. The recommendation is made to continue to develop the LDUA, integrating TWRS functional needs into the design to better support completion of TWRS mission needs.

  3. Vibration analysis utilizing Mossbauer effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roughton, N. A.

    1967-01-01

    Measuring instrument analyzes mechanical vibrations in transducers at amplitudes in the range of a few to 100 angstroms. This instrument utilizes the Mossbauer effect, the phenomenon of the recoil-free emission and resonant absorption of nuclear gamma rays in solids.

  4. Injecting utility into anonymized datasets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Kifer; Johannes Gehrke

    2006-01-01

    Limiting disclosure in data publishing requires a careful balance between privacy and utility. Information about individuals must not be revealed, but a dataset should still be useful for studying the characteristics of a population. Privacy requirements such as k-anonymity and '-diversity are designed to thwart attacks that at- tempt to identify individuals in the data and to discover their sensi-

  5. Cryo Utilities Room Cooling System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. S. Ball

    1989-01-01

    Many of the mechanical equipment failures at the Laboratory are due to the loss of cooling water. In order to insure the proper operating temperatures and to increase the reliability of the mechanical equipment in the D0 Cryo Utilities Room it is necessary to provide an independent liquid cooling system. To this end, an enclosed glycoVwater cooling system which transfers

  6. Utilizing Land-Livestock Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amator, Fred

    1971-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in Arizona for the purpose of utilizing land-livestock laboratories based upon a model concept. The concept, as proposed, was identified as an organizational plan which demands the involvement of all students in a specific organized class-laboratory activity of production agriculture. (Author)

  7. Analytical Utility of Campylobacter Methodologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods (NACMCF, or the Committee) was asked to address the analytical utility of Campylobacter methodologies in preparation for an upcoming United States Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) baseline study to enumerate Campylobacter...

  8. Floppy disk utility user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akers, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    The Floppy Disk Utility Program transfers programs between files on the hard disk and floppy disk. It also copies the data on one floppy disk onto another floppy disk and compares the data. The program operates on the Data General NOVA-4X under the Real Time Disk Operating System (RDOS).

  9. Floppy disk utility user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akers, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    A floppy disk utility program is described which transfers programs between files on a hard disk and floppy disk. It also copies the data on one floppy disk onto another floppy disk and compares the data. The program operates on the Data General NOVA-4X under the Real Time Disk Operating System. Sample operations are given.

  10. Utilization of the upper Houston Ship Channel by fish and macroinvertebrates with respect to water quality trends 

    E-print Network

    Seiler, Richard Dale

    1994-01-01

    Nektonic utilization of the upper Houston Ship Channel (HSC) was assessed through characterization of species composition, abundance and community structure of finfish and macroinvertebrate populations. Impact of basic ...

  11. Utility solar finance: economic and institutional analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Kahn; L. Ross; P. Benenson; J. Cherry

    1979-01-01

    Various forms of utility solar finance are analyzed. This analysis will delineate the complexity of the regulatory issues involved with any scheme which uses public utilities as financial intermediaries for on-site solar. The study begins with concrete examination of various types of utility solar financing arrangements. The focus is on the costs of each arrangement to the utility. The discussion

  12. "BAYES' THEOREM" FOR UTILITY Leigh Tesfatsion

    E-print Network

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    ,. "BAYES' THEOREM" FOR UTILITY by Leigh Tesfatsion Discussion Paper No. 76-65, April 1976 Center of transitional utility (loss) assessments, in a manner analogous to Bayes' theorem for probability. Specification to utility and probability. #12;"BAYES' THEOREM" FOR UTILITY* by Leigh Tesfatsion 1. INTRODUCTION

  13. Power Sales to Electric Utilities

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1989-02-01

    The Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) of 1979 requires that electrical utilities interconnect with qualifying facilities and purchase electricity at a rate based upon their full avoided costs (i.e., costs of providing both capacity and energy). Qualifying facilities (QF) include solar or geothermal electric units, hydropower, municipal solid waste or biomass-fired power plants, and cogeneration projects that satisfy maximum size, fuel use, ownership, location, and/or efficiency criteria. In Washington State, neither standard power purchase prices based upon a proxy ''avoided plant'', standard contracts, or a standard offer process have been used. Instead, a variety of power purchase contracts have been negotiated by developers of qualifying facilities with investor-owned utilities, public utility districts, and municipally-owned and operated utilities. With a hydro-based system, benefits associated with resource acquisition are determined in large part by how compatible the resource is with a utility's existing generation mix. Power purchase rates are negotiated and vary according to firm energy production, guarantees, ability to schedule maintenance or downtime, rights of refusal, power plant purchase options, project start date and length of contract; front-loading or levelization provisions; and the ability of the project to provide ''demonstrated'' capacity. Legislation was also enacted which allows PURPA to work effectively. Initial laws established ownership rights and provided irrigation districts, PUDs, and municipalities with expanded enabling powers. Financial processes were streamlined and, in some cases, simplified. Finally, laws were passed which are designed to ensure that development proceeds in an environmentally acceptable manner. In retrospect, PURPA has worked well within Washington. In the state of Washington, 20 small-scale hydroelectric projects with a combined generating capacity of 77 MW, 3 solid waste-to-energy facilities with 55 MW of electrical output, 4 cogeneration projects with 34.5 MW of generating capability, and 4 wastewater treatment facility digester gas-to-energy projects with 5 MW of electrical production have come on-line (or are in the final stages of construction) since the passage of PURPA. These numbers represent only a small portion of Washington's untapped and underutilized cogeneration and renewable resource generating potentials. [DJE-2005

  14. Consumer's Guide to the economics of electric-utility ratemaking

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    This guide deals primarily with the economics of electric utilities, although certain legal and organizational aspects of utilities are discussed. Each of the seven chapters addresses a particular facet of public-utility ratemaking. Chapter One contains a discussion of the evolution of the public-utility concept, as well as the legal and economic justification for public utilities. The second chapter sets forth an analytical economic model which provides the basis for the next four chapters. These chapters contain a detailed examination of total operating costs, the rate base, the rate of return, and the rate structure. The final chapter discusses a number of current issues regarding electric utilities, mainly factors related to fuel-adjustment costs, advertising, taxes, construction work in progress, and lifeline rates. Some of the examples used in the Guide are from particular states, such as Illinois and California. These examples are used to illustrate specific points. Consumers in other states can generalize them to their states and not change the meaning or significance of the points. 27 references, 8 tables.

  15. Beyond Fapar: Modeling Light Utilization in Tropical Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, D. C.; Rubio, J.; Cook, B. D.; Gastellu-Etchegorry, J. P.; Keller, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    The complex three-dimensional (3D) structure of tropical forests generates a diversity of light environments for canopy and understory trees. Light availability in tropical forests is dynamic on diurnal and seasonal timescales based on variability in solar illumination and the fraction of diffuse radiation. The distribution of light availability ultimately controls light utilization—the amount of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) available for photosynthesis. Understanding the dynamics of light utilization is critical for interpreting measurements of net ecosystem exchange and improving ecosystem models. Here, we used the Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer (DART) model to simulate 3D light profiles for a range of Amazon forest scenes. DART was initialized using small footprint airborne lidar data, and characteristics of each 3D simulation were constrained using local measurements of leaf properties, incident PAR, and atmospheric conditions. For each simulation, we separated the fraction of absorbed PAR (FAPAR) into light interactions with leaves, branches, and the ground surface. Leaf-absorbed PAR in each 1 m3 voxel was further constrained to account for light saturation effects. Under midday illumination conditions, most canopy leaves were saturated, leading to a reduction in light utilization (0.65 - 0.7) even as leaf-absorbed PAR remained nearly constant (0.82-0.84). Light utilization also varied seasonally, with lowest fractional utilization in the dry season. Clear sky conditions and low solar zenith angles accentuated shadowing and saturation effects during dry season months, decreasing light utilization by 20-25% compared to total leaf-absorbed PAR. These findings suggest that a potential response of Amazon forests to increasing PAR in the dry season, as measured at the top of canopy, is moderated by seasonal variability in light utilization from changes in shadowing and saturation effects at the leaf level. Our results point to the need for additional spatial information on forest structure to improve the representation of light availability in models of tropical forest productivity.

  16. The clinical utilization of early childhood memories.

    PubMed

    Last, J M

    1997-01-01

    Early childhood memories (EMs) are discussed as an individual's unique psychological product, capable of revealing basic fantasies around which the individual's character structure is organized. Major theoretical approaches to understanding EMs are surveyed including early Freudian, Adlerian, and Ego Psychological. The more recent Cognitive-Perceptual perspective is also discussed. As EMs are viewed as a projective technique, methods of retrieval and interpretation are described. Case material is presented to demonstrate the utilization of EMs in the course of psychotherapy. In the early phase of therapy, EMs are shown to be of use in establishing therapeutic focus and elucidating dynamic patterns. Within the process of therapy, illustrations are given to demonstrate the use of EMs as an interpretive aid and as a means of monitoring therapeutic change. PMID:9327105

  17. Integrating power utility telecommunication networks

    SciTech Connect

    Luque, J. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain)] [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Gonzalo, F. [Compania Sevillana de Electricidad, Madrid (Spain)] [Compania Sevillana de Electricidad, Madrid (Spain)

    1996-04-01

    Rapid technological advances within the telecommunication sector and the power sector`s ever-increasing needs for information and transmission services have led utilities to use heterogeneous telecommunication networks, grouping together equipment from various manufacturers and technologies. Management of such networks is difficult and fragmented, often employing proprietary systems. As part of its Research Electrotechnical Program, the Spanish Ministry of Industry and Energy financed the development of a system for integrated expert management of power utility telecommunication networks. The NOMOS (Greek for law or custom) system offers many benefits, the most significant of which are: integration of subsystems; application of expert system technology for fault management; and use of existing standards within the sector. This article takes a look at the reasons why integrated network management is needed, describes aspects of the integration process and the expert system, and points out the most significant elements that make use of internationally accepted standards.

  18. Japanese plan for SSF utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizuno, Toshio

    1992-01-01

    The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) program has made significant progress. The JEM preliminary design review was completed in July 1992; construction of JEM operation facilities has begun; and the micro-G airplane, drop shaft, and micro-G experiment rocket are all operational. The national policy for JEM utilization was also established. The Space Experiment Laboratory (SEL) opened in June '92 and will function as a user support center. Eight JEM multiuser facilities are in phase B, and scientific requirements are being defined for 17 candidate multiuser facilities. The National Joint Research Program is about to start. Precursor missions and early Space Station utilization activities are being defined. This paper summarizes the program in outline and graphic form.

  19. Utilization of the terrestrial cyanobacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katoh, Hiroshi; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Furukawa, Jun; Kimura, Shunta; Yokoshima, Mika; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Takenaka, Hiroyuki

    The terrestrial, N _{2}-fixing cyanobacterium, Nostoc commune has expected to utilize for agriculture, food and terraforming cause of its extracellular polysaccharide, desiccation tolerance and nitrogen fixation. Previously, the first author indicated that desiccation related genes were analyzed and the suggested that the genes were related to nitrogen fixation and metabolisms. In this report, we suggest possibility of agriculture, using the cyanobacterium. Further, we also found radioactive compounds accumulated N. commune (cyanobacterium) in Fukushima, Japan after nuclear accident. Thus, it is investigated to decontaminate radioactive compounds from the surface soil by the cyanobacterium and showed to accumulate radioactive compounds using the cyanobacterium. We will discuss utilization of terrestrial cyanobacteria under closed environment. Keyword: Desiccation, terrestrial cyanobacteria, bioremediation, agriculture

  20. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morford, Megan A.; Khodadad, Christina L.; Caro, Janicce I.; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Richards, Jeffery T.; Strayer, Richard F.; Birmele, Michele N.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, like aboard the International Space Station or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of the Synthetic Biology project, Cow in a Column, was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel-through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) in order to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms were optimized in the laboratory and the desired end-products, sugars and lipids, were analyzed. Trichoderma reesei, a known cellulolytic fungus, was utilized to drive the production of glucose, with the intent that the produced glucose would serve as the carbon source for milk fat production and be a substitute for the milk sugar lactose. Lipid production would be carried out by Rhodosporidium toruloides, yeast known to accumulate those lipids that are typically found in milk fat. Results showed that glucose and total lipid content were below what was expected during this phase of experimentation. In addition, individual analysis of six fatty acids revealed that the percentage of each fatty acid was lower than naturally produced bovine milk. Overall, this research indicates that microorganisms could be utilized to breakdown inedible solid waste to produce useable products. For future work, the production of the casein protein for milk would require the development of a genetically modified organism, which was beyond the scope of the original project. Additional trials would be needed to further refine the required environment/organisms for the production of desired sugar and lipid end-products.

  1. Cogeneration Assessment Methodology for Utilities 

    E-print Network

    Sedlik, B.

    1983-01-01

    , April 17-20, 1983 POWER GENERATION ONLY 35% Output Electric Power COGENERATION Figure I Comparision of fuel utilization effectiveness: electric power genera tion only vs cogeneration 64-84% Electric Power and Process Heat In addition... jacket cooling water in the case of diesels) are captured in a waste heat boiler to produce sufficient steam or hot water for process purposes. F===;G;::.n:::.:l:..=,o:::,::;:'P Process Steam =c(] ~~ Electric Power l) ,. Flue Gas ~ Process Canden18...

  2. Purdue Solar Energy Utilization Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Rakesh [Purdue] [Purdue

    2014-01-21

    The objective of this project is to establish and set-up a laboratory that will facilitate research and development of new low-cost and high-efficiency solar energy utilization technologies at Purdue University. The outcome will help spur the creation of solar energy start-up companies and eventually a solar energy industry in Indiana that can help fulfill the growing national demand for solar energy.

  3. Alternative scenarios utilizing nonterrestrial resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldred, Charles H.; Roberts, Barney B.

    1992-01-01

    A collection of alternative scenarios that are enabled or substantially enhanced by the utilization of nonterrestrial resources is provided. We take a generalized approach to scenario building so that our report will have value in the context of whatever goals are eventually chosen. Some of the topics covered include the following: lunar materials processing; asteroid mining; lunar resources; construction of a large solar power station; solar dynamic power for the space station; reduced gravity; mission characteristics and options; and tourism.

  4. Evolution and phylogenetic utility of CAD (rudimentary) among Mesozoic-aged Eremoneuran Diptera (Insecta)

    E-print Network

    Moulton, Kevin

    Evolution and phylogenetic utility of CAD (rudimentary) among Mesozoic-aged Eremoneuran Diptera the entire carbomoylphosphate synthase (CPS) domain of CAD, or rudimentary, (ca. 4 kb) from 29 species melanogaster to assess structure, compositional bias, and phylogenetic utility. CAD is large (6.6+ kb), complex

  5. Insider Models with Finite Utility in Markets with Jumps

    SciTech Connect

    Kohatsu-Higa, Arturo, E-mail: arturokohatsu@gmail.com [Ritsumeikan University, Department of Mathematical Sciences (Japan); Yamazato, Makoto, E-mail: yamazato@math.u-ryukyu.ac.jp [University of the Ryukyus, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    In this article we consider, under a Levy process model for the stock price, the utility optimization problem for an insider agent whose additional information is the final price of the stock blurred with an additional independent noise which vanishes as the final time approaches. Our main interest is establishing conditions under which the utility of the insider is finite. Mathematically, the problem entails the study of a 'progressive' enlargement of filtration with respect to random measures. We study the jump structure of the process which leads to the conclusion that in most cases the utility of the insider is finite and his optimal portfolio is bounded. This can be explained financially by the high risks involved in models with jumps.

  6. Solar energy research and utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    The role of solar energy is visualized in the heating and cooling of buildings, in the production of renewable gaseous, liquid and solid fuels, and in the production of electric power over the next 45 years. Potential impacts of solar energy on various energy markets, and estimated costs of such solar energy systems are discussed. Some typical solar energy utilization processes are described in detail. It is expected that at least 20% of the U.S. total energy requirements by 2020 will be delivered from solar energy.

  7. Strategies for solar greenhouses utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Locher, V.A. (Inner Spaces, Monterey, MA); Airhart, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    This study identifies basic questions needing answers before the solar greenhouse can offer a truly appropriate technology or be an effective social change agent. Comparison of 18 solar greenhouses in Massachusetts was made to evaluate how well these systems are operating and what areas need improvements or modifications. The potential for effective solar greenhouse utilization is being decreased partly by problems of design but mostly by lack of long-term funding, inattention to principles of greenhouse management, and inadequate training or horticultural skills for crop production.

  8. Laser tube utilizing negative glow

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, K.; Otaka, M.

    1985-04-09

    A laser tube including an anode and a hollow cathode and adapted to obtain laser oscillation by utilizing a negative glow generated in a space within the hollow cathode. The laser tube has an elongate cylindrical member in which the anode and the hollow cathode are disposed opposite to each other, and the hollow cathode has formed therein a plurality of holes for communication between its internal space and the space outside thereof. The laser tube may further include a conducting grid provided in proximity to the anode and a conducting grid provided in a cathode dark space.

  9. Thermal storage for electric utilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swet, C. J.; Masica, W. J.

    1977-01-01

    Applications of the thermal energy storage (TES) principle (storage of sensible heat or latent heat, or heat storage in reversible chemical reactions) in power systems are evaluated. Load leveling behind the meter, load following at conventional thermal power plants, solar thermal power generation, and waste heat utilization are the principal TES applications considered. Specific TES examples discussed include: storage heaters for electric-resistance space heating, air conditioning TES in the form of chilled water or eutectic salt baths, hot water TES, and trans-seasonal storage in heated water in confined aquifers.

  10. Torsion properties of biological fixation utilizing a plate with and without an intramedullary rod 

    E-print Network

    Keiser, Michael

    1995-01-01

    The goal of internal fixation procedures is the restoration of normal structure and function to the injured bone. Internal fixation devices are utilized to increase the stability of fracture segments, transfer loads across ...

  11. Torsion properties of biological fixation utilizing a plate with and without an intramedullary rod

    E-print Network

    Keiser, Michael

    1995-01-01

    The goal of internal fixation procedures is the restoration of normal structure and function to the injured bone. Internal fixation devices are utilized to increase the stability of fracture segments, transfer loads across the fracture site...

  12. Industrial Low Temperature Waste Heat Utilization 

    E-print Network

    Altin, M.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper, some common and emerging techniques to better utilize energy in the chemical process industries are discussed. Temperature levels of waste heat available are pointed out. Emerging practices for further economical utilization of waste...

  13. Trends in Diffusion Research: Knowledge Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieber, Sam D.

    1974-01-01

    This article reports on an evaluation study of the Pilot State Dissemination Program. The program utilized extension agents who helped teachers and school administrators obtain and interpret information, assess its applicability, and plan steps in its utilization. (HMD)

  14. Spot pricing of public utility services

    E-print Network

    Bohn, Roger E.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis analyzes how public utility prices should be changed over time and space. Earlier static and non spatial models of public utility pricing emerge as special cases of the theory developed here. Electricity is ...

  15. 47 CFR 101.521 - Spectrum utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Spectrum utilization. 101.521 Section 101.521 Telecommunication...Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.521 Spectrum utilization. All applicants for DEMS...

  16. 47 CFR 101.521 - Spectrum utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Spectrum utilization. 101.521 Section 101.521 Telecommunication...Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.521 Spectrum utilization. All applicants for DEMS...

  17. 47 CFR 101.521 - Spectrum utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spectrum utilization. 101.521 Section 101.521 Telecommunication...Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.521 Spectrum utilization. All applicants for DEMS...

  18. 47 CFR 101.521 - Spectrum utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Spectrum utilization. 101.521 Section 101.521 Telecommunication...Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.521 Spectrum utilization. All applicants for DEMS...

  19. Utility Conservation Programs: Opportunities and Strategies 

    E-print Network

    Norland, D. L.; Wolf, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    UTILITY CONSERVATION PROGRAMS: OPPORTUNITIES AND STRATEGIES*+ Douglas L. Norland James L. Wolf Alliance to Save Energy Washington, D.C. ABSTRACT This paper examines the use of conservation programs to achiev~ utility goals in an electric...

  20. Optimized Utility Systems and Furnace Integration 

    E-print Network

    McMullan, A. S.; Spriggs, H. D.

    1987-01-01

    in different utility system designs. This paper presents a procedure, using Pinch Technology, for the simultaneous design of process and utility as an optimally integrated system. Also, the implications for furnace integration are discussed....

  1. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2001-08-01

    This document describes best practices in the use of Utility Energy Services Contracts. The recommendations were generated by a group of innovative energy managers in many successful projects. The topics include project financing, competition between utility franchises, and water conservation.

  2. Federal Utility Program Overview (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-07-01

    Fact sheet overview of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program's (FEMP) Federal Utility Program, including common contracts and services available to Federal agencies through local serving utilities.

  3. OSU PARKING UTILIZATION FALL TERM 2008

    E-print Network

    Escher, Christine

    OSU PARKING UTILIZATION STUDY FALL TERM 2008 FACILITIES SERVICES CAMPUS PLANNING #12;Facilities Services- Campus Planning March, 2009 2008 OSU PARKING UTILIZATION STUDY Table of Contents Purpose.....................................................................................................3 OSU Main Campus Parking Survey

  4. Chinese Manned Space Utility Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Y.

    Since 1992 China has been carrying out a conspicuous manned space mission A utility project has been defined and created during the same period The Utility Project of the Chinese Manned Space Mission involves wide science areas such as earth observation life science micro-gravity fluid physics and material science astronomy space environment etc In the earth observation area it is focused on the changes of global environments and relevant exploration technologies A Middle Revolution Image Spectrometer and a Multi-model Micro-wave Remote Sensor have been developed The detectors for cirrostratus distribution solar constant earth emission budget earth-atmosphere ultra-violet spectrum and flux have been manufactured and tested All of above equipment was engaged in orbital experiments on-board the Shenzhou series spacecrafts Space life science biotechnologies and micro-gravity science were much concerned with the project A series of experiments has been made both in ground laboratories and spacecraft capsules The environmental effect in different biological bodies in space protein crystallization electrical cell-fusion animal cells cultural research on separation by using free-low electrophoresis a liquid drop Marangoni migration experiment under micro-gravity as well as a set of crystal growth and metal processing was successfully operated in space The Gamma-ray burst and high-energy emission from solar flares have been explored A set of particle detectors and a mass spectrometer measured

  5. How utilizes can revitalize industry

    SciTech Connect

    De Vaul, D.; Bartsch, C. [Northeast Midwest Institute, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    During the first weeks of his presidency, Bill Clinton asserted that the nation`s industries must modernize if Americans are to enjoy a rising standard of living. He noted that inadequate knowledge about new production technologies and inadequate capital for plant improvements were making it hard for manufacturers, particularly small and midsized firms, to improve their productivity and economic competitiveness. And though he said his administration would stress the benefits of government research, technology transfer, and financial assistance, President Clinton acknowledged that Washington needs new partners to help modernize U.S. industrial processes. Electric utilities are likely candidates. They have considerable technical expertise and access to large sums of capital that could help industry improve its productivity. Fortuitously, power companies also would benefit by such a partnership stimulating local economic activity and better managing electricity demands. Although many utilities pursue so-called demand-side management programs for their commercial and residential customers, most have not focused much attention on the industrial sector, in part because achieving industrial energy efficiency requires more specialized expertise than do routine energy audits to improve the insulation and lighting of homes and commercial buildings. Yet the reasons to target industry are compelling: Industrial firms consume more than 35 percent of the electricity in the United States, and investment in retooling manufacturing operations with energy-efficient and productive equipment could help spur economic revitalization.

  6. Nitrogen Utilization in Lemna1

    PubMed Central

    Ingemarsson, Björn; Oscarson, Petter; af Ugglas, Magnus; Larsson, Carl-Magnus

    1987-01-01

    The effects of ammonium application on nitrate utilization were studied in N-limited cultures of Lemna gibba L. G3. Addition of ammonium instantaneously inhibited net nitrate uptake by at least 60%, followed by a slight recovery. The inhibition was equally clear after near-complete inactivation of glutamine synthetase by application of l-methionine-d,l-sulfoximine. Experiments where 13N-labeled nitrate was used as an influx tracer revealed that ammonium specifically inhibited influx, but did not promote nitrate efflux. Nitrate accumulation was relatively more inhibited than nitrate reduction and net uptake. Nitrate reductase, extracted and assayed in vitro in the presence of the thiol proteinase inhibitor leupeptin, was unaffected by short-term treatment of the plants with either nitrate, ammonium, or ammonium nitrate. Nitrate reductase activity recovered in the absence of leupeptin was considerably lower; however, it was enhanced by all the nitrogen sources, with ammonium as the most potent. It is argued that the effect of ammonium on nitrate utilization in Lemna is due to inhibition of nitrate influx, and that the effect should be attributed to ammonium itself, not to a newly formed nitrogen derivative. The decreased nitrate flux caused a decrease in nitrate reduction, whereas the activity of nitrate reductase per se rather is stabilized by presence of ammonium. PMID:16665792

  7. Extending Quality Management to Utility Costs 

    E-print Network

    Holmes, W. A.

    1994-01-01

    -04-30 Proceedings from the Sixteenth National Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, April 13-14, 1994 Management Infonnation Systems (MIS), Total Quality Management (TQM) Programs, increased accountability and responsibility, and small.... HOW TO PROCEED: I. Install a Utility Cost MIS 2. Add utility costs to existing TQM program. 3. Get out of the way. Specific Actions: 1. Quantify Energy Usage and Utility Costs by: ? Utility Meter. Electrical Demand .50 """" ..... p m ,SOl...

  8. Solar energy utilization by physical methods.

    PubMed

    Wolf, M

    1974-04-19

    On the basis of the estimated contributions of these differing methods of the utilization of solar energy, their total energy delivery impact on the projected U.S. energy economy (9) can be evaluated (Fig. 5). Despite this late energy impact, the actual sales of solar energy utilization equipment will be significant at an early date. Potential sales in photovoltaic arrays alone could exceed $400 million by 1980, in order to meet the projected capacity buildup (10). Ultimately, the total energy utilization equipment industry should attain an annual sales volume of several tens of billion dollars in the United States, comparable to that of several other energy related industries. Varying amounts of technology development are required to assure the technical and economic feasibility of the different solar energy utilization methods. Several of these developments are far enough along that the paths can be analyzed from the present time to the time of demonstration of technical and economic feasibility, and from there to production and marketing readiness. After that point, a period of market introduction will follow, which will differ in duration according to the type of market addressed. It may be noted that the present rush to find relief from the current energy problem, or to be an early leader in entering a new market, can entail shortcuts in sound engineering practice, particularly in the areas of design for durability and easy maintenance, or of proper application engineering. The result can be loss of customer acceptance, as has been experienced in the past with various products, including solar water heaters. Since this could cause considerable delay in achieving the expected total energy impact, it will be important to spend adequate time at this stage for thorough development. Two other aspects are worth mentioning. The first is concerned with the economic impacts. Upon reflection on this point, one will observe that largescale solar energy utilization will not cause a greater impact than other new energy sources, based on the reasoning that a self-consistent set of conditions will have to be fulfilled in order to achieve such large-scale use. Without cost competitiveness, other energy resources would fill the requirements, or, if their resource and cost structure also would create severe problems, the economic forecasts simply cannot be fulfilled. We also should not think of a "solar-only" energy future. First, there is still enough coal to last for several hundred years. Second, there should be enough fissionable fuel available to operate breeder reactors for a similar time span, and geothermal energy could satisfy some requirements for a long time. And finally, there may be fusion. It would be unlikely that any one of the available options should play a really dominant role. Rather, we should expect to be using an energy mix, just as we do now, with each energy source supplying the requirements which it can satisfy in the most suitable way, and solar energy should play an important role in this long-range future. PMID:17792569

  9. Hydrogen - Potential key to tomorrow's energy utility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Lundberg

    1978-01-01

    There are premium uses for fuels in the electric utility for which hydrogen seems appropriate. The cost of electrolytic conversion is marginal, but suitable for some utilities. The costs of storage may be the major obstacle to commercial scale development. There are adequate incentives and potentially a very large market to interest all utilities in the production of hydrogen for

  10. Waiting Time versus Utility to Download Images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazutomo NOMURA; Kyoko YAMORI; Eiji TAKAHASHI; Takumi MIYOSHI; Yoshiaki TANAKA

    The utility of a contents delivery network depends on the waiting time. This paper deals with the priority control of contents delivery networks from the view- point of utility. First, a subjective evaluation exper- iment on image downloading is carried out to obtain the relationship between the waiting time and the util- ity. From the results, a function of the

  11. Integrating market processes into utility resource planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward P. Kahn

    1992-01-01

    Integrated resource planning has resulted in an abundance of alternatives for meeting existing and new demand for electricity services: (1) utility demand-side management (DSM) programs, (2) DSM bidding, (3) competitive bidding for private power supplies, (4) utility re-powering, and (5) new utility construction. Each alternative relies on a different degree of planning for implementation and, therefore, each alternative relies on

  12. UTILIZATION OF ALASKAN SALMON CANNERY WASTE

    E-print Network

    UTILIZATION OF ALASKAN SALMON CANNERY WASTE Marine Biological Laboratory iM0V3Ul953 WOODS HOLE and Wildlife Service, John L. Farley, Director UTILIZATION OP ALASKM SALMON CANlTEaT WASH PAHTS I AHD II, September 1953 #12;#12;UTILIZATION OF AUSKAN SALMON CANNERY WASTE y PART I 1. Possibility of Development

  13. Health Care Utilization by Canadian Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arminée Kazanjian; Denise Morettin; Robert Cho; F Ahmad; DE Stewart; JI Camerson; I Hyman; F Beland; A Lemay; M Boucher; CE Bird; PP Rieker; R Blais; A Maiga; A Aboubacar; AD Brown; AI Magistretti; H Cooper; CE De Grasse; AM O'Connor; J Boulet; N Edwards; H Bryant; K Breithaupt; S Dunlop; PC Coyte; W McIsaac; CJ Erdwins; LC Buffardi; WJ Casper; AS O' Brien; J Foster; CJ Fries; KS Menzies; R Fuhrer; SA Stansfeld; J Chemali; MJ Shipley; LA Gaudette; CA Altmayer; KM Nobrega; J Lee; CMT Gijsbers Van Wijk; KP Van Vliet; AM Kolk; RH Glazier; EM Badley; JE Gilbert; L Rothman; V Goel; K Iron; JI Williams; CA Green; CR Pope; N Hall; TP Hofer; SJ Katz; LG Houle; AW Salmoni; RW Pong; S Laflamme; GA Viverais-Dresler; IMA Joung; JBW Van der Meer; JP Mackenbach; WG Manning; JK Zemencuk; I Savoie; JA Kopec; PC Austin; CJ Maxwell; CM Bancej; J Snider; J McCusker; S Cardin; F Bellavance; E Belzile; E Healey; B Connolly; P McDonough; V Walters; SL Mercer; N Mittmann; K Trakas; N Risebrough; BA Liu; I Mittra; M Baum; H Thornton; J Houghton; AM Morton; C Loos; CA Mustard; S Derksen; D Tataryn; P Kaufert; A Kozyrskyj; T Mayer; L Potvin; J Camirand; J Randhawa; R Riley; AE Rhodes; PN Goering; C Sanmartin; C Houle; S Tremblay; J Berthelot; SB Sheps; RJ Reid; ML Barer; H Krueger; KM McGrail; B Green; O Szafran; N Bell; K Taggart; F Tudiver; E Fuller-Thomson; P Tully; C Mohl; H Tuokko; P MacCourt; Y Heath; I Waldron; CC Weiss; ME Hughes; PP Wang; R Weir; G Browne; E Tunks; A Gafni; J Roberts; J Wiles; MW Rosenberg; K Wilkins

    1997-01-01

    HEALTH ISSUES: While women are reported to be more frequent users of health services in Canada, differences in women's and men's health care utilization have not been fully explored. To provide an overview on women's healthcare utilization, we selected two key issues that are important for public policy purposes: access to care and patterns of utilization. These issues are examined

  14. Bacterial chitin utilization at halophilic conditions.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, D Y; Kolganova, T V

    2014-03-01

    Chitin is a dominant structural polymer produced in large amounts by brine shrimp Artemia in hypersaline lakes. Microbiological analysis of chitin utilization as a growth substrate in hypersaline chloride-sulfate lakes in the south Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia) revealed two groups of bacteria able to grow on chitin at moderate salinity. Under aerobic conditions, an enrichment culture was obtained at 2 M NaCl. Further purification resulted in the isolation of strains HCh1 and strain HCh2, identified as representatives of the genera Saccharospirillum and Arhodomonas (both in the Gammaproteobacteria). The chitin-utilizing potential has not been previously recognized in these genera. The Saccharospirillum sp. strain HCh1 grew on chitin within the salinity range from 0.5 to 3.25 M NaCl (optimum at 1 M), while Arhodomonas sp. strain HCh2 grew up to 2.5 M NaCl but had a higher salt optimum at 1.5 M. Anaerobic enrichments grew with chitin at 2 and 4 M NaCl, but growth in the latter was extremely slow and the culture eventually lost viability. The enrichment at 2 M NaCl resulted in the isolation of strain HCh-An1, identified as a distant new species of the genus Orenia in the clostridial order Halanaerobiales. It was able to grow on chitin within a salinity range from 1.0 to 2.5 M NaCl (optimum at 1.5 M). The strain is proposed as a new species of the genus Orenia-O. chitinitropha. PMID:24306781

  15. A Novel Biomedical Device Utilizing Light Emitting Nano-Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varaljay, Vanessa A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper will discuss the development of a novel biomedical detection device that will be used to detect microorganisms with the use of infrared fluorochrome polymers attached to antibodies in fluids such as water. The fluorochrome polymers emit light in the near inferred region (NIR), approximately 805 nm, when excited by an NIR laser at 778 nm. The device could remarkably change the way laboratory testing is done today. The testing process is usually performed on a time scale of days while our device will be able to detect microorganisms in minutes. This type of time efficient analysis is ideal for use aboard the International Space Station and the Space Shuttle (ISS/SS) and has many useful commercial applications, for instance at a water treatment plant and food processing plants. With more research and experimentation the testing might also one day be used to detect bacteria and viruses in complex fluids such as blood, which would revolutionize blood analysis as it is performed today. My contribution to the project has been to develop a process which will allow an antibody/fluorescent dye pair to be conjugated to a specific bacteria or virus and than to to be separated from a sample body of water for detection. The antibody being used in this experiment is anti beta galactosidase and its complement enzyme is beta galactosidase, a non harmful derivative of E. Coli. The anti beta galactosidase has been conjugated to the fluorochrome polymer, IRDye800, which emits at approximately 806 nm. The dye when excited by the NIR laser emits a signal which is detected by a spectrometer and then is read by state of the art computer software. The state-of-the-art process includes incubating the anti beta galactosidase and beta galactosidase in a phosphate buffer solution in a test tube, allowing the antibody to bind to specific sites on the enzyme. After the antibody is bound to the enzyme, it is centrifuged in specific filters that will allow free antibody to wash away and leave the antibody-enzyme complexes on top in solution for testing and analysis. This solution is pipetted into a cuvette, a special plastic test tube, which will then be excited by the laser. The signal read will tell US that an antibody is present and since it is bound to the enzyme, that the bacteria is also present.

  16. Botulinum and tetanus neurotoxins: structure, function and therapeutic utility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathryn Turton; John A Chaddock; K. Ravi Acharya

    2002-01-01

    The toxic products of the anaerobic bacteria Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium butyricum,Clostridium barati and Clostridium tetani are the causative agents of botulism and tetanus. The ability of botulinum neurotoxins to disrupt neurotransmission, often for prolonged periods, has been exploited for use in several medical applications and the toxins, as licensed pharmaceutical products, now represent the therapeutics of choice for the treatment

  17. Towards Single Slit Grating Interferometry Utilizing Nano-Fabricated Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barwick, Brett; Gronniger, Glen; Gao, Hong; Batelaan, Herman

    2004-05-01

    An optical grating mounted on a device can be used to determine its position accurately. We use a lens to focus a laser beam onto the grating to partially overlap the diffracted beams. This results in a very simple interferometer. Counting the fringes determines the position of the device. Placing a single slit in front of the grating instead of a lens will also make the diffracted beams partially overlap. We are currently exploring the matter optics analogue of this idea, to demonstrate that the diffracted electron beams emanating from a nanofabricated grating are coherent. We made a 100 nm slit by ion milling and have seen its single slit diffraction pattern. We have combined the 100 nm single slit with a 100 nm grating, and current attempts are underway to observe the resultant interference fringes. Work supported by NSF, DOD-EPSCOR

  18. Unpolarized nucleon structure studies utilizing polarized electromagnetic probes.

    SciTech Connect

    Arrington, J.; Physics

    2009-08-15

    By the mid-1980s, measurements of the nucleon form factors had reached a stage where only slow, incremental progress was possible using unpolarized electron scattering. The development of high quality polarized beams, polarized targets, and recoil polarimeters led to a renaissance in the experimental program. I provide an overview of the changes in the field in the last ten years, which were driven by the dramatically improved data made possible by a new family of tools to measure polarization observables.

  19. Microbial Utilization and Selectivity of Pectin Fractions with Various Structures ?

    PubMed Central

    Onumpai, Chatchaya; Kolida, Sofia; Bonnin, Estelle; Rastall, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the fermentation properties of oligosaccharides derived from pectins and their parent polysaccharides, a 5-ml-working-volume, pH- and temperature-controlled fermentor was tested. Six pectic oligosaccharides representing specific substructures found within pectins were prepared. These consisted of oligogalacturonides (average degrees of polymerization [DP] of 5 and 9), methylated oligogalacturonides (average DP of 5), oligorhamnogalacturonides (average DP of 10 as a disaccharide unit of galacturonic acid and rhamnose), oligogalactosides (average DP of 5), and oligoarabinosides (average DP of 6). The influence of these carbohydrates on the human fecal microbiota was evaluated. Use of neutral sugar fractions resulted in an increase in Bifidobacterium populations and gave higher organic acid yields. The Bacteroides-Prevotella group significantly increased on all oligosaccharides except oligogalacturonides with an average DP of 5. The most selective substrates for bifidobacteria were arabinan, galactan, oligoarabinosides, and oligogalactosides. PMID:21724897

  20. Program factors that influence utilization of adult day care.

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, K J; Hughes, S L; Wang, S

    1992-01-01

    Health planners, policymakers, and providers urgently require methods and information that explain the factors that affect health services utilization. This information is especially critical for planning programs that are effective in maintaining the burgeoning elderly population in community care. In this study, correlation and regression analyses examined the characteristics of adult day care (ADC) centers that were associated with utilization as operationalized by demand for and actual attendance in 822 centers. Community, client population, services and activities, and structural characteristics were associated with demand per center whereas the social environment of the ADC center was not. The attendance rate was most strongly affected by services and activities and structural characteristics. The significance of the study, its limitations, and future directions for research are discussed. PMID:1399653

  1. Energy essays: a focus on utility communication

    SciTech Connect

    Selnow, G.W.; Crano, W.D.; Ludwig, S.; Messe, L.A. (eds.)

    1981-08-01

    The following papers are included: (1) technology, customers, and the feedback loop, (2) utility communications: a need for understanding the American character, (3) utility programs and grass roots communication, (4) reading the tea leaves of public opinion, (5) the need for public opinion surveys in utility communication programs, (6) the role of assessment in effective utility communication programs, (7) utility customer communication; perspectives on current public policy and law, (8) customer communications - a notion in motion, (9) communication when your customer is your owner, (10) radio advertising, (11) television advertising, (12) newspaper advertising, and (13) magazine advertising. (MOW)

  2. Utilization of synergetic aerosol retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzer-Popp, Thomas

    A synergetic aerosol retrieval method SYNAER which exploits a combination of a radiome-ter and a spectrometer onboard ENVISAT and METOP has been developed. This method enables retrieval of aerosol optical depth and an estimation of the aerosol composition. Due to the sampling characteristics and available information content of the combined sensor data the utilization of the results has to be done with appropriate care. On the other hand the specifically new information on aerosol composition enables new applications in the fields of aerosol monitoring (differntiating components), air quality (fine particulate matter assessment and data assimilation), and climate research (aerosol-cloud interaction analysis for different aerosol components). The paper will show examples of applications in the various fields. The paper will be based on ongoing reprocessing of SYNAER for ENVISAT 2003-2009 within ESA GSE PROMOTE and on experimental selected results for METOP. Implications of the different sampling of the two sensor combinations for the differnt applications will be assessed.

  3. Shareholder interests and utility competition

    SciTech Connect

    Studness, C.M.

    1995-03-15

    The process of determining how to implement utility competition is often cast as a struggle between two opposing camps: shareholders and ratepayers. There are, of course, two other major players, management and regulators. The bipolar view tacitly assumes that shareholder and management interests coincide and that regulators have customer interests at heart. Neither assumption is valid. Shareholder interests deviate from management interests in important ways, just as the interests of the entrenched regulatory bureaucracy diverge from the public interest. Therefore, shareholder and management interests must be considered separately. In the past, managements have often pursued their own interests, with devastating financial impact on shareholders. Competition offers shareholders an opportunity to increase their leverage over managements, thereby increasing their returns as well.

  4. San Francisco Public Utilities Commission

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-13

    The San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (PUC) digital collection is based at the San Francisco Public Library. It includes over 300 images, spanning 1887 to 1968, of significant events and projects such as the building of the Hetch Hetchy Railroad and O'Shaughnessey Dam, the construction of the Golden Gate International Exposition on Treasure Island, and so on. These fascinating historic industrial photographs document the pipelines, tunnels, reservoirs, dams, powerhouses, and pumping stations that the PUC has built and maintained in order "to provide water, sewerage and municipal services to the City and County of San Francisco." Visitors can click on the link provided here to view the images, or perform their own detailed search across the entire collection. The views of the Calaveras Dam are quite dramatic and there are many photos documenting the Golden Gate International Exposition as well.

  5. Glycerophosphocholine Utilization by Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Andrew C.; Ganguly, Shantanu; Solis, Norma V.; Cooley, Benjamin M.; Jensen-Seaman, Michael I.; Filler, Scott G.; Mitchell, Aaron P.; Patton-Vogt, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans contains four ORFs (GIT1,2,3,4) predicted to encode proteins involved in the transport of glycerophosphodiester metabolites. Previously, we reported that Git1, encoded by ORF 19.34, is responsible for the transport of intact glycerophosphoinositol but not glycerophosphocholine (GroPCho). Here, we report that a strain lacking both GIT3 (ORF 19.1979) and GIT4 (ORF 19.1980) is unable to transport [3H]GroPCho into the cell. In the absence of a GroPCho transporter, C. albicans can utilize GroPCho via a mechanism involving extracellular hydrolysis. Upon reintegration of either GIT3 or GIT4 into the genome, measurable uptake of [3H]GroPCho is observed. Transport assays and kinetic analyses indicate that Git3 has the greater transport velocity. We present evidence that GDE1 (ORF 19.3936) codes for an enzyme with glycerophosphodiesterase activity against GroPCho. Homozygous deletion of GDE1 results in a buildup of internal GroPCho that is restored to wild type levels by reintegration of GDE1 into the genome. The transcriptional regulator, Pho4, is shown to regulate the expression of GIT3, GIT4, and GDE1. Finally, Git3 is shown to be required for full virulence in a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis, and Git3 sequence orthologs are present in other pathogenic Candida species. In summary, we have characterized multiple aspects of GroPCho utilization by C. albicans and have demonstrated that GroPCho transport plays a key role in the growth of the organism in the host. PMID:24114876

  6. Laboratory cost and utilization containment.

    PubMed

    Steiner, J W; Root, J M; White, D C

    1991-01-01

    The authors analyzed laboratory costs and utilization in 3,771 cases of Medicare inpatients admitted to a New England academic medical center ("the Hospital") from October 1, 1989 to September 30, 1990. The data were derived from the Hospital's Decision Resource System comprehensive data base. The authors established a historical reference point for laboratory costs as a percentage of total inpatient costs using 1981-82 Medicare claims data and cost report information. Inpatient laboratory costs were estimated at 9.5% of total inpatient costs for pre-Diagnostic Related Groups (DRGs) Medicare discharges. Using this reference point and adjusting for the Hospital's 1990 case mix, the "expected" laboratory cost was 9.3% of total cost. In fact, the cost averaged 11.5% (i.e., 24% above the expected cost level), and costs represented an even greater percentage of DRG reimbursement at 12.9%. If we regard the reimbursement as a total cost target (to eliminate losses from Medicare), then that 12.9% is 39% above the "expected" laboratory proportion of 9.3%. The Hospital lost an average of $1,091 on each DRG inpatient. The laboratory contributed 29% to this loss per case. Compared to other large hospitals, the Hospital was slightly (3%) above the mean direct cost per on-site test and significantly (58%) above the mean number of inpatient tests per inpatient day compared to large teaching hospitals. The findings suggest that careful laboratory cost analyses will become increasingly important as the proportion of patients reimbursed in a fixed manner grows. The future may hold a prospective zero-based laboratory budgeting process based on predictable patterns of DRG admissions or other fixed-reimbursement admission and laboratory utilization patterns. PMID:10113716

  7. Expected Utility Distributions for Flexible, Contingent Execution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bresina, John L.; Washington, Richard

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a method for using expected utility distributions in the execution of flexible, contingent plans. A utility distribution maps the possible start times of an action to the expected utility of the plan suffix starting with that action. The contingent plan encodes a tree of possible courses of action and includes flexible temporal constraints and resource constraints. When execution reaches a branch point, the eligible option with the highest expected utility at that point in time is selected. The utility distributions make this selection sensitive to the runtime context, yet still efficient. Our approach uses predictions of action duration uncertainty as well as expectations of resource usage and availability to determine when an action can execute and with what probability. Execution windows and probabilities inevitably change as execution proceeds, but such changes do not invalidate the cached utility distributions, thus, dynamic updating of utility information is minimized.

  8. Calcium silicate insulation structure

    DOEpatents

    Kollie, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1995-01-01

    An insulative structure including a powder-filled evacuated casing utilizes a quantity of finely divided synthetic calcium silicate having a relatively high surface area. The resultant structure-provides superior thermal insulating characteristics over a broad temperature range and is particularly well-suited as a panel for a refrigerator or freezer or the insulative barrier for a cooler or a insulated bottle.

  9. Inventions Utilizing Microfluidics and Colloidal Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marr, David W.; Gong, Tieying; Oakey, John; Terray, Alexander V.; Wu, David T.

    2009-01-01

    Several related inventions pertain to families of devices that utilize microfluidics and/or colloidal particles to obtain useful physical effects. The families of devices can be summarized as follows: (1) Microfluidic pumps and/or valves wherein colloidal-size particles driven by electrical, magnetic, or optical fields serve as the principal moving parts that propel and/or direct the affected flows. (2) Devices that are similar to the aforementioned pumps and/or valves except that they are used to manipulate light instead of fluids. The colloidal particles in these devices are substantially constrained to move in a plane and are driven to spatially order them into arrays that function, variously, as waveguides, filters, or switches for optical signals. (3) Devices wherein the ultra-laminar nature of microfluidic flows is exploited to effect separation, sorting, or filtering of colloidal particles or biological cells in suspension. (4) Devices wherein a combination of confinement and applied electrical and/or optical fields forces the colloidal particles to become arranged into three-dimensional crystal lattices. Control of the colloidal crystalline structures could be exploited to control diffraction of light. (5) Microfluidic devices, incorporating fluid waveguides, wherein switching of flows among different paths would be accompanied by switching of optical signals.

  10. Utility financing of energy projects

    SciTech Connect

    McGeown, D.I.

    1997-06-01

    In this paper the author examines the changing role of today`s regulated utility and the emergence of new businesses focused on maximizing the value of each dollar spent on energy. These new Energy Service Providers will offer customers choices. They will have the capability to supply the basic energy commodities, electricity, gas and oil, and to integrate these with capital infrastructure projects aimed at improving energy efficiency. The capital injection from these companies offers the opportunity to revitalize the construction industry. Attention to short term investments in core business has resulted in neglect and, therefore, inefficiency in energy related functions. This provides opportunities for well heeled energy companies. Following the business trend toward outsourcing of non-core services, one will see an increase in energy outsourcing as a part of a facility management strategy. Energy suppliers will own the resources required to supply and convert energy into the commodities required for the client`s business. Customers will purchase air conditioning, lighting, process chilled water and similar services on an as needed basis.

  11. Utilities` ``obligation to serve`` under deregulation

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, C.B.

    1997-02-01

    The utility no longer has protected status, and the traditional franchise concept is under attack. Exclusive rights once conveyed to the utilities are being denied and not just in the area of gas sales. Exclusive rights once conveyed to utilities will be denied in more areas. State by state, the utilities` franchise is being examined to see which, if any, of its provisions are necessary in a deregulated environment. Can the free market provide everything that`s been provided for many years under monopolistic arrangements? Some of the most critical and difficult of these provisions concern the obligation to serve, which utilities, in most states, have assumed as part of their franchise agreement. Regulators, courts, utilities, marketers and others are busy sorting through these issues, but resolution could take years. The paper discusses deregulation, universal service fee, representation without taxation, suppliers and marketer restrictions.

  12. Linking utilization management and patient safety.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Liza

    2003-01-01

    URAC recently completed a study funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation to assess patient safety systems. URAC collected information from 31 separate UM companies. URAC also reviewed software capabilities from four commercial utilization management software vendors. This article describes how utilization management organizations use information technology and UM processes to systematically identify and manage potential patient safety problems. The study also identified research needs to promote future utilization management involvement in patient safety. PMID:14983645

  13. The Utility Relationship to its Key Industries

    E-print Network

    Gilbert, J. S.

    THE UTILITY RELATIONSHIP TO ITS KEY INDUSTRIES Joel S. Gilbert, P.E., Dames & Moore, Bethesda, l>laryland Whi l" thc 1'1',[II'.ic utilities are experiencing rate shock as new pIants arf' cancel.led or I'olled onto the.ir rate bascs, What will the impact be? What cal) industry do? How lal'ge a problem could occur if a utility...

  14. Utilities cut spending to gain competitive edge

    SciTech Connect

    Warkentin, D.

    1997-01-01

    The desire to obtain and retain a favorable market position in the coming deregulated electric utility industry has prompted many utilities to stabilize and increase their cash flows through carefully managing capital expenditures. Investor-owned electric utilities (IOU) have realized a record cash flow due to new business strategies such as cost reduction to initiate growth, reduction in capital spending, and reduced interest expense that is tied with prior year refinancing.

  15. PROTEIN STRUCTURE REPORT Crystal structure of the Yersinia type III

    E-print Network

    Yersinia pestis utilizes a contact-dependent (type III) secretion system (T3SS) to transport virulence of oligomerization is discussed. Keywords: Yersinia pestis; plague; type III secretion; YscE; crystal structure Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, utilizes a type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject

  16. An Incremental High-Utility Mining Algorithm with Transaction Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Wensheng; Zhang, Binbin

    2015-01-01

    Association-rule mining is commonly used to discover useful and meaningful patterns from a very large database. It only considers the occurrence frequencies of items to reveal the relationships among itemsets. Traditional association-rule mining is, however, not suitable in real-world applications since the purchased items from a customer may have various factors, such as profit or quantity. High-utility mining was designed to solve the limitations of association-rule mining by considering both the quantity and profit measures. Most algorithms of high-utility mining are designed to handle the static database. Fewer researches handle the dynamic high-utility mining with transaction insertion, thus requiring the computations of database rescan and combination explosion of pattern-growth mechanism. In this paper, an efficient incremental algorithm with transaction insertion is designed to reduce computations without candidate generation based on the utility-list structures. The enumeration tree and the relationships between 2-itemsets are also adopted in the proposed algorithm to speed up the computations. Several experiments are conducted to show the performance of the proposed algorithm in terms of runtime, memory consumption, and number of generated patterns. PMID:25811038

  17. Electric utility mergers: Competition, deregulation and the evolving federal policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, David Baird

    As the electric utility industry moves from a regulated monopoly structure to a deregulated competitive market, horizontal and vertical merger activity has increased substantially. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ("FERC") generally takes the lead at the federal level for reviewing the competitive effects of electric utility mergers. Shortly after it issued its order open access order requiring utilities to allow others to use their transmission systems in 1996, FERC issued a merger policy statement outlining a new analytic approach that more accurately reflects the physical and economic realities of competition in a deregulated electric industry. This study will critically examine the federal merger review process and policies seeking to determine whether (1) the Commission's methodology provides an accurate and reliable measure of the effects of a merger on competition, (2) the market power remedies that the Commission has required from merger applicants mitigate potential market power and improve economic efficiency, and (3) transactions costs provide an alternative explanation for horizontal electric utility mergers. In addition to the economic analysis of these issues, the study includes an empirical analysis of the effects of three recent mergers.

  18. Instructional television utilization in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumolin, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    Various aspects of utilizing instructional television (ITV) are summarized and evaluated and basic guidelines for future utilization of television as an instructional medium in education are considered. The role of technology in education, capabilities and limitations of television as an instructional media system and the state of ITV research efforts are discussed. Examples of various ongoing ITV programs are given and summarized. The problems involved in the three stages of the ITV process (production, distribution, and classroom utilization) are presented. A summary analysis outlines probable trends in future utilization.

  19. Cryo Utilities Room Cooling System

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, G.S.; /Fermilab

    1989-01-26

    Many of the mechanical equipment failures at the Laboratory are due to the loss of cooling water. In order to insure the proper operating temperatures and to increase the reliability of the mechanical equipment in the D0 Cryo Utilities Room it is necessary to provide an independent liquid cooling system. To this end, an enclosed glycoVwater cooling system which transfers heat from two vane-type vacuum pumps and an air compressor to the outside air has been installed in the Cryo Utilities Room. From the appended list it can be seen that only the Thermal Precision PFC-121-D and Ingersoll-Rand WAC 16 deserve closer investigation based on price. The disadvantages of the WAC 16 are that: it runs a little warmer, it requires more valving to properly install a backup pump, inlet and outlet piping are not included, and temperature and pressure indicators are not included. Its only advantage is that it is $818 cheaper than the PFC-121-D. The advantages of the PFC-121-D are that: it has automatic pump switching during shutdown, it has a temperature regulator on one fan control, it has a switch which indicates proper operation, has a sight glass on the expansion tank, and comes with an ASME approved expansion tank and relief valve. For these reasons the Thermal Precision PFC-121-D was chosen. In the past, we have always found the pond water to be muddy and to sometimes contain rocks of greater than 1/2 inch diameter. Thus a system completely dependent on the pond water from the accelerator was deemed unacceptable. A closed system was selected based on its ability to greatly improve reliability, while remaining economical. It is charged with a 50/50 glycol/water mixture capable of withstanding outside temperatures down to -33 F. The fluid will be circulated by a totally enclosed air cooled Thermal Precision PFC-121-D pump. The system will be on emergency power and an automatically controlled backup pump, identical to the primary, is available should the main pump fail. The fan unit is used as a primary cooler and the trim cooler cools the fluid further on extremely hot days. The trim cooler has also been sized to cool the system in the event of a total shutdown provided that the pond water supply has adequate pressure. Due to a broken filter, we found it necessary to install a strainer in the pond water supply line. The expansion tank separates air bubbles, ensures a net positive suction head, protects against surges and over pressurization of the system, and allows for the filling of the system without shutting it off. All piping has been installed, flushed, charged with the glycol/water mix, and hydrostatically tested to 55 psi. The condition of all pumps and flow conditions will be recorded at the PLC. It has been decided not to include the regulator valve in the pond water return line. This valve was designated by the manufacturer to reduce the amount of water flowing through the trim cooler. This is not necessary in our application. There is some concern that the cooling fluid may cool the mechanical eqUipment too much when they are not operating or during very cold days. This issue will be addressed and the conclusion appended to this engineering note.

  20. Ubiquitination in plant nutrient utilization

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Gary; Sadanandom, Ari

    2013-01-01

    Ubiquitin (Ub) is well-established as a major modifier of signaling in eukaryotes. However, the extent to which plants rely on Ub for regulating nutrient uptake is still in its infancy. The main characteristic of ubiquitination is the conjugation of Ub onto lysine residues of acceptor proteins. In most cases the targeted protein is rapidly degraded by the 26S proteasome, the major proteolysis machinery in eukaryotic cells. The Ub-proteasome system is responsible for removing most abnormal peptides and short-lived cellular regulators, which, in turn, control many processes. This allows cells to respond rapidly to intracellular signals and changing environmental conditions. This perspective will discuss how plants utilize Ub conjugation for sensing environmental nutrient levels. We will highlight recent advances in understanding how Ub aids nutrient homeostasis by affecting the trafficking of membrane bound transporters. Given the overrepresentation of genes encoding Ub-metabolizing enzymes in plants, intracellular signaling events regulated by Ub that lead to transcriptional responses due to nutrient starvation is an under explored area ripe for new discoveries. We provide new insight into how Ub based biochemical tools can be exploited to reveal new molecular components that affect nutrient signaling. The mechanistic nature of Ub signaling indicates that dominant form of any new molecular components can be readily generated and are likely shed new light on how plants cope with nutrient limiting conditions. Finally as part of future challenges in this research area we introduce the newly discovered roles of Ub-like proteins in nutrient homeostasis. PMID:24282407

  1. Utilizing parallel optimization in computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokkolaras, Michael

    1998-12-01

    General problems of interest in computational fluid dynamics are investigated by means of optimization. Specifically, in the first part of the dissertation, a method of optimal incremental function approximation is developed for the adaptive solution of differential equations. Various concepts and ideas utilized by numerical techniques employed in computational mechanics and artificial neural networks (e.g. function approximation and error minimization, variational principles and weighted residuals, and adaptive grid optimization) are combined to formulate the proposed method. The basis functions and associated coefficients of a series expansion, representing the solution, are optimally selected by a parallel direct search technique at each step of the algorithm according to appropriate criteria; the solution is built sequentially. In this manner, the proposed method is adaptive in nature, although a grid is neither built nor adapted in the traditional sense using a-posteriori error estimates. Variational principles are utilized for the definition of the objective function to be extremized in the associated optimization problems, ensuring that the problem is well-posed. Complicated data structures and expensive remeshing algorithms and systems solvers are avoided. Computational efficiency is increased by using low-order basis functions and concurrent computing. Numerical results and convergence rates are reported for a range of steady-state problems, including linear and nonlinear differential equations associated with general boundary conditions, and illustrate the potential of the proposed method. Fluid dynamics applications are emphasized. Conclusions are drawn by discussing the method's limitations, advantages, and possible extensions. The second part of the dissertation is concerned with the optimization of the viscous-inviscid-interaction (VII) mechanism in an airfoil flow analysis code. The VII mechanism is based on the concept of a transpiration velocity boundary condition, whose convergence to steady state is accelerated. The number of variables in the associated optimization problem is reduced by means of function approximation concepts to ensure high number of parallel processors to number of necessary function evaluations ratio. Numerical results are presented for the NACA-0012 and the supercritical RAE-2822 airfoils subject to transonic flow conditions using a parallel direct search technique. They exhibit a satisfactory level of accuracy. Speed-up depends on the number of available computational units and increases for more challenging flow conditions and airfoil geometries. The enhanced code constitutes a useful tool for airfoil flow analysis and design and an acceptable alternative to computationally expensive high fidelity codes.

  2. Continuous Utilization of Biofeedback in Psychotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Story, Norman L.

    This brief article describes a session with a client utilizing a device known as the Electromyometer (EMG) and biofeedback processes. The author explains how his procedure encompasses aspects of Dynamic Psychotherapy, which is a therapeutic approach utilizing galvanic skin resistance in psychotherapy, and EMG which has been primarily used on…

  3. Working memory management and predicted utility

    PubMed Central

    Chatham, Christopher H.; Badre, David

    2013-01-01

    Given the limited capacity of working memory (WM), its resources should be allocated strategically. One strategy is filtering, whereby access to WM is granted preferentially to items with the greatest utility. However, reallocation of WM resources might be required if the utility of maintained information subsequently declines. Here, we present behavioral, computational, and neuroimaging evidence that human participants track changes in the predicted utility of information in WM. First, participants demonstrated behavioral costs when the utility of items already maintained in WM declined and resources should be reallocated. An adapted Q-learning model indicated that these costs scaled with the historical utility of individual items. Finally, model-based neuroimaging demonstrated that frontal cortex tracked the utility of items to be maintained in WM, whereas ventral striatum tracked changes in the utility of items maintained in WM to the degree that these items are no longer useful. Our findings suggest that frontostriatal mechanisms track the utility of information in WM, and that these dynamics may predict delays in the removal of information from WM. PMID:23882196

  4. Motivational underpinnings of utility in decision making

    E-print Network

    Townsend, James T.

    CHAPTER 9 Motivational underpinnings of utility in decision making Decisionfieldtheory analysisof The concept of utility is central to theories of decision-making. Yet little is known about the source unexplained. The purpose of this chapter isto build a theory of decision-making that at- tempts to identify

  5. Medical technology: Assessment, adoption, and utilization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann Lennarson Greer

    1981-01-01

    Promotion of appropriate diffusion of technology in medicine is handicapped by: (1) thorny conceptual, ethical, and methodological problems in technology assessment; (2) a lack of consistent findings on the factors affecting technology adoption and utilization; and (3) a disturbing lack of apparent connection between assessment, adoption, and utilization. This paper reviews published work in these areas of inquiry, highlights areas

  6. Utilities: Emerging Opportunities in Performance Contracting 

    E-print Network

    Wood, G. W.

    1996-01-01

    regulations ? Freedom to develop many types of end-use pricing "bundling" ? Easily integrated into the utility "family" of services ESCO Servires c u S t o M E R r~------MARKETING CHANNELS omONI omON2 HOW DOES A UTILITY START A PERFORMANCE...

  7. 1986 fuel oil utilization workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, C.F.; McDonald, B.L.

    1987-06-01

    A workshop to consider problems related to fuel oil utilization was held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on October 7-9, 1986. The 77 participants included fuels, engineering, and operating representatives of 21 US utilities, one Canadian utility, the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (Mexico), the Central Electricity Generating Board (Great Britain), the Electric Power Research Institute, and contractors engaged in EPRI fuel oil projects. The primary objective of the meeting was the interchange of information related to fuel oil projects conducted by some of the utilities, EPRI, EPRI contractors, and others. Through the discussions, EPRI gained useful insight into directions for continuing and future studies and utility support efforts. The presentations and discussions addressed fuels and combustion related problems encountered in utility boiler systems burning residual fuel oils as the primary fuel. Included were the results of fundamental studies, plant tests and demonstrations, and operating experiences. Among the major topics covered were the fundamentals of particulate formation, technology for reducing particulate emissions, utility experiences with burning emulsions (both oil-in-water and water-in-oil), stability and compatibility of residual oils, fuel quality control, fuel oil research and experiences in Great Britain and Mexico, and the progress and results from EPRI sponsored efforts related to fuel oil utilization. All papers in this proceedings have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  8. Cyber Security Management for Utility Operations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis K. Holstein; Jose Diaz

    2006-01-01

    Strong identity management enforced with digital authentication mechanisms has become the leading requirement to improve cyber security for utility operations. Utility operators don?t really care how it works as long as they are confident that it does work. They want a solution that is standards-based, is interoperable with the commonly installed applications, and is extendable for legacy systems to lower

  9. Transponder Power Minimization Utilizing Optimum Channelizer Gains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John J. Knab

    2012-01-01

    Today, the Wideband Global SATCOM (WGS) system employs a new concept of adjusting the transponder power gain of individual links. A simple optimum method is derived for selecting these individual channel gains to minimize the amount of transponder power utilized. This new method directly solves a set of simple nonlinear equations and does not utilize any search algorithms or matrix

  10. Solar energy utilization in the USSR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. E. Shpilrain

    1991-01-01

    The conditions for solar energy utilization in the USSR are not too favorable. Only in the country's southern regions is there sufficient insolation to make solar energy utilization economic. In higher latitudes, only seasonal use of solar energy is reasonable. Up to now, the main application of solar energy has been to produce low-temperature heat for hot water production, drying

  11. Predictors of Adolescent Health Care Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vingilis, Evelyn; Wade, Terrance; Seeley, Jane

    2007-01-01

    This study, using Andersen's health care utilization model, examined how predisposing characteristics, enabling resources, need, personal health practices, and psychological factors influence health care utilization using a nationally representative, longitudinal sample of Canadian adolescents. Second, this study examined whether this process…

  12. Utility restructuring: Boon or bane for renewables?

    SciTech Connect

    Hochanadel, J.R.; Aitken, D.W.

    1996-11-01

    This article describes the challenges and opportunities for the renewables industry as electric utility restructuring begins. Topics include the following: the changes in the electric power industry and what lead to restructuring; the uncertain future and the issues involved (demand side management, energy efficiency programs, low income assistance, research in the public interest, commercialization of renewables); position of the ASES on utility restructuring.

  13. Rights of Water Utilities in Streets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerard A. Wyss; Roy E. Dodson

    1973-01-01

    As cities become more crowded with both cars and people, new problems arise regarding where to put utility pipe and power lines. Environmental awareness and the desire not to have overhead power lines have increased the pressure to go underground. The problem now confronting utilities is how to fit all necessary lines underground safely and economically.

  14. 2009-2010 1 Energy & Utilities

    E-print Network

    Acton, Scott

    2009-2010 1 Energy & Utilities University of Virginia Facilities Management Annual Report 2009.........................................................................................................................35 B Plant Heating Energy Consumption Data......................................................................................................41 #12;2009-2010 3 Overview October 8, 2010 This 2009-2010 annual report for Energy & Utilities

  15. Analysis of United States' Utility Conservation Programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franz Wirl; Wolfgang Orasch

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the United States' experience with utility sponsored energy conservation programs. Such programs are central to the recent discussions about electric utility regulation in the United States and elsewhere. First it is shown that these programs are exposed to three problems on the consumers' side – rebound, adverse selection and moral hazard – which lower the effectiveness of

  16. Towards Utility in Reviews of Multivocal Literatures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Michael Quinn

    1991-01-01

    In program evaluation and policy analyses, utility supplants rigor as the first and most important criterion in judging literature reviews. Although R. T. Ogawa and B. Malen emphasize rigor, a utilization-focused evaluation emphasizes purpose and audience, both of which affect the conduct of a multivocal literature review. (SLD)

  17. Value of non-utility-generated electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Jabbour, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    The Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) of 1978 and the associated rulings of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) obligates the electric utilities to purchase electricity generated by qualifying facilities at the utility's avoided cost of alternative energy. No further indication of how this cost should be calculated is given and the actual implementation of the regulations is left to the states' regulatory authorities. Although there is general agreement that the utility's marginal cost of electricity production is a good surrogate for the cost it avoids by buying electricity from non-utility facilities, the calculation of these costs involves substantial conceptual and analytical differences. Two computer simulation models were developed to study the short-run and the long-run values of the electricity generated by private entities and offered for sale to the electric utilities. Both the energy and capacity components of the total value are calculated based on the Rate-payers Indifference principle with the return on the utility's stock held constant. The short-run value of non-utility-generated electricity was found to increase with increased penetrations up to a maximum level before it starts decreasing as a result of the displacement of intermediate and baseload capacity.

  18. SIRU utilization. Volume 2: Software description and program documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oehrle, J.; Whittredge, R.

    1973-01-01

    A complete description of the additional analysis, development and evaluation provided for the SIRU system as identified in the requirements for the SIRU utilization program is presented. The SIRU configuration is a modular inertial subsystem with hardware and software features that achieve fault tolerant operational capabilities. The SIRU redundant hardware design is formulated about a six gyro and six accelerometer instrument module package. The modules are mounted in this package so that their measurement input axes form a unique symmetrical pattern that corresponds to the array of perpendiculars to the faces of a regular dodecahedron. This six axes array provides redundant independent sensing and the symmetry enables the formulation of an optimal software redundant data processing structure with self-contained fault detection and isolation (FDI) capabilities. Documentation of the additional software and software modifications required to implement the utilization capabilities includes assembly listings and flow charts

  19. Utility classification group position on important to safety

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.M.

    1985-02-01

    Do you properly maintain your NSR equipment. Do you use operating and maintenance procedures. Do you have a PM Program for this equipment. Do you have a formal QA Program for B.O.P.. These are some of the questions the NRC has recently been asking in connection with the safety classification issue. What has all this got to do with the safety classification issue. It appears the NRC is concerned how utilities maintain their NSR equipment. In order to satisfy their curiosity in this area, the NRC is attempting to redefine the term important to safety and establish formal requirements for NSR structures, systems, and components. The Utility Safety Classification Group was formed to interact with the NRC to resolve their concerns.

  20. Integrated outage management at Kentucky Utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, A.D. [UGC Consulting, Englewood, CO (United States); Adkins, K. [Kentucky Utilities, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Kentucky Utilities (KU) is pursuing a sophisticated strategy to provide an integrated Distribution Operations System. The program, with Automated Mapping/Facilities Management (AM/FM) as an underlying technology, will deliver Trouble Order Entry/Analysis (TOE/A), Work Management System (WMS), and interfaces/integration with other Information Technology systems. The utility is pursuing this integrated technology to remain a low-cost provider and improve trouble outage management and service quality, while it continues to meet customer growth and industry challenges of the 1990s. This paper describes the TOE/A system that is being implemented at Kentucky Utilities. The system is being integrated with the utility`s AM/FM and Work Management systems. The TOE/A system automatically receives input from Call Entry and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. With the system, KU dispatchers will be able to automatically determine outage device(s), manage trouble crews, and provide status to customers.