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Controllable supramolecular structures and luminescent properties of unique trimeric Zn(II) 8-hydroxyquinolinates tuned by functional substituents.  


We reported here the self-assembly of two supramolecular structures based on similar trimeric Zn(II) units that are built from novel 2-substituted 8-hydroxyquinoline ligands and coordination Zn(II) ions. The aggregation behavior of zinc salt and ligand in solution was investigated by a variety of techniques, including (1)H NMR, UV-vis and photoluminescence (PL). In the solid state, the supramolecular structures can be controlled by the substituted groups (-NO(2) and -F) via intermolecular interaction, such as ?···? stacking, C-H···O, and C-F···F-C interactions. As a result, the two trimeric Zn(II) complexes exhibit disparate photophysical properties. The present research holds great promise in the development of novel multinuclear Zn(II) materials, and may contribute to the understanding of structure-property relationships. PMID:23243665

Yuan, Guozan; Huo, Yanping; Nie, Xiaoli; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Bin; Fang, Xiaoming; Zhao, Fenghua



Structural and vibrational study of 8-hydroxyquinoline-2-carboxaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone - A potential metal-protein attenuating compound (MPAC) for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.  


A comprehensive structural and vibrational study of the potential metal-protein attenuating compound 8-hydroxyquinoline-2-carboxaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone is reported. X-ray diffraction data, as well as FT-IR and Raman frequencies, were compared with the respective theoretical values obtained from DFT calculations. Theory agrees well with experiment. In this context, an attempt of total assignment concerning the FT-IR and Raman spectra of the title compound was performed, shedding new light on previous partial assignments published elsewhere. PMID:23896296

de Freitas, Leonardo Viana; da Silva, Cecilia C P; Ellena, Javier; Costa, Luiz Antônio Sodré; Rey, Nicolás A



Comparative Study of Photoluminescence Dynamics of Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) Aluminum-Based Organic Multilayer Structures with Different Types of Energy Lineups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photoluminescence (PL) dynamics of aluminumquinoline (Alq3; tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum)-based organic multilayer structures, i.e., Alq3\\/oxadiazole (t-BuPBD; (2-(4-biphenylyl)-5-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole), Alq3\\/cyclopentadiene (PPCP; 1,2,3,4,5-pentaphenyl-1,3-cyclopentadiene), and Alq3\\/diamine (TPD; N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis-(3-methylphenyl)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-diamine), which possess different types of energy lineups (equivalent to types I and II of inorganic semiconductor multilayer structures) of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy levels, were investigated and compared.

Shizuo Fujita; Tadahiro Nakazawa; Mitsuru Asano; Shigeo Fujita



Syntheses of Diazadithiacrown Ethers Containing Two 8-Hydroxyquinoline Side Arms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ten new diazadithiacrown ethers containing two 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ) sidearms attached through the HQ 7-positions and four new diazadithiacrown ethers containing two HQ sidearms attached through the HQ 2-positions have been prepared. Some of these new l...

H. C. Song J. S. Bradshaw Y. W. Chen G. P. Xue J. A. Chiara



Synthesis of Tetraazacrown Ethers Containing Two 8-Hydroxyquinoline Side Arms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four new tetraazacrown ethers containing two 8-hydroxyquinoline side arms were prepared first by reductive amination of 8-acetoxyquinolin-2-carbaldehyde with the appropriate tetraazacrown ether containing two microring NH functions. The resulting bis(8-ac...

Z. Yang J. S. Bradshaw P. B. Savage K. E. Krakowiak R. M. Izatt



New cyclodextrin-bearing 8-hydroxyquinoline ligands as multifunctional molecules.  


Recent investigations have rekindled interest in 8-hydroxyquinolines as therapeutic agents for cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and other neurodegenerative disorders. Three new ?-cyclodextrin conjugates of 8-hydroxyquinolines and their copper(II) and zinc(II) complexes have been synthesized and characterized spectroscopically. In addition to improving aqueous solubility, due to the presence of the cyclodextrin moiety, the hybrid systems have interesting characteristics including antioxidant activity, and their copper(II) complexes are efficient superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimics. The ligands and their copper(II) complexes show low cytotoxicity, attributed to the presence of the cyclodextrin moiety. These compounds have potential as therapeutic agents in diseases related both to metal dyshomeostasis and oxidative stress. PMID:24038335

Oliveri, Valentina; Puglisi, Antonino; Viale, Maurizio; Aiello, Cinzia; Sgarlata, Carmelo; Vecchio, Graziella; Clarke, James; Milton, John; Spencer, John



Suppression of pyrite oxidation by iron 8-hydroxyquinoline.  


One of the important approaches to prevent pyrite (FeS(2)) oxidation and subsequent formation of acid mine drainage (AMD) is to create a surface coating on pyrite. In this study, a coating of iron 8-hydroxyquinoline was formed by leaching pyrite with a 0.10 M H(2)O(2)/0.0034 M 8-hydroxyquinoline solution; stability of the coated pyrite was tested under various pH and temperature conditions. The results showed that iron 8-hydroxyquinoline coating could significantly suppress further pyrite oxidation by both chemical (H(2)O(2)) and biological ( e.g., Thiobacillus ferrooxidans) processes. At pH from 3.0 to 5.0 and temperature from 10-40 degrees C, the amount of SO(4)(2-) leached out by 0.10 M H(2)O(2) from the coated pyrite samples was 54.8-70.1% less than that from the uncoated controls. The oxidation of pyrite followed a pseudo-zero-order kinetics under the constant concentration of H(2)O(2). In the presence of microorganisms, sulfate leached out of the uncoated pyrite in 1 year accounted for 5.32% of the total pyrite in the system, with a concurrent pH drop to 2.35 under the ambient room temperatures. In contrast, the amount leached out from the coated samples was only 0.15% of the total pyrite and the final pH was 5.48. Thus, the coating decreased the leachability of pyrite by 97% in the inoculated systems. In comparison to the more widely studied iron phosphate coating, the advantage of iron 8-hydroxyquinoline coating was that it inhibited both chemical and biological pyrite oxidation, whereas iron phosphate coating could only inhibit chemical pyrite oxidation. PMID:12115042

Lan, Y; Huang, X; Deng, B



Thermal behaviour of intercalated 8-hydroxyquinoline (oxine) in montmorillonite clay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composite montmorillonite-8-hydroxyquinoline (Swy-1-8-HQ) was prepared by two different processes and studied by using\\u000a thermogravimetric analysis (TG\\/DTG and DSC), as well as helpful techniques as fluorescence in the UV-visible region and X-ray\\u000a diffraction. The composites developed fluorescent appearance, however with quantum poor efficiency and they exhibited distinct\\u000a TG and DSC thermal behavior. The fluorescence data of spectra associated to the

I. A. Pastre; A. B. S. Moitinho; G. R. de Souza; E. Y. Ionashiro; F. L. Fertonani



Encapsulation of the corrosion inhibitor 8-hydroxyquinoline into ceria nanocontainers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ceria nanocontainers were synthesized through a two-step process and then loaded with 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ). The size\\u000a of the containers was 110 nm as determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).\\u000a X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) showed that the ceria nanocontainers were of the cerianite crystalline phase. The presence\\u000a of 8-HQ in the nanocontainers was confirmed with Fourier-transform infrared

Ioannis Kartsonakis; Ioannis Daniilidis; George Kordas



8-Hydroxyquinolines: a review of their metal chelating properties and medicinal applications  

PubMed Central

Metal ions play an important role in biological processes and in metal homeostasis. Metal imbalance is the leading cause for many neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and multiple sclerosis. 8-Hydroxyquinoline (8HQ) is a small planar molecule with a lipophilic effect and a metal chelating ability. As a result, 8HQ and its derivatives hold medicinal properties such as antineurodegenerative, anticancer, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic activities. Herein, diverse bioactivities of 8HQ and newly synthesized 8HQ-based compounds are discussed together with their mechanisms of actions and structure–activity relationships.

Prachayasittikul, Veda; Prachayasittikul, Supaluk; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Prachayasittikul, Virapong



A dinuclear aluminum 8-hydroxyquinoline complex with high electron mobility for organic light-emitting diodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dinuclear aluminum 8-hydroxyquinoline complex (DAlq3) with improved electron mobility was designed for organic light-emitting diodes. The electron mobility in DAlq3 was determined via transient electroluminescence (EL) from bilayer devices with structure of indium tin oxide (ITO)\\/N,N'-di(naphthalene-1-yl)-N,N'-diphenyl-benzidine (NPB)\\/DAlq3\\/Mg:Ag. It was found that the electron mobility in DAlq3 is between 3.7-8.4×10-6 cm2\\/Vs at electric fields ranging between 1.2×106 and 4.0×106 V\\/cm,

Dongge Ma; Guang Wang; Yufeng Hu; Yanguang Zhang; Lixiang Wang; Xiabin Jing; Fosong Wang; C. S. Lee; S. T. Lee



Infrared organic light emitting diodes using neodymium tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the photoluminescence and electroluminescence of neodymium tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) and have found evidence, from the Stark splitting of the neodymium emission, for two isomers of the molecule. Following sublimation it appears that one of these isomers predominates. Photoluminescence can be excited through absorption into the organic ligands and there appears to be efficient coupling between the singlet and triplet exciton levels in the ligand and the internal levels of the neodymium. We can obtain bright infrared electroluminescence from the intraatomic levels within the neodymium at wavelengths of 900, 1064, and 1337 nm.

Khreis, O. M.; Curry, R. J.; Somerton, M.; Gillin, W. P.



Oxidation of 8-hydroxyquinoline catalyzed by laccase from Trametes pubescens yields an antioxidant aromatic polymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report for the first time the enzyme-catalyzed production of poly (8-hydroxyquinoline) using laccase from the white rot fungus Trametes pubescens (CBS 696.94). The oxidative polymerisation of 8-hydroxyquinoline was catalyzed by laccase in a reaction medium containing 8% acetone, 0.01–0.05mg\\/ml 8-hydroxyquinoline and sodium acetate buffer (0.1M, pH 5.0) at 30°C. The average molecular weight of the polymeric product, as determined

Sandile Ncanana; Stephanie Burton



Re-condensation and decomposition of Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)-aluminum in a vapor transport ampoule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By choosing various crystalline forms of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)-aluminum (Alq3) source powders and using different transport gases under various inside-pressures pin, two constitutional supersaturation (CSS) zones were observed in a vapor transport ampoule with a source temperature of 300 °C and a growth period of 5.0 h. From UV-visible spectra, the material in the lower CSS zone (with sidewall temperature Tside?130-270 °C) was the re-condensed Alq3, while that in the upper zone (Tside around room temperature) was the decomposed 8-hydroxyquinoline (8Hq). With increasing pin from 1.3×102 to 9.3×104 Pa, the decomposition of Alq3 into 8Hq was enhanced, and the deposition of 8Hq CSS zone became apparent with the formation of several 8Hq needle crystals. In addition, a dependence of the crystal structure formed in the Alq3 CSS zone on the initial phase of the source powder was observed and discussed.

Kao, Fan-Hsuan; Lin, Ku-Yen; Jan, Da-Jeng; Tang, Shiow-Jing; Yang, Chun-Chuen; Lin, Chia-Her; Yeh, Jui-Ming; Chiu, Kuan-Cheng



[Spasmolytic and anti-inflammatory activity of 8-hydroxyquinolines].  


It has been shown that quinozole (aqueous solution), enteroseptol and nitroxoline (suspension with Tween-80) in a concentration of 0.2 X 10(-6)-1.10(-5) decrease the tone of the rat and guinea-pig ileum and diminish their peristalsis. When administered in the same concentrations quinozole removes or prevents the spasmogenic effects of barium chloride (1 X 10(-5)-4.10(-5), of histamine (2 X 10(-5) and -6) but not of acetylcholine (1 X 10(-6)). When administered orally in a dose 50 mg/kg to rats enteroseptol and nitroxoline inhibit the serotonin-, agar- and carrageenin-induced edemas of the rat paws without changing the response to subplantar injection of histamine. The data obtained should be taken into consideration during the use of 8-hydroxyquinolines as antimicrobial substances. PMID:6238840

Zaks, A S; Zil'ber, A L; Kapitonenko, T A


Formation of chromium(III) complexes with 8?hydroxyquinoline derivatives in nonionic micellar solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the inertness of hydrated chromium ion, chromium(III) complexes are formed very slowly in aqueous solutions but not in surfactant solutions. Micelle effects were observed in the reaction of chromium(III) ion with 8?hydroxyquinoline or its derivatives. In nonionic surfactant solutions, reactions between chromium(III) ion and 8?hydroxyquinoline at 23 EC and 40 EC followed first?order kinetics. The reaction between chromium(III)

Chuhua Wang; Dean F. Martin; Barbara B. Martin



Bipolar resistive switching based on bis(8-hydroxyquinoline) cadmium complex: Mechanism and non-volatile memory application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable and persistent bipolar resistive switching was observed in an organic diode with the structure of indium-tin oxide (ITO)/bis(8-hydroxyquinoline) cadmium (Cdq2)/Al. Aggregate formation and electric field driven trapping and de-trapping of charge carriers in the aggregate states that lie in the energy gap of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of the organic molecule were proposed as the mechanism of the observed bipolar resistive switching, and this was solidly supported by the results of AFM investigations. Repeatedly set, read, and reset measurements demonstrated that the device is potentially applicable in non-volatile memories.

Wang, Ying; Yang, Ting; Xie, Ji-Peng; Lü, Wen-Li; Fan, Guo-Ying; Liu, Su



Zinc8-hydroxyquinoline intercalated in calcium bentonite: A promising DO sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zn(II) and 8-hydroxyquinoline were made to react in an in situ solid?solid reaction in the interlayer space of Ca-bentonite from Thailand, resulting in [Zn(8-hydroxyquinoline)2]2+, the well known –Znq2. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the interlayer space of the bentonite increased from 1.56 to 1.67nm on going from Zn(II)-bentonite to Znq2-bentonite, which confirmed the intercalation of Znq2 in bentonite. The intercalated

Nitikorn Chuekuna; Atchana Wongchaisuwat; Ladda Meesuk



Preliminary Complexation Studies of Bis-(8-Hydroxyquinoline) -substituted Tetraaza-15-crown-5 with Various Metal Ions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Complexation of bis(8-hydroxyquinoline) -substituted tetraaza-15- crown-5 with Cu(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), and Pb(2+) was evaluated potentiometrically in aqueous solution (0.10 M Me4NCl) at 25 deg C. Ligand 1 formed very stable complexes with ...

X. X. Zhang J. S. Bradshaw R. T. Bronson P. B. Savage R. M. Izatt



Synthesis of Red-Shifted 8-Hydroxyquinoline Derivatives Using Click Chemistry and Their Incorporation into Phosphorylation Chemosensors  

PubMed Central

Protein phosphorylation is a ubiquitous post-translational modification and protein kinases, the enzymes that catalyze the phosphoryl transfer, are involved in nearly every aspect of normal, as well as aberrant, cell function. Here we describe the synthesis of novel, red-shifted 8-hydroxyquinoline-based fluorophores and their incorporation into peptidyl kinase activity reporters. Replacement of the sulfonamide group of the sulfonamido-oxine (1, Sox) chromophore, which has been previously used in kinase sensing, by a 1,4-substituted-triazole moiety, via click chemistry, resulted in a significant bathochromic shift in the fluorescence excitation (15 nm) and emission (40 nm) maxima for the Mg2+ chelate. Furthermore, when a click derivative was incorporated into a chemosensor for MK2, the kinase accepted the new substrate as efficiently as the previously reported Sox-based sensor. Taken together, these results extend the utility range of kinase sensors that are based on chelation-enhanced fluorescence (CHEF).

Gonzalez-Vera, Juan A.; Lukovic, Elvedin; Imperiali, Barbara



Synthesis and photoluminescence properties of 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives and their metallic complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives, i.e. 5-[(4-styryl-benzylidene)-amino]-quinolin-8-ol (1), 5-[(4-bromo-2-fluoro-benzylidene)-amino]-quinoline-8-ol (2) and 2-[2-(9-ethyl-9H-carbazol-2yl)-vinyl]-quinolin-8-ol (3), and their metallic complexes were synthesized and identified by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis), 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), mass spectrometry (MS) spectra and elemental analyses. Their fluorescence\\u000a properties were studied by photoluminescence, which indicated that the luminescence wavelength of 5-and 2-substitued-8-hydroxyquinoline\\u000a derivatives shifted to

Xinhua Ouyang; Heping Zeng; Yan Xie



Swift heavy ion irradiation-induced modifications of tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3), one of the most widely used light emitting and electron transport materials in organic luminescent devices, has been synthesized. Alq3 thin films have been deposited by a thermal evaporation process on glass substrates. The effect of swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation using 40 MeV Li3+ on the Alq3 thin films has been studied by UV-visible, infrared, photoluminescence (PL)

K. Thangaraju; R. Kumaran; T. Mohanty; K. Asokan; P. Ramamurthy; D. Kanjilal; J. Kumar



Fluoride ion detection by 8-hydroxyquinoline–Zr(IV)–EDTA complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple fluorescent detection based on the ligand exchange mechanism is proposed for the fluoride ion in aqueous media. This procedure is based on the exchange of 8-hydroxyquinoline (oxine) coordinated to Zr(IV) by fluoride ion without interference from other common anions. The ternary complex of oxine with [Zr(H2O)2EDTA]·2H2O formed by replacing two water molecules in aqueous solution provides a sensitive

R. Sai Sathish; U. Sujith; G. Nageswara Rao; C. Janardhana



Spectrofluorimetric determination of nucleic acids as 8-hydroxyquinoline\\/ yttrium ternary complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of nucleic acids\\/8-hydroxyquinoline\\/yttrium(III) ternary complexes and their fluorescent properties have been studied. The nucleic acids studied include native and thermally denatured calf thymus DNA, fish sperm DNA and yeast RNA. In the range of pH 7.6–8.5, controlled by NH3-NH4C1 buffer, ternary complexes are formed that fluoresce at different wavelengths with different nucleic acids. Based on the fluorescence reactions,

Cheng Zhi Huang; Ke An Li; Shen Yang Tong



Fluorescent Complexes of Nucleic Acids\\/8Hydroxyquinoline\\/Lanthanum(III) and the Fluorometry of Nucleic Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ternary fluorescent complexes of nucleic acids\\/8-hydroxyquinoline\\/ lanthanum (III) were studied. Nucleic acids in the study involve natured and thermally denatured calf thymus DNA, fish sperm DNA and yeast RNA. In the range of pH 8.0–8.4 (controlled by NH3-NH4Cl buffer) ternary fluorescent complexes are formed which emit at 485.0 nm for calf thymus DNA and at 480.0 nm for yeast

Cheng Zhi Huang; Ke An Li; Shen Yang Tong



Spectrofluorimetric Determination of Nucleic Acids with Aluminum(III)\\/8Hydroxyquinoline Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of the fluorescence enhancement effect of nucleic acids on the aluminum (III) \\/ 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) complex, a spectrofluorimetric method for nucleic acids is proposed in the present paper. In the pH range 5.8–7.0, the fluorescence of the Al(III)\\/8-HQ complex, excited at 265 nm or at 365 nm, is enhanced by nucleic acids. The calibration curve was linear

Cheng Zhi Huang; Yuan Fang Li; Shen Yang Tong



Catalysis by manganese (III) 8-hydroxyquinolinates of the chemiluminescent reaction of luminol with hydrogen peroxide  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the kinetics of the reaction of luminol with H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ in the presence of Mn (III) 8-hydroxyquinolinate according to the data of measurements of the chemiluminescence intensity and the yield of light in this reaction. A reaction mechanism was proposed, providing for the oxidation of luminol by complexes of Mn (IV) that are formed in the decoposition of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/.

Kalinichenko, I.E.; Matveeva, E.Y.; Pilipenko, A.T.



Electrochemical characterization of 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulphonate\\/aluminium(III) aqueous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

8-Hydroxyquinoline-5-sulphonate\\/Al(III) aqueous solutions were studied both by potentiometric titrations and voltammetric measurements, in order to obtain the number, the stoichiometry and the stability constants of the complexes formed at equilibrium, and to evaluate the redox and (electro)kinetic properties of the free ligand and of the metal\\/ligand complexes. The complexes formed in 0.2m (Na)Cl aqueous solution (stability log beta values±standard deviation)

Denis Badocco; Annalisa Dean; Valerio Di Marco; Paolo Pastore



In vitro selective inhibitory effect of 8-hydroxyquinoline against bifidobacteria and clostridia.  


8-Hydroxyquinoline (8HQ) inhibited Clostridium tertium, Clostridium clostridioforme, Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens in vitro with MICs of 8, 16, 32 and 32 ?g/mL, respectively. In contrast, MICs of most bifidobacteria (84%) were 512 ?g/mL or higher. Thus, 8HQ could be used as anti-clostridial agent or in selective media for bifidobacteria isolation. PMID:23770542

Novakova, Jitka; Vlkova, Eva; Bonusova, Bela; Rada, Vojtech; Kokoska, Ladislav



Standard enthalpies of combustion of five halogen-substituted 8-hydroxyquinolines by rotating-bomb calorimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The standard (p°= 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation of five crystalline halogen-substituted 8-hydroxyquinolines, at the temperatureT= 298.15 K, were derived from measurements of the standard molar enthalpies of combustion in oxygen by rotating-bomb calorimetry.Using literature values of their standard molar enthalpies of sublimation, the standard molar enthalpies of formation, atT= 298.15 K, of the gaseous compounds were derived. These

Manuel A. V. Ribeiro da Silva; Maria Lu??sa C. C. H. Ferrăo; Adelina M. R. O. Alves da Silva



8-Hydroxyquinoline dansylates modified with PAMAM dendrimer as fluorescent Fe+ sensors.  


A series of fluorescent sensors based on 8-hydroxyquinoline dansylate as core and dendritic PAMAM as shell were synthesized. Their fluorescence characteristic and fluorescent sensing behavior toward metal ions were studied in water/methanol (1: 1, v/v). The sensors exhibit good selectivity and sensitivity for Fe(3+) ion and to some extent for Cr(3+) ion. The third generation dendrimer has the better sensitivity than the first and second generations. PMID:20657458

Zhang, Qi; Sha, Yaowu; Wang, Jin-Hui



Metal 8-Hydroxyquinoline-Functionalized Polymers and Related Materials and Methods of Making and Using the Same.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention relates to the synthesis of Mq.sub.n-containing monomeric compounds, comprising a polymerizable moiety, an Mq.sub.n-moiety, and an optional chemical spacer therebetween, wherein q, in each instance, comprises an 8-hydroxyquinoline residue, ...

A. Meyers M. Weck



Determination of complex forming conditions of 8-hydroxyquinoline with technetium-99m  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex forming conditions of 8-hydroxyquinoline with99mTc have been specified.99mTcO4\\u000a– has been reduced by SnCl2 to a lower oxidation level. Labeling yields have been determined by ITLC (Instant Thin Layer Chromatography). Various parameters, such as pH, temperature, reaction time, ligand to SnCl2 ratio, which can affect the labeling yields, have been determined. Optimum conditions are 4–7 for pH; 15–20°C (room)

P. Ünak; M. Yegane



Synthesis and luminescence properties of polymeric complexes of Cu(II), Zn(II) and Al(III) with 8-hydroxyquinoline side group-containing polystyrene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three kinds of metalloquinolate-containing polystyrene were prepared via a polymer reaction and a coordination reaction. 5-Chloromethyl-8-hydroxyquinoline (CHQ) was first prepared through the chloromethylation reaction of 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ) with 1,4-bichloromethoxy-butane as chloromethylation reagent. A polymer reaction, Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction, was carried out between polystyrene (PS) and CHQ in the presence of Lewis catalyst, and HQ was bonded onto the side chains of PS, obtaining 8-hydroxyquinoline-functionalized Polystyrene, HQ-PS. And then, by using one-pot method with two-stage procedures, the coordination reaction of HQ-PS and small molecule HQ with metal ions including Al(III), Zn(II) and Cu(II) ions, was allowed to be carried out, and three polymeric metalloquinolates, AlQ3-PS, ZnQ2-PS and CuQ2-PS, were successfully prepared, respectively. In the chemical structures of these polymeric metalloquinolates, metalloquinolates were chemically attached onto the side chains of PS. HQ-PS and three polymeric metalloquinolates were fully characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR and TGA. The luminescence properties of the three polymeric metalloquinolates were mainly investigated by UV/Vis absorption spectra and fluorescence emission spectra in solutions and in solid film states. When excited by the ray at about 365 nm, the three polymeric metalloquinolates have blue-green luminescence, and the main emission peaks in the DMF solutions are located at 490, 482 and 502 nm for AlQ3-PS, ZnQ2-PS and CuQ2-PS, respectively. As compared with their emissions in solutions, the emissions in solid film states are red-shifted to some extent, and the main emission peaks are located at 500, 488 and 510 nm for AlQ3-PS, ZnQ2-PS and CuQ2-PS, respectively. Besides, these polymeric metalloquinolates have higher thermal stability than PS as polymeric skeleton.

Gao, Baojiao; Wei, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Yanyan



Vinyl polymer agglomerate based transition metal cation chelating ion-exchange resin containing the 8-hydroxyquinoline functional group  

SciTech Connect

A simple synthetic route has been developed for the immobilization of 8-hydroxyquinoline onto Fractogel TSK, a highly porous, mechanically and chemically stable, hydrophilic organic resin gel. The product exhibits an exchange capacity comparable to the highest values reported for silica-immobilized 8-hydroxyquinoline but is more stable at high pH. The resin's selectivity and efficiency of collection of cationic metal species from freshwater and seawater were investigated. The resin was used in a column sequence to obtain concentration and speciation data for Al, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, and Cd in an organic-rich freshwater sample.

Landing, W.M.; Haraldsson, C.; Paxeus, N.



Ordered growth and local workfunction measurements of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium on ultrathin KBr films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we investigate the growth of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium (Alq3) on single-crystal Ag(111) substrates partially covered by an ultrathin KBr film. Noncontact atomic force microscopy is used to determine the molecular ordering of 0.8 monolayer Alq3 evaporated onto these substrates. The simultaneous measurement of the local surface potential by means of Kelvin probe force microscopy yields the local workfunction difference between the pure Ag(111) surface and the one covered by an ultrathin KBr film, by pure Alq3, or by both (KBr|Alq3). The molecular ordering and the interface dipole formation are discussed with respect to experiments described in the literature in which electron diffraction and photoelectron spectroscopy were used, respectively.

Zerweck, Ulrich; Loppacher, Christian; Eng, Lukas M.



Swift heavy ion irradiation-induced modifications of tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3), one of the most widely used light emitting and electron transport materials in organic luminescent devices, has been synthesized. Alq3 thin films have been deposited by a thermal evaporation process on glass substrates. The effect of swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation using 40 MeV Li3+ on the Alq3 thin films has been studied by UV-visible, infrared, photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) spectroscopy. From TRPL studies, it is found that the PL of Alq3 thin films arises 6rom two species corresponding to its two geometrical isomers, namely facial and meridional having two different life times. It is also confirmed that the PL and lifetimes of excitons decrease with the increase of ion fluences of SHI of 40 MeV Li3+, indicating a transfer of exciton energy to unstable cationic Alq3 species generated by SHI irradiation.

Thangaraju, K.; Kumaran, R.; Mohanty, T.; Asokan, K.; Ramamurthy, P.; Kanjilal, D.; Kumar, J.


Synthesis of highly luminescent cobalt(ii)-bis(8-hydroxyquinoline) nanosheets as isomeric aromatic amine probes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly luminescent and water-soluble cobalt(ii)-bis(8-hydroxyquinoline) (CoQ2) nanosheets have been successfully synthesized via a simple, rapid sonochemical method. The water-soluble CoQ2 nanosheets were characterized by luminescence spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The CoQ2 nanosheets allow highly sensitive and selective determination of p-nitroaniline via fluorescence quenching. Under optimal conditions, the relative fluorescence intensities of nanosheets decreased linearly with increasing p-nitroaniline. However, the sensitivity of CoQ2 nanosheets toward other aromatic amines including o-diaminobenzene, m-diaminobenzene, p-diaminobenzene, p-toluidine, o-nitroaniline, m-nitroaniline, p-chloroaniline and aniline is negligible. It is found that p-nitroaniline can quench the luminescence of CoQ2 nanosheets in a concentration-dependent manner that is best described by a Stern-Volmer-type equation. The possible underlying mechanism is discussed.Highly luminescent and water-soluble cobalt(ii)-bis(8-hydroxyquinoline) (CoQ2) nanosheets have been successfully synthesized via a simple, rapid sonochemical method. The water-soluble CoQ2 nanosheets were characterized by luminescence spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The CoQ2 nanosheets allow highly sensitive and selective determination of p-nitroaniline via fluorescence quenching. Under optimal conditions, the relative fluorescence intensities of nanosheets decreased linearly with increasing p-nitroaniline. However, the sensitivity of CoQ2 nanosheets toward other aromatic amines including o-diaminobenzene, m-diaminobenzene, p-diaminobenzene, p-toluidine, o-nitroaniline, m-nitroaniline, p-chloroaniline and aniline is negligible. It is found that p-nitroaniline can quench the luminescence of CoQ2 nanosheets in a concentration-dependent manner that is best described by a Stern-Volmer-type equation. The possible underlying mechanism is discussed. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: XRD pattern of the CoQ2 nanosheets, the UV-vis absorption spectra and fluorescence spectra of ligand Q, CoQ2 and CoQ2 nanosheets. See DOI: 10.1039/b9nr00019d

Li, Haibing; Li, Yuling



Experimental and theoretical charge density studies of 8-hydroxyquinoline cocrystallized with salicylic acid.  


The experimental electron density distribution (EDD) in 8-hydroxyquinoline cocrystallized with salicylic acid, 1, has been determined from a multipole refinement of high-resolution X-ray diffraction data collected at 100 K. The experimental EDD is compared with theoretical densities resulting from high-level ab initio and BHandH calculations using Atoms in Molecules theory. 1 crystallizes in the triclinic crystal system, and the asymmetric unit consists of a neutral salicylic acid molecule, a salicylate anion, and an 8-hydroxyquinolinium cation exhibiting a number of inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonds and ?-? interactions. Topological analysis reveals that ?-? interactions are of the "closed-shell" type, characterized by rather low and flat charge density. In general, the agreement of the topological values (?(bcp) and ?(2)?(bcp)) between experiment and theory is good, with mean differences of 0.010 e Ĺ(-3) and 0.036 e Ĺ(-5), respectively. The energetics of the ?-? interactions have been estimated, and excellent agreement is observed between the relative energy and the strength of ?-stacking derived from the Espinosa approach, with an average difference of only 4.4 kJ mol(-1). PMID:22329666

Nguyen, Thanh Ha; Groundwater, Paul W; Platts, James A; Hibbs, David E



Different 8-Hydroxyquinolines Protect Models of TDP-43 Protein, ?-Synuclein, and Polyglutamine Proteotoxicity through Distinct Mechanisms*  

PubMed Central

No current therapies target the underlying cellular pathologies of age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Model organisms provide a platform for discovering compounds that protect against the toxic, misfolded proteins that initiate these diseases. One such protein, TDP-43, is implicated in multiple neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. In yeast, TDP-43 expression is toxic, and genetic modifiers first discovered in yeast have proven to modulate TDP-43 toxicity in both neurons and humans. Here, we describe a phenotypic screen for small molecules that reverse TDP-43 toxicity in yeast. One group of hit compounds was 8-hydroxyquinolines (8-OHQ), a class of clinically relevant bioactive metal chelators related to clioquinol. Surprisingly, in otherwise wild-type yeast cells, different 8-OHQs had selectivity for rescuing the distinct toxicities caused by the expression of TDP-43, ?-synuclein, or polyglutamine proteins. In fact, each 8-OHQ synergized with the other, clearly establishing that they function in different ways. Comparative growth and molecular analyses also revealed that 8-OHQs have distinct metal chelation and ionophore activities. The diverse bioactivity of 8-OHQs indicates that altering different aspects of metal homeostasis and/or metalloprotein activity elicits distinct protective mechanisms against several neurotoxic proteins. Indeed, phase II clinical trials of an 8-OHQ has produced encouraging results in modifying Alzheimer disease. Our unbiased identification of 8-OHQs in a yeast TDP-43 toxicity model suggests that tailoring 8-OHQ activity to a particular neurodegenerative disease may be a viable therapeutic strategy.

Tardiff, Daniel F.; Tucci, Michelle L.; Caldwell, Kim A.; Caldwell, Guy A.; Lindquist, Susan



Fluorescent complexes of nucleic acids/8-hydroxyquinoline/lanthanum(III) and the fluorometry of nucleic acids  

SciTech Connect

The ternary fluorescent complexes of nucleic acids/8-hydroxyquinoline/lanthanum (III) were studied. Nucleic acids in the study involve natured and thermally denatured calf thymus DNA, fish sperm DNA and yeast RNA. In the range of PH 8.0-8.4 (controlled by NH{sub 3}-NH{sub 4}Cl buffer) ternary fluorescent complexes are formed which emit at 485.0 nm for calf thymus DNA and at 480.0 nm for fish sperm DNA when excited at 265.0 nm. Based on the fluorescence reactions sensitive fluorometric methods for nucleic acids were proposed. Using optimal conditions, the calibration curves were linear in the range of 0.4 --3.6 {mu}g{sup .}ml{sup -1} for calf thymus DNA, 0.4 -- 4.0 {mu}g{sup .}ml{sup -1} for fish sperm DNA and 0.4 --4.0{mu}g{sup .}ml{sup -1} for yeast RNA, respectively. Five synthetic samples were determined with satisfaction.

Cheng Zhi Huang; Ke An Li; Shen Yang Tong [Peking Univ., Beijing (China)



Aluminum determination in biological fluids and dialysis concentrates via chelation with 8-hydroxyquinoline and solvent extraction\\/fluorimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a simple, rapid, and sensitive fluorescence method for measurement of aluminum (Al) in human biological fluids, in dialysis solutions, and in tap water, which uses 8-hydroxyquinoline for ion chelation. The fluorescence intensity of the toluene-extracted metal chelate (excitation wavelength, 380nm; emission wavelength, 504nm) remains unchanged for over 48h at room temperature. Fluorescence intensity is a linear function of

M. Buratti; C. Valla; O. Pellegrino; F. M. Rubino; A. Colombi



High luminescence, organic–inorganic nanocomposite films with covalently linked 8-hydroxyquinoline anchored to ZnS nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of transparent, highly fluorescent, organic–inorganic nanocomposite films were prepared by incorporating mercaptoethanol-capped ZnS nanoparticles into a copolymer of trialkoxysilane-capped poly(MMA-co-Hq-CH2-HEMA) carrying an 8-hydroxyquinoline (Hq) unit, followed by ligand exchange and sol–gel processing. Electron microscopy revelaed that the ZnS nanoparticles were uniformly dispersed in the organic–inorganic hybrid matrix regardless of the content and matrix composition. The hybrid nanocomposites had

Yongli Shi; Yuqin Fu; Changli Lü; Li Hui; Zhongmin Su



Inactivation and inhibition of Rous sarcoma virus by copper-binding ligands: thiosemicarbazones, 8-hydroxyquinolines, and isonicotinic acid hydrazide.  


We have shown that three types of copper-binding ligands, thiosemicarbazones, 8-hydroxyquinolines, and isonicotinic acid hydrazide and their copper complexes, inactivate the transforming ability of RSV and inhibit its RNA-dependent DNA polymerases. Three other compounds, 2-pyridine thiosemicarbazone, 1-formyl isoquinoline thiosemicarbazone, and diphenyl thiocarbazone inhibit transformation by RSV intracellularly. Most but not all of these compounds bind to nucleic acids in the presence of copper, which may be important in their mode of action. PMID:81642

Levinson, W; Rohde, W; Mikelens, P; Jackson, J; Antony, A; Ramakrishnan, T



Enzymatic synthesis of 125\\/131I labeled 8-hydroxyquinoline glucuronide and in vitro\\/ in vivo evaluation of biological influence  

Microsoft Academic Search

8-Hydroxyquinoline (8-OHQ) is a long-known molecule which due to its metal-complexation ability is frequently used for analysis. It is also called oxine. Oxine and derivatives have been investigated to process antitumor and antimicrobial activities. 8-Hydroxyquinolyl-glucuronide (8-OHQ-Glu) was enzymatically synthesized using microsome preparates separated from Hutu-80 cells, labeled with 125I to perform a radionuclide labeled prodrug and investigated of its biological

Reyhan Ye?ila?aç; Perihan Ünak; E. ?lker Medine; Çi?dem A. ?çhedef; Turkan Ertay; F. Z. Biber Müftüler



Human platelets labeled with In-111 8-hydroxyquinoline: kinetics, distribution, and estimates of radiation dose  

SciTech Connect

Platelets from nine normal male subjects were labeled with In-111 8-hydroxyquinoline (In-111 oxine) in the presence of plasma in either ''closed'' blood transfer packs or in ''open'' test tubes. The mean labeling efficiencies in these two systems were 27 and 53%, respectively. Mean survival time of In-111-labeled autologous platelets was 8.76 days, with a standard deviation of 1.05 according to the maximum-likelihood estimate of the gamma-function model. The initial recovery of In-111 platelets in the circulation was 57% with a standard deviation of 11%. The distribution of In-111 platelets in liver and spleen was quantitated by anterior, posterior, and transmission gamma-camera imaging. During the first 30 min, 38% of the injected dose accumulated in the spleen, 13% in the liver. No significant increase in In-111 radioactivity was observed in either of the two organs over a 3-9-day period. The bone marrow was an additional site of In-111 accumulation. The spleen was the critical organ with respect to radiation dose. The splenic dose was estimated to be 34 rad/mCi In-111 platelets, that of the liver 2.1 rad/mCi. With the injection of 100-150 microCi of In-111-labeled platelets in normal subjects, giving a splenic radiation of 5 rad, a complete 10-day survival study can be performed and uptake of In-111 in different organs can be measured quantitatively for at least 3-4 days.

Scheffel, U.; Tsan, M.F.; Mitchell, T.G.; Camargo, E.E.; Braine, H.; Ezekowitz, M.D.; Nickoloff, E.L.; Hill-Zobel, R.; Murphy, E.; McIntyre, P.A.



Quantitative High-Throughput Screening Identifies 8-Hydroxyquinolines as Cell-Active Histone Demethylase Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Background Small molecule modulators of epigenetic processes are currently sought as basic probes for biochemical mechanisms, and as starting points for development of therapeutic agents. N?-Methylation of lysine residues on histone tails is one of a number of post-translational modifications that together enable transcriptional regulation. Histone lysine demethylases antagonize the action of histone methyltransferases in a site- and methylation state-specific manner. N?-Methyllysine demethylases that use 2-oxoglutarate as co-factor are associated with diverse human diseases, including cancer, inflammation and X-linked mental retardation; they are proposed as targets for the therapeutic modulation of transcription. There are few reports on the identification of templates that are amenable to development as potent inhibitors in vivo and large diverse collections have yet to be exploited for the discovery of demethylase inhibitors. Principal Findings High-throughput screening of a ?236,000-member collection of diverse molecules arrayed as dilution series was used to identify inhibitors of the JMJD2 (KDM4) family of 2-oxoglutarate-dependent histone demethylases. Initial screening hits were prioritized by a combination of cheminformatics, counterscreening using a coupled assay enzyme, and orthogonal confirmatory detection of inhibition by mass spectrometric assays. Follow-up studies were carried out on one of the series identified, 8-hydroxyquinolines, which were shown by crystallographic analyses to inhibit by binding to the active site Fe(II) and to modulate demethylation at the H3K9 locus in a cell-based assay. Conclusions These studies demonstrate that diverse compound screening can yield novel inhibitors of 2OG dependent histone demethylases and provide starting points for the development of potent and selective agents to interrogate epigenetic regulation.

Kawamura, Akane; Rose, Nathan R.; Ng, Stanley S.; Quinn, Amy M.; Rai, Ganesha; Mott, Bryan T.; Beswick, Paul; Klose, Robert J.; Oppermann, Udo; Jadhav, Ajit; Heightman, Tom D.; Maloney, David J.; Schofield, Christopher J.; Simeonov, Anton



Magnetic resonance studies of tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum-based organic light-emitting devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electroluminescence (EL)-, electrical current density (J)-, and photoluminescence (PL)- detected magnetic resonance (ELDMR, EDMR, and PLDMR, respectively) of tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3)-based organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) and Alq3 films is described. At low temperatures, a positive spin-1/2 resonance is observed, i.e., the changes in J, the EL intensity IEL, and the PL intensity IPL are positive (?J/J, ?IEL/IEL, and ?IPL/IPL>0). ?J/J and ?IEL/IEL are insensitive to the nature of the Alq3/cathode interface. They weaken with increasing T and become unobservable above 60 K. ?IPL/IPL also decreases with T, but is still observable at 250 K. Since the resonances all have the same g value, similar linewidths, and a similar dependence on T and the excitation level (J or the laser power), they are all attributed to the same mechanism. That mechanism is either the reduction of singlet exciton (SE) quenching by a reduced population of polarons in the bulk of the Alq3 layer (“the quenching mechanism”), or the enhanced formation of SEs from singlet polaron pairs at the expense of triplet excitons (TEs) (“the delayed PL mechanism”). However, the latter mechanism implies that the yield of SEs in Alq3-based OLEDs is greater than 25%. Due to evidence to the contrary, and other evidence which is inconsistent with the delayed PL mechanism, we conclude that the positive spin-1/2 resonance is due to the quenching mechanism. At T?60 K, another spin-1/2 resonance, which reduces both J and IEL (but is unobservable in the PL), emerges and grows with increasing T. This negative EDMR and ELDMR is sensitive to the buffer layer between Alq3 and the cathode, and is attributed to the magnetic resonance enhancement of the spin-dependent formation of negative spinless bipolarons from spin-1/2 negative polarons at the organic/cathode interface. The increased trapping of injected electrons at the interface reduces J and consequently IEL. However, at 295 K, the ratio |?IEL/IEL| in Alq3/AlOx/Al devices to that in Alq3/CsF/Al devices is significantly lower than the ratio of |?J/J| in these devices. Hence we suspect that other mechanisms, unidentified at this point, are also contributing to the negative ELDMR.

Li, G.; Kim, C. H.; Lane, P. A.; Shinar, J.



Ultrasonic Spray-Assisted Solution-Based Vapor-Deposition of Aluminum Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) Thin Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aluminum tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) (Alq3) thin films were fabricated by a vapor-deposition technique from its methanol solution, that is, by the ultrasonic-assisted mist deposition technique. The application of high ultrasonic power to the Alq3--methanol mixture resulted in a stable and transparent solution. Mist particles formed by ultrasonic atomization of the solution were used as the source for vapor-deposition at the substrate temperature of 100--200 °C. Optical absorption and photoluminescence characteristics indicated the formation of Alq3 thin films. The results promise the formation of thin films of a variety of organic materials by the solution-based technique.

Piao, Jinchun; Katori, Shigetaka; Ikenoue, Takumi; Fujita, Shizuo



Modeling of Space-Charge and Field Distribution in Tris-8-Hydroxyquinoline Aluminum based Organic Light Emitting Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modeling of Space-Charge and Field Distribution in Tris-8-Hydroxyquinoline Aluminum based Organic Light Emitting Devices Vincent V. Dinh, Univ of California, Dept of Applied Science, Davis at Livermore, CA; Gil R. Delgado, Louis J. Terminello, Howard W. Lee, Tony Van Buuren, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Chemistry and Material Science Directorate, Livermore, CA. Tris-8-Hydroxyquinoline Aluminum (Alq3) has been the subject of much interest due to its use as an electron transport and light emissive host in organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). Carrier injection and transport properties are of great importance in determining device performance and lifetime. But the fundamental charge and field distributions in Alq3 are not well understood. In this report we study the effects of variable electron and hole lifetimes on the distribution functions. In addition we also look at the effects of various injection rates. Our first order approximation predicts narrow recombination regions. This and the effects of injection rates and lifetimes on the charge and field distributions will be discussed in the context of OLED degradation. Vincent V. Dinh acknowledges a fellowship from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The work is supported by the US-DOE, BES Material Science under contract W-7405-ENG-48, LLNL.

Dinh, Vincent; Delgado, Gil; Terminello, Louis; van Buuren, Tony; Lee, Howard



In vivo schistosomicidal activity of three novels 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives against adult and immature worms of Schistosoma mansoni.  


Schistosomiasis control is widely dependent on a single drug, praziquantel (PZQ). The potential for development of resistance to PZQ has justified the search for new alternative chemotherapies. In a previous study, we have been reported that three of 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives namely: 3-((8-hydroxyquinolin-5-yl) sulfonyl) pentane-2,4-dione (HQSP), 5-((2,4-diphenyl-3H-benzo[b][1,4]diazepin-3-yl) sulfonyl) quinolin-8-ol (HQBD), and 5-((2,4-diphenyl-3H-pyrido[3,4-b][1,4] diazepin-3-yl) sulfonyl) quinolin-8-ol (HQPD) possess a potent anti-schistosomal activity in vitro. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vivo schistosomicidal effect of these three compounds on adult and immature worms of Schistosoma mansoni and their induced pathology. Treatment of S. mansoni-infected mice with 1000, 250, 150, and 200 mg/kg body weight of PZQ, HQSP, HQBD, and HQPD, respectively, reduced adult and immature worm burden by 94.63 and 31.32 %, 73.63 and 5.45 %, 76.5 and 28.11 %, and 81.25 and 56.84 %, respectively, compared to infected untreated mice. Moreover, numbers of egg per gram liver and intestine were decreased by 84 and 95.51 %, 47.84 and 46.28 %, 53.18 and 59.37 %, and 54.22 and 67.26 as a result of PZQ, HQSP, HQBD, and HQPD treatment, respectively. Hepatic granuloma volume was also reduced by 40.10, 42.96, 35.72, and 72.09 % due to PZQ, HQSP, HQBD, and HQPD treatment, respectively. In addition, hepatic histopathological alterations and collagen fiber deposition that accompanied with S. mansoni infection were largely retrieved with different treatments, especially HQPD treatment. Furthermore, humoral immune response, especially IgG response against S. mansoni antigens, was augmented with different treatments. This study concluded that among the three tested 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives, HQPD is the most effective compound against adult and pre-mature worms of S. mansoni and can be used for the development of a new schistosomicidal drug. PMID:23793335

Allam, Gamal; Eweas, Ahmad F; Abuelsaad, Abdelaziz S A



White light emission from Mn2 + doped ZnS nanocrystals through the surface chelating of 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

White light emitting semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) have been successfully synthesized from 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid (HQS) decorated manganese doped ZnS NCs through fine tuning the surface-coordination emission and dopant emission of the NC host. The HQS functionalized manganese doped ZnS NCs (QS-ZnS:Mn), with a cubic crystal structure, have the same diameter of about 4.0 nm as ZnS:Mn NCs without HQS. The intensity of the surface-coordination emission peak increased with increasing HQS content or augmenting excited wavelength. The emission of white light was achieved by carefully controlling the dosage of HQS in NCs and appropriately tuning the excited wavelength. The color coordinates (0.35, 0.34) for the efficient white light emitting NCs were very close to the ideal Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates for pure white light (0.33, 0.33). The photoluminescence (PL) decay study revealed that the white light emitting NCs exhibited maximum lifetime values at different emission peaks for different NC samples. The study results also indicated that the HQS molecules were attached to the surface of ZnS:Mn NCs in a single coordination fashion due to the steric hindrance effect of the special spherical surface of NCs, which made the QS-ZnS:Mn NCs possess stable and high fluorescent properties in different organic solvents as compared with the conventional small molecule complexes.

Lü, Xiaodan; Yang, Jing; Fu, Yuqin; Liu, Qianqian; Qi, Bin; Lü, Changli; Su, Zhongmin



Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of 8-Hydroxyquinoline (CAS No. 148-24-3) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Feed Studies).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Carcinogenesis studies of 8-hydroxyquinoline (99% pure), a metal chelator and antimicrobial agent, were conducted by administering the test chemical in feed to groups of 50 male and 50 female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice at concentrations of 0,1,500, or 3,...



An Introduction to Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares: Spectrophotometric Study of the Acid-Base Equilibria of 8-Hydroxyquinoline-5-Sulfonic Acid  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A spectrophotometric study of the acid-base equilibria of 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid to describe the multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares algorithm (MCR-ALS) is described. The algorithm provides a lot of information and hence is of great importance for the chemometrics research.|

Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Cristina; Amigo, Jose Manuel; Coello, Jordi; Maspoch, Santiago



Characterization of Bis-8-hydroxyquinoline-Armed Diazatrithia-16-crown-5 and Diazadibenzo-18-crown-6 Ligands as Fluorescent Chemosensors for Zinc.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bis-8-hydroxyquinoline-armed diazatrithia-16-crown-5 (1) and diazadibenzo-18-crown-6 (2a) ligands selectivity respond to Zn(2+) over other tested metal ions, including Cd(2+), via large increases in fluorescence, while other side-armed diazadibenzo-18-cro...

J. Kawakami R. T. Bronson G. Xue J. S. Bradshaw R. M. Izatt



An Introduction to Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares: Spectrophotometric Study of the Acid-Base Equilibria of 8-Hydroxyquinoline-5-Sulfonic Acid  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A spectrophotometric study of the acid-base equilibria of 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid to describe the multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares algorithm (MCR-ALS) is described. The algorithm provides a lot of information and hence is of great importance for the chemometrics research.

Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Cristina; Amigo, Jose Manuel; Coello, Jordi; Maspoch, Santiago



Enzymatic synthesis of (125/131)I labeled 8-hydroxyquinoline glucuronide and in vitro/in vivo evaluation of biological influence.  


8-Hydroxyquinoline (8-OHQ) is a long-known molecule which due to its metal-complexation ability is frequently used for analysis. It is also called oxine. Oxine and derivatives have been investigated to process antitumor and antimicrobial activities. 8-Hydroxyquinolyl-glucuronide (8-OHQ-Glu) was enzymatically synthesized using microsome preparates separated from Hutu-80 cells, labeled with (125)I to perform a radionuclide labeled prodrug and investigated of its biological affinities on Hutu-80 (human duodenum intestinal adenocarcinoma), Caco-2 (human colorectal adenocarcinoma), Detroit 562 (human pharynx adenocarcinoma) cells and ACBRI 519 (primary human small intestine epithelial cells) in this work. UDP-glucuronyl transferase (UDPGT) rich microsome preparates, which are used for glucuronidation in enzymatic synthesis, were extracted from Hutu-80 cells. 8-OHQ-Glu components were labeled using iodogen method with (125)I and (131)I. Structural analyses were performed with LC/MS/MS, (1)H NMR and (13)C-MMR for identify and measure chemical constituents. Results confirmed expected molecular structure. 8-OHQ-Glu could successfully radioiodinated with (125/131)I according to iodogen method. (125)I-8-OHQ-glucuronide incorporated with human gastrointestinal cancer cells such as Detroit-562 (human pharynx adenocarcinoma) (12.6%), Caco-2 (human colorectal adenocarcinoma) (7.8%), Hutu- 80 (human duodenum intestinal adenocarcinoma) (9.5%) and ACBRI 519 (primary human small intestine epithelial cells) (6.40%). (131)I-8-OHQ-Glu was tested in mice bearing subcutaneously implanted Caco-2 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. The results demonstrated that radioiodinated 8-OHQ-Glu may be promising anticancer prodrug. PMID:21109446

Ye?ila?aç, Reyhan; Ünak, Perihan; Medine, E ?lker; ?çhedef, Çi?dem A; Ertay, Turkan; Müftüler, F Z Biber



Aluminum determination in biological fluids and dialysis concentrates via chelation with 8-hydroxyquinoline and solvent extraction/fluorimetry.  


We describe a simple, rapid, and sensitive fluorescence method for measurement of aluminum (Al) in human biological fluids, in dialysis solutions, and in tap water, which uses 8-hydroxyquinoline for ion chelation. The fluorescence intensity of the toluene-extracted metal chelate (excitation wavelength, 380 nm; emission wavelength, 504 nm) remains unchanged for over 48 h at room temperature. Fluorescence intensity is a linear function of the concentration of Al in the 2-1000 microg/L range with detection limits of 0.7-2 microg/L. A large excess of other ions normally found in biological fluids does not interfere in Al determination. The method developed was successfully used in assaying Al in serum and urine of reference subjects, in serum samples from patients undergoing long-term dialysis, and in dialysis solutions. Al concentrations, measured by this fluorimetric procedure, were compared with those obtained by Zeeman graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. A correlation coefficient of 0.98 was obtained. The proposed method could be used for routine analysis in clinical laboratories for accurate determination of aluminum in aqueous or biological fluids. PMID:16643833

Buratti, M; Valla, C; Pellegrino, O; Rubino, F M; Colombi, A



A tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum-based organic bistable device using ITO surfaces modified by Ag nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3)-based organic bistable device (OBD) using Al electrode and ITO electrode modified by Ag nanoparticles (NPs) was reported. The OBD exhibits high ON/OFF switching ratios in the range of 102–103 and long retention time over 104 s. The influence of the Ag NPs densities, as well as the Alq3 film thickness on the switch performance current–voltage (I–V) of the OBDs was studied. Correlation between filament formation mechanism and charge storage mechanism was observed by analysing the I–V characteristics of OBDs with different Alq3 film thickness. As for the Alq3 film with thickness of 300 nm, the trapping effect of Ag NPs leads to both ON and OFF states for OBD; for 100 nm thick Alq3 film, the effect of filamentation dominates in the ON and OFF states of OBD. For the case of 200 nm thick Alq3 film, however, the ON state results from the filamentation effect, while trapping effect is responsible for the OFF state. In addition, the diffusion effect of Al atoms in Alq3 film in the devices was discussed and was expected to explain this thickness-dependence relationship.

Jiao, Bo; Wu, Zhaoxin; Dong, Hua; Ning, Shuya; Hou, Xun



Synthesis, Characterization, and Antibacterial Studies of Mixed Ligand Dioxouranium Complexes with 8-Hydroxyquinoline and Some Amino Acids  

PubMed Central

Mixed ligand complexes of dioxouranium (VI) of the type [UO2(Q)(L)·2H2O] have been synthesized using 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ) as a primary ligand and amino acids (HL) such as L-threonine, L-tryptophan, and L-isoleucine as secondary ligands. The metal complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, electrical conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurements, and spectral and thermal studies. The electrical conductance studies of the complexes indicate their nonelectrolytic nature. Magnetic susceptibility measurements revealed diamagnetic nature of the complexes. Electronic absorption spectra of the complexes show intraligand and charge transfer transitions, respectively. Bonding of the metal ion through N- and O-donor atoms of the ligands is revealed by IR studies, and the chemical environment of the protons is confirmed by NMR studies. The thermal analysis data of the complexes indicate the presence of coordinated water molecules. The agar cup and tube dilution methods have been used to study the antibacterial activity of the complexes against the pathogenic bacteria S. aureus, C. diphtheriae, S. typhi, and E. coli.

Patil, Sunil S.; Thakur, Ganesh A.; Shaikh, Manzoor M.



Influences of central metal ions on the electroluminescene and transport properties of tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) metal chelates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) metal chelates with central metal ions of Al3+, Ga3+, and In3+ was synthesized, characterized, and used in organic electroluminescent devices. The ionization potential and optical band gap of the three chelates were measured by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet-visible spectrum, respectively. Two types of devices, with configurations of indium tin oxide (ITO)/N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-(3-methylphenyl)-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (TPD) (80 nm)/Mq3 (80 nm)/Mg:Ag (200 nm) and ITO/TPD (60 nm)/TPD:rubrene (3%) (20 nm)/Mq3 (80 nm)/Mg:Ag (200 nm) (M=Al, Ga, or In), were fabricated and characterized based on these metal chelates. In the first type of configuration, the metal chelates were used as both the emitter and the electron-transporting layer. In the second type of configuration, the metal chelates were believed to only act as electron-transporting layer. As the central ion changed, both the luminescence and the carrier transport properties of the metal chelates were changed. By comparing the performance of the two types of devices, we found that as the size of the metal ion increased, the luminance efficiency decreased and the electron mobility increased.

Chen, B. J.; Sun, X. W.; Li, Y. K.



Improvement of (31)P NMR spectral resolution by 8-hydroxyquinoline precipitation of paramagnetic Fe and Mn in environmental samples.  


Solution (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is currently the main method for the characterization of phosphorus (P) forms in environment samples. However, identification and quantification of P compounds may be hampered by poor resolution of spectra caused by paramagnetic Fe and Mn. In this study, a novel technique was developed to improve spectral resolution by removing paramagnetic Fe and Mn from alkaline extracts via 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HOQ) precipitation. Batch experiments showed that both Fe and Mn were effectively removed by the precipitation at pH 9.0, with the removal efficiencies of 83-91% for Fe and 67-78% for Mn from the extracts of five different environmental samples, while little effect was found on concentration of total P. The (31)P NMR analysis of a model P solution showed that addition of 8-HOQ and its precipitation with metal ions did not alter P forms. Further analyses of the five extracts with (31)P NMR spectroscopy demonstrated that the 8-HOQ precipitation was an ideal method compared with the present postextraction techniques, such as bicarbonate dithionate (BD), EDTA and Chelex-100 treatments, by improving spectral resolution to a large extent with no detrimental effects on P forms. PMID:20201571

Ding, Shiming; Xu, Di; Li, Bin; Fan, Chengxin; Zhang, Chaosheng



Direct Observation of Charge Carriers in Highly Magnesium-Doped Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) Aluminum Thin Film by Electron Spin Resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on an electron spin resonance (ESR) study of a tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) thin film doped highly with Mg. We observed a clear ESR signal of radical anions in the film prepared by coevaporating Alq3 and Mg (Alq3:Mg= 1:3). The g value and peak-to-peak ESR linewidth ? Hpp are obtained as 2.0030 and 2.24 mT, respectively, which coincide well with the reported values of an Alq3 thin film with a low Mg doping concentration. The spin susceptibility of the film was found to obey Curie's law, which indicates that no interaction exists between spins of Alq3 anions. The doped charges are found to be localized at deep trapping sites by lineshape analysis and from the temperature dependence of ? Hpp. The doping concentration was evaluated to be 4.3%. This low doping concentration can be explained by the formation of Mg clusters in the film, which was directly confirmed by transmission electron microscopy.

Son, Donghyun; Shimoi, Yukihiro; Kizuka, Tokushi; Marumoto, Kazuhiro



Improved organic light-emitting device with tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium inserted between hole-injection layer and hole-transporting layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A layer of tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium (Alq3), which is normally used as an electron-transporting and emissive layer, was incorporated between the hole-transporting layer and the hole-injection layer to balance the electron–hole injection. The Alq3 layer performed to block the hole current which is a majority carrier in a typical organic light-emitting device. An increase in current efficiency by almost 30%, from

Y Divayana; X W Sun; B J Chen; K R Sarma



Improved organic light-emitting device with tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium inserted between hole-injection layer and hole-transporting layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A layer of tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium (Alq3), which is normally used as an electron-transporting and emissive layer, was incorporated between the hole-transporting layer and the hole-injection layer to balance the electron-hole injection. The Alq3 layer performed to block the hole current which is a majority carrier in a typical organic light-emitting device. An increase in current efficiency by almost 30%, from

Y. Divayana; X. W. Sun; B. J. Chen; K. R. Sarma



Spray-dried chitosan microspheres containing 8-hydroxyquinoline -5 sulphonic acid as a new adsorbent for Cd(II) and Zn(II) ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, a new chelating adsorbent was prepared from chitosan microspheres cross-linked with glutaraldehyde by spray drying using 8-hydroxyquinoline -5 sulphonic acid as chelant agent (CTS-SX-CL). Microspheres of the new adsorbent were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). The effect of pH, contact time and concentration of metallic ions in solution

Luciano Vitali; Mauro C. M. Laranjeira; Norberto S. Gonçalves; Valfredo T. Fávere



Selective separation of nickel from cobalt in ammoniacal solutions by emulsion type liquid membranes using 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ) as mobile carrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The selective separation and concentration of nickel from ammoniacal solutions containing nickel and cobalt by an emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) technique using 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) as carrier has been examined. The emulsion liquid membrane consists of a diluent (kerosene), a surfactant (ECA 4360J), a carrier (8-HQ), and a stripping solution (0.025 M EDTA solution, buffered at pH 4.0). Cobalt (II) in the

R. A. Kumbasar; S. Kasap



8Hydroxyquinoline5-carbaldehyde Schiff-base as a highly selective and sensitive Al 3+ sensor in weak acid aqueous medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the paper, a novel fluorescent sensor (1) based on 8-hydroxyquinoline carbaldehyde Schiff-base was synthesized and characterized. This fluorescent sensor exhibited high selectivity for Al3+ over other metal ions with the detection limit reaching below 10?7M under weak acid aqueous conditions. These suggested that 1 could be served as a highly selective and sensitive fluorescence sensor for aluminum ion in

Xin-hui Jiang; Bao-dui Wang; Zheng-yin Yang; Yong-chun Liu; Tian-rong Li; Zeng-chen Liu



Determination of UO2(II), Th(IV) and Ce(III) Complexes Formed with Halogen and Nitro Derivatives of 8Hydroxyquinoline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proton-ligand stability constants for some iodo and nitro derivatives of 8-hydroxyquinoline were determined by Calvin Bjerrum potantiometric method. The stability constants of the corresponding chelates with UO2 (II), Th(IV) and Co(III) were studied potentiometrically at 25 °C by applying Irving-Rossotti computing method. The complexes of the nitro-substituted ligands were less stable than the corresponding complexes of the unsubstituted ligands. The

S. Teksöz; P. Ünak



Stability constants of uranium(VI) and thorium(IV) complexes formed with 8-hydroxyquinoline and its 5-sulfonic acid derivative  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the stability constants of uranium(VI) and thorium(IV) complexes formed with 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HOQ) and its 5-sulfonic acid (8-HOQ-5-SO3H) derivative have been determined using the Irving-Rossotti method, computing the Calvin-Bjerrum pH-titration data. As a result, it is determined that the thorium(IV) complexes are considerably more stable than the corresponding uranium(VI) complexes. On the other hand, the complexes formed between

P. Ünak; D. Özdemir; T. Ünak



Zn(2+)/Cd(2+) optical discrimination by fluorescent chemosensors based on 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives and sulfur-containing macrocyclic units.  


Four new fluorescent chemosensors for metal ions based on 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HDQ) derivatives and sulfur-containing macrocyclic units were synthesized and characterized, namely 1-(5-chloro-8-hydroxy-7-quinolinylmethyl)-1-aza-4,7,10-trithiacyclododecane (), 1-(5-chloro-8-hydroxy-7-quinolinylmethyl)-1-aza-4,13-dithia-7,10-dioxacyclopentadecane (), 1-(8-hydroxy-2-quinolinylmethyl)-1-aza-4,7,10-trithiacyclododecane (), and 1-(8-hydroxy-2-quinolinylmethyl)-1-aza-4,13-dithia-7,10-dioxacyclopentadecane (). Preliminary fluorimetric titrations indicated as the only member of the family of ligands to give a selective CHEF-type response to the presence of Zn(2+) in MeCN-H2O (1?:?1, v/v) solutions, which allowed imaging of this metal ion in Cos-7 cells in vitro. The other ligands either did not show any fluorescence response (, ) to any of the metal ions considered (Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), Hg(2+) and Pb(2+)) or gave () a CHEF-type response also to the presence of Cd(2+). The coordination properties of towards Zn(2+) were, therefore, fully investigated by potentiometric measurements and absorption and emission spectroscopy at different pH values, which indicated that the formation of 2?:?1 /Zn(2+) complexes is responsible for the CHEF-type effect observed. The complexes [Zn()2H2O](BF4)2 and [Zn()](ClO4)2 were characterized in the solid state by X-ray crystallography, and DFT calculations were performed to understand the origin of the Zn(2+)/Cd(2+) optical discrimination of the 8-HDQ-based "conjugate" fluorescent chemosensors reported. PMID:23977671

Aragoni, M Carla; Arca, Massimiliano; Bencini, Andrea; Caltagirone, Claudia; Garau, Alessandra; Isaia, Francesco; Light, Mark E; Lippolis, Vito; Lodeiro, Carlos; Mameli, Marta; Montis, Riccardo; Mostallino, M Cristina; Pintus, Anna; Puccioni, Stefano



Nitroxoline (5-amino-8-hydroxyquinoline) is more a potent anti-cancer agent than clioquinol (5-chloro-7-iodo-8-quinoline)  

PubMed Central

Clioquinol has been shown to have anticancer activity both in vitro and in vivo. The present study compared the cytotoxicity of clioquinol with six analogues, using human cancer cell lines. Of the analogues tested, 8-hydroxy-5-nitroquinoline (NQ) was the most toxic, with an IC50 that was 5-10 fold lower than other congeners. Its activity was enhanced by copper, but not zinc, and the use of a zinc-sensitive fluorophore showed that unlike clioquinol, NQ is not a zinc ionophore. NQ increased intracellular reactive oxygen species generation, an effect that was significantly enhanced by the addition of copper at levels that approximate those found in human plasma. NQ has been used in humans for the treatment of urinary infections. NQ is an 8-hydroxyquinoline derivative that is more potent than the halogenated 8-hydroxyquinolines, and may be less neurotoxic because it lacks zinc ionophore activity. NQ is another clinical used anti-microbial agent whose properties suggest that it may be useful in treating cancer.

Jiang, Hongchao; Taggart, Jori E.; Zhang, Xiaoxi; Benbrook, Doris M.; Lind, Stuart E.; Ding, Wei-Qun



Preconcentration and purification of rare earth elements in natural waters using silica-immobilized 8-hydroxyquinoline and a supported organophosphorus extractant  

SciTech Connect

8-Hydroxyquinoline immobilized on silica gel (silica-8HQ) and RE-Spec, a supported organophosphorus extractant, were used to preconcentrate and purify rare earth elements (REEs) from natural waters prior to their determination by isotope-dilution inductivity coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICPMS). Preconcentration onto silica-8HQ is applicable to a wide range of trace metals, making it suitable for multielement ID-ICPMS studies. The silica-8HQ, RE-Spec technique concentrates REEs from 1 L or less of water into 1 mL of salt-free 0.1% nitric acid. The technique is rapid and has high REE yields (>80%) and low REE blanks (<2[minus]6 pg). In addition, Ba separation is high, allowing determination of La and Eu by ID-<300 pg of Ba is present in the final concentrates of sample solutions initially containing > 4 [mu]g of Ba. 24 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Esser, B.K.; Volpe, A.; Kenneally, J.M.; Smith, D.K. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))



Improved efficiency in organic light-emitting devices with tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium doped 9,10-di(2-naphthyl) anthracene emission layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic light-emitting devices with tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium (Alq3) doped 9,10-di(2-naphthyl) anthracene (ADN) as the emission layer (EML) have been fabricated. These devices exhibit efficient electroluminescence (EL) originated from the Alq3 as the mass ratio of Alq3 to ADN was varied from 1 to 50%. The devices with an optimal Alq3 mass ratio of 10 wt% showed a peak EL efficiency and an external quantum efficiency of 9.1 cd A-1 and 2.7% at a luminance of 1371 cd m-2, which is improved by a factor of 2.2 compared with 4.1 cd A-1 and 1.2% at a luminance of 3267 cd m-2 for conventional devices with the neat Alq3 as the EML.

Yuan, Yongbo; Lian, Jiarong; Li, Shuang; Zhou, Xiang



A spectrofluorimetric method for cysteine and glutathione using the fluorescence system of Zn(II)-8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulphonic acid complex.  


The addition of thiol compounds to the fluorescence system of Zn(II)-8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulphonic acid complex (Zn(II)-HQS) in H3BO3-Na2B4O7 buffer (pH 8.50) solution led to immediate fluorescence inhibition, which was proportional to their amounts. Based on this finding, a novel spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of cysteine (Cys) and reduced glutathione (GSH) has been developed. The detection limits were 17 ng ml(-1) and 0.6 microg ml(-1), respectively. Most amino acids had no interference at high concentrations. The proposed method has been applied to the determination of Cys in protein hydrolysate and cystine electrolyte, and GSH in human blood serum with recoveries of 95.6-104.5%. PMID:11767834

Wang, H; Wang, W S; Zhang, H S



Effects of a tacrine-8-hydroxyquinoline hybrid (IQM-622) on A? accumulation and cell death: involvement in hippocampal neuronal loss in Alzheimer's disease.  


Several studies have implicated the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) as well as several biometals in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A multifunctional molecule, the hybrid tacrine-8-hydroxyquinoline (named IQM-622), displays cholinergic, antioxidant, copper-complexing and neuroprotective properties. Using in vitro and in vivo models, we investigated the modulating effects of IQM-622 on amyloid ?-protein (A?)-induced pathology as well as on chemically induced neurodegeneration by domoic acid. In the first experimental model, we observed a significant decrease in brain A? deposits in IQM-622-treated APP/Ps1 mice for four weeks. Moreover, IQM-622 promoted the degradation of intracellular A? in astrocytes, and protected against A? toxicity in cultured astrocytes and neurons. These findings suggest that the neuroprotective effect of IQM-622 is not only related to AChE inhibition, but also involves other mechanisms, including the modulation of A?-degradation pathways in AD brain. In this study we also compare the neuronal loss in CA1 hippocampal field of AD patients and of mice treated with domoic acid, giving similar patterns. Thus, we used a second experimental model by killing hippocampal neurons by domoic acid damage, in which IQM-622 increased survival in the CA1 and dentate gyrus regions of the hippocampus. Our observations suggest that administration of IQM-622 may have significant beneficial effects in neurodegenerative diseases, including AD, which course with acute or progressive neuronal death. PMID:22426395

Antequera, Desiree; Bolos, Marta; Spuch, Carlos; Pascual, Consuelo; Ferrer, Isidro; Fernandez-Bachiller, María Isabel; Rodríguez-Franco, María Isabel; Carro, Eva



Utility library for structural bioinformatics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: In this Note we present a new software library for structural bioinformatics. The library contains programs, computing sequence- and profile-based alignments and a variety of structural calculations with user-friendly handling of various data formats. The software organization is very flexible. Algorithms are written in Java language and may be used by Java programs. Moreover the modules can be accessed

Dominik Gront; Andrzej Kolinski



On-line pre-concentration of Cr(III) and Mn(II) in FI-FAAS: A critical study involving interference effects and analytical use of an immobilized 8-hydroxyquinoline minicolumn.  


A flow injection system with a pre-concentration minicolumn based on a chelating resin was coupled to a flame atomic absorption spectrometer. The focus of this work was the investigation of interference effects and the analytical applicability of the azo-immobilized 8-hydroxyquinoline on controlled-pore glass for the determination of Cr and Mn in mussel and non-fat milk powder. All studied concomitants affected the retention of Cr(III). These effects are probably related to the formation of hydroxo-complexes at the optimum pH range 9.0-10. The positive effect caused by Ca(II) was exploited to increase the retention of Cr(III) species and to improve the slope by 70%. The interferences on Mn(II) retention were less severe. The quantification of Cr and Mn was performed by standard additions. The proposed methodology was validated by analysis of three certified reference materials of mussels (Cr and Mn) and non-fat milk powder (Mn) with a mean relative percent error of <6.5% and mean relative standard deviation of <13%. Chromium and Mn were determined in typical Chilean mussels samples, and Mn was determined in non-fat milk powder samples. Results agreed at the 95% confidence level with those obtained by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) using graphite furnace atomization. The method detection limits for a 30 s pre-concentration time were 0.9 and 1.1 micro g L(-1) for Mn, and 2.2 and 2.5 micro g L(-1) for Cr in acid digested solutions of mussel and non-fat milk, respectively. The methodology is simple, fast (sampling frequency 60-72 h(-1)), reliable, of low cost, and can be applied to the determination of traces of Cr (> or =0.18 micro g g(-1)) and Mn (> or =0.6 micro g g(-1)) in mussel samples, and Mn (> or =0.37 micro g g(-1)) in non-fat milk powder. PMID:12207254

Bruhn, C G; Pino, F E; Campos, V H; Nóbrega, J A



UAV sensor platforms utilizing pressurized structures technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several areas of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) performance need to be improved for the next generation of UAVs to be used successfully in expanded future combat roles. This paper describes the initial research to improve the performance of UAVs through the use of pressurized structures-based (PSB) technologies. Basically, the UAV will be constructed in such a way that a considerable percentage of its weight will be supported by or composed of inflatable structures containing air or helium. PSB technology will reduce the amount of energy required to keep the UAV aloft thus allowing the use of smaller, slower, and quieter motors. Using PSB technology in tandem with improving technologies in electronics, energy storage, and materials should provide a substantial increase over current UAV performance in areas of need to the military.

Edge, Harris L.



MCHF atomic-structure package: support libraries and utilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The libraries and utilities that form part of the MCHF atomic-structure package are described. Among the utilities is a LEVELS program that produces an energy level table and a LINES program that process the transition data from a series of LSJ calculations as a line list.

Fischer, Charlotte Froese



Medicaid Nursing Facility Rates, Capacity, and Utilization: A Structural Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This analysis extends earlier work using national data to examine Medicaid nursing facility (NF) utilization (participants per aged population) and its interrelationships with Medicaid per diem NF reimbursement rates and NF bed capacity, using state-level data over 19 years to estimate two-stage structural equations. Findings demonstrate complex relationships among these factors. Reimbursement rates showed no demonstrable impact on utilization but

James H. Swan; Martin Kitchener; Charlene Harrington



On the Structure, Properties and Utility of Internal Corporate Blogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weblogs, or blogs are radically changing the face of communica- tion within enterprises. While at the minimum blogs empower em- ployees to publicly voice opinion and share expertise, coll ectively they improve collaboration and enable internal business intelligence. Though the power of blogs within organizations is well accepted, their properties, structure and utility has not yet been for mally an-

Pranam Kolari; Tim Finin; Kelly Lyons; Yelena Yesha; Yaacov Yesha; Stephen Perelgut; Jen Hawkins



Engineered Wood Structures for The Electric Utility & Telecommunication Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the decrease in supply and the volatility of the price of steel, many electric utilities have increased their use of wood products, such as proven glued laminated structures. Laminates are available in almost any required cross section and length and are of sufficient strength to completely interchange with solid sawn. Laminated timbers and poles rely on \\

R. A. Reisdorff



Variable Stiffness Structures Utilizing Fluidic Flexible Matrix Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, the capability of utilizing fluidic flexible matrix composites (F2MC) for autonomous structural tailoring is investigated. By taking advantage of the high anisotropy of flexible matrix composite (FMC) tubes and the high bulk modulus of the pressurizing fluid, significant changes in the effective modulus of elasticity can be achieved by controlling the inlet valve to the fluid-filled F2MC

Ying Shan; Michael Philen; Amir Lotfi; Suyi Li; Charles E. Bakis; Christopher D. Rahn; K. W. Wang



Changes in the market structure of the US utility sector and potential implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper tracks the changes in the market structure of the utility sector from pre-PURPA to post-EPAct and discusses possible future developments. The classic pre-PURPA utility market structure is considered first, and we trace how the market reacted to PURPA and adapted to include non-utility generators (independent power producers and qualifying facilities). We then discuss post-REAct market structure changes and

Daniel J. Packey



Cutting of Structural Materials Utilizing Hiqh Powered CO2 Laser.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The method most commonly used for cutting thick 1.90cm (.75in) steel material where edge quality is not of concern is flame cutting which utilizes an oxyacetylene torch. It provides the energy to heat the steel beyond its melting point and gas pressure fo...

N. Eutizzi P. E. Denney



Structural Damage Alarm Utilizing Modified Back-Propagation Neural Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Damage alarm is an important step among structure damage identification. Its objective is to evaluate the structure health. The existing damage alarm methods are mostly based on Back-Propagation Neural Networks without thinking over testing noise. Therefore, in order to avoid the disadvantages of conventional Back-Propagation Neural Networks, a modified Back-Propagation Neural Networks was proposed for structure damage alarm system in this paper. The experiment results of steel truss girder bridge show that the improved method is better than BPNN for structural damage alarm.

Dong, Xiaoma


Federal and State Structures to Support Financing Utility-Scale Solar Projects and the Business Models Designed to Utilize Them  

SciTech Connect

Utility-scale solar projects have grown rapidly in number and size over the last few years, driven in part by strong renewable portfolio standards (RPS) and federal incentives designed to stimulate investment in renewable energy technologies. This report provides an overview of such policies, as well as the project financial structures they enable, based on industry literature, publicly available data, and questionnaires conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).

Mendelsohn, M.; Kreycik, C.



Criteria for recognition of bedding structures utilizing imaging devices  

SciTech Connect

Wireline logs, especially dipmeter imaging devices, can bridge the gap between the wealth of outcrop and recent information about bedding structures and the immense data base available from mineral industry boreholes. The recognition of bedding structures as observed in ancient and recent exposures is not always straightforward with wireline measurements. A major strength of outcrop studies is their two- and sometimes three-dimensional aspect and the availability of very fine details. A strength of wireline measurements is their great abundance. Wireline logs provide a variety of petrophysical information, including lithology The dipmeter provides much finer detail (down to 1 cm or less in the case of imaging devices) and the information is three-dimensional. With remarkable detail, the microresistivity imaging devices can delineate and precisely orient bedding surfaces and hence bedding structures. The nature of contacts (abrupt, tangential) and of surfaces (planar, wavy), as well as the size and shape of objects are routinely available. Lithology, texture, and other sedimentary features such as cross-bedding (trough and planar), slumping, bioturbation, graded beds, erosional contacts, lag, etc., are seen. Image workstations are greatly facilitating the recognition of bedding structures from wireline microresistivity images. The synergistic merging of the wealth of information available from field studies with this type of quantitative detail, available from boreholes, offers great opportunity for defining sedimentary structures and depositional environments and hence for delineating reservoirs.

Fett, T. (Schlumberger Well Services, Houston, TX (USA))



The ''optimal'' structure of the deregulated electric utility industry  

SciTech Connect

The optimal structure is one that does not adopt policies that interfere with competitive markets nor create price incentives or subsidies to serve special interests in an attempt to artificially stimulate retail competition. It needs to recognize that the ''natural monopoly'' and public interest criteria still require the regulation of delivery service. (author)

Switzer, Sheldon; Trout, Jeffrey P.



Possibility of utilization directing structures in river revitalization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Directing and concentrating structures are mainly used on water courses with unstable channels and major sediment transport or in areas with major bank erosion. The main purpose of these structures is to redirect water flow from the stressed and very often eroded bank to the centre of the channel or other parts of the channel, where the water flow may be used, e.g., for dispersion of unsuitable deposits before its eventual stabilization by natural succession. Another important goal is to achieve a desired change in a stream channel by using the transporting power of the water flow and targeted deposition of any sediment. The area of a deflecting structure, a so-called hydraulic shadow, also appears where sediment is deposited (deflector). The objective is to achieve the deposition of sediments at desired places in the stream. It is possible to design a whole range of suitable or less suitable types of flow deflectors. In our article, we will particularly focus on problems of revitalizing a water course; i.e., the design of structures from biological or biotechnical elements for channel stabilization.

Šlezingr, M.; Synková, J.; Foltýnová, L.; Uhmannová, H.



A Direct Tunneling Memory (DTM) utilizing novel floating gate structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel floating gate (FG) memory, Direct Tunneling Memory (DTM) is demonstrated. The main features of DTM are an ultra-thin tunnel oxide with leakage stop barrier and sidewall control gate (CG) which prevent the overlap between a FG and source\\/drain (SD) extensions. This structure suppresses the gate leakage current and improves the retention time while high speed write\\/erase operations with

N. Horiguchi; T. Usuki; K. Goto; T. Futatsugi; T. Sugii; N. Yokoyama



Two-Phase Heat Spreaders Utilizing Microfabricated Boiling Enhancement Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from various enhancement techniques to improve the performance of a recently developed two-phase heat spreader are reported. The spreader has a central evaporator section, with an integrated condenser along the edges. A micro-fabricated three-dimensional enhancement structure is employed to improve the heat transfer performance of the spreader. This study considers the performance of several liquid coolants to be used

Sunil Murthy; Yogendra Joshi; Wataru Nakayama



Organic photonic devices utilizing nano-structured materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristics of organic photonic devices with various kinds of geometrical nano-structures at the interface between organic materials, and also between the organic layer and metal electrode are investigated. A cutoff frequency of more than 20 MHz was observed for single-layer heterostructure organic photodetector (OPD) by applying a reverse bias electric field under the illumination of the red repetition pulse light. The mixed-layer heterostructure OPD with high photocurrent and high speed photoresponse is suitable for the application of optical link devices. An organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with a partial doping layer at the interface of heterostructure device can be expected to improve the modulation characteristics. The existence of interface between the organic layer and Cs or CsF results in low turn-on voltage for OLEDs. To achieve the efficient electron injection, it is necessary to exist Cs layer just on the organic layer. The efficient electron injection and the low turn-on voltage result from the coexistence of MgAg and CsF at the position of approximately 1 nm from organic layer. The poly(3-hexylthiophene) device with a cathode fabricated from Ag nanoparticles shows a photoresponse and a red emission in the reverse and forward bias regions, respectively. We demonstrated the possibility of polymer OLEDs using a cathode fabricated from Ag nanoparticles by wet processing.

Kajii, H.; Morimune, T.; Maki, H.; Hino, Y.; Kin, Z.; Ohmori, Y.



Study of thermal degradation of organic light emitting device structures by X-ray scattering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the process of thermal degradation of organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) having multilayered structure of [LiF\\/tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum(Alq3)\\/N,N?-Bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N?-bis(phenyl)benzidine (NPB)\\/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)\\/indium tin oxide (ITO)\\/SiO2 on a glass] by synchrotron X-ray scattering. The results show that the thermally induced degradation process of OLED multilayers has undergone several evolutions due to thermal expansion of NPB, intermixing between NPB, Alq3, and LiF

Young-Joo Lee; Heeju Lee; Youngsuk Byun; Sanghoon Song; Je-Eun Kim; Daeyong Eom; Wonsuk Cha; Seong-Sik Park; Jinwoo Kim; Hyunjung Kim



Self-formation and release of arbitrary-curvatured structures utilizing droplet deposition and structured surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a method of micro-fabrication for the formation of complex non-planar shapes by depositing a colloid evaporative droplet onto topographically structured surfaces. The micro-droplet composed of polyurethane (PU) was self-driven by surface tension to adjust their three-dimensional (3D) shapes bound with the surface of the micro-well array. The micro-wells formed from poly-dimethysiloxane (PDMS) consisted of vertical sidewalls to constrain the fluids as boundary conditions in the Young Laplace equation until drying. Two types of wetting regimes (fully and partially), corresponding to different droplet volume and allocation, were categorized to perform the shaping process in which evolving fluid contours were self-formed utilizing the general principle of minimal surface energy with certain features of the shape set by the wetting of the PDMS. Using the heterogeneous surfaces, slight-concave circular terraces and half-moon shapes with high curvature were fabricated with micrometer dimensions (well diameter of 900 µm). The formed structures were observed to release themselves from the hydrophobic wells by the de-wetting (de-pinned) process in the completion of evaporation. Moreover, the effects of the boundaries were further explored for half-moon shapes by giving three distinct footprints of the partially wetting droplets. In these cases, both experimental results and numerical calculations were performed and compared to illustrate the significant influence of the fluid contact angle (~90°) and position with a curved boundary line on final formed shape, in particular for the change of curvature (\\bar \\kappa = 0.62 1.36). Compared to those traditional assays operated on two-dimensional (2D) flat surfaces, this structured-well one could greatly enhance the control of 3D topographic formation in terms of aspect ratio, thickness and curved degree. This novel operation of micro-fabrication is also appropriate for smaller and complex structures by using drop-on-demand inkjet for commercialized mass-production processes.

Chen, Chin-Tai; Chieng, Ching-Chang; Tseng, Fan-Gang



Utilizing ABAQUS to Analyze the Active Vibration Suppression of Structural Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABAQUS can be utilized in the numerical simulation of active feedback control for the purpose of vibration suppression of structural systems. Using the example of active control of a cantilever beam, the Positive Position Feedback (PPF) control algorithm is coupled into an ABAQUS dynamical structural model with the assistance of user-defined subroutines. The transient response of the beam with and

Brian P. Baillargeon; Senthil S. Vel; Jeffery S. Koplik



Wear minimization through utilization of atomic-scale functional surface structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for wear minimization through utilization of an atomic-scale functional surface structure is proposed. The basic idea is to effectively dissipate the frictional energy generated during contact sliding so that its contribution to permanent displacement of atoms is minimized. This may be achieved by using a surface structure with optimum compliance that can accommodate the contact stresses through elastic, rather than permanent, deformation of the structure. This method was verified through molecular dynamics simulation of atomic-scale wear of a tip sliding against a hard coating layer that is supported by an atomic-scale functional surface structure.

Kim, Hyun-Joon; Kim, Dae-Eun



Undoped White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Utilizing Two Sources of Excitons  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report two undoped white organic light-emitting diodes with the structures of ITO\\/m-MTDATA\\/Alq3\\/NPB\\/BCP\\/Alq3\\/Mg:Ag (device A), and ITO\\/NPB\\/DCM\\/NPB\\/Alq3\\/NPB\\/BCP\\/Alq3\\/Mg:Ag (device B), where ITO is indium tin oxide, m-MTDATA is 4,4',4''-tris{N,(3-methylphenyl)-N-phenylamino}-triphenylamine, Alq3 is tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum, NPB is N,N'-di(naphth-2-yl)-N,N'-diphenyl-benzidine, BCP is 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenylphenanthroline, and DCM is 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethyl aminostyryl)-4H-pyran. Red emission was harvested from the exciplex at the m-MTDATA\\/Alq3 interface and DCM (0.5 nm) for devices

Yoga Divayana; Xiao Wei Sun; Baijun Chen; Guo Qiang Lo; Changyun Jiang; Dim Lee Kwong; Kalluri R. Sarma



Comparing the structural topology of integral and peripheral membrane proteins utilizing electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.  


The alignment of membrane proteins provides pertinent structural and dynamic information. Structural topology data gleaned from such studies can be used to determine the functional mechanisms associated with a wide variety of integral membrane proteins. In this communication, we successfully demonstrate, for the first time, the determination of the structural topology and helical tilt of an antimicrobial peptide magainin 2 using aligned X-band spin-label EPR spectroscopic techniques. This novel comparison unlocks many possibilities utilizing EPR spectroscopy to probe antimicrobial peptide topologies with increased sensitivity and may also give further clues to elucidate their corresponding mechanisms. PMID:18598031

Mayo, Daniel J; Inbaraj, Johnson J; Subbaraman, Nidhi; Grosser, Stuart M; Chan, Christopher A; Lorigan, Gary A



Preparation and properties of hybrid bilayer structures based on organic Alq3, ferromagnetic La2\\/3Sr1\\/3MnO3 and Fe3O4  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report preparation and properties of hybrid bilayer structures composed of the organic semiconductor, 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum (Alq3), p-type Si and two ferromagnetic oxides, namely, colossal magnetoresistance manganite, La2\\/3Sr1\\/3MnO3 (LSMO), and magnetite (Fe3O4). Thin Alq3 films were thermally evaporated in vacuum. The bottom LSMO films were grown in-situ at 750°C by dc magnetron sputtering on crystalline SrTiO3 while Fe3O4 films were

B. Vengalis; K. Sliuziene; I. Cerniuke; R. Butkute; V. Lisauskas; A. Maneikis



Dependency Structure Matrix Analysis: Offline Utility of the Dependency Structure Matrix Genetic Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the ofi-line use of the dependency structure matrix genetic algorithm (DSMGA). In particular, a problem-speciflc crossover operator is design by performing depen- dency structure matrix (DSM) analysis. The advantages and disadvantages of such an ofi-line use are discussed. Two schemes that helps the ofi-line usage are proposed. Finally, those ofi-line schemes are demonstrated by DSMGA on MaxTrap

Tian-li Yu; David E. Goldberg



Droplet Formation Utilizing Controllable Moving-Wall Structures for Double-Emulsion Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of microscale single- and double-emulsion droplets with various sizes is crucial for a variety of industrial applications. In this paper, we report a new microfluidic device which can actively fine-tune the size of single- and double-emulsion droplets in liquids by utilizing controllable moving-wall structures. Moreover, various sizes of external and internal droplets for double emulsions are also successfully

Yen-Heng Lin; Chun-Hong Lee; Gwo-Bin Lee



Intellectual structure for visualization of n-dimensional space utilizing a parallel coordinate system  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An intellectual structure for displaying multi-dimensional data which is represented as a computer generated model or plot of data space in parallel or non-orthogonal coordinates, wherein the data space is presented in a display space which facilitates relative motion of an observer with respect thereto. Accordingly, the essence of the invention is to create motion of the observer with respect to the data space because it significantly facilitates and enhances comprehension of relationships, structures, patterns or trends within the data space. This is accomplished by creating an n-dimensional data display utilizing parallel coordinates to view the resulting data space using observer-based motion.

Johnson; Robert R. (Salt Lake City, UT); Millar; Rodney D. (Salt Lake City, UT); Palmer; Mark (West Valley City, UT); Anderson; Richard (Salt Lake City, UT)



A concept on on-orbit experiments of deployable structures utilizing JEM/HOPE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) has been performing research and development in the area of deployable structures. The R&D effort has been designated as a key element for future large space structures. System design, component design, and preliminary simulation analysis were carried out. A study of the experimental scheme is the required next step. This report presents conceptual plans for on-orbit experiments that will utilize space vehicles or platforms such as JEM (Japanese Experiment Module)/HOPE (H-2 Orbiting Plane).

Shibuta, Shigeto; Morino, Yoshiki; Saegusa, Hiroshi



Sonochemical synthesis of new nano-two-dimensional lead(II) coordination polymer: As precursor for preparation of PbO nano-structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nano-structure of a new 2D double-chain lead(II) coordination polymer, [Pb2(?-N3)(?-NO3)L2]n (1), HL = 8-hydroxyquinolin ligand was synthesized by a sonochemical method. The new nano-structure was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, IR spectroscopy and elemental analyses. The structure of compound 1 was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and consists of 2D double-chain polymeric units. The coordination number in compound 1 is five and each lead atom is coordinated by one oxygen atom of NO3- anion, one nitrogen atom of 8-hydroxyquinolin ligand, two oxygen atoms of OH group of ligand and one nitrogen atom of N3- anion. The thermal stability of compound 1 was studied by thermal gravimetric and differential thermal analyses (TGA and DTA). Calcination of the nanocompound 1 at 400 °C under air atmospheres yielded nano-sized particles of PbO that characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction.

Fard, Mohammad Jaafar Soltanian; Rastaghi, Fatemeh; Ghanbari, Najmeh



Segmentation of interwoven 3d tubular tree structures utilizing shape priors and graph cuts.  


The segmentation of tubular tree structures like vessel systems in volumetric datasets is of vital interest for many medical applications. We present a novel approach that allows to simultaneously separate and segment multiple interwoven tubular tree structures. The algorithm consists of two main processing steps. First, the tree structures are identified and corresponding shape priors are generated by using a bottom-up identification of tubular objects combined with a top-down grouping of these objects into complete tree structures. The grouping step allows us to separate interwoven trees and to handle local disturbances. Second, the generated shape priors are utilized for the intrinsic segmentation of the different tubular systems to avoid leakage or undersegmentation in locally disturbed regions. We have evaluated our method on phantom and different clinical CT datasets and demonstrated its ability to correctly obtain/separate different tree structures, accurately determine the surface of tubular tree structures, and robustly handle noise, disturbances (e.g., tumors), and deviations from cylindrical tube shapes like for example aneurysms. PMID:20060769

Bauer, Christian; Pock, Thomas; Sorantin, Erich; Bischof, Horst; Beichel, Reinhard



In Silico Determination and Validation of Baumannii Acinetobactin Utilization A Structure and Ligand Binding Site  

PubMed Central

Acinetobacter baumannii is a deadly nosocomial pathogen. Iron is an essential element for the pathogen. Under iron-restricted conditions, the bacterium expresses iron-regulated outer membrane proteins (IROMPs). Baumannii acinetobactin utilization (BauA) is the most important member of IROMPs in A. baumannii. Determination of its tertiary structure could help deduction of its functions and its interactions with ligands. The present study unveils BauA 3D structure via in silico approaches. Apart from ab initio, other rational methods such as homology modeling and threading were invoked to achieve the purpose. For homology modeling, BLAST was run on the sequence in order to find the best template. The template was then served to model the 3D structure. All the models built were evaluated qualitatively. The best model predicted by LOMETS was selected for analyses. Refinement of 3D structure as well as determination of its clefts and ligand binding sites was carried out on the structure. In contrast to the typical trimeric arrangement found in porins, BauA is monomeric. The barrel is formed by 22 antiparallel transmembrane ?-strands. There are short periplasmic turns and longer surface-located loops. An N-terminal domain referred to either as the cork, the plug, or the hatch domain occludes the ?-barrel.

Sefid, Fatemeh



Vibration Based Wind Turbine Tower Foundation Design Utilizing Soil-Foundation-Structure Interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind turbines have been used to generate electricity as an alternative energy source to conventional fossil fuels. This case study is for multiple wind towers located at different villages in Alaska where severe arctic weather conditions exist. The towers are supported by two different types of foundations; large mat or deep piles foundations. Initially, a Reinforced Concrete (RC) mat foundation was utilized to provide the system with vertical and lateral support. Where soil conditions required it, a pile foundation solution was devised utilizing a 30'' thick RC mat containing an embedded steel grillage of W18 beams supported by 20''-24'' grouted or un-grouted piles. The mixing and casting of concrete in-situ has become the major source of cost and difficulty of construction at these remote Alaska sites. An all-steel foundation was proposed for faster installation and lower cost, but was found to impact the natural frequencies of the structural system by significantly softening the foundation system. The tower-foundation support structure thus became near-resonant with the operational frequencies of the wind turbine leading to a likelihood of structural instability or even collapse. A detailed 3D Finite-Element model of the original tower-foundation-pile system with RC foundation was created using SAP2000. Soil springs were included in the model based on soil properties obtained from the geotechnical consultant. The natural frequency from the model was verified against the tower manufacturer analytical and the experimental values. Where piles were used, numerous iterations were carried out to eliminate the need for the RC and optimize the design. An optimized design was achieved with enough separation between the natural and operational frequencies to prevent damage to the structural system eliminating the need for any RC encasement to the steel foundation or grouting to the piles.

Al Satari, P. E. Mohamed



Secondary Structure and Phylogenetic Utility of the Ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2) in Scleractinian Corals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chaolun Allen Chen, Chau-Ching Chang, Nuwei Vivian Wei, Chien-Hsun Chen, Yi-Ting Lein, Ho-E Lin, Chang-Feng Dai and Carden C. Wallace (2004) Secondary structure and phylogenetic utility of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) in scleractinian corals. Zoological Studies 43(4): 759-771. In this study, we examined the nucleotide characteristics, the secondary structure, and phylogenetic utility of the ribosomal internal spacer

Chaolun Allen Chen; Chau-Ching Chang; Nuwei Vivian Wei; Chien-Hsun Chen; Yi-Ting Lein; Ho-E Lin; Chang-Feng Dai; Carden C. Wallace



Unique structural features and sequence motifs of proline utilization A (PutA).  


Proline utilization A proteins (PutAs) are bifunctional enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of proline to glutamate using spatially separated proline dehydrogenase and pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase active sites. Here we use the crystal structure of the minimalist PutA from Bradyrhizobium japonicum (BjPutA) along with sequence analysis to identify unique structural features of PutAs. This analysis shows that PutAs have secondary structural elements and domains not found in the related monofunctional enzymes. Some of these extra features are predicted to be important for substrate channeling in BjPutA. Multiple sequence alignment analysis shows that some PutAs have a 17-residue conserved motif in the C-terminal 20-30 residues of the polypeptide chain. The BjPutA structure shows that this motif helps seal the internal substrate-channeling cavity from the bulk medium. Finally, it is shown that some PutAs have a 100-200 residue domain of unknown function in the C-terminus that is not found in minimalist PutAs. Remote homology detection suggests that this domain is homologous to the oligomerization beta-hairpin and Rossmann fold domain of BjPutA. PMID:22201760

Singh, Ranjan K; Tanner, John J



Quantitative High-Throughput Screening Identifies 8-Hydroxyquinolines as Cell-Active Histone Demethylase Inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSmall molecule modulators of epigenetic processes are currently sought as basic probes for biochemical mechanisms, and as starting points for development of therapeutic agents. N?-Methylation of lysine residues on histone tails is one of a number of post-translational modifications that together enable transcriptional regulation. Histone lysine demethylases antagonize the action of histone methyltransferases in a site- and methylation state-specific manner.

Oliver N. F. King; Xuan Shirley Li; Masaaki Sakurai; Akane Kawamura; Nathan R. Rose; Stanley S. Ng; Amy M. Quinn; Ganesha Rai; Bryan T. Mott; Paul Beswick; Robert J. Klose; Udo Oppermann; Ajit Jadhav; Tom D. Heightman; David J. Maloney; Christopher J. Schofield; Anton Simeonov; Sue Cotterill



Urban water infrastructure asset management - a structured approach in four water utilities.  


Water services are a strategic sector of large social and economic relevance. It is therefore essential that they are managed rationally and efficiently. Advanced water supply and wastewater infrastructure asset management (IAM) is key in achieving adequate levels of service in the future, particularly with regard to reliable and high quality drinking water supply, prevention of urban flooding, efficient use of natural resources and prevention of pollution. This paper presents a methodology for supporting the development of urban water IAM, developed during the AWARE-P project as well as an appraisal of its implementation in four water utilities. Both water supply and wastewater systems were considered. Due to the different contexts and features of the utilities, the main concerns vary from case to case; some problems essentially are related to performance, others to risk. Cost is a common deciding factor. The paper describes the procedure applied, focusing on the diversity of drivers, constraints, benefits and outcomes. It also points out the main challenges and the results obtained through the implementation of a structured procedure for supporting urban water IAM. PMID:23109589

Cardoso, M A; Silva, M Santos; Coelho, S T; Almeida, M C; Covas, D I C



Overcoming Structural Constraints to Patient Utilization of Electronic Medical Records: A Critical Review and Proposal for an Evaluation Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are constraints embedded in medical record structure that limit use by patients in self-directed disease management. Through systematic review of the literature from a critical perspective, four characteristics that either enhance or mitigate the influence of medical record structure on patient utilization of an electronic patient record (EPR) system have been identified: environmental pressures, physician centeredness, collaborative organizational culture,

Warren J Winkelman; Kevin J Leonard



Factor Structure and Predictive Utility of the 2 x 2 Achievement Goal Model in a Sample of Taiwan Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined structure and predictive utility of the 2 x 2 achievement goal model among Taiwan pre-university school students (ages 10 to 16) who learned Chinese language arts. The confirmatory factor analyses of Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Chinese version provided good fitting between the factorial and dimensional structures with the…

Chiang, Yu-Tzu; Yeh, Yu-Chen; Lin, Sunny S. J.; Hwang, Fang-Ming



Decreased glucose transporter densities, rate constants and glucose utilization in visual structures of rat brain during chronic visual deprivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question was investigated whether local changes in glucose transporter densities and transport kinetics can occur when local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) is decreased in some brain structures. Unilateral visual deprivation was induced by monocular enucleation in 25 rats. After 1 week, the contralateral structures of the visual system were analyzed for (1) densities of glucose transporters Glut1 and Glut3

R. Duelli; M. H. Maurer; W. Kuschinsky



Discovery of inhibitors of the channel-activating protease prostasin (CAP1\\/PRSS8) utilizing structure-based design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structure-based design was utilized to guide the early stage optimization of a substrate-like inhibitor to afford potent peptidomimetic inhibitors of the channel-activating protease prostasin. The first X-ray crystal structures of prostasin with small molecule inhibitors bound to the active site are also reported.

David C. Tully; Agnčs Vidal; Arnab K. Chatterjee; Jennifer A. Williams; Michael J. Roberts; H. Michael Petrassi; Glen Spraggon; Badry Bursulaya; Reynand Pacoma; Aaron Shipway; Andrew M. Schumacher; Henry Danahay; Jennifer L. Harris



Structural Basis of Transcriptional Regulation of the Proline Utilization Regulon by Multifunctional PutA  

PubMed Central

Summary The multifunctional Escherichia coli PutA flavoprotein functions as both a membrane-associated proline catabolic enzyme and transcriptional repressor of the proline utilization genes putA and putP. To better understand the mechanism of transcriptional regulation by PutA, we have mapped the put regulatory region, determined a crystal structure of the PutA ribbon-helix-helix domain (PutA52) complexed with DNA and examined the thermodynamics of DNA binding to PutA52. Five operator sites, each containing the sequence motif 5?-GTTGCA-3?, were identified using gel-shift analysis. Three of the sites are shown to be critical for repression of putA, whereas the two other sites are important for repression of putP. The 2.25 Ĺ resolution crystal structure of PutA52 bound to one of the operators (operator 2, 21-bp) shows that the protein contacts a 9-bp fragment, corresponding to the GTTGCA consensus motif plus three flanking base pairs. Since the operator sequences differ in flanking bases, the structure implies that PutA may have different affinities for the five operators. This hypothesis was explored using isothermal titration calorimetry. The binding of PutA52 to operator 2 is exothermic with an enthalpy of ?1.8 kcal/mol and a dissociation constant of 210 nM. Substitution of the flanking bases of operator 4 into operator 2 results in an unfavorable enthalpy of 0.2 kcal/mol and 15-fold lower affinity, which shows that base pairs outside of the consensus motif impact binding. The structural and thermodynamic data suggest that hydrogen bonds between Lys9 and bases adjacent to the GTTGCA motif contribute to transcriptional regulation by fine-tuning the affinity of PutA for put control operators.

Zhou, Yuzhen; Larson, John D.; Bottoms, Christopher A.; Arturo, Emilia C.; Henzl, Michael T.; Jenkins, Jermaine L.; Nix, Jay C.; Becker, Donald F.; Tanner, John J.



Assessing the Size, Stability, and Utility of Isotropically Tumbling Bicelle Systems for Structural Biology  

PubMed Central

Aqueous phospholipid mixtures that form bilayered micelles (bicelles) have gained wide use by molecular biophysicists during the past 20 years for spectroscopic studies of membrane-bound peptides and structural refinement of soluble protein structures. Nonetheless, the utility of bicelle systems may be compromised by considerations of cost, chemical stability, and preservation of the bicelle aggregate organization under a broad range of temperature, concentration, pH, and ionic strength conditions. In the current work, 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been used to monitor the size and morphology of isotropically tumbling small bicelles formed by mixtures of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) or 1,2-di-O-tetradecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DIOMPC) with either 1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC) or 1,2-di-O-hexyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-choline (DIOHPC), testing their tolerance of variations in commonly used experimental conditions. 1H-15N 2D NMR has been used to demonstrate the usefulness of the robust DMPC-DIOHPC system for conformational studies of a fatty acid-binding protein that shuttles small ligands to and from biological membranes.

Wu, Hongwei; Su, Kai; Guan, Xudong; Sublette, M. Elizabeth; Stark, Ruth E.



Dynamically updating a computer system and firmware image utilizing an option read only memory (OPROM) data structure  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Methods, systems, apparatus, and computer-readable media for dynamically updating a computer system and firmware image utilizing an option ROM ("OPROM") data structure. When a hardware configuration of a computer system is modified, a corresponding OPROM within the firmware image is modified. An OPROM data structure is created in a firmware image. Each data structure contains identification data corresponding to the data structure as well as an OPROM entry for each OPROM within the firmware image. Each OPROM entry has identification data pointing to the corresponding OPROM and identification data corresponding to the OPROM and associated hardware device. Firmware program modules utilize the OPROM data structure to identify the correct OPROMs for use with the computer system hardware configuration. An application searches for a unique signature associated with the OPROM data structure and modifies OPROM entries as hardware devices and associated OPROMs are added to and removed from the computer system.



Structure-function analysis of interleukin-5 utilizing mouse/human chimeric molecules.  

PubMed Central

Interleukin-5 (IL5) is a T cell derived glycoprotein that stimulates eosinophil production and activation. In the mouse, but apparently not in the human, it is active on B cells. The murine and human IL5 polypeptides exhibit 70% sequence similarity and yet display distinct species-specific activity. Whilst mouse and human IL5 are equally active in human cell assays, human IL5 is 100-fold less active than murine IL5 in mouse cell assays. Two restriction sites were utilized to divide the human and mouse sequences into three fragments. Hybrid molecules consisting of all combinations of these fragments were constructed and expressed. In the human cell assays [using bone marrow or the erythroleukaemic cell line (TF-1)] all the hybrid proteins generated activity comparable to that of the human and mouse IL5. This implies that replacing different domains does not result in detrimental effects to the tertiary structure of the molecule. In the mouse cell assays [using bone marrow or the pro-B cell line (B13)] the hybrids clearly identified the importance of residues in the C terminus for biological activity. The changing of only eight residues in this region of human IL5, to those of mouse IL5, resulted in the hybrid producing biological activity comparable to mouse IL5. In addition, competition binding assays showed that this region probably interacts with the receptor. Images

McKenzie, A N; Barry, S C; Strath, M; Sanderson, C J



Factor structure and predictive utility of the 2 × 2 achievement goal model in a sample of Taiwan students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined structure and predictive utility of the 2×2 achievement goal model among Taiwan pre-university school students (ages 10 to 16) who learned Chinese language arts. The confirmatory factor analyses of Achievement Goal Questionnaire—Chinese version provided good fitting between the factorial and dimensional structures with the data. The mastery-avoidance goals are distinctive perceived by Taiwan students but do not

Yu-Tzu Chiang; Yu-Chen Yeh; Sunny S. J. Lin; Fang-Ming Hwang



Utilization patterns of cohorts of elderly clients: a structural equation model.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE. To identify a model that takes into account the interrelationship of health services utilization variables, and that allows examination of the utilization patterns of health services for a cohort of elderly clients. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SETTING. The data of each client in the study were taken from three computer databases maintained for administrative purposes by the Ministry of Health in British Columbia. Time frame for the utilization variables is one year before and one year after admission to the long-term care program in BC which occurred in 1981-1982. STUDY DESIGN. A basic model was fitted to the utilization data for the year before admission and patterns of utilization were assessed for each gender-age group for the year before admission and for the two periods, using LISREL. Fifteen utilization variables were included: number of GP and specialist visits in different settings (office, home, etc.) and number of other services such as lab tests, hospital stay, etc. DATA COLLECTION. The three files were linked to produce one record per client. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. A model was identified that fits the data well. The total effect of GP emergency room visits on hospital stay is 0.30 compared to 0.19 direct effect. The additional impact is produced via the effect of specialist consultations on hospital stay. This and similar findings by age, gender, and period are consistent with the joint dependency of utilization variables. CONCLUSIONS. The analysis shows that males and females have different utilization patterns, while age has no effect on utilization of health services by male clients and only a small effect on utilization patterns by female clients. Admission to LTC causes more specialist contacts resulting from contact with a GP and generally a more intensive use of diagnostic and surgical procedures. However, there is significantly less acute care hospital services utilization.

Ellencweig, A Y; Pagliccia, N



Structure control of sputtered zinc oxide films by utilizing zinc oxide seed layers tailored by ion beam assisted sputtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactively sputtered zinc oxide thin films typically exhibit a c-oriented (0 0 0 1) texture of low crystalline order when deposited on unheated substrates. The structural order can be significantly improved upon heating the substrates during deposition. Here it will be demonstrated that by utilizing c-textured seed layers, which are grown by an ion beam assisted sputtering (IBAS) process, films

Dominik Köhl; Gomathi Natarajan; Matthias Wuttig



Phospholipid fatty acid profiles and carbon utilization patterns for analysis of microbial community structure under field and greenhouse conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The description of soil microbial community structure by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles is based on the relationship between the phylogeny of microorganisms and their PLFA profiles. Based on this relationship, two community based microbiological measurements, namely, potential C source utilization patterns in Biolog microtiter plates and PLFA profiles were used to examine metabolic fingerprints of soil microbial communities and

Abasiofiok M Ibekwe; Ann. C Kennedy



The "clinic" medical-dosimetric database of Mayak production association workers: structure, characteristics and prospects of utilization.  


To study early (deterministic) and long-term effects of radiation exposure, the "Clinic" medical-dosimetric database for the Mayak Production Association worker cohort has been established at the Southern Urals Biophysics Institute (SUBI). This paper describes the principles of organization, structure and prospects of future utilization of this database. PMID:18403966

Azizova, Tamara V; Day, Richard D; Wald, Niel; Muirhead, Colin R; O'Hagan, Jacqueline A; Sumina, Margarita V; Belyaeva, Zinaida D; Druzhinina, Maria B; Teplyakov, Igor I; Semenikhina, Nadezhda G; Stetsenko, Larisa A; Grigoryeva, Evgenia S; Krupenina, Larisa N; Vlasenko, Elena V



Curveslam: Utilizing Higher Level Structure In Stereo Vision-Based Navigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Existing approaches to visual Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) typically utilize points as visual feature primitives to represent landmarks in the environment. Since these techniques mostly use image points from a standard feature point detect...

D. Rao



Structural and optical properties of 6,13-pentacenequinone thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the structural and optical properties of 6,13-pentacenequinone thin films deposited on n-Si substrates by thermal evaporation at room temperature. X-ray diffraction data indicate excellent crystallinity but the films have two crystalline phases mixed. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra exhibited double peaks at 1.97 and 2.09 eV while the corresponding (double) peaks, associated with the highest occupied molecular orbital-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital transition, were also observed from direct absorption spectra at 2.94 and 3.11 eV. The yellow PL band was quite intense under UV illumination; the intensity was comparable to that from Tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) thin films. A large Stokes shift of ~1 eV found in our 6,13-pentacenequinone thin films suggests potential applications to UV-detectors and UV-detecting cards.

Hwang, D. K.; Kim, Kibum; Kim, Jae Hoon; Im, Seongil; Jung, Duk-Young; Kim, Eugene



Overcoming Structural Constraints to Patient Utilization of Electronic Medical Records: A Critical Review and Proposal for an Evaluation Framework  

PubMed Central

There are constraints embedded in medical record structure that limit use by patients in self-directed disease management. Through systematic review of the literature from a critical perspective, four characteristics that either enhance or mitigate the influence of medical record structure on patient utilization of an electronic patient record (EPR) system have been identified: environmental pressures, physician centeredness, collaborative organizational culture, and patient centeredness. An evaluation framework is proposed for use when considering adaptation of existing EPR systems for online patient access. Exemplars of patient-accessible EPR systems from the literature are evaluated utilizing the framework. From this study, it appears that traditional information system research and development methods may not wholly capture many pertinent social issues that arise when expanding access of EPR systems to patients. Critically rooted methods such as action research can directly inform development strategies so that these systems may positively influence health outcomes.

Winkelman, Warren J.; Leonard, Kevin J.



Optical properties of II-VI structures for solar energy utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although II-VI semiconductor materials are abundant, stable, and have direct band gaps, the band gaps are too large for optimal photovoltaic efficiency. However, staggered band alignments of pairs of these materials, and also the formation of intermediate impurity levels in the band gap (which has been demonstrated to increase the efficiency as compared to both single-junction devices), could be utilized

Joshua Schrier; Denis Demchenko; Lin-Wang Wang



Physician utilization among the elderly: An analysis using structural equation modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to examine physician utilization among the elderly within the framework of the Andersen behavioral model. The general research aim guiding this project was to determine which characteristics of individuals and their social environment predict physician use and to examine how these characteristics are interrelated.Using data from Version 3 of the Longitudinal Study on Aging,

Julia Elizabeth Bradsher



Assessing the utility of coevolution-based residue-residue contact predictions in a sequence- and structure-rich era  

PubMed Central

Recently developed methods have shown considerable promise in predicting residue–residue contacts in protein 3D structures using evolutionary covariance information. However, these methods require large numbers of evolutionarily related sequences to robustly assess the extent of residue covariation, and the larger the protein family, the more likely that contact information is unnecessary because a reasonable model can be built based on the structure of a homolog. Here we describe a method that integrates sequence coevolution and structural context information using a pseudolikelihood approach, allowing more accurate contact predictions from fewer homologous sequences. We rigorously assess the utility of predicted contacts for protein structure prediction using large and representative sequence and structure databases from recent structure prediction experiments. We find that contact predictions are likely to be accurate when the number of aligned sequences (with sequence redundancy reduced to 90%) is greater than five times the length of the protein, and that accurate predictions are likely to be useful for structure modeling if the aligned sequences are more similar to the protein of interest than to the closest homolog of known structure. These conditions are currently met by 422 of the protein families collected in the Pfam database.

Kamisetty, Hetunandan; Ovchinnikov, Sergey; Baker, David



Assessing the utility of coevolution-based residue-residue contact predictions in a sequence- and structure-rich era.  


Recently developed methods have shown considerable promise in predicting residue-residue contacts in protein 3D structures using evolutionary covariance information. However, these methods require large numbers of evolutionarily related sequences to robustly assess the extent of residue covariation, and the larger the protein family, the more likely that contact information is unnecessary because a reasonable model can be built based on the structure of a homolog. Here we describe a method that integrates sequence coevolution and structural context information using a pseudolikelihood approach, allowing more accurate contact predictions from fewer homologous sequences. We rigorously assess the utility of predicted contacts for protein structure prediction using large and representative sequence and structure databases from recent structure prediction experiments. We find that contact predictions are likely to be accurate when the number of aligned sequences (with sequence redundancy reduced to 90%) is greater than five times the length of the protein, and that accurate predictions are likely to be useful for structure modeling if the aligned sequences are more similar to the protein of interest than to the closest homolog of known structure. These conditions are currently met by 422 of the protein families collected in the Pfam database. PMID:24009338

Kamisetty, Hetunandan; Ovchinnikov, Sergey; Baker, David



Advances in utilization of structurally integrated sensor networks for health monitoring in commercial applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural health monitoring is a new technology that has been increasingly evaluated by the industry as a potential approach to improve the cost and ease of structural inspection. By improving structural inspection, structures can be made safer and more reliable, thus reducing the cost of structure ownership. Acellent Technologies is developing tools for structural health monitoring. The tools Acellent is offering are the SMART Layer and the SMART Suitcase. The SMART Layer is a flexible layer with a distributed array of piezoelectric transducers made using the printed circuit process that allows easy installation onto structures for in-situ sensing. The SMART Suitcase is an instrument that can interact with the SMART Layer and process the information collected from the structures. Acellent has been providing the system to researchers and companies to try out this new technique. Currently, this system is being evaluated by aircraft manufacturers for monitoring fatigue cracks from rivet holes, by an automotive company for inspecting flaws in composite/foam components, and by aerospace companies for detecting damages in composite/honeycomb sandwich structures. Other recent developments include the addition of fiber-optic sensors onto the SMART Layer and proving the SMART Layer for composite RTM process.

Lin, Mark; Kumar, Amrita; Qing, Xinlin; Beard, Shawn J.



Effect of autoclaving and physical structure of diets on their utilization by mice.  


A pelleted and 2 expanded rodent diets were autoclaved at 121 degrees C for 20 minutes, and fed to DBA/1 and LACA strains of mice. Reproduction was not significantly different on any diet and autoclaving had no effect other than increasing the intervals between litters. However, apparent food consumption was greater and efficiency of food utilization (expressed as young weaned/diet consumed) was poorer in mice fed pelleted diets. Diet had no significant effect on growth, but food wastage and consequently apparent food consumption were less and food utilization more efficient when expanded diets were fed. In addition, true food consumption was lower and food conversion more efficient. Autoclaving had little effect on expanded diets but caused a significant reduction in wastage and in apparent and true consumption of the pelleted diet, perhaps because of increased hardness. PMID:926752

Ford, D J



Development of self-actuated in-flight de-icing technology utilizing smart structure concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ice accretions on aircraft components have severe and sometimes fatal effects. Aircraft wings are one of the many components that are prone to severe ice accretions. The de-icing\\/anti-icing technologies currently being used are bulky, cover the airfoil surface and consume high energies. Addressing these drawbacks, the current study proposes a novel de-icing technique utilizing lightweight piezoelectric actuators to break the

Suresh Venkata Venna



Optical properties of II-VI structures for solar energy utilization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although II-VI semiconductor materials are abundant, stable, and have direct band gaps, the band gaps are too large for optimal photovoltaic efficiency. However, staggered band alignments of pairs of these materials, and also the formation of intermediate impurity levels in the band gap (which has been demonstrated to increase the efficiency as compared to both single-junction devices), could be utilized to improve the suitability of these materials for solar energy utilization. Previous theoretical studies of these materials are limited, due to the well-known band gap underestimation by density-functional theory. To calculate the absorption spectra, we utilize a band-corrected planewave pseudopotential approach, which gives agreements of within 0.1 eV of the bulk optical gaps values. In this talk, I will present our work on predicting the optical properties of ZnO/ZnS and ZnO/ZnTe heterostructures, nanostructures, and alloys. This work was supported by U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No.DE-AC02-05CH11231 and used the resources of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center.

Schrier, Joshua; Demchenko, Denis; Wang, Lin-Wang



The intellectual structure and substance of the knowledge utilization field: A longitudinal author co-citation analysis, 1945 to 2004  

PubMed Central

Background It has been argued that science and society are in the midst of a far-reaching renegotiation of the social contract between science and society, with society becoming a far more active partner in the creation of knowledge. On the one hand, new forms of knowledge production are emerging, and on the other, both science and society are experiencing a rapid acceleration in new forms of knowledge utilization. Concomitantly since the Second World War, the science underpinning the knowledge utilization field has had exponential growth. Few in-depth examinations of this field exist, and no comprehensive analyses have used bibliometric methods. Methods Using bibliometric analysis, specifically first author co-citation analysis, our group undertook a domain analysis of the knowledge utilization field, tracing its historical development between 1945 and 2004. Our purposes were to map the historical development of knowledge utilization as a field, and to identify the changing intellectual structure of its scientific domains. We analyzed more than 5,000 articles using citation data drawn from the Web of Science®. Search terms were combinations of knowledge, research, evidence, guidelines, ideas, science, innovation, technology, information theory and use, utilization, and uptake. Results We provide an overview of the intellectual structure and how it changed over six decades. The field does not become large enough to represent with a co-citation map until the mid-1960s. Our findings demonstrate vigorous growth from the mid-1960s through 2004, as well as the emergence of specialized domains reflecting distinct collectives of intellectual activity and thought. Until the mid-1980s, the major domains were focused on innovation diffusion, technology transfer, and knowledge utilization. Beginning slowly in the mid-1980s and then growing rapidly, a fourth scientific domain, evidence-based medicine, emerged. The field is dominated in all decades by one individual, Everett Rogers, and by one paradigm, innovation diffusion. Conclusion We conclude that the received view that social science disciplines are in a state where no accepted set of principles or theories guide research (i.e., that they are pre-paradigmatic) could not be supported for this field. Second, we document the emergence of a new domain within the knowledge utilization field, evidence-based medicine. Third, we conclude that Everett Rogers was the dominant figure in the field and, until the emergence of evidence-based medicine, his representation of the general diffusion model was the dominant paradigm in the field.

Estabrooks, Carole A; Derksen, Linda; Winther, Connie; Lavis, John N; Scott, Shannon D; Wallin, Lars; Profetto-McGrath, Joanne



Utility of Synthetic Structures for Concentrating Adult Northern Pike and Largemouth Bass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five synthetic structure designs were compared to determine their relative value as management tools to improve sport fishing in two 25-ha warmwater impoundments on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal, near Denver, Colorado. Sonic telemetry and systematic angling were used to evaluate attraction of adult northern pike Esox lucius and largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides to artificial structures popularized by Arizona Game and

Kevin B. Rogers; Eric P. Bergersen



Direct in situ observation of structural transition driven actuation in VO2 utilizing electron transparent cantilevers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct imaging and quantification of actuation in nanostructures that undergo structural phase transitions could advance our understanding of collective phenomena in the solid state. Here, we demonstrate visualization of structural phase transition induced actuation in a model correlated insulator vanadium dioxide by in situ Fresnel contrast imaging of electron transparent cantilevers. We quantify abrupt, reversible cantilever motion occurring due to the stress relaxation across the structural transition from a monoclinic to tetragonal phase with increasing temperature. Deflections measured in such nanoscale cantilevers can be directly correlated with macroscopic stress measurements by wafer curvature studies as well as temperature dependent electrical conduction allowing one to interrogate lattice dynamics across length scales.

Viswanath, B.; Ramanathan, Shriram



Convergence or Divergence of Expert Mental Models: The Utility of Knowledge Structure Assessment in Training Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper we discuss the impact of differing knowledge structure measurement techniques on assessing instructor mental models for behaviors associated with Situation Awareness. Our goals were, first, to investigate the degree to which an expert model ...

J. Fowlkes L. Martin-Milham R. L. Oser S. M. Fiore



Utilization of an exposure impulse for exciting the frequency spectrum of structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The proposed method of exciting structures by an explosive impulse is used in practice for obtaining frequency spectra.2.An impulse of a magnitude and action time sufficient for producing the stress intensity in the structure can be obtained with a flat microcharge, provided the stimulant is designed to match the configuration of the vessel.3.The magnitude of the pulse for a charge

V. P. Alekseevskii; V. D. Garmash; O. B. Slutskaya



Liquid crystal anchoring utilizing surface topological effects of self-structured dual-groove patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate topologically patterned dual-groove surfaces for liquid crystal (LC) surface anchoring, where the dual-groove structure is made by a replica-moulding method from a self-structured poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) surface. In our method, the micro-groove structure with a periodicity on the order of micrometres is self-structured on the oxidized PDMS mould surface having a photolithographically defined macro-groove pattern owing to a thermally induced anisotropic stress effect. The direction of the micro-groove is determined to be perpendicular to the macro-groove direction and to form a mutually orthogonal dual-groove structure. With the presented method, the relative azimuth anchoring strength ratio (g) between the macro-groove and the micro-groove can be controlled precisely and easily. We investigated the LC anchoring effect created by the self-structured dual-groove pattern based on g, where the monostable LC anchoring surface is provided by the dual-groove surface with a g value close to 0 or infinity, and bistable LC anchoring is promoted as g approaches 1.

Park, Chang-sub; Park, Min-Kyu; Joo, Kyung-Il; Park, Ji-Sub; Park, Kyung-Woo; Han, Yeonjeong; Kang, Shin-Won; Kim, Hak-Rin



A global clinicians' map of mental disorders to improve ICD-11: analysing meta-structure to enhance clinical utility.  


Enhancing clinical utility is an emphasis of the World Health Organization's development of the mental and behavioural disorders chapter of the next International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). Understanding how clinicians conceptualize the structure of mental disorders can enable a more clinically intuitive classification architecture that will help professionals find the categories they need more efficiently. This study examined clinicians' conceptualizations of the relationships among mental disorders and the dimensions they use in making these judgements. Psychiatrists and psychologists from 64 countries (n = 1,371), participating in English or Spanish, rated the similarity of mental and behavioural disorders presented as paired comparisons. Data were analysed by multidimensional scaling procedures (INDSCAL) and by analyses of consistency. Participants used three distinctive dimensions to evaluate the similarity among disorders: internalizing versus externalizing, developmental versus adult onset, and functional versus organic. Clinicians' conceptual map of mental disorders was rational and highly stable across profession, language, and country income level. The proposed ICD-11 structure is a moderately better fit with clinicians' conceptual model than either ICD-10 or DSM-IV. Clinician judgements can be used to improve clinical utility of the ICD-11 without sacrificing validity based on a scientific approach to enhancing a logically organized classification meta-structure. PMID:23244613

Roberts, Michael C; Reed, Geoffrey M; Medina-Mora, María Elena; Keeley, Jared W; Sharan, Pratap; Johnson, David K; Mari, Jair de Jesus; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis; Gureje, Oye; Xiao, Zeping; Maruta, Toshimasa; Khoury, Brigitte; Robles, Rebeca; Saxena, Shekhar



Efficient electrofluorescent organic light-emitting diodes by sequential doping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors reported a highly efficient electrofluorescent organic light-emitting diode fabricated by sequential doping. An archetypal device utilizing 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethyl aminostyryl)-4H-pyran as dopant in a matrix of tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum was investigated. The emission layer consists of a few repeating cells, similar to a multiple quantum well structure, which are made of sequentially evaporated host and dopant. An external quantum efficiency as

Y. Divayana; X. W. Sun



History of biological metal utilization inferred through phylogenomic analysis of protein structures  

PubMed Central

The fundamental chemistry of trace elements dictates the molecular speciation and reactivity both within cells and the environment at large. Using protein structure and comparative genomics, we elucidate several major influences this chemistry has had upon biology. All of life exhibits the same proteome size-dependent scaling for the number of metal-binding proteins within a proteome. This fundamental evolutionary constant shows that the selection of one element occurs at the exclusion of another, with the eschewal of Fe for Zn and Ca being a defining feature of eukaryotic proteomes. Early life lacked both the structures required to control intracellular metal concentrations and the metal-binding proteins that catalyze electron transport and redox transformations. The development of protein structures for metal homeostasis coincided with the emergence of metal-specific structures, which predominantly bound metals abundant in the Archean ocean. Potentially, this promoted the diversification of emerging lineages of Archaea and Bacteria through the establishment of biogeochemical cycles. In contrast, structures binding Cu and Zn evolved much later, providing further evidence that environmental availability influenced the selection of the elements. The late evolving Zn-binding proteins are fundamental to eukaryotic cellular biology, and Zn bioavailability may have been a limiting factor in eukaryotic evolution. The results presented here provide an evolutionary timeline based on genomic characteristics, and key hypotheses can be tested by alternative geochemical methods.

Dupont, Christopher L.; Butcher, Andrew; Valas, Ruben E.; Bourne, Philip E.; Caetano-Anolles, Gustavo



Parameter and structure-activity data bases: management for maximum utility.  

PubMed Central

Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) in the fields of medicinal chemistry, pesticide science, biochemistry and toxicology are being published at an ever increasing rate. In addition to these biological correlation equations, thousands of such equations have been published for all kinds of organic reactions. There is a great need to develop a computerized system to enable one to make comparisons and to draw generalizations about the effects of structure on chemical and biological activity. A proposal is made for a systematic approach to this problem based on the physicochemical properties of organic compounds.

Leo, A



Prismatic sealed nickel-cadmium batteries utilizing fiber structured electrodes. I - New advances in cell design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prismatic sealed Ni/Cd cells of fiber structured electrodes offer the potential to fully recharge a battery in a uniquely short time. It was demonstrated that the cells show excellent cycle life. The design is not restricted to 20 Ah rated capacity. Cells of 50 Ah have been built and tested in an electric hybrid vehicle. A specially designed ultra high-power cell of 45 Ah rated capacity for APU cranking in commerical aircraft supplies 50 percent more peak power than vented Ni/Cd sintered plate aircraft cells. The fiber structured sealed FNC-RECOM cell will not require any maintenance.

Haschka, Friedrich; Benczur-Urmossy, Gabor; Anderman, Menahem


The Factor Structure and Screening Utility of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The widely used Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS; R. P. Mattick & J. C. Clarke, 1998) possesses favorable psychometric properties, but questions remain concerning its factor structure and item properties. Analyses included 445 people with social anxiety disorder and 1,689 undergraduates. Simple unifactorial models fit poorly, and models…

Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Woods, Carol M.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Liebowitz, Michael R.; Schneier, Franklin R.



Biochemical and Structural Insights into Xylan Utilization by the Thermophilic Bacterium Caldanaerobius polysaccharolyticus*  

PubMed Central

Hemicellulose is the next most abundant plant cell wall component after cellulose. The abundance of hemicellulose such as xylan suggests that their hydrolysis and conversion to biofuels can improve the economics of bioenergy production. In an effort to understand xylan hydrolysis at high temperatures, we sequenced the genome of the thermophilic bacterium Caldanaerobius polysaccharolyticus. Analysis of the partial genome sequence revealed a gene cluster that contained both hydrolytic enzymes and also enzymes key to the pentose-phosphate pathway. The hydrolytic enzymes in the gene cluster were demonstrated to convert products from a large endoxylanase (Xyn10A) predicted to anchor to the surface of the bacterium. We further use structural and calorimetric studies to demonstrate that the end products of Xyn10A hydrolysis of xylan are recognized and bound by XBP1, a putative solute-binding protein, likely for transport into the cell. The XBP1 protein showed preference for xylo-oligosaccharides as follows: xylotriose > xylobiose > xylotetraose. To elucidate the structural basis for the oligosaccharide preference, we solved the co-crystal structure of XBP1 complexed with xylotriose to a 1.8-? resolution. Analysis of the biochemical data in the context of the co-crystal structure reveals the molecular underpinnings of oligosaccharide length specificity.

Han, Yejun; Agarwal, Vinayak; Dodd, Dylan; Kim, Jason; Bae, Brian; Mackie, Roderick I.; Nair, Satish K.; Cann, Isaac K. O.



Human cytochrome P450 1A1 structure and utility in understanding drug and xenobiotic metabolism.  


Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 is an extrahepatic monooxygenase involved in the metabolism of endogenous substrates and drugs, as well as the activation of certain toxins and environmental pollutants. CYP1A1 is particularly well known for its ability to biotransform polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzo[a]pyrene in tobacco smoke, into carcinogens. CYP1A1 possesses functional similarities and differences with human CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 enzymes, but the structural basis for this has been unclear. We determined a 2.6 ? structure of human CYP1A1 with the inhibitor ?-naphthoflavone. ?-Naphthoflavone binds within an enclosed active site, with the planar benzochromen-4-one core packed flat against the I helix that composes one wall of the active site, and the 2-phenyl substituent oriented toward the catalytic heme iron. Comparisons with previously determined structures of the related cytochrome P450 1A2 and 1B1 enzymes reveal distinct features among the active sites that may underlie the functional variability of these enzymes. Finally, docking studies probed the ability of CYP1A structures to assist in understanding their known in vitro interactions with several typical substrates and inhibitors. PMID:23508959

Walsh, Agnes A; Szklarz, Grazyna D; Scott, Emily E



Pen-based recognition system of Arabic character utilizing structural and fuzzy techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes a hybrid approach for the automatic recognition of handwritten Arabic characters. The algorithm is based on structural techniques and fuzzy logic. Local features such as lines, curves, diacritic points are extracted from the geometry and topology of characters. Fuzzy linguistic variables are used to model the features and provide a suitable mean to vaguely describe the many styles and

Faouzi Bouslama; Adnan Amin



Static shape control of smart structures: A new approach utilizing compliant mechanisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Smart structures are "active" structures capable of sensing stimuli, and responding with active control. Static shape control of a smart structure is a controlled response involving quasi-static change in its configuration from a given state into another desired state. Static shape control of smart structures finds numerous potential applications, especially in the aerospace field, and is accomplished in the current practice by interfacing an "inert" structure with a distribution of a multitude of discrete smart materials based actuators and control capabilities. Such a distributed actuation approach has several advantages. However, the implementation of this technology in many practical applications is currently impeded by certain limitations such as inadequate stroke and response time of the state-of-the-art smart materials based actuators, numerousness of the actuators required, and the associated complexity of the distributed parameter control. Therefore, motivated by the need for improved actuation schemes, a novel approach for static shape control of flexible structures has been developed in this dissertation. The new approach offers practicable solutions for real-scale applications while reducing the number of actuators and control complexity of the system. In this approach, a given beam segment is "deformed" into prescribed shapes by transmitting controlled displacements to "optimal" points on the segment from one or two actuators (not limited to smart materials) located away from the segment through a special class of mechanisms called compliant mechanisms--mechanisms that achieve mobility from the elastic deformations of its links and joints. This research has developed two procedures for systematic syntheses of complaint mechanisms for effectuating desired shape changes in a given segment in two possible modes: one involving pure bending and the other involving bending plus a rigid-body motion. The procedures are based on the first-principles of kinematics and mechanics combined through structural optimization techniques. In these procedures, first the topology of the compliant mechanism is systematically established by generating a frame-work of beam elements between predetermined "optimal" activation points on the given segment and the input actuation point(s); then, the dimensions of the mechanism are optimized by solving inverse problems. The two procedures are illustrated by an example for each case.

Saggere, Laxminarayana


Characterization of subcortical structures during deep brain stimulation utilizing support vector machines.  


In this paper we discuss an efficient methodology for the characterization of Microelectrode Recordings (MER) obtained during deep brain stimulation surgery for Parkinson's disease using Support Vector Machines and present the results of a preliminary study. The methodology is based in two algorithms: (1) an algorithm extracts multiple computational features from the microelectrode neurophysiology, and (2) integrates them in the support vector machines algorithm for classification. It has been applied to the problem of the recognition of subcortical structures: thalamus nucleus, zona incerta, subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra. The SVM (support vector machines) algorithm performed quite well achieving 99.4% correct classification. In conclusion, the use of a computer-based system, like the one described in this paper, is intended to avoid human subjectivity in the localization of the subcortical structures and mainly the subthalamic nucleus (STN) for neurostimulation. PMID:22256184

Guillén, P; Martínez-de-Pisón, F; Sánchez, R; Argáez, M; Velázquez, L



Neonatal illicit drug screening practices in Iowa: the impact of utilization of a structured screening protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:The purpose of the study was to determine the neonatal illicit drug screening practices of Iowa birthing hospitals.Study design:Cross-sectional survey design was implemented. The impact of structured screening protocols on the numbers of neonates screened and positive testing in 2004 was reviewed.Results:Of 81 birthing hospitals, 53 (65%) participated in the study. Screening and positive test rates were higher in hospitals

R Oral; T Strang



Utilizing Emerging Hardware for Multiphysics Simulation Through Implicit High-Order Finite Element Methods With Tensor Product Structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cost of memory, especially memory bandwidth, is becoming increasingly expensive on modern high performance computing architectures including GPUs and multi-core systems. In contrast, floating point operations are relatively inexpensive when they can be vectorized (e.g. thread blocks on a GPU or vector registers on a CPU). This relative cost of memory to flops will continue to become even more pronounced due to fundamental issues of power utilization, therefore it is important to rethink algorithms to effectively utilize hardware. Commonly used methods for implicit solves with finite element methods involve assembly of a sparse matrix. Unfortunately, sparse matrix kernels have an arithmetic intensity (ratio of flops to bytes of memory movement) that is orders of magnitude less than that delivered by modern hardware, causing the floating point units to be massively under-utilized. The ``free flops'' can be effectively utilized by higher order methods which deliver improved accuracy for the same number of degrees of freedom. Effective use of high order methods require eschewing assembled data structures for matrix storage in exchange for unassembled representations. The resulting computation reduces to small dense tensor-product operations and indepedent ``physics'' kernels at each quadrature point, both of which are amenable to vectorization and capable of delivering a high fraction of peak performance. To reduce the effort required to implement new physics (e.g. constitutive relations and additional fields), retain code verifiability, and experiment with different vectorization strategies and solver algorithms, we express the continuum equations in Python and use automatic differentiation, symbolic methods, and code generation techniques to create vectorized kernels for residual evaluation, Jacobian storage, Jacobian application, and adjoints for each block of the system. The performance and effectiveness of these methods is demonstrated for free-surface Stokes flows relevant to glaciology and geodynamics.

Brown, J.; Ahmadia, A.; Knepley, M. G.; Smith, B.



Structural analysis of the central Columbia Plateau utilizing radar, digital topography, and magnetic data bases  

SciTech Connect

Interest in the Hanford site (Washington) as a nuclear production, power, and waste disposal site has led to generation of a vast quantity of geophysical and remote sensing data sets of the central Columbia Plateau. To data, these various studies, including at least 13 independent magnetic linear and image lineament studies, have not been adequately correlated. Therefore, these studies provide a unique opportunity to compare and contrast the viability of the different geophysical and remote sensing techniques. The geology of the central Columbia Plateau is characterized by subdued topography and limited outcrop, with most of the exposure concentrated in localized folded/faulted mountains (the Yakima folds) and along river canyons. In order to efficiently compare lineament data bases, we have written an automated computer routine that correlated lineaments that are within a user specified distance of each other. The angle between their trends has to be less than an input maximum separation angle. If more than two lineament maps exist for the area, the analyst may also specify the minimum number of times each structure must be seen. The lineament correlation routine was applied to data bases of all aeromagnetic linears as well as lineaments seen on radar and a digital elevation model DEM image. Geologic structures align with a set of three-dimensional planar structures identified with our Geologic Spatial Analysis (GSA) system. The GSA analysis is based upon computer automated detection of valley bottoms as defined by a DEM.

Thiessen, R.L.; Eliason, J.R.; Johnson, L.K.; Brougher, C.W. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Geology; Foley, M.G.; Beaver, D.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)



Structured observations of hygiene behaviours in Burkina Faso: validity, variability, and utility.  

PubMed Central

The use of observation techniques has been promoted for the study of hygiene practices; however, questions still remain about the validity and repeatability of such techniques. In this article we compare data on hygiene behaviours obtained from questionnaires with data obtained using a structured observation approach and examine the repeatability of structured observations of behaviours and spot observations of environmental conditions. Poor agreement between questionnaire responses and observations was found for child defecation and stool disposal practices (kappa statistic: 0.25 and 0.28, respectively). There was evidence of over-reporting of "good" behaviours (P < 0.0001). Repeated observations of child defecation and stool disposal behaviours showed better agreement (kappa statistic: 0.76 and 0.62, respectively) based on small sample sizes. These findings suggest that our questionnaire data are less valid than data obtained by direct observation. However, different approaches to questioning may be less prone to over-reporting of "good" behaviours than our approach. Further research into the validity of different forms of question is warranted. Behaviours and conditions related to hygiene vary. Observations may be useful in determining the frequency of different behaviours/conditions in the community. However, individual practices may be too variable to assign individuals to exposed and non-exposed groups for the purpose of identifying links with health outcomes. Further studies on the variability of behaviours and the repeatability of observations are therefore needed.

Curtis, V.; Cousens, S.; Mertens, T.; Traore, E.; Kanki, B.; Diallo, I.



High efficacy plasma display utilizing opposite electrode discharge cell structure with long electrodes gap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, applications of plasma display to the large public display and transparent display gain much attention. With this background, we report characteristics of opposite electrodes discharge cell with long electrode gap in comparison with conventional co-planar surface discharge. The cell size of test panel is 2950 ?m x 840 ?m, which corresponds to that of the display having diagonal size of 130'' with XGA resolution. Electrode gap of co-planar and opposite electrode structure are 240 ?m and 500 ?m respectively. These gap dimensions provide similar driving voltage windows. Experimental results show that opposite discharge provides approximately four fold higher luminous efficacy compared with that of the surface discharge. Resulting efficacy is found to be higher than 20 lm/W in green phosphor with 10 KHz continuous pulse operation. Spatio-temporally resolved, three-dimensional ICCD image using prism side wall reveal that high efficacy is correlated with positive column formation. Simulation study based on the drift diffusion approximation show that improvement on the electron heating efficiency and excitation efficiency related with low electron energy is responsible for high efficacy nature of the proposed cell structure.

Heo, Jun; Park, Se Hun; Kim, Dong Hyun; Lee, Hae-June; Lee, Ho Jun; Kim, Min Tae



Utility of the inverse partial fluorescence for electronic structure studies of battery materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray absorption spectroscopy is one of the most widely used experimental techniques to study the electronic and spatial structure of materials. Fluorescence yield mode is bulk-sensitive, but has several serious problems coming from saturation effects. In this study, we show the usefulness of partial fluorescence yields in addressing these problems. We discuss the different behaviors of La2NiMnO6 and LiMnO2 at the Mn 2p absorption edges. The total fluorescence yield produces misleading spectra for LiMnO2 due to the absence of high-Z (Z: atomic number) elements. We conclude that the measurement of the inverse partial fluorescence yield is essential in studies of LiMnO2, which is a hotly debated Li-ion battery material.

Wadati, H.; Achkar, A. J.; Hawthorn, D. G.; Regier, T. Z.; Singh, M. P.; Truong, K. D.; Fournier, P.; Chen, G.; Mizokawa, T.; Sawatzky, G. A.



Full equations utilities (FEQUTL) model for the approximation of hydraulic characteristics of open channels and control structures during unsteady flow  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Full EQuations UTiLities (FEQUTL) model is a computer program for computation of tables that list the hydraulic characteristics of open channels and control structures as a function of upstream and downstream depths; these tables facilitate the simulation of unsteady flow in a stream system with the Full Equations (FEQ) model. Simulation of unsteady flow requires many iterations for each time period computed. Thus, computation of hydraulic characteristics during the simulations is impractical, and preparation of function tables and application of table look-up procedures facilitates simulation of unsteady flow. Three general types of function tables are computed: one-dimensional tables that relate hydraulic characteristics to upstream flow depth, two-dimensional tables that relate flow through control structures to upstream and downstream flow depth, and three-dimensional tables that relate flow through gated structures to upstream and downstream flow depth and gate setting. For open-channel reaches, six types of one-dimensional function tables contain different combinations of the top width of flow, area, first moment of area with respect to the water surface, conveyance, flux coefficients, and correction coefficients for channel curvilinearity. For hydraulic control structures, one type of one-dimensional function table contains relations between flow and upstream depth, and two types of two-dimensional function tables contain relations among flow and upstream and downstream flow depths. For hydraulic control structures with gates, a three-dimensional function table lists the system of two-dimensional tables that contain the relations among flow and upstream and downstream flow depths that correspond to different gate openings. Hydraulic control structures for which function tables containing flow relations are prepared in FEQUTL include expansions, contractions, bridges, culverts, embankments, weirs, closed conduits (circular, rectangular, and pipe-arch shapes), dam failures, floodways, and underflow gates (sluice and tainter gates). The theory for computation of the hydraulic characteristics is presented for open channels and for each hydraulic control structure. For the hydraulic control structures, the theory is developed from the results of experimental tests of flow through the structure for different upstream and downstream flow depths. These tests were done to describe flow hydraulics for a single, steady-flow design condition and, thus, do not provide complete information on flow transitions (for example, between free- and submerged-weir flow) that may result in simulation of unsteady flow. Therefore, new procedures are developed to approximate the hydraulics of flow transitions for culverts, embankments, weirs, and underflow gates.

Franz, Delbert D.; Melching, Charles S.



Sensor Array Devices Utilizing Nano-structured Metal-oxides for Hazardous Gas Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane and carbon monoxide are two hazardous gases which require continuous monitoring by gas sensors in underground coal mines for explosion prevention and toxicity, respectively. This work explored implementing miniaturized gas sensors in this area to simultaneously detect both gases for benefits of increased portability and reduced power consumption of the chemiresistive gas sensor device. The focus of this research was to understand how the particle size, morphology, and microstructure of the metaloxide film affected the gas sensor performance to the two gases of interest on miniaturized gas sensor devices in the form of microhotplate platforms. This was done through three main research studies. The first was conducted by growing SnO2 nanowires from SnO 2 particles using an Au-catalyst. Growth conditions including temperature, time, and oxygen partial pressure were explored to determine the formation aspects of the SnO2 nanowires. Gas sensor studies were completed that provided evidence that the SnO2 nanowires increased detection to a fixed concentration of carbon monoxide compared to SnO2 particles without nano-structure formation. A second research study was performed to compare the gas sensor performance of SnO2 nanoparticles, hierarchical particles, and micron-size particles. The nanoparticles were developed into an ink and deposited via ink-jet printing on the microhotplate substrates to control the microstructure of the metal-oxide film. By preventing agglomeration of the nanoparticle film, the SnO2 nanoparticles displayed similar gas sensor performance to methane and carbon monoxide as the hierarchical particles. Both nano-structures had much higher gas sensor response than the micron-size particles which confirms the surface area of the metal-oxide film is critical for reaction of the analyte gas at the surface. The last research study presented in the dissertation describes an oxide nanoparticle array developed for detecting methane and carbon monoxide in the presence of one another. A design of experiments was constructed and principal component analysis was used for determining the optimum temperatures of the metal-oxide elements. A four element array was developed with the SnO 2 and TiO2 sensor elements able to detect methane concentrations of interest and the ZnO and NiO sensor elements able to detect the carbon monoxide concentrations. A linear based prediction model was developed and tested for accuracy and reproducibility of the model to a series of random gas concentrations.

Andio, Mark A.


Utilization of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) in risk assessment: Alkylphenols  

SciTech Connect

Alkylphenols are a class of environmentally pervasive compounds, found both in natural (e.g., crude oils) and in anthropogenic (e.g., wood tar, coal gasification waste) materials. Despite the frequent environmental occurrence of these chemicals, there is a limited toxicity database on alkylphenols. The authors have therefore developed a 'toxicity equivalence approach' for alkylphenols which is based on their ability to inhibit, in a specific manner, the enzyme cyclooxygenase. Enzyme-inhibiting ability for individual alkylphenols can be estimated based on the quantitative structure-activity relationship developed by Dewhirst (1980) and is a function of the free hydroxyl group, electron-donating ring substituents, and hydrophobic aromatic ring substituents. The authors evaluated the toxicological significance of cyclooxygenase inhibition by comparison of the inhibitory capacity of alkylphenols with the inhibitory capacity of acetylsalicylic acid, or aspirin, a compound whose low-level effects are due to cyclooxygenase inhibition. Since nearly complete absorption for alkylphenols and aspirin is predicted, based on estimates of hydrophobicity and fraction of charged molecules at gastrointestinal pHs, risks from alkylphenols can be expressed directly in terms of 'milligram aspirin equivalence,' without correction for absorption differences. They recommend this method for assessing risks of mixtures of alkylphenols, especially for those compounds with no chronic toxicity data.38 references.

Beck, B.D.; Toole, A.P.; Callahan, B.G.; Siddhanti, S.K. (Gradient Corporation, Cambridge, MA (United States))



The structure of myostatin:follistatin 288: insights into receptor utilization and heparin binding  

PubMed Central

Myostatin is a member of the transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) family and a strong negative regulator of muscle growth. Here, we present the crystal structure of myostatin in complex with the antagonist follistatin 288 (Fst288). We find that the prehelix region of myostatin very closely resembles that of TGF-? class members and that this region alone can be swapped into activin A to confer signalling through the non-canonical type I receptor Alk5. Furthermore, the N-terminal domain of Fst288 undergoes conformational rearrangements to bind myostatin and likely acts as a site of specificity for the antagonist. In addition, a unique continuous electropositive surface is created when myostatin binds Fst288, which significantly increases the affinity for heparin. This translates into stronger interactions with the cell surface and enhanced myostatin degradation in the presence of either Fst288 or Fst315. Overall, we have identified several characteristics unique to myostatin that will be paramount to the rational design of myostatin inhibitors that could be used in the treatment of muscle-wasting disorders.

Cash, Jennifer N; Rejon, Carlis A; McPherron, Alexandra C; Bernard, Daniel J; Thompson, Thomas B



Unravelling structural information from complex mixtures utilizing correlation spectroscopy applied to HSQC spectra.  


The first use of statistical correlation spectroscopy to extract chemical information from 2D-HSQC spectra, termed HSQC correlation spectroscopy (HSQCcos), is reported. HSQCcos is illustrated using heparin, a heterogeneous polysaccharide, whose diverse composition causes signals in HSQC spectra to disperse. HSQCcos has been used to probe the chain modifications that cause this effect and reveals hitherto unreported structural details. An interesting finding was that the signal for position 2 of trisulfated glucosamine [N-, 3-O-, and 6-O-sulfated] (A*) is bifurcated, owing to the presence of A* residues in both the "normal" antithrombin binding site and also at the nonreducing end of the molecule, which is reported in intact heparin for the first time. The method was also applied to investigating the environment around other rare sequences/disaccharides, suggesting that the disaccharide; 2-O-sulfated iduronic acid linked to 6-O-sulfated N-glucosamine, which contains a free amine at position 2, is adjacent to the heparin linkage region. HSQCcos can extract chemically related signals from information-rich spectra obtained from complex mixtures such as heparin. PMID:23841570

Rudd, Timothy R; Macchi, Eleonora; Muzi, Laura; Ferro, Monica; Gaudesi, Davide; Torri, Giangiacomo; Casu, Benito; Guerrini, Marco; Yates, Edwin A



The structure of myostatin:follistatin 288: insights into receptor utilization and heparin binding  

SciTech Connect

Myostatin is a member of the transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}) family and a strong negative regulator of muscle growth. Here, we present the crystal structure of myostatin in complex with the antagonist follistatin 288 (Fst288). We find that the prehelix region of myostatin very closely resembles that of TGF-{beta} class members and that this region alone can be swapped into activin A to confer signalling through the non-canonical type I receptor Alk5. Furthermore, the N-terminal domain of Fst288 undergoes conformational rearrangements to bind myostatin and likely acts as a site of specificity for the antagonist. In addition, a unique continuous electropositive surface is created when myostatin binds Fst288, which significantly increases the affinity for heparin. This translates into stronger interactions with the cell surface and enhanced myostatin degradation in the presence of either Fst288 or Fst315. Overall, we have identified several characteristics unique to myostatin that will be paramount to the rational design of myostatin inhibitors that could be used in the treatment of muscle-wasting disorders.

Cash, Jennifer N.; Rejon, Carlis A.; McPherron, Alexandra C.; Bernard, Daniel J.; Thompson, Thomas B.; (UCIN); (McGill); (NIH)



Development of Antiwear Shim Inserts Utilizing Segment-Structured DLC Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wear and fretting fatigue are important technological problems in automotive, railway and aerospace fields. The purpose of this study is to find a method of reducing the wear of cast-iron (FCD)/aluminum components, which are often applied to automotives, and thus extend their lifetime. First, a stainless-steel (SUS) shim was designed, which can be inserted between an FCD plate and an aluminum plate. Second, diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings were applied to the shim inserts to prevent the FCD and aluminum plates from wear. Then, the tribological and fatigue characteristics of the shim were evaluated by a ball-on-disk (BoD) test and a bending fatigue test of up to 1×106 cycles. Each substrate was coated with DLC by Plasma-Based Ion Implantation and Deposition (PBII&D). A unique feature of our shim is that a segment-structured DLC film (S-DLC) is employed as well as a continuous DLC (C-DLC) film. The effect of the DLC coating on reducing the damage to the Al plate was apparent, because the surface roughness of the Al plate abraded with the DLC-coated shim was significantly smaller than that abraded directly with the FCD plate. Moreover, the average damage fraction to the C-DLC coating is approximately 20-fold larger than that to the S-DLC coating. The C-DLC film suffers severe damage near the bolt hole, whereas the S-DLC film suffered almost no damage even after 1×106 bending cycles. In conclusion, an S-DLC-coated SUS shim has a marked effect on reducing the wear of Al/FCD components and improving their lifetime.

Takashima, Mai; Kuroda, Tsuyoshi; Saito, Masanori; Ohtake, Naoto; Matsuo, Makoto; Iwamoto, Yoshinao


Utilizing micro-computed tomography to evaluate bone structure surrounding dental implants: A comparison with histomorphometry.  


Although histology has proven to be a reliable method to evaluate the ossoeintegration of a dental implant, it is costly, time consuming, destructive, and limited to one or few sections. Microcomputed tomography (µCT) is fast and delivers three-dimensional information, but this technique has not been widely used and validated for histomorphometric parameters yet. This study compared µCT and histomorphometry by means of evaluating their accuracy in determining the bone response to two different implant materials. In total, 32 titanium (Ti) and 16 hydroxyapatite (HA) implants were installed in 16 lop-eared rabbits. After 2 and 4 weeks, the animals were scarified, and the samples retrieved. After embedding, the samples were scanned with µCT and analyzed three-dimensionally for bone area (BA) and bone-implant contact (BIC). Thereafter, all samples were sectioned and stained for histomorphometry. For the Ti implants, the mean BIC was 25.25 and 28.86% after 2 and 4 weeks, respectively, when measured by histomorphometry, while it was 24.11 and 24.53% when measured with µCT. BA was 35.4 and 31.97% after 2 and 4 weeks for histomorphometry and 29.06 and 27.65% for µCT. For the HA implants, the mean BIC was 28.49 and 42.51% after 2 and 4 weeks, respectively, when measured by histomorphometry, while it was 33.74 and 42.19% when measured with µCT. BA was 30.59 and 47.17% after 2 and 4 weeks for histomorphometry and 37.16 and 44.95% for µCT. Direct comparison showed that only the 2 weeks BA for the titanium implants was significantly different between µCT and histology (p = 0.008). Although the technique has its limitations, µCT corresponded well with histomorphometry and should be considered as a tool to evaluate bone structure around implants. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater 101B: 1259-1266, 2013. PMID:23661363

Vandeweghe, Stefan; Coelho, Paulo G; Vanhove, Christian; Wennerberg, Ann; Jimbo, Ryo



Biomass utilization  

SciTech Connect

Forty papers are presented in 6 sections: Biomass utilization - the concept; The raw material and its preparation; The structure and chemical composition of biomass; Conversion methods - biological; Conversion methods - thermochemical; and Engineering and economics in biomass utilization. Ten papers are of particular forestry interest: Forest inventories as the basis for a continuous monitoring of forest biomass resources (Cunia, T.); Aerial photo biomass equation (Kasile, J.); Forest biomass utilization in Greece (Tsoumis, C.); Mass propagation of selected trees for biomass by tissue culture (Venketeswaran, S. et al.); The anatomy, ultrastructure and chemical composition of wood (Coete, W.A.); Some structural characteristics of acid hydrolysis lignins (Papadopoulos, J.); Thermochemical routes to chemicals, fuels and energy from forestry and agricultural residues (Soltes, E.J.); Pyrolysis of wood wastes (Figueiredo, J.L. et al.); Efficient utilization of woody biomass: a cellulose-particleboard-synfuels model (Young, R.A.; Achmadi, S.); and Methanol from wood, a state of the art review (Beenackers, A.A.C.M.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van).

Coute, W.A. (ed.)



Nucleotide sequences and operon structure of plasmid-borne genes mediating uptake and utilization of raffinose in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

The plasmid-borne raf operon encodes functions required for inducible uptake and utilization of raffinose by Escherichia coli. Raf functions include active transport (Raf permease), alpha-galactosidase, and sucrose hydrolase, which are negatively controlled by the Raf repressor. We have defined the order and extent of the three structural genes, rafA, rafB, and rafD; these are contained in a 5,284-base-pair nucleotide sequence. By comparisons of derived primary structures with known subunit molecular weights and an N-terminal peptide sequence, rafA was assigned to alpha-galactosidase (708 amino acids), rafB was assigned to Raf permease (425 amino acids), and rafD was assigned to sucrose hydrolase (476 amino acids). Transcription was shown to initiate 13 nucleotides upstream of rafA; a putative promoter, a ribosome-binding site, and a transcription termination signal were identified. Striking similarities between Raf permease and lacY-encoded lactose permease, revealed by high sequence conservation (76%), overlapping substrate specificities, and similar transport kinetics, suggest a common origin of these transport systems. alpha-Galactosidase and sucrose hydrolase are not related to host enzymes but have their counterparts in other species. We propose a modular origin of the raf operon and discuss selective forces that favored the given gene organization also found in the E. coli lac operon. Images

Aslanidis, C; Schmid, K; Schmitt, R



Evaluation and Reduction of Machine Difference in Press Working with Utilization of Dedicated Die Support Structure and Numerical Methodologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, support structures of a die for press working are discussed to solve the machine difference problems amongst presses. The developed multi-point die support structures are not only utilized for adjusting elastic deformation of a die, but also for in-process sensing of the behavior of a die. The structures have multiple support cells between a die and the slide of a press machine. The cell, known as `a support unit,' has the strain gauges attached on its side, and works in both ways as a kind of spring and a load and displacement sensor. The cell contacts on the die with a ball-contact, therefore it transmits only the vertical force at each support point. The isolation of a momentum and horizontal load at each support point contributes for a simple numerical model; it helps us to know the practical boundary condition at the points under an actual production. In addition, the momentum and horizontal forces at the points are useless for press working; the isolation of these forces contributes to reduce a jolt and related machine differences. The horizontal distribution of support units is changed to reduce elastic deformation of a die; it contributes to reduce a jolt, alignment errors of a die and geometrical errors of a product. The validity of those adjustments are confirmed with evaluating a product shape of a deep drawing and measuring jolts between upper and lower stamping dies. Furthermore, die deformation in a process is analyzed with using elastic FE analysis with actual bearing loads compiled from each support unit.

Ohashi, Takahiro



Influencing Self-Reported Health among Rural Low-Income Women through Health Care and Social Service Utilization: A Structural Equation Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using structural equation modeling, this study examined the mesosystemic processes among rural low-income women, and how these processes subsequently influenced self-reported health. Acknowledging the behavioral processes inherent in utilization of health care and formal social support services, this study moved beyond a behavioral focus by…

Bice-Wigington, Tiffany; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine



Electric utility rates: the new rules of the game are being decided in Colorado. [Controversy of residential pricing structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid growth in the solar building industry has foundations in rapidly escalating fuel prices and uncertainity as to the availability of many conventional energy forms. These same changes in energy prices and availability have shaken the electric utilities industry. The Metropolitan Denver Home Builders Association (MDHBA) has filed a complaint with the Colorado Public Utilities Commission (PUC) against the



White organic light-emitting diodes based on tandem structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

White organic light-emitting diodes made of two electroluminescent (EL) units connected by a charge generation layer were fabricated. Thus, with a tandem structure of indium tin oxide/N,N'-di(naphthalene-1-yl)-N,N'-diphenyl-benzidine (NPB)/9,10-bis-(?-naphthyl)-anthrene (ADN)/2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BCP)/tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3)/BCP:Li/V2O5/NPB/Alq3:4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyle-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl)4H-pyran (DCJTB)/Alq3/LiF/Al, a stable white light with Commission Internationale De L'Eclairage chromaticity coordinates from (0.35, 0.32) at 18 V to (0.36, 0.36) at 50 V was generated. It was clearly seen that the EL spectra consist of red band at 600 nm due to DCJTB, green band at 505 nm due to Alq3, and blue band at 435 nm due to ADN, and the current efficiency and brightness equal basically to the sum of the two EL units. As a result, the tandem devices showed white light emission with a maximum brightness of 10 200 cd/m2 at a bias of 40 V and a maximum current efficiency of 10.7 cd/A at a current density of 3.5 mA/cm2.

Guo, Fawen; Ma, Dongge



Large-scale assessment of the utility of low-resolution protein structures for biochemical function assignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation: Several protein function prediction methods employ structural features captured in three-dimensional (3D) descriptors of biologically relevant sites. These methods are successful when applied to high-resolution structures, but their detection ability in lower resolution predicted structures has only been tested for a few cases. Results: A method that automatically generates a library of 3D functional descriptors for the structure-based prediction

Adrian Arakaki; Yang Zhang; Jeffrey Skolnick



Development of new cathepsin B inhibitors: combining bioisosteric replacements and structure-based design to explore the structure-activity relationships of nitroxoline derivatives.  


Human cathepsin B has many house-keeping functions, such as protein turnover in lysosomes. However, dysregulation of its activity is associated with numerous diseases, including cancers. We present here the structure-based design and synthesis of new cathepsin B inhibitors using the cocrystal structure of 5-nitro-8-hydroxyquinoline in the cathepsin B active site. A focused library of over 50 compounds was prepared by modifying positions 5, 7, and 8 of the parent compound nitroxoline. The kinetic parameters and modes of inhibition were characterized, and the selectivities of the most promising inhibitors were determined. The best performing inhibitor 17 was effective in cell-based in vitro models of tumor invasion, where it significantly abrogated invasion of MCF-10A neoT cells. These data show that we have successfully explored the structure-activity relationships of nitroxoline derivatives to provide new inhibitors that could eventually lead to compounds with clinical usefulness against the deleterious effects of cathepsin B in cancer progression. PMID:23252745

Sosi?, Izidor; Mirkovi?, Bojana; Arenz, Katharina; Stefane, Bogdan; Kos, Janko; Gobec, Stanislav



Utility of DNA taxonomy and barcoding for the inference of larval community structure in morphologically cryptic Chironomus (Diptera) species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiversity studies require species level analyses for the accurate assessment of community structures. However, while specialized taxonomic knowledge is only rarely available for routine identifications, DNA taxonomy and DNA barcoding could provide the taxonomic basis for ecological inferences. In this study, we assessed the community structure of sediment dwelling, morphologically cryptic Chironomus larvae in the Rhine-valley plain\\/ Germany, comparing larval



Super-high density Si quantum dot thin film utilizing a gradient Si-rich oxide multilayer structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A gradient Si-rich oxide multilayer (GSRO-ML) deposition structure is proposed to achieve super-high density Si quantum dot (QD) thin film formation while preserving QD size controllability for better photovoltaic properties. Our results indicate that the Si QD thin film using a GSRO-ML structure can efficiently increase the QD density and control the QD size. Its optical properties clearly promise the capability of effective bandgap engineering even though these QDs are closely formed. The Si QD thin film using a GSRO-ML structure obviously reveals better electro-optical properties than those using a [silicon dioxide/silicon-rich oxide] multilayer ([SiO2/SRO]-ML) structure owing to the better optical absorption and carrier transport properties. Therefore, we successfully demonstrate that our proposed GSRO-ML structure has great potential for application in solar cells integrating Si QD thin films.

Kuo, Kuang-Yang; Huang, Pin-Ruei; Lee, Po-Tsung



Molecular modeling of metal hydrides: 2. Calculation of lattice defect structures and energies utilizing the Embedded Atom Method  

SciTech Connect

Lattice defect structures and energies for palladium, nickel and aluminum computed include: single vacancy, self-interstitial, intrinsic stacking fault, coherent twin boundary and (100), (110), and (111) free surfaces. The importance of considering lattice defects in obtaining an accurate Embedded Atom Method (EAM) description of real materials, and the application of the EAM to the computation of lattice defect structures for palladium, nickel and aluminium is discussed. The EAM functions developed in this study reproduce defect properties well and are suitable for future investigations of metal hydrides involving defect related structures. 24 refs., 6 tabs.

Wolf, R.J.; Mansour, K.A.



Improved optical transmission and current matching of a triple-junction solar cell utilizing sub-wavelength structures.  


Sub-wavelength antireflective structures are fabricated on a silicon nitride passivation layer of a Ga?.?In?.?P/GaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cell using polystyrene nanosphere lithography followed by anisotropic etching. The fabricated structures enhance optical transmission in the ultraviolet wavelength range, compared to a conventional single-layer antireflective coating (ARC). The transmission improvement contributes to an enhanced photocurrent, which is also verified by the external quantum efficiency characterization of the fabricated solar cells. Under one-sun illumination, the short-circuit current of a cell with sub-wavelength structures is enhanced by 46.1% and 3.4% due to much improved optical transmission and current matching, compared to cells without an ARC and with a conventional SiN(x) ARC, respectively. Further optimizations of the sub-wavelength structures including the periodicity and etching depth are conducted by performing comprehensive calculations based on a rigorous couple-wave analysis method. PMID:21165062

Chiu, M-Y; Chang, C-H; Tsai, M-A; Chang, F-Y; Yu, Peichen



Structural and regulatory mutations allowing utilization of citrulline or carbamoylaspartate as a source of carbamoylphosphate in Escherichia coli K-12.  

PubMed Central

Escherichia coli mutants lacking carbamoylphosphate synthase require arginine and uracil for growth. It is, however, possible to obtain mutants in which carbamoylphosphate is obtained by phosphorolysis of citrulline or carbamyolaspartate. Citrulline utilizers are argG bradytrophs or strains in which the synthesis of ornithine carbamoyltransferase (either of the F or I type) is specifically depressed by unstable chromosomal rearrangements or stable mutations that presumably affect the operators of those genes. Carbamoylaspartate utilization as a source of carbamoylphosphate appears to require more than one mutation; the best-understood strains are pyrD pyrH or pyrC pyrH mutants in which aspartate carbamoyltransferase activity is high and the pool of cytidine triphosphate (feedback inhibitor of aspartate carbamoyl-transferase) is presumably low and in which channeling of carbamoylaspartate towards pyrimidine biosynthesis is considerably reduced. Selection of enzyme overproducers based on a metabolic dependency for a reversed enzymatic reaction can be regarded as a means for isolating regulatory mutants.

Legrain, C; Stalon, V; Glansdorff, N; Gigot, D; Pieard, A; Crabeel, M



Chemical structure of Al/LiF/Alq interfaces in organic light-emitting diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Al/LiF cathode/organic is known to form an excellent interface for electron injection into the organic active layer, resulting in excellent performing organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Here, the chemical structure of the interface between the Al/LiF bilayer cathode and tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq) of working OLED devices was investigated by using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Using a in situ peel-off technique, we are able to characterize the buried interface structure without disturbing the chemical states of each element probed. The data show that there are two types of F at the interface; one is attributed to LiF and the other to F attached to the Alq. This F-doped Alq layer could induce a downshift in molecular orbital levels and thus leads to a reduced electron injection barrier. XPS depth profile results show significant O diffusion through Al layer to the interface, and the diffusion of O ends abruptly at the Al/LiF interface.

Grozea, D.; Turak, A.; Feng, X. D.; Lu, Z. H.; Johnson, D.; Wood, R.



A novel Lu3+ fluorescent nano-chemosensor using new functionalized mesoporous structures.  


A new Lu(3+) sensitive fluorescent chemosensor is designed using 8-hydroxyquinoline functionalized mesoporous silica with highly ordered structure (LUS-SPS-Q). The characterization of LUS-SPS-Q showed that the organized structure has been preserved after the post grafting procedure. The synthesized material showed a selective interaction with Lu(3+) ion, most probably due to the presence of the fluorophore moiety at its surface. The emission intensity of the Lu(3+)-bound mesoporous material increases with an increase in concentrations of Lu(3+) ion. Addition of other mono-, di-, trivalent ions resulted in insignificant change in the fluorescent intensity. The enhancement of fluorescence is attributed to the strong covalent binding of Lu(3+) ion. The linear response range of Lu(3+) chemo-sensor was from 1.6×10(-7) to 1.0×10(-5) mol L(-1). The Limit of detection obtained was 8.2×10(-8) mol L(-1) and the pH range which the proposed chemo-sensor can be applied was 3.3-8.3. PMID:23522117

Hosseini, Morteza; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Rafiei-Sarmazdeh, Zahra; Faridbod, Farnoush; Goldooz, Hassan; Badiei, Alireza; Nourozi, Parviz; Ziarani, Ghodsi Mohammadi



Coal utilization  

SciTech Connect

This paper overviews coal utilization in the U.S. Electric utilities are by far the largest consumers of coal produced in the United States. In 1988, US utilities purchased about 690 Mt (760 million st). This represented 78% of total domestic coal production. Many coalfields are mined solely for the utility market. Many western coalfields are owned by utilities, generally through subsidiaries or joint ventures. Coal-fired generation is the backbone of the utility industry. It accounted for more than 1.5 billion (57%) of the 2.7 billion kW-hr generated in 1988. The tie between coal producers and consumers is underscored by the fuel bill. Utilities spent $23 billion for coal in 1988. That represented 80% of the operations and maintenance cost of coal-fired generation.

O'Conner, D. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (USA)); Harrison, C.D. (CQ Inc. (US))



Utility of DNA taxonomy and barcoding for the inference of larval community structure in morphologically cryptic Chironomus (Diptera) species.  


Biodiversity studies require species level analyses for the accurate assessment of community structures. However, while specialized taxonomic knowledge is only rarely available for routine identifications, DNA taxonomy and DNA barcoding could provide the taxonomic basis for ecological inferences. In this study, we assessed the community structure of sediment dwelling, morphologically cryptic Chironomus larvae in the Rhine-valley plain/Germany, comparing larval type classification, cytotaxonomy, DNA taxonomy and barcoding. While larval type classification performed poorly, cytotaxonomy and DNA-based methods yielded comparable results: detrended correspondence analysis and permutation analyses indicated that the assemblages are not randomly but competitively structured. However, DNA taxonomy identified an additional species that could not be resolved by the traditional method. We argue that DNA-based identification methods such as DNA barcoding can be a valuable tool to increase accuracy, objectivity and comparability of the taxonomic assessment in biodiversity and community ecology studies. PMID:17444904

Pfenninger, Markus; Nowak, Carsten; Kley, Christoph; Steinke, Dirk; Streit, Bruno



Experimental investigation on structural repair and strengthening of damaged prestressed concrete slabs utilizing externally bonded carbon laminates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a feasibility study to investigate the flexural behavior of structurally damaged full-scale pretensioned concrete slabs retrofitted with bonded carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminates. The effect of CFRP laminates bonded to the soffit of precracked solid and voided slabs is investigated in terms of flexural strength, deflections, cracking behavior and failure modes. The results,

M. Arockiasamy; R. Sowrirajan



Utilizing Nano-focussed Bremstrahlung Isochromat Spectroscopy (nBIS) to Determine the Unoccupied Electronic Structure of Pu  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the behavior of 5f electrons remains an unrealized ambition of condensed matter physics [1,2]. Recently, there has been a large amount of interest in the actinides, particularly plutonium, driven by the complex and intriguing behavior of Pu and several of its compounds [3-5]. This has prompted both theoretical and experimental investigations of 5f metals and compounds. Of the different allotropes of Pu, the d-phase is of particular interest because of the high symmetry crystal structure and the stability of the phase to low temperatures when alloyed with small amounts of trivalent elements. Consequently much of the recent experimental and theoretical work has focused on this allotrope. From an experimental point of view, the reactivity and radioactivity of Pu, and the complexity of the phase diagram, make it exceedingly complicated to collect high-quality data. Investigations of these complex behaviors all point back to being caused by the intriguing interplay of the various electron states and in particular the behavior of the 5f states. While there are a number of ongoing experimental efforts directed at determining the occupied electronic structure of Pu, there is essentially no experimental data on the unoccupied electronic structure of Pu. We aim to determine the conduction band (unoccupied) electronic structure of Pu and other actinides in a phase specific fashion and emphasizing bulk contributions by using Nano-focussed Bremstrahlung Isochromat Spectroscopy (nBIS). Bremstrahlung Isochromat Spectroscopy (BIS) is the high-energy variant of inverse photoelectron spectroscopy (IPES: electron in, photon out), which is essentially the time reversal of photoelectron spectroscopy (photon in, electron out). IPES can be used to follow the dispersion of electronic states in ordered samples. Owing to its low energies, IPES is usually very surface sensitive. However, by working at higher energies (>200 eV), we will sample preferentially for bulk properties, downgrading the impact of surface effects. Thus, from BIS, we would have a direct measure of the conduction band or unoccupied electronic structure of the bulk Pu.

Butterfield, M T; Tobin, J G; Teslich, N E; Bliss, R A; Wall, M A; McMahan, A K; Chung, B W; Schwartz, A J; Kutepov, A L



The utility of geometrical and chemical restraint information extracted from predicted ligand binding sites in protein structure refinement  

PubMed Central

Exhaustive exploration of molecular interactions at the level of complete proteomes requires efficient and reliable computational approaches to protein function inference. Ligand docking and ranking techniques show considerable promise in their ability to quantify the interactions between proteins and small molecules. Despite the advances in the development of docking approaches and scoring functions, the genome-wide application of many ligand docking/screening algorithms is limited by the quality of the binding sites in theoretical receptor models constructed by protein structure prediction. In this study, we describe a new template-based method for the local refinement of ligand-binding regions in protein models using remotely related templates identified by threading. We designed a Support Vector Regression (SVR) model that selects correct binding site geometries in a large ensemble of multiple receptor conformations. The SVR model employs several scoring functions that impose geometrical restraints on the C? positions, account for the specific chemical environment within a binding site and optimize the interactions with putative ligands. The SVR score is well correlated with the RMSD from the native structure; in 47% (70%) of the cases, the Pearson’s correlation coefficient is >0.5 (>0.3). When applied to weakly homologous models, the average heavy atom, local RMSD from the native structure of the top-ranked (best of top five) binding site geometries is 3.1 Ĺ (2.9 Ĺ) for roughly half of the targets; this represents a 0.1 (0.3) Ĺ average improvement over the original predicted structure. Focusing on the subset of strongly conserved residues, the average heavy atom RMSD is 2.6 Ĺ (2.3 Ĺ). Furthermore, we estimate the upper bound of template-based binding site refinement using only weakly related proteins to be ~2.6 Ĺ RMSD. This value also corresponds to the plasticity of the ligand-binding regions in distant homologues. The Binding Site Refinement (BSR) approach is available to the scientific community as a web server that can be accessed at

Brylinski, Michal; Lee, Seung Yup; Zhou, Hongyi



Control of sound and vibration for cylindrical shells by utilizing a periodic structure of functionally graded material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A periodic shell made of functionally graded material (FGM) is proposed in this Letter. Wave propagation and vibration transmission in the FGM periodic shell for different circumferential modes are investigated. By illustrating the dynamical behavior of the periodic FGM shell within the pass/stop band frequency ranges, the mechanism of wave propagation and vibration transmission in the shell are illuminated. Moreover, the suppression characteristics of structure-borne sound in the internal field of the shell, either within the stop or pass band frequency ranges, are studied.

Shen, Huijie; Wen, Jihong; Paďdoussis, Michael P.; Yu, Dianlong; Asgari, Meisam; Wen, Xisen



Structural and functional characterization of the LldR from Corynebacterium glutamicum: a transcriptional repressor involved in l-lactate and sugar utilization  

PubMed Central

LldR (CGL2915) from Corynebacterium glutamicum is a transcription factor belonging to the GntR family, which is typically involved in the regulation of oxidized substrates associated with amino acid metabolism. In the present study, the crystal structure of LldR was determined at 2.05-Ĺ resolution. The structure consists of N- and C-domains similar to those of FadR, but with distinct domain orientations. LldR and FadR dimers achieve similar structures by domain swapping, which was first observed in dimeric assembly of transcription factors. A structural feature of Zn2+ binding in the regulatory domain was also observed, as a difference from the FadR subfamily. DNA microarray and DNase I footprint analyses suggested that LldR acts as a repressor regulating cgl2917-lldD and cgl1934-fruK-ptsF operons, which are indispensable for l-lactate and fructose/sucrose utilization, respectively. Furthermore, the stoichiometries and affinities of LldR and DNAs were determined by isothermal titration calorimetry measurements. The transcriptional start site and repression of LldR on the cgl2917-lldD operon were analysed by primer extension assay. Mutation experiments showed that residues Lys4, Arg32, Arg42 and Gly63 are crucial for DNA binding. The location of the putative ligand binding cavity and the regulatory mechanism of LldR on its affinity for DNA were proposed.

Gao, Yong-Gui; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Itou, Hiroshi; Zhou, Yong; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Wachi, Masaaki; Watanabe, Nobuhisa; Tanaka, Isao; Yao, Min



Structure-guided alteration of coenzyme specificity of formate dehydrogenase by saturation mutagenesis to enable efficient utilization of NADP+.  


Formate dehydrogenase from Candida boidinii (CboFDH) catalyses the oxidation of formate anion to carbon dioxide with concomitant reduction of NAD(+) to NADH. CboFDH is highly specific to NAD(+) and virtually fails to catalyze the reaction with NADP(+). Based on structural information for CboFDH, the loop region between beta-sheet 7 and alpha-helix 10 in the dinucleotide-binding fold was predicted as a principal determinant of coenzyme specificity. Sequence alignment with other formate dehydrogenases revealed two residues (Asp195 and Tyr196) that could account for the observed coenzyme specificity. Positions 195 and 196 were subjected to two rounds of site-saturation mutagenesis and screening and enabled the identification of a double mutant Asp195Gln/Tyr196His, which showed a more than 2 x 10(7)-fold improvement in overall catalytic efficiency with NADP(+) and a more than 900-fold decrease in the efficiency with NAD(+) as cofactors. The results demonstrate that the combined polar interactions and steric factors comprise the main structural determinants responsible for coenzyme specificity. The double mutant Asp195Gln/Tyr196His was tested for practical applicability in a cofactor recycling system composed of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase from Bacillus subtilis, (CYP102A2), NADP(+), formic acid and omega-(p-nitrophenyl)dodecanoic acid (12-pNCA). Using a 1250-fold excess of 12-pNCA over NADP(+) the first order rate constant was determined to be equal to k(obs) = 0.059 +/- 0.004 min(-1). PMID:18616465

Andreadeli, Aggeliki; Platis, Dimitris; Tishkov, Vladimir; Popov, Vladimir; Labrou, Nikolaos E



Structured kinetic model to represent the utilization of multiple substrates in complex media during rifamycin B fermentation.  


Industrial fermentations typically use media that are balanced with multiple substitutable substrates including complex carbon and nitrogen source. Yet, much of the modeling effort to date has mainly focused on defined media. Here, we present a structured model that accounts for growth and product formation kinetics of rifamycin B fermentation in a multi-substrate complex medium. The phenomenological model considers the organism to be an optimal strategist with an in-built mechanism that regulates the sequential and simultaneous uptake of the substrate combinations. This regulatory process is modeled by assuming that the uptake of a substrate depends on the level of a key enzyme or a set of enzymes, which may be inducible. Further, the fraction of flux through a given metabolic branch is estimated using a simple multi-variable constrained optimization. The model has the typical form of Monod equation with terms incorporating multiple limiting substrates and substrate inhibition. Several batch runs were set up with varying initial substrate concentrations to estimate the kinetic parameters for the rifamycin overproducer strain Amycolatopsis mediterranei S699. Glucose and ammonium sulfate (AMS) demonstrated significant substrate inhibition toward growth as well as product formation. The model correctly predicts the experimentally observed regulated simultaneous uptake of the substitutable substrate combinations under different fermentation conditions. The modeling results may have applications in the optimization and control of rifamycin B fermentation while the modeling strategy presented here would be applicable to other industrially important fermentations. PMID:16302259

Bapat, Prashant M; Bhartiya, Sharad; Venkatesh, K V; Wangikar, Pramod P



Interferometer-based structured-illumination microscopy utilizing complementary phase relationship through constructive and destructive image detection by two cameras.  


In an interferometer-based fluorescence microscope, a beam splitter is often used to combine two emission wavefronts interferometrically. There are two perpendicular paths along which the interference fringes can propagate and normally only one is used for imaging. However, the other path also contains useful information. Here we introduced a second camera to our interferometer-based three-dimensional structured-illumination microscope (I(5)S) to capture the fringes along the normally unused path, which are out of phase by ? relative to the fringes along the other path. Based on this complementary phase relationship and the well-defined phase interrelationships among the I(5)S data components, we can deduce and then computationally eliminate the path length errors within the interferometer loop using the simultaneously recorded fringes along the two imaging paths. This self-correction capability can greatly relax the requirement for eliminating the path length differences before and maintaining that status during each imaging session, which are practically challenging tasks. Experimental data is shown to support the theory. PMID:22472010

Shao, L; Winoto, L; Agard, D A; Gustafsson, M G L; Sedat, J W



Modifications of local cerebral glucose utilization in thalamic structures following injection of a dopaminergic agonist in the nucleus accumbens--involvement in antiepileptic effects?  


Dopaminergic transmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) is implicated in different aspects of reward and motivational mechanisms. More recently, it has been suggested that this nucleus could also be involved in the modulation of generalized epileptic seizures. In particular, microinjection of dopaminergic agonists in the NAcc suppresses the occurrence of epileptic seizures in a model of absence seizures, the GAERS (generalized absence epileptic rats from Strasbourg). The aim of this study was to identify the structures involved in this effect. Local cerebral metabolic rates for glucose utilization (LCMRglc) were measured in different parts of the basal ganglia and output structures after apomorphine injection in the NAcc in GAERS and in the inbred non-epileptic rats (NE), concomitantly with seizure suppression. Apomorphine injection in the NAcc induced a significant increase of glucose intake in the anteromedial, mediodorsal and ventrolateral nuclei of the thalamus in NE rats, while no significant changes were observed in the basal ganglia structures (globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra). Furthermore, microinjections of muscimol (100 and 200 pmol/side) in the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus in GAERS rats suppressed seizures. These results suggest that the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus could be involved in absence seizures modulation. Along with data from the literature, our data suggest that this nucleus could participate in the control of the basal ganglia over generalized epileptic seizures. PMID:15246844

Riban, V; Pereira de Vasconcelos, A; Phâm-Lę, B T; Ferrandon, A; Marescaux, C; Nehlig, A; Depaulis, A



Health Services Utilization  

PubMed Central

Five different approaches that have been used to study the utilization of health services are reviewed: the sociocultural, sociodemographic, social-psychological, organizational, and social systems. Studies characterizing each approach are described and the limitations of each perspective are outlined. It is suggested that social system models that explicate causal structures and that incorporate features of all the other approaches may provide important new insights into utilization behavior.

Anderson, James G.



Small-angle X-ray scattering studies of the oligomeric state and quaternary structure of the trifunctional proline utilization A (PutA) flavoprotein from Escherichia coli.  


The trifunctional flavoprotein proline utilization A (PutA) links metabolism and gene regulation in Gram-negative bacteria by catalyzing the two-step oxidation of proline to glutamate and repressing transcription of the proline utilization regulon. Small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and domain deletion analysis were used to obtain solution structural information for the 1320-residue PutA from Escherichia coli. Shape reconstructions show that PutA is a symmetric V-shaped dimer having dimensions of 205 × 85 × 55 ?. The particle consists of two large lobes connected by a 30-? diameter cylinder. Domain deletion analysis shows that the N-terminal DNA-binding domain mediates dimerization. Rigid body modeling was performed using the crystal structure of the DNA-binding domain and a hybrid x-ray/homology model of residues 87-1113. The calculations suggest that the DNA-binding domain is located in the connecting cylinder, whereas residues 87-1113, which contain the two catalytic active sites, reside in the large lobes. The SAXS data and amino acid sequence analysis suggest that the ?(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase domains lack the conventional oligomerization flap, which is unprecedented for the aldehyde dehydrogenase superfamily. The data also provide insight into the function of the 200-residue C-terminal domain. It is proposed that this domain serves as a lid that covers the internal substrate channeling cavity, thus preventing escape of the catalytic intermediate into the bulk medium. Finally, the SAXS model is consistent with a cloaking mechanism of gene regulation whereby interaction of PutA with the membrane hides the DNA-binding surface from the put regulon thereby activating transcription. PMID:22013066

Singh, Ranjan K; Larson, John D; Zhu, Weidong; Rambo, Robert P; Hura, Greg L; Becker, Donald F; Tanner, John J



Small-angle X-ray Scattering Studies of the Oligomeric State and Quaternary Structure of the Trifunctional Proline Utilization A (PutA) Flavoprotein from Escherichia coli*  

PubMed Central

The trifunctional flavoprotein proline utilization A (PutA) links metabolism and gene regulation in Gram-negative bacteria by catalyzing the two-step oxidation of proline to glutamate and repressing transcription of the proline utilization regulon. Small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and domain deletion analysis were used to obtain solution structural information for the 1320-residue PutA from Escherichia coli. Shape reconstructions show that PutA is a symmetric V-shaped dimer having dimensions of 205 × 85 × 55 ?. The particle consists of two large lobes connected by a 30-? diameter cylinder. Domain deletion analysis shows that the N-terminal DNA-binding domain mediates dimerization. Rigid body modeling was performed using the crystal structure of the DNA-binding domain and a hybrid x-ray/homology model of residues 87–1113. The calculations suggest that the DNA-binding domain is located in the connecting cylinder, whereas residues 87–1113, which contain the two catalytic active sites, reside in the large lobes. The SAXS data and amino acid sequence analysis suggest that the ?1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase domains lack the conventional oligomerization flap, which is unprecedented for the aldehyde dehydrogenase superfamily. The data also provide insight into the function of the 200-residue C-terminal domain. It is proposed that this domain serves as a lid that covers the internal substrate channeling cavity, thus preventing escape of the catalytic intermediate into the bulk medium. Finally, the SAXS model is consistent with a cloaking mechanism of gene regulation whereby interaction of PutA with the membrane hides the DNA-binding surface from the put regulon thereby activating transcription.

Singh, Ranjan K.; Larson, John D.; Zhu, Weidong; Rambo, Robert P.; Hura, Greg L.; Becker, Donald F.; Tanner, John J.



Optimization of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridin-9(10H)-ones as antimalarials utilizing structure-activity and structure-property relationships.  


Antimalarial activity of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridin-9(10H)-ones (THAs) has been known since the 1940s and has garnered more attention with the development of the acridinedione floxacrine (1) in the 1970s and analogues thereof such as WR 243251 (2a) in the 1990s. These compounds failed just prior to clinical development because of suboptimal activity, poor solubility, and rapid induction of parasite resistance. Moreover, detailed structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of the THA core scaffold were lacking and SPR studies were nonexistent. To improve upon initial findings, several series of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridin-9(10H)-ones were synthesized and tested in a systematic fashion, examining each compound for antimalarial activity, solubility, and permeability. Furthermore, a select set of compounds was chosen for microsomal stability testing to identify physicochemical liabilities of the THA scaffold. Several potent compounds (EC(50) < 100 nM) were identified to be active against the clinically relevant isolates W2 and TM90-C2B while possessing good physicochemical properties and little to no cross-resistance. PMID:21630666

Cross, R Matthew; Maignan, Jordany R; Mutka, Tina S; Luong, Lisa; Sargent, Justin; Kyle, Dennis E; Manetsch, Roman



Glary Utilities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Glary Utilities offers this free application to help users improve their system's performance and also protect their privacy. After installing the application, users can remove and back up faculty registry entries, along with offering a secure file deletion feature. This version is compatible with computers running Windows 98 and newer.



Japanese utilities` plutonium utilization program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan`s 10 utility companies are working and will continue to work towards establishing a fully closed nuclear fuel cycle. The key goals of which are: (1) reprocessing spent fuel; (2) recycling recovered uranium and plutonium; and (3) commercializing fast breeder technology by around the year 2030. This course of action by the Japanese electric power industry is in full accordance

Matsuo; Yuichiro



3D imaging of geological structures by R-VSP utilizing vibrations caused by shaft excavations at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Japan Atomic Energy Agency is now conducting the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) project. The MIU consists of two shafts (main shaft: 6.5m, ventilation shaft: 4.5m diameter) and horizontal research galleries, in sedimentary and granitic rocks at Mizunami City, Central Japan. The MIU project is a broad scientific study of the deep geological environment providing the basis for research and development for geological disposal of high level radioactive waste. One of the main goals is to establish techniques for investigation, analysis and assessment of the deep geological environment in fractured crystalline rock. As a part of the MIU project, we carried out the Reverse-Vertical Seismic Profile (R-VSP) using vibrations from the blasting for the shaft excavations and drilling of boreholes in the horizontal research galleries and examined the applicability of this method to imaging of geological structures around underground facilities, such as the unconformity between the sedimentary rocks and the basal granite, and faults and fracture zones in the granite. R-VSP method is a seismic method utilizing the receiver arrays on surface and seismic sources underground (e.g. in boreholes). This method is advantageous in that planning of 3-dimensional surveys is easy compared with reflection seismic surveying and conventional VSP because seismic source arrays that are major constraint for conducting surveys on surface are unnecessary. The receiver arrays consist of six radial lines on surface with a central focus on the main shaft. Seven blast rounds for the main shaft excavation from GL-52.8m to GL-250m and the borehole drilling in the GL-200m horizontal research gallery were observed. Three types of data processing, conventional VSP data processing (VSP-CDP transform and VSP migration), Reflection data processing utilizing Seismic interferometry method (“Seismic interferometry”) and Reflection mapping utilizing Image Point transform method (“IP transform”), were performed to obtain reflection images from heterogeneous geological structure. As the results, the reflective events that seemed to correspond with sedimentary layers, the unconformity between sedimentary rocks and granite, and fracture zones in granite could be detected by reflection profiles using “conventional VSP data processing” and “Seismic interferometry”. However, it is difficult to identify the faults around the MIU because they are generally at a high-angle. “IP transform” is one type of Radon transform which change common shot gather to IP domain. Image Points are defined through geometries of sources and reflectors. Reflection signals in time domain can be accumulated and enhanced in IP domain by “IP transform” on the condition of the right angle to a fault. So, by a search of the direction that reflection signals are enhanced using “IP transform”, the locations of faults can be inferred. By this method, the distribution of faults that correspond with faults in the current geological model constructed from investigation data in the MIU project could be detected.

Matsuoka, T.; Hodotsuka, Y.; Ishigaki, K.; Lee, C.



Amberlite IR120 Modified with 8Hydroxyquinoline as Efficient Adsorbent for SolidPhase Extraction and Flame Atomic Absorption Determination of Trace Amounts of Some Metal Ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a solid-phase extraction method combined with atomic absorption spectrometry for extraction, preconcentration,\\u000a and determination of iron (Fe3+), copper (Cu2+), and lead (Pb2+) ions at trace levels in water samples has been reported. The influences of effective parameters such as flow rate, pH, eluent\\u000a conditions (type, volume, and concentration), sample volumes, and interference of matrix ions on metal

Ali Daneshfar; M. Ghaedi; S. Vafafard; L. Shiri; R. Sahrai; M. Soylak


The role of MgF2 buffer layer in tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminium-based organic light-emitting devices with Mg:Ag cathode  

Microsoft Academic Search

The device characteristics of organic light-emitting devices based on tris-(8-hydroxyqunoline) aluminium with a thin layer of MgF2 inserted at the indium-tin-oxide (ITO) and organic interface or the organic and Mg:Ag cathode interface are investigated. A 1.0 nm MgF2 thin layer can enhance electron injection when it is inserted only between organic electron transporting layer and Mg:Ag alloy cathode, but can

B J Chen; X W Sun



Transition Metal Complexes with 8Hydroxyquinoline and Kelex 100 in Micellar Systems. Stoichiometry of the Complexes and Kinetics of Dissociation in Acid Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complexation of metal ions by micelle-solubilized extractants can be used for the development of new extraction processes. Metal extraction in micellar systems is in many respects analogous to solvent extraction if one considers the use of ultrafiltration as a means to separate the micellar pseudophase from the continuous aqueous phase. The present paper is intended to further characterize the nature

M. Ismael; C. Tondre



Field determination of fluoride in drinking water using a polymeric aluminium complex of 5-(2-carboxyphenylazo)-8-hydroxyquinoline impregnated paper  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple field method which allows the determination of fluoride in drinking water with a small handheld instrument called Arsenator was developed. Arsenator is a commercially available instrument which was used successfully for reliable determination of arsenic. In the proposed method the functionality of the Arsenator which is based on a photometric measurement of a spot on the reagent paper

Zaher Barghouthi; Sameer Amereih



Time Utilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time Utilities are software tools that, in principal, allow one to calculate BJD to a precision of 1 ?s for any target from anywhere on Earth or from any spacecraft. As the quality and quantity of astrophysical data continue to improve, the precision with which certain astrophysical events can be timed becomes limited not by the data themselves, but by the manner, standard, and uniformity with which time itself is referenced. While some areas of astronomy (most notably pulsar studies) have required absolute time stamps with precisions of considerably better than 1 minute for many decades, recently new areas have crossed into this regime. In particular, in the exoplanet community, we have found that the (typically unspecified) time standards adopted by various groups can differ by as much as a minute. Left uncorrected, this ambiguity may be mistaken for transit timing variations and bias eccentricity measurements. We recommend using BJD_TDB, the Barycentric Julian Date in the Barycentric Dynamical Time standard for any astrophysical event. The BJD_TDB is the most practical absolute time stamp for extraterrestrial phenomena, and is ultimately limited by the properties of the target system. We compile a general summary of factors that must be considered in order to achieve timing precisions ranging from 15 minutes to 1 ?s, and provide software for download and online webapps for use.

Eastman, Jason



Laser Diode-Pumped Organic Semiconductor Lasers Utilizing Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Resonators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-dimensional photonic crystal lasers based on the small molecule organic semiconductor tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq 3) doped with 4-Dicyanomethylene-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM) are optically pumped with a conventional low-cost pulsed (In)GaN laser diode. We compare photonic crystal resonators providing first- and second-order distributed feedback and find threshold values of 1.9 and 3.2kW\\/cm2, respectively. Such inorganic-organic hybrid laser systems open up a way to

Christian Karnutsch; Marc Stroisch; Martin Punke; Uli Lemmer; Jing Wang; Thomas Weimann



Electric utility franchise guide  

SciTech Connect

Through franchise agreements, municipalities grant energy providers the use of public easements for the transmission of electricity and natural gas from power sources to consumers. Generally, access to the public rights-of-way is generated in exchange for the payment to the City of a percentage of the gross revenues of the utility. This Guide presents a Model Electric Utility Franchise Agreement, structured by the city of Houston, to address cost-saving and revenue-enhancing issues that should be considered by any municipality in both the day-to-day administration of existing franchises, and at the time of franchise renewal and renegotiation. In addition to the model agreement this Guide includes Explanatory Comments that provide the basis and rationale for certain sections of the agreement as well as a Summary of Major Elements of franchise agreements in over sixty US municipalities.

Not Available



The Day-to-Day Job of the Utilization Volunteer: Structure, Problems, and Solutions. The Peace Corps Educational Television (ETV) Project in Colombia: Two Years of Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For a report on a two-year research project designed to evaluate the introduction of educational television in Colombian schools by the Peace Corps, "critical incidents" which were collected from the utilization Volunteers (those in the field who were serving as educational television consultants) are presented. The first part of the report…

Comstock, George; Maccoby, Nathan


Supramolecular structure and substituents effect on the spectral studies of dioxouranium(VI) azodyes complexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The synthesis of several coordination azo compounds of dioxouranium(VI) heterochelates with bidentate azo compounds derived from 4-alkylphenylazo-5-sulfo-8-hydroxyquinoline (HLn) ligands, are described. The ligands and structural composition of azo complexes were confirmed and characterized by various physico-chemical techniques. The bonding sites of the azo compounds are deduced from IR and 1H NMR spectra and the ligands were found to bond to the UO22+ ion in a bidentate fashion. The ligands obtained contain NN and phenolic functional groups in different positions with respect to the quinoline group. IR spectra show that the azo compounds (HLn) acts as a monobasic bidentate ligand by coordinating via the azo nitrogen atom of azodye (NN) and oxygen atom of the phenolic group forming thereby a six-membered chelating ring and concomitant formation of an intramolecular hydrogen bond. The ?3 frequency of UO22+ has been shown to be an excellent molecular probe for studying the coordinating power of the ligands. The values of ?3 of the prepared complexes containing UO22+ were successfully used to calculate the force constant, FUO (1n 10-8 N/Ĺ) and the bond length RUO (in Ĺ) of the UO bond. A strategy based upon both theoretical and experimental investigations has been adopted. The theoretical aspects are described in terms of the well-known theory of 5d-4f transitions. Wilson's, matrix method, Badger's formula, and Jones and El-Sonbati equations were used to calculate the UO bond distances from the values of the stretching and interaction force constants. The most probable correlation between UO force constant to UO bond distance were satisfactorily discussed in term of Badger's rule and the equations suggested by Jones and El-Sonbati. The effect of Hamette's constant is also discussed.

Diab, M. A.; El-Bindary, A. A.; El-Sonbati, A. Z.; Salem, O. L.



Electric and gas utilities thesaurus  

SciTech Connect

This thesaurus accommodates terminology employed in areas of utility regulation and utility-related products. The vocabulary used has been structured to function effectively in operations of subject control, subject searching, data retrieval, and information dissemination of DOE, Division of Rates and Energy Management information data base. Main entries, listed alphabetically, are characterized by exhibiting boldface print. Scope notes encompassed by parentheses are incorporated into the structural design of the thesaurus and are used to define, limit, or clarify meanings of main entries. Each descriptor contains a word block, listing terms directly associated with the main entry.

Not Available



Hualapai Tribal Utility Development Project  

SciTech Connect

The first phase of the Hualapai Tribal Utility Development Project (Project) studied the feasibility of establishing a tribally operated utility to provide electric service to tribal customers at Grand Canyon West (see objective 1 below). The project was successful in completing the analysis of the energy production from the solar power systems at Grand Canyon West and developing a financial model, based on rates to be charged to Grand Canyon West customers connected to the solar systems, that would provide sufficient revenue for a Tribal Utility Authority to operate and maintain those systems. The objective to establish a central power grid over which the TUA would have authority and responsibility had to be modified because the construction schedule of GCW facilities, specifically the new air terminal, did not match up with the construction schedule for the solar power system. Therefore, two distributed systems were constructed instead of one central system with a high voltage distribution network. The Hualapai Tribal Council has not taken the action necessary to establish the Tribal Utility Authority that could be responsible for the electric service at GCW. The creation of a Tribal Utility Authority (TUA) was the subject of the second objective of the project. The second phase of the project examined the feasibility and strategy for establishing a tribal utility to serve the remainder of the Hualapai Reservation and the feasibility of including wind energy from a tribal wind generator in the energy resource portfolio of the tribal utility (see objective 2 below). It is currently unknown when the Tribal Council will consider the implementation of the results of the study. Objective 1 - Develop the basic organizational structure and operational strategy for a tribally controlled utility to operate at the Tribe’s tourism enterprise district, Grand Canyon West. Coordinate the development of the Tribal Utility structure with the development of the Grand Canyon West Power Project construction of the power infrastructure at Grand Canyon West. Develop the maintenance and operations capacity necessary to support utility operations. Develop rates for customers on the Grand Canyon West “mini-grid” sufficient for the tribal utility to be self-sustaining. Establish an implementation strategy for tribal utility service at Grand Canyon West Objective 2 - Develop a strategy for tribal utility takeover of electric service on the Reservation. Perform a cost analysis of Reservation electrical service. Develop an implementation strategy for tribal takeover of Reservation electrical service. Examine options and costs associated with integration of the Tribe’s wind resources.

Hualapai Tribal Nation



Dendrimers with large nonlinear optical performance by introducing isolation chromophore, utilizing the ar/ar(f) self-assembly effect, and modifying the topological structure.  


By the combination of divergent and convergent approach, a new series of NLO dendrimers (G1-PFPh-NS-GL to G3-PFPh-NS-GL) was conveniently prepared with satisfied yields through the powerful "click chemistry" reaction, in which perfluoroaromatic rings were introduced in the periphery, two types of chromophores were arranged with regular AB structure, and their topological structure was improved to a more spherical shape. All the dendrimers demonstrated good processability, and G1-PFPh-NS-GL exhibited the highest NLO effect of 221 pm/V among the three dendrimers. PMID:23889058

Wu, Wenbo; Ye, Cheng; Qin, Jingui; Li, Zhen



Model-based Utility Functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Orseau and Ring, as well as Dewey, have recently described problems, including self-delusion, with the behavior of agents using various definitions of utility functions. An agent's utility function is defined in terms of the agent's history of interactions with its environment. This paper argues, via two examples, that the behavior problems can be avoided by formulating the utility function in two steps: 1) inferring a model of the environment from interactions, and 2) computing utility as a function of the environment model. Basing a utility function on a model that the agent must learn implies that the utility function must initially be expressed in terms of specifications to be matched to structures in the learned model. These specifications constitute prior assumptions about the environment so this approach will not work with arbitrary environments. But the approach should work for agents designed by humans to act in the physical world. The paper also addresses the issue of self-modifying agents and shows that if provided with the possibility to modify their utility functions agents will not choose to do so, under some usual assumptions.

Hibbard, Bill



Modeling latent true scores to determine the utility of aggregate student perceptions as classroom indicators in HLM: The case of classroom goal structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measures of classroom climate such as classroom goal structures are often assessed through students’ perceptions; the aggregated means within classrooms are then sometimes labeled as “classroom characteristics.” The validity of these constructs is limited by the reliability of the measure at both the student and classroom level; yet, few studies accurately assess reliability when multilevel models are used. We demonstrate

Angela D. Miller; Tamera B. Murdock



Community structures and substrate utilization of bacteria in soils from organic and conventional farming systems of the DOK long-term field experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preservation or improvement of soil quality and productivity is of major importance for sustainable agriculture. Microorganisms strongly influence these soil characteristics as they are involved in nutrient cycling, transformation processes and soil aggregate formation, as well as in plant pathology or plant growth promotion. A profound understanding of structure, dynamics and functions of soil microbial populations represents one key to

Franco Widmer; Frank Rasche; Martin Hartmann; Andreas Fliessbach



Cloning and characterization of the three enzyme structural genes QUTB , QUTC and QUTE from the quinic acid utilization gene cluster in Aspergillus nidulans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterologous DNA probes from the quinic acid gene cluster (QA) in Neurospora crassa (Schweizer 1981) have been used to isolate the corresponding gene cluster (QUT) from Aspergillus nidulans cloned in a phage ? vector. N. crassa probes for each of the three enzyme structural genes in the cluster have been used to identify the corresponding genes within the A. nidulans

Alastair R. Hawkins; Antonio J. Francisco; Clive F. Roberts



Time Functions as Utilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Every time function on spacetime gives a (continuous) total preordering of the spacetime events which respects the notion of causal precedence. The problem of the existence of a (semi-)time function on spacetime and the problem of recovering the causal structure starting from the set of time functions are studied. It is pointed out that these problems have an analog in the field of microeconomics known as utility theory. In a chronological spacetime the semi-time functions correspond to the utilities for the chronological relation, while in a K-causal (stably causal) spacetime the time functions correspond to the utilities for the K + relation (Seifert’s relation). By exploiting this analogy, we are able to import some mathematical results, most notably Peleg’s and Levin’s theorems, to the spacetime framework. As a consequence, we prove that a K-causal (i.e. stably causal) spacetime admits a time function and that the time or temporal functions can be used to recover the K + (or Seifert) relation which indeed turns out to be the intersection of the time or temporal orderings. This result tells us in which circumstances it is possible to recover the chronological or causal relation starting from the set of time or temporal functions allowed by the spacetime. Moreover, it is proved that a chronological spacetime in which the closure of the causal relation is transitive (for instance a reflective spacetime) admits a semi-time function. Along the way a new proof avoiding smoothing techniques is given that the existence of a time function implies stable causality, and a new short proof of the equivalence between K-causality and stable causality is given which takes advantage of Levin’s theorem and smoothing techniques.

Minguzzi, E.



Conservation of regulatory and structural genes for a multi-component phenol hydroxylase within phenol-catabolizing bacteria that utilize a meta-cleavage pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas sp. strain CF600 can degrade phenol and some of its methylated derivatives via a plasmid (pVIlSO)-encoded pathway. The metabolic route involves hydroxylation by a multi-component phenol hydroxylase and a subsequent meta-cleavage pathway. All 15 structural genes involved are clustered in an operon that is regulated by a divergently transcribed transcriptional activator. The multi-component nature of the phenol hydroxylase is




A fractional- N frequency synthesizer architecture utilizing a mismatch compensated PFD\\/DAC structure for reduced quantization-induced phase noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Techniques are proposed to dramatically reduce the impact of quantization noise in ?? fractional-N synthesizers, thereby improving the existing tradeoff between phase noise and bandwidth that exists in these systems. The key innovation is the introduction of new techniques to overcome nonidealities in a phase-frequency detector (PFD)\\/digital-to-analog converter (DAC) structure, which combines the functionality of both phase detector and cancellation

Scott E. Meninger; Michael H. Perrott



Distribution of Glut1 Glucose Transporters in Different Brain Structures Compared to Glucose Utilization and Capillary Density of Adult Rat Brains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glut1 is a specific transporter system that mediates glucose transfer across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Although the main location of Glut1 is in the capillary endothelium of the brain, its local distribution in different brain regions is not as well defined. In the present investigation, the local pattern of Glut1 distribution was determined in 13 brain structures using an immunoautoradiographic

Karin Zeller; Sylvia Rahner-Welsch; Wolfgang Kuschinsky



Structural aspects of molecular photoionization efficiency in micelles and vesicles as models for solar energy utilization. [N,N,N',N'-tetramethylbenzidine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structural aspects controlling charge separation in molecular photoionization reactions in organized molecular assemblies involving micelles and vesicles are being studied by optical and electron magnetic resonance techniques including the time domain technique of electron spin echo modulation (ESEM). Photoionization of N,N,N',N'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) to give the cation radical has been carried out in both liquid and frozen micellar and vesicular




The impact of utilization of palm products on the population structure of the vegetable ivory palm (Hyphaene petersiana, arecaceae) in North-Central Namibia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indigenous trees fulfil many subsistence and economic needs in north-central Namibia.Hyphaene petersiana provides a range of products which contribute to most aspects of people’s livelihoods. Of particular importance is its income-generating\\u000a capacity through the use of palm leaves for basket production and the sale of liquor distilled from the fruits. This study\\u000a investigates the population structure ofHyphaene petersiana in two

S. Sullivan; T. L. Konstant; A. B. Cunningham



Potential utility of the spectral red-edge region of SumbandilaSat imagery for assessing indigenous forest structure and health  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indigenous forest degradation is regarded as one of the most important environmental issues facing Sub-Saharan Africa and South Africa in particular. We tested the utility of the unique band settings of the recently launched South African satellite, SumbandilaSat in characterising forest fragmentation in a fragile rural landscape in Dukuduku, northern KwaZulu-Natal. The AISA Eagle hyperspectral image was resampled to the band settings of SumbandilaSat and SPOT 5 (green, red and near infrared bands only) for comparison purposes. Variogram analysis and the red edge shift were used to quantify forest heterogeneity and stress levels, respectively. Results showed that the range values from variograms can quantify differences in spatial heterogeneity across landscapes. The study has also shown that the unique band settings of SumbandilaSat provide additional information for quantifying stress in vegetation as compared to SPOT image data. This is critical in light of the fact that stress levels in vegetation have previously been quantified using hyperspectral sensors, which are more expensive and do not cover large areas as compared to SumbandilaSat satellite. The study moves remote sensing a step closer to operational monitoring of indigenous forests.

Cho, Moses Azong; Debba, Pravesh; Mutanga, Onisimo; Dudeni-Tlhone, Nontembeko; Magadla, Thandulwazi; Khuluse, Sibusisiwe A.



Deregulation allows new opportunities for utilities  

SciTech Connect

The changes electric utilities face today are both scary and exciting. In the past several years utilities have faced uncertainties that have caused major upheaval in their structures and business processes. There has been an increase in the number of mergers and acquisitions as utilities position themselves for competition. many utility employees have faced layoffs, resulting form reengineering and downsizing. Similar events and uncertainties were faced by the airline and telecommunications industries during their transformations form monopolistic to competitive environments. Even though these events have been difficult and unpleasant, there is a bright side. Today`s electric utilities have the opportunities to cash in on some innovative new ideas and technologies.

Hansen, T.



Development and utilization of digital image correlation techniques for the study of structural isomerism effects on strain development in epoxy network glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The specific aim of this dissertation is to present the findings regarding the effects of molecular structure on macroscopic mechanical performance and strain development in epoxy networks. Network molecular structure was altered through monomer isomerism and crosslink density/molecular weight between crosslinks. The use of structural isomerism provided a pathway for altering mechanical performance while maintaining identical chemical composition within the network. Isomerism was investigated primarily by the curing of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) using either the para- or meta-substituted derivatives of diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS). Additional insights into isomerism were gained through the investigation of networks composed of either para- or meta-triglycidyl aminophenol (TGAP) cured with 3,3'- or 4,4'-DDS. Crosslink density of the network was varied through two different methods: (a) increasing the equivalent weight of the linear DGEBA epoxy resin and (b) increasing the functionality of the epoxy resin through the use of TGAP. The effects of molecular structure on mechanical properties and strain development were monitored using a relatively new strain measurement technique known as digital image correlation (DIC). Strain measurement via DIC was particularly useful for the development of strain recovery procedures, which provided key insights to the deformation of epoxy network glasses of varying molecular structure by providing full field analysis of the epoxy specimens. Specific findings of this research revealed that network isomerism plays an important role in the deformation of epoxy network glasses. Networks containing meta-substituted monomers possessed higher modulus and yield stress values and lower yield strains. On the contrary, networks with para-substituted monomers displayed lower modulus and yield stress values, but increased ability to store energy through anelastic strain mechanisms, thereby delaying the onset of yielding. The increased energy storage of these networks was related to sub-Tg molecular motions and the ability for para-substituted phenyl rings to rotate along an axis of symmetry, thus creating more cooperative motion within the network. Insights into post-yield deformation of epoxy glasses were also gained where networks with meta-substitution were able to dissipate more stress post-yield through large segmental rearrangements.

Heinz, Stephen Robert


New method for obtaining position and time structure of source in HDR remote afterloading brachytherapy unit utilizing light emission from scintillator.  


When using a HDR remote afterloading brachytherapy unit, results of treatment can be greatly influenced by both source position and treatment time. The purpose of this study is to obtain information on the source of the HDR remote afterloading unit, such as its position and time structure, with the use of a simple system consisting of a plastic scintillator block and a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The CCD camera was used for recording images of scintillation luminescence at a fixed rate of 30 frames per second in real time. The source position and time structure were obtained by analyzing the recorded images. For a preset source-step-interval of 5 mm, the measured value of the source position was 5.0 +/- 1.0 mm with a pixel resolution of 0.07 mm in the recorded images. For a preset transit time of 30 s, the measured value was 30.0 +/- 0.6 s, when the time resolution of the CCD camera was 1/30 s. This system enables us to obtain the source dwell time and movement time. Therefore, parameters such as 192Ir source position, transit time, dwell time, and movement time at each dwell position can be determined quantitatively using this plastic scintillator-CCD camera system. PMID:19692981

Kojima, Haruna; Hanada, Takashi; Katsuta, Shoichi; Yorozu, Atsunori; Maruyama, Koichi



Utilization of spectral bin microphysics and bulk parameterization schemes to simulate the cloud structure and precipitation in a mesoscale rain event  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea breeze convection in Florida on 27 July 1991, accompanied by squall line formation, was simulated using MM5 with various microphysical schemes, including the Hebrew University spectral (bin) microphysics (SBM) and three recently developed bulk model parameterizations. The bulk schemes are the Seifert full two-moment scheme (FTMS), the Reisner-Thompson two-moment ice scheme (TMIS), and the Thompson two-moment ice scheme. The results were evaluated using observed rainfall and radar reflectivity, including radar derived contour frequency with altitude diagrams (CFAD). The SBM simulated quite well the time evolution of average and maximum rainfall amounts. A comparison of a CFAD derived from observations and CFADs derived from model calculated radar reflectivity suggests that the SBM simulates the three-dimensional structure of squall line convection and stratiform mixed phase cloud more realistically than the bulk parameterization schemes. However, the Thompson scheme shows a qualitative improvement over the other bulk parameterization schemes in the simulation of the three-dimensional structure of the squall line as indicated by comparison of its CFAD with the observed. All of the new bulk models simulate precipitation better than the earlier bulk parameterization schemes, but each still produces too much precipitation during too short periods of time and underestimates the area covered by stratiform clouds.

Lynn, B.; Khain, A.



Diorganotin(IV) 2-pyridyl selenolates: synthesis, structures and their utility as molecular precursors for the preparation of tin selenide nanocrystals and thin films.  


Reactions of R(2)SnCl(2) (R = Me, Et, (t)Bu) with NaSeC(5)H(3)(R'-3)N (R' = H or Me) gave complexes of the composition [R(2)Sn{2-SeC(5)H(3)(R'-3)N)}(2)], which on treatment with R(2)SnCl(2) afforded chloro complexes, [R(2)Sn{2-SeC(5)H(3)(R'-3)N}Cl]. These complexes were characterized by elemental analyses and UV-vis and NMR ((1)H, (13)C, (77)Se and (119)Sn) spectroscopy. The crystal structures of [R(2)Sn(SeC(5)H(4)N)(2)] (R = Me or (t)Bu) and [Me(2)Sn{2-SeC(5)H(3)(Me-3)N}Cl] were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The tin atom in the former two structures acquires a skew trapezoidal configuration, whereas in the latter it adopts a distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry. Thermolysis of [R(2)Sn(2-SeC(5)H(4)N)(2)] (R = Me, Et or (t)Bu) and [Et(2)Sn{2-SeC(5)H(3)(Me-3)N}(2)] in oleylamine (OA) afforded tin selenide nanostructures. Thin films of SnSe were deposited on glass and silicon substrates by the AACVD of [(t)Bu(2)Sn(2-SeC(5)H(4)N)(2)]. The nanostructures and thin films were characterized by XRD, EDX, AFM, SEM, TEM and SAED techniques. The photovoltaic properties of the thin films have been evaluated. PMID:22918450

Sharma, Rakesh K; Kedarnath, G; Wadawale, Amey; Betty, C A; Vishwanadh, B; Jain, Vimal K



The structure of state utility commissions and protection of the captive ratepayer: Is there a connection? Occasional paper {number_sign}23  

SciTech Connect

While there is a considerable body of literature on regulatory decision making, the dominant theories have emphasized the influence of external factors on commissioners, which largely result in capture. Underlying these theories is the assumption that resources translate into influence. The theory proposed in this research is that while resources are necessary in order to influence commission decisions, they are not sufficient. Instead, their effects are mediated by two conditions: one, the structural characteristics of each state commission, which enable it to acquire and analyze information and two, the attributes of the type of consumer safeguards, e.g. a rate freeze or quality-of-service standards with attached financial penalties, which commissions could have adopted. The guiding research hypothesis is that the greater the ability of the commission to acquire and analyze information, the more likely it is to enact more stringent measures to protect the captive ratepayer. The major implications of this research are two. (1) This research suggests that commissions react not just to political pressure and economic incentives, but also to information. Indeed, this research asserts that information is a significant determinant in the decision making process. (2) Where the general public has neither the knowledge nor the understanding to take a position with regard to an issue, a regulatory commission with greater resources and more professional personnel is more likely to be its champion than is a commission with fewer resources and less professional personnel.

Zearfoss, N.N.



Copper(I) 2-pyridyl selenolates and tellurolates: synthesis, structures and their utility as molecular precursors for the preparation of copper chalcogenide nanocrystals and thin films.  


The complexes, [Cu{EC(5)H(3)(R-3)N}](4) (E/R = Se/Me or Te/R; R = H or Me) were isolated by the reaction between CuCl and NaEC(5)H(3)(R-3)N and were characterized by elemental analyses, uv-vis and NMR ((1)H, (13)C) spectroscopy. The crystal structures of [Cu{SeC(5)H(3)(Me-3)N}](4) and [Cu(TeC(5)H(4)N)](4) revealed that the molecules are tetrameric in which each copper atom lies at the vertex of the tetrahedron and each face of the tetrahedron is capped by the bridging pyridylchalcogenolate ligand. Thermal behavior of these complexes was studied by thermogravimetric analysis. Depending on reaction conditions, thermolysis gave both stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric copper chalcogenides, which were characterized by XRD, EDX, SEM, TEM and SAED techniques. These precursors were used for the preparation of nanocrystals and for deposition of thin films of copper chalcogenides by AACVD (Aerosol Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition). PMID:21833389

Sharma, Rakesh K; Kedarnath, G; Jain, Vimal K; Wadawale, Amey; Pillai, C G S; Nalliath, Manoj; Vishwanadh, B



Cloning and characterization of the three enzyme structural genes QUTB, QUTC and QUTE from the quinic acid utilization gene cluster in Aspergillus nidulans.  


Heterologous DNA probes from the quinic acid gene cluster (QA) in Neurospora crassa (Schweizer 1981) have been used to isolate the corresponding gene cluster (QUT) from Aspergillus nidulans cloned in a phage lambda vector. N. crassa probes for each of the three enzyme structural genes in the cluster have been used to identify the corresponding genes within the A. nidulans cloned DNA. The three genes are in the same relative sequence [dehydrogenase (1), QA-3 = QUTB; dehydratase (3), QA-4 = QUTC; dehydroquinase (2), QA-2 = QUTE] though contained within a 3.4 kb DNA sequence in Aspergillus compared to a 5.4 kb sequence in Neurospora. The A. nidulans dehydroquinase (2) gene QUTE has been shown to complement an auxotrophic mutant aroD6 of Escherichia coli lacking biosynthetic dehydroquinase when tested for growth at 30 degrees C. A mutant of A. nidulans lacking catabolic dehydroquinase (2) and designated qutE208 has been isolated and shown to be tightly linked to the gene cluster, which maps between the ornB and fwA loci in linkage group VIII. PMID:3916726

Hawkins, A R; Francisco Da Silva, A J; Roberts, C F



Isobaric-Isothermal Molecular Dynamics Simulations Utilizing Density Functional Theory: An Assessment of the Structure and Density of Water at Near-Ambient Conditions  

SciTech Connect

We present herein, a comprehensive density functional theory study towards assessing the accuracy of two popular gradient corrected exchange correlation functionals on the structure and density of liquid water at near ambient conditions in the isobaric-isotherma ensemble. Our results indicate that both PBE and BLYP functionals underpredict the density and overstructure the liquid. Adding the dispersion correction due to Grimme [1, 2] improves the predicted densities for both BLYP and PBE in a significant manner. Moreover, the addition of the dispersion correction for BLYP yields an oxygen-oxygen radial distribution function in excellent agreement with experiment. Thus, we conclude that one can obtain a very satisfactory model for water using BLYP and a correction for dispersion. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences program, and was performed in part using the Molecular Science Computing Facility (MSCF) in the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a DOE national scientific user facility located at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated by Battelle for DOE.

Schmidt, Jochen; VandeVondele, Joost; Kuo, I-F W.; Sebastiani, Daniel; Siepmann, Joern L.; hutter, juerg; Mundy, Christopher J.



A Global Information Utility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High-powered satellites, along with other existing technologies, make possible a world information utility that could distribute virtually limitless information to every point on earth. The utility could distribute information for business, government, education, and entertainment. How the utility would work is discussed. (RM)

Block, Robert S.



Detect the sensitivity and response of protein molecular structure of whole canola seed (yellow and brown) to different heat processing methods and relation to protein utilization and availability using ATR-FT/IR molecular spectroscopy with chemometrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of this experiment were to detect the sensitivity and response of protein molecular structure of whole canola seed to different heat processing [moisture (autoclaving) vs. dry (roasting) heating] and quantify heat-induced protein molecular structure changes in relation to protein utilization and availability. In this study, whole canola seeds were autoclaved (moisture heating) and dry (roasting) heated at 120 °C for 1 h, respectively. The parameters assessed included changes in (1) chemical composition profile, (2) CNCPS protein subfractions (PA, PB1, PB2, PB3, PC), (3) intestinal absorbed true protein supply, (4) energy values, and (5) protein molecular structures (amide I, amide II, ratio of amide I to II, ?-helix, ?-sheet, ratio of ?-helix to ?-sheet). The results showed that autoclave heating significantly decreased (P < 0.05) but dry heating increased (P < 0.05) the ratio of protein ?-helix to ?-sheet (with the ratios of 1.07, 0.95, 1.10 for the control (raw), autoclave heating and dry heating, respectively). The multivariate molecular spectral analyses (PCA, CLA) showed that there were significantly molecular structural differences in the protein amide I and II fingerprint region (ca. 1714-1480 cm-1) among the control, autoclave and dry heating. These differences were indicated by the form of separate class (PCA) and group of separate ellipse (CLA) between the treatments. The correlation analysis with spearman method showed that there were significantly and highly positive correlation (P < 0.05) between heat-induced protein molecular structure changes in terms of ?-helix to ?-sheet ratios and in situ protein degradation and significantly negative correlation between the protein ?-helix to ?-sheet ratios and intestinal digestibility of undegraded protein. The results indicated that heat-induced changes of protein molecular structure revealed by vibration molecular spectroscopy could be used as a potential predictor to protein degradation and intestinal protein digestion of whole canola seed. Future study is needed to study response and impact of heat processing to each inherent layer of canola seed from outside to inside tissues and between yellow canola and brown canola.

Samadi; Theodoridou, Katerina; Yu, Peiqiang



Detect the sensitivity and response of protein molecular structure of whole canola seed (yellow and brown) to different heat processing methods and relation to protein utilization and availability using ATR-FT/IR molecular spectroscopy with chemometrics.  


The objectives of this experiment were to detect the sensitivity and response of protein molecular structure of whole canola seed to different heat processing [moisture (autoclaving) vs. dry (roasting) heating] and quantify heat-induced protein molecular structure changes in relation to protein utilization and availability. In this study, whole canola seeds were autoclaved (moisture heating) and dry (roasting) heated at 120 °C for 1h, respectively. The parameters assessed included changes in (1) chemical composition profile, (2) CNCPS protein subfractions (PA, PB1, PB2, PB3, PC), (3) intestinal absorbed true protein supply, (4) energy values, and (5) protein molecular structures (amide I, amide II, ratio of amide I to II, ?-helix, ?-sheet, ratio of ?-helix to ?-sheet). The results showed that autoclave heating significantly decreased (P<0.05) but dry heating increased (P<0.05) the ratio of protein ?-helix to ?-sheet (with the ratios of 1.07, 0.95, 1.10 for the control (raw), autoclave heating and dry heating, respectively). The multivariate molecular spectral analyses (PCA, CLA) showed that there were significantly molecular structural differences in the protein amide I and II fingerprint region (ca. 1714-1480 cm(-1)) among the control, autoclave and dry heating. These differences were indicated by the form of separate class (PCA) and group of separate ellipse (CLA) between the treatments. The correlation analysis with spearman method showed that there were significantly and highly positive correlation (P<0.05) between heat-induced protein molecular structure changes in terms of ?-helix to ?-sheet ratios and in situ protein degradation and significantly negative correlation between the protein ?-helix to ?-sheet ratios and intestinal digestibility of undegraded protein. The results indicated that heat-induced changes of protein molecular structure revealed by vibration molecular spectroscopy could be used as a potential predictor to protein degradation and intestinal protein digestion of whole canola seed. Future study is needed to study response and impact of heat processing to each inherent layer of canola seed from outside to inside tissues and between yellow canola and brown canola. PMID:23318774

Samadi; Theodoridou, Katerina; Yu, Peiqiang



Electromagnetic machines which utilize microgeometry field structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Microfield Project at the Center for Engineering Design was originally motivated by a quest to understand how to improve the performance of actuators in demanding applications such as robots and artificial limbs. It was determined that by making the internal interactive elements of the system (actuator) numerous, closely packed, and very small (on the order of one to ten microns), sizeable force outputs and power densities could be produced, with improvements in impedance characteristics over conventional actuators. A by-product of these studies was the generation of a number of very interesting spin-off applications for microelectromechanical systems in general, including mechanical sensors, optical devices, actuators, and chemical sensors. Thus, for the Microfield Project, multiple exploratory investigations, both experimental and analytical, were undertaken aimed at: (1) understanding important issues necessary for the systematic design, analysis, fabrication, and testing of micro electro-mechanical sensors and actuators, and (2) establishing the feasibility of various concepts.

Jacobsen, S. C.; Wood, John E.



Structural Determinants of Cue Utilization in Judgment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The general problem of concern here is that of understanding the process by which a decision maker combines information of varying relevance from the several cue dimensions of a stimulus object to arrive at a quantitative judgment of that object or a choi...

P. Slovic S. C. Lichtenstein



Biochemical studies of phenoloxidase and utilization of catecholamines in Cryptococcus neoformans.  

PubMed Central

Protoplasts of Cryptococcus neoformans contain phenoloxidase as a membrane-bound enzyme. The enzyme appeared to be attached on the inner side of cytoplasmic membranes. Synthesis of the enzyme was derepressed by low levels of glucose but was not affected by the level of ammonium. Copper chelators which inhibited the phenoloxidase of other organisms did not affect cryptococcal enzymes. However, cyanide- or iron-chelating agents such as hydroximide derivates or 8-hydroxyquinoline were effective inhibitors, suggesting that cryptococcal phenoloxidase is an iron-containing enzyme. Phenoloxidase of C. neoformans catalyzed the oxidation of various diphenols via dopachrome and labile intermediates to melanin polymers. The kinetic constants (Km) of the phenoloxidase and the permease for dopamine and norepinephrine were low. The correlation between phenoloxidase and the preferential growth of C. neoformans in the host brain is discussed.

Polacheck, I; Hearing, V J; Kwon-Chung, K J



Voltage reduction in organic light-emitting diodes  

SciTech Connect

For practical applications, it is important to operate organic light-emitting devices at low voltages and low power consumption. When both the cathode and anode are perfectly injecting, low electron mobility in electron-transport materials, such as tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq), becomes a limiting factor on voltage reduction. In this letter copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) is replaced for Alq as an electron-transport layer, and interfacial modification is utilized to enhance electron injection from the CuPc electron-transport layer into the Alq emissive layer. The outcome of this structure significantly facilitates electron transport through the organic materials, thus resulting in substantial reduction in operating voltages and power consumption. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

Hung, L. S.; Mason, M. G.



Electric utilities and telecommunications  

SciTech Connect

Part I of this article will provide some background on the involvement of electric utilities in telecommunications. It will discuss the Power Radio Services, under which the FCC regulates radio communications of electric utilities, the pole attachment statute of the Communications Act, which authorized the FCC to regulate attachments of cable television cables to electric utility poles, and a recent Department of Energy (DOE) report on the need for a demonstration on the use of telecommunications for DSM. Part I will also discuss several recent developments relative to the Power Radio Services and the pole attachment statute. Part II will discuss electric utilities and telecommunications under PUHCA. It will outline the extensive and complex requirements of PUHCA that are applicable to public utility holding companies, as well as the specific requirements of PUHCA for the formation by public utility holding companies of subsidiaries to engage in telecommunications activities. It will also discuss the seven instances in the past decade in which the SEC has approved the formation by public utility holding companies of such subsidiaries. Part III of this article will discuss a principal obstacle to expanded electric utility involvement in telecommunications activities-a series of administrative and judicial decisions that illustrate the potential for dual regulation by the SEC and the FERC to result in confusion and inefficiencies. It will also discuss proposals in Congress to minimize this potential. Part IV will discuss House Bill 3636 and Senate Bill 1822 and their proposals to amend PUHCA to facilitate the formation or acquisition by public utility holding companies of non-utility subsidiaries to engage in telecommunications activities. It will also discuss their proposals to address the potential consequences of dual regulation by the SEC and the FERC of electric utilities involved in telecommunications.

Moeller, J.W. [Securities and Exchange Commission, Washington, DC (United States)



Utility franchises reconsidered  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is easier to obtain a public utility franchise than one for a fast food store because companies like Burger King value the profit share and control available with a franchise arrangement. The investor-owned utilities (IOUs) in Chicago and elsewhere gets little financial or regulatory benefit, although they do have an alternative because the franchise can be taken over by




Utilization Research. Chapter 11.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This collection of papers presented at a 1996 conference on children's mental health focuses on utilization research. Papers have the following titles and authors: (1) "Information Equity: A Critical Component of Strong Service Systems" (Catherine Batsche and Allison Metcalf); (2) "Utilization of Children's Mental Health Services: Differentiating…



Synchrotron-based soft X-ray spectroscopic studies of the electronic structure of organic semiconducting molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic molecules have been the subject of many scientific studies due to their potential for use in a new generation of optoelectronic and semiconducting devices, such as organic photovoltaics and organic light emitting diodes. These studies are motivated by the fact that organic semiconductor devices have several advantages over traditional inorganic semiconductor devices. Unlike inorganic semiconductors, where the electronic properties are a result of the deliberate introduction of dopants to the material, the properties of organic semiconductors are often intrinsic to the molecules themselves. As a result, organic semiconductor devices are frequently less susceptible to contamination by impurities than their inorganic counterparts, which results in the relatively lower cost of producing such devices. Accurate experimental determination of the bulk and surface electronic structure of organic semiconductors is a prerequisite in developing a comprehensive understanding of such materials. The organic materials studied in this thesis were N,N-Ethylene-bis(1,1,1trifluoropentane-2,4-dioneiminato)-copper(ii) (abbreviated Cu-TFAC), aluminum tris-8hydroxyquinoline (A1g3), lithium quinolate (Liq), tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ), and tetrafluorotetracyanoquinodimethane (F4TCNQ). The electronic structures of these materials were measured with several synchrotron-based x-ray spectroscopies. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy was used to measure the occupied total density of states and the core-level states of the aforementioned materials. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was used to probe the element-specific unoccupied partial density of states (PDOS); its angle-resolved variant was used to measure the orientation of the molecules in a film and, in some circumstances, to gauge the extent of an organic film's crystallinity. Most notably, x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) measures the element- specific occupied PDOS and, when aided by XAS, resonant XES can additionally be used to probe the electronic structure of individual atomic sites within a molecule. Most of the results in this thesis are accompanied by the results of electronic structure calculations determined with density functional theory (DFT). DFT is a useful aid in interpreting the results of the x-ray spectroscopies employed. The experimental results, combined with DFT calculations, provide a wealth of information regarding the electronic structures of these organic materials. v

Demasi, Alexander


A novel bionic design of dental implant for promoting its long-term success using nerve growth factor (NGF): Utilizing nano-springs to construct a stress-cushioning structure inside the implant  

PubMed Central

Summary The absence of periodontium causes masticatory load in excess of the self-repairing potential of peri-implant bone; peri-implant bone loss caused by occlusal overload is not uncommon in patients and greatly diminishes chances of long-term success. Regenerative treatments may be useful in inducing peri-implant bone regeneration, but are only stopgap solutions to the aftermaths caused by the imperfect biomechanical compatibility of the dental implant. Despite promising success, the tissue-engineered periodontal ligament still needs a period of time to be perfected before being clinically applied. Hence, we propose a novel design of dental implant that utilizes nano-springs to construct a stress-cushioning structure inside the implant. Many studies have shown that NGF, a neurotrophin, is effective for nerve regeneration in both animal and clinical studies. Moreover, NGF has the potential to accelerate bone healing in patients with fracture and fracture nonunion and improve osseointegration of the implant. The key point of the design is to reduce stress concentrated around peri-implant bone by cushioning masticatory forces and distributing them to all the peri-implant bone through nano-springs, and promote osseoperception and osseointegration by NGF-induced nerve regeneration and new bone formation. This design, which transfers the main biomechanical interface of the implant from outside to inside, if proven to be valid, may to some extent compensate for the functions of lost periodontium in stress cushioning and proprioception.

He, Hao; Yao, Yang; Wang, Yanying; Wu, Yingying; Yang, Yang; Gong, Ping



Federal Policies to Promote the Widespread Utilization of Photovoltaic Systems. Volume Two. Technical Document.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The question of photovoltaic system interactions with electric utility grids is addressed. Discussions of system configurations, effects on utility dispatch and generation planning, effects of utility rate structures on photovoltaic deployment and vice ve...



context view of building 2606, utility building, also showing the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

context view of building 2606, utility building, also showing the chapel, at far left, the transformers on the east side of the utility building, the combat operations center behind, and the cooling tower structure at the right, behind the parked trucks - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Utility Building, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA


A utility model for teaching load decisions in academic departments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors model the class size and teaching load decisions of academic departments in terms of a departmental utility function. Utility is postulated to be asymmetric around class size and teaching load norms, and variables for curricular structure, disciplinary domain, and institutional type are taken into account. Maximization of the utility function produces decision rules for the number of sections

William F. Massy; Robert Zemsky



Le strategie di riposizionamento delle local public utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Le strategie di riposizionamento delle local public utilities (di Barbara Antonioli, Roberto Fazioli, Alessandra Fazzioli) - ABSTRACt:In Italy, local public utilities are undergoing a radical change in organisational structure and strategically policy. The main aim is to diversify the core business in order to became multiutilities and multiservices firms. In this perspective, local public utilities are more and more interested

Alessandra Fazzioli; Roberto Fazioli; Barbara Antonioli



Synthesis, structure, solution chemistry and the electronic effect of para substituents on the vanadium center in a family of mixed-ligand [V VO(ONO)(ON)] complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four tridentate dibasic ONO donor hydrazone ligands derived from the condensation of benzoylhydrazine with either 2-hydroxyacetophenone or its para substituted derivatives (H2L1–4, general abbreviation H2L) have been used as primary ligands and 8-hydroxyquinoline (Hhq, a bidentate monobasic ON donor species) has been used as auxiliary ligand. The reaction of [VIVO(acac)2] with H2L in methanol followed by the addition of Hhq

Tapas Ghosh; Bipul Mondal; Tarun Ghosh; Manas Sutradhar; Gurunath Mukherjee; Michael G. B. Drew



Preparation for Utilizing JEM.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A description of the status of the space environment utilization promotion project for the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) is provided in viewgraph format. The following topics are addressed: development of user accommodations, support systems, experimen...

T. Mochida



Technology Utilization Program Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The application of aerospace technology to the solution of public health and industrial problems is reported. Data cover: (1) development of an externally rechargeable cardiac pacemaker, (2) utilization of ferrofluids-colloidal suspensions of ferrite part...



Utility franchises reconsidered  

SciTech Connect

It is easier to obtain a public utility franchise than one for a fast food store because companies like Burger King value the profit share and control available with a franchise arrangement. The investor-owned utilities (IOUs) in Chicago and elsewhere gets little financial or regulatory benefit, although they do have an alternative because the franchise can be taken over by the city with a one-year notice. As IOUs evolved, the annual franchise fee has been incorporated into the rate in a move that taxes ratepayers and maximizes profits. Cities that found franchising unsatisfactory are looking for ways to terminate the franchise and finance a takeover, but limited-term and indeterminate franchises may offer a better mechanism when public needs and utility aims diverge. A directory lists franchised utilities by state and comments on their legal status. (DCK)

Weidner, B.



Medicaid Nursing Home Utilization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The final report comprises nine separate papers, a data base codebook, and the executive summary which overviews the project and the separate papers, which are entitled, (1) The Effect of State Medicaid Policy on Utilization and Expenditures for Acute Hea...

C. Harrington J. H. Swan C. L. Estes



Penalizing utility mismanagement  

SciTech Connect

The North Carolina supreme court, in contrast to those of Kentucky and New Mexico, upheld the public utility commission's right to penalize a poorly managed utility by reducing its rate of return to make up for the lack of market incentives for good management. Denial of rate increases and revenue assessment are other penalties available to commissions. A review of several court cases involving penalties for mismanagement reflects the range of opinions among commissions. (DCK)

Massella, I.M.



Iraq and the utilities  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses the possible impact on the public utilities of the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq. The author feels the industry is in better shape to weather this than the energy crisis of 1973 and 1974. However regulatory policies that prohibit some utilities from recovering fuel costs through rate adjustments may cause distress for some. The author feels that a revision of regulatory policies is needed.

Studness, C.M.



Theoretical investigations of the structures and electronic spectra of 8-hydroxylquinoline derivatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectroscopic properties of 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives are theoretically investigated by means of density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) methods. The target molecules are divided into two groups: group (I): (E)-2-(2-(3,5-dimethyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)vinyl)quinolin-8-ol (A), together with corresponding potential reaction products of A with acetic acid, i.e., (E)-2-(2-(3,5-dimethyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)vinyl)quinolin-8-yl acetate (AR1), and (E)-2-(2-(3,5-dimethyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)vinyl)-8-hydroxyquinolinium (AR2); group (II): (E)-2-(2-(1-(4-chlorophenyl)-3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)vinyl)quinolin-8-ol (B), as well as potential reaction products of B with acetic acid, i.e., (E)-2-(2-(1-(4-chlorophenyl)-3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)vinyl)quinolin-8-yl acetate (BR1), and (E)-2-(2-(1-(4-chlorophenyl)-3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)vinyl)-8-hydroxyquinolinium (BR2). The geometries are optimized by B3LYP and M06 methods. The results indicate that product molecules tend to be effectively planar compared with reactants. Subsequently, UV absorption spectra are simulated through TD-DFT method with PCM model to further confirm the reasonable products of two reactions. AR2 and BR2 are identified as the target molecules through the experimental spectra for the real products. It is worth noting that the maximum absorption wavelengths of compounds AR2 and BR2 present prominent red shift compared the initial reactants A and B, respectively, which should be ascribed to the enhancive planarity of products that mentioned above and the decreased HOMO-LUMO energy gap. Geometric structures and optical properties for corresponding compounds are discussed in detail.

Ning, Pan; Ren, Tiegang; Zhang, Yanxin; Zhang, Jinglai



Utility terrestrial biodiversity issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results from a survey of power utility biologists indicate that terrestrial biodiversity is considered a major issue by only a few utilities; however, a majority believe it may be a future issue. Over half of the respondents indicated that their company is involved in some management for biodiversity, and nearly all feel that it should be a goal for resource management. Only a few utilities are funding biodiversity research, but a majority felt more research was needed. Generally, larger utilities with extensive land holdings had greater opportunities and resources for biodiversity management. Biodiversity will most likely be a concern with transmission rights-of-way construction and maintenance, endangered species issues and general land resource management, including mining reclamation and hydro relicensing commitments. Over half of the companies surveyed have established voluntary partnerships with management groups, and biodiversity is a goal in nearly all the joint projects. Endangered species management and protection, prevention of forest fragmentation, wetland protection, and habitat creation and protection are the most common partnerships involving utility companies. Common management practices and unique approaches are presented, along with details of the survey.

Breece, Gary Allen; Ward, Bobby J.



Utility terrestrial biodiversity issues  

SciTech Connect

Results from a survey of power utility biologists indicate that terrestrial biodiversity is considered a major issued by only a few utilities; however, a majority believe it may be a future issue. Over half of the respondents indicated that their company is involved in some management for biodiversity, and nearly all feel that it should be a goal for resource management. Only a few utilities are funding biodiversity research, but a majority felt more research was needed. Generally, larger utilities with extensive land holdings had greater opportunities and resources for biodiversity management. Biodiversity will most likely be a concern with transmission rights-of-way construction and maintenance, endangered species issues and general land resource management, including mining reclamation and hydro relicensing commitments. Over half of the companies surveyed have established voluntary partnerships with management groups, and biodiversity is a goal in nearly all the joint projects. Endangered species management and protection, prevention of forest fragmentation, wetland protection, and habitat creation and protection are the most common partnerships involving utility companies. Common management practices and unique approaches are presented, along with details of the survey. 4 refs.

Breece, G.A. [Southern Company, Atlanta, GA (United States); Ward, B.J. [Carolina Power and Light Company, Raleigh, NC (United States)



Utility Theory for Decision Making.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The book presents a concise yet mathematically complete treatment of modern utility theories that covers nonprobabilistic preference theory, the von Neumann-Morgenstern expected-utility theory and its extensions, and the joint axiomatization of utility an...

P. C. Fishburn



Separation Theorems and Expected Utilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents a number of separation theorems for linear spaces, then explores the relationships between these theorems and expected utility theory. Three topics in expected utility are discussed: axioms for expected utility; unanimous expectations;...

P. C. Fishburn



Helping Water Utilities Grapple with Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Water Research Foundation (WRF), serving the drinking water industry and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) are collaborating on an effort to develop and implement locally-relevant, structured processes to help water utilities consider the impacts and adaptation options that climate variability and change might have on their water systems. Adopting a case-study approach, the structured process include 1) a problem definition phase, focused on identifying goals, information needs, utility vulnerabilities and possible adaptation options in the face of climate and hydrologic uncertainty; 2) developing and/or modifying system-specific Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) models and conducting sensitivity analysis to identify critical variables; 3) developing probabilistic climate change scenarios focused on exploring uncertainties identified as important in the sensitivity analysis in step 2; and 4) implementing the structured process and examining approaches decision making under uncertainty. Collaborators include seven drinking water utilities and two state agencies: 1) The Inland Empire Utility Agency, CA; 2) The El Dorado Irrigation District, Placerville CA; 2) Portland Water Bureau, Portland OR; 3) Colorado Springs Utilities, Colo Spgs, CO; 4) Cincinnati Water, Cincinnati, OH; 5) Massachusetts Water Resources Authority (MWRA), Boston, MA; 6) Durham Water, Durham, NC; and 7) Palm Beach County Water (PBCW), Palm Beach, FL. The California Department of Water Resources and the Colorado Water Conservation Board were the state agencies that we have collaborated with.

Yates, D.; Gracely, B.; Miller, K.



Male Adolescent Contraceptive Utilization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The contraceptive utilization of a sample of sexually active, urban, high school males (Black, Hispanic, and White) was examined by anonymous questionnaire. Contraceptive use was haphazard, but White males tended to be more effective contraceptors than the other two groups. Reasons for nonuse were also studied. (Author/SJL)

Finkel, Madelon Lubin; Finkel, David J.



Sports utility trailer  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A system and apparatus for converting a trailer to an observation stand. The sports utility trailer has a chassis frame hingeably connected to a tailgate platform. At least one wheel on the bottom of the chassis frame supports the chassis frame above the ground when the sports utility trailer is a trailer. A ladder mounts to the chassis frame to provide access from one end of the chassis frame to the other when the frame is supported in an upright position where one end is raised substantially higher than the opposing end of the frame. A tongue guide is mounted to the front end of the frame to support a conventional ball hitch socket for towing or transporting the sports utility trailer behind a vehicle. Removable legs from the chassis frame mount to the bottom side of the tailgate platform. When the legs are mounted beneath the tailgate platform, the tailgate platform is raised above the ground so that the legs and the upright chassis frame support the tailgate platform above the ground. By climbing the ladder from the ground to the top side of the tailgate platform, the sports utility trailer can be used as an observation stand.

Martin; Harlan (Hartwell, GA)



Home Health Care Utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study develops and tests a causal model of home health care utilization by the Lucas County elderly. Path analysis was employed to evaluate the model on an area probability sample of 400 Ohio elderly. The findings indicate that the predictors of home health care are more diverse than was expected with the need factor (need for care, use

Richard A. Starrett; Daniel Rogers; Gary Walters



Windpower utilization possibilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibilities of windpower utilization for mechanical pumps, electric generators, mechanical water vortex pumps, and heat pumps are reviewed. Application possibilities can be realized by windpower systems of different size. It must however be determined for which purpose and for which power range they are used. The site and the concomitant wind potential is of utmost importance. Small units in

C. Hoetzel



Utilization-focused Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of any particular effort cannot be guaranteed. Each evaluation being a blend of unique ingredients, no standardized recipe can assure the outcome. We have only principles, premises, and utilization-focused processes to guide us, and we have much yet to learn. But, the potential benefits merit the efforts and risks involved. At stake is improving the effectiveness of programs

Michael Patton


Module utilization committee  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photovoltaic collector modules were declared surplus to the needs of the U.S. Dept. of Energy. The Module Utilization Committee was formed to make appropriate disposition of the surplus modules on a national basis and to act as a broker for requests for these modules originating outside of the National Photovoltaics Program.

Volkmer, K.; Praver, G.



Advanced fossil energy utilization  

SciTech Connect

This special issue of Fuel is a selection of papers presented at the symposium ‘Advanced Fossil Energy Utilization’ co-sponsored by the Fuels and Petrochemicals Division and Research and New Technology Committee in the 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) Spring National Meeting Tampa, FL, on April 26–30, 2009.

Shekhawat, D.; Berry, D.; Spivey, J.; Pennline, H.; Granite, E.



MARS and its applications at Northeast Utilities  

SciTech Connect

The MAAP Accident Response System (MARS) for Northeast Utilities Millstone Unit 1 (MP-1) has been jointly developed by Northeast Utilities (NU) and Fauske Associates, Inc. (FAI). Millstone Unit 1 is a 2011-MW(thermal) boiling water reactor (BWR)/3 with a Mark-I containment. MARS/MP1 is user-friendly computer software that is structured to provide Northeast Utilities management and engineering staff with key insights during actual or simulated accidents. Times to core uncovery, vessel failure, and containment failure are among the figures of merit that can be obtained from this system. MARS/MP1 can predict future conditions of the MP-1 plant based on current plant data and their trends (time-dependent plant data). The objective of this paper is to present the research and development effort of the MARS/MP1 software at Northeast Utilities.

Khalil, Y.F. (Northeast Utilities Service Co., Berlin, CT (United States)); Raines, J.C. (Fauske Associates, Inc., Burr Ridge, IL (United States))



Double Shell Tank (DST) Utilities Specification  

SciTech Connect

This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides the references to the requisite codes and standards to he applied during the design of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Utilities Subsystems that support the first phase of waste feed delivery (WFD). The DST Utilities Subsystems provide electrical power, raw/potable water, and service/instrument air to the equipment and structures used to transfer low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) to designated DST staging tanks. The DST Utilities Subsystems also support the equipment and structures used to deliver blended LAW and HLW feed from these staging tanks to the River Protection Project (RPP) Privatization Contractor facility where the waste will be immobilized. This specification is intended to be the basis for new projects/installations. This specification is not intended to retroactively affect previously established project design criteria without specific direction by the program.




Apparatus for the utilization of solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus for the utilization of radiated solar energy to heat the interior space of a building includes a solar energy collector in the form of a south-facing wall, energy storage elements in the form of remaining wall structures that, in combination with the collector wall, define the interior space, and a combination of conduit and air moving apparatus to circulate

B. M. Beard; J. M. Beard



Hydropower utilization in New York State  

Microsoft Academic Search

A master inventory of hydropower sites in New York is reported. It includes: data on site identification, potential capacity, initial cost, cost per kWh and category class for development. Background information on the methodologies used to structure the inventory of hydropower sites and to rank selected site entries by development categories. An explanation of the economic assessment utilized in these

R. S. Brown; A. S. Goodman



Not business as usual for water utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the implementation of the requirements of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Amendments of 1986 and their economic impacts to water utilities, financiers, stockholders and consumers. The author looks at various funding schemes, rate structure changes and potential mergers all designed to finance the compliance with new EPA standards.



Ethics for electic utilities  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the ethical challenges of remaining honest and fair when the playing field of competition does not appear to be level. Topics discussed include measuring performance, monitoring use of services, public opinion of utility integrity and commitment to service, making ethical concerns and language a part of the management decision process, and communication of moral issues to a place where resolution can occur.

Powers, C.W.; Toffler, B.L. (Resources for Responsible Management, Boston, MA (United States))



Electric utilities in 2007  

SciTech Connect

A century ago--in the year J.J. Thomson discovered the electron--electricity, gas and traction companies battled for markets, and corrupt city councils demanded their fair share of the take. One tycoon became so disgusted with the confusion and dishonesty that he decided to bribe the legislature to set up an honest, state-run regulatory agency that would bring order to chaos. But he was found out. The scandal set back the cause of regulation until 1907, the year in which the electric washing machine and the vacuum cleaner were invented. By then, electricity sales had septupled from 1897 levels, and three states had established utility regulation. In the coming decade, 1997 to 2007, the utility business could undergo similar dramatic change, but it will move toward less regulation and more competition during a period of slow growth. Management will have to work harder to achieve success, however, because much of the profits will have to come not from a growing market but from the pockets of competitors. By 2007, electricity will constitute a component of a larger energy and utility services industry that sells electricity, natural gas and possibly water, propane and telecommunications. Customized service will meet the needs of consumers of all sizes. The dominant firm in the industry, the virtual utility, may look more like a financial organization or a mass marketer than the traditional converter of raw material to energy. Emphasis on market-based pricing should lead to more efficient use of resources. If the process works right, the consumer wins.

Hyman, L.S. [Smith Barney Inc., New York, NY (United States)



Utilization of biomass in Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, approximately 400?000 ton of biomass annually are utilized for energy. It is a question of fuel wood utilized mainly by inhabitants. Utilization of the rest of forest biomass is small even though an annual utilizable potential is almost 7000 TJ. Increase and higher effectiveness of biomass utilization for energy in Slovakia requires development of preparation technology for fuel

Ján Ilavský; Milan Oravec



Beyond outcomes: measuring procedural utility  

Microsoft Academic Search

People not only obtain utility from actual outcomes but also from the conditions which lead to these outcomes. The paper proposes an economic concept of this notion of procedural utility. Preferences beyond outcome can be manifold. We distinguish procedural utility people get from institutions as such, i.e., from how allocative and redistributive decisions are taken, procedural utility from activities towards

Bruno S. Frey; Alois Stutzer



Proceedings of the distributed utility valuation project institutional issues workshop  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings summarize the discussions during a one-day working session on institutional issues related to the distributed utility (DU) concept. The purpose of the session was to provide an initial assessment of the {open_quotes}institutional{close_quotes} issues, including legal, regulatory, industry structure, utility organization, competition, and related matters that may affect the development and the relationships among distributed utility stakeholders. The assessment was to identify institutional barriers to utilities realizing benefits of the distributed concept (should these benefits be confirmed), as well as to identify opportunities for utilities and other stakeholders for moving ahead to more easily capture these benefits.

Not Available



Market research for electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

Marketing research is increasing in importance as utilities become more marketing oriented. Marketing research managers need to maintain autonomy from the marketing director or ad agency and make sure their work is relevant to the utility's operation. This article will outline a model marketing research program for an electric utility. While a utility may not conduct each and every type of research described, the programs presented offer a smorgasbord of activities which successful electric utility marketers often use or have access to.

Shippee, G.



Biogas: Production and utilization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the aspects of biogas production and utilization covered are: (1) the microbiology and biochemistry of the acid and methane production stages in the anaerobic process; (2) factors affecting the process, such as temperature, acidity and alkalinity, nutrients, and cations; (3) denitrification processes and systems; and (4) the process kinetics of suspended growth systems, packed columns, and fluidized beds. Also considered are such issues in the application of this technology as the digestion of municipal treatment plant sludges, animal wastes, food processing wastes and energy crops. Attention is in addition given to anaerobic digester design, offgas measurement of anaerobic digesters, and sludge treatment through soil conditioning and composting.

Price, E. C.; Cheremisinoff, P. N.


Tribal Utility Feasibility Study  

SciTech Connect

The Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) assisted the Yurok Tribe in investigating the feasibility of creating a permanent energy services program for the Tribe. The original purpose of the DOE grant that funded this project was to determine the feasibility of creating a full-blown Yurok Tribal electric utility to buy and sell electric power and own and maintain all electric power infrastructure on the Reservation. The original project consultant found this opportunity to be infeasible for the Tribe. When SERC took over as project consultant, we took a different approach. We explored opportunities for the Tribe to develop its own renewable energy resources for use on the Reservation and/or off-Reservation sales as a means of generating revenue for the Tribe. We also looked at ways the Tribe can provide energy services to its members and how to fund such efforts. We identified opportunities for the development of renewable energy resources and energy services on the Yurok Reservation that fall into five basic categories: • Demand-side management – This refers to efforts to reduce energy use through energy efficiency and conservation measures. • Off-grid, facility and household scale renewable energy systems – These systems can provide electricity to individual homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not currently have access to the electric utility grid. • Village scale, micro-grid renewable energy systems - These are larger scale systems that can provide electricity to interconnected groups of homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not have access to the conventional electric grid. This will require the development of miniature electric grids to serve these interconnected facilities. • Medium to large scale renewable energy development for sale to the grid – In areas where viable renewable energy resources exist and there is access to the conventional electric utility grid, these resources can be developed and sold to the wholesale electricity market. • Facility scale, net metered renewable energy systems – These are renewable energy systems that provide power to individual households or facilities that are connected to conventional electric utility grid.

Engel, R. A.; Zoellick, J. J.



Light duty utility arm  

SciTech Connect

The Light-Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System is a mobile, multi-axis positioning system capable of deploying tools and sensors (end effecters) inside radioactive waste tanks for tank wall inspection, waste characterization, and waste retrieval. The LDUA robotic manipulator enters a tank through existing openings (risers) in the tank dome of the underground tanks. Using various end effecters, the LDUA System is a versatile system for high-level waste tank remediation. The LDUA System provides a means to deploy tools, while increasing the technology resources available to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Ongoing end effecter development will provide additional capabilities to remediate the waste tanks.




Construction utilization of foamed waste glass.  


Foamed waste glass (FWG) material is newly developed for the purpose to utilize the waste glassware and other waste glass. FWG has a multi-porous structure that consists of continuous or discontinuous voids. Hence lightweight but considerable stiffness can be achieved. In the present study, the manufacture and engineering properties of FWG are introduced first. Then, the utilizations of FWG are investigated in laboratory tests and field tests. Some case studies on design and construction work are also reported here. Through these studies we know that the discontinuous void material can be utilized as a lightweight fill material, ground improvement material and lightweight aggregate for concrete. On the other hand, the continuous void material can be used as water holding material for the greening of ground slope and rooftop, and as clarification material for water. PMID:15137660

Lu, Jiang; Onitsuka, Katsutada



Electric utility's view of passive solar backup energy costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) of the National Energy Act regulatory authorities and utilities are mandated to review ratemaking procedures. The outcome of this review may ultimately result in modifications away from residential class declining block rate structures to, where appropriate, time-of-day (TOD), demand related, or a combination of both electricity pricing. The backup energy

T. M. Lechner; W. Quigley



Coal science: An introduction to chemistry, technology and utilization  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the chemistry and geology of coal. It describes aspects of the petrology and petrographic characterization of coal, the processes involved in coal conversion and utilization, and the testing and analysis of coal. It includes recent statistics regarding production and utilization, as well as recent developments in structure, reactivity and routine analysis.

Hessley, R.K.; Reasoner, J.W.; Riley, J.T.



Preparation of highly dispersed Pt-SnO x nanoparticles supported on multi-walled carbon nanotubes for methanol oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To maximize the utilization of catalysts and thereby reduce the high price, a new strategy was developed to prepare highly dispersed Pt-SnOx nanoparticles supported on 8-Hydroxyquinoline (HQ) functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). HQ functionalized MWCNTs (HQ-MWCNTs) provide an ideal support for improving the utilization of platinum-based catalysts, and the introduction of SnOx to the catalyst prevents the CO poisoning effectively.

Chuangang Hu; Yanxia Cao; Lin Yang; Zhengyu Bai; Yuming Guo; Kui Wang; Pengle Xu; Jianguo zhou



Strategic human resource utility analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – As the implementation and acceptance of utility analyses are afflicted by several problems, this paper sets out to describe how to circumvent these problems by implementing a new framework for utility analysis. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The HC BRidge™ model, developed by Boudreau and Ramstad, was implemented to determine the utility of assessment centers within a call center company. Findings

Jens Rowold; Martina Mönninghoff



Maximum Expected Utility via MCMC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper provides a pure simulation approach to solving maximum,expected utility (MEU) problems. MEU problems require both integration, to compute the expected utility, and optimization, to find the optimal decision. In most cases of interest, the expected utility does not have a analytical solution, even for a given value of the decision. One must apply gradient methods around numerical

Eric Jacquier; Michael Johannes; Nicholas Polson


Ultrasonic Diagnostic Technique Utilizing Switched Gain Signal Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application discloses an ultrasonic diagnostic technique utilized to determine the wall thickness of cardiac structures. In a preferred embodiment, the endocardial and epicardial surfaces of the left ventricular posterior wall are irradiated wi...

J. M. Griffith W. L. Henry



Electric Utility Restructuring: Overview of Basic Policy Questions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Proposals to increase competition in the electric utility industry involve segmenting electric functions (generation, transmission, distribution) that are currently integrated (or bundled) in most cases (both in terms of corporate and rate structures). Th...

L. B. Parker



Administrative Utility Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Puerto Rico's economic growth has accentuated the need for a larger vocational education program capable of handling the demand for occupationally-trained personnel. The Area of Vocational and Technical Education (AVTE) operates within the general structure of the Puerto Rico Department of Education, and AVTE programs must be adapted to the…

Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co., San Juan, Puerto Rico.


National Utility Rate Database: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

When modeling solar energy technologies and other distributed energy systems, using high-quality expansive electricity rates is essential. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a utility rate platform for entering, storing, updating, and accessing a large collection of utility rates from around the United States. This utility rate platform lives on the Open Energy Information (OpenEI) website,, allowing the data to be programmatically accessed from a web browser, using an application programming interface (API). The semantic-based utility rate platform currently has record of 1,885 utility rates and covers over 85% of the electricity consumption in the United States.

Ong, S.; McKeel, R.




SciTech Connect

This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover, and switchgrass--and Wyoming subbituminous coal were acquired for combustion tests in the 3-million-Btu/hr system. Blend levels were 20% biomass--80% coal on a heat basis. Hog fuel was prepared for the upcoming combustion test by air-drying and processing through a hammer mill and screen. A K-Tron biomass feeder capable of operating in both gravimetric and volumetric modes was selected as the HITAF feed system. Two oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys that would be used in the HITAF high-temperature heat exchanger were tested for slag corrosion rates. An alumina layer formed on one particular alloy, which was more corrosion-resistant than a chromia layer that formed on the other alloy. Research activities were completed in the development of an atmospheric pressure, fluidized-bed pyrolysis-type system called the controlled spontaneous reactor (CSR), which is used to process and condition biomass. Tree trimmings were physically and chemically altered by the CSR process, resulting in a fuel that was very suitable for feeding into a coal combustion or gasification system with little or no feed system modifications required. Experimental procedures were successful for producing hydrogen from biomass using the bacteria Thermotoga, a deep-ocean thermal vent organism. Analytical procedures for hydrogen were evaluated, a gas chromatography (GC) method was derived for measuring hydrogen yields, and adaptation culturing and protocols for mutagenesis were initiated to better develop strains that can use biomass cellulose. Fly ash derived from cofiring coal with waste paper, sunflower hulls, and wood waste showed a broad spectrum of chemical and physical characteristics, according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C618 procedures. Higher-than-normal levels of magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxide were observed for the biomass-coal fly ash, which may impact utilization in cement replacement in concrete under ASTM requirements. Other niche markets for biomass-derived fly ash were explored. Research was conducted to develop/optimize a catalytic partial oxidation-based concept for a simple, low-cost fuel processor (reformer). Work progressed to evaluate the effects of temperature and denaturant on ethanol catalytic partial oxidation. A catalyst was isolated that had a yield of 24 mole percent, with catalyst coking limited to less than 15% over a period of 2 hours. In biodiesel research, conversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel using an alternative alkaline catalyst was demonstrated without the need for subsequent water washing. In work related to biorefinery technologies, a continuous-flow reactor was used to react ethanol with lactic acid prepared from an ammonium lactate concentrate produced in fermentations conducted at the EERC. Good yields of ester were obtained even though the concentration of lactic acid in the feed was low with respect to the amount of water present. Esterification gave lower yields of ester, owing to the lowered lactic acid content of the feed. All lactic acid fermentation from amylose hydrolysate test trials was completed. Management activities included a decision to extend several projects to December 31, 2003, because of delays in receiving biomass feedstocks for testing and acquisition of commercial matching funds. In strategic studies, methods for producing acetate esters for high-value fibers, fuel additives, solvents, and chemical intermediates were discussed with several commercial entities. Commercial industries have an interest in efficient biomass gasification designs but are waiting for economic incentives. Utility, biorefinery, pulp and paper, or o

Christopher J. Zygarlicke



Time Functions as Utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every time function on spacetime gives a (continuous) total preordering of the spacetime events which respects the notion\\u000a of causal precedence. The problem of the existence of a (semi-)time function on spacetime and the problem of recovering the\\u000a causal structure starting from the set of time functions are studied. It is pointed out that these problems have an analog\\u000a in

E. Minguzzi



Gas utilization technologies  

SciTech Connect

One of the constant challenges facing the research community is the identification of technology needs 5 to 15 years from now. A look back into history indicates that the forces driving natural gas research have changed from decade to decade. In the 1970s research was driven by concerns for adequate supply; in the 1980s research was aimed at creating new markets for natural gas. What then are the driving forces for the 1990s? Recent reports from the natural gas industry have helped define a new direction driven primarily by market demand for natural gas. A study prepared by the Interstate Natural Gas Association of America Foundation entitled ``Survey of Natural Research, Development, and Demonstration RD&D Priorities`` indicated that in the 1990s the highest research priority should be for natural gas utilization and that technology development efforts should not only address efficiency and cost, but environmental and regulatory issues as well. This study and others, such as the report by the American Gas Association (A.G.A.) entitled ``Strategic Vision for Natural Gas Through the Year 2000,`` clearly identify the market sectors driving today`s technology development needs. The biggest driver is the power generation market followed by the industrial, transportation, appliance, and gas cooling markets. This is best illustrated by the GRI 1994 Baseline Projection on market growth in various sectors between the year 1992 and 2010. This paper highlights some of the recent technology developments in each one of these sectors.

Biljetina, R.



Space Resources Utilization Roundtable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This volume contains abstracts on various topics. These topics include; Economics of Lunar Mineral Exploration; Lunar Solar Power System and Lunar Development; Space Resource Roundtable Rationale; Successfully Mining Asteroids and Comets; Lunar Polar Ice: Method for Mining the New Resource for Exploration; Acoustic Shaping: Enabling Technology for a Space-based Economy; Return to the Moon: A New Strategic Evaluation; Spacewatch Discovery and Study of Accessible Asteroids; Role of Mining in Space Development; A Commercial/Lunar Resources Exploration Concept; Radar Reconnaissance of Near-Earth Asteroids; Solar Energy Conversion Using In Situ Lunar Soil; The Application of Thermal Plasmas to Ore Reduction for In Situ Resource Utilization; Prospecting Near-Earth Asteroids from the Ground; Some Implications of Space Tourism for Extraterrestrial Resources; An Overview of NASA's Current In Situ Consumable Production (ISCP) Development Activities and Goals; Prospectives on Lunar Helium-3; Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis for In Situ Materials Processing; Subsurface Exploration from Lander and Rover Platforms with Seismic Surface Waves; Space Weathering and the Formation of Lunar Soil: The Moon as the Model for all Airless Bodies in the Solar System; and Acoustic Shaping in Microgravity: Technology Issues.



PFBC Utility Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a summary of activities by American Electric Power Service Corporation during the first budget period of the PFBC Utility Demonstration Project. In April 1990, AEP signed a Cooperative Agreement with the US Department of Energy to repower the Philip Sporn Plant, Units 3 4 in New Haven, West Virginia, with a 330 KW PFBC plant. The purpose of the program was to demonstrate and verify PFBC in a full-scale commercial plant. The technical and cost baselines of the Cooperative Agreement were based on a preliminary engineering and design and a cost estimate developed by AEP subsequent to AEP's proposal submittal in May 1988, and prior to the signing of the Cooperative Agreement. The Statement of Work in the first budget period of the Cooperative Agreement included a task to develop a preliminary design and cost estimate for erecting a Greenfield plant and to conduct a comparison with the repowering option. The comparative assessment of the options concluded that erecting a Greenfield plant rather than repowering the existing Sporn Plant could be the technically and economically superior alternative. The Greenfield plant would have a capacity of 340 MW. The ten additional MW output is due to the ability to better match the steam cycle to the PFBC system with a new balance of plant design. In addition to this study, the conceptual design of the Sporn Repowering led to several items which warranted optimization studies with the goal to develop a more cost effective design.

Not Available



Utility Computing: Reality and Beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Utility Computing is not a new concept. It involves organizing and providing a wide range of computing-related services as public utilities. Much like water, gas, electricity and telecommunications, the concept of computing as public utility was announced in 1955. Utility Computing remained a concept for near 50 years. Now some models and forms of Utility Computing are emerging such as storage and server virtualization, grid computing, and automated provisioning. Recent trends in Utility Computing as a complex technology involve business procedures that could profoundly transform the nature of companies' IT services, organizational IT strategies and technology infrastructure, and business models. In the ultimate Utility Computing models, organizations will be able to acquire as much IT services as they need, whenever and wherever they need them. Based on networked businesses and new secure online applications, Utility Computing would facilitate "agility-integration" of IT resources and services within and between virtual companies. With the application of Utility Computing there could be concealment of the complexity of IT, reduction of operational expenses, and converting of IT costs to variable `on-demand' services. How far should technology, business and society go to adopt Utility Computing forms, modes and models?

Ivanov, Ivan I.


Utility solar water heating workshops  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to explore the problems and opportunities for utility participation with solar water heating as a DSM measure. Expected benefits from the workshops included an increased awareness and interest by utilities in solar water heating as well as greater understanding by federal research and policy officials of utility perspectives for purposes of planning and programming. Ultimately, the project could result in better information transfer, increased implementation of solar water heating programs, greater penetration of solar systems, and more effective research projects. The objective of the workshops was satisfied. Each workshop succeeded in exploring the problems and opportunities for utility participation with solar water heating as a DSM option. The participants provided a range of ideas and suggestions regarding useful next steps for utilities and NREL. According to evaluations, the participants believed the workshops were very valuable, and they returned to their utilities with new information, ideas, and commitment.

Barrett, L.B. (Barrett Consulting Associates, Inc., Colorado Springs, CO (United States))



Utilities must do more communicating  

SciTech Connect

The dramatic changes within the electric-utility industry over the past decade require them to do a greater and more effective job of communicating with their customers. When the revenues and advertising burgets for investor-owned electric utilities over a six-year period are compared with the revenues and ad dollars of other large industries and selected companies, the discrepancy is apparent. The ad costs for just one brand of cigarette are three-fourths of all utility ad spending. The utilities need to use advertising to explain new service programs and rate strategies to the public. 3 figures.

Uhler, R.G.



Utility of Remote Sensing, Robotic Precursor Data and a Focused Science Hypothesis for a Follow-On Human Exploration Lunar Analogue Mission at the Mistastin Lake (Kamestastin) Impact Structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we summarize how remote sensing, robotic precursor data and a focused science hypothesis augmented the results from a lunar analogue mission to the Mistastin impact structure in Labrador, Canada. Join me as we go on a magical tour of this crater.

Tornabene, L. L.; Osinski, G. R.; Mader, M. M.; Chanou, A.; Francis, R.; Joliff, B. L.; Marion, C.; McCullough, E.; Pickersgill, A.; Sapers, H.; Souders, K.; Sylvester, P.; Young, K.; Zanetti, M.; Krash Operations; Science Team



Robot task control utilizing human-in-the-loop perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a network robot application utilizing a human-in-the-loop structure. The proposed structure hybridizes robot perception with perception capability of a human, rendering a robot immune to the uncontrolled environment. Network infrastructure enables the user to intervene in the operation of a robot whenever necessary, enabling seamless transition of task control between the robot and the remote user. We have

Wonpil Yu; Jae-Yeong Lee; Heesung Chae; Kyuseo Han; Yucheol Lee; Minsu Jang



Dental care utilization over time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1950 and 1978, per capita real dental expenfitures in the U.S. grew at an average annual rate of 3.33%. Between 1978 and 1989 there was virtually no net growth in this measure of dental care utilization. This sharp curtailment of utilization growth has prompted debate about the sources of this change. Possible explanations include, among others, a reduction in

Tryfon Beazoglou; L. Jackson Brown; Dennis Heffley



Acid rain & electric utilities II  

SciTech Connect

This document presents reports which were presented at the Acid Rain and Electric Utilities Conference. Topics include environmental issues and electric utilities; acid rain program overview; global climate change and carbon dioxide; emissions data management; compliance; emissions control; allowance and trading; nitrogen oxides; and assessment. Individual reports have been processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.




Recent Advances in Foliage Utilization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary purpose of the report to draw attention, at the decision-making level, to a little-known and neglected field of massive opportunity - foliage utilization. Foliage derivatives can be used in a wide range of products utilized in animal feeds, co...

J. L. Keays G. M. Barton



Multiattribute Fixed-State Utility Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper is concerned with the assessment of utility functions for multiple attributes. The literature on utility assessment, multidimensional scaling, conjoint measurement, and conditional expected utility theory is reviewed. A procedure for utility as...

D. L. Libby M. R. Novick



Identifying and managing inappropriate hospital utilization: a policy synthesis.  

PubMed Central

Utilization review, the assessment of the appropriateness and efficiency of hospital care through review of the medical record, and utilization management, deliberate action by payers or hospital administrators to influence providers of hospital services to increase the efficiency and effectiveness with which services are provided, are valuable but relatively unfamiliar strategies for containing hospital costs. The purpose of this synthesis is to increase awareness of the scope of and potential for these approaches among health services managers and administrators, third-party payers, policy analysts, and health services researchers. The synthesis will assist the reader to trace the conceptual context and the historical development of utilization review from unstructured methods using individual physicians' professional judgment to structured methods using explicit criteria; to establish the context of utilization review and clarify its uses; to understand the concepts and tools used in assessing the efficiency of hospital use; and to select, design, and evaluate utilization review and utilization management programs. The extent of inappropriate (medical unnecessary) hospital utilization and the factors associated with it are described. Implications for managers, providers, and third-party payers in targeting utilization review and in designing and evaluating utilization management programs are discussed.

Payne, S M



Back to Bentham? Explorations of Experienced Utility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two core meanings of 'utility' are distinguished. 'Decision utility' is the weight of an outcome in a decision. 'Experienced utility' is a hedonic quality, as in J. Bentham's usage. Experienced utility can be reported in real time (instant utility) or in retrospective evaluations of past episodes (remembered utility). Psychological research has documented systematic errors in retrospective evaluations, which can induce

Daniel Kahneman; Peter P. Wakker; Rakesh Sarin



Structure of L-Xylulose-5-Phosphate 3-Epimerase (UlaE) from the Anaerobic L-Ascorbate Utilization Pathway of Escherichia coli: Identification of a Novel Phosphate Binding Motif within a TIM Barrel Fold  

SciTech Connect

Three catabolic enzymes, UlaD, UlaE, and UlaF, are involved in a pathway leading to fermentation of L-ascorbate under anaerobic conditions. UlaD catalyzes a {beta}-keto acid decarboxylation reaction to produce L-xylulose-5-phosphate, which undergoes successive epimerization reactions with UlaE (L-xylulose-5-phosphate 3-epimerase) and UlaF (L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase), yielding D-xylulose-5-phosphate, an intermediate in the pentose phosphate pathway. We describe here crystallographic studies of UlaE from Escherichia coli O157:H7 that complete the structural characterization of this pathway. UlaE has a triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel fold and forms dimers. The active site is located at the C-terminal ends of the parallel {beta}-strands. The enzyme binds Zn{sup 2+}, which is coordinated by Glu155, Asp185, His211, and Glu251. We identified a phosphate-binding site formed by residues from the {beta}1/{alpha}1 loop and {alpha}3' helix in the N-terminal region. This site differs from the well-characterized phosphate-binding motif found in several TIM barrel superfamilies that is located at strands {beta}7 and {beta}8. The intrinsic flexibility of the active site region is reflected by two different conformations of loops forming part of the substrate-binding site. Based on computational docking of the L-xylulose 5-phosphate substrate to UlaE and structural similarities of the active site of this enzyme to the active sites of other epimerases, a metal-dependent epimerization mechanism for UlaE is proposed, and Glu155 and Glu251 are implicated as catalytic residues. Mutation and activity measurements for structurally equivalent residues in related epimerases supported this mechanistic proposal.

Shi, Rong; Pineda, Marco; Ajamian, Eunice; Cui, Qizhi; Matte, Allan; Cygler, Miroslaw (McGill); (NRC-Canada)



Potentially increasing the metabolic stability of drug candidates via computational site of metabolism prediction by CYP2C9: The utility of incorporating protein flexibility via an ensemble of structures  

PubMed Central

Cytochrome P450 enzymes are responsible for metabolizing many endogenous and xenobiotic molecules encountered by the human body. It has been estimated that 75% of all drugs are metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes. Thus, predicting a compound s potential sites of metabolism (SOM) is highly advantageous early in the drug development process. We have combined molecular dynamics, AutoDock Vina docking, the neighboring atom type (NAT) reactivity model, and a solvent-accessible surface-area term to form a reactivity-accessibility model capable of predicting SOM for cytochrome P450 2C9 substrates. To investigate the importance of protein flexibility during the ligand binding process, the results of SOM prediction using a static protein structure for docking were compared to SOM prediction using multiple protein structures in ensemble docking. The results reported here indicate that ensemble docking increases the number of ligands that can be docked in a bioactive conformation (ensemble: 96%, static: 85%) but only leads to a slight improvement (49% vs. 44%) in predicting an experimentally known SOM in the top-1 position for a ligand library of 75 CYP2C9 substrates. Using ensemble docking, the reactivity-accessibility model accurately predicts SOM in the top-1 ranked position for 49% of the ligand library and considering the top-3 predicted sites increases the prediction success rate to approximately 70% of the ligand library. Further classifying the substrate library according to Km values leads to an improvement in SOM prediction for substrates with low Km values (57% at top-1). While the current predictive power of the reactivity-accessibility model still leaves significant room for improvement, the results illustrate the usefulness of this method to identify key protein-ligand interactions and guide structural modifications of the ligand to increase its metabolic stability.

Danielson, Matthew L.; Desai, Prashant V.; Mohutsky, Michael A.; Wrighton, Steven A.; Lill, Markus A.



Structure of L-xylulose-5-Phosphate 3-epimerase (UlaE) from the anaerobic L-ascorbate utilization pathway of Escherichia coli: identification of a novel phosphate binding motif within a TIM barrel fold.  


Three catabolic enzymes, UlaD, UlaE, and UlaF, are involved in a pathway leading to fermentation of l-ascorbate under anaerobic conditions. UlaD catalyzes a beta-keto acid decarboxylation reaction to produce L-xylulose-5-phosphate, which undergoes successive epimerization reactions with UlaE (L-xylulose-5-phosphate 3-epimerase) and UlaF (L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase), yielding D-xylulose-5-phosphate, an intermediate in the pentose phosphate pathway. We describe here crystallographic studies of UlaE from Escherichia coli O157:H7 that complete the structural characterization of this pathway. UlaE has a triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel fold and forms dimers. The active site is located at the C-terminal ends of the parallel beta-strands. The enzyme binds Zn(2+), which is coordinated by Glu155, Asp185, His211, and Glu251. We identified a phosphate-binding site formed by residues from the beta1/alpha1 loop and alpha3' helix in the N-terminal region. This site differs from the well-characterized phosphate-binding motif found in several TIM barrel superfamilies that is located at strands beta7 and beta8. The intrinsic flexibility of the active site region is reflected by two different conformations of loops forming part of the substrate-binding site. Based on computational docking of the L-xylulose 5-phosphate substrate to UlaE and structural similarities of the active site of this enzyme to the active sites of other epimerases, a metal-dependent epimerization mechanism for UlaE is proposed, and Glu155 and Glu251 are implicated as catalytic residues. Mutation and activity measurements for structurally equivalent residues in related epimerases supported this mechanistic proposal. PMID:18849419

Shi, Rong; Pineda, Marco; Ajamian, Eunice; Cui, Qizhi; Matte, Allan; Cygler, Miroslaw



Utility robotic planning: case studies  

SciTech Connect

Currently, the utility use of robotic devices is most appropriate in nuclear power plants. Four utilities are currently approaching the task of robotic applications. The planning program of each of the utilities is discussed. The following similarities of approach are noted: Plant operating personnel are surveyed for application ideas, and a company task force is established involving these personnel to determine specific application needs and cost-benefit. The state-of-the-art of various robotic devices is evaluated and selected equipment is tested in existing plants. The robotic experience gained from nuclear plant applications is extended to other non-nuclear areas. 2 figures, 1 table.

Roman, H.T.; Travato, S.A.; Irving, T.L.; Patnaude, L.G.



Synthesis and structural studies of metal complexes of the biological ligand 2-quinaldic acid: Utilization of the polymer pendant analog PS-2-QA for selective aluminum ion removal from aqueous solution  

SciTech Connect

The synthetic reactions of quinaldic acid (2-QA, 1), a ligand with potential implications in Al{sup 3+} ion biological transport and in pharmaceutical applications and of use for the removal and recovery of Al{sup 3+} ions from environmental waste sites, were studied with tri- and divalent metal ions that encompass Al{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 3+}, Ga{sup 3+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, and Co{sup 2+}. The Al{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 3+}, and Ga{sup 3+} metal ion complexes, 2-4, of 1 were characterized by FT-IR, FAB/MS, NMR, and elemental analysis and provided the following structural formula with 1 of 2-QA{sub 4}M{sub 2}({mu}-OH){sub 2}{center_dot}S, where S = H{sub 2}O or pyridine. In the case of the Ga{sup 3+} analog, 4{center_dot}Py, the unequivocal {mu}-OH dimer structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray analysis [space group, P1]. Polymer bound PS-2-A lihgand was found to remove Al{sup 3+} from aqueous solutions in the presence of Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, and Co{sup 2+} as well as the trivalent metal ion, Cr{sup 3+}.

Li, W.; Olmstead, M.M.; Miggins, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others



The effect of regulation on the professionally managed utility  

SciTech Connect

Mixed empirical evidence concerning the A-J effect suggests that regulatory constraints affect utilities differently, depending upon their organizational structure. An important characteristic of firms is the concern for profits on the part of managements. This concern is related to the extent that management owns the firms' residual claims. In the case of many utilities, professional management means divorce of ownership from the firm's decision-making.

Czamanski, O.Z.



Efficacy of Utility Database Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research is needed to justify changes in current Law, Rules, Policy, Processes and Utility Data Management Requirements to affect savings in time and dollars to the Department's work Program. The purpose of this research is to investigate whether the five...

A. Yalcin N. O. Collier S. Tsalatsanis S. C. Kranc



Improved motors for utility applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reliability and performance of powerhouse motors was evaluated and design and operational characteristics which, through advanced development, offer the potential of increased reliability, performance, and efficiency were identified. A data base of utility motor applications, operating factors, failures, causes of failures, and impacts of failures on the operation of the generating station was developed. A survey of 132 generating units was conducted and data on 4800 low and medium voltage motors with ratings greater than 100 hp was obtained. Results are presented relating motor failures to units, utilities, manufacturers, and applications. A separate survey was undertaken with the goal of documenting utility industry experience in using vacuum devices to switch motors in generating station auxiliaries systems. Eleven utilities were identified as having installations involving vacuum switching devices at 12 generating stations representing 122 motors.

Cornell, E. P.; Owen, E. L.; Appiarius, J. C.; McCoy, R. M.; Albrecht, P. F.; Houghtaling, D. W.



Rational Energy Utilization in Breweries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication abstracted informs of the present state of economic energy utilization in breweries. It deals with the following subjects: assessment of energy consumption, energy cost, rational use of energy in terms of electric power supply and heat sup...



Implementation and Utilization of Biogas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A review of the characteristics and problems encountered during production, transportation and utilization of biogas is presented: chemical analysis of the biogas (Instruments), corrosiveness of biogas and its effects on ducts, design of the ducts and duc...

J. P. Perret



Alternative Scenarios Utilizing Nonterrestrial Resources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A collection of alternative scenarios that are enabled or substantially enhanced by the utilization of nonterrestrial resources is provided. We take a generalized approach to scenario building so that our report will have value in the context of whatever ...

C. H. Eldred B. B. Roberts




EPA Science Inventory

This study was conducted to provide a mechanism and framework with which utility managers could analyze the effects of upstream discharges on source waters. Specific components of the project included selection, implementation, and demonstration of a microcomputer-based commerci...


Photovoltaics: New opportunities for utilities  

SciTech Connect

This publication presents information on photovoltaics. The following topics are discussed: Residential Photovoltaics: The New England Experience Builds Confidence in PV; Austin's 300-kW Photovoltaic Power Station: Evaluating the Breakeven Costs; Residential Photovoltaics: The Lessons Learned; Photovoltaics for Electric Utility Use; Least-Cost Planning: The Environmental Link; Photovoltaics in the Distribution System; Photovoltaic Systems for the Rural Consumer; The Issues of Utility-Intertied Photovoltaics; and Photovoltaics for Large-Scale Use: Costs Ready to Drop Again.

Not Available



Regulatory reform and public utilities  

SciTech Connect

This book results from two seminars regarding the subject title that were held at Rutgers the State University, New Brunswick, NJ on October 30, 1981 and March 26, 1982. The seminars received financial support from leading New Jersey utilities. The introductory chapter (by the editor) and the other nine chapters are all written within the context of the pressures facing regulated utilities and their regulators. A separate abstract was prepared for each chapter.

Crew, M.A. (ed.)



Photovoltaics: New opportunities for utilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This publication presents information on photovoltaics. The following topics are discussed: residential photovoltaics- the New England experience builds confidence in PV; Austin's 300-kW Photovoltaic Power Station- evaluating the breakeven costs; residential photovoltaics- the lessons learned; photovoltaics for electric utility use; least-cost planning- the environmental link; photovoltaics in the distribution system; photovoltaic systems for the rural consumer; the issues of utility-intertied photovoltaics; and photovoltaics for large-scale use- costs ready to drop again.



Omaha utility tests trenchless units  

SciTech Connect

Like all gas utilities, Metropolitan Utility District of Omaha, Neb., is always looking for better, more efficient ways of installing underground facilities. The utility's growth plan was having an effect on the type of work performed by the construction division. Gas main installations in fully developed, all-electric subdivisions were becoming more common. This paper reports that this type of work involved extensive restoration when performed by conventional methods, due to the presence of established lawns, landscaping, driveways and other underground utilities, that added significantly to the overall cost of the project. Disruption of the lawns was an inconvenience and nuisance to the utility's customers, which the district wanted to minimize in the interest of good customer and public relations. As a result, the utility scheduled field demonstrations by various boring equipment makers. After several less-than-successful demonstrations by various manufacturers, the MUD contacted Midwest Pow-R Mole Co. Inc., for a test of the new Pow-R Mole directional boring system. The system was developed by Pow-R Devices Inc., Clarence Center, N.Y.

Not Available



How should utilities adjust to the coming deregulated environment?  

SciTech Connect

A utility`s success in prospering in the changing industry environment will depend on its understanding of the nature and timing of external change. To the extent that a utility can organize its management structure to reflect both regulated and competitive environments, and the role of each in the transition, it should have a good chance at success. The utility environment today is in a remarkable state of structural upheaval. New parties at the table - non-utility developers and large customers - are calling for abandonment of the ancient regulatory compact: sheltered monopoly markets in return for universal utility service and regulated profits. Many customers and the better-prepared competitors are demanding deregulation now. Just as it transformed the airline, long distance telephone and natural gas industries, today`s call for a market-based, largely unregulated power supply industry seems likely to turn the power generation sector, where the bulk of the industry`s investment is found, into a wholly new structure, in which there will be winners and losers-and none of the security of the past.

Nicewarner, N.A.



Utilization of selected leucine peptide amides by Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

Studies on the utilization of leucine peptide amides as a source of leucine for a leucine auxotroph showed that in general compounds with the structure leu-chi amide (where chi is any amide) are utilized as well as the free peptide, but that compounds with the structure chi-leu amide (where chi is not leucine) are used less effectively than the free peptide. Growth and enzymological experiments indicated that the lower capacity of Escherichia coli to utilize amides of the structure chi-leu amide is not a result of poor transport of these compounds, but rather the inability to rapidly liberate leucine from the amide when it is supplied to the cell in the form of a peptide. Competition studies indicated that the peptide amides enter the cell via the oligopeptide permease system.

Hirshfield, I N; Price, M B



Spirocyclic sulfamides as ?-secretase 1 (BACE-1) inhibitors for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease: utilization of structure based drug design, WaterMap, and CNS penetration studies to identify centrally efficacious inhibitors.  


?-Secretase 1 (BACE-1) is an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment and prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Herein, we describe the discovery of a novel class of BACE-1 inhibitors represented by sulfamide 14g, using a medicinal chemistry strategy to optimize central nervous system (CNS) penetration by minimizing hydrogen bond donors (HBDs) and reducing P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mediated efflux. We have also taken advantage of the combination of structure based drug design (SBDD) to guide the optimization of the sulfamide analogues and the in silico tool WaterMap to explain the observed SAR. Compound 14g is a potent inhibitor of BACE-1 with excellent permeability and a moderate P-gp liability. Administration of 14g to mice produced a significant, dose-dependent reduction in central A?(X-40) levels at a free drug exposure equivalent to the whole cell IC(50) (100 nM). Furthermore, studies of the P-gp knockout mouse provided evidence that efflux transporters affected the amount of A? lowering versus that observed in wild-type (WT) mouse at an equivalent dose. PMID:22984865

Brodney, Michael A; Barreiro, Gabriela; Ogilvie, Kevin; Hajos-Korcsok, Eva; Murray, John; Vajdos, Felix; Ambroise, Claude; Christoffersen, Curt; Fisher, Katherine; Lanyon, Lorraine; Liu, Jianhua; Nolan, Charles E; Withka, Jane M; Borzilleri, Kris A; Efremov, Ivan; Oborski, Christine E; Varghese, Alison; O'Neill, Brian T



Utilization of pediatric health services in Jerusalem.  


The high rate of utilization of health services and rising health care costs in Israel, have prompted the need for reform of the health care system. Preventive and curative aspects of mother and child health care in Israel have traditionally been addressed by independent but parallel health systems. Prior to the pilot integration of these services, current patterns of utilization of health services by children during their first year of life, and determinants of use, were analyzed. Mothers of 651 children from five neighborhoods, representing the middle-low, middle and upper social class Jewish population were interviewed. Overall, a high degree of compliance with recommended visits to the preventive family health centers was found, with an average of eleven visits to the public health physician or nurse. The children also made an average of 12 visits to curative practitioners. Combined with all other health care consultations, these children averaged 26 health care visits in the first year of life. This pattern of frequent visitations, and its determinants, is discussed in context of the current framework of parallel health care systems. Multivariate analysis revealed that the birth order of the child was the key factor in determining the number of preventive visits, while the mother's perception of her child's health status held the major influence on the number of curative visits. No association between utilization of services and social class was discovered. Comparison of utilization patterns arising from this study with subsequent investigation of the planned integrated services allows for the assessment of the effects of a major change in the structure and delivery of pediatric services. PMID:1401234

Neumark, Y; Palti, H; Donchin, M; Ellencweig, A Y



Syntheses of Pd(ii)/Pt(ii) complexes with non-chelating 4-pyridylselenolate ligand ranging from mononuclear to macrocyclic structures and their utility as catalysts in Suzuki C-C coupling reaction.  


Treatment of Na2PdCl4 or [MCl2(PhCN)2] with bis(4-pyridyl)diselenide yielded an insoluble product of composition [MCl2(4,4'-(C5H4N)2Se2)]n (). The reactions of Na2PdCl4 with one and two eq. of Na(4-SeC5H4N) afforded insoluble products [PdCl(4-SeC5H4N)]n () and [Pd(4-SeC5H4N)2]n (), respectively. On treatment with PPh3, and gave trans-[PdCl(4-SeC5H4N)(PPh3)2] () and trans-[Pd(4-SeC5H4N)2(PPh3)2] (), respectively. The oxidative addition of bis(4-pyridyl)diselenide to Pt(PPh3)4 exclusively yielded trans-[Pt(4-SeC5H4N)2(PPh3)2] (). The treatment of two eq. of Na(4-SeC5H4N) with cis-[PtX2(PR3)2] afforded (X = Cl) and trans-[Pt(4-SeC5H4N)2(PEt3)2] () (X = Cl or CF3SO3). The reactions of cis-[MCl2(P(?)P)] and [M2Cl2(?-Cl)2(PR3)2] with two eq. of Na(4-SeC5H4N) exclusively yielded cis-[M(4-SeC5H4N)2(P(?)P)] (M/P(?)P = Pd/dppe (), Pt/dppm () and Pt/dppp ()) and [MCl(4-SeC5H4N)(PR3)]n (), respectively. The complex trans-[PtCl(4-SeC5H4N)(PEt3)2] () was isolated from the redistribution reaction between and cis-[PtCl2(PEt3)2]. The complex [PdCl(4-SeC5H4N)(PPh3)]n () exists in bi- and tri-nuclear forms, whereas [MCl(4-SeC5H4N)(PEt3)]n (, ) and [PtCl(4-SeC5H4N)(PMe2Ph)]n () retain their trinuclear structure in solution. Molecular structures of , , , , , , , and were established by single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. The complexes trans-[PdCl(4-SeC5H4N)(PPh3)2] and [PdCl(4-SeC5H4N)(PPh3)]n can act as catalysts for Suzuki C-C cross coupling reaction. PMID:23942808

Vivekananda, K V; Dey, S; Wadawale, A; Bhuvanesh, N; Jain, V K



Energy Efficiency and Electric Utilities  

SciTech Connect

The report is an overview of electric energy efficiency programs. It takes a concise look at what states are doing to encourage energy efficiency and how it impacts electric utilities. Energy efficiency programs began to be offered by utilities as a response to the energy crises of the 1970s. These regulatory-driven programs peaked in the early-1990s and then tapered off as deregulation took hold. Today, rising electricity prices, environmental concerns, and national security issues have renewed interest in increasing energy efficiency as an alternative to additional supply. In response, new methods for administering, managing, and delivering energy efficiency programs are being implemented. Topics covered in the report include: Analysis of the benefits of energy efficiency and key methods for achieving energy efficiency; evaluation of the business drivers spurring increased energy efficiency; Discussion of the major barriers to expanding energy efficiency programs; evaluation of the economic impacts of energy efficiency; discussion of the history of electric utility energy efficiency efforts; analysis of the impact of energy efficiency on utility profits and methods for protecting profitability; Discussion of non-utility management of energy efficiency programs; evaluation of major methods to spur energy efficiency - systems benefit charges, resource planning, and resource standards; and, analysis of the alternatives for encouraging customer participation in energy efficiency programs.




Work Breakdown Structure Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Utilization of the work breakdown structure (WBS) technique is an effective aid in managing Department of Energy (DOE) programs and projects. The technique provides a framework for project management by focusing on the products that are being developed or...



Utilization of residual forest biomass  

SciTech Connect

The first world-wide energy crisis in the early 1970s resulted in an explosive increase in both the number and diversity of studies on unmerchantable tree components such as tops, branches, foliage, stumps, and roots, and on whole small-sized trees. This book presents a synopsis and the latest information on forest biomass utilization and the potential of this renewable raw material resource, presented from an interdisciplinary viewpoint. This balanced review of scientific literature as well as recent practical developments and experience in forest biomass utilization covers various aspects of quantity and properties of the resource, harvesting and transport, ecological consequences of intensive biomass recovery, comminution and upgrading, utilization for pulp, paper, composite boards, fodder, and energy in solid, liquid, or gaseous form.

Hakkila, P.



Cognitions of Work Unit Structure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An improved conceptual and empirical approach to identifying dimensions of work unit structure is proposed and tested. Multidimensional scaling procedures utilizing input data from 180 unit respondents recover a perceptual map of work unit structure. Inte...

R. Blackburn L. L. Cummings



Competition and utility financial risks  

SciTech Connect

While competition for electric utilities has grown steadily for over a decade, the inroads have been small. Utilities have lost load by being forced to buy power from cogenerators. They have foregone some of their normal growth by choosing to buy power from independent power producers instead of building generating facilities themselves. They have absorbed earnings erosion by giving discounts to large industrial customers to avoid having them move production outside their service areas. Yet although competition in these areas can be expected to intensity, the real financial risk for utilities lies on other fronts, principally direct price competition. The type of competition experienced thus far will constrain utility financial progress, but utilities will no doubt find ways to mitigate its impact, an example being investment in demand-side management (DSM) programs. Direct price competition, on the other hand, offers few if any avenues of escape, and it is only a matter of time before the barriers that prevent it are removed. One of the largest is the prohibition of retail wheeling, which is the principal source of price protection for utilities. Significantly, over the course of the last year the prohibition of retail wheeling has been transformed from an untouchable issue into the central issue in the struggle over competition. Price competition, when it develops, will be driven by the cost of producing electric power with new generating facilities and whatever excess generating capacity exists in the industry. How important price competition becomes will depend on what customers want. If low-cost power turns out to be a top priority, price competition will be a very important part of the competitive picture. The experience of industries that have been deregulated, such as the airlines, suggests that low prices will have a high priority.

Studness, C.M.



Utilities` business plans include outsourcing  

SciTech Connect

A panel discussion on the benefits and drawbacks of outsourcing information system functions and telecommunications operations drew much interest at the UTC (the Telecommunications Association) Annual Conference and Exhibition, held here in late summer. A panel, consisting of executives from utilities that have outsourced these services discussed this controversial business management trend. {open_quotes}Outsourcing decisions should be a balance between corporate functional requirements and cost reduction,{close_quotes} said panelist Richard Kubica, Northeast Utilities Service Co.`s manager of network planning and engineering.




Developing technologies for coal utilization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The utilization of coal slurries in place of oil in utility and industrial boilers; the development of improved atmospheric and pressurized fluidized bed combustors; the designs of integrated combined cycle systems; and coal gasification and liquefaction to augment supplies of natural gas and liquid fuels, respectively are discussed. The worldwide coal resource base is so large that the necessity to manufacture liquid fuels from coals must be realized. An initiative proposed by the International Energy Agency defines several specific direct coal liquefaction designs and sites where direct coal liquefaction may be implemented.

Penner, S. S.


Utilization and utility of clinical laboratory reports with graphical elements  

PubMed Central

Background: Graphical reports that contain charts, images, and tables have potential to convey information more effectively than text-based reports; however, studies have not measured how much clinicians value such features. We sought to identify factors that might influence the utilization of reports with graphical elements postulating that this is a surrogate for relative clinical utility of these graphical elements. Materials and Methods: We implemented a pilot project at ARUP laboratories to develop online enhanced laboratory test reports that contained graphical elements. We monitored on-demand clinician access to reports generated for 48 reportable tests over 22 months. We evaluated utilization of reports with graphical elements by clinicians at all institutions that use ARUP as a reference laboratory using descriptive statistics, regression, and meta-analysis tools to evaluate groups of similar test reports. Results: Median download rate by test was 8.6% with high heterogeneity in download rates between tests. Test reports with additional graphical elements were not necessarily downloaded more often than reports without these elements. Recently implemented tests and tests reporting abnormal results were associated with higher download rates (P < 0.01). Higher volume tests were associated with lower download rates (P = 0.03). Conclusions: In select cases graphical information may be clinically useful, particularly for less frequently ordered tests and in on reports of abnormal results. The utilization data presented could be used as a reference point for other laboratories planning on implementing graphical reporting. However, between-test heterogeneity was high and in many cases graphical elements may add little clinical utility, particularly if these merely reinforce information already contained in text based reports.

Shirts, Brian H.; Larsen, Nichole; Jackson, Brian R.



Degradation and morphological disorder in organic light-emitting diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the intrinsic oxidative degradation present in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), wherein aluminum (III) 8-hydroxyquinoline (Alq 3) is utilized as an electron transporting and light emitting layer is analyzed as a function of the relative hole current in the device. The extent to which holes are allowed into the Alq3 layer in the typical hole transport layer/electron transport layer sandwich structure in OLEDs is controlled by means of the variable conductivity of a salt containing polymer layer (henceforth referred to as the oxidized transport layer or OTL) acting as a hole injection layer. The device lifetime and quantum efficiency were observed to attain an optimum value for injected hole current. Based on these results, the hypothesis that hole current in excess of that required for light emission results in the intrinsic failure of OLEDs is proved. Further improvement in OLED lifetimes was attempted by minimizing thin film morphological instabilities. Co-evaporation of Alg3 with its close adduct aluminum (III) 4-methyl, 8-hydroxyquinoline (4m-Alq3) was utilized to provide entropically driven resistance to crystallization. The device quantum efficiencies thus obtained were the highest relative to 4m-Alq3 or Alq3 OLEDs made without co-evaporation, but the measured lifetimes were not extended over that of Alga based OLEDs. This is due to the poorer chemical stability of the 4m-Alq3 molecule as well as the energetic disorder introduced into the film by virtue of the blending process. The observation of this effect of energetic disorder led to the study of the same present in Alq3 itself. The utilization of 27Al solid-state magic angle spinning NMR enabled the detection of molecular scale disorder in thermally evaporated films of Alq3. Based on variations in the dipole correlation effects resulting from molecular scale disorder, the evolution of the density of states for Alq3 as a function of evaporation rate was estimated. This study clearly proved the existence of traps inherent to organometallic systems comprised of octahedrally complexed asymmetric bidendate ligands and has not been taken into consideration thus far. The implications of these studies in research geared towards realizing more durable organic electron devices is discussed.

Mathai, Mathew K.


77 FR 46987 - Utility Allowances Submetering  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SUMMARY: This document contains proposed regulations that amend the utility allowance regulations...E) for calculating utility allowances for all rent-restricted...regulations modify the requirements in Notice 2009-44...First, if two or more utilities such as...



The development of chelate metal complexes as an organic electroluminescent material  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chelate metal complexes, such as tris(8-hydroxyquinolinate)aluminum (Alq3), have excellent electroluminescent (EL) properties. Several chelate metal complexes were developed and the experimental rule of molecular design for use in an organic EL device was found. When the chelate metal complex has the structure of an inner complex sell, the EL device is fabricated by conventional vacuum-vapor deposition. This rule was

Yuji Hamada



Limits to Wind Power Utilization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses noneconomic factors limiting the total power that can be extracted from the wind. These factors are examined with a macroscopic approach. Some general conclusions are also reached regarding the sites that would have to be utilized and the usable wind energy potentials. (HM)

Gustavson, M. R.



Waste heat: Utilization and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is a presentation on waste heat management and utilization. Topics covered include cogeneration, recovery technology, low grade heat recovery, heat dispersion models, and ecological effects. The book focuses on the significant fraction of fuel energy that is rejected and expelled into the environment either as industrial waste or as a byproduct of installation\\/equipment operation. The feasibility of retrieving

S. Sengupta; S. S. Lee



Process for utilizing petroleum residuum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A petroleum refinery vacuum residuum stream is subjected to hydrogen donor diluent cracking, and the liquid cracking effluent is hydrodesulfurized. The hydrodesulfurizer effluent is then fractionated, and the fractionator bottoms stream is fed to a delayed coker where premium type delayed coke is produced. The gas oil boiling range fraction from the fractionator is utilized as the donor diluent in

McConaghy; J. R. Jr



Demand forecasting for electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

For electric utilities, probably the most important element of providing reliable power supplies is the ability to forecast the demands of commercial, industrial and residential customers. The discipline of electric utility demand forecasting has evolved at a vigorous pace over the past two decades. The straight-line extrapolations of historical energy consumption trends that served well enough for the years of steady prices and steady growth became inadequate with the onset of inflation and rapidly rising energy prices. This book describes the most effective and accurate methods for forecasting of energy services appropriate for the parameters which can be expected to prevail in the 90s and beyond. The techniques which are described reflect the knowledge that the composite needs of utility customers can no longer be adequately represented by forecasts of peak demand and total energy use. Written specifically to meet the needs of utility managers, analysts, and planners, this authoritative presentation covers every aspect of state-of-the-art forecasting methods, addressing data acquisition and database construction, forecasting to innovative rates, load shape and forecasting, forecasting the impact of DSM strategies, and assessment of software systems available.

Gellings, C.W. (ed.)



Module Utilization Committee. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Photovoltaic collector modules were declared surplus to the needs of the US Department of Energy. The Module Utilization Committee was formed to make appropriate disposition of the surplus modules. The final report of that committee accounts for that disposition. The membership and activities of the committee are set forth and the results of its activities are reported.




Electric Utility Rate Design Proposals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Within the past several years, the costs of primary fuels and new generating capacity, as well as other utility costs, have risen sharply, forcing the average electricity prices paid by consumers to rise 70 percent in the 1970 to 1976 period. In response ...



Utility maximization in incomplete markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of utility maximization for small traders on incom- plete financial markets. As opposed to most of the papers dealing with this subject, the investors' trading strategies we allow underly constraints described by closed, but not necessarily convex, sets. The final wealths obtained by trading under these constraints are identified as stochastic processes which usually are supermartingales,

Ying Hu; Peter Imkeller; Matthias Muller



Utility maximization in incomplete markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of utility maximization for small traders on incomplete financial markets. As opposed to most of the papers dealing with this subject, the investors' trading strategies we allow underly constraints described by closed, but not necessarily convex, sets. The final wealths obtained by trading under these constraints are identified as stochastic processes which usually are supermartingales, and

Ying Hu; Peter Imkeller; Matthias Muller



Solar thermal utilization in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapid development of the Chinese economy, energy consumption has increased considerably, and this has increased pressure on energy production. On the other hand, this pressure has greatly assisted in the development of the renewable energy in the past two decades. This paper reports the latest developments in the solar thermal utilization in China. A great deal of successful

Chaofeng Xiao; Huilong Luo; Runsheng Tang; Hao Zhong



Road map for utility diversification  

SciTech Connect

Under a growing impetus to shift their business emphasis, utility companies can find the road to diversification rife with problems and uncertainties. Studies of possible new business opportunities come relatively easy, but success in embarking upon them is anything but easy. This article provides useful insights into the process, and points out some important prerequisites for successful diversification efforts. 17 references, 2 figures.

Lewis, J.D.; Ross, W.W.



Cities, regions and privatised utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utility networks are physically embedded in places and they also operate within a regulated environment which imposes obligations on them. Within this framework they need to demonstrate commercial success which is directly related to new management strategies that have profound implications for the economic social and environmental performance of localities and regions. Privatisation and liberalisation have heralded a movement from

Simon Marvin; Stephen Graham; Simon Guy



Chiropractic utilization in Taekwondo athletes  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the present study was to examine chiropractic utilization following a sport-related injury among National Team members and other high level Taekwondo athletes. Methods Retrospective surveys were conducted among Canadian male and female Taekwondo athletes (Group A, n = 60) competing in a national tournament and National Taekwondo team athletes (Group B, n = 16) at a training camp. Results A response rate of 46.7% (Group A) and 100% (Group B) was achieved. Twenty five percent (n = 4) of Group A athletes reported never seen a doctor of chiropractic (DC) regarding their injuries. Over 12% (n = 2) reported visiting a DC often, while just over 6% (n = 1) reported that they usually visited the DC following an injury. When injured, over 36% (n = 7) of the National Team members visit their family physician, over 15% (n = 3) visit a chiropractor or physiotherapist and the remaining athletes (n = 6) equally visit osteopaths, massage therapists, or athletic therapist following an injury. Conclusion There is a lack of information surrounding chiropractic utilization in the majority of sports and minimal research published regarding the health care utilization of Taekwondo athletes. Chiropractors, and particularly those with extensive athlete contact, should endeavour to further utilization studies.

Kazemi, Mohsen; Shearer, Heather



Cryo Utilities Room Cooling System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the mechanical equipment failures at the Laboratory are due to the loss of cooling water. In order to insure the proper operating temperatures and to increase the reliability of the mechanical equipment in the D0 Cryo Utilities Room it is necessary to provide an independent liquid cooling system. To this end, an enclosed glycoVwater cooling system which transfers

G. S. Ball



A theory of coarse utility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a descriptive theory for complex choice problems. In line with the bounded rationality assumption, we hypothesize that decision makers modify a complex choice into some coarse approximations, each of which is a binary lottery. We define the value of a best coarse approximation to be the utility of the choice. Using this paradigm, we axiomatize and justify

Liping Liu; Prakash P. Shenoy



Behavioral Problems and Medication Utilization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined relations between prescribed psychoactive treatments and rated behavioral difficulties of 87 adults with moderate mental retardation. Results indicated higher drug utilization in larger congregate settings compared to group care settings, despite behavior problems and cognitive level being matched across settings. (Author/JDD)|

Harper, Dennis C.; Wadsworth, John S.



FFTF utilization for irradiation testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

FFTF utilization for irradiation testing is beginning. Two Fuels Open Test Assemblies and one Vibration Open Test Assembly, both containing in-core contact instrumentation, are installed in the reactor. These assemblies will be used to confirm plant design performance predictions. Some 100 additional experiments are currently planned to follow these three. This will result in an average core loading of about

D. C. Corrigan; L. J. Julyk; C. W. Hoth; J. C. McGuire; W. R. Sloan



Solar energy storage and utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for storing and utilizing solar energy is disclosed which includes the use of solar energy collectors attached to heat pipes for changing solar flux into heat energy and transmitting the heat energy into the earth below the surface of the ground. An expanding array of pipes, formed of heat conductive material, distributes the heat throughout a large, unconstrained




Military Utility of HEL Fighter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper gives a very brief overview of the Directed Energy Worth Analysis and Vehicle Evaluation program (DEWAVE), a military utility analysis of a tactical fighter equipped with a high-energy laser. This paper describes the objectives of the effort an...

T. K. Burris J. K. Sutton G. Menin



Volatility, risk modeling and utility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article develops the foundations for several new models of risk and volatility. Methods used include utility analysis and mathematical psychology. Risk and volatility can be modeled as aggregations of preferences of market participants, and or optimization problems. Market risk assessment is a multi-criteria process that typically requires information processing, and thus cannot be defined accurately by rigid quantitative models.

Michael Nwogugu



Dissemination and Utilization: An Imperative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A well-developed approach to dissemination and utilization (D&U) at the four levels of spread, exchange, choice, and implementation is essential if vocational education research and development (R&D) is to achieve the measurable impact found lacking in a Committee on Vocational Education Research and Development (COVERD) assessment (1956). Federal…

Oliver, J. Dale


Flexible Wing Light Utility Glider.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Presented in the report are the results of a flight test program of a towed light utility glider system. The system was designed to carry odd-geometry cargo, and demonstrated towed flight operations up to the maximum design weight of 1500 pounds, at a vel...

N. Sakamoto G. Cota



Annual Electric Generator Report - Utility  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This recently updated database from the Energy Information Administration contains the information reported on the Annual Electric Generator Report - Utility form, or Form EIA-860A. The database holds information from 1992 to January 2000 and includes the fields capacity, energy source, and initial year of operation.


Injecting utility into anonymized datasets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limiting disclosure in data publishing requires a careful balance between privacy and utility. Information about individuals must not be revealed, but a dataset should still be useful for studying the characteristics of a population. Privacy requirements such as k-anonymity and '-diversity are designed to thwart attacks that at- tempt to identify individuals in the data and to discover their sensi-

Daniel Kifer; Johannes Gehrke



Unified Model for Generation Complex Networks with Utility Preferential Attachment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, based on the utility preferential attachment, we propose a new unified model to generate different network topologies such as scale-free, small-world and random networks. Moreover, a new network structure named super scale network is found, which has monopoly characteristic in our simulation experiments. Finally, the characteristics of this new network are given.

Wu, Jian-Jun; Gao, Zi-You; Sun, Hui-Jun



Recent progress in techniques utilized for particle accelerator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle accelerators are widely used in scientific research and industry. Recently, techniques utilized for accelerator are developed rapidly in China. We briefly review the recent progress in this field and primarily focus on superconducting RF, innovative structures for particle production and acceleration and beam diagnosis. Several advanced compact user facilities are also introduced.

Liu, KeXin



New technologies for optical systems utilizing aluminum beryllium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper will describe the new technologies utilizing aluminum beryllium (AlBeMet®) for optical systems. Focusing on advances in gimbal / structures through the use of electron beam welding. The paper will also discuss the characterization of material as an optical substrate, at room temperature and at cryogenic temperatures.

Parsonage, Thomas



High-frequency ultrasonic cleaning tank utilizing oblique incidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmission characteristics of a double-structured tank, used for high-frequency (1 MHz range) ultrasonic cleaning of semiconductor wafers and substrates, were improved by utilizing oblique incidence of ultrasonic waves. As the sound transmittivity through a plate in water varies with the angle of incidence, the bottom of the Pyrex glass inner container was slanted at the angle where strong transmission occurred.

Hajime Hatano; Sadao Kanai



A Tutorial on Decomposition Methods for Network Utility Maximization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic understanding of the decomposability structures in network utility maximization is key to both resource allocation and functionality allocation. It helps us obtain the most appropriate distributed algorithm for a given network resource allocation problem, and quantifies the comparison across architectural alternatives of modularized network design. Decomposition theory naturally provides the mathematical language to build an analytic foundation for

Daniel Pérez Palomar; Mung Chiang



Skill Formation and Utilization in the Labor Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to understand occupational mobility and wage growth of young work- ers in terms of basic labor market skills; cognitive, interpersonal, and motor skills. I emphasize that occupations are heterogeneous in formation and utilization of these skills. The model is structurally estimated using occupational task measures from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles and career history from the NLSY79.

Shintaro Yamaguchi


Research of the model on recycling utilization of oil sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research object of our study is oil sludge produced in petrochemical wastewater treatment. A technical option is proposed in conditioning and dewatering of oil sludge, recycling of gas condensate and malysite so as to minimize the oil containing sludge, fully utilize resources and to protect environment. Results show that the structure of oil sludge is improved and the dewatering

Bo Zhou; Nairui Liu



Hydrogen production from water utilizing solar heat at high temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possibilities of producing hydrogen and oxygen from water utilizing solar heat at high temperatures are investigated. The process of direct thermal decomposition of water is studied using a conceptual model. It is shown that the thermodynamic requirements for the direct thermal decomposer are difficult to realize from the structural viewpoint and that existing separation methods are not applicable for such

T. Nakamura



Repeated regulatory failures: British electric utilities, 1919--1937  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation uses previously unexamined firm-level data to look at British electric utilities during the 1919--1937 period. The persistent influence of the 1882 and 1888 Electric Lighting Acts had a significant role in perpetuating the inefficient market structure and high costs of the industry. First, I examine factors that influence costs in 1919 and compare the relative cost efficiency of

Ysbrand John van der Werf



Reliability issues in today's electric power utility environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable change is occurring in the structure and operation of electric power systems throughout the world. This paper describes some of these changes in North America and Europe, the forces creating them and the possible reliability issues associated with them. The main changes are deregulation and privatisation in the electric utility environment

R. Billinton; L. Salvaderi; J. D. McCalley; H. Chao; T. Seitz; R. N. Allan; J. Odom; C. Fallon



Power Sales to Electric Utilities  

SciTech Connect

The Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) of 1979 requires that electrical utilities interconnect with qualifying facilities and purchase electricity at a rate based upon their full avoided costs (i.e., costs of providing both capacity and energy). Qualifying facilities (QF) include solar or geothermal electric units, hydropower, municipal solid waste or biomass-fired power plants, and cogeneration projects that satisfy maximum size, fuel use, ownership, location, and/or efficiency criteria. In Washington State, neither standard power purchase prices based upon a proxy ''avoided plant'', standard contracts, or a standard offer process have been used. Instead, a variety of power purchase contracts have been negotiated by developers of qualifying facilities with investor-owned utilities, public utility districts, and municipally-owned and operated utilities. With a hydro-based system, benefits associated with resource acquisition are determined in large part by how compatible the resource is with a utility's existing generation mix. Power purchase rates are negotiated and vary according to firm energy production, guarantees, ability to schedule maintenance or downtime, rights of refusal, power plant purchase options, project start date and length of contract; front-loading or levelization provisions; and the ability of the project to provide ''demonstrated'' capacity. Legislation was also enacted which allows PURPA to work effectively. Initial laws established ownership rights and provided irrigation districts, PUDs, and municipalities with expanded enabling powers. Financial processes were streamlined and, in some cases, simplified. Finally, laws were passed which are designed to ensure that development proceeds in an environmentally acceptable manner. In retrospect, PURPA has worked well within Washington. In the state of Washington, 20 small-scale hydroelectric projects with a combined generating capacity of 77 MW, 3 solid waste-to-energy facilities with 55 MW of electrical output, 4 cogeneration projects with 34.5 MW of generating capability, and 4 wastewater treatment facility digester gas-to-energy projects with 5 MW of electrical production have come on-line (or are in the final stages of construction) since the passage of PURPA. These numbers represent only a small portion of Washington's untapped and underutilized cogeneration and renewable resource generating potentials. [DJE-2005




Commercial opportunities utilizing the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Space Station (ISS) has the unique capability of providing a low-g environment for both short- and long-duration experimentation. This environment can provide a unique and competitive research capability to industry; but until recently, utilization of this environment by the private sector has been limited if not totally unavailable. NASA has recently expressed an interest in the commercial development of space and this is now an integral part of the Agency's enabling legislation through the Space Act. NASA's objective is to foster the use of the space environment for the development of commercial products and processes. Through alliances and agreements with several commercial companies and universities, SPACEHAB, Inc., has built a comprehensive package of services designed to provide low-cost reliable access to space for experimenters. These services provide opportunities to support engineering test beds for materials exposure analysis, to mitigate structural failures as observed on the Hubble Space Telescope; materials processing, remote sensing; space environment definition; and electronic experiments. The intent of this paper is to identify commercial opportunities for utilizing the International Space Station and provide examples of several facilities currently being designed and manufactured by commercial companies with the purpose of providing access to the space environment for commercial users.

Kearney, Michael E.; Mongan, Phil; Overmyer, Carolyn M.; Jackson, Kenneth



Trends in utility fuel costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Average generation costs for the nation`s electric utilities fell in 1994, primarily due to reductions in delivered fuel prices. Production costs declined by 3.5 percent, averaging just $1.89 per kilowatt-hour (Kwh) by year`s end. The WSCC is the only NERC (North American Electric Reliability) region where production cost increased - 2.6 percent in 1994 - as reduced hydro output in




Defining Civilization utilizing Anthropic Reasoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We utilize anthropic reasoning to demonstrate that we are typical observers\\u000aof our reference class under a self-sampling assumption by investigating the\\u000adefinition of what a civilization is. With reference to the conflict between\\u000asuch reasoning and the observational lack of extra-terrestrial intelligent\\u000alife, we conclude that a part of our theoretical understanding of the Universe\\u000awill be at fault.

Kevin A. Pimbblet



Utilities systems management - Flying demonstrator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and operation of the utilities systems management (USM) hardware developed for the UK Experimental Aircraft Program (EAP) demonstrator are presented in extensive drawings and diagrams and briefly characterized. The USM links the basic aircraft systems (fuel, engine, environmental control, secondary power, hydraulics, etc.) to the avionics or mission bus. It comprises a dedicated MIL-STD-1553B bus, distributed data-acquisition units

I. Moir; P. H. Capener



An Exploration of the Utility of a Knowledge Utilization Framework to Study the Gap between Reading Disabilities Research and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This pre-pilot study explored the usefulness of a knowledge utilization framework comprised of Knott and Wildavsky's (1980) seven stages of knowledge use and Stone's (2002) three routes to knowledge use to investigate the gap between reading disabilities research and teachers' self-reported use of that research. Semi-structured interviews of ten…

Davidson, Katherine; Nowicki, Elizabeth



Protection of Microgrids During Utility Voltage Sags  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microgrids are systems with clusters of microgenerators, which are installed for distributed power generation. When interfaced to the utility grid, microgrids are exposed to common utility power-quality disturbances. In particular, during utility-voltage sags, large line currents can flow along distribution feeders connecting the micro- and utility grids. To limit this flow of large line currents and, hence, protect the microgrids,

D. Mahinda Vilathgamuwa; Poh Chiang Loh; Y. Li



Botulinum and tetanus neurotoxins: structure, function and therapeutic utility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxic products of the anaerobic bacteria Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium butyricum,Clostridium barati and Clostridium tetani are the causative agents of botulism and tetanus. The ability of botulinum neurotoxins to disrupt neurotransmission, often for prolonged periods, has been exploited for use in several medical applications and the toxins, as licensed pharmaceutical products, now represent the therapeutics of choice for the treatment

Kathryn Turton; John A Chaddock; K. Ravi Acharya



Utilization of fly ash in structural and decorative ceramic products  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this study is to promote the use of fly ash from electric power plants in Illinois in the manufacture of bricks. Fly ash that is produced during the burning of coal represents a continuing disposal problem and thus a disincentive to coal`s use. Each year, approximately 5 X 10{sup 6} metric tons of fly ash are produced from burning Illinois coals. Use of brick clays for ceramic products in the Illinois area amounted to about 0.5 X 10{sup 6} metric tons in 1994. If significant amounts of fly ash were used in the manufacture of fired-clay products such as brick, the fly ash disposal problem would be reduced, a valuable construction product would be created, and mining of brick clays would be slowed. Furthermore, the clay minerals in the green bricks are dehydroxylated during the firing process. Fly ash already has been through dehydrox1yation, therefore this energy for dehydroxylation is {open_quotes}saved{close_quotes} during brick manufacture. Six tasks were defined to meet our objectives: (1) manufacture bricks that contain 20 wt% or more of fly ash under normal plant-scale conditions; (2) measure the firing characteristics of mixtures created by using extremes in chemical composition of Illinois fly ashes and brick clays and shales; (3) from those measurements, derive equations that predict the firing characteristics of any mixture of clay and fly ash; (4) optimize mixtures of brick clays with sources of fly ash near existing ceramic plants; (5) perform tests to determine the leachability of toxic constituents, if any, from the bricks; and (6) integrate the results of tasks 1 and 2 with preliminary engineering and market assessments to evaluate the feasibility of large-scale use of fly ash in fired-clay products.

Hughes, R.E.; Dreher, G.B.; Rostam-Abadi, R. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)] [and others



Similarity Measures on Preference Structures, Part II: Utility Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous work (8) we presented a case- based approach to eliciting and reasoning with preferences. A key issue in this ap- proach is the definition of similarity between user preferences. We introduced the prob- abilistic distance as a measure of similarity on user preferences, and provided an algo- rithm to compute the distance between two partially specified value functions.

Vu A. Ha; John Miyamoto



Aminoacid utilization by Helicobacter pylori.  


Utilization of aminoacids during growth by laboratory adapted and wild type Helicobacter pylori strains was investigated employing nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and aminoacid analysis. All H. pylori strains tested showed growth rates with doubling times of approx. 11.5 hr in liquid cultures with semi-defined media or with defined aminoacid broth without carbohydrates. Fast utilization of several aminoacids at rates between 80 and 250 microM/hr was observed in culture broths inoculated with approx. 10(7) cells/ml; and acetate, formate and succinate accumulated as catabolic products in the growth media. Suspensions of bacterial cells and lysates in isotonic solutions converted arginine, asparagine, aspartate, glutamine, and serine used as sole substrates at significant rates; and under these conditions the principal metabolic products observed were acetate, formate, succinate and lactate. The findings of the study indicated that H. pylori can survive employing aminoacids as the basic nutrients, and suggested some of these metabolites were utilized via fermentative pathways with common characteristics to those found in anaerobes. PMID:7496998

Mendz, G L; Hazell, S L



Integrating photovoltaics into utility distribution systems  

SciTech Connect

Electric utility distribution system impacts associated with the integration of distributed photovoltaic (PV) energy sources vary from site to site and utility to utility. The objective of this paper is to examine several utility- and site-specific conditions which may affect economic viability of distributed PV applications to utility systems. Assessment methodology compatible with technical and economic assessment techniques employed by utility engineers and planners is employed to determine PV benefits for seven different utility systems. The seven case studies are performed using utility system characteristics and assumptions obtained from appropriate utility personnel. The resulting site-specific distributed PV benefits increase nonsite-specific generation system benefits available to central station PV plants as much as 46%, for one utility located in the Southwest.

Zaininger, H.W. [Zaininger Engineering Co., Inc., San Jose, CA (United States); Barnes, P.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)



Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2003)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilities first began offering consumers a choice of purchasing electricity generated from renewable energy sources in the early 1990s. Since then, the number of U.S. utilities offering green pricing programs has steadily grown. Today, more than 500 utilities in regulated electricity markets--or about 16% of all utilities nationally--offer their customers green power options. Because some of these utilities offer programs

L. Bird; K. Cardinal



The utility wholesale power transaction as a LCUP mechanism  

SciTech Connect

The sale-for-resale transaction is the only point where LCUP integration is possible for a substantial fraction of the nation's electric utilities. It was found that almost one-third of the nation's electrical consumption passes through sale-for-resale transactions prior to consumption. These are wholesale sales that generally are subject to some form of regulation. A review of the legal structure and precedent shows no substantive obstacles preventing least cost utility planning (LCUP) concepts in the wholesale transaction. LCUP integrates supply-side and demand-side activities to reach an economic optimum. With few exceptions, it appears that the great majority of these sales now inhibit the rational employment of LCUP principles. The transactions do not encourage the buyer to structure a local management program consistent with the selling utility's lifecycle costs of providing capacity resources, nor do they inform the selling utility of the opportunities and costs of the buying utility's load management alternatives. Examples are provided. Specific analysis of legal techniques are provided applicable to FERC regulation, state regulation and proprietary power sales by federal power marketing authorities. The legal parameters of LCUP incentives at each of these regulatory ''gates'' are examined in detail with reference to analogous legal and regulatory precedent. 163 refs.

Not Available



Consumer's Guide to the economics of electric-utility ratemaking  

SciTech Connect

This guide deals primarily with the economics of electric utilities, although certain legal and organizational aspects of utilities are discussed. Each of the seven chapters addresses a particular facet of public-utility ratemaking. Chapter One contains a discussion of the evolution of the public-utility concept, as well as the legal and economic justification for public utilities. The second chapter sets forth an analytical economic model which provides the basis for the next four chapters. These chapters contain a detailed examination of total operating costs, the rate base, the rate of return, and the rate structure. The final chapter discusses a number of current issues regarding electric utilities, mainly factors related to fuel-adjustment costs, advertising, taxes, construction work in progress, and lifeline rates. Some of the examples used in the Guide are from particular states, such as Illinois and California. These examples are used to illustrate specific points. Consumers in other states can generalize them to their states and not change the meaning or significance of the points. 27 references, 8 tables.

Not Available



Calcium silicate insulation structure  


An insulative structure including a powder-filled evacuated casing utilizes a quantity of finely divided synthetic calcium silicate having a relatively high surface area. The resultant structure-provides superior thermal insulating characteristics over a broad temperature range and is particularly well-suited as a panel for a refrigerator or freezer or the insulative barrier for a cooler or a insulated bottle.

Kollie, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)



Limits to wind power utilization.  


As wind energy receives increasing attention it is important to understand the noneconomic factors limiting the total power that can be extracted from the wind. These factors are examined here with a macroscopic approach. An upper global limit of 1.3 x 10(14) watts is arrived at with a sublimit of 2 x 10(12) watts for the continental United States. Some general conclusions are also reached regarding the sites that would have to be utilized to achieve these levels. Even within these limits, wind energy is seen to offer a potential far larger than many other self-renewing energy sources. PMID:17816716

Gustavson, M R



Strategies for solar greenhouses utilization  

SciTech Connect

This study identifies basic questions needing answers before the solar greenhouse can offer a truly appropriate technology or be an effective social change agent. Comparison of 18 solar greenhouses in Massachusetts was made to evaluate how well these systems are operating and what areas need improvements or modifications. The potential for effective solar greenhouse utilization is being decreased partly by problems of design but mostly by lack of long-term funding, inattention to principles of greenhouse management, and inadequate training or horticultural skills for crop production.

Locher, V.A. (Inner Spaces, Monterey, MA); Airhart, D.L.



Rollover of Sport Utility Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the PBS program ``Frontline''1 examined the history of the development of the sport utility vehicle (SUV) and the efforts to force car makers to design SUVs that are less prone to rollover. The dangers of SUV rollovers were spotlighted in the fall of 2000, when the Ford-Firestone scandal prompted Congress to launch a series of hearings focusing on deaths and injuries related to faulty Firestone tires mounted on Ford Explorers. However, during the same 10-year period in which Ford-Firestone rollover crashes caused some 300 deaths, more than 12,000 people - 40 times as many - died in SUV rollovers unrelated to tire failure.1

Penny, Desmond N.



Trade-off decisions in distribution utility management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a result of the "unbundling" of traditional monopolistic electricity generation and transmission enterprises into a free-market economy, power distribution utilities are faced with very difficult decisions pertaining to electricity supply options and quality of service to the customers. The management of distribution utilities has become increasingly complex, versatile, and dynamic to the extent that conventional, non-automated management tools are almost useless and obsolete. This thesis presents a novel and unified approach to managing electricity supply options and quality of service to customers. The technique formulates the problem in terms of variables, parameters, and constraints. An advanced Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) optimization formulation is developed together with novel, logical, decision-making algorithms. These tools enable the utility management to optimize various cost components and assess their time-trend impacts, taking into account the intangible issues such as customer perception, customer expectation, social pressures, and public response to service deterioration. The above concepts are further generalized and a Logical Proportion Analysis (LPA) methodology and associated software have been developed. Solutions using numbers are replaced with solutions using words (character strings) which more closely emulate the human decision-making process and advance the art of decision-making in the power utility environment. Using practical distribution utility operation data and customer surveys, the developments outlined in this thesis are successfully applied to several important utility management problems. These involve the evaluation of alternative electricity supply options, the impact of rate structures on utility business, and the decision of whether to continue to purchase from a main grid or generate locally (partially or totally) by building Non-Utility Generation (NUG).

Slavickas, Rimas Anthony


Identifying Chelators for Metalloprotein Inhibitors Using a Fragment-Based Approach  

PubMed Central

Fragment-based lead design (FBLD) has been used to identify new metal-binding groups for metalloenzyme inhibitors. When screened at 1 mM, a chelator fragment library (CFL-1.1) of 96 compounds produced hit rates ranging from 29–43% for five matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), 24% for anthrax lethal factor (LF), 49% for 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), and 60% for tyrosinase (TY). The ligand efficiencies (LE) of the fragment hits are excellent, in the range of 0.4–0.8 kcal/mol. The MMP enzymes all generally elicit the same chelators as hits from CFL-1.1; however, the chelator fragments that inhibit structurally unrelated metalloenzymes (LF, 5-LO, TY) vary considerably. To develop more advanced hits, one hit from CFL-1.1, 8-hydroxyquinoline, was elaborated at four different positions around the ring system to generate new fragments. 8-Hydroxyquinoline fragments substituted at either the 5- or 7-positions gave potent hits against MMP-2, with IC50 values in the low micromolar range. The 8-hydroxyquinoline represents a promising, new chelator scaffold for the development of MMP inhibitors that was discovered by use of a metalloprotein-focused chelator fragment library.

Jacobsen, Jennifer A.; Fullagar, Jessica; Miller, Melissa T.; Cohen, Seth M.



Effect of surface modification of microfiltration membrane on capture of toxic heavy metal ions.  


A novel complexing membrane containing 8-hydroxyquinoline groups was used for the removal of heavy metal ions (Cd2+ and Ni2+) from aqueous solution. The functionalized membranes were characterized by FTIR-ATR, SEM and EDAX for the presence of functional groups, the physical structure of the membranes and the analysis of the particles deposited on the membrane, respectively. The influence of 8-hydroxyquinoline concentration, feed concentration, pH and temperature of the solution on capture capability was studied. The modified membrane showed a higher affinity to Cd2+ cations than to Ni2+. The metal ion rejection was increased with an increase in concentration of 8-hydroxyquinoline from 0.5 to 2.0 wt%. However at a ligand concentration higher than 2.0 wt%, no significant change was observed in the metal rejection. The experimental results revealed that the metal rejection was decreased with an increase in metal ion concentration in the feed. Moreover the rejection depended on feed pH and is higher for elevated pH. By changing the temperature in the range of 23-28 degrees C, no considerable effect on metal rejection was observed. However, a higher temperature resulted in a decline in metal rejection. For filtration of a mixture of the two metal ions, the retention was similar to that of the single cations, i.e. Cd > Ni but with smaller absolute rejections. PMID:22629610

Madaeni, Sayed Siavash; Heidary, Farhad


How utilizes can revitalize industry  

SciTech Connect

During the first weeks of his presidency, Bill Clinton asserted that the nation`s industries must modernize if Americans are to enjoy a rising standard of living. He noted that inadequate knowledge about new production technologies and inadequate capital for plant improvements were making it hard for manufacturers, particularly small and midsized firms, to improve their productivity and economic competitiveness. And though he said his administration would stress the benefits of government research, technology transfer, and financial assistance, President Clinton acknowledged that Washington needs new partners to help modernize U.S. industrial processes. Electric utilities are likely candidates. They have considerable technical expertise and access to large sums of capital that could help industry improve its productivity. Fortuitously, power companies also would benefit by such a partnership stimulating local economic activity and better managing electricity demands. Although many utilities pursue so-called demand-side management programs for their commercial and residential customers, most have not focused much attention on the industrial sector, in part because achieving industrial energy efficiency requires more specialized expertise than do routine energy audits to improve the insulation and lighting of homes and commercial buildings. Yet the reasons to target industry are compelling: Industrial firms consume more than 35 percent of the electricity in the United States, and investment in retooling manufacturing operations with energy-efficient and productive equipment could help spur economic revitalization.

De Vaul, D.; Bartsch, C. [Northeast Midwest Institute, Washington, DC (United States)



Chinese Manned Space Utility Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1992 China has been carrying out a conspicuous manned space mission A utility project has been defined and created during the same period The Utility Project of the Chinese Manned Space Mission involves wide science areas such as earth observation life science micro-gravity fluid physics and material science astronomy space environment etc In the earth observation area it is focused on the changes of global environments and relevant exploration technologies A Middle Revolution Image Spectrometer and a Multi-model Micro-wave Remote Sensor have been developed The detectors for cirrostratus distribution solar constant earth emission budget earth-atmosphere ultra-violet spectrum and flux have been manufactured and tested All of above equipment was engaged in orbital experiments on-board the Shenzhou series spacecrafts Space life science biotechnologies and micro-gravity science were much concerned with the project A series of experiments has been made both in ground laboratories and spacecraft capsules The environmental effect in different biological bodies in space protein crystallization electrical cell-fusion animal cells cultural research on separation by using free-low electrophoresis a liquid drop Marangoni migration experiment under micro-gravity as well as a set of crystal growth and metal processing was successfully operated in space The Gamma-ray burst and high-energy emission from solar flares have been explored A set of particle detectors and a mass spectrometer measured

Gu, Y.


Communication, utilization, and performance in international strategic alliances : An investigation of the post-formation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore post-international strategic alliance (ISA) establishment processes by exploring the interrelationships surrounding utilization as a resource coordinating activity, two communication dimensions (four communication factors) as the antecedents of utilization, and the implications of utilization for ISA performance. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Based on the mail and e-mail surveys, the structural model is analyzed

Youngtae Choi; Richard T. Hise; Richard P. Bagozzi; Paul A. Fadil



Utilization of Handheld Field Testing System for Improvement of Bridge Load Rating Values in Pontis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the growing number of structurally deficient bridges in the United States, methods for determining the structural performance of in-service bridges is vital to the preservation of the nation's bridge network. By utilizing field testing, the response of the bridge due to a known traffic load can be assessed, and more accurate structural performance can be determined. The objective

Patrick Stein


Insider Models with Finite Utility in Markets with Jumps  

SciTech Connect

In this article we consider, under a Levy process model for the stock price, the utility optimization problem for an insider agent whose additional information is the final price of the stock blurred with an additional independent noise which vanishes as the final time approaches. Our main interest is establishing conditions under which the utility of the insider is finite. Mathematically, the problem entails the study of a 'progressive' enlargement of filtration with respect to random measures. We study the jump structure of the process which leads to the conclusion that in most cases the utility of the insider is finite and his optimal portfolio is bounded. This can be explained financially by the high risks involved in models with jumps.

Kohatsu-Higa, Arturo, E-mail: [Ritsumeikan University, Department of Mathematical Sciences (Japan); Yamazato, Makoto, E-mail: [University of the Ryukyus, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science (Japan)



Railroad Electrification on Utility Systems. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A nine-month project was undertaken on the subject of the impact of railroad electrification on utility systems. The objectives of this study were achieved by a review of the literature, discussions with railroads and electric utilities with electrificati...

J. J. Burke J. W. Feltes




EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the development of the Advanced Utility Simulation Model (AUSM), developed for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP), to forecast air emissions of pollutants from electric utilities. USM integrates generating unit engineering detail with d...


Utilization Review Project for Home Health Agencies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fifty-four California home health agencies participated in a utilization review project. The purposes were to develop objective methods of utilization review applicable to home health, based on a health information statistical data base. Two major activit...

D. Kleffel



Utility Energy Services Contracts: Lessons Learned  

SciTech Connect

This document describes best practices in the use of Utility Energy Services Contracts. The recommendations were generated by a group of innovative energy managers in many successful projects. The topics include project financing, competition between utility franchises, and water conservation.

Not Available



Profile Based Dental Utilization Review System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project assessed the effectiveness of a profile-based surveillance and feedback (SF) utilization review system that focused on dentists with very high utilization rates. Claims data from three national insurance carriers were used to select 1764 gene...

H. L. Bailit



Energy Essays: A Focus on Utility Communication.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following papers are included: (1) technology, customers, and the feedback loop, (2) utility communications: a need for understanding the American character, (3) utility programs and grass roots communication, (4) reading the tea leaves of public opin...

G. W. Selnow W. D. Crano S. Ludwig L. A. Messe



Optimal stopping, exponential utility, and linear programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses linear programming to compute an optimal policy for a stopping problem whose utility function is exponential. This is done by transforming the problem into an equivalent one having additive utility and nonnegative (not necessarily substochastic) transition matrices.

Eric V. Denardo; Uriel G. Rothblum



45 CFR 12.12 - Utilization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR




45 CFR 12.12 - Utilization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR




Primer on Wind Power for Utility Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The wind industry still faces many market barriers, some of which stem from utilities' lack of experience with the technology. Utility system operators and planners need to understand the effects of fluctuating wind power on system regulation and stabilit...

Y. Wan



Trends in Diffusion Research: Knowledge Utilization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reports on an evaluation study of the Pilot State Dissemination Program. The program utilized extension agents who helped teachers and school administrators obtain and interpret information, assess its applicability, and plan steps in its utilization. (HMD)|

Sieber, Sam D.



Trends in Diffusion Research: Knowledge Utilization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on an evaluation study of the Pilot State Dissemination Program. The program utilized extension agents who helped teachers and school administrators obtain and interpret information, assess its applicability, and plan steps in its utilization. (HMD)

Sieber, Sam D.



24 CFR 1710.211 - Utilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Utilities. 1710.211...REGISTRATION Reporting Requirements § 1710.211 Utilities. (a) Water...furnish a copy of the document. (6) Furnish...which states the requirements for obtaining...



Health Care Utilization in a Sample of Canadian Lesbian Women: Predictors of Risk and Resilience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to test an exploratory path model predicting health care utilization by lesbian women. Using structural equation modeling we examined the joint influence of internalized homophobia, feminism, comfort with health care providers (HCPs), education, and disclosure of sexual identity both in one's life and to one's HCP on health care utilization. Surveys were completed by 254 Canadian

Sherry Bergeron; Charlene Y. Senn



The performance of German water utilities: a (semi)-parametric analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Germany's water supply industry is characterized by a multitude of utilities and widely diverging prices, possibly resulting from structural differences beyond the control of firms’ management, but also from inefficiencies. In this article, we use Data Envelopment Analysis and Stochastic Frontier Analysis to determine the utilities’ Technical Efficiency (TE) scores based on cross-sectional data from 373 public and private water

Michael Zschille; Matthias Walter



Reuse of coal mining wastes in civil engineering—Part 2: Utilization of minestone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oldest method of minestone utilization is reclamation of spoil heaps by adapting them to the landscape by afforestation or agricultural management. The best method is, however, complete removal of the wastes. Hence, for many years research has been carried out to find new ways of minestone utilization to minimize disposal cost and harmful environmental effects. Earth structures offer the

Krystyna M. Skar?y?ska



Reuse of coal mining wastes in civil engineering. Part 2: Utilization of minestone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oldest method of minestone utilization is reclamation of spoil heaps by adapting them to the landscape by afforestation or agricultural management. The best method is, however, complete removal of the wastes. Hence, for many years research has been carried out to find new ways of minestone utilization to minimize disposal cost and harmful environmental effects. Earth structures offer the




Spectral utilization in thermophotovoltaic devices  

SciTech Connect

Multilayer assemblies of epitaxially-grown, III-V semiconductor materials are being investigated for use in thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion applications. It has been observed that thick, highly-doped semiconductor layers within cell architectures dominate the parasitic free-carrier absorption (FCA) of devices at wavelengths above the bandgap of the semiconductor material. In this work, the wavelength-dependent, free-carrier absorption of p- and n-type InGaAs layers grown epitaxially onto semi-insulating (SI) InP substrates has been measured and related to the total absorption of long-wavelength photons in thermophotovoltaic devices. The optical responses of the TPV cells are then used in the calculation of spectral utilization factors and device efficiencies.

Clevenger, M.B.; Murray, C.S.



Utilization of synergetic aerosol retrieval  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A synergetic aerosol retrieval method SYNAER which exploits a combination of a radiome-ter and a spectrometer onboard ENVISAT and METOP has been developed. This method enables retrieval of aerosol optical depth and an estimation of the aerosol composition. Due to the sampling characteristics and available information content of the combined sensor data the utilization of the results has to be done with appropriate care. On the other hand the specifically new information on aerosol composition enables new applications in the fields of aerosol monitoring (differntiating components), air quality (fine particulate matter assessment and data assimilation), and climate research (aerosol-cloud interaction analysis for different aerosol components). The paper will show examples of applications in the various fields. The paper will be based on ongoing reprocessing of SYNAER for ENVISAT 2003-2009 within ESA GSE PROMOTE and on experimental selected results for METOP. Implications of the different sampling of the two sensor combinations for the differnt applications will be assessed.

Holzer-Popp, Thomas


Energy efficiency and electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

Twenty years have now elapsed since the energy crisis irrevocably changed world energy priorities. The energy crisis banished all apparitions of cheap and almost limitless energy and made the public keenly aware of its scarcity. The sharp rise in energy prices that followed the Arab oil embargo created strong market incentives to conserve energy. Most users have substantially improved the efficiency with which they use energy, although one might lament that the gains have not been larger. In contrast to the increased efficiency with which electricity and other forms of energy are used, electric utilities themselves have singularly failed to improve their heat efficiency in generating electricity. This failure can be attributed to regulation preventing market forces from creating incentive to improve efficiency.

Studness, C.M.



San Francisco Public Utilities Commission  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (PUC) digital collection is based at the San Francisco Public Library. It includes over 300 images, spanning 1887 to 1968, of significant events and projects such as the building of the Hetch Hetchy Railroad and O'Shaughnessey Dam, the construction of the Golden Gate International Exposition on Treasure Island, and so on. These fascinating historic industrial photographs document the pipelines, tunnels, reservoirs, dams, powerhouses, and pumping stations that the PUC has built and maintained in order "to provide water, sewerage and municipal services to the City and County of San Francisco." Visitors can click on the link provided here to view the images, or perform their own detailed search across the entire collection. The views of the Calaveras Dam are quite dramatic and there are many photos documenting the Golden Gate International Exposition as well.



Effect of Participatory Insurance on Hospital Utilization  

PubMed Central

The effects on hospital utilization that are ascribed to participatory health insurance are discussed, and factors that mediate or confound these effects are described. Five indexes of utilization are examined with respect to their usefulness in yielding inferences about utilization differentials based on these factors, and the utilization experience of a full-service insured group and a copayment insured group, matched for age and sex, is compared.

Hardwick, C. Patrick; Shuman, Larry; Barnoon, Shlomo



Utilization management: A European perspective.  


Utilization management (UM) in health care, based on the collection, assessment and monitoring of data pertaining to patient services and treatment, ultimately assures efficiency and effectiveness. The central role of laboratory services in modern medicine created the need to utilize UM programs in clinical laboratories in order to reduce costs, enhance efficiency and improve on quality for patients. Some UM programs have focused on improving efficiency by reducing the cost per test. Consolidation and networking have been proposed as opportunities to increase test volumes, thus achieving economy of scale, and a better ratio between test volumes and fulltime equivalent (FTE) staff. However, little evidence is available in the literature to demonstrate the efficiency of these models, and concern has been expressed regarding the possible increase in pre-analytical errors and the loss of efficient communication between clinicians and laboratory professionals. In Europe, we have seen an increasing emphasis on the importance of demand management strategies as the key to reducing costs and improving on quality in laboratory medicine. The cost of inappropriate requesting includes not only test consumables and reagents, but also additional consultations, treatment and investigations. A number of studies in literature describe strategies and initiatives designed to change and improve test requesting, but the following two items are mandatory for real improvement: a) the active involvement of requesting physicians and other stakeholders, including patients; and b) the use of combined interventions instead of a single strategy. Therefore, the use of approaches for demand management that considers pre-, within- and post-laboratory initiatives is on the increase in clinical laboratories throughout Europe. PMID:23499570

Plebani, Mario; Zaninotto, Martina; Faggian, Diego



Agricultural and synthetic polymers: Biodegradability and utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proceedings are divided into the following sections: Overviews; Degradability of commodity plastics and specialty polymers; Agricultural polymer utilization - Monomer source; Agricultural polymer utilization - Alternate crop strategies; and Agricultural polymer utilization - Corn-based feed stocks. Some papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

J. E. Glass; G. Swift



Case studies in electric utility competition litigation  

SciTech Connect

Although electric utilities in the US in many ways operate as highly regulated monopolies, federal and state regulation has not eliminated competition in the electric utility industry. This article describes trends in utility competition litigation as they have evolved in Georgia and other parts of the country.

Orr, J.A.; Hawks, B.K. [Sutherland, Asbill & Brennan, Atlanta, GA (United States)



What utilities should expect from competitive intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric utilities are informationally dysfunctional. In a survey of electric utility managers, we found that while employees may possess the necessary information for decision-making, they may not understand how the information is used, why it is important, or who needs to know it. Utility managers feel that their organizations suffer from intelligence deficits in the following areas: (1) Customer Retention-Customer

L. M. Fuld; D. L. Borska



EERC Center for Biomass Utilization 2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass utilization is one solution to our nations addiction to oil and fossil fuels. What is needed now is applied fundamental research that will cause economic technology development for the utilization of the diverse biomass resources in the United States. This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) applied fundamental research project contributes to the development of economical biomass utilization for

C. J. Zygarlicke; D. D. Schmidt; E. S. Olson; K. M. Leroux; C. A. Wocken; T. A. Aulich; K. D. WIlliams



Perspectives on Knowledge Utilization in Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explains why knowledge utilization has become so important and why so many perspectives on knowledge utilization exist. The field of research on knowledge utilization is immense and continues to grow rapidly. The reason for this, according to the paper, is that developed nations around the world are now in the so-called Knowledge Age.…

Hood, Paul


Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2005)  

SciTech Connect

This report presents year-end 2005 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities to benchmark the success of their green power programs.

Bird, L.; Brown, E.



Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2004)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the early 1990s, only a handful of utilities offered their customers a choice of purchasing electricity generated from renewable energy sources. Today, nearly 600 utilities in regulated electricity markets--or almost 20% of all utilities nationally--provide their customers a \\

L. Bird; E. Brown



Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2004).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the early 1990s, only a handful of utilities offered their customers a choice of purchasing electricity generated from renewable energy sources. Today, nearly 600 utilities in regulated electricity markets-or almost 20% of all utilities nationally-prov...

L. Bird E. Brown



Waiting Time versus Utility to Download Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utility of a contents delivery network depends on the waiting time. This paper deals with the priority control of contents delivery networks from the view- point of utility. First, a subjective evaluation exper- iment on image downloading is carried out to obtain the relationship between the waiting time and the util- ity. From the results, a function of the

Kazutomo NOMURA; Kyoko YAMORI; Eiji TAKAHASHI; Takumi MIYOSHI; Yoshiaki TANAKA


26 CFR 1.247-1 - Deduction for dividends paid on preferred stock of public utilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the corporation or whether it represents something essentially new in an economic sense in the corporation's financial structure. If, for example, a public utility, which has outstanding bonds issued before October 1, 1942, issues...



40 CFR 262.90 - Project XL for Public Utilities in New York State.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...right-of-way is a fixed, integrated network of aboveground...including land structures, fixed equipment...of the Utility, corporate address, and corporate mailing address...telephone number of a corporate-level contact...



40 CFR 262.90 - Project XL for Public Utilities in New York State.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...right-of-way is a fixed, integrated network of aboveground...including land structures, fixed equipment...of the Utility, corporate address, and corporate mailing address...telephone number of a corporate-level contact...



Preliminary Energy Sector Assessments of Jamaica. Volume V: Electric Utility Rate Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study analyzes the electric utility rate structure of the Jamaica Public Service Company (JPS) in order to determine whether it promotes economically efficient use of electricity, is based on principles of equity and fairness, and provides JPS with su...



Manufactured residential utility wall system (ResCore), overview  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides an overview of the design and development of a manufactured residential utility wall system referred to as ResCore. ResCore is a self-contained, manufactured, residential utility wall that provides complete rough-in of utilities (power, gas, water, and phone) and other functions (exhaust, combustion make-up air, refrigerant lines, etc.) to serve the residential kitchen, bath, utility, and laundry rooms. Auburn University, Department of Industrial Design faculty and students, supported by a team of graduate student researchers and the project`s advisory team, developed the ResCore. The project was accomplished through a research subcontract from the US Department of Energy administered by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The ResCore wall system features a ``layered`` manufacturing technique that allows each major component group--structural, cold water, hot water, drain, gas, electric, etc.--to be built as a separate subassembly and easily brought together for final assembly. The two structural layers are reinforced with bridging that adds strength and also permits firm attachment of plumbing pipes and other systems to the wall frame.

Wendt, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lundell, C.; Lau, T.M. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)



Manufactured Residential Utility Wall System (ResCore),  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the design and development of a manufactured residential utility wall system referred to as ResCore. ResCore is a self contained, manufactured, residential utility wall that provides complete rough-in of utilities (power, gas, water, and phone) and other functions (exhaust, combustion make-up air, refrigerant lines, etc.) to serve the kitchen, bath, utility, and laundry rooms. Auburn University, Department of Industrial Design faculty, students, supported by a team of graduate student researchers and the project`s advisory team, developed the ResCore. The project was accomplished through a research subcontract from the U.S. Department of Energy administered by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The ResCore wall system features a layered manufacturing technique that allows each major component group: structural, cold water, hot water, drain, gas, electric, etc. to be built as a separate subassembly and easily brought together for final assembly. The two structural layers are reinforced with bridging that adds strength and also permits firm attachment of plumbing pipes and other systems to the wall frame.

Wendt, Robert [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lundell, Clark; Lau, Tin Man [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)



Energy essays: a focus on utility communication  

SciTech Connect

The following papers are included: (1) technology, customers, and the feedback loop, (2) utility communications: a need for understanding the American character, (3) utility programs and grass roots communication, (4) reading the tea leaves of public opinion, (5) the need for public opinion surveys in utility communication programs, (6) the role of assessment in effective utility communication programs, (7) utility customer communication; perspectives on current public policy and law, (8) customer communications - a notion in motion, (9) communication when your customer is your owner, (10) radio advertising, (11) television advertising, (12) newspaper advertising, and (13) magazine advertising. (MOW)

Selnow, G.W.; Crano, W.D.; Ludwig, S.; Messe, L.A. (eds.)



Eager writeback - a technique for improving bandwidth utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern high-performance processors utilize multi-level cache structures to help tolerate the increasing latency of main memory. Most of these caches employ either a writeback or a write-through strategy to deal with store operations. Write-through caches propagate data to more distant memory levels at the time each store occurs, which requires a very large bandwidth between the memory hierarchy levels. Writeback

Hsien-hsin S. Lee; Gary S. Tyson; Matthew K. Farrens



Integrated polymerase chain reaction chips utilizing digital microfluidics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports an integrated microfluidic chip for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) applications utilizing digital microfluidic\\u000a chip (DMC) technology. Several crucial procedures including sample transportation, mixing, and DNA amplification were performed\\u000a on the integrated chip using electro-wetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) effect. An innovative concept of hydrophobic\\/hydrophilic\\u000a structure has been successfully demonstrated to integrate the DMC chip with the on-chip PCR device. Sample

Yi-Hsien Chang; Gwo-Bin Lee; Fu-Chun Huang; Yi-Yu Chen; Jr-Lung Lin



Domestic utility attitudes toward foreign uranium supply  

SciTech Connect

The current embargo on the enrichment of foreign-origin uranium for use in domestic utilization facilities is scheduled to be removed in 1984. The pending removal of this embargo, complicated by a depressed worldwide market for uranium, has prompted consideration of a new or extended embargo within the US Government. As part of its on-going data collection activities, Nuclear Resources International (NRI) has surveyed 50 domestic utility/utility holding companies (representing 60 lead operator-utilities) on their foreign uranium purchase strategies and intentions. The most recent survey was conducted in early May 1981. A number of qualitative observations were made during the course of the survey. The major observations are: domestic utility views toward foreign uranium purchase are dynamic; all but three utilities had some considered foreign purchase strategy; some utilities have problems with buying foreign uranium from particular countries; an inducement is often required by some utilities to buy foreign uranium; opinions varied among utilities concerning the viability of the domestic uranium industry; and many utilities could have foreign uranium fed through their domestic uranium contracts (indirect purchases). The above observations are expanded in the final section of the report. However, it should be noted that two of the observations are particularly important and should be seriously considered in formulation of foreign uranium import restrictions. These important observations are the dynamic nature of the subject matter and the potentially large and imbalanced effect the indirect purchases could have on utility foreign uranium procurement.

Not Available



Utilities plan to market internal IT applications  

SciTech Connect

More and more utilities are considering offering their information technology (IT) resources to other utilities or companies. This was reported by almost one-half of the information systems managers surveyed during a recent study conducted by the Newton-Evans Research Co. The respondents indicated their utility has considered commercializing one or more of its internal IT resources or applications. Most of the specific applications being considered revolve around customer information systems (CIS). The study concludes a new generation of CIS is destined to become the heart of the electric distribution utility`s enterprise-wide information system. The new breed of CIS identified by respondents will need multiple links to other administrative applications as well as to the real-time systems managed by the utility`s operations departments.




Equity implications of utility energy conservation programs  

SciTech Connect

This paper uses the Residential Energy Consumption Survey undertaken by the Energy Information Administration in 1990 to estimate the statistical association between household income and participation in electric utility energy conservation programs and the association between participation and the electricity consumption. The results indicate that utility rebates, energy audits, load management programs and other conservation measures tend to be undertaken at greater frequency by high income households than by low income households. Participants in conservation programs tend to occupy relatively new and energy efficient residences and undertake conservation measures other than utility programs, which suggests that utility sponsored programs are substitutes for other conservation investments. Electricity consumption during 1990 is not significantly less for households participating in utility programs than for nonparticipants, which also implies that utility conservation programs are displacing other conservation investments. Apparently, utility programs are not avoiding costs of new construction and instead are transferring wealth, particularly to high income participating households.

Sutherland, R.J.



Evolution of selenium utilization traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The essential trace element selenium is used in a wide variety of biological processes. Selenocysteine (Sec), the 21st amino acid, is co-translationally incorporated into a restricted set of proteins. It is encoded by an UGA codon with the help of tRNASec (SelC), Sec-specific elongation factor (SelB) and a cis-acting mRNA structure (SECIS element). In addition, Sec synthase (SelA) and

Héctor Romero; Yan Zhang; Vadim N Gladyshev; Gustavo Salinas



A utility`s perspective of the market for IGCC  

SciTech Connect

I believe, in the short-term U. S. market that IGCC`s primary competition is, natural gas-fired combined cycle technology. I believe that in order for IGCC to compete on a commercial basis, that natural gas prices have to rise relative to coal prices, and that the capital cost of the technology must come down. While this statement may seem to be somewhat obvious, it raises two interesting points. The first is that while the relative pricing of natural gas and coal is not generally within the technology supplier`s control, the capital cost is. The reduction of capital cost represents a major challenge for the technology suppliers in order for this technology to become commercialized. The second point is that the improvements being achieved with IGCC efficiencies probably won`t help it outperform the effects of natural gas pricing. This is due to the fact that the combined cycle portion of the IGCC technology is experiencing the most significant improvements in efficiency. I do see, however, a significant advantage for IGCC technology compared to conventional pulverized coal-fired units. As IGCC efficiencies continue to improve, combined with their environmentally superior performance, I believe that IGCC will be the ``technology of choice`` for utilities that install new coal-fired generation. We have achieved economic justification of our project by virtue of the DOE`s funding of $120 million awarded in Round III of their Clean Coal Technology Program. This program provides the bridge between current technology economics and those of the future. And Tampa Electric is pleased to be taking a leadership position in furthering the IGCC knowledge base.

Black, C.R. [Tampa Electric Co., FL (United States)



Fabrication of bimetallic Cu\\/Pt nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode and its catalytic activity toward hydrogen evolution reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The film of poly(8-hydroxyquinoline) was formed by cyclic voltammetery method on the surface of glassy carbon electrode and poly(8-hydroxyquinoline) modified glassy carbon electrode, p(8-HQ)MGCE, was prepared. Cu2+ ion was adsorbed on the polymer matrix due to complexation with 8-hydroxyquinoline units Copper nanoparticles were deposited onto p(8-HQ)MGCE by applying potential and prepared copper nanoparticles galvanic replaced with platinum to fabricate poly(8-hydroxyquinoline)–Pt\\/Cu

Jahan Bakhsh Raoof; Reza Ojani; Salehe Asghari Esfeden; Sahar Rashid Nadimi



Structural Integrity Analysis and Verification of Aircraft Structures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

AFGROW is a workstation-based, graphically interactive computer program for simulation of fatigue crack growth in various structural geometries subject to spectral loading. It is a highly flexible code utilizing standard user-interface objects such as pus...

S. Krishnan K. L. Boyd J. A. Harter



Transition to competition in the electric-utility industry  

SciTech Connect

Changing technological and supply conditions have dramatically altered the structure and costs of the electric utility industry. Assurance of the continued financial viability of the industry, maintenance of adequate levels of supply reserves, and reliability and protection of interests of residential and industrial consumers requires that a fundamental re-examination of traditional power-delivery institutions occur. The purpose of this article is to begin such an inquiry by proposing a menu of positive solutions to some of the basic problems facing the electric-utility industry. This article, however, is not intended, nor is it structured, as a traditional review of the law, and relatively little attention is paid to legal precedent. The framework that regulates the electric-utility industry today was built in the first forty years of this century, without any precedent, and structured to adapt to the changing environment of that time. Now that the industry has matured, it is only reasonable to look at how it can be shaped to reflect today's dynamic environment. Thus, it is the intent of this article to be a prospective policy paper that coherently addresses the problems of the industry and presents the solutions necessary for it to thrive in the future. 1 table.

O'Connor, P.R.; Levin, S.L.; Cahill, J.J.; Keenan, G.M.



Celss nutrition system utilizing snails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the 40th IAF Congress in Malaga, a nutrition system for a lunar base CELSS was presented. A lunar base with a total of eight crew members was envisaged. In this paper, four species of plants—rice, soybean, lettuce and strawberry—were introduced to the system. These plants were sufficient to satisfy fundamental nutritional needs of the crew members. The supply of nutrition from plants and the human nutritional requirements could almost be balanced. Our study revealed that the necessary plant cultivation area per crew member would be nearly 40 m 3 in the lunar base. The sources of nutrition considered in the study were energy, sugar, fat, amino acids, inorganic salt and vitamins; however, calcium, vitamin B 2, vitamin A and sodium were found to be lacking. Therefore, a subsystem to supply these elements is of considerable value. In this paper, we report on a study for breeding snails and utilizing meat as food. Nutrients supplied from snails are shown to compensate for the abovementioned lacking elements. We evaluate the snail breeder and the associated food supply system as a subsystem of closed ecological life support system.

Midorikawa, Y.; Fujii, T.; Ohira, A.; Nitta, K.


Personal genetics: sports utility vehicle?  


Personal genetic testing which is not strictly related to medicine or health is becoming more and more popular covering areas from ancestry, genealogy, nutrition& lifestyle and more recently sports and exercise. The reasons are compelling - if it were possible to read in our genes our potential sporting attributes and how to achieve them it would be valuable information. But is it possible? This overview will look at the current situation and future prospects the authors believe that there is utility in sports genetic testing exactly what can be interpreted from our genetic results needs to be precisely defined and limited to what has been demonstrated by repeated scientific studies. Current areas of interest include optimizing exercise/training routines, VO2max improvement and predisposition to some common sports related injuries such as tendonitis. The interest and the scientific progress is reflected both in increasing rate of publication of geneexercise studies as well as in patent applications concerning genetic associations with commercial potential. PMID:22789016

Grimaldi, Keith Anthony; Paoli, Antonio; Smith, Graeme John



Geology in coal resource utilization  

SciTech Connect

The 37 papers in this book were compiled with an overriding theme in mind: to provide the coal industry with a comprehensive source of information on how geology and geologic concepts can be applied to the many facets of coal resource location, extraction, and utilization. The chapters have been arranged to address the major coal geology subfields of Exploration and Reserve Definition, Reserve Estimation, Coalbed Methane, Underground Coal Gasification, Mining, Coal Quality Concerns, and Environmental Impacts, with papers distributed on the basis of their primary emphasis. To help guide one through the collection, the author has included prefaces at the beginning of each chapter. They are intended as a brief lead-in to the subject of the chapter and an acknowledgement of the papers' connections to the subject and contributions to the chapter. In addition, a brief cross-reference section has been included in each preface to help one find papers of interest in other chapters. The subfields of coal geology are intimately intertwined, and investigations in one area may impact problems in another area. Some subfields tend to blur at their edges, such as with reserve definition and reserve estimation. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

Peters, D.C. (ed.)



A Taxonomy of Botnet Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a taxonomy of botnet structures, based on their utility to the botmaster. We propose key metrics to measure their utility for various activities (e.g., spam, ddos). Using these performance metrics, we consider the ability of different response techniques to degrade or disrupt botnets. In particular, our models show that targeted responses are particularly effective against scale free botnets

David Dagon; Guofei Gu; Christopher P. Lee; Wenke Lee



[Thermodynamically controlled deracemization utilizing inclusion complexation].  


Utilizing host-guest inclusion complexation in the solid state, alpha-monosubstituted ketones were deracemized using optically active host compounds such as (-)-trans-2,3-bis(hydroxydiphenylmethyl)-1,4-dioxaspiro[5.4]decene (1a) under alkali conditions. This new method afforded optically active alpha-monosubstituted ketones in excellent yields with high enantiomeric excesses. For example, (+/-)-2-benzylcyclohexanone (2a) and (+/-)-3-benzylhexan-2-one (3c) were converted to the R-isomer (74% ee) and the S-isomer (96% ee), respectively, in quantitative yields. An x-ray crystallographic study elucidated the structure of the inclusion complex of 1a and (R)-2a. The study showed that the host molecules 1a ingeniously includes the guest molecule (R)-2a via hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions. As an application of deracemization, coenzyme (R)-alpha-lipoic acid and (R)-(-)-epilachnene, the antipode of an defensive droplets from the Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis, were synthesized in short steps with>99% ee and 87% ee, respectively. PMID:18827463

Kaku, Hiroto



Microfluidic particle sorting utilizing inertial lift force.  


A simple passive microfluidic device that continuously separates microparticles is presented. Its development is motivated by the need for specific size micro perfluorocarbon (PFC) droplets to be used for a novel gas embolotherapy method. The device consists of a rectangular channel in which inertial lift forces are utilized to separate particles in lateral distance. At the entrance of the channel, particles are introduced at the center by focusing the flow from a center channel with flow from two side channels. Downstream, large particles will occupy a lateral equilibrium position in shorter axial distance than small particles. At the exit of the channel, flow containing large particles is separated from flow containing small particles. It is shown that 10.2-?m diameter microspheres can be separated from 3.0-?m diameter microspheres with a separation efficiency of 69-78% and a throughput in the order of 2 ·10? particles per minute. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations were done to calculate flow fields and verify theoretical particle trajectories. Theory underlying this research shows that higher separation efficiencies for very specific diameter cut-off are possible. This microfluidic channel design has a simple structure and can operate without external forces which makes it feasible for lab-on-a-chip (LOC) applications. PMID:20865451

Nieuwstadt, Harm A; Seda, Robinson; Li, David S; Fowlkes, J Brian; Bull, Joseph L



Ultrastructure of Arthropod Sensory Structures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report summarizes research in the sensory structure and related selected organ system of ticks, mites and fly larva. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy are utilized. A list of publications is given with an abstract for each journal publicat...

R. C. Axtell



[Utilities: a solution of a decision problem?].  


Utility is a concept that originates from utilitarianism, a highly influential philosophical school in the Anglo-American world. The cornerstone of utilitarianism is the principle of maximum happiness or utility. In the medical sciences, this utility approach has been adopted and developed within the field of medical decision making. On an operational level, utility is the evaluation of a health state or an outcome on a one-dimensional scale ranging from 0 (death) to 1 (perfect health). By adding the concept of expectancy, the graphic representation of both concepts in a decision tree results in the specification of expected utilities and helps to resolve complex medical decision problems. Criticism of the utility approach relates to the rational perspective on humans (which is rejected by a considerable fraction of research in psychology) and to the artificial methods used in the evaluation of utility, such as Standard Gamble or Time Trade Off. These may well be the reason why the utility approach has never been accepted in Germany. Nevertheless, innovative concepts for defining goals in health care are urgently required, as the current debate in Germany on "Nutzen" (interestingly translated as 'benefit' instead of as 'utility') and integrated outcome models indicates. It remains to be seen whether this discussion will lead to a re-evaluation of the utility approach. PMID:19216241

Koller, Michael; Ohmann, Christian; Lorenz, Wilfried