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1

Oxinobactin and sulfoxinobactin, abiotic siderophore analogues to enterobactin involving 8-hydroxyquinoline subunits: thermodynamic and structural studies.  

PubMed

The synthesis of two new iron chelators built on the tris-l-serine trilactone scaffold of enterobactin and bearing a 8-hydroxyquinoline (oxinobactin) or 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonate (sulfoxinobactin) unit has been described. The X-ray structure of the ferric oxinobactin has been determined, exhibiting a slightly distorted octahedral environment for Fe(III) and a ? configuration. The Fe(III) chelating properties have been examined by potentiometric and spectrophotometric titrations in methanol-water 80/20% w/w solvent for oxinobactin and in water for sulfoxinobactin. They reveal the extraordinarily complexing ability (pFe(III) values) of oxinobactin over the p[H] range 2-9, the pFe value at p[H] 7.4 being 32.8. This was supported by spectrophotometric competition showing that oxinobactin removes Fe(III) from ferric enterobactin at p[H] 7.4. In contrast, the Fe(III) affinity of sulfoxinobactin was largely lower as compared to oxinobactin but similar to that of the ligand O-TRENSOX having a TREN backbone. These results are discussed in relation to the predisposition by the trilactone scaffold of the chelating units. Some comparisons are also made with other quinoline-based ligands and hydroxypyridinonate ligand (hopobactin). PMID:23134487

du Moulinet d'Hardemare, Amaury; Gellon, Gisèle; Philouze, Christian; Serratrice, Guy

2012-11-19

2

Structural and optical properties of ?-phase tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum crystals prepared by using physical vapor deposition method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crystals of ?-phase tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (?-Alq3) were prepared by using physical vapor deposition (PVD) method in a double zone tube furnace. The structural properties of the ?-Alq3 crystals were investigated by using an X-ray single crystal diffractometer (XSCD) and a high resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM). Large straight steps were observed from the side face of the pine needle-like crystals. The straight steps are parallel with each other like terraces and the widths of the steps are fixed, indicating that the ?-Alq3 crystals may have layered structures. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra at different temperatures (7 K, 66 K, 220 K, 300 K and 350 K) and the absorption spectrum were also investigated. The optical band gap of the ?-Alq3 crystals was calculated to be about 2.82 eV. This value is a little larger than that of amorphous mer-Alq3 (about 2.7 eV), indicating a minimizing of impurities, grain boundaries and defects.

Xie, Wanfeng; Pang, Zhiyong; Zhao, Yu; Jiang, Feng; Yuan, Huimin; Song, Hui; Han, Shenghao

2014-10-01

3

Synthesis, structure and spectroscopic properties of Re(I) complexes incorporating 5-arylazo-8-hydroxyquinoline: a density functional theory/time-dependent density functional theory investigation.  

PubMed

Dinuclear rhenium(I) complexes having a fac-[Re(CO)3](+) moiety of general formula fac-[Re2(CO)6(hq)2] have been synthesized in excellent yield by reacting [Re(CO)5Cl] with Hhq in a ratio of 1?:?1 in toluene in an argon atmosphere. Here hq(-) is the deprotonated form of 5-phenylazo-8-hydroxyquinoline (Hhq(1)), 5-(2-naphthylazo)-8-hydroxyquinoline (Hhq(2)) and 5-(2-fluorineazo)-8-hydroxyquinoline (Hhq(3)). The reaction of synthesized dinuclear complexes with imidazole (Im) and N-methylimidazole (N-MeIm) in dry dichloromethane under argon atmosphere afforded the mononuclear complexes of general formula fac-[Re(CO)3(hq)(Im)] and fac-[Re(CO)3(hq)(N-MeIm)] respectively in high yield. The elemental analysis and ESI mass spectroscopic measurements confirm the formation of the desired complexes. Molecular structures of fac-[Re(CO)3(hq(1))(Im)] and fac-[Re(CO)3(hq(1))(N-MeIm)] were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The complexes were also characterized by different spectroscopic techniques. The complexes displayed bathochromically shifted intramolecular charge transfer (CT) bands as compared to complexes with unsubstituted 8-hydroxyquinoline complexes. The ground and excited-state geometries, NMR, absorption, and phosphorescence properties of nine Re(i) complexes were examined by DFT and TDDFT methods. The natural transition orbital (NTO) and spin density difference map analysis reveals the nature of excitations. The lowest lying triplet excited is associated with the (3)IL excited state (ligand-localized) having a cis conformation of the pendant arylazo moiety. The emission-like transition is consistent with the strong (3)ILCT character. PMID:24343365

Sarkar, Rupa; Mondal, Pallab; Rajak, Kajal Krishna

2014-02-21

4

Studies on the growth, structural, optical, mechanical properties of 8-hydroxyquinoline single crystal by vertical Bridgman technique  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} Growth of bulk single crystal of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) by vertical Bridgman technique for the first time. {yields} The crystalline perfection is reasonably good. {yields} The photoluminescence spectrum shows that the material is suitable for blue light emission. -- Abstract: Single crystal of organic nonlinear optical material, 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) of dimension 52 mm (length) x 12 mm (dia.) was grown from melt using vertical Bridgman technique. The crystal system of the material was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction analysis. The crystalline perfection of the grown crystal was examined by high-resolution X-ray diffraction study. Low angular spread around 400'' of the diffraction curve and the low full width half maximum values show that the crystalline perfection is reasonably good. The recorded photoluminescence spectrum shows that the material is suitable for blue light emission. Optical transmittance for the UV and visible region was measured and mechanical strength was estimated from Vicker's microhardness test along the growth face of the grown crystal.

Prabhakaran, SP. [Crystal Growth and Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024, Tamil Nadu (India)] [Crystal Growth and Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024, Tamil Nadu (India); Babu, R. Ramesh, E-mail: rampap2k@yahoo.co.in [Crystal Growth and Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024, Tamil Nadu (India); Velusamy, P.; Ramamurthi, K. [Crystal Growth and Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024, Tamil Nadu (India)] [Crystal Growth and Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024, Tamil Nadu (India)

2011-11-15

5

Comparative Study of Photoluminescence Dynamics of Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) Aluminum-Based Organic Multilayer Structures with Different Types of Energy Lineups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoluminescence (PL) dynamics of aluminumquinoline (Alq3; tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum)-based organic multilayer structures, i.e., Alq3/oxadiazole (t-BuPBD; (2-(4-biphenylyl)-5-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole), Alq3/cyclopentadiene (PPCP; 1,2,3,4,5-pentaphenyl-1,3-cyclopentadiene), and Alq3/diamine (TPD; N,N?-diphenyl-N,N?-bis-(3-methylphenyl)-[1,1?-biphenyl]-4,4?-diamine), which possess different types of energy lineups (equivalent to types I and II of inorganic semiconductor multilayer structures) of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy levels, were investigated and compared. The fast energy transfer followed by strong PL in Alq3 was proved for Alq3/PBD which is of type-I energy lineup, while the tendency of separation of excitons, i.e., electrons and holes generated in the excited molecules, was demonstrated for Alq3/PPCP and Alq3/TPD which are of type II@. These results indicate that the energy lineup with respect to HOMO and LUMO energy levels can be a guideline for luminescence dynamics in organic multilayer structures.

Fujita, Shizuo; Nakazawa, Tadahiro; Asano, Mitsuru; Fujita, Shigeo

2000-09-01

6

New approach to synthesize 8-hydroxyquinoline-based complexes with Zn2+ and their luminescent properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, zinc(II) bis-(8-hydroxyquinoline) dihydrate (ZnQ2·2H2O) and zinc(II) bis-(2-methyl-8-hydroxyquinoline) monohydrate (Zn(MQ)2·H2O) were successfully prepared by a room-temperature solid-state chemical reaction using zinc acetate (Zn(CH3COO)2·2H2O), 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ) and 2-methyl-8-hydroxyquinoline (2-methyl-8-HQ) as the starting materials. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal analysis (TG/DSC) demonstrated that the chemical composition of the products were ZnQ2·2H2O and Zn(MQ)2·H2O. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that the products ZnQ2·2H2O and Zn(MQ)2·H2O had sheet-like morphology with a thickness of about 50 nm. The UV-vis absorption spectra of ZnQ2·2H2O and Zn(MQ)2·H2O indicated that they existed charge transfer from the metal to the ligand (MLCT bands). The room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra of ZnQ2·2H2O revealed that the sample possessed largely blue shift compared with the previous reports. Besides, the two complexes presented a consistent decline situation along with the decline concentration in chloroform solution, which due to solvate effect and structural similarity. The fluorescence quantum yields were measured at 36.58% and 0.07%, and the emission colors were blue-green and light-blue, respectively. The fluorescence quantum yield of ZnQ2·2H2O was higher than some reported similar structure. The method was believed to largely facilitate the fabrication and application of organometallic complex nanomaterials.

Wang, Ruifang; Cao, Yali; Jia, Dianzeng; Liu, Lang; Li, Fang

2013-12-01

7

Gluconjugates of 8-hydroxyquinolines as potential anti-cancer prodrugs.  

PubMed

8-Hydroxyquinolines are systems of great interest in the field of inorganic and bioinorganic chemistry. They are metal-binding compounds and are known to exhibit a variety of biological activities, such as antibacterial and anticancer activities. Among these systems, clioquinol has been the focus of a renewed interest in recent years. In this scenario, we synthesized and characterized the new clioquinol glucoconjugate, 5-chloro-7-iodo-8-quinolinyl-?-D-glucopyranoside in order to compare this system to that of clioquinol. We also synthesized, 8-quinolinyl-?-D-glucopyranoside, an 8-hydroxyquinoline glucoconjugate. The reason for the development of glucoconjugates is the glucose avidity, and the over-expression of glucose transporters in cancer cells. Here we demonstrate that glycoconjugates are cleaved in vitro by ?-glucosidase and these systems exhibit antiproliferative activity against different tumor cell lines in the presence of copper(II) ions. PMID:22354329

Oliveri, Valentina; Giuffrida, Maria Laura; Vecchio, Graziella; Aiello, Cinzia; Viale, Maurizio

2012-04-21

8

8-Hydroxyquinolines: a review of their metal chelating properties and medicinal applications  

PubMed Central

Metal ions play an important role in biological processes and in metal homeostasis. Metal imbalance is the leading cause for many neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and multiple sclerosis. 8-Hydroxyquinoline (8HQ) is a small planar molecule with a lipophilic effect and a metal chelating ability. As a result, 8HQ and its derivatives hold medicinal properties such as antineurodegenerative, anticancer, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic activities. Herein, diverse bioactivities of 8HQ and newly synthesized 8HQ-based compounds are discussed together with their mechanisms of actions and structure–activity relationships. PMID:24115839

Prachayasittikul, Veda; Prachayasittikul, Supaluk; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

2013-01-01

9

Theoretical studies of spectra properties of cyclometalated platinum II complexes with 8-hydroxyquinolines and quinolino-8-thiol ligand  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of luminescent complexes (C?N)PtQ (where C?N is bidentate cyclometalating ligand and Q is 8-hydroxyquinoline or quinoline-8-thiol ligand) are investigated using density functional theory (DFT). The optimized ground state geometries show that all these complexes show a nearly square-planar structure. The positions of the lowest absorption bands are blue-shifted for complexes with electron-deficient pyridine-type C?N ligand while is red-shifted

Xiao-Na Li; Ji-Kang Feng; Ai-Min Ren; Lei-Jiao Li

2007-01-01

10

Design and synthesis of 8-hydroxyquinoline-based radioprotective agents.  

PubMed

In radiation therapy, adverse side effects are often induced due to the excessive cell death that occurs in radiosensitive normal cells. The radiation-induced cell death of normal cells is caused, at least in part, by apoptosis, which undergoes via activation of p53 and increase in the p53 protein, a zinc-containing transcriptional factor, in response to cellular damage. Therefore, radioprotective drugs that can protect normal cells from radiation and thus suppress adverse side effects would be highly desirable. We report herein on the radioprotective activity of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ) derivatives that were initially designed so as to interact with the Zn(2+) in p53. Indeed, the 5,7-bis(methylaminosulfonyl)-8HQ and 8-methoxyquinoline derivatives considerably protected MOLT-4 cells against ?-ray radiation (10 Gy), accompanied by a low cytotoxicity. However, mechanistic studies revealed that the interaction of these drugs with p53 is weak and the mechanism for inhibiting apoptosis appears to be different from that of previously reported radioprotectors such as bispicen, which inhibits apoptosis via the denaturation of p53 as well as by blocking both transcription-dependent and -independent apoptotic pathways. PMID:25002230

Ariyasu, Shinya; Sawa, Akiko; Morita, Akinori; Hanaya, Kengo; Hoshi, Misato; Takahashi, Ippei; Wang, Bing; Aoki, Shin

2014-08-01

11

Synthesis and characterization of ?-cyclodextrin inclusion complex containing di(8-hydroxyquinoline)magnesium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) inclusion complex containing di(8-hydroxyquinoline)magnesium was prepared. The product was characterized by NMR, IR, differential thermal thermogravimetric analysis (DT-TGA), spectrofluorimetry, and elemental analysis, indicating the formation of inclusion complex in which the quinoline rings of the guest were encapsulated within the ?-CD cavities. The Job's method provided 2:1 stoichiometry for the inclusion complex between ?-CD and di(8-hydroxyquinoline)magnesium. The association constant calculated with the modified Benesi-Hildebrand equation at 25 °C was determined. And the mean association constant was 3577 (L/mol) 2, R.S.D. was 2.58%. The thermal stability and solubility of di(8-hydroxyquinoline)magnesium were improved when forming inclusion complex.

He, Jiang; Deng, Li; Yang, Shanshan

2008-09-01

12

Synthesis, characterization and DFT calculation of 4-fluorophenyl substituted tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum(III) complexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New 4-fluorophenyl substituted 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives, 5-(4-fluorophenyl)quinolin-8-ol and 5,7-bis(4-fluorophenyl)quinolin-8-ol, were synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic methods. The aluminum complexes of 5-(4-fluorophenyl)quinolin-8-ol (AlQF) and of 5,7-bis(4-fluorophenyl)quinolin-8-ol (AlQF2) exhibit strong fluorescence emission centered at 525 nm and 530 nm respectively. The quantum yield of both complexes were enhanced compared to the parent tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminum(III) complex. Electronic structures and photophysical properties of the new complexes were investigated theoretically by ab initio and density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent DFT (TD-DFT). Geometries of the ground state (S0) and the first excited state (S1) of the new complexes were optimized at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) functional and configuration interaction singles (CIS) method respectively. The aryl substituents were found to contribute significantly to the frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs). We have observed that in both cases the lowest occupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy decreases while the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital is slightly increased. The most significant increase was observed for AlQF2.

Suliman, FakhrEldin O.; Al-Nafai, Isehaq; Al-Busafi, Saleh N.

2014-01-01

13

[Synthesis and adsorption property of Cd(II) - 8-hydroxyquinoline molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres].  

PubMed

Cd(II) ion could form a stable complex with 8-hydroxyquinoline (molar rate = 1 : 1) in ethanol solution as revealed by ultraviolet spectrum analysis. Based on this molar rate of Cd(II) ions and 8-hydroxyquinoline, Cd(II) ions imprinting polymer microspheres were synthesized by water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsions polymerization, using metal Cd(II) ions as template, 8-hydroxyquinoline as ligand, methacrylic acid as functional monomer, ethylene acrylic acid methyl ester as cross-linker, and azodiisobutyronitrile as initiator in aqueous phase. The influences of the dosage of emulsifier, porogen and outer aqueous phase on the morphology and adsorption property of MIP were studied. The morphology of MIP was characterized by SEM which showed that the diameter of MIP was of micrometer grade and the shape was homogeneous under some operating conditions. The adsorption properties of MIP synthesized under different conditions were compared. The influences of solution pH, adsorption time, initial concentration and temperature on MIP adsorbed Cd(II) ions were assessed. The results showed that MIP showed fast kinetics for adsorption and desorption of Cd(II) ions. It was concluded that MIP could be employed as an effective material for the selective removal of Cd(II) ions from waste water. PMID:25158499

Yang, Chun-Yan; Chen, Fu-Bin; Zhao, Hui; Chang, Zi-Qiang; Zhang, Zhu-Jun

2014-06-01

14

Chemical and morphological stability of aluminum tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) (Alq3): effects in light-emitting devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminum tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) (Alq3) is presently considered one of the most reliable electron transporting and emitting materials for molecular-based organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). This paper summarizes the investigations that our group, over the past three years, have conducted into the physical and chemical response of Alq3 in the presence of small amounts of moisture. The characteristic evolution of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-Hq), a

Fotios Papadimitrakopoulos; Xian-Man Zhang; Keith A. Higginson

1998-01-01

15

Synthesis and luminescence properties of polymeric complexes of Cu(II), Zn(II) and Al(III) with 8-hydroxyquinoline side group-containing polystyrene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three kinds of metalloquinolate-containing polystyrene were prepared via a polymer reaction and a coordination reaction. 5-Chloromethyl-8-hydroxyquinoline (CHQ) was first prepared through the chloromethylation reaction of 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ) with 1,4-bichloromethoxy-butane as chloromethylation reagent. A polymer reaction, Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction, was carried out between polystyrene (PS) and CHQ in the presence of Lewis catalyst, and HQ was bonded onto the side chains of PS, obtaining 8-hydroxyquinoline-functionalized Polystyrene, HQ-PS. And then, by using one-pot method with two-stage procedures, the coordination reaction of HQ-PS and small molecule HQ with metal ions including Al(III), Zn(II) and Cu(II) ions, was allowed to be carried out, and three polymeric metalloquinolates, AlQ3-PS, ZnQ2-PS and CuQ2-PS, were successfully prepared, respectively. In the chemical structures of these polymeric metalloquinolates, metalloquinolates were chemically attached onto the side chains of PS. HQ-PS and three polymeric metalloquinolates were fully characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR and TGA. The luminescence properties of the three polymeric metalloquinolates were mainly investigated by UV/Vis absorption spectra and fluorescence emission spectra in solutions and in solid film states. When excited by the ray at about 365 nm, the three polymeric metalloquinolates have blue-green luminescence, and the main emission peaks in the DMF solutions are located at 490, 482 and 502 nm for AlQ3-PS, ZnQ2-PS and CuQ2-PS, respectively. As compared with their emissions in solutions, the emissions in solid film states are red-shifted to some extent, and the main emission peaks are located at 500, 488 and 510 nm for AlQ3-PS, ZnQ2-PS and CuQ2-PS, respectively. Besides, these polymeric metalloquinolates have higher thermal stability than PS as polymeric skeleton.

Gao, Baojiao; Wei, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Yanyan

2013-01-01

16

Towards a new family of photoluminescent organozinc 8-hydroxyquinolinates with a high propensity to form noncovalent porous materials.  

PubMed

We report on investigations of reactions of tBu(2)Zn with 8-hydroxyquinoline (q-H) and the influence of water on the composition and structure of the final product. A new synthetic approach to photoluminescent zinc complexes with quinolinate ligands was developed that allowed the isolation of a series of structurally diverse and novel alkylzinc 8-hydroxyquinolate complexes: the trinuclear alkylzinc aggregate [tBuZn(q)](3) (1(3)), the pentanuclear oxo cluster [(tBu)(3)Zn(5)(?(4) -O)(q)(5)] (2), and the tetranuclear hydroxo cluster [Zn(q)(2)](2)[tBuZn(OH)](2) (3). All compounds were characterized in solution by (1)H NMR, IR, UV/Vis, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, and in the solid state by X-ray diffraction, TGA, and PL studies. Density functional theory calculations were also carried out for these new Zn(II) complexes to rationalize their luminescence behavior. A detailed analysis of the supramolecular structures of 2 and 3 shows that the unique shape of the corresponding single molecules leads to the formation of extended 3D networks with 1D open channels. Varying the stoichiometry, shape, and supramolecular structure of the resulting complexes leads to changes in their spectroscopic properties. The close-packed crystal structure of 1(3) shows a redshifted emission maximum in comparison to the porous crystal structure of 2 and the THF-solvated structure of 3. PMID:22431330

Soko?owski, Kamil; Justyniak, Iwona; Sliwi?ski, Witold; So?tys, Katarzyna; Tulewicz, Adam; Kornowicz, Arkadiusz; Moszy?ski, Robert; Lipkowski, Janusz; Lewi?ski, Janusz

2012-04-27

17

Intensity and temperature-dependent photoluminescence of tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum films  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the recombination of excitons in tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum films by intensity and temperature dependent time-resolved photoluminescence (PL). At low temperature (15 K) and elevated excitation intensity the radiative emission is quenched by singlet-singlet annihilation processes. With rising temperature the PL quenching is strongly reduced resulting in a PL efficiency maximum at ?170 K. The reduced exciton annihilation is attributed to thermally activated occupation of non-quenchable trapped exciton states. Above 170 K the PL efficiency decreases due to thermal de-trapping of radiative states and subsequent migration to non-radiative centers.

Ajward, A. M.; Wang, X.; Wagner, H. P. [Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221 (United States)

2013-12-04

18

Preconcentration of some metal ions with lanthanum-8-hydroxyquinoline co-precipitation system.  

PubMed

A method of separation and preconcentration of cadmium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc at trace level using 8-hydroxyquinoline as a chelating agent and lanthanum(III) as a carrier element is proposed. The heavy metals were determined after preconcentration by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The results were compared with those obtained using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (F-AAS). The influence of several parameters such as pH, amount of lanthanum(III) as a carrier element, amount of 8-hydroxyquinoline, duration of co-precipitation was examined. Moreover, effects of inorganic matrix on recovery of the determined elements were studied. The detection limits (DL) for ICP-OES were 0.31, 2.9, 1.4, 3.2 and 1.2 ?g L(-1) for Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, respectively, whereas for F-AAS DL were 0.63, 1.1, 3.2, 2.7 and 0.74 ?g L(-1). The recovery of the method for the determined elements was better than 94% with relative standard deviation between 0.63% and 2.9%. The preconcentration factor was 60. The proposed method was successfully applied for determination of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in plant materials. Accuracy of the proposed method was verified using certified reference material (NCS ZC85006 Tomato). PMID:24206710

Feist, Barbara; Mikula, Barbara

2014-03-15

19

Molecular Orbital Study of the First Excited State of the OLED Material Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum(III)  

E-print Network

Molecular Orbital Study of the First Excited State of the OLED Material Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum(III), Alq3, is used in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) as an electron transport material and emitting. Introduction Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are currently under intense investigation for application

Schlegel, H. Bernhard

20

Different 8-Hydroxyquinolines Protect Models of TDP-43 Protein, ?-Synuclein, and Polyglutamine Proteotoxicity through Distinct Mechanisms*  

PubMed Central

No current therapies target the underlying cellular pathologies of age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Model organisms provide a platform for discovering compounds that protect against the toxic, misfolded proteins that initiate these diseases. One such protein, TDP-43, is implicated in multiple neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. In yeast, TDP-43 expression is toxic, and genetic modifiers first discovered in yeast have proven to modulate TDP-43 toxicity in both neurons and humans. Here, we describe a phenotypic screen for small molecules that reverse TDP-43 toxicity in yeast. One group of hit compounds was 8-hydroxyquinolines (8-OHQ), a class of clinically relevant bioactive metal chelators related to clioquinol. Surprisingly, in otherwise wild-type yeast cells, different 8-OHQs had selectivity for rescuing the distinct toxicities caused by the expression of TDP-43, ?-synuclein, or polyglutamine proteins. In fact, each 8-OHQ synergized with the other, clearly establishing that they function in different ways. Comparative growth and molecular analyses also revealed that 8-OHQs have distinct metal chelation and ionophore activities. The diverse bioactivity of 8-OHQs indicates that altering different aspects of metal homeostasis and/or metalloprotein activity elicits distinct protective mechanisms against several neurotoxic proteins. Indeed, phase II clinical trials of an 8-OHQ has produced encouraging results in modifying Alzheimer disease. Our unbiased identification of 8-OHQs in a yeast TDP-43 toxicity model suggests that tailoring 8-OHQ activity to a particular neurodegenerative disease may be a viable therapeutic strategy. PMID:22147697

Tardiff, Daniel F.; Tucci, Michelle L.; Caldwell, Kim A.; Caldwell, Guy A.; Lindquist, Susan

2012-01-01

21

Different 8-hydroxyquinolines protect models of TDP-43 protein, ?-synuclein, and polyglutamine proteotoxicity through distinct mechanisms.  

PubMed

No current therapies target the underlying cellular pathologies of age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Model organisms provide a platform for discovering compounds that protect against the toxic, misfolded proteins that initiate these diseases. One such protein, TDP-43, is implicated in multiple neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. In yeast, TDP-43 expression is toxic, and genetic modifiers first discovered in yeast have proven to modulate TDP-43 toxicity in both neurons and humans. Here, we describe a phenotypic screen for small molecules that reverse TDP-43 toxicity in yeast. One group of hit compounds was 8-hydroxyquinolines (8-OHQ), a class of clinically relevant bioactive metal chelators related to clioquinol. Surprisingly, in otherwise wild-type yeast cells, different 8-OHQs had selectivity for rescuing the distinct toxicities caused by the expression of TDP-43, ?-synuclein, or polyglutamine proteins. In fact, each 8-OHQ synergized with the other, clearly establishing that they function in different ways. Comparative growth and molecular analyses also revealed that 8-OHQs have distinct metal chelation and ionophore activities. The diverse bioactivity of 8-OHQs indicates that altering different aspects of metal homeostasis and/or metalloprotein activity elicits distinct protective mechanisms against several neurotoxic proteins. Indeed, phase II clinical trials of an 8-OHQ has produced encouraging results in modifying Alzheimer disease. Our unbiased identification of 8-OHQs in a yeast TDP-43 toxicity model suggests that tailoring 8-OHQ activity to a particular neurodegenerative disease may be a viable therapeutic strategy. PMID:22147697

Tardiff, Daniel F; Tucci, Michelle L; Caldwell, Kim A; Caldwell, Guy A; Lindquist, Susan

2012-02-01

22

Interaction of 8-Hydroxyquinoline with Soil Environment Mediates Its Ecological Function  

PubMed Central

Background Allelopathic functions of plant-released chemicals are often studied through growth bioassays assuming that these chemicals will directly impact plant growth. This overlooks the role of soil factors in mediating allelopathic activities of chemicals, particularly non-volatiles. Here we examined the allelopathic potential of 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ), a chemical reported to be exuded from the roots of Centaurea diffusa. Methodology/Principal Findings Growth bioassays and HQ recovery experiments were performed in HQ-treated soils (non-sterile, sterile, organic matter-enriched and glucose-amended) and untreated control soil. Root growth of either Brassica campestris or Phalaris minor was not affected in HQ-treated non-sterile soil. Soil modifications (organic matter and glucose amendments) could not enhance the recovery of HQ in soil, which further supports the observation that HQ is not likely to be an allelopathic compound. Hydroxyquinoline-treated soil had lower values for the CO2 release compared to untreated non-sterile soil. Soil sterilization significantly influenced the organic matter content, PO4-P and total organic nitrogen levels. Conclusion/Significance Here, we concluded that evaluation of the effect of a chemical on plant growth is not enough in evaluating the ecological role of a chemical in plant-plant interactions. Interaction of the chemical with soil factors largely determines the impact of HQ on plant growth. PMID:20877629

Inderjit; Bajpai, Devika; Rajeswari, M. S.

2010-01-01

23

DIRECT COMPLEXOMETRIC TITRATION OF GALLIUM IN THE PRESENCE OF 7-(1- NAPHTHYLAZO)-8HYDROXYQUINOLINE5SULPHONIC ACID AS AN INDICATOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction of gallium ions with 7-(1-naphthylazo)-8hydroxyquinoline-; 5-sulfonic acid was studied. It was found that gallium reacts with 7-(1-; naphthylazo)-8-hydl oxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid in a molar ratio 1: 1, the molar ; extinction coefficient of the compound formed is 1.56 x 10⁴, and the ; equilibrium constant of the reaction studied is 0.96 x 10². It is shown ; that 7-(1-naphthylazo)-8-hydroxyquinoline5-sulfonic

A. I. Busev; L. L. Talipova; L. M. Skrebkova

1962-01-01

24

Driving conditions dependence of magneto-electroluminescence in tri-(8-hydroxyquinoline)-aluminum based organic light emitting diodes  

E-print Network

we investigated the magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) in tri-(8-hydroxyquinoline)-aluminum based organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) through the steady-state and transient method simultaneously. The MELs show the great different behaviors when we turn the driving condition from a constant voltage to a pulse voltage. For devices driven by the constant voltage, the MELs are similar with the literature data; for devices driven by the pulse voltage, the MELs are quite different, they firstly increase to a maximum then decrease as the magnetic field increases continuously. Negative MELs can be seen when both the magnetic field and driving voltage are high enough.

Peng, Qiming; Li, Xianjie; Li, Mingliang; Li, Feng

2011-01-01

25

Some features of electro-optical properties of polymeric compositions doped with 8-hydroxyquinoline based azodyes and their cobalt complexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymeric composites based on the copolymer butyl methacrylate: nonyl methacrylate (3:1) doped 8-hydroxyquinoline azo dyes with donor and acceptor substitutes and their complexes with cobalt are obtained. The influence of the external electric field on the polymeric films transmission of linear polarized light in the long-wave part of the azo dyes absorption range, (corresponding ??* azo fragments absorption range) and their metal complexes are observed. The influence of the electric field on the transmission is connected with the aligning forces for dipole moments of azobenzene groups and metal ions.

Davidenko, N. A.; Davidenko, I. I.; Savchenko, I. A.; Sinyugina, A. T.; Studzinsky, S. L.; Tonkopieva, L. S.; Deberdeev, T. R.; Kolendo, A. Yu.; Zaikov, G. E.

2014-05-01

26

Nanoscale investigation of moisture-induced degradation mechanisms of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium-based organic light-emitting diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By exploiting tapping mode atomic force microscopy, the moisture-induced degradation mechanisms of ITO (indium tin oxide)-coated glass/CuPc (copper phthalocyanine)/NPB (N, N'-di(naphthalene-1-yl)-N, N'-diphthalbenzidine)/Alq3 (tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium)-based organic light-emitting diodes without cathode were investigated. It is found that three types of degradation mechanisms are associated with moisture-exposed Alq3 films, when the device is exposed to moisture, namely, hydration of Alq3, crystallization of Alq3 and reaction of the Alq3 complex with H2O. Crystallization of the NPB layer of ITO/CuPc/NPB was observed on exposure to moisture, and de-wetting simultaneously takes place at the interface of CuPc/NPB. Indium and/or oxygen may diffuse from ITO into the organic layers. These observations provide a clear picture of the moisture-induced degradation mechanisms of the ITO/CuPc/NPB/Alq3-based OLEDs.

Xu, M. S.; Xu, J. B.; Chen, H. Z.; Wang, M.

2004-09-01

27

Novel method for rapid copper chelation assessment confirmed low affinity of D-penicillamine for copper in comparison with trientine and 8-hydroxyquinolines.  

PubMed

Copper is an essential trace element involved in many physiological processes. Since disorder of copper homeostasis is observed in various pathologies, copper chelators may represent a promising therapeutic tool. This study was aimed at: 1) formation of an in vitro methodology for screening of copper chelators, and 2) detailed analysis of the interaction of copper with clinically used D-penicillamine (D-PEN), triethylenetetramine (trientine), experimentally tested 8-hydroxyquinolines, and the disodium salt of EDTA as a standard chelator. Methodology based on bathocuproinedisulfonic acid disodium salt (BCS), usable at (patho)physiologically relevant pHs (4.5-7.5), enabled assessment of both cuprous and cupric ions chelation and comparison of the relative affinities of the tested compounds for copper. In the case of potent chelators, the stoichiometry could be estimated too. Clioquinol, chloroxine and EDTA formed very stable complexes with Cu(+)/Cu(2+) at all tested pHs, while copper complexes with trientine were stable only under neutral or slightly acidic conditions. Non-substituted 8-hydroxyquinoline was a less efficient copper chelator, but still unequivocally more potent than D-PEN. Both 8-hydroxyquinoline and D-PEN chelation potencies, similarly to that of trientine, were pH-dependent and decreased with pH. Moreover, only D-PEN was able to reduce cupric ions. Conclusively, BCS assay represents a rapid, simple and precise method for copper chelation measurement. In addition, lower binding affinity of D-PEN compared with 8-hydroxyquinolines and trientine was demonstrated. PMID:23563391

?íha, Michal; Karlí?ková, Jana; Filipský, Tomáš; Macáková, Kate?ina; Hrdina, Radomír; Mlad?nka, P?emysl

2013-06-01

28

Determination of trace elements in seawater by fluorinated metal alkoxide glass-immobilized 8-hydroxyquinoline concentration and high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

8-hydroxyquinoline immobilized on fluorinated metal alkoxide glass (MAF-8HQ) was prepared under metal-free conditions and used for the separation of trace elements from seawater matrix. Trace elements in 250ml of seawater were collected with a MAF-8HQ column (bed volume, 0.85ml; total exchange capacity, 5.2mg for Cu (II)), eluted with 25ml of 0.5M nitric acid and determined by the high-resolution inductively coupled

Yoshiki Sohrin; Shun-ichi Iwamoto; Shoji Akiyama; Takeshi Fujita; Toyokazu Kugii; Hajime Obata; Eiichiro Nakayama; Shiro Goda; Yukiyo Fujishima; Hiroshi Hasegawa; Kazumasa Ueda; Masakazu Matsui

1998-01-01

29

Synthesis and Characterization of Hemicage 8-Hydroxyquinoline Chelates with Enhanced Electrochemical and Photophysical Properties  

E-print Network

studied. The hemicage structure of the metal complexes was characterized by 1H NMR, indicating a pure the metal-ligand bond strength, which is largest in the case of aluminum. Introduction Since the first-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) has become an archetype molecule used as an electron-transport and light

Bernhard, Stefan

30

Activated carbon modified with 4-(8-hydroxyquinoline-azo)benzamidine for selective solid-phase extraction and preconcentration of trace lead from environmental samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated carbon was chemically modified with 4-(8-hydroxyquinoline-azo)benzamidine and used for separation and preconcentration\\u000a of trace amounts of Pb(II) in environmental samples by solid-phase extraction prior to the measurement by inductively coupled\\u000a plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The effects of pH, shaking time, eluent concentration and volume, sample flow rate and\\u000a potential interfering ions were studied. Under the optimum conditions, the enrichment

Hua Tian; Xijun Chang; Zheng Hu; Kang Yang; Qun He; Lina Zhang; Zhifeng Tu

2010-01-01

31

Kalman filter deconvolution after cubic splines background removal in the HPLC determination of Cr(III) and Al(III) as 8-hydroxyquinolines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A procedure for the simultaneous quantitation of Al(III) and Cr(III) ions by reversed-phase HPLC, after pre-column complexation\\u000a with 8-hydroxyquinoline, is described. The deconvolution of the partially overlapped peaks was by the Kalman filter method\\u000a which yielded accurate and precise results.\\u000a \\u000a Background removal from the chromatograms was by a new approach employing cubic splines as interpolators between the peak\\u000a valleys.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Finally,

T. Rotunnol; F. Palmisano; G. Tiravanti; P. G. Zambonin

1990-01-01

32

Novel tacrine-8-hydroxyquinoline hybrids as multifunctional agents for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, with neuroprotective, cholinergic, antioxidant, and copper-complexing properties.  

PubMed

Tacrine and PBT2 (an 8-hydroxyquinoline derivative) are well-known drugs that inhibit cholinesterases and decrease beta-amyloid (Abeta) levels by complexation of redox-active metals, respectively. In this work, novel tacrine-8-hydroxyquinoline hybrids have been designed, synthesized, and evaluated as potential multifunctional drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. At nano- and subnanomolar concentrations they inhibit human acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase (AChE and BuChE), being more potent than tacrine. They also displace propidium iodide from the peripheral anionic site of AChE and thus could be able to inhibit Abeta aggregation promoted by AChE. They show better antioxidant properties than Trolox, the aromatic portion of vitamin E responsible for radical capture, and display neuroprotective properties against mitochondrial free radicals. In addition, they selectively complex Cu(II), show low cell toxicity, and could be able to penetrate the CNS, according to an in vitro blood-brain barrier model. PMID:20545360

Fernández-Bachiller, María Isabel; Pérez, Concepción; González-Muñoz, Gema C; Conde, Santiago; López, Manuela G; Villarroya, Mercedes; García, Antonio G; Rodríguez-Franco, María Isabel

2010-07-01

33

Solid Phase Extraction of Inorganic Mercury Using 5-Phenylazo-8-hydroxyquinoline and Determination by Cold Vapor Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy in Natural Water Samples  

PubMed Central

8-Hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) was chosen as a powerful ligand for Hg solid phase extraction. Among several chelating resins based on 8-HQ, 5-phenylazo-8-hydroxyquinoline (5Ph8HQ) is used for mercury extraction in which the adsorption dynamics were fully studied. It has been shown that Hg(II) is totally absorbed by 5Ph8HQ within the first 30 minutes of contact time with t1/2 5 minutes, following Langmuir adsorption model. At pH 4, the affinity of mercury is unchallenged by other metals except, for Cu(II), which have shown higher Kd value. With these latter characteristics, 5Ph8HQ was examined for the preconcentration of trace levels of Hg(II). The developed method showed quantitative recoveries of Hg(II) with LOD = 0.21?pg?mL?1 and RSD = 3–6% using cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (CV-AFS) with a preconcentration factor greater than 250. PMID:24459417

Daye, Mirna; Halwani, Jalal; Hamzeh, Mariam

2013-01-01

34

Antioxidation and DNA-binding properties of binuclear lanthanide(III) complexes with a Schiff base ligand derived from 8-hydroxyquinoline-7-carboxaldehyde and benzoylhydrazine.  

PubMed

8-Hydroxyquinoline-7-carboxaldehyde (8-HQ-7-CA), Schiff-base ligand 8-hydroxyquinoline-7-carboxaldehyde benzoylhydrazone, and binuclear complexes [LnL(NO(3))(H(2)O)(2)](2) were prepared from the ligand and equivalent molar amounts of Ln(NO(3))·6H(2)O (Ln=La(3+), Nd(3+), Sm(3+), Eu(3+), Gd(3+), Dy(3+), Ho(3+), Er(3+), Yb(3+), resp.). Ligand acts as dibasic tetradentates, binding to Ln(III) through the phenolate O-atom, N-atom of quinolinato unit, and C=N and -O-C=N- groups of the benzoylhydrazine side chain. Dimerization of this monomeric unit occurs through the phenolate O-atoms leading to a central four-membered (LnO)(2) ring. Ligand and all of the Ln(III) complexes can strongly bind to CT-DNA through intercalation with the binding constants at 10(5)-10(6) M(-1). Moreover, ligand and all of the Ln(III) complexes have strong abilities of scavenging effects for hydroxyl (HO·) radicals. Both the antioxidation and DNA-binding properties of Ln(III) complexes are much better than that of ligand. PMID:22899614

Liu, Yongchun; Zhang, Kejun; Wu, Yun; Zhao, Junying; Liu, Jianning

2012-08-01

35

A rapid spectrophotometric method for the determination of molybdenum in industrial, environmental, biological and soil samples using 5,7-dibromo-8-hydroxyquinoline.  

PubMed

A very simple, ultra-sensitive and highly selective non-extractive spectrophotometric method for the determination of trace amount of molybdenum(VI) using 5,7-dibromo-8-hydroxyquinoline (DBHQ) has been developed. 5,7-Dibromo-8-hydroxyquinoline reacts in a slightly acidic solution (0.05 - 1.0 M H2SO4) with molybdenum(VI) to give a deep greenish-yellow chelate which has an absorption maximum at 401 nm. The reaction is instantaneous and the absorbance remains stable for over 24 h. The average molar absorption coefficient and Sandell's sensitivity were found to be 4.13 x 10(3) L mol(-1) cm(-1) and 7 ng cm(-2) of molybdenum(VI), respectively. Linear calibration graphs were obtained for 0.1 - 50 microg mL(-1) of molybdenum(VI). The stoichiometric composition of the chelate is 1:3 (Mo:DBHQ). A large excess of over 50 cations, anions and some common complexing agents (e.g. EDTA, oxalate, citrate, phosphate, thiourea, SCN-) do not interfere with the determination. The method was successfully used in the determination of molybdenum in several Standard Reference Materials (alloys, steels and waters) as well as in some environmental waters (inland and surface), biological samples (human blood and urine), soil samples, solution containing both molybdenum(V) and molybdenum(VI) and complex synthetic mixtures. The method has high precision and accuracy (S = +/-0.01 for 0.5 microg mL(-1)). PMID:11999518

Ahmed, M Jamaluddin; Haque, M Enamul

2002-04-01

36

Donepezil + propargylamine + 8-hydroxyquinoline hybrids as new multifunctional metal-chelators, ChE and MAO inhibitors for the potential treatment of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

The synthesis, biochemical evaluation, ADMET, toxicity and molecular modeling of novel multi-target-directed Donepezil + Propargylamine + 8-Hydroxyquinoline (DPH) hybrids 1-7 for the potential prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease is described. The most interesting derivative was racemic ?-aminotrile4-(1-benzylpiperidin-4-yl)-2-(((8-hydroxyquinolin-5-yl)methyl)(prop-2-yn-1-yl)amino) butanenitrile (DPH6) [MAO A (IC50 = 6.2 ± 0.7 ?M; MAO B (IC50 = 10.2 ± 0.9 ?M); AChE (IC50 = 1.8 ± 0.1 ?M); BuChE (IC50 = 1.6 ± 0.25 ?M)], an irreversible MAO A/B inhibitor and mixed-type AChE inhibitor with metal-chelating properties. According to docking studies, both DPH6 enantiomers interact simultaneously with the catalytic and peripheral site of EeAChE through a linker of appropriate length, supporting the observed mixed-type AChE inhibition. Both enantiomers exhibited a relatively similar position of both hydroxyquinoline and benzyl moieties with the rest of the molecule easily accommodated in the relatively large cavity of MAO A. For MAO B, the quinoline system was hosted at the cavity entrance whereas for MAO A this system occupied the substrate cavity. In this disposition the quinoline moiety interacted directly with the FAD aromatic ring. Very similar binding affinity values were also observed for both enantiomers with ChE and MAO enzymes. DPH derivatives exhibited moderate to good ADMET properties and brain penetration capacity for CNS activity. DPH6 was less toxic than donepezil at high concentrations; while at low concentrations both displayed a similar cell viability profile. Finally, in a passive avoidance task, the antiamnesic effect of DPH6 was tested on mice with experimentally induced amnesia. DPH6 was capable to significantly decrease scopolamine-induced learning deficits in healthy adult mice. PMID:24813882

Wang, Li; Esteban, Gerard; Ojima, Masaki; Bautista-Aguilera, Oscar M; Inokuchi, Tsutomu; Moraleda, Ignacio; Iriepa, Isabel; Samadi, Abdelouahid; Youdim, Moussa B H; Romero, Alejandro; Soriano, Elena; Herrero, Raquel; Fernández Fernández, Ana Patricia; Ricardo-Martínez-Murillo; Marco-Contelles, José; Unzeta, Mercedes

2014-06-10

37

Characterization of gold-thiol-8-hydroxyquinoline self-assembled monolayers for selective recognition of aluminum ion using voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Gold electrode surface is modified via covalent attachment of a synthesized thiol functionalized with 8-hydroxyquinoline, p-((8-hydroxyquinoline)azo) benzenethiol (SHQ), for the first time. The behavior of the nanostructured electrode surface (Au-SHQ) is characterized by electrochemical techniques including cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry (CV and DPV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The modified surface is stable in a wide range of potentials and pHs. A surface pKa of 6.0±0.1 is obtained for Au-SHQ electrode using surface acid/base titration curves constructed by CV and EIS measurements as a function of pH. These results helped to determine the charge state of the surface as a function of pH. The gold modified electrode surface showed good affinity for sensing the Al(III) ion at pH 5.5. The sensing process is based on (i) accumulation and complex formation between Al(III) from the solution phase and 8HQ function on the Au electrode surface (recognition step) and (ii) monitoring the impedance of the Au-SHQ-Al(III) complex against redox reaction rate of parabenzoquinone (PBQ) (signal transduction step). The PBQ is found to be a more suitable probe for this purpose, after testing several others. Thus, the sensor was tested for quantitative determination of Al(III) from the solution phase. At the optimized conditions, a linear response, from 1.0×10(-11) to 1.2×10(-5) M Al(III) in semi-logarithmic scale, with a detection limit of 8.32×10(-12) M and mean relative standard deviation of 3.2% for n=3 at 1.0×10(-7) M Al(III) is obtained. Possible interferences from coexisting cations and anions are also studied. The results show that many ions do not interfere significantly with the sensor response for Al(III). Validity of the method and applicability of the sensor are successfully tested by determination of Al(III) in human blood serum samples. PMID:24767148

Shervedani, Reza Karimi; Rezvaninia, Zeinab; Sabzyan, Hassan; Boeini, Hassan Zali

2014-05-12

38

Synthesis, Spectral, Thermal Analysis, Biological Activity and Kinetic Studies of Copper(II)-Pyridine-2,5-dicarboxylate Complexes with 2-Aminomethylpyridine and 8-Hydroxyquinoline.  

PubMed

In this work we report the synthesis of two novel square-planar copper(II) complexes, namely, (2-aminomethylpyridinium-pyridinedicarboxylato)copper(II) dihydrate, [Cu(pydc)(2-amp)] • 2H2O (1) and (8-hydroxyquinolinum-pyridinedicarboxylato)copper(II) hydrate, [Cu(pydc)(8-HQ)] • H2O (2) (2-amp = 2-aminomethylpyridine, 8-HQ = 8-hydroxyquinoline, H2pydc = pyridine-2,5-dicarboxylic acid or isocinchomeronic acid) and present the first preliminary study on kinetics and biological activities of copper complexes. The synthesized complexes have been characterized by elemental, spectroscopic (FT-IR, UV and mass spectra), thermal analysis, magnetic and conductivity measurements techniques. Kinetic parameters were obtained for each stage of thermal degradation of the complexes using Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzger methods. Antimicrobial activities of two complexes and two ligands were evaluated using agar diffusion method. Antimicrobial activity of complex 2 was determined with the agar dilution methods. The results were compared with two well known antibiotics, namely, tetracycline and nystatin. PMID:24061675

Colak, Alper Tolga; Colak, Ferda?; Atar, Necip; Olgun, As?m

2010-03-01

39

Synthesis, spectral, thermal and antibacterial investigations of mixed ligand complexes of thorium(IV) derived from 8-hydroxyquinoline and some amino acids.  

PubMed

Mixed ligand Th(IV) complexes of the type [M(Q)(L)(NO3)2] x 2 H2O have been synthesized using 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ) as a primary ligand and N- and/or O- donor amino acids (HL) such as L-lysine, L-aspartic acid and L-cysteine as secondary ligands. The metal complexes have been characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, electrical conductance, room temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements,spectral and thermal studies. The electrical conductance studies of the complexes in DMF in 10(-3) M concentration indicate their non-electrolytic nature. Room temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements revealed diamagnetic nature of the complexes. Electronic absorption spectra of the complexes show intra-ligand and charge transfer transitions, respectively. Bonding of the metal ion through N- and O- donor atoms of the ligands revealed by IR studies and the chemical environment of the protons is also confirmed by NMR studies. The thermal analysis data of the complexes indicate the presence of crystallized water molecules. The agar cup and tube dilution method have been used to study the antibacterial activity of the complexes against the pathogenic bacteria S. aureus, C. diphtheriae, S. typhi and E. coli. PMID:23285669

Patil, Sunil S; Thakur, Ganesh A; Shaikh, Manzoor M

2012-01-01

40

On-line preconcentration\\/determination of cadmium in drinking water on activated carbon using 8-hydroxyquinoline in a flow injection system coupled to an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

An on-line cadmium preconcentration and determination system implemented with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry associated to flow injection was studied. Cadmium was retained as Cd–8-hydroxyquinoline complex at pH 10.0. The cadmium complex was removed from the conical minicolumn packed with activated carbon with 20% (v\\/v) nitric acid. An enrichment factor of 80-fold for a sample volume of 50 ml

S. Cerutti; M. F Silva; J. A Gásquez; R. A Olsina; L. D Martinez

2003-01-01

41

Copper-dependent cytotoxicity of 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives correlates with their hydrophobicity and does not require caspase activation.  

PubMed

This study reports the structure-activity relationship of a series of 8-hydroxoquinoline derivatives (8-HQs) and focuses on the cytotoxic activity of 5-Cl-7-I-8-HQ (clioquinol, CQ) copper complex (Cu(CQ)). 8-HQs alone cause a dose-dependent loss of viability of the human tumor HeLa and PC3 cells, but the coadministration of copper increases the ligands effects, with extensive cell death occurring in both cell lines. Cytotoxic doses of Cu(CQ) promote intracellular copper accumulation and massive endoplasmic reticulum vacuolization that precede a nonapoptotic (paraptotic) cell death. The cytotoxic effect of Cu(CQ) is reproduced in normal human endothelial cells (HUVEC) at concentrations double those effective in tumor cells, pointing to a potential therapeutic window for Cu(CQ). Finally, the results show that the paraptotic cell death induced by Cu(CQ) does not require nor involve caspases, giving an indication for the current clinical assessment of clioquinol as an antineoplastic agent. PMID:23170953

Tardito, Saverio; Barilli, Amelia; Bassanetti, Irene; Tegoni, Matteo; Bussolati, Ovidio; Franchi-Gazzola, Renata; Mucchino, Claudio; Marchiò, Luciano

2012-12-13

42

Mixed?Ligand Complexes of a Schiff Base, 8?Hydroxyquinoline and Oxalic Acid with Cu(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), and Fe(III) Ions: Pyrolytic Products and Biological Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Binary mononuclear complexes of the Schiff base ligand 1,4?di(hydroxybenzylidene)thiosemicarbazide (H2L) and the transition metal ions Cu(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), and Fe(III) were prepared in the presence of various molar ratios of LiOH. The binary complexes react with 8?hydroxyquinoline (8?HOqu) and oxalic acid (H2Ox) to form mixed?ligand complexes. The mixed ligand complexes were prepared by using various molar ratios of LiOH. The

Mahmoud M. Mashaly; A. A. Faheim

2004-01-01

43

JLK1486, a Bis 8-Hydroxyquinoline-Substituted Benzylamine, Displays Cytostatic Effects in Experimental Gliomas through MyT1 and STAT1 Activation and, to a Lesser Extent, PPAR? Activation.  

PubMed

Gliomas account for 5% to 7% of all solid cancers in adults and up to 30% of solid cancers in children; glioblastomas are the most malignant type of glioma and often have dismal prognoses. The alkylating agent temozolomide provides the greatest chemotherapeutic benefits currently available; however, glioblastoma patients cannot be cured. Novel drugs that efficiently combat glioblastomas are therefore of great interest. We report here that JLK1486, an 8-hydroxyquinoline-substituted benzylamine, could represent a novel chemical scaffold to reach this goal. Indeed, JLK1486 mediated anticancer activity in vivo (through intravenous as well as oral routes of administrations) in an orthotopic xenograft model and displayed efficiency similar to that of temozolomide. The therapeutic benefits of JLK1486 seem to relate to its ability to activate various transcription factors (including Myt1, STAT1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?) in glioma cells. These transcription factors are implicated in the control of glioma cell proliferation, and the resultant global effect of their activation by JLK1486 was cytostatic, not cytotoxic. Thus, the current study opens the door for the development of novel compounds to combat glioblastoma using 8-hydroxyquinoline benzylamine analogs. PMID:21633668

Bruyère, Céline; Madonna, Sébastien; Van Goietsenoven, Gwendoline; Mathieu, Véronique; Dessolin, Jean; Kraus, Jean-Louis; Lefranc, Florence; Kiss, Robert

2011-06-01

44

JLK1486, a Bis 8-Hydroxyquinoline-Substituted Benzylamine, Displays Cytostatic Effects in Experimental Gliomas through MyT1 and STAT1 Activation and, to a Lesser Extent, PPAR? Activation12  

PubMed Central

Gliomas account for 5% to 7% of all solid cancers in adults and up to 30% of solid cancers in children; glioblastomas are the most malignant type of glioma and often have dismal prognoses. The alkylating agent temozolomide provides the greatest chemotherapeutic benefits currently available; however, glioblastoma patients cannot be cured. Novel drugs that efficiently combat glioblastomas are therefore of great interest. We report here that JLK1486, an 8-hydroxyquinoline-substituted benzylamine, could represent a novel chemical scaffold to reach this goal. Indeed, JLK1486 mediated anticancer activity in vivo (through intravenous as well as oral routes of administrations) in an orthotopic xenograft model and displayed efficiency similar to that of temozolomide. The therapeutic benefits of JLK1486 seem to relate to its ability to activate various transcription factors (including Myt1, STAT1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?) in glioma cells. These transcription factors are implicated in the control of glioma cell proliferation, and the resultant global effect of their activation by JLK1486 was cytostatic, not cytotoxic. Thus, the current study opens the door for the development of novel compounds to combat glioblastoma using 8-hydroxyquinoline benzylamine analogs. PMID:21633668

Bruyère, Céline; Madonna, Sébastien; Van Goietsenoven, Gwendoline; Mathieu, Véronique; Dessolin, Jean; Kraus, Jean-Louis; Lefranc, Florence; Kiss, Robert

2011-01-01

45

A Potent (R)-alpha-bis-lipoyl Derivative Containing 8-Hydroxyquinoline Scaffold: Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Its Neuroprotective Capabilities in SH-SY5Y Human Neuroblastoma Cells  

PubMed Central

A novel bis-lipoyl derivative containing 8-hydroxyquinoline scaffold (LA-HQ-LA, 5) was synthesized as a new multifunctional drug candidate with antioxidant, chelant, and neuroprotective properties for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. We have investigated the potential effectiveness of LA-HQ-LA against the cytotoxicity induced by 6-OHDA and H2O2 on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line. Our outcomes showed that LA-HQ-LA resulted in significant neuroprotective and antioxidant effects against H2O2- and 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, as assessed by MTT assay. In particular, it showed potent neuroprotective effects against 6-OHDA in RA/PMA differentiated cells at all the tested concentrations. PMID:24275787

Cacciatore, Ivana; Fornasari, Erika; Baldassarre, Leonardo; Cornacchia, Catia; Fulle, Stefania; Di Filippo, Ester Sara; Pietrangelo, Tiziana; Pinnen, Francesco

2013-01-01

46

Crystal structures, antioxidation and DNA binding properties of Eu(III) complexes with Schiff-base ligands derived from 8-hydroxyquinoline-2-carboxyaldehyde and three aroylhydrazines.  

PubMed

Eu(III) and every newly synthesized ligand can form a binuclear Eu(III) complex with a 1:1 metal to ligand stoichiometry and nine-coordinate at Eu(III) center. Every ligand acts as a dibasic tetradentate ligand, binding to Eu(III) through the phenolate oxygen atom, nitrogen atom of quinolinato unit, the C=N group (methylene) and (-)O-C=N- group (enolized and deprotonated from O=C-NH- group) of the aroylhydrazine side chain. One DMF (N,N-dimethylformamide) molecule is binding orthogonally to the ligand-plane from one side to the metal ion, while another DMF and a nitrate anion (bidentate) are binding from the other. Dimerization of the monomeric unit occurs through the phenolate oxygen atoms leading to a central planar four-membered (EuO)(2) ring. On the other hand, all the ligands and Eu(III) complexes may be used as potential anticancer drugs, binding to Calf thymus DNA through intercalations at the order of magnitude 10(5)-10(7) M(-1). All the ligands and Eu(III) complexes are strong scavengers of hydroxyl radicals and superoxide radicals, but Eu(III) complex containing active phenolic hydroxyl group shows stronger scavenging effects for hydroxyl radicals than others, and Eu(III) complex containing N-heteroaromatic substituent shows stronger scavenging effects for superoxide radicals than others. PMID:19481266

Liu, Yong-chun; Yang, Zheng-yin

2009-07-01

47

The Urinary Antibiotic 5-Nitro-8-Hydroxyquinoline (Nitroxoline) Reduces the Formation and Induces the Dispersal of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms by Chelation of Iron and Zinc  

PubMed Central

Since cations have been reported as essential regulators of biofilm, we investigated the potential of the broad-spectrum antimicrobial and cation-chelator nitroxoline as an antibiofilm agent. Biofilm mass synthesis was reduced by up to 80% at sub-MIC nitroxoline concentrations in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and structures formed were reticulate rather than compact. In preformed biofilms, viable cell counts were reduced by 4 logs at therapeutic concentrations. Complexation of iron and zinc was demonstrated to underlie nitroxoline's potent antibiofilm activity. PMID:22926564

Klinger, M.; Hermann, B.; Sachse, S.; Nietzsche, S.; Makarewicz, O.; Keller, P. M.; Pfister, W.; Straube, E.

2012-01-01

48

The urinary antibiotic 5-nitro-8-hydroxyquinoline (Nitroxoline) reduces the formation and induces the dispersal of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms by chelation of iron and zinc.  

PubMed

Since cations have been reported as essential regulators of biofilm, we investigated the potential of the broad-spectrum antimicrobial and cation-chelator nitroxoline as an antibiofilm agent. Biofilm mass synthesis was reduced by up to 80% at sub-MIC nitroxoline concentrations in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and structures formed were reticulate rather than compact. In preformed biofilms, viable cell counts were reduced by 4 logs at therapeutic concentrations. Complexation of iron and zinc was demonstrated to underlie nitroxoline's potent antibiofilm activity. PMID:22926564

Sobke, A; Klinger, M; Hermann, B; Sachse, S; Nietzsche, S; Makarewicz, O; Keller, P M; Pfister, W; Straube, E

2012-11-01

49

Structural design utilizing updated, approximate sensitivity derivatives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method to improve the computational efficiency of structural optimization algorithms is investigated. In this method, the calculations of 'exact' sensitivity derivatives of constraint functions are performed only at selected iterations during the optimization process. The sensitivity derivatives utilized within other iterations are approximate derivatives which are calculated using an inexpensive derivative update formula. Optimization results are presented for an analytic optimization problem (i.e., one having simple polynomial expressions for the objective and constraint functions) and for two structural optimization problems. The structural optimization results indicate that up to a factor of three improvement in computation time is possible when using the updated sensitivity derivatives.

Scotti, Stephen J.

1993-01-01

50

A structural design decomposition method utilizing substructuring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new method of design decomposition for structural analysis and optimization is described. For this method, the structure is divided into substructures where each substructure has its structural response described by a structural-response subproblem, and its structural sizing determined from a structural-sizing subproblem. The structural responses of substructures that have rigid body modes when separated from the remainder of the structure are further decomposed into displacements that have no rigid body components, and a set of rigid body modes. The structural-response subproblems are linked together through forces determined within a structural-sizing coordination subproblem which also determines the magnitude of any rigid body displacements. Structural-sizing subproblems having constraints local to the substructures are linked together through penalty terms that are determined by a structural-sizing coordination subproblem. All the substructure structural-response subproblems are totally decoupled from each other, as are all the substructure structural-sizing subproblems, thus there is significant potential for use of parallel solution methods for these subproblems.

Scotti, Stephen J.

1994-01-01

51

The Causal Structure of Utility Conditionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The psychology of reasoning is increasingly considering agents' values and preferences, achieving greater integration with judgment and decision making, social cognition, and moral reasoning. Some of this research investigates utility conditionals, ‘"if 'p' then 'q'’" statements where the realization of "p" or "q" or both is valued by some agents.…

Bonnefon, Jean-Francois; Sloman, Steven A.

2013-01-01

52

Utilization survey of prototype structural test article  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey was conducted of six aerospace companies and two NASA agencies to determine how prototype structural test articles are used in flight operations. The prototype structures are airframes and similar devices which are used for testing and generally are not flown. The survey indicated the following: (1) prototype test articles are not being discarded after development testing is complete, but are used for other purposes, (2) only two cases of prototypes being refurbished and flown were identified, (3) protective devices and inspection techniques are available to prevent or minimize test article damage, (4) substitute programs from design verification are availabel in lieu of using prototype structural articles, and (5) there is a trend away from dedicated test articles. Four options based on these study results were identified to reduce test and hardware costs without compromising reliability of the flight program.

Baber, S.; Mcdaniel, H. M.; Berry, M. J.

1974-01-01

53

Laminated multilayer sheet structure and its utilization  

SciTech Connect

A laminated multilayer sheet structure is described comprising (A) an opaque flexible sheet layer, and (B) a flexible layer laminated on the surface of layer (A) and composed of a transparent thermic ray reflecting layer (B/sub 1/) bonded to a transparent synthetic resin layer (B/sub 2/), said layer (B/sub 1/) being a transparent thermic ray reflecting layer composed of (I) a layer of a metal having a thickness of about 50 to about 600 A, said metal being selected from the group consisting of gold, silver, copper, aluminum and a mixture of alloy of at least two of said metals, and (II) a high refractive substance layer having a thickness of about 50 to about 600 A, of an oxide of titanium derived from a layer of an organic titanium compound of the formula Ti/sub 1/O/sub m/R/sub n/, where R is alkyl of 1-20 carbon atoms, l=1-30, m=4+3(1-1), and n=4+2(1-1), and containing the organic residual moiety of the organic titanium compound, the amount of said organic residual moiety being 0.1 to 30% by weight based on the weight of the high refractive substance layer; or said layer (B/sub 1/) being a transparent semiconductive layer having a thickness of about 500 to about 5,000 a and being composed of a compound selected from the group consisting of indium oxide, tin oxide, cadmium oxide, antimony oxide, copper iodide, and a mixture of at least two of said compounds. A method is described for heat-insulating a room, which comprises applying to the surface of a floor, wall, ceiling or partition in the room a laminated multilayer sheet structure comprising (A) an opaque flexible sheet layer, and (B) a flexible layer laminated on the surface of layer (A) and composed of a transparent thermic ray reflecting layer (B/sub 1/) bonded to a transparent synthetic resin layer (B/sub 2/.)

Chiba, K.; Itoh, K.; Mitani, Y.; Sobajima, S.; Yonemura, U.

1980-07-29

54

Reading ability and utilization of orthographic structure in reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Used a perceptual-recognition task to assess whether utilization of orthographic structure in letter recognition varies with reading ability. Anagrams of words were made to create strings that orthogonally combined frequency and regularity measures of orthographic structure. These strings and the original words were used as test stimuli in a letter-recognition task. 22 good and poor undergraduate readers (selected by their

Dominic W. Massaro; Glen A. Taylor

1980-01-01

55

Utilization of protein intrinsic disorder knowledge in structural proteomics.  

PubMed

Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and proteins with long disordered regions are highly abundant in various proteomes. Despite their lack of well-defined ordered structure, these proteins and regions are frequently involved in crucial biological processes. Although in recent years these proteins have attracted the attention of many researchers, IDPs represent a significant challenge for structural characterization since these proteins can impact many of the processes in the structure determination pipeline. Here we investigate the effects of IDPs on the structure determination process and the utility of disorder prediction in selecting and improving proteins for structural characterization. Examination of the extent of intrinsic disorder in existing crystal structures found that relatively few protein crystal structures contain extensive regions of intrinsic disorder. Although intrinsic disorder is not the only cause of crystallization failures and many structured proteins cannot be crystallized, filtering out highly disordered proteins from structure-determination target lists is still likely to be cost effective. Therefore it is desirable to avoid highly disordered proteins from structure-determination target lists and we show that disorder prediction can be applied effectively to enrich structure determination pipelines with proteins more likely to yield crystal structures. For structural investigation of specific proteins, disorder prediction can be used to improve targets for structure determination. Finally, a framework for considering intrinsic disorder in the structure determination pipeline is proposed. PMID:23232152

Oldfield, Christopher J; Xue, Bin; Van, Ya-Yue; Ulrich, Eldon L; Markley, John L; Dunker, A Keith; Uversky, Vladimir N

2013-02-01

56

On the Structure, Properties and Utility of Internal Corporate Blogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weblogs, or blogs are radically changing the face of communica- tion within enterprises. While at the minimum blogs empower em- ployees to publicly voice opinion and share expertise, coll ectively they improve collaboration and enable internal business intelligence. Though the power of blogs within organizations is well accepted, their properties, structure and utility has not yet been for mally an-

Pranam Kolari; Tim Finin; Kelly Lyons; Yelena Yesha; Yaacov Yesha; Stephen Perelgut; Jen Hawkins

2007-01-01

57

Variable Stiffness Structures Utilizing Fluidic Flexible Matrix Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, the capability of utilizing fluidic flexible matrix composites (F2MC) for autonomous structural tailoring is investigated. By taking advantage of the high anisotropy of flexible matrix composite (FMC) tubes and the high bulk modulus of the pressurizing fluid, significant changes in the effective modulus of elasticity can be achieved by controlling the inlet valve to the fluid-filled F2MC

Ying Shan; Michael Philen; Amir Lotfi; Suyi Li; Charles E. Bakis; Christopher D. Rahn; K. W. Wang

2009-01-01

58

Synthesis of 8-Hydroxyquinoline Derivatives as Novel Antitumor Agents  

PubMed Central

This letter describes the preparation of quinoline derivatives and their cytotoxic potentials toward human carcinoma cell lines. Among the selected compounds, 8-hydroxy-2-quinolinecarbaldehyde (3) showed the best in vitro cytotoxicity against the human cancer cell lines, including MDA231, T-47D, Hs578t, SaoS2, K562, SKHep1 (with a MTS50 range of 12.5–25 ?g/mL) and Hep3B (with a MTS50 range of 6.25±0.034 ?g/mL). The in vivo antitumor activity of compound 3 on subcutenaous Hep3B hepatocellular carcinoma xenograft in athymic nude mice was then studied. The results showed that the dose of 10 mg/kg/day of compound 3 with intraperitoneal injection for 9 days totally abolished the growth of the xenograft tumor of Hep3B with no histological damage on vital organs as compared with the control. The experimental results suggested that compound 3 has a good potential as an antitumor agent. PMID:24900641

2012-01-01

59

Utilizing the Structure and Content Information for XML Document Clustering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on the experiments and results of a clustering approach used in the INEX 2008 document mining challenge. The clustering approach utilizes both the structure and content information of the Wikipedia XML document collection. A latent semantic kernel (LSK) is used to measure the semantic similarity between XML documents based on their content features. The construction of a latent semantic kernel involves the computing of singular vector decomposition (SVD). On a large feature space matrix, the computation of SVD is very expensive in terms of time and memory requirements. Thus in this clustering approach, the dimension of the document space of a term-document matrix is reduced before performing SVD. The document space reduction is based on the common structural information of the Wikipedia XML document collection. The proposed clustering approach has shown to be effective on the Wikipedia collection in the INEX 2008 document mining challenge.

Tran, Tien; Kutty, Sangeetha; Nayak, Richi

60

Federal and State Structures to Support Financing Utility-Scale Solar Projects and the Business Models Designed to Utilize Them  

SciTech Connect

Utility-scale solar projects have grown rapidly in number and size over the last few years, driven in part by strong renewable portfolio standards (RPS) and federal incentives designed to stimulate investment in renewable energy technologies. This report provides an overview of such policies, as well as the project financial structures they enable, based on industry literature, publicly available data, and questionnaires conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).

Mendelsohn, M.; Kreycik, C.

2012-04-01

61

Design of intelligent mesoscale periodic array structures utilizing smart hydrogel  

SciTech Connect

Intelligent mesoscale periodic array structures have been designed by combining the self-assembly properties of monodisperse polymer colloidal spheres with thermoshrinking properties of crosslinked poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) hydrogels. The periodic array structures dispersed in aqueous medium are very sensitive to environmental stimuli such as temperature and ionic species. These systems displayed dramatic and reversible optical responses against changes in temperature due to the spatial modulation in the index of refraction of the get spheres in the lattice. Precisely selecting a temperature, the diffraction efficiencies of this system can be turned on-off. The intelligent structures can be used in optical devices to protect optical sensors from high intensity lasers, and will of use in advanced optical device applications.

Sunkara, H.B. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL (United States); [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Penn, B.G.; Frazier, D.O. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL (United States)] [and others

1996-10-01

62

High performance encapsulation structures utilizing Russian Doll architectures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Russian Doll encapsulation architecture utilizing pairs of free-standing barrier films and epoxy seals separated by nitrogen spacers is presented, enabling the use of low-cost epoxy to attach two or more free-standing barrier films to a substrate with improved barrier performance. The performance of various Russian Doll encapsulations was evaluated with the calcium thin film optical transmission test, showing improved performance of the Russian doll configuration relative to a non-nested barrier/spacer architecture, and demonstrating that water vapor transmission rates of 0.0021 g/(m^2, day) or below can be achieved with low-cost materials in this architecture. This WVTR correlates to a predicted lifetime of more than 10 years for inverted organic P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction solar cell modules fabricated and tested by Konarka Technologies (Lowell, MA, USA).

Granstrom, Jimmy; Villet, Michael; Chatterjee, Tirtha

2010-03-01

63

The ''optimal'' structure of the deregulated electric utility industry  

SciTech Connect

The optimal structure is one that does not adopt policies that interfere with competitive markets nor create price incentives or subsidies to serve special interests in an attempt to artificially stimulate retail competition. It needs to recognize that the ''natural monopoly'' and public interest criteria still require the regulation of delivery service. (author)

Switzer, Sheldon; Trout, Jeffrey P.

2007-07-15

64

Multifunctional composite sandwich structures utilizing embedded microvascular networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sandwich composites possess exceptional specific flexural strengths, but currently lack the capability for multifunctional use of the volumes encapsulated within their cores. The objectives of this research are to (1) fabricate sacrificial fiber with increased production rates and decreased degradation times, (2) integrate sacrificial fibers into sandwich composite skins, and (3) transport, store, and recover fluid from cells within a honeycomb composite core. Melt-mixing and extrusion of PLA and tin (II) oxalate catalyst is used to increase production rates by five orders of magnitude and reduce evacuation times by a factor of four, while substantially lowering costs and eliminating hazardous chemical waste. Sacrificial fibers are woven into and fully evacuated from sandwich composite structures. Finally, fluid is successfully transported via the patterned microvascular pathways and stored within the core compartments, enabling sandwich composites suitable for applications such as structural fluid storage, heat dissipation, and damage sensing.

Tye, Jordan

65

Impact of Industrial Electric Rate Structure on Energy Conservation - A Utility Viewpiont  

E-print Network

As the price of energy rises, changes in industrial electric rates will have an impact on energy usage and conservation. Utilities interested in reducing system peak demands may reflect this need in the rate structure as an incentive...

Williams, M. M.

1981-01-01

66

Method for Molding Structural Parts Utilizing Modified Silicone Rubber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention improves upon a method for molding structural parts from preform material. Preform material to be used for the part is provided. A silicone rubber composition containing entrained air voids is prepared. The silicone rubber and preform material assembly is situated within a rigid mold cavity used to shape the preform material to die desired shape. The entire assembly is heated in a standard heating device so that the thermal expansion of the silicone rubber exerts the pressure necessary to force the preform material into contact with the mold container. The introduction of discrete air voids into the silicone rubber allows for accurately controlled pressure application on the preform material at the cure temperature.

Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor); Baucom, Robert M. (Inventor); Snoha, John J. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

67

Utilization of multimode surface wave dispersion for characterizing roadbed structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate measurement of shear (S)-wave velocity in a roadbed subsurface with a velocity reversal is crucial as well as challenging. A high frequency Rayleigh wave survey was carried out on a roadbed site from Henan, China to determine S-wave velocities to approximately 15 m depth. The phase shift approach was used to directly construct a high-resolution image of multimode dispersion curves in the frequency-velocity ( f- v) domain from a multi-channel raw shot gather with a high signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. The measured fundamental and two higher-mode dispersion curves were then inverted by genetic algorithms to reconstruct the fine structure of the tested roadbed subsurface. Our case study demonstrates that an inversion performed with only fundamental mode data with a limited resolution and a high degree of error may yield an unrealistic model. A better agreement with direct borehole measurements, however, is obtained when the second-mode data are inverted simultaneously with the fundamental mode data, which clearly reveals a 1-m thick softer soil layer between two stiff soil layers in the tested roadbed. A higher accuracy S-wave velocity profile is achieved by simultaneously incorporating the three modes of data into the inversion process. This representative case study highlights advantages of fully exploiting intrinsic multimodal properties of Rayleigh waves and greatly enhances our confidence of accurately imaging and characterizing a complex subsurface.

Song, Xianhai; Gu, Hanming

2007-10-01

68

Arabidopsis thaliana gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase is structurally unrelated to mammalian, yeast, and Escherichia coli homologs.  

PubMed Central

A mutant of Escherichia coli, JTG10, deficient in gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-ECS; EC 6.3.2.2) is unable to synthesize glutathione (GSH) and is sensitive to 8-hydroxyquinoline. This phenotype was exploited for the isolation of Arabidopsis thaliana gamma-ECS cDNAs by expression cloning, and clones were selected through functional complementation by growth on 8-hydroxyquinoline. High levels of gamma-ECS activity were detectable in extracts derived from cultures of JTG10 expressing the Arabidopsis gamma-ECS open reading frame, although these complemented mutants accumulated GSH to only 10% of the wild-type level. The derived amino acid sequence constitutes a polypeptide of 59.9 kDa and shows only 44-48% similarity with previously published sequences of rat kidney, human liver, yeast, and E. coli gamma-ECS. When the gamma-ECS cDNA was used as a probe, Southern blot analysis of Arabidopsis genomic DNA revealed that it is present as a low copy number gene. Furthermore, the Arabidopsis gamma-ECS cDNA probe failed to hybridize to maize and tobacco genomic DNA at low stringency, suggesting that heterogeneity in gamma-ECS structure exists between plant species. The activity of recombinant Arabidopsis gamma-ECS was inhibited by buthionine sulfoximine and GSH, indicating that, while differences in the primary and secondary structure of gamma-ECS from different sources exist, the enzymes may have similar active site structures. Images PMID:7937837

May, M J; Leaver, C J

1994-01-01

69

Construction of DNA logic gates utilizing a H(+)/Ag(+) induced i-motif structure.  

PubMed

A simple technology to construct diverse DNA logic gates (OR and INHIBIT) has been designed utilizing a H(+) and/or Ag(+) induced i-motif structure. The logic gates are easily controlled and also show a real time response towards inputs. The research provides a new insight for designing DNA logic gates using an i-motif DNA structure. PMID:25349963

Shi, Yunhua; Sun, Hongxia; Xiang, Junfeng; Chen, Hongbo; Yang, Qianfan; Guan, Aijiao; Li, Qian; Yu, Lijia; Tang, Yalin

2014-12-18

70

Utility of R0 as a predictor of disease invasion in structured populations  

E-print Network

Utility of R0 as a predictor of disease invasion in structured populations Paul C. Cross1,2,*, Philip L. F. Johnson3 , James O. Lloyd-Smith4 and Wayne M. Getz5,6 1 Northern Rocky Mountain Science to be a poor predictor of a disease pandemic because it typically does not account for group structure

Getz, Wayne M.

71

Assessment of Multiple Physician Competencies in Postgraduate Training: Utility of the Structured Oral Examination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Competency based medical education involves assessing physicians-in-training in multiple roles. Training programs are challenged by the need to introduce appropriate yet feasible assessment methods. We therefore examined the utility of a structured oral examination (SOE) in the assessment of the 7 CanMEDS roles (Medical Expert, Communicator,…

Jefferies, Ann; Simmons, Brian; Ng, Eugene; Skidmore, Martin

2011-01-01

72

Droplet Formation Utilizing Controllable Moving-Wall Structures for Double-Emulsion Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of microscale single- and double-emulsion droplets with various sizes is crucial for a variety of industrial applications. In this paper, we report a new microfluidic device which can actively fine-tune the size of single- and double-emulsion droplets in liquids by utilizing controllable moving-wall structures. Moreover, various sizes of external and internal droplets for double emulsions are also successfully

Yen-Heng Lin; Chun-Hong Lee; Gwo-Bin Lee

2008-01-01

73

Integrating models and data to estimate the structural reliability of utility poles during hurricanes.  

PubMed

Utility systems such as power and communication systems regularly experience significant damage and loss of service during hurricanes. A primary damage mode for these systems is failure of wooden utility poles that support conductors and communication lines. In this article, we present an approach for combining structural reliability models for utility poles with observed data on pole performance during past hurricanes. This approach, based on Bayesian updating, starts from an imperfect but informative prior and updates this prior with observed performance data. We consider flexural and foundation failure mechanisms in the prior, acknowledging that these are an incomplete, but still informative, subset of the possible failure mechanisms for utility poles during hurricanes. We show how a model-based prior can be updated with observed failure data, using pole failure data from Hurricane Katrina as a case study. The results of this integration of model-based estimates and observed performance data then offer a more informative starting point for power system performance estimation for hurricane conditions. PMID:23952685

Han, Seung-Ryong; Rosowsky, David; Guikema, Seth

2014-06-01

74

RTMPL: A structured programming and documentation utility for real-time multiprocessor simulations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Lewis Research Center is developing and evaluating experimental hardware and software systems to help meet future needs for real time simulations of air-breathing propulsion systems. The Real Time Multiprocessor Simulator (RTMPS) project is aimed at developing a prototype simulator system that uses multiple microprocessors to achieve the desired computing speed and accuracy at relatively low cost. Software utilities are being developed to provide engineering-level programming and interactive operation of the simulator. Two major software development efforts were undertaken in the RTMPS project. A real time multiprocessor operating system was developed to provide for interactive operation of the simulator. The second effort was aimed at developing a structured, high-level, engineering-oriented programming language and translator that would facilitate the programming of the simulator. The Real Time Multiprocessor Programming Language (RTMPL) allows the user to describe simulation tasks for each processor in a straight-forward, structured manner. The RTMPL utility acts as an assembly language programmer, translating the high-level simulation description into time-efficient assembly language code for the processors. The utility sets up all of the interfaces between the simulator hardware, firmware, and operating system.

Arpasi, D. J.

1984-01-01

75

Characterization of LD structures and the utility of HapMap in genetic association studies.  

PubMed

Observed distribution of and variation in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with respect to the evolution history and disease transmission in a population is the driving force behind the current wave of genome-wide association (GWA) studies of complex human diseases. An extensive literature covers topics from haplotype analysis that utilizes local LD structures in candidate genes and regions to genome-wide organization of LD blocks (neighborhood) that led to the development of International HapMap Project and panels of "tagSNPs" used by current GWA studies. In this chapter, we examine the scenarios where each of the major types of analysis methods may be applicable and where the current popular genotyping platforms for GWA might come short. We discuss current association analysis methods by emphasizing their reliance on the local LD structures or the global organization of the LD structures, and highlight the need to consider individual marker information content in large-scale association mapping. PMID:18358328

Gu, C Charles; Yu, Kai; Rao, D C

2008-01-01

76

Study on utilization of advanced composites in fuselage structures of large transports  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential for utilizing advanced composites in fuselage structures of large transports was assessed. Six fuselage design concepts were selected and evaluated in terms of structural performance, weight, and manufacturing development and costs. Two concepts were selected that merit further consideration for composite fuselage application. These concepts are: (1) a full depth honeycomb design with no stringers, and (2) an I section stringer stiffened laminate skin design. Weight reductions due to applying composites to the fuselages of commercial and military transports were calculated. The benefits of applying composites to a fleet of military transports were determined. Significant technology issues pertinent to composite fuselage structures were identified and evaluated. Program plans for resolving the technology issues were developed.

Johnson, R. W.; Thomson, L. W.; Wilson, R. D.

1985-01-01

77

Process Developed for Fabricating Engineered Pore Structures for High- Fuel-Utilization Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have tremendous commercial potential because of their high efficiency, high energy density, and flexible fuel capability (ability to use fossil fuels). The drive for high-power-utilizing, ultrathin electrolytes (less than 10 microns), has placed an increased demand on the anode to provide structural support, yet allow sufficient fuel entry for sustained power generation. Concentration polarization, a condition where the fuel demand exceeds the supply, is evident in all commercial-based anode-supported cells, and it presents a significant roadblock to SOFC commercialization.

Sofie, Stephen W.; Cable, Thomas L.; Salamone, Sam M.

2005-01-01

78

Costs in electric utilities in the US: A comparison of publicly-owned and privately-owned utilities in different market structures  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation focuses the effects of ownership and market structure on cost in electric utilities in the U.S. and consists of three parts. The first part is a brief survey of the literature on the relative efficiency of the different types of ownership and on the relative importance of a competitive environment in attaining a successful privatization program. In the second part, the authors construct a theoretical and empirical model which can consider the relative efficiency of publicly-owned and privately-owned utilities allowing simultaneously for the impacts of ownership type, market structure and regulation. The concept is employed of shadow price rather that actual price to reflect the effect of government's regulation. The method of data construction and empirical results are presented in the third part. The estimation results indicate that privately-owned utilities are more cost efficient than publicly-owned utilities at very large output levels and are less efficient at very small output levels. Contrary to the authors' expectations, the estimates of parameters reflecting different market structure are insignificant. Estimates were also produced of economics of scale, demand, and elasticity of substitution.

Koh, D.S.

1992-01-01

79

Vibration Based Wind Turbine Tower Foundation Design Utilizing Soil-Foundation-Structure Interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind turbines have been used to generate electricity as an alternative energy source to conventional fossil fuels. This case study is for multiple wind towers located at different villages in Alaska where severe arctic weather conditions exist. The towers are supported by two different types of foundations; large mat or deep piles foundations. Initially, a Reinforced Concrete (RC) mat foundation was utilized to provide the system with vertical and lateral support. Where soil conditions required it, a pile foundation solution was devised utilizing a 30? thick RC mat containing an embedded steel grillage of W18 beams supported by 20?-24? grouted or un-grouted piles. The mixing and casting of concrete in-situ has become the major source of cost and difficulty of construction at these remote Alaska sites. An all-steel foundation was proposed for faster installation and lower cost, but was found to impact the natural frequencies of the structural system by significantly softening the foundation system. The tower-foundation support structure thus became near-resonant with the operational frequencies of the wind turbine leading to a likelihood of structural instability or even collapse. A detailed 3D Finite-Element model of the original tower-foundation-pile system with RC foundation was created using SAP2000. Soil springs were included in the model based on soil properties obtained from the geotechnical consultant. The natural frequency from the model was verified against the tower manufacturer analytical and the experimental values. Where piles were used, numerous iterations were carried out to eliminate the need for the RC and optimize the design. An optimized design was achieved with enough separation between the natural and operational frequencies to prevent damage to the structural system eliminating the need for any RC encasement to the steel foundation or grouting to the piles.

Al Satari, P. E. Mohamed; Hussain, S. E. Saif

2008-07-01

80

Utilization of the Building-Block Approach in Structural Mechanics Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the last 20 years NASA has worked in collaboration with industry to develop enabling technologies needed to make aircraft safer and more affordable, extend their lifetime, improve their reliability, better understand their behavior, and reduce their weight. To support these efforts, research programs starting with ideas and culminating in full-scale structural testing were conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center. Each program contained development efforts that (a) started with selecting the material system and manufacturing approach; (b) moved on to experimentation and analysis of small samples to characterize the system and quantify behavior in the presence of defects like damage and imperfections; (c) progressed on to examining larger structures to examine buckling behavior, combined loadings, and built-up structures; and (d) finally moved to complicated subcomponents and full-scale components. Each step along the way was supported by detailed analysis, including tool development, to prove that the behavior of these structures was well-understood and predictable. This approach for developing technology became known as the "building-block" approach. In the Advanced Composites Technology Program and the High Speed Research Program the building-block approach was used to develop a true understanding of the response of the structures involved through experimentation and analysis. The philosophy that if the structural response couldn't be accurately predicted, it wasn't really understood, was critical to the progression of these programs. To this end, analytical techniques including closed-form and finite elements were employed and experimentation used to verify assumptions at each step along the way. This paper presents a discussion of the utilization of the building-block approach described previously in structural mechanics research and development programs at NASA Langley Research Center. Specific examples that illustrate the use of this approach are included from recent research and development programs for both subsonic and supersonic transports.

Rouse, Marshall; Jegley, Dawn C.; McGowan, David M.; Bush, Harold G.; Waters, W. Allen

2005-01-01

81

Observations at terrestrial impact structures: Their utility in constraining crater formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hypervelocity impact involves the near instantaneous transfer of considerable energy from the impactor to a spatially limited near-surface volume of the target body. Local geology of the target area tends to be of secondary importance, and the net result is that impacts of similar size on a given planetary body produce similar results. This is the essence of the utility of observations at impact craters, particularly terrestrial craters, in constraining impact processes. Unfortunately, there are few well-documented results from systematic contemporaneous campaigns to characterize specific terrestrial impact structures with the full spectrum of geoscientific tools available at the time. Nevertheless, observations of the terrestrial impact record have contributed substantially to fundamental properties of impact. There is a beginning of convergence and mutual testing of observations at terrestrial impact structures and the results of modeling, in particular from recent hydrocode models. The terrestrial impact record provides few constraints on models of ejecta processes beyond a confirmation of the involvement of the local substrate in ejecta lithologies and shows that Z-models are, at best, first order approximations. Observational evidence to date suggests that the formation of interior rings is an extension of the structural uplift process that occurs at smaller complex impact structures. There are, however, major observational gaps and cases, e.g., Vredefort, where current observations and hydrocode models are apparently inconsistent. It is, perhaps, time that the impact community as a whole considers documenting the existing observational and modeling knowledge gaps that are required to be filled to make the intellectual breakthroughs equivalent to those of the 1970s and 1980s, which were fueled by observations at terrestrial impact structures. Filling these knowledge gaps would likely be centered on the later stages of formation of complex and ring structures and on ejecta.

Grieve, Richard A. F.; Therriault, Ann M.

2004-02-01

82

Development of self-actuated in-flight de-icing technology utilizing smart structure concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ice accretions on aircraft components have severe and sometimes fatal effects. Aircraft wings are one of the many components that are prone to severe ice accretions. The de-icing/anti-icing technologies currently being used are bulky, cover the airfoil surface and consume high energies. Addressing these drawbacks, the current study proposes a novel de-icing technique utilizing lightweight piezoelectric actuators to break the weak adhesive shear bond of ice-substrate interface. When structures are excited at their natural frequencies, high shear stresses are generated in certain modes. These high shear stresses can break the weak adhesive shear bond of ice-substrate interface with minimal energy inputs. The proposed de-icing technique is applied on two structures, (1) a laminated composite cantilever rectangular plate, and (2) a prototyped aluminum leading edge. Theoretical investigations are fist performed to determine the frequencies and modes in which high amount of shear stresses and debonding of the ice layers occurred. After determining optimal actuator locations, experimental set-up is designed and structures are built. Experimentation of the proposed technique is carried out inside a freezer by forming two types of ice layers on the surfaces and exciting the structures to the determined frequencies. Testing is carried out at five different temperatures ranging from 5°F to 25°F. De-icing is observed for both types of ice layers in both the structures. While the average de-icing times increased with decreased temperatures, longer de-icing times are noted for the aluminum leading edge. In addition, energy requirements of the piezoelectric actuators to actuate an adaptive composite wing structure are evaluated and a composite material is designed to improve deicing of the leading edge.

Venna, Suresh Venkata

83

Methods of application of 8-Hydroxyquinoline preservative on seed cotton during the harvesting operation  

E-print Network

cent moisture) stored in trailers for 72 hours before ginning graded a full grade, lower than afternoon-harvested cotton (12. 5 per cent moisture). A recent study in Arkansas indicated seed cotton stored with moisture levels up to 24 per cent had... cent moisture) stored in trailers for 72 hours before ginning graded a full grade, lower than afternoon-harvested cotton (12. 5 per cent moisture). A recent study in Arkansas indicated seed cotton stored with moisture levels up to 24 per cent had...

Morvant, Clifton Joseph

2012-06-07

84

Urban water infrastructure asset management - a structured approach in four water utilities.  

PubMed

Water services are a strategic sector of large social and economic relevance. It is therefore essential that they are managed rationally and efficiently. Advanced water supply and wastewater infrastructure asset management (IAM) is key in achieving adequate levels of service in the future, particularly with regard to reliable and high quality drinking water supply, prevention of urban flooding, efficient use of natural resources and prevention of pollution. This paper presents a methodology for supporting the development of urban water IAM, developed during the AWARE-P project as well as an appraisal of its implementation in four water utilities. Both water supply and wastewater systems were considered. Due to the different contexts and features of the utilities, the main concerns vary from case to case; some problems essentially are related to performance, others to risk. Cost is a common deciding factor. The paper describes the procedure applied, focusing on the diversity of drivers, constraints, benefits and outcomes. It also points out the main challenges and the results obtained through the implementation of a structured procedure for supporting urban water IAM. PMID:23109589

Cardoso, M A; Silva, M Santos; Coelho, S T; Almeida, M C; Covas, D I C

2012-01-01

85

Engaging families in the child welfare process utilizing the Family-Directed Structural Assesment Tool.  

PubMed

Effectively engaging parents in the provision of child welfare services is a crucial component of the helping process; however, it has proven to be an ongoing challenge for workers in this service area. The literature indicates that outcomes are improved for children and families when parents are actively involved in service provision. This article presents a literature review specific to parental engagement in child welfare services, identifies gaps in service provision, and introduces the Family-Directed Structural Assessment Tool, which addresses several challenges of engaging parents in this process. The pilot utilization of this assessment tool by two Bachelor of Social Work students is also presented. Finally, implications for child welfare practice are described. PMID:24843948

McLendon, Tara; McLendon, Don; Dickerson, Pamela S; Lyons, Jane K; Tapp, Karen

2012-01-01

86

Variations in methanobactin structure influences copper utilization by methane-oxidizing bacteria  

PubMed Central

Methane-oxidizing bacteria are nature’s primary biological mechanism for suppressing atmospheric levels of the second-most important greenhouse gas via methane monooxygenases (MMOs). The copper-containing particulate enzyme is the most widespread and efficient MMO. Under low-copper conditions methane-oxidizing bacteria secrete the small copper-binding peptide methanobactin (mbtin) to acquire copper, but how variations in the structures of mbtins influence copper metabolism and species selection are unknown. Methanobactins have been isolated from Methylocystis strains M and hirsuta CSC1, organisms that can switch to using an iron-containing soluble MMO when copper is limiting, and the nonswitchover Methylocystis rosea. These mbtins are shorter, and have different amino acid compositions, than the characterized mbtin from Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. A coordinating pyrazinedione ring in the Methylocystis mbtins has little influence on the Cu(I) site structure. The Methylocystis mbtins have a sulfate group that helps stabilize the Cu(I) forms, resulting in affinities of approximately 1021 M-1. The Cu(II) affinities vary over three orders of magnitude with reduction potentials covering approximately 250 mV, which may dictate the mechanism of intracellular copper release. Copper uptake and the switchover from using the iron-containing soluble MMO to the copper-containing particulate enzyme is faster when mediated by the native mbtin, suggesting that the amino acid sequence is important for the interaction of mbtins with receptors. The differences in structures and properties of mbtins, and their influence on copper utilization by methane-oxidizing bacteria, have important implications for the ecology and global function of these environmentally vital organisms. PMID:22582172

El Ghazouani, Abdelnasser; Baslé, Arnaud; Gray, Joe; Graham, David W.; Firbank, Susan J.; Dennison, Christopher

2012-01-01

87

The validity and clinical utility of structured diagnoses of antisocial personality disorder with forensic patients.  

PubMed

Current DSM-based instruments for personality disorders (PDs) limit the investigation of the course and outcome of treatment of these disorders. This study examined the validity of the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200 (SWAP-200) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II PD (SCID-II) in a sample of forensic PD patients. Results based on 66 participants indicated that the SWAP-200 Q-factors reduced the frequency of diagnostic comorbidity of PD categories by half compared with the SCID-II. Only the SWAP-200's Antisocial PD category showed good convergent and discriminant validity with respect to other instruments describing aspects of PD. The validity of the cutoff score for severe antisocial PD was confirmed, and this category predicted severe incidents in the hospital at 1 year of follow-up. A violence risk scale was constructed, which differentiated violent and nonviolent offenders. The results support the validity of the SWAP-200 and its potential clinical utility with forensic PD patients. PMID:24511901

Marin-Avellan, Luisa E; McGauley, Gillian A; Campbell, Colin D; Fonagy, Peter

2014-08-01

88

Structural characterization and biological evaluation of a clioquinol-ruthenium complex with copper-independent antileukaemic activity.  

PubMed

In this study, we present the synthesis, biological characterization, and first crystal structure of an organometallic-clioquinol complex. Combining ruthenium with the established apoptotic agent and 8-hydroxyquinoline derivative, clioquinol, resulted in a complex that induces caspase-dependent cell death in leukaemia cells. This activity is copper independent and is improved compared to the parent compound, clioquinol. The study of the mode of action reveals that this clioquinol-ruthenium complex does not intercalate between DNA base pairs. Additionally, this clioquinol-ruthenium complex shows proteasome-independent inhibition of the NF?B signalling pathway, with no effects on cell-cycle distribution. These data suggest a mechanism of action that involves a target profile that is different from that for clioquinol alone. PMID:24781711

Gobec, Martina; Kljun, Jakob; Sosi?, Izidor; Mlinari?-Raš?an, Irena; Urši?, Matija; Gobec, Stanislav; Turel, Iztok

2014-06-28

89

Utilization patterns of cohorts of elderly clients: a structural equation model.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE. To identify a model that takes into account the interrelationship of health services utilization variables, and that allows examination of the utilization patterns of health services for a cohort of elderly clients. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SETTING. The data of each client in the study were taken from three computer databases maintained for administrative purposes by the Ministry of Health in British Columbia. Time frame for the utilization variables is one year before and one year after admission to the long-term care program in BC which occurred in 1981-1982. STUDY DESIGN. A basic model was fitted to the utilization data for the year before admission and patterns of utilization were assessed for each gender-age group for the year before admission and for the two periods, using LISREL. Fifteen utilization variables were included: number of GP and specialist visits in different settings (office, home, etc.) and number of other services such as lab tests, hospital stay, etc. DATA COLLECTION. The three files were linked to produce one record per client. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. A model was identified that fits the data well. The total effect of GP emergency room visits on hospital stay is 0.30 compared to 0.19 direct effect. The additional impact is produced via the effect of specialist consultations on hospital stay. This and similar findings by age, gender, and period are consistent with the joint dependency of utilization variables. CONCLUSIONS. The analysis shows that males and females have different utilization patterns, while age has no effect on utilization of health services by male clients and only a small effect on utilization patterns by female clients. Admission to LTC causes more specialist contacts resulting from contact with a GP and generally a more intensive use of diagnostic and surgical procedures. However, there is significantly less acute care hospital services utilization. PMID:8005791

Ellencweig, A Y; Pagliccia, N

1994-01-01

90

Structure control of sputtered zinc oxide films by utilizing zinc oxide seed layers tailored by ion beam assisted sputtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactively sputtered zinc oxide thin films typically exhibit a c-oriented (0 0 0 1) texture of low crystalline order when deposited on unheated substrates. The structural order can be significantly improved upon heating the substrates during deposition. Here it will be demonstrated that by utilizing c-textured seed layers, which are grown by an ion beam assisted sputtering (IBAS) process, films

Dominik Köhl; Gomathi Natarajan; Matthias Wuttig

2012-01-01

91

Utilizing structural family therapy and systems theory in the business world  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of businesses and the structure of families are very similar, considering the fact that so many businesses are owned or operated by families. Structural family therapists who are knowledgeable in systems theory and have an adequate understanding of the underlying concepts of structural family theory (including hierarchy, boundaries, and coalitions) can translate their knowledge to the structure of

Sharon A. Deacon

1996-01-01

92

Impact of Industrial Electric Rate Structure on Load Management - A Utility Viewpoint  

E-print Network

to the industrial user and the electric utility. Other options earn rate incentives for reducing utility load by scheduling maintenance on plant units during on-peak periods, or permit increases in electri cal load for short prearranged periods to accom modate... it to become more competitive. If this prevents or delays steps such as plant relocations or installation of costly co generation projects, the risks taken may well be justified. Slide 7 - Also, if rate design is sound then these options will reflect cost...

Richardson, J. A.

1984-01-01

93

Utilization of Structured Packing for Energy Savings in Distillation and Absorption Columns  

E-print Network

gauze structured packings and the F1exipac@ or Me11apak sheetmeta1 structured packings have been widely applied in literally thousands of fractionation columns in the general chemical and specialty chemical areas, particularly for vacuum... gauze structured packings and the F1exipac@ or Me11apak sheetmeta1 structured packings have been widely applied in literally thousands of fractionation columns in the general chemical and specialty chemical areas, particularly for vacuum...

Berven, O. J.; Howard, W. E.

94

A Novel Structure for Three-Phase Four-Wire Distribution System Utilizing Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel structure for a three-phase four-wire (3P4W) distribution system utilizing unified power quality conditioner (UPQC). The 3P4W system is realized from a three-phase three-wire system where the neutral of series transformer used in series part UPQC is considered as the fourth wire for the 3P4W system. A new control strategy to balance the unbalanced load currents

Vinod Khadkikar; Ambrish Chandra

2009-01-01

95

Design of high performance missile structures utilizing advanced composite material technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command (AMCOM) has demonstrated the ability to develop and utilize advanced composite material technologies for the design and fabrication of hypervelocity kinetic energy missiles for the next generation of Army air defense and anti-tank applications. Future kinetic energy missiles must be small, fast, lethal, and maneuverable, which requires the delivery vehicles to operate in

J. R. Esslinger; R. N. Evans; G. W. Snyder

1999-01-01

96

Creating a Test Validated Structural Dynamic Finite Element Model of the Multi-Utility Technology Test Bed Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Small modeling errors in the finite element model will eventually induce errors in the structural flexibility and mass, thus propagating into unpredictable errors in the unsteady aerodynamics and the control law design. One of the primary objectives of Multi Utility Technology Test Bed, X-56A, aircraft is the flight demonstration of active flutter suppression, and therefore in this study, the identification of the primary and secondary modes for the structural model tuning based on the flutter analysis of X-56A. The ground vibration test validated structural dynamic finite element model of the X-56A is created in this study. The structural dynamic finite element model of the X-56A is improved using a model tuning tool. In this study, two different weight configurations of the X-56A have been improved in a single optimization run.

Pak, Chan-Gi; Truong, Samson S.

2014-01-01

97

Structure and Electrochemistry of Copper Fluoride Nanocomposites Utilizing Mixed Conducting Matrices  

SciTech Connect

Near-theoretical utilization of high-energy-density CuF{sub 2} positive electrode materials for lithium batteries was enabled through the use of nanocomposites consisting of 2-30 nm domains of CuF{sub 2} within a mixed ionic + electronic conducting matrix of a metal oxide. Small but significant crystallographic changes to the core crystal of the CuF{sub 2} were found to occur in all oxide-based matrices. These modifications to the core crystal and the surrounding matrix were investigated through a host of characterization methods, including XRD, XPS, and XAS. This new approach to the enablement of the anhydrous CuF{sub 2} is distinctly superior in performance to that of macro CuF{sub 2} or CuF{sub 2} nanocomposites utilizing carbon as a matrix, the latter of which is also introduced herein for the first time.

Badway,F.; Mansour, A.; Pereira, N.; Al-Sharab, J.; Cosandey, F.; Plitz, I.; Amatucci, G.

2007-01-01

98

The intellectual structure and substance of the knowledge utilization field: A longitudinal author co-citation analysis, 1945 to 2004  

PubMed Central

Background It has been argued that science and society are in the midst of a far-reaching renegotiation of the social contract between science and society, with society becoming a far more active partner in the creation of knowledge. On the one hand, new forms of knowledge production are emerging, and on the other, both science and society are experiencing a rapid acceleration in new forms of knowledge utilization. Concomitantly since the Second World War, the science underpinning the knowledge utilization field has had exponential growth. Few in-depth examinations of this field exist, and no comprehensive analyses have used bibliometric methods. Methods Using bibliometric analysis, specifically first author co-citation analysis, our group undertook a domain analysis of the knowledge utilization field, tracing its historical development between 1945 and 2004. Our purposes were to map the historical development of knowledge utilization as a field, and to identify the changing intellectual structure of its scientific domains. We analyzed more than 5,000 articles using citation data drawn from the Web of Science®. Search terms were combinations of knowledge, research, evidence, guidelines, ideas, science, innovation, technology, information theory and use, utilization, and uptake. Results We provide an overview of the intellectual structure and how it changed over six decades. The field does not become large enough to represent with a co-citation map until the mid-1960s. Our findings demonstrate vigorous growth from the mid-1960s through 2004, as well as the emergence of specialized domains reflecting distinct collectives of intellectual activity and thought. Until the mid-1980s, the major domains were focused on innovation diffusion, technology transfer, and knowledge utilization. Beginning slowly in the mid-1980s and then growing rapidly, a fourth scientific domain, evidence-based medicine, emerged. The field is dominated in all decades by one individual, Everett Rogers, and by one paradigm, innovation diffusion. Conclusion We conclude that the received view that social science disciplines are in a state where no accepted set of principles or theories guide research (i.e., that they are pre-paradigmatic) could not be supported for this field. Second, we document the emergence of a new domain within the knowledge utilization field, evidence-based medicine. Third, we conclude that Everett Rogers was the dominant figure in the field and, until the emergence of evidence-based medicine, his representation of the general diffusion model was the dominant paradigm in the field. PMID:19014512

Estabrooks, Carole A; Derksen, Linda; Winther, Connie; Lavis, John N; Scott, Shannon D; Wallin, Lars; Profetto-McGrath, Joanne

2008-01-01

99

Study on potential of structured illumination microscopy utilizing digital micromirror device for endoscopy purpose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structured illumination microscopy is a new technique which delivers optical sectioning capability. As a widefield microscopy technique, structured illumination has improved imaging rate over scanning type optical sectioning microscope as it only require 3 image frames for sectioned images. It also has an advantage in that it gives better contrast compared to the established confocal microscope. As part of the

C. H. Wong; N. G. Chen; C. J. R. Sheppard

2006-01-01

100

An Aspect of Psychotherapy Utilizing a Piagetian Model of Character Structure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One component of psychotherapy is the type of psychotherapeutic atmosphere created by the therapist. The various character structures of patients require different psychotherapeutic atmospheres. Three character structures are identifiable, each distinguished by a style of social cognition which parallels a stage of cognition in the child as…

Ahern, Mary; Malerstein, A. J.

101

Advanced Concepts in Structuring and Utilizing Local Advisory Councils and Craft Committees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adoption and implementation of advanced concepts in structuring and using a local advisory council and craft committees can result in significantly improved vocational education programs. The organizational structure of a vocational-technical school advisory council should be a vehicle that facilitates accomplishment of its prime function--to…

Carroll, Richard E.

102

Panel session: structural reliability-based design of utility poles and the national electrical safety code  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2002 Edition of the national electrical safety code provides basic safety rules for outdoor electric power and telecommunications lines and structures. The NESC specifies overload factors and strength factors in its strength and loading rules for transmission and distribution structures and poles. These factors have been selected based upon subjective criteria, including a combination of engineering judgment and experience.

N. Bingel; H. Dagher; R. Randle; R. Wolfe; L. Slavin; M. Voda; J. Wong

2003-01-01

103

Assessing the utility of infrared spectroscopy as a structural diagnostic tool for ?-sheets in self-assembling aromatic peptide amphiphiles.  

PubMed

?-Sheets are a commonly found structural motif in self-assembling aromatic peptide amphiphiles, and their characteristic "amide I" infrared (IR) absorption bands are routinely used to support the formation of supramolecular structure. In this paper, we assess the utility of IR spectroscopy as a structural diagnostic tool for this class of self-assembling systems. Using 9-fluorene-methyloxycarbonyl dialanine (Fmoc-AA) and the analogous 9-fluorene-methylcarbonyl dialanine (Fmc-AA) as examples, we show that the origin of the band around 1680-1695 cm(-1) in Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, which was previously assigned to an antiparallel ?-sheet conformation, is in fact absorption of the stacked carbamate group in Fmoc-peptides. IR spectra from (13)C-labeled samples support our conclusions. In addition, DFT frequency calculations on small stacks of aromatic peptides help to rationalize these results in terms of the individual vibrational modes. PMID:23805919

Fleming, Scott; Frederix, Pim W J M; Ramos Sasselli, Iván; Hunt, Neil T; Ulijn, Rein V; Tuttle, Tell

2013-07-30

104

Case studies in DSM : utilizing the Design Structure Matrix to improve New Product Introduction  

E-print Network

This thesis describes a project that applies the Design Structure Matrix (DSM) in support of the Manufacturing Excellence (MX) program at Cisco Systems, Inc to reduce the cycle time of new product development initiatives ...

Go, Julie W

2007-01-01

105

History of biological metal utilization inferred through phylogenomic analysis of protein structures.  

PubMed

The fundamental chemistry of trace elements dictates the molecular speciation and reactivity both within cells and the environment at large. Using protein structure and comparative genomics, we elucidate several major influences this chemistry has had upon biology. All of life exhibits the same proteome size-dependent scaling for the number of metal-binding proteins within a proteome. This fundamental evolutionary constant shows that the selection of one element occurs at the exclusion of another, with the eschewal of Fe for Zn and Ca being a defining feature of eukaryotic proteomes. Early life lacked both the structures required to control intracellular metal concentrations and the metal-binding proteins that catalyze electron transport and redox transformations. The development of protein structures for metal homeostasis coincided with the emergence of metal-specific structures, which predominantly bound metals abundant in the Archean ocean. Potentially, this promoted the diversification of emerging lineages of Archaea and Bacteria through the establishment of biogeochemical cycles. In contrast, structures binding Cu and Zn evolved much later, providing further evidence that environmental availability influenced the selection of the elements. The late evolving Zn-binding proteins are fundamental to eukaryotic cellular biology, and Zn bioavailability may have been a limiting factor in eukaryotic evolution. The results presented here provide an evolutionary timeline based on genomic characteristics, and key hypotheses can be tested by alternative geochemical methods. PMID:20498051

Dupont, Christopher L; Butcher, Andrew; Valas, Ruben E; Bourne, Philip E; Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo

2010-06-01

106

Biochemical and Structural Insights into Xylan Utilization by the Thermophilic Bacterium Caldanaerobius polysaccharolyticus*  

PubMed Central

Hemicellulose is the next most abundant plant cell wall component after cellulose. The abundance of hemicellulose such as xylan suggests that their hydrolysis and conversion to biofuels can improve the economics of bioenergy production. In an effort to understand xylan hydrolysis at high temperatures, we sequenced the genome of the thermophilic bacterium Caldanaerobius polysaccharolyticus. Analysis of the partial genome sequence revealed a gene cluster that contained both hydrolytic enzymes and also enzymes key to the pentose-phosphate pathway. The hydrolytic enzymes in the gene cluster were demonstrated to convert products from a large endoxylanase (Xyn10A) predicted to anchor to the surface of the bacterium. We further use structural and calorimetric studies to demonstrate that the end products of Xyn10A hydrolysis of xylan are recognized and bound by XBP1, a putative solute-binding protein, likely for transport into the cell. The XBP1 protein showed preference for xylo-oligosaccharides as follows: xylotriose > xylobiose > xylotetraose. To elucidate the structural basis for the oligosaccharide preference, we solved the co-crystal structure of XBP1 complexed with xylotriose to a 1.8-? resolution. Analysis of the biochemical data in the context of the co-crystal structure reveals the molecular underpinnings of oligosaccharide length specificity. PMID:22918832

Han, Yejun; Agarwal, Vinayak; Dodd, Dylan; Kim, Jason; Bae, Brian; Mackie, Roderick I.; Nair, Satish K.; Cann, Isaac K. O.

2012-01-01

107

An assessment of children's concepts of the earth utilizing structured interviews  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structured interviews with second graders in the U.S. about the shape of Earth and the effects of gravity at the surface. Describes a highly effective and systematic interviewing strategy aropriate for investigating student conceptions. Most students consistently hold one of five notions: Earth is flat, Earth is round with flat places where people live, Earth is round and people can

Joseph Nussbaum; Joseph D. Novak

1976-01-01

108

Seismic Response of Civil Structures Utilizing SemiActive MR and ER Bracing Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetorheological (MR) and electrorheological (ER) dampers are a promising class of semi-active devices for the control of civil engineering structures for earthquake hazard mitigation. ER and MR dampers exhibit both viscous damping and friction damping, where the friction damping level is controlled by an applied electric or magnetic field, respectively. These unique characteristics lend them to be very suitable devices

Gregory J. Hiemenz; Norman M. Wereley

1999-01-01

109

The Factor Structure and Screening Utility of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The widely used Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS; R. P. Mattick & J. C. Clarke, 1998) possesses favorable psychometric properties, but questions remain concerning its factor structure and item properties. Analyses included 445 people with social anxiety disorder and 1,689 undergraduates. Simple unifactorial models fit poorly, and models that…

Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Woods, Carol M.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Liebowitz, Michael R.; Schneier, Franklin R.

2006-01-01

110

The Factor Structure and Screening Utility of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The widely used Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS; R. P. Mattick & J. C. Clarke, 1998) possesses favorable psychometric properties, but questions remain concerning its factor structure and item properties. Analyses included 445 people with social anxiety disorder and 1,689 undergraduates. Simple unifactorial models fit poorly, and models that accounted for differences due to item wording (i.e., reverse scoring) provided

Thomas L. Rodebaugh; Carol M. Woods; Richard G. Heimberg; Michael R. Liebowitz; Franklin R. Schneier

2006-01-01

111

JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL PSYCHOLOGY 13, 296-322 (1976) Utility-uncertainty Trade-Off Structures*  

E-print Network

will turn up heads or tails. What is your bet ? If you rely on reason you cannot settle for either win everything; if you lose, you lose nothing. Don't hesitate then. Take a bet that he exists-UNCERTAINTY TRADE-OFF STRUCTURES 297 `That's fine. Yes, I must take a bet; but perhaps I am staking too much.' `Come

Barrett, Jeffrey A.

112

Quantitative structure-activation barrier relationship modeling for Diels-Alder ligations utilizing quantum chemical structural descriptors  

PubMed Central

Background In the present study, we show the correlation of quantum chemical structural descriptors with the activation barriers of the Diels-Alder ligations. A set of 72 non-catalysed Diels-Alder reactions were subjected to quantitative structure-activation barrier relationship (QSABR) under the framework of theoretical quantum chemical descriptors calculated solely from the structures of diene and dienophile reactants. Experimental activation barrier data were obtained from literature. Descriptors were computed using Hartree-Fock theory using 6-31G(d) basis set as implemented in Gaussian 09 software. Results Variable selection and model development were carried out by stepwise multiple linear regression methodology. Predictive performance of the quantitative structure-activation barrier relationship (QSABR) model was assessed by training and test set concept and by calculating leave-one-out cross-validated Q2 and predictive R2 values. The QSABR model can explain and predict 86.5% and 80% of the variances, respectively, in the activation energy barrier training data. Alternatively, a neural network model based on back propagation of errors was developed to assess the nonlinearity of the sought correlations between theoretical descriptors and experimental reaction barriers. Conclusions A reasonable predictability for the activation barrier of the test set reactions was obtained, which enabled an exploration and interpretation of the significant variables responsible for Diels-Alder interaction between dienes and dienophiles. Thus, studies in the direction of QSABR modelling that provide efficient and fast prediction of activation barriers of the Diels-Alder reactions turn out to be a meaningful alternative to transition state theory based computation. PMID:24171724

2013-01-01

113

Utilization and Modification of Perovskite-Type Layered Structures as Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aromatic ammonium-based layered halide compounds were obtained of bis(4-nitroanilinium)tetrachlorocadmate and bis(2-methyl-4-nitroanilinium) tetrachlorocadmate, aiming at a new type of inorganic-organic hybrid layered material. X-ray diffraction analyses of the single crystals revealed that both of the crystals take an alternate layered structure of the organic bilayer and the inorganic sheet. Cadmium ion and chloride anions form six-coordinated octahedra whose corner anions

Reiko Azumi; Kazumasa Honda; Midori Goto; Junji Akimoto; Yoshinao Oosawa; Hiroaki Tachibana; Motoo Tanaka; Mutsuyoshi Matsumoto

1996-01-01

114

Evaluation of commercial utility of ERTS-A imagery in structural reconnaissance for minerals and petroleum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Five areas in North America (North Slope-Alaska, Superior Province-Canada, Williston Basin-Montana, Colorado and New Mexico-West Texas) are being studied for discernibility of geological evidence on ERTS-1 imagery, Evidence mapped is compared with known mineral/hydrocarbon accumulations to determine the value of the imagery in commercial exploration programs. Evaluation has proceeded in the New Mexico-West Texas area while awaiting imagery in the other areas. To date, results have been better than expected. Clearly discernible structural lineaments in New Mexico-West Texas are evident on the photographs. Comparison of this evidence with known major mining localities in New Mexico indicates a clear pattern of coincidence between the lineaments and mining localities. In West Texas, lineament and geomorphological evidence obtainable from the photographs define the petroleum-productive Central Basin Platform. Based on evaluation results in the New Mexico-West Texas area and on cursory results in the other four areas of North America, ERTS-1 imagery will be extremely valuable in defining the regional and local structure in any commercial exploration program.

Saunders, D. F.; Thomas, G. E.

1973-01-01

115

Innovative design of composite structures: Design, manufacturing, and testing of plates utilizing curvilinear fiber trajectories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a means of improving structural design, the concept of fabricating flat plates containing holes by incorporating curvilinear fiber trajectories to transmit loads around the hole is studied. In the present discussion this concept is viewed from a structural level, where access holes, windows, doors, and other openings are of significant size. This is opposed to holes sized for mechanical fasteners. Instead of cutting the important load-bearing fibers at the hole edge, as a conventional straightline design does, the curvilinear design preserves the load-bearing fibers by orienting them in smooth trajectories around the holes, their loading not ending abruptly at the hole edge. Though the concept of curvilinear fiber trajectories has been studied before, attempts to manufacture and test such plates have been limited. This report describes a cooperative effort between Cincinnati Milacron Inc., NASA Langley Research Center, and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University to design, manufacture, and test plates using the curvilinear fiber trajectory concept. The paper discusses details of the plate design, details of the manufacturing, and a summary of results from testing the plates with inplane compressive buckling loads and tensile loads. Comparisons between the curvilinear and conventional straightline fiber designs based on measurements and observation are made. Failure modes, failure loads, strains, deflections, and other key responses are compared.

Hyer, M. W.; Rust, R. J.; Waters, W. A., Jr.

1994-01-01

116

Study of utilization of advanced composites in fuselage structures of large transports  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effort required by the transport aircraft manufacturers to support the introduction of advanced composite materials into the fuselage structure of future commercial and military transport aircraft is investigated. Technology issues, potential benefits to military life cycle costs and commercial operating costs, and development plans are examined. The most urgent technology issues defined are impact dynamics, acoustic transmission, pressure containment and damage tolerance, post-buckling, cutouts, and joints and splices. A technology demonstration program is defined and a rough cost and schedule identified. The fabrication and test of a full-scale fuselage barrel section is presented. Commercial and military benefits are identified. Fuselage structure weight savings from use of advanced composites are 16.4 percent for the commercial and 21.8 percent for the military. For the all-composite airplanes the savings are 26 percent and 29 percent, respectively. Commercial/operating costs are reduced by 5 percent for the all-composite airplane and military life cycle costs by 10 percent.

Jackson, A. C.; Campion, M. C.; Pei, G.

1984-01-01

117

Utility of R0 as a predictor of disease invasion in structured populations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Early theoretical work on disease invasion typically assumed large and well-mixed host populations. Many human and wildlife systems, however, have small groups with limited movement among groups. In these situations, the basic reproductive number, R0, is likely to be a poor predictor of a disease pandemic because it typically does not account for group structure and movement of individuals among groups. We extend recent work by combining the movement of hosts, transmission within groups, recovery from infection and the recruitment of new susceptibles into a stochastic model of disease in a host metapopulation. We focus on how recruitment of susceptibles affects disease invasion and how population structure can affect the frequency of superspreading events (SSEs). We show that the frequency of SSEs may decrease with the reduced movement and the group sizes due to the limited number of susceptible individuals available. Classification tree analysis of the model results illustrates the hierarchical nature of disease invasion in host metapopulations. First, the pathogen must effectively transmit within a group (R0 > 1), and then the pathogen must persist within a group long enough to allow for movement among the groups. Therefore, the factors affecting disease persistence - such as infectious period, group size and recruitment of new susceptibles - are as important as the local transmission rates in predicting the spread of pathogens across a metapopulation. ?? 2006 The Royal Society.

Cross, P.C.; Johnson, P.L.F.; Lloyd-Smith, J. O.; Getz, W.M.

2007-01-01

118

End-to-end communication test on variable length packet structures utilizing AOS testbed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a communication test, which successfully demonstrated the transfer of losslessly compressed images in an end-to-end system. These compressed images were first formatted into variable length Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) packets in the Advanced Orbiting System Testbed (AOST). The CCSDS data Structures were transferred from the AOST to the Radio Frequency Simulations Operations Center (RFSOC), via a fiber optic link, where data was then transmitted through the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). The received data acquired at the White Sands Complex (WSC) was transferred back to the AOST where the data was captured and decompressed back to the original images. This paper describes the compression algorithm, the AOST configuration, key flight components, data formats, and the communication link characteristics and test results.

Miller, Warner H.; Sank, V.; Fong, Wai; Miko, J.; Powers, M.; Folk, John; Conaway, B.; Michael, K.; Yeh, Pen-Shu

1994-01-01

119

Alignment and structural control of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes by utilizing precursor concentration effect.  

PubMed

Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNTs) were prepared using a simple ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method. The precursor concentration effect was examined to effectively control alignment, open tip and diameter of the NCNTs by changing xylene/cyclohexylamine ratio. The structure and morphology of the resultant NCNTs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The degree of alignment and the diameter of the NCNTs increased as the xylene/cyclohexylamine precursor mixture was changed from 0 to 35% cyclohexylamine. This precursor composition also caused a large number of open-ended nanotubes to form with graphite layers inside the cavities of the NCNTs. However, further increase cyclohexylamine content in the precursor reduced the degree of alignment and diameter of the NCNTs. We demonstrate control over the NCNT alignment and diameter, along with the formation of open-ended nanotube tips, and propose a growth mechanism to understand how these properties are interlinked. PMID:25369800

Deng, Weina; Chen, Xiaohua; Chen, Xian; Liu, Zheng; Zeng, Ying; Hu, Aiping; Xiong, Yina; Li, Zhe; Tang, Qunli

2014-11-28

120

Gift-giving and network structure in rural China: utilizing long-term spontaneous gift records.  

PubMed

The tradition of keeping written records of gift received during household ceremonies in many countries offers researchers an underutilized means of data collection for social network analysis. This paper first summarizes unique features of the gift record data that circumvent five prevailing sampling and measurement issues in the literature, and we discuss their advantages over existing studies at both the individual level and the dyadic link level using previous data sources. We then document our research project in rural China that implements a multiple wave census-type household survey and a long-term gift record collection. The pattern of gift-giving in major household social events and its recent escalation is analyzed. There are significantly positive correlations between gift network centrality and various forms of informal insurance. Finally, economic inequality and competitive marriage market are among the main demographic and socioeconomic determinants of the observed gift network structure. PMID:25111696

Chen, Xi

2014-01-01

121

Sensor Array Devices Utilizing Nano-structured Metal-oxides for Hazardous Gas Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane and carbon monoxide are two hazardous gases which require continuous monitoring by gas sensors in underground coal mines for explosion prevention and toxicity, respectively. This work explored implementing miniaturized gas sensors in this area to simultaneously detect both gases for benefits of increased portability and reduced power consumption of the chemiresistive gas sensor device. The focus of this research was to understand how the particle size, morphology, and microstructure of the metaloxide film affected the gas sensor performance to the two gases of interest on miniaturized gas sensor devices in the form of microhotplate platforms. This was done through three main research studies. The first was conducted by growing SnO2 nanowires from SnO 2 particles using an Au-catalyst. Growth conditions including temperature, time, and oxygen partial pressure were explored to determine the formation aspects of the SnO2 nanowires. Gas sensor studies were completed that provided evidence that the SnO2 nanowires increased detection to a fixed concentration of carbon monoxide compared to SnO2 particles without nano-structure formation. A second research study was performed to compare the gas sensor performance of SnO2 nanoparticles, hierarchical particles, and micron-size particles. The nanoparticles were developed into an ink and deposited via ink-jet printing on the microhotplate substrates to control the microstructure of the metal-oxide film. By preventing agglomeration of the nanoparticle film, the SnO2 nanoparticles displayed similar gas sensor performance to methane and carbon monoxide as the hierarchical particles. Both nano-structures had much higher gas sensor response than the micron-size particles which confirms the surface area of the metal-oxide film is critical for reaction of the analyte gas at the surface. The last research study presented in the dissertation describes an oxide nanoparticle array developed for detecting methane and carbon monoxide in the presence of one another. A design of experiments was constructed and principal component analysis was used for determining the optimum temperatures of the metal-oxide elements. A four element array was developed with the SnO 2 and TiO2 sensor elements able to detect methane concentrations of interest and the ZnO and NiO sensor elements able to detect the carbon monoxide concentrations. A linear based prediction model was developed and tested for accuracy and reproducibility of the model to a series of random gas concentrations.

Andio, Mark A.

122

Full equations utilities (FEQUTL) model for the approximation of hydraulic characteristics of open channels and control structures during unsteady flow  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Full EQuations UTiLities (FEQUTL) model is a computer program for computation of tables that list the hydraulic characteristics of open channels and control structures as a function of upstream and downstream depths; these tables facilitate the simulation of unsteady flow in a stream system with the Full Equations (FEQ) model. Simulation of unsteady flow requires many iterations for each time period computed. Thus, computation of hydraulic characteristics during the simulations is impractical, and preparation of function tables and application of table look-up procedures facilitates simulation of unsteady flow. Three general types of function tables are computed: one-dimensional tables that relate hydraulic characteristics to upstream flow depth, two-dimensional tables that relate flow through control structures to upstream and downstream flow depth, and three-dimensional tables that relate flow through gated structures to upstream and downstream flow depth and gate setting. For open-channel reaches, six types of one-dimensional function tables contain different combinations of the top width of flow, area, first moment of area with respect to the water surface, conveyance, flux coefficients, and correction coefficients for channel curvilinearity. For hydraulic control structures, one type of one-dimensional function table contains relations between flow and upstream depth, and two types of two-dimensional function tables contain relations among flow and upstream and downstream flow depths. For hydraulic control structures with gates, a three-dimensional function table lists the system of two-dimensional tables that contain the relations among flow and upstream and downstream flow depths that correspond to different gate openings. Hydraulic control structures for which function tables containing flow relations are prepared in FEQUTL include expansions, contractions, bridges, culverts, embankments, weirs, closed conduits (circular, rectangular, and pipe-arch shapes), dam failures, floodways, and underflow gates (sluice and tainter gates). The theory for computation of the hydraulic characteristics is presented for open channels and for each hydraulic control structure. For the hydraulic control structures, the theory is developed from the results of experimental tests of flow through the structure for different upstream and downstream flow depths. These tests were done to describe flow hydraulics for a single, steady-flow design condition and, thus, do not provide complete information on flow transitions (for example, between free- and submerged-weir flow) that may result in simulation of unsteady flow. Therefore, new procedures are developed to approximate the hydraulics of flow transitions for culverts, embankments, weirs, and underflow gates.

Franz, Delbert D.; Melching, Charles S.

1997-01-01

123

The structure of myostatin:follistatin 288: insights into receptor utilization and heparin binding  

SciTech Connect

Myostatin is a member of the transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}) family and a strong negative regulator of muscle growth. Here, we present the crystal structure of myostatin in complex with the antagonist follistatin 288 (Fst288). We find that the prehelix region of myostatin very closely resembles that of TGF-{beta} class members and that this region alone can be swapped into activin A to confer signalling through the non-canonical type I receptor Alk5. Furthermore, the N-terminal domain of Fst288 undergoes conformational rearrangements to bind myostatin and likely acts as a site of specificity for the antagonist. In addition, a unique continuous electropositive surface is created when myostatin binds Fst288, which significantly increases the affinity for heparin. This translates into stronger interactions with the cell surface and enhanced myostatin degradation in the presence of either Fst288 or Fst315. Overall, we have identified several characteristics unique to myostatin that will be paramount to the rational design of myostatin inhibitors that could be used in the treatment of muscle-wasting disorders.

Cash, Jennifer N.; Rejon, Carlis A.; McPherron, Alexandra C.; Bernard, Daniel J.; Thompson, Thomas B.; (UCIN); (McGill); (NIH)

2009-09-29

124

Utilization of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) in risk assessment: Alkylphenols  

SciTech Connect

Alkylphenols are a class of environmentally pervasive compounds, found both in natural (e.g., crude oils) and in anthropogenic (e.g., wood tar, coal gasification waste) materials. Despite the frequent environmental occurrence of these chemicals, there is a limited toxicity database on alkylphenols. The authors have therefore developed a 'toxicity equivalence approach' for alkylphenols which is based on their ability to inhibit, in a specific manner, the enzyme cyclooxygenase. Enzyme-inhibiting ability for individual alkylphenols can be estimated based on the quantitative structure-activity relationship developed by Dewhirst (1980) and is a function of the free hydroxyl group, electron-donating ring substituents, and hydrophobic aromatic ring substituents. The authors evaluated the toxicological significance of cyclooxygenase inhibition by comparison of the inhibitory capacity of alkylphenols with the inhibitory capacity of acetylsalicylic acid, or aspirin, a compound whose low-level effects are due to cyclooxygenase inhibition. Since nearly complete absorption for alkylphenols and aspirin is predicted, based on estimates of hydrophobicity and fraction of charged molecules at gastrointestinal pHs, risks from alkylphenols can be expressed directly in terms of 'milligram aspirin equivalence,' without correction for absorption differences. They recommend this method for assessing risks of mixtures of alkylphenols, especially for those compounds with no chronic toxicity data.38 references.

Beck, B.D.; Toole, A.P.; Callahan, B.G.; Siddhanti, S.K. (Gradient Corporation, Cambridge, MA (United States))

1991-12-01

125

Mycobacterium tuberculosis utilizes a unique heterotetrameric structure for dehydrogenation of the cholesterol side chain  

PubMed Central

Compounding evidence supports the important role in pathogenesis that the metabolism of cholesterol by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) plays. Elucidating the pathway by which cholesterol is catabolized is necessary to understand the molecular mechanism by which this pathway contributes to infection. Based on early metabolite identification studies in multiple actinomycetes, it has been proposed that cholesterol side chain metabolism requires one or more acyl-CoA dehydrogenases (ACADs). There are 35 genes annotated as encoding ACADs in the M. tuberculosis genome. Here we characterize a heteromeric ACAD encoded by Rv3544c and Rv3543c, formerly named fadE28 and fadE29, respectively. We now refer to genes Rv3544c and Rv3543c as chsE1 and chsE2 in recognition of their validated activity in cholesterol side chain dehydrogenation. Analytical ultracentrifugation and LC/UV experiments establish that ChsE1-ChsE2 forms an ?2?2 heterotetramer, a new architecture for an ACAD. Our bioinformatic analysis and mutagenesis studies reveal that heterotetrameric ChsE1-ChsE2 has only two active sites. E241 in ChsE2 is required for catalysis of dehydrogenation by ChsE1-ChsE2. Steady state kinetic analysis establishes the enzyme is specific for an intact steroid ring system compared to hexahydroindanone substrates with specificity constants (kcat/KM) of 2.5 × 105 ± 0.5 s-1 M-1 vs 9.8 × 102 ± s-1 M-1 respectively, at pH 8.5. The characterization of a unique ACAD quaternary structure involved in sterol metabolism that is encoded by two distinct cistronic ACAD genes opens the way to identification of additional sterol metabolizing ACADs in M. tuberculosis and other actinomycetes through bioinformatic analysis. PMID:23560677

Thomas, Suzanne T.; Sampson, Nicole S.

2013-01-01

126

Mycobacterium tuberculosis utilizes a unique heterotetrameric structure for dehydrogenation of the cholesterol side chain.  

PubMed

Compounding evidence supports the important role in pathogenesis that the metabolism of cholesterol by Mycobacterium tuberculosis plays. Elucidating the pathway by which cholesterol is catabolized is necessary to understand the molecular mechanism by which this pathway contributes to infection. On the basis of early metabolite identification studies in multiple actinomycetes, it has been proposed that cholesterol side chain metabolism requires one or more acyl-CoA dehydrogenases (ACADs). There are 35 genes annotated as encoding ACADs in the M. tuberculosis genome. Here we characterize a heteromeric ACAD encoded by Rv3544c and Rv3543c, formerly named fadE28 and fadE29, respectively. We now refer to genes Rv3544c and Rv3543c as chsE1 and chsE2, respectively, in recognition of their validated activity in cholesterol side chain dehydrogenation. Analytical ultracentrifugation and liquid chromatography-ultraviolet experiments establish that ChsE1-ChsE2 forms an ?(2)?(2) heterotetramer, a new architecture for an ACAD. Our bioinformatic analysis and mutagenesis studies reveal that heterotetrameric ChsE1-ChsE2 has only two active sites. E241 in ChsE2 is required for catalysis of dehydrogenation by ChsE1-ChsE2. Steady state kinetic analysis establishes the enzyme is specific for an intact steroid ring system versus hexahydroindanone substrates with specificity constants (k(cat)/K(M)) of (2.5 ± 0.5) × 10(5) s(-1) M(-1) versus 9.8 × 10(2) s(-1) M(-1), respectively, at pH 8.5. The characterization of a unique ACAD quaternary structure involved in sterol metabolism that is encoded by two distinct cistronic ACAD genes opens the way to identification of additional sterol-metabolizing ACADs in M. tuberculosis and other actinomycetes through bioinformatic analysis. PMID:23560677

Thomas, Suzanne T; Sampson, Nicole S

2013-04-30

127

Teaching Three-Dimensional Structural Chemistry Using Crystal Structure Databases. 2. Teaching Units that Utilize an Interactive Web-Accessible Subset of the Cambridge Structural Database  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of online interactive teaching units have been developed that illustrate the use of experimentally measured three-dimensional (3D) structures to teach fundamental chemistry concepts. The units integrate a 500-structure subset of the Cambridge Structural Database specially chosen for their pedagogical value. The units span a number of key…

Battle, Gary M.; Allen, Frank H.; Ferrence, Gregory M.

2010-01-01

128

Pubic Bone Injuries after First Childbirth: Utility of MR in detection and differential diagnosis of structural injury  

PubMed Central

Objective Evaluate utility of MR in diagnosing structural injury in primiparous women with pelvic floor injury risks. Methods Observational study of 77 women with 3T MR imaging after delivery. Women (n=45) were operationally defined as High Risk for levator ani muscle tears (2nd stage labor> 150 minutes, anal sphincter tear, forceps, age> 35, birth weight > 4000 grams) or Low Risk (n=32): vaginally delivered without these risk factors (n=12); delivered by cesarean after 2nd stage labor >150 minutes (n=14), and cesarean without labor (n=6). All women were imaged using MR fluid sensitive sequences. Two musculoskeletal radiologists reviewed images for bone marrow edema, fracture, pubic symphysis measurements, and levator ani tear. Results MR imaging showed pubic bone fractures in 38% of women at High Risk and 13% of at Low Risk for pelvic floor injury (?2(3)= 9.27, p=0.03). Levator ani muscle tears were present in 44% of the High Risk and 9% of Low Risk women (X2(3)=11.57, p=0.010). Bone marrow edema in the pubic bones was present in 61% of women studied across delivery categories. Complex patterns of injury included combinations of bone marrow edema, fractures, levator ani tears and pubic symphysis injuries. No MR documented injuries were present in 18% of women at High Risk and 44% at Low Risk (?2(1)=6.2, p=.013). Conclusions Criteria identifying primiparous women at risk for pelvic floor injury can predict increased risk of bone and soft tissues changes at the pubic symphysis. Fluid sensitive MR imaging has utility for differential diagnosis of structural injury in postpartum women. PMID:21728205

Brandon, Catherine; Jacobson, Jon A.; Low, Lisa Kane; Park, Lee; DeLancey, John; Miller, Janis

2013-01-01

129

Chapter 9. Utilizing mineralogical and chemical information in PTFs (A. Bruand) Soil structure is known to reflect mineralogical composition of clay fraction and soil  

E-print Network

is known to reflect mineralogical composition of clay fraction and soil chemical composition. Because soil hydraulic properties are likely to depend on soil structure, chemical and mineralogical composition haveChapter 9. Utilizing mineralogical and chemical information in PTFs (A. Bruand) Soil structure

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

130

Determination of trace metals in seawater by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with preconcentration on silica-immobilized 8-hydroxyquinoline  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to the determination of eight trace metals in a coastal seawater reference material is described. Accurate calibration has been achieved for Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb by standard additions techniques, while stable isotopes dilution has been applied for Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb. In both cases

J. W. McLaren; A. P. Mykytiuk; S. N. Willie; S. S. Berman

1985-01-01

131

Understanding the role of electron and hole trions on current transport in aluminium tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) using organic magnetoresistance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The change in current through an organic light emitting diode (OLED) when it is placed in a magnetic field has been dubbed organic magnetoresistance and provides a means to understand the spin interactions that are occurring in working devices. Whilst there are a wide range of interactions that have been proposed to be the cause of the measured effects, there is still a need to identify their individual roles and in particular how they respond to an applied magnetic field. In this work, we investigate the effect of changing the balance of electron and hole injection in a simple aluminium tris(8-hydroxyqinoline) based OLED and demonstrate that the triplet polaron interaction appears to be much stronger for electrons than for holes in this material.

Zhang, Sijie; Willis, M.; Gotto, R.; Roy, K. A.; Rolfe, N. J.; Kreouzis, T.; Gillin, W. P.

2014-01-01

132

The solution structure of the copper clioquinol complex.  

PubMed

Clioquinol (5-chloro-7-iodo-8-hydroxyquinoline) recently has shown promising results in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and in cancer therapy, both of which also are thought to be due to clioquinol's ability as a lipophilic copper chelator. Previously, clioquinol was used as an anti-fungal and anti-protozoal drug that was responsible for an epidemic of subacute myelo-optic neuropathy (SMON) in Japan during the 1960s, probably a myeloneuropathy arising from a clioquinol-induced copper deficiency. Previous X-ray absorption spectroscopy of solutions of copper chelates of clioquinol suggested unusual coordination chemistry. Here we use a combination of electron paramagnetic, UV-visible and X-ray absorption spectroscopies to provide clarification of the chelation chemistry between clioquinol and copper. We find that the solution structures for the copper complexes formed with stoichiometric and excess clioquinol are conventional 8-hydroxyquinolate chelates. Thus, the promise of clioquinol in new treatments for Alzheimer's disease and in cancer therapy is not likely to be due to any novel chelation chemistry, but rather due to other factors including the high lipophilicity of the free ligand and chelate complexes. PMID:24503514

Pushie, M Jake; Nienaber, Kurt H; Summers, Kelly L; Cotelesage, Julien J H; Ponomarenko, Olena; Nichol, Helen K; Pickering, Ingrid J; George, Graham N

2014-04-01

133

An Evaluation of the Utility of the CEN Categorial Structure for Nursing Diagnoses as a Terminology Model for Integrating Nursing Diagnosis Concepts into SNOMED  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Weevaluated,the utility of the CEN Categorial Structure for Nursing ,Diagnoses ,as a ,terminology ,model ,for integrating nursing ,diagnosis ,concepts ,into SNOMED. First, we dissected nursing diagnosis term phrases from two,source ,terminologies ,(North American ,Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA) Taxonomy ,1 and Omaha System) into the semantic categories of the CEN categorial structure. Second, we critically analyzed the similarities between,the semantic

Suzanne Bakken; Judith J. Warren; Cynthia Lundberg; Anne Casey; Carol Correia; Debra Konicek; Christine Zingo

134

Influencing Self-Reported Health among Rural Low-Income Women through Health Care and Social Service Utilization: A Structural Equation Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using structural equation modeling, this study examined the mesosystemic processes among rural low-income women, and how these processes subsequently influenced self-reported health. Acknowledging the behavioral processes inherent in utilization of health care and formal social support services, this study moved beyond a behavioral focus by…

Bice-Wigington, Tiffany; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine

2012-01-01

135

The Incremental Utility of Behavioral Rating Scales and a Structured Diagnostic Interview in the Assessment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined the incremental utility of rating scales, a structured diagnostic interview, and multiple informants in a comprehensive assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The sample included 185 children with ADHD (M[subscript age] = 9.22, SD = 0.95) and 82 children without ADHD (M[subscript age] = 9.24, SD =…

Vaughn, Aaron J.; Hoza, Betsy

2013-01-01

136

The effect of lay-up, core material, and cross-sectional geometry on the structural performance of pultruded fiberglass utility poles  

SciTech Connect

The structural performance of several pultruded fiberglass utility poles is investigated and compared with wood pole standards. The fiberglass poles are thin-walled tubes with an approximately hexagonal configuration. The outside of the poles have longitudinal grooves which create a dovetail configuration. The dovetails provide a convenient mechanism for attaching crossarms and other hardware to the tubular structure and contribute additional stiffness and strength at these attachment points. Manually operated clamping devices which can run up and down the grooves provide a safe environment for utility linemen. Structural evaluation includes a comparison of axial stiffness, flexural stiffness, maximum load, maximum bending moment, and load-deflection curves for several different pole cross-sectional geometry`s. Material elastic properties and fiber orientations are varied to determine the effect on structural performance. Several different fiber preforms, including unidirectional rovings and multidirectional fabrics, are evaluated. Results of the analyses are compared with the manufacturer`s (Composite Power Corporation) preference in terms of manufacturability. The effect of fiberglass sleeve inserts and solid foam cores is also investigated. Some of the analyses are compared with full scale test data and both the experimental and theoretical results are compared with utility standards for pole design. Failure mechanisms for different loading conditions and future analysis is discussed. Preliminary results show that the composite poles can achieve the standards required for the highest quality wood poles.

O`Toole, B.J. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-11-01

137

Utilization of maternal care in rural HeBei Province, the People’s Republic of China: individual and structural characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To study the effect of individual’s socio-economic characteristics and the structure of the health services in the village on utilization of maternal care in rural HeBei, the People’s Republic of China (PRC). Data: Data were collected from 4273 women who gave birth to one child at least, living in a stratified sample of 288 villages in HeBei Province. Findings:

Ofra Anson

2004-01-01

138

Dynameomics: Data-driven methods and models for utilizing large-scale protein structure repositories for improving fragment-based loop prediction.  

PubMed

Protein function is intimately linked to protein structure and dynamics yet experimentally determined structures frequently omit regions within a protein due to indeterminate data, which is often due protein dynamics. We propose that atomistic molecular dynamics simulations provide a diverse sampling of biologically relevant structures for these missing segments (and beyond) to improve structural modeling and structure prediction. Here we make use of the Dynameomics data warehouse, which contains simulations of representatives of essentially all known protein folds. We developed novel computational methods to efficiently identify, rank and retrieve small peptide structures, or fragments, from this database. We also created a novel data model to analyze and compare large repositories of structural data, such as contained within the Protein Data Bank and the Dynameomics data warehouse. Our evaluation compares these structural repositories for improving loop predictions and analyzes the utility of our methods and models. Using a standard set of loop structures, containing 510 loops, 30 for each loop length from 4 to 20 residues, we find that the inclusion of Dynameomics structures in fragment-based methods improves the quality of the loop predictions without being dependent on sequence homology. Depending on loop length, ?25-75% of the best predictions came from the Dynameomics set, resulting in lower main chain root-mean-square deviations for all fragment lengths using the combined fragment library. We also provide specific cases where Dynameomics fragments provide better predictions for NMR loop structures than fragments from crystal structures. Online access to these fragment libraries is available at http://www.dynameomics.org/fragments. PMID:25142412

Rysavy, Steven J; Beck, David A C; Daggett, Valerie

2014-11-01

139

Super-high density Si quantum dot thin film utilizing a gradient Si-rich oxide multilayer structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A gradient Si-rich oxide multilayer (GSRO-ML) deposition structure is proposed to achieve super-high density Si quantum dot (QD) thin film formation while preserving QD size controllability for better photovoltaic properties. Our results indicate that the Si QD thin film using a GSRO-ML structure can efficiently increase the QD density and control the QD size. Its optical properties clearly promise the capability of effective bandgap engineering even though these QDs are closely formed. The Si QD thin film using a GSRO-ML structure obviously reveals better electro-optical properties than those using a [silicon dioxide/silicon-rich oxide] multilayer ([SiO2/SRO]-ML) structure owing to the better optical absorption and carrier transport properties. Therefore, we successfully demonstrate that our proposed GSRO-ML structure has great potential for application in solar cells integrating Si QD thin films.

Kuo, Kuang-Yang; Huang, Pin-Ruei; Lee, Po-Tsung

2013-05-01

140

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

Center for By-Products Utilization HIGH-STRENGTH CONCRETE CONTAINING LARGE QUANTITIES OF FLY ASH-Strength Concrete Containing Large Quantities of Fly Ash By Tarun R. Naik* and Bruce W. Ramme** ABSTRACT Presents and 28 MPa) structural grade concrete utilizing Class C fly ash. The fly ash was produced at Wisconsin

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

141

International utilization and operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The international framework of the Space Station Freedom Program is described. The discussion covers the U.S. space policy, international agreements, international Station elements, overall program management structure, and utilization and operations management. Consideration is also given to Freedom's user community, Freedom's crew, pressurized payload and attached payload accommodations, utilization and operations planning, user integration, and user operations.

Goldberg, Stanley R.

1989-01-01

142

Enzymology and Structure of the GH13_31 Glucan 1,6-?-Glucosidase That Confers Isomaltooligosaccharide Utilization in the Probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM  

PubMed Central

Isomaltooligosaccharides (IMO) have been suggested as promising prebiotics that stimulate the growth of probiotic bacteria. Genomes of probiotic lactobacilli from the acidophilus group, as represented by Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, encode ?-1,6 glucosidases of the family GH13_31 (glycoside hydrolase family 13 subfamily 31) that confer degradation of IMO. These genes reside frequently within maltooligosaccharide utilization operons, which include an ATP-binding cassette transporter and ?-glucan active enzymes, e.g., maltogenic amylases and maltose phosphorylases, and they also occur separated from any carbohydrate transport or catabolism genes on the genomes of some acidophilus complex members, as in L. acidophilus NCFM. Besides the isolated locus encoding a GH13_31 enzyme, the ABC transporter and another GH13 in the maltooligosaccharide operon were induced in response to IMO or maltotetraose, as determined by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) transcriptional analysis, suggesting coregulation of ?-1,6- and ?-1,4-glucooligosaccharide utilization loci in L. acidophilus NCFM. The L. acidophilus NCFM GH13_31 (LaGH13_31) was produced recombinantly and shown to be a glucan 1,6-?-glucosidase active on IMO and dextran and product-inhibited by glucose. The catalytic efficiency of LaGH13_31 on dextran and the dextran/panose (trisaccharide) efficiency ratio were the highest reported for this class of enzymes, suggesting higher affinity at distal substrate binding sites. The crystal structure of LaGH13_31 was determined to a resolution of 2.05 Å and revealed additional substrate contacts at the +2 subsite in LaGH13_31 compared to the GH13_31 from Streptococcus mutans (SmGH13_31), providing a possible structural rationale to the relatively high affinity for dextran. A comprehensive phylogenetic and activity motif analysis mapped IMO utilization enzymes from gut microbiota to rationalize preferential utilization of IMO by gut residents. PMID:22685275

M?ller, Marie S.; Fredslund, Folmer; Majumder, Avishek; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Poulsen, Jens-Christian N.; Lo Leggio, Leila; Svensson, Birte

2012-01-01

143

Utility of coupled-HSQC experiments in the intact structural elucidation of three complex saponins from Blighia sapida  

PubMed Central

The structures of three complex saponins from the fruit pods of Blighia sapida have been elucidated and their 1H and 13C NMR spectra assigned employing a variety of one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques without degradative chemistry. The saponins have either four or six monosaccharide units linked to a triterpene aglycone. High-resolution, proton-coupled-HSQC spectra were important for determining both the identities of the intact monosaccharide units and coupling constants in strongly coupled proton spin systems. These NMR experiments will prove crucial as the complexity of saponin structures reaches the limit that can be determined solely by NMR. PMID:21439554

Mazzola, Eugene P.; Parkinson, Ainsley; Kennelly, Edward J.; Coxon, Bruce; Einbond, Linda S.; Freedberg, Daron I.

2014-01-01

144

Enhancing Sexual Desire and Intimacy via the Metaphor of a Problem Child: Utilizing Structural-Strategic Family Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores structural-strategic family therapy as a treatment modality for couples with problems of intimacy and sexual desire. Parents whose presenting problem involves a child with problematic behavior may also struggle with problems in their intimate relationship. Instead of speaking to these problems directly, however, the couple may communicate about their intimate problems via the metaphor of their “problem”

Teresa L. Young; Sesen M. Negash; Rhonda M. Long

2009-01-01

145

Utility of the sperm chromatin structure assay as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in the human fertility clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) was used to measure over 500 human semen samples from two independent studies: Study I, 402 samples from 165 presumably fertile couples wishing to achieve pregnancy over 12 menstrual cycles; Study II, samples from 115 patients seeking fertility counselling. The SCSA measures susceptibility to DNA denaturation in situ in spermatozoa exposed to acid for

D. P. Evenson; L. K. Jost; D. Marshall; M. J. Zinaman; E. Clegg; K. Purvis; P. de Angelis; O. P. Claussen

1999-01-01

146

Purification of a Baculovirus-Expressed Hepatitis E Virus Structural Protein and Utility in an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the purification of the full-length structural protein encoded by open reading frame 2 (ORF-2) of hepatitis E virus. The ORF-2 protein, expressed in Sf9 cells by using a recombinant baculovirus vector system, was successfully purified to homogeneity. Gel electrophoresis of the purified ORF-2 protein showed a single polypeptide of 75 kDa by Coomassie blue staining and by

JUNKUN HE; WEI-MEI CHING; PATRICE YARBOUGH; HUI WANG; ANDMITCHELL CARL

1995-01-01

147

Environmental impact assessment using a utility-based recursive evidential reasoning approach for structural flood mitigation measures in Metro Manila, Philippines.  

PubMed

In recent years, the practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA) has created significant awareness on the role of environmentally sound projects in sustainable development. In view of the recent studies on the effects of climate change, the Philippine government has given high priority to the construction of flood control structures to alleviate the destructive effects of unmitigated floods, especially in highly urbanized areas like Metro Manila. EIA thus, should be carefully and effectively carried out to maximize or optimize the potential benefits that can be derived from structural flood mitigation measures (SFMMs). A utility-based environmental assessment approach may significantly aid flood managers and decision-makers in planning for effective and environmentally sound SFMM projects. This study proposes a utility-based assessment approach using the rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) technique, coupled with the evidential reasoning approach, to rationally and systematically evaluate the ecological and socio-economic impacts of 4 planned SFMM projects (i.e. 2 river channel improvements and 2 new open channels) in Metro Manila. Results show that the overall environmental effects of each of the planned SFMM projects are positive, which indicate that the utility of the positive impacts would generally outweigh the negative impacts. The results also imply that the planned river channel improvements will yield higher environmental benefits over the planned open channels. This study was able to present a clear and rational approach in the examination of overall environmental effects of SFMMs, which provides valuable insights that can be used by decision-makers and policy makers to improve the EIA practice and evaluation of projects in the Philippines. PMID:24157409

Gilbuena, Romeo; Kawamura, Akira; Medina, Reynaldo; Nakagawa, Naoko; Amaguchi, Hideo

2013-12-15

148

Edge geometry superconducting tunnel junctions utilizing an NbN/MgO/NbN thin film structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An edge defined geometry is used to produce very small area tunnel junctions in a structure with niobium nitride superconducting electrodes and a magnesium oxide tunnel barrier. The incorporation of an MgO tunnel barrier with two NbN electrodes results in improved current-voltage characteristics, and may lead to better junction noise characteristics. The NbN electrodes are preferably sputter-deposited, with the first NbN electrode deposited on an insulating substrate maintained at about 250 to 500 C for improved quality of the electrode.

Hunt, Brian D. (inventor); Leduc, Henry G. (inventor)

1989-01-01

149

Edge geometry superconducting tunnel junctions utilizing an NbN/MgO/NbN thin film structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An edge defined geometry is used to produce very small area tunnel junctions in a structure with niobium nitride superconducting electrodes and a magnesium oxide tunnel barrier. The incorporation of an MgO tunnel barrier with two NbN electrodes results in improved current-voltage characteristics, and may lead to better junction noise characteristics. The NbN electrodes are preferably sputter-deposited, with the first NbN electrode deposited on an insulating substrate maintained at about 250 C to 500 C for improved quality of the electrode.

Hunt, Brian D. (inventor); Leduc, Henry G. (inventor)

1992-01-01

150

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

concrete mixtures can be made with up to blends of 20% ponded-ash and 5% Class F fly ash. #12;Introduction0 Center for By-Products Utilization DEVELOPMENT OF STRUCTURAL CONCRETE USING PONDED-ASH By Tarun R #12;1 Development of Structural Concrete Using Ponded-Ash By Tarun R. Naik *a , Rudolph N. Kraus b

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

151

Epitaxial-Template Structure Utilizing Ge-on-Insulator Stripe Arrays with Nanospacing for Advanced Heterogeneous Integration on Si Platform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A possible Ge-on-insulator (GOI) structure, namely, stripe arrays with nanospacing, was proposed as a promising epitaxial template structure for the Ge epitaxial layer. Agglomeration-free single-crystalline GOI stripe arrays with thickness of 50 nm and spacing down to 0.5 µm were successfully grown by the Si-seeded rapid-melting growth technique. The growth of GOI stripe arrays with a spacing of 0.1 µm was not achieved owing due to the severe agglomeration of Ge during the heat treatment. This may be due to the small adhesion area of the capping layer between the stripes where it could not withstand the force caused by Ge agglomeration. From the electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) measurement, the rotational growth was confirmed by the observation of various orientations when the thickness of the Ge layer was reduced to 20 nm. This is probably due to the decrease in the bulk effects that basically act to prevent the slip of lattice planes. These preliminary results provide a breakthrough towards the realization of heterogeneous integration on Si platforms with multifunctionalities.

Manaf Hashim, Abdul; Anisuzzaman, Mohamad; Muta, Shunpei; Sadoh, Taizoh; Miyao, Masanobu

2012-06-01

152

Epitaxial-Template Structure Utilizing Ge-on-Insulator Stripe Arrays with Nanospacing for Advanced Heterogeneous Integration on Si Platform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A possible Ge-on-insulator (GOI) structure, namely, stripe arrays with nanospacing, was proposed as a promising epitaxial template structure for the Ge epitaxial layer. Agglomeration-free single-crystalline GOI stripe arrays with thickness of 50 nm and spacing down to 0.5 ?m were successfully grown by the Si-seeded rapid-melting growth technique. The growth of GOI stripe arrays with a spacing of 0.1 ?m was not achieved owing due to the severe agglomeration of Ge during the heat treatment. This may be due to the small adhesion area of the capping layer between the stripes where it could not withstand the force caused by Ge agglomeration. From the electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) measurement, the rotational growth was confirmed by the observation of various orientations when the thickness of the Ge layer was reduced to 20 nm. This is probably due to the decrease in the bulk effects that basically act to prevent the slip of lattice planes. These preliminary results provide a breakthrough towards the realization of heterogeneous integration on Si platforms with multifunctionalities.

Hashim, Abdul Manaf; Anisuzzaman, Mohamad; Muta, Shunpei; Sadoh, Taizoh; Miyao, Masanobu

2012-06-01

153

Vision Utilities  

E-print Network

This paper documents a collection of Lisp utilities which I have written while doing vision programming on a Symbolics Lisp machine. Many of these functions are useful both as interactive commands invoked from the Lisp ...

Voorhees, Harry

154

Structured kinetic model to represent the utilization of multiple substrates in complex media during rifamycin B fermentation.  

PubMed

Industrial fermentations typically use media that are balanced with multiple substitutable substrates including complex carbon and nitrogen source. Yet, much of the modeling effort to date has mainly focused on defined media. Here, we present a structured model that accounts for growth and product formation kinetics of rifamycin B fermentation in a multi-substrate complex medium. The phenomenological model considers the organism to be an optimal strategist with an in-built mechanism that regulates the sequential and simultaneous uptake of the substrate combinations. This regulatory process is modeled by assuming that the uptake of a substrate depends on the level of a key enzyme or a set of enzymes, which may be inducible. Further, the fraction of flux through a given metabolic branch is estimated using a simple multi-variable constrained optimization. The model has the typical form of Monod equation with terms incorporating multiple limiting substrates and substrate inhibition. Several batch runs were set up with varying initial substrate concentrations to estimate the kinetic parameters for the rifamycin overproducer strain Amycolatopsis mediterranei S699. Glucose and ammonium sulfate (AMS) demonstrated significant substrate inhibition toward growth as well as product formation. The model correctly predicts the experimentally observed regulated simultaneous uptake of the substitutable substrate combinations under different fermentation conditions. The modeling results may have applications in the optimization and control of rifamycin B fermentation while the modeling strategy presented here would be applicable to other industrially important fermentations. PMID:16302259

Bapat, Prashant M; Bhartiya, Sharad; Venkatesh, K V; Wangikar, Pramod P

2006-03-01

155

Influence of basement structure on the location of Mono Domes, utilizing potential-field methods, Mono Basin, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A shallow basement high, possibly bordered by a fault, as suggested by potential-field models of data collected in Mono Basin, California, may have influenced the geometry and location of the Mono Domes. The Mono Domes are located at the northernmost end of the Mono-Inyo volcanic chain just north of the Long Valley Caldera and include more than 30 overlapping domes and coulees which follow an arcuate trend. Over 500 gravity stations and approximately 297 line-km of ground magnetic data were collected during the summers of 2010 and 2011 to investigate the subsurface structure of Mono Basin. Regional gravity data were collected throughout the basin and ground magnetic data were collected on major roads along numerous transects throughout the region, one of which is coincident with a seismic refraction line. Gravity and magnetic data were compiled with pre-existing data from studies dating back to the 1960's to produce an isostatic gravity anomaly map and magnetic anomaly profiles throughout the basin. Aeromagnetic data and ground magnetic data reveal an anomalous ring-shaped magnetic anomaly centered over Aeolian Buttes, whose eastern margin follows the arcuate trend of the Mono Domes. The magnetic high along the ring-shaped anomaly is coincident with an inferred ring-fracture zone (Kistler, 1966). Magnetic susceptibility measurements of outcrops from the Aeolian Buttes pluton located within the boundary of the ring-shaped magnetic high have magnetic properties ranging from 0.015 - 0.025 SI. These measurements are moderately higher than those of the surrounding plutons, and may suggest the Aeolian Buttes pluton is associated with the anomalous magnetic feature. Two-dimensional (2D) forward modeling of potential field data along a profile across the basin suggest a basement high at approximately 600 m depth, the eastern edge of which lies beneath the Mono Domes. A fault likely bounds the eastern edge of the basement high and may have served as a conduit for the Mono Domes feeder dike.

McDonell, A.; Ponce, D. A.; McPhee, D. K.; Battaglia, M.

2011-12-01

156

High power single-lateral-mode operation of InAs quantum dot based ridge type laser diodes by utilizing a double bend waveguide structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the high-power, single-lateral-mode operation of InAs quantum dot (QD) based ridge type laser diodes (LDs) by utilizing a double bend (DB) waveguide structure. The LDs were designed so that only fundamental modes propagate and higher optical modes are suppressed through the bent regions. DB waveguide LDs allow the use of wide ridge widths for fundamental mode operations, which helps to increase their output power via the increase in their net gain. We measured continuous wave single-lateral-mode output power of up to 310 mW from InAs QD DB waveguide LDs manufactured with 10-?m-wide stripes without facet coating.

Kim, Kyoung Chan; Han, Il Ki; Lee, Jung Il; Kim, Tae Geun

2010-06-01

157

Structure of a SusD Homologue, BT1043, Involved in Mucin O-Glycan Utilization in a Prominent Human Gut Symbiont  

SciTech Connect

Mammalian distal gut bacteria have an expanded capacity to utilize glycans. In the absence of dietary sources, some species rely on host-derived mucosal glycans. The ability of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, a prominent human gut symbiont, to forage host glycans contributes to both its ability to persist within an individual host and its ability to be transmitted naturally to new hosts at birth. The molecular basis of host glycan recognition by this species is still unknown but likely occurs through an expanded suite of outermembrane glycan-binding proteins that are the primary interface between B. thetaiotaomicron and its environment. Presented here is the atomic structure of the B. thetaiotaomicron protein BT1043, an outer membrane lipoprotein involved in host glycan metabolism. Despite a lack of detectable amino acid sequence similarity, BT1043 is a structural homologue of the B. thetaiotaomicron starch-binding protein SusD. Both structures are dominated by tetratrico peptide repeats that may facilitate association with outer membrane {beta}-barrel transporters required for glycan uptake. The structure of BT1043 complexed with N-acetyllactosamine reveals that recognition is mediated via hydrogen bonding interactions with the reducing end of {beta}-N-acetylglucosamine, suggesting a role in binding glycans liberated from the mucin polypeptide. This is in contrast to CBM 32 family members that target the terminal nonreducing galactose residue of mucin glycans. The highly articulated glycan-binding pocket of BT1043 suggests that binding of ligands to BT1043 relies more upon interactions with the composite sugar residues than upon overall ligand conformation as previously observed for SusD. The diversity in amino acid sequence level likely reflects early divergence from a common ancestor, while the unique and conserved {alpha}-helical fold the SusD family suggests a similar function in glycan uptake.

Koropatkin, Nicole; Martens, Eric C.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.; Smith, Thomas J.; (Danforth); (WU-MED)

2009-05-21

158

BIOMASS UTILIZATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The biomass utilization task consists of the evaluation of a biomass conversion technology including research and development initiatives. The project is expected to provide information on co-control of pollutants, as well as, to prove the feasibility of biomass conversion techn...

159

Glary Utilities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Glary Utilities offers this free application to help users improve their system's performance and also protect their privacy. After installing the application, users can remove and back up faculty registry entries, along with offering a secure file deletion feature. This version is compatible with computers running Windows 98 and newer.

2008-01-01

160

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

Center for By-Products Utilization DURABILITY OF CONCRETE WITH HIGH- VOLUMES OF FLY ASH By Tarun R of Structures - 2004 DURABILITY OF CONCRETE WITH HIGH-VOLUMES OF FLY ASH Tarun R. Naik UWM Center for By. Generally, the concrete mixtures containing Class F fly ash exhibited higher resistance to chloride ion

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

161

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

Center for By-Products Utilization EIGHTEEN-YEAR PERFORMANCE OF HIGH-VOLUME FLY ASH CONCRETE-Year Performance of High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete Pavements Tarun R. Naik Professor of Structural Engineering the long-term performance of concrete pavements made with high volumes of Class F and Class C fly ash (FA

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

162

NASA technology utilization house  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Following systems and features, which are predicted to save approximately $20,000 in utility costs over twenty year period, are incorporated into single-level, contemporarily designed, energy efficient residential structure: solar heating and cooling; energy efficient appliances; water recycling; security, smoke, and tornado detectors; and flat conductor electrical wiring.

1977-01-01

163

Energy band shape of monolayer metal/organic/metal structures as determined by the capacitance-voltage method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The room-temperature differential capacitance of monolayer metal/organic-semiconductor/metal structures was derived. The derivation was based on two basic assumptions: (a) the rectifying metal/organic-semiconductor junction is characterized by the bias-dependent net excess charge density, induced at the interface, and (b) the charge flow within the organic layer is represented by the space-charge-limited current. The predictions of the derivations were compared to C-U data on an ionized cluster beam Ag-deposited 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) on indium-tin-oxide (ITO), Ag/PTCDA/ITO, sample obtained at 1 kHz and at room temperature. In addition, thorough analyses of published, room-temperature capacitance-voltage data for Al/pentacene(60 nm)/ITO, poly(phenylene vinylene) Al/PPV(200 nm)/ITO, poly[2-methoxy, 5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene], Ca/MEH-PPV(40 nm)/Au, tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum, Al/Alq3(60 nm)/ITO, Ca/Alq3(60 nm)/ITQ, and Ca/Alq3(120nm)/ITO organic-semiconductor structures were made, and, in all cases, a good agreement with the predictions was obtained. The quantitative and qualitative values of the interfacial charge density, the internal electric field originating from populated traps, and the nature of the current in these monolayer structures were identified. The parameters deduced from fitting to the Al/PPV(200 nm)/ITO capacitance-voltage measurements of Meier et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1961 (1997)] were used to show, assuming Fermi-level alignment, that the energy bands of this structure, as well as all other samples investigated in this work, are well described in terms of a quadratic function of the coordinate, as measured from the cathode/organic junction.

Cvikl, B.; Koželj, M.; Korošak, D.; Jecl, R.

2006-01-01

164

An exploration of an alternative rate structure as a means of integrating equity and efficiency in a municipally owned natural gas distribution utility  

Microsoft Academic Search

After two decades of a somewhat golden age for gas utilities and regulators, the 1970's saw a changing energy market characterized by curtailments and allocations in the natural gas industry. The Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 provided incentives for new supplies but at increased prices. During a period of rapidly calculating natural gas prices (1979-1984), municipal owned public utility

1989-01-01

165

Estimation of phytotoxic aluminum in soil solution using three spectrophotometric methods  

SciTech Connect

In the current investigation three spectrophotometric techniques -8-hydroxyquinoline, aluminon, and ferron- were compared for their ability to estimate phytotoxic Al in soil solution. Soil solution Al reacting with 8-hydroxyquinoline in 15 s, ferron in 30 s, and aluminon in 30 min were related to root and shoot growth of subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L. cv. Mt. Barket) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L. cv. Cave-in-Rock) in limed and unlimed treatments of 10 acidic subsoil horizons. Across all 10 soils the amount of Al reacting with 8-hydroxyquinoline was generally the lowest, and that reacting with ferron the highest, although overlap among methods did occur. Manganese interference in several of the soil solutions limited the utility of the ferron method. The amounts of Al reacting with 8-hydroxyquinoline and aluminon were significantly related (P < 0.05) to root and shoot growth limitations exhibited by subterranean clover and switch-grass. Activities of Al/sup 3 +/ (a/sub Al/sup 3 +//) calculated from the GEOCHEM program using the Al reacting with 8-hydroxyquinoline and aluminon as the Al inputs were generally the best predictors of root and shoot growth.

Wright, R.J.; Wright, S.F.

1987-09-01

166

The impact of late adolescent substance use on young adult health status and utilization of health services: A structural- equation model over four years  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the impact of adolescent substance use on young adult health status and health service utilization, while controlling for earlier subjective and objective health problems and seeking medical care. Data were obtained from 654 participants when they were in late adolescence and 4 years later when they were young adults. Latent-variable models were used to determine what effect,

Michael D. Newcomb; P. M. Bentler

1987-01-01

167

Identification of the interior noise generated by sport utility vehicle axles and structural modification of the axle system for noise reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents experimental and analytical methods for reducing the interior noise generated by the axle system of a sport utility vehicle. The test vehicle has a whine noise problem at the passenger seats. To identify the transfer path of the interior noise caused by the axle system, a vibration path analysis, modal analysis, and operational deflection shape analysis are

2008-01-01

168

The Potential Utility of Predicted One Bond Carbon-Proton Coupling Constants in the Structure Elucidation of Small Organic Molecules by NMR Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

NMR spectroscopy is the most popular technique used for structure elucidation of small organic molecules in solution, but incorrect structures are regularly reported. One-bond proton-carbon J-couplings provide additional information about chemical structure because they are determined by different features of molecular structure than are proton and carbon chemical shifts. However, these couplings are not routinely used to validate proposed structures because few software tools exist to predict them. This study assesses the accuracy of Density Functional Theory for predicting them using 396 published experimental observations from a diverse range of small organic molecules. With the B3LYP functional and the TZVP basis set, Density Functional Theory calculations using the open-source software package NWChem can predict one-bond CH J-couplings with good accuracy for most classes of small organic molecule. The root-mean-square deviation after correction is 1.5 Hz for most sp3 CH pairs and 1.9 Hz for sp2 pairs; larger errors are observed for sp3 pairs with multiple electronegative substituents and for sp pairs. These results suggest that prediction of one-bond CH J-couplings by Density Functional Theory is sufficiently accurate for structure validation. This will be of particular use in strained ring systems and heterocycles which have characteristic couplings and which pose challenges for structure elucidation. PMID:25365289

Venkata, Chandrasekhar; Forster, Mark J.; Howe, Peter W. A.; Steinbeck, Christoph

2014-01-01

169

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

Center for By-Products Utilization UTILIZATION OF FLY ASH AS A CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL IN CHINA #12;UTILIZATION OF FLY ASH AS A CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL IN CHINA Ljhua Wei, Dean M. Golden and Tarun R utilization of fly ash as construction materials. The technologies established for fly ash utilization

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

170

The structural properties of the transmembrane segment of the integral membrane protein phospholamban utilizing 13C CPMAS, 2H, and REDOR solid-state NMR spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid-state NMR spectroscopic techniques were used to investigate the secondary structure of the transmembrane peptide phospholamban (TM-PLB), a sarcoplasmic Ca2+ regulator. 13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning spectra of 13C carbonyl-labeled Leu39 of TM-PLB exhibited two peaks in a pure 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphocholine (POPC) bilayer, each due to a different structural conformation of phospholamban as characterized by the corresponding 13C chemical shift. The

Ethan S. Karp; Elvis K. Tiburu; Shadi Abu-Baker; Gary A. Lorigan

2006-01-01

171

Exploring the Structural Relationships between High School Students' Scientific Epistemological Views and Their Utilization of Information Commitments toward Online Science Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this study was to examine the structural relationships between scientific epistemological views (SEVs) and information commitments (ICs) of high school students in Taiwan. Data were collected from 486 Taiwanese high school students via two self-reporting instruments: one was the SEV questionnaire, including five scales for…

Lin, Chia-Ching; Tsai, Chin-Chung

2008-01-01

172

Time functions as utilities  

E-print Network

Every time function on spacetime gives a (continuous) total preordering of the spacetime events which respects the notion of causal precedence. The problem of the existence of a (semi-)time function on spacetime and the problem of recovering the causal structure starting from the set of time functions are studied. It is pointed out that these problems have an analog in the field of microeconomics known as utility theory. In a chronological spacetime the semi-time functions correspond to the utilities for the chronological relation, while in a K-causal (stably causal) spacetime the time functions correspond to the utilities for the K^+ relation (Seifert's relation). By exploiting this analogy, we are able to import some mathematical results, most notably Peleg's and Levin's theorems, to the spacetime framework. As a consequence, we prove that a K-causal (i.e. stably causal) spacetime admits a time function and that the time or temporal functions can be used to recover the K^+ (or Seifert) relation which indeed turns out to be the intersection of the time or temporal orderings. This result tells us in which circumstances it is possible to recover the chronological or causal relation starting from the set of time or temporal functions allowed by the spacetime. Moreover, it is proved that a chronological spacetime in which the closure of the causal relation is transitive (for instance a reflective spacetime) admits a semi-time function. Along the way a new proof avoiding smoothing techniques is given that the existence of a time function implies stable causality, and a new short proof of the equivalence between K-causality and stable causality is given which takes advantage of Levin's theorem and smoothing techniques.

E. Minguzzi

2009-09-04

173

Lottery Dependent Utility  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose a model for decision making under risk that is capable of predicting empirically observed preference patterns that have been found to be incompatible with the expected utility model. The model departs from the classical expected utility model by allowing utilities to depend on the lottery. The dependence of utilities on the lottery being evaluated is

Joao L. Becker; Rakesh K. Sarin

1987-01-01

174

Utility Theory Social Intelligence  

E-print Network

of Money II Determining Utility Curve: use test persons facing a gamble, say, ¦ ¥ § © 7 ¥ ¥8 § , eUtility Theory Social Intelligence Daniel Polani Utility Theory ­ p.1/15 Utilities: Motivation currency ("money") to move from selection ¢ to selection . £ ¢ if agent would not pay money to move

Polani, Daniel

175

Isobaric-Isothermal Molecular Dynamics Utilizing Density Functional Theory: An Assessment of the Structure and Density of Water at Near-Ambient Conditions  

SciTech Connect

We present herein a comprehensive density functional theory study toward assessing the accuracy of two popular gradient-corrected exchange correlation functionals on the structure and density of liquid water at near ambient conditions in the isobaric-isothermal ensemble. Our results indicate that both PBE and BLYP functionals under predict the density and over structure the liquid. Adding the dispersion correction due to Grimme(1, 2) improves the predicted densities for both BLYP and PBE in a significant manner. Moreover, the addition of the dispersion correction for BLYP yields an oxygen-oxygen radial distribution function in excellent agreement with experiment. Thus, we conclude that one can obtain a very satisfactory model for water using BLYP and a correction for dispersion.

Schmidt, J; VandeVondele, J; Kuo, I W; Sebastiani, D; Siepmann, J I; Hutter, J; Mundy, C J

2009-03-06

176

Utilization of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for structural studies related to biology and disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), because of its high sensitivity and relatively straightforward requirements for sample preparation, is contributing to the solution of structural problems in biology and to the development of therapeutic approaches through increased understanding of pharmacology and enhanced capabilities for quality control of pharmaceuticals. We are using a reflectron TOF- MS for the determination of molecular weights of individual compounds and the components of mixtures that are naturally occurring or are generated through enzymic digests, and employing the post-source decay mode to elucidate structural details. To maximize the sensitivity and information content of the spectra, varied matrices, derivative, and stepwise degradation procedures are being explored. Present studies include investigations of oligosaccharides, neutral glycolipids, gangliosides, glycoproteins, neuropeptides and proteins. Rules for fragmentation are being developed with model compounds and used for the structural elucidation of unknowns. When adequate sample amounts are available, the results are compared with low- and high-energy collision-induced decomposition spectra obtained with tandem MS in order to provide a data base for the correlation of spectral features and guidance in selection of approaches for scarce biological samples. Current projects include biophysical studies of glycoplipids, glycoproteins and oligosaccharides and investigations of the substance P receptor, transthyretin genetic variants and cisplatin-DNA interactions.

Costello, Catherine E.; Helin, Jari; Ngoka, Lambert C. M.

1996-04-01

177

Development and utilization of digital image correlation techniques for the study of structural isomerism effects on strain development in epoxy network glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The specific aim of this dissertation is to present the findings regarding the effects of molecular structure on macroscopic mechanical performance and strain development in epoxy networks. Network molecular structure was altered through monomer isomerism and crosslink density/molecular weight between crosslinks. The use of structural isomerism provided a pathway for altering mechanical performance while maintaining identical chemical composition within the network. Isomerism was investigated primarily by the curing of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) using either the para- or meta-substituted derivatives of diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS). Additional insights into isomerism were gained through the investigation of networks composed of either para- or meta-triglycidyl aminophenol (TGAP) cured with 3,3'- or 4,4'-DDS. Crosslink density of the network was varied through two different methods: (a) increasing the equivalent weight of the linear DGEBA epoxy resin and (b) increasing the functionality of the epoxy resin through the use of TGAP. The effects of molecular structure on mechanical properties and strain development were monitored using a relatively new strain measurement technique known as digital image correlation (DIC). Strain measurement via DIC was particularly useful for the development of strain recovery procedures, which provided key insights to the deformation of epoxy network glasses of varying molecular structure by providing full field analysis of the epoxy specimens. Specific findings of this research revealed that network isomerism plays an important role in the deformation of epoxy network glasses. Networks containing meta-substituted monomers possessed higher modulus and yield stress values and lower yield strains. On the contrary, networks with para-substituted monomers displayed lower modulus and yield stress values, but increased ability to store energy through anelastic strain mechanisms, thereby delaying the onset of yielding. The increased energy storage of these networks was related to sub-Tg molecular motions and the ability for para-substituted phenyl rings to rotate along an axis of symmetry, thus creating more cooperative motion within the network. Insights into post-yield deformation of epoxy glasses were also gained where networks with meta-substitution were able to dissipate more stress post-yield through large segmental rearrangements.

Heinz, Stephen Robert

178

Deregulation allows new opportunities for utilities  

SciTech Connect

The changes electric utilities face today are both scary and exciting. In the past several years utilities have faced uncertainties that have caused major upheaval in their structures and business processes. There has been an increase in the number of mergers and acquisitions as utilities position themselves for competition. many utility employees have faced layoffs, resulting form reengineering and downsizing. Similar events and uncertainties were faced by the airline and telecommunications industries during their transformations form monopolistic to competitive environments. Even though these events have been difficult and unpleasant, there is a bright side. Today`s electric utilities have the opportunities to cash in on some innovative new ideas and technologies.

Hansen, T.

1996-10-01

179

Utility opportunities for new generation  

SciTech Connect

In June 1989, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Edison Electric Institute (EEI) cosponsored a conference on the many opportunities now available to utilities for varying their power generation mix -- both in technological terms (clean coal, new gas-fired alternatives, photovoltaics) and in structural terms (independent power production, cogeneration). The conference was attended by over 300 industry professionals. Among the many topics addressed at the conference were: integration of new generation alternatives like independent power production and cogeneration, as well as demand-side options, into the resource planning process, advances in power generation technology, competitive bidding, negotiation, and other aspects of the resource acquisition process, customer and regulatory perspectives on the changing structure of the power generation mix, and the impact of these structural changes on the financial performance of utilities. This volume contains the papers that were presented and discussed at the conference. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

Limaye, S. (Synergic Resources Corp., Bala-Cynwyd, PA (USA))

1989-01-01

180

Comparative Genomics of Ethanolamine Utilization? † ‡  

PubMed Central

Ethanolamine can be used as a source of carbon and nitrogen by phylogenetically diverse bacteria. Ethanolamine-ammonia lyase, the enzyme that breaks ethanolamine into acetaldehyde and ammonia, is encoded by the gene tandem eutBC. Despite extensive studies of ethanolamine utilization in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, much remains to be learned about EutBC structure and catalytic mechanism, about the evolutionary origin of ethanolamine utilization, and about regulatory links between the metabolism of ethanolamine itself and the ethanolamine-ammonia lyase cofactor adenosylcobalamin. We used computational analysis of sequences, structures, genome contexts, and phylogenies of ethanolamine-ammonia lyases to address these questions and to evaluate recent data-mining studies that have suggested an association between bacterial food poisoning and the diol utilization pathways. We found that EutBC evolution included recruitment of a TIM barrel and a Rossmann fold domain and their fusion to N-terminal ?-helical domains to give EutB and EutC, respectively. This fusion was followed by recruitment and occasional loss of auxiliary ethanolamine utilization genes in Firmicutes and by several horizontal transfers, most notably from the firmicute stem to the Enterobacteriaceae and from Alphaproteobacteria to Actinobacteria. We identified a conserved DNA motif that likely represents the EutR-binding site and is shared by the ethanolamine and cobalamin operons in several enterobacterial species, suggesting a mechanism for coupling the biosyntheses of apoenzyme and cofactor in these species. Finally, we found that the food poisoning phenotype is associated with the structural components of metabolosome more strongly than with ethanolamine utilization genes or with paralogous propanediol utilization genes per se. PMID:19783625

Tsoy, Olga; Ravcheev, Dmitry; Mushegian, Arcady

2009-01-01

181

ERTS-1 imagery use in reconnaissance prospecting: Evaluation of commercial utility of ERTS-1 imagery in structural reconnaissance for minerals and petroleum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Five areas in North America (North Slope-Alaska, Superior Province-Canada, Williston Basin-Montana, Colorado, and New Mexico-West Texas) are being studied for discernibility of geological evidence on ERTS-1 imagery. Evidence mapped is compared with known mineral/hydrocarbon accumulations to determine the value of the imagery in commercial exploration programs. Evaluation has proceeded in the New Mexico-Texas area, and to date, results have been better than expected. Clearly discernible structural lineaments in this area are evident on the photographs. Comparison of this evidence with known major mining localities in New Mexico indicates a clear pattern of coincidence between the lineaments and mining localities. In West Texas, lineament and geomorphological evidence obtainable from the photographs define the petroleum-productive Central Basin Platform. Based on evaluation of results in the New Mexico-West Texas area and on cursory results in the other four areas of North America, it is concluded that ERTS-1 imagery will be extremely valuable in defining the regional and local structure in any commercial exploration program.

Saunders, D. F. (principal investigator); Thomas, G. L.; Kinsman, F. E.

1973-01-01

182

ERTS-1 imagery use in reconnaissance prospecting: Evaluation of commercial utility of ERTS-1 imagery in structural reconnaissance for minerals and petroleum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. This study was performed to investigate applications of ERTS-1 imagery in commercial reconnaissance for mineral and hydrocarbon resources. ERTS-1 imagery collected over five areas in North America (Montana; Colorado; New Mexico-West Texas; Superior Province, Canada; and North Slope, Alaska) has been analyzed for data content including linears, lineaments, and curvilinear anomalies. Locations of these features were mapped and compared with known locations of mineral and hydrocarbon accumulations. Results were analyzed in the context of a simple-shear, block-coupling model. Data analyses have resulted in detection of new lineaments, some of which may be continental in extent, detection of many curvilinear patterns not generally seen on aerial photos, strong evidence of continental regmatic fracture patterns, and realization that geological features can be explained in terms of a simple-shear, block-coupling model. The conculsions are that ERTS-1 imagery is of great value in photogeologic/geomorphic interpretations of regional features, and the simple-shear, block-coupling model provides a means of relating data from ERTS imagery to structures that have controlled emplacement of ore deposits and hydrocarbon accumulations, thus providing a basis for a new approach for reconnaissance for mineral, uranium, gas, and oil deposits and structures.

Saunders, D. F.; Thomas, G. E. (principal investigators); Kinsman, F. E.; Beatty, D. F.

1973-01-01

183

Structural and functional characterization of an orphan ATP-binding cassette ATPase involved in manganese utilization and tolerance in Leptospira spp.  

PubMed

Pathogenic Leptospira species are the etiological agents of the widespread zoonotic disease leptospirosis. Most organisms, including Leptospira, require divalent cations for proper growth, but because of their high reactivity, these metals are toxic at high concentrations. Therefore, bacteria have acquired strategies to maintain metal homeostasis, such as metal import and efflux. By screening Leptospira biflexa transposon mutants for their ability to use Mn(2+), we have identified a gene encoding a putative orphan ATP-binding cassette (ABC) ATPase of unknown function. Inactivation of this gene in both L. biflexa and L. interrogans strains led to mutants unable to grow in medium in which iron was replaced by Mn(2+), suggesting an involvement of this ABC ATPase in divalent cation uptake. A mutation in this ATPase-coding gene increased susceptibility to Mn(2+) toxicity. Recombinant ABC ATPase of the pathogen L. interrogans exhibited Mg(2+)-dependent ATPase activity involving a P-loop motif. The structure of this ATPase was solved from a crystal containing two monomers in the asymmetric unit. Each monomer adopted a canonical two-subdomain organization of the ABC ATPase fold with an ?/? subdomain containing the Walker motifs and an ? subdomain containing the ABC signature motif (LSSGE). The two monomers were arranged in a head-to-tail orientation, forming a V-shaped particle with all the conserved ABC motifs at the dimer interface, similar to functional ABC ATPases. These results provide the first structural and functional characterization of a leptospiral ABC ATPase. PMID:24123817

Benaroudj, Nadia; Saul, Frederick; Bellalou, Jacques; Miras, Isabelle; Weber, Patrick; Bondet, Vincent; Murray, Gerald L; Adler, Ben; Ristow, Paula; Louvel, Hélène; Haouz, Ahmed; Picardeau, Mathieu

2013-12-01

184

Space Station Freedom science utilization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The status of mission planning and project planning for scientific experiments that will utilize the Space Station Freedom are described in viewgraph format. The following topics are addressed: microgravity science and pressurized volume payloads; Office of Space Science Applications (OSSA) payload facilities including Advanced Protein Crystal Growth Facility (APCGF), Space Station Furnace Facility (SSFF), life science facilities, Biomedical Monitoring and Countermeasures Program (BMAC), Centrifuge Facility (CF), and Small Rapid Response Payloads (SRR); goals and strategies of microgravity science and life science; examples of investigation area of microgravity science and life science; announcements of opportunity and NASA research announcements; science planning structures of USA; and issues of space station utilization.

Reeves, Edmond M.

1992-01-01

185

Structure-Property Correlations in CoFe-SiO2 Nanogranular Films Utilizing x-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Small-Angle Scattering Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quantitative structure-property correlation study of thin films consisting of CoFe nanoparticles embedded in SiO2 is presented, comparing film microstructure and chemistry with measured magnetic properties. SiO2 was fully percolated for all films with > ~50% SiO2 by volume, and decreasing CoFe-nanoparticle size and separation with increasing SiO2 resulted in a transition to superparamagnetic behavior. Partial oxidation of transition-metal elements is observed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and evidence for interparticle magnetic interactions can be resolved in soft x-ray resonant small-angle scattering experiments, highlighting the need for additional detailed and quantitative studies in this class of soft magnetic materials.

Ohodnicki, P. R.; Sokalski, V.; Baltrus, J.; Kortright, J. B.; Zuo, X.; Shen, S.; DeGeorge, V.; McHenry, M. E.; Laughlin, D. E.

2014-01-01

186

Crystal structure of Escherichia coli enterobactin-specific isochorismate synthase (EntC) bound to its reaction product isochorismate: implications for the enzyme mechanism and differential activity of chorismate-utilizing enzymes.  

PubMed

EntC, one of two isochorismate synthases in Escherichia coli, is specific to the biosynthesis of the siderophore enterobactin. Here, we report the crystal structure of EntC in complex with isochorismate and Mg(2+)at 2.3 A resolution, the first structure of a chorismate-utilizing enzyme with a non-aromatic reaction product. EntC exhibits a complex alpha+beta fold like the other chorismate-utilizing enzymes, such as salicylate synthase and anthranilate synthase. Comparison of active site structures allowed the identification of several residues, not discussed previously, that might be important for the isochorismate activity of the EntC. Although EntC, MenF and Irp9 all convert chorismate to isochorismate, only Irp9 subsequently exhibits isochorismate pyruvate lyase activity resulting in the formation of salicylate and pyruvate as the reaction products. With a view to understanding the roles of these amino acid residues in the conversion of chorismate to isochorismate and to obtaining clues about the pyruvate lyase activity of Irp9, several mutants of EntC were generated in which the selected residues in EntC were substituted for those of Irp9: these included A303T, L304A, F327Y, I346L and F359Q mutations. Biochemical analysis of these mutants indicated that the side chain of A303 in EntC may be crucial in the orientation of the carbonyl to allow formation of a hydrogen bond with isochorismate. Some mutations, such as L304A and F359Q, give rise to a loss of catalytic activity, whereas others, such as F327Y and I346L, show that subtle changes in the otherwise closely similar active sites influence activity. We did not find a combination of these residues that conferred pyruvate lyase activity. PMID:20079748

Sridharan, Sudharsan; Howard, Nigel; Kerbarh, Olivier; B?aszczyk, Micha?; Abell, Chris; Blundell, Tom L

2010-03-19

187

Utilities Expense Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines how deregulation has affected school district utility costs. Offers ideas that can help school districts save money and energy. Provides several examples of state-wide initiatives intended to help school districts control utility costs. (GR)

Moore, Deborah P.

2001-01-01

188

Isobaric-Isothermal Molecular Dynamics Simulations Utilizing Density Functional Theory: An Assessment of the Structure and Density of Water at Near-Ambient Conditions  

SciTech Connect

We present herein, a comprehensive density functional theory study towards assessing the accuracy of two popular gradient corrected exchange correlation functionals on the structure and density of liquid water at near ambient conditions in the isobaric-isotherma ensemble. Our results indicate that both PBE and BLYP functionals underpredict the density and overstructure the liquid. Adding the dispersion correction due to Grimme [1, 2] improves the predicted densities for both BLYP and PBE in a significant manner. Moreover, the addition of the dispersion correction for BLYP yields an oxygen-oxygen radial distribution function in excellent agreement with experiment. Thus, we conclude that one can obtain a very satisfactory model for water using BLYP and a correction for dispersion. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences program, and was performed in part using the Molecular Science Computing Facility (MSCF) in the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a DOE national scientific user facility located at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated by Battelle for DOE.

Schmidt, Jochen; VandeVondele, Joost; Kuo, I-F W.; Sebastiani, Daniel; Siepmann, Joern L.; hutter, juerg; Mundy, Christopher J.

2009-09-03

189

Aberrant 3? splice sites in human disease genes: mutation pattern, nucleotide structure and comparison of computational tools that predict their utilization  

PubMed Central

The frequency distribution of mutation-induced aberrant 3? splice sites (3?ss) in exons and introns is more complex than for 5? splice sites, largely owing to sequence constraints upstream of intron/exon boundaries. As a result, prediction of their localization remains a challenging task. Here, nucleotide sequences of previously reported 218 aberrant 3?ss activated by disease-causing mutations in 131 human genes were compared with their authentic counterparts using currently available splice site prediction tools. Each tested algorithm distinguished authentic 3?ss from cryptic sites more effectively than from de novo sites. The best discrimination between aberrant and authentic 3?ss was achieved by the maximum entropy model. Almost one half of aberrant 3?ss was activated by AG-creating mutations and ?95% of the newly created AGs were selected in vivo. The overall nucleotide structure upstream of aberrant 3?ss was characterized by higher purine content than for authentic sites, particularly in position ?3, that may be compensated by more stringent requirements for positive and negative nucleotide signatures centred around position ?11. A newly developed online database of aberrant 3?ss will facilitate identification of splicing mutations in a gene or phenotype of interest and future optimization of splice site prediction tools. PMID:16963498

Vorechovsky, Igor

2006-01-01

190

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

Center for By-Products Utilization USE OF CLASS F FLY ASH AND CLEAN-COAL ASH BLENDS FOR CAST OF CLASS F FLY ASH AND CLEAN-COAL ASH BLENDS FOR CAST CONCRETE PRODUCTS Authors: Tarun R. Naik, Director on utilization of conventional Class F fly ash in concrete and concrete products, it's utilization rate is much

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

191

Engineering Considerations for Privatizing Water and Wastewater Utility Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to shrinking federal, state, and local utility budgets, city management structures requiring more cost effect utility operating models, and ever more stringent environmental regulations requiring technical expertise, engineers are now faced with adapting to, evaluating, and providing technical support for various forms of utilities privatization. Utilities privatization (UP) is a method to leverage engineering and monetary resources to operate

Dana Evans Voight

2009-01-01

192

The dynamic process of atmospheric water sorption in [BMIM][Ac]: quantifying bulk versus surface sorption and utilizing atmospheric water as a structure probe.  

PubMed

The dynamic process of the atmospheric water absorbed in acetate-based ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium acetate ([BMIM][Ac]) within 360 min could be described with three steps by using two-dimensional correlation infrared (IR) spectroscopy technique. In Step 1 (0-120 min), only bulk sorption via hydrogen bonding interaction occurs. In Step 2 (120-320 min), bulk and surface sorption takes place simultaneously via both hydrogen bonding interaction and van der Waals force. In Step 3, from 320 min to steady state, only surface sorption via van der Waals force occurs. Specifically, Step 2 could be divided into three substeps. Most bulk sorption with little surface sorption takes place in Step 2a (120-180 min), comparative bulk and surface sorption happens in Step 2b (180-260 min), and most surface sorption while little bulk sorption occurs in Step 2c (260-320 min). Interestingly, atmospheric water is found for the first time to be able to be used as a probe to detect the chemical structure of [BMIM][Ac]. Results show that one anion is surrounded by three C4,5H molecules and two anions are surrounded by five C2H molecules via hydrogen bonds, which are very susceptible to moisture water especially for the former one. The remaining five anions form a multimer (equilibrating with one dimer and one trimer) via a strong hydrogen bonding interaction, which is not easily affected by the introduction of atmospheric water. The alkyl of the [BMIM][Ac] cation aggregates to some extent by van der Walls force, which is moderately susceptible to the water attack. Furthermore, the proportion of bulk sorption vs surface sorption is quantified as about 70% and 30% within 320 min, 63% and 37% within 360 min, and 11% and 89% until steady-state, respectively. PMID:24840011

Chen, Yu; Cao, Yuanyuan; Yan, Chuanyu; Zhang, Yuwei; Mu, Tiancheng

2014-06-19

193

Structure and expression profile of the sucrose synthase gene family in the rubber tree: indicative of roles in stress response and sucrose utilization in the laticifers.  

PubMed

Sucrose synthase (Sus, EC 2.4.1.13) is widely recognized as a key enzyme in sucrose metabolism in plants. However, nothing is known about this gene family in Hevea brasiliensis (para rubber tree). Here, we identified six Sus genes in H. brasiliensis that comprise the entire Sus family in this species. Analysis of the gene structure and phylogeny of the Sus genes demonstrates evolutionary conservation in the Sus families across Hevea and other plant species. The expression of Sus genes was investigated via Solexa sequencing and quantitative PCR in various tissues, at various phases of leaf development, and under abiotic stresses and ethylene treatment. The Sus genes exhibited distinct but partially redundant expression profiles. Each tissue has one abundant Sus isoform, with HbSus3, 4 and 5 being the predominant isoforms in latex (cytoplasm of rubber-producing laticifers), bark and root, respectively. HbSus1 and 6 were barely expressed in any tissue examined. In mature leaves (source), all HbSus genes were expressed at low levels, but HbSus3 and 4 were abundantly expressed in immature leaves (sink). Low temperature and drought treatments conspicuously induced HbSus5 expression in root and leaf, suggesting a role in stress responses. HbSus2 and 3 transcripts were decreased by ethylene treatment, consistent with the reduced sucrose-synthesizing activity of Sus enzymes in the latex in response to ethylene stimulation. Our results are beneficial to further determination of functions for the Sus genes in Hevea trees, especially roles in regulating latex regeneration. PMID:24279382

Xiao, Xiaohu; Tang, Chaorong; Fang, Yongjun; Yang, Meng; Zhou, Binhui; Qi, Jiyan; Zhang, Yi

2014-01-01

194

Structuralism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provided is an overview of the analytical method known as structuralism. The first chapter discusses the three key components of the concept of a structure: the view of a system as a whole instead of so many parts; the study of the transformations in the system; and the fact that these transformations never lead beyond the system but always…

Piaget, Jean

195

COMMENTARY nature photonics | VOL 1 | JANUARY 2007 | www.nature.com/naturephotonics 3  

E-print Network

structure (the famous double helix) consists of two inter- twined spirals of sugar and phosphate molecules)-N,N'-bis(phenyl)benzidine), Alq3 is tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium and BCP is 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline

Steckl, Andrew J.

196

JOURNAL OF DISPLAY TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 2, NO. 2, JUNE 2006 143 Maximizing Alq3 OLED Internal and External  

E-print Network

JOURNAL OF DISPLAY TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 2, NO. 2, JUNE 2006 143 Maximizing Alq3 OLED Internal bright, efficient Alq3-based [tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum] organic light-emitting diode (OLED (polymer/small molecule) OLED structure contains two spin-coated polymer layers and four thermally

Heikenfeld, Jason

197

Designing a Thermal Energy Storage Program for Electric Utilities  

E-print Network

Electric utilities are looking at thermal energy storage technology as a viable demand side management (DSM) option. In order for this DSM measure to be effective, it must be incorporated into a workable, well-structured utility program. This paper...

Niehus, T. L.

1994-01-01

198

Utility Solar Generation Valuation Methods  

SciTech Connect

Tucson Electric Power (TEP) developed, tested and verified the results of a new and appropriate method for accurately evaluating the capacity credit of time variant solar generating sources and reviewed new methods to appropriately and fairly evaluate the value of solar generation to electric utilities. The project also reviewed general integrated approaches for adequately compensating owners of solar generation for their benefits to utilities. However, given the limited funding support and time duration of this project combined with the significant differences between utilities regarding rate structures, solar resource availability and coincidence of solar generation with peak load periods, it is well beyond the scope of this project to develop specific rate, rebate, and interconnection approaches to capture utility benefits for all possible utilities. The project developed computer software based evaluation method models to compare solar generation production data measured in very short term time increments called Sample Intervals over a typical utility Dispatch Cycle during an Evaluation Period against utility system load data. Ten second resolution generation production data from the SGSSS and actual one minute resolution TEP system load data for 2006 and 2007, along with data from the Pennington Street Garage 60 kW DC capacity solar unit installed in downtown Tucson will be applied to the model for testing and verification of the evaluation method. Data was provided by other utilities, but critical time periods of data were missing making results derived from that data inaccurate. The algorithms are based on previous analysis and review of specific 2005 and 2006 SGSSS production data. The model was built, tested and verified by in house TEP personnel. For this phase of the project, TEP communicated with, shared solar production data with and collaborated on the development of solar generation valuation tools with other utilities, including Arizona Public Service, Salt River Project, Xcel and Nevada Power Company as well as the Arizona electric cooperatives. In the second phase of the project, three years of 10 second power output data of the SGSSS was used to evaluate the effectiveness of frequency domain analysis, normal statistical distribution analysis and finally maximum/minimum differential output analysis to test the applicability of these mathematic methods in accurately modeling the output variations produced by clouds passing over the SGSSS array.

Hansen, Thomas N.; Dion, Phillip J.

2009-06-30

199

Cogeneration - A Utility Perspective  

E-print Network

will be successful. A project that benefi s one party at the expense of the other will fail. With or without PURPA, industry and utilities hare the opportunity to benefit from cogeneration. is essential that industry and utilities communi cate on their mutual... will be successful. A project that benefi s one party at the expense of the other will fail. With or without PURPA, industry and utilities hare the opportunity to benefit from cogeneration. is essential that industry and utilities communi cate on their mutual...

Williams, M.

1983-01-01

200

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

-Viro Soil process.................................................................. 6 Soil substitute from alkaline stabilization................................................................... 6 Geotechnical evaluation of dredged material from Newark harbor............................ 7 Soil stabilization utilizing

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

201

Utility and Happiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychologists have developed effective survey methods of measuring how happy people feel at a given time. The relationship between how happy a person feels and utility is an unresolved question. Existing work in Economics either ignores happiness data or assumes that felt happiness is more or less the same thing as flow utility. The approach we propose in this paper

Miles Kimball; Robert Willis

202

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

Center for By-Products Utilization GLASS AS AGGREGATES IN FLOWABLE CONCRETE WITH FLY ASH By Tarun R is a member of ACI Committee 232, "Fly Ash and Natural Pozzolans in Concrete", Committee 228, "Nondestructive utilizing post- consumer glass (broken glass or glass cullet) aggregate and fly ash. The flowable concrete

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

203

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

UTILIZING FLY ASH, BOTTOM ASH, AND USED FOUNDRY SAND By: Tarun R. Naik, Rudolph N. Kraus, and Bruce W. Ramme PRODUCTS UTILIZING FLY ASH, BOTTOM ASH, AND USED FOUNDRY SAND by Tarun R. Naik, Rudolph N. Kraus, and Bruce-cast concrete products containing fly ash, bottom ash, and used foundry sand. Test specimens for all dry

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

204

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

chairman of the ASCE Technical Committee on "Emerging Materials" (1995-2000). Rudolph N. Kraus, MACI-concrete products. Bruce W. Ramme, MACI, is the Principal Engineer, Combustion Products Utilization, We Energies

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

205

Utility and Industrial Partnerships  

E-print Network

In the past decade, many external forces have shocked both utilities and their large industrial customers into seeking more effective ways of coping and surviving. One such way is to develop mutually beneficial partnerships optimizing the use...

Sashihara, T. F.

206

Wind energy utilization prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chief technical, economic, and environmental aspects of wind energy utilization are considered. One approach being studied is to allow the aeroturbine RPM to vary with wind velocity and employ variable-speed, constant-frequency generating systems to obtain constant-frequency power to be pumped into existing utility mains. Study of generation costs for wind energy systems indicates that wind energy has the potential

R. Ramakumar; W. L. Hughes; H. J. Allison

1975-01-01

207

HOMELESS SERVICE UTILIZATION REPORT  

E-print Network

HOMELESS SERVICE UTILIZATION REPORT H A W A I ` I 2 0 11 #12;State 2007 2,136 2,201 2,204 2,069 2) Hawai`i, Kaua`i and Maui Counties 2 HOMELESS SERVICE UTILIZATION REPORT The 2011 Homeless Service of Hawai`i and the Homeless Programs Office of the Hawai`i State Department of Human Services (DHS

208

Utility requirements for fusion  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work done and results obtained during performance of Task 1 of a study of Utility Requirements and Criteria for Fusion Options. The work consisted of developing a list of utility requirements for fusion optics containing definition of the requirements and showing their relative importance to the utility industry. The project team members developed a preliminary list which was refined by discussions and literature searches. The refined list was recast as a questionnaire which was sent to a substantial portion of the utility industry in this country. Forty-three questionnaire recipients responded including thirty-two utilities. A workshop was held to develop a revised requirements list using the survey responses as a major input. The list prepared by the workshop was further refined by a panel consisting of vice presidents of the three project team firms. The results of the study indicate that in addition to considering the cost of energy for a power plant, utilities consider twenty-three other requirements. Four of the requirements were judged to be vital to plant acceptability: Plant Capital Cost, Financial Liability, Plant Safety and Licensability.

Vondrasek, R.J.

1982-02-01

209

context view of building 2606, utility building, also showing the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

context view of building 2606, utility building, also showing the chapel, at far left, the transformers on the east side of the utility building, the combat operations center behind, and the cooling tower structure at the right, behind the parked trucks - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Utility Building, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

210

Solar heating and the electric utilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article considers the effect of widespread use of solar thermal systems on the role of electric utilities, emphasizing the foreseen short term economic problems. While the average electricity demand will be reduced, infrequent high demand peaks could occur when on nights and certain days, solar users with inadequate storage capacity are forced to depend upon conventional energy sources. Since utility costs are closely related to changes in peak demands, the modification of electricity rate structures as a load management technique is discussed. Some advantages of wide solar energy application for electric utilities are cited including the possibility of their key role in the development of solar heating.

Maidique, M. A.; Woo, B.

1980-05-01

211

Utilization management in toxicology.  

PubMed

Recent upward trends in the prevalence of abuse of prescription drugs and illicit substances have resulted in increased demands for toxicology testing to support the emergency department and drug treatment in pain management programs. This review will discuss the challenges faced by clinical laboratories to manage the utilization of toxicology tests, particularly those ordered in managing poisoned patients in the emergency department and chronic pain patients on opioid therapy. Optimal utilization of toxicology tests to support the emergency department relies on selecting the appropriate tests for the patient, and the availability of the results in a timely fashion. Two tiers of toxicology testing systems with different requirements for turnaround time will be discussed. In patients with chronic pain urine drug testing, including screening and confirmation testing are used extensively in pain management to monitor patient compliance. A thorough understanding of the performance characteristics of the test methodologies and drug metabolism is a key to making a proper analytical and clinical interpretation of the test results and will contribute to effective utilization of these tests. In addition, the reimbursement system is an important factor in the decision making process for test selection utilization as significant costs can be incurred by both payers and patients. Collaboration, trust, and effective communication among clinicians, patients, and clinical laboratory professionals are essential for effective utilization of toxicology testing. PMID:24091099

Zhang, Yan; Kwong, Tai C

2014-01-01

212

Sucrose-Utilizing Transglucosidases for Biocatalysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sucrose-utilizing transglucosidases are valued tools in chemistry to generate glycodiversification. Not only do these enzymes use as substrate an abundant agroresource, sucrose, but they also share a remarkable versatility regarding the acceptor substrate, allowing the structurally-controlled synthesis of diverse glucosylated products. Latest research has demonstrated the potential of enzyme engineering to tailor novel sucrose-utilizing transglucosidases that give access to original carbohydrate-based structures. This chapter gives an overview of the recent achievements in biocatalysis using these enzymes.

André, Isabelle; Potocki-Véronèse, Gabrielle; Morel, Sandrine; Monsan, Pierre; Remaud-Siméon, Magali

213

Radiological Laboratory Utility Office Building The Radiological Laboratory Util-  

E-print Network

RLUOB Radiological Laboratory Utility Office Building The Radiological Laboratory Util- ity Office Research building. Capabilities RLUOB provides: � Nearly 20,000 square feet of radiological laboratory

214

Utility View of Risk Assessment  

E-print Network

This paper will address a utility perspective in regard to risk assessment, reliability, and impact on the utility system. Discussions will also include the critical issues for utilities when contracting for energy and capacity from cogenerators...

Bickham, J.

215

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

the use of fly ash as a raw material for metal recovery, filler for metal matrix composites, polymer International Conference onFly Ash Disposal and Utilization,onJanuary 20-22, 1998, New Delhi, India. COAL ASH substances solidify to form predominately #12;spherical particles which are called fly ash. The remaining

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

216

Managing the nuclear utility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Florida Power and Light Company (FP and L) is the fifth largest investor-owned utility in the country. The success of nuclear power generation at the St. Lucie Units 1 and 2 and Turkey Point Units 3 and 4 has resulted from a continuing management commitment to the nuclear program. The management of the power plants rely strongly on teamwork

J. W. Jr

1985-01-01

217

Utility weatherization programs  

SciTech Connect

Public utility commissions (PUCs) have recently ordered or approved an increasing number of programs that install weatherization measures in residences. These programs tend to install only low-cost weatherization measures (e.g., caulking, weatherstripping, plastic storm windows, door sweeps) or major weatherization measures (e.g., insulation, storm windows, storm doors). When a program does not have income restrictions for eligibility, part of the costs are paid by the participating customer. For programs that install low-cost measures, the participant usually pays at the time of installation for the measures chosen. To require payment for major weatherization measures at the time of installation could deter participation, so these programs usually provide loans with the interest subsidized by the sponsor. Low-income customers, who have little or no disposable income, tend to shun Residential Conservation Service, loan, and other utility conservation programs that have costs to participants. Therefore PUCs have turned to programs that install weatherization measures without charge in order to reach low-income customers. This paper discusses some of the regulatory issues raised by these programs and how they have been justified by PUCs. It also gives information on cost and energy savings for 10 weatherization programs, both utility-sponsored and non-utility-sponsored, and attempts to interpret this information.

Kier, P.H.

1984-01-01

218

WOOD PRODUCTS AND UTILIZATION  

E-print Network

WOOD PRODUCTS AND UTILIZATION V #12;#12;443USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-160. 1997, these trees are a vital component of wildlife and plant ecosystems, water quality, recreation, and esthetic found in the urban forests and the woody component of the urban waste stream. These have the potential

Standiford, Richard B.

219

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

Center for By-Products Utilization DEICING SALT SCALING RESISTANCE OF HIGH- VOLUME FLY ASH CONCRETE Salt Scaling Resistance of Fly Ash Concrete - Myth or Reality," held in Toronto, Canada, October 2000 OF WISCONSIN ­ MILWAUKEE #12;-1- Deicing Salt Scaling Resistance of High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete Tarun R. Naik

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

220

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

Center for By-Products Utilization GREENER CONCRETE FROM WOOD FLY ASH AND COAL FLY ASH By Tarun R CONCRETE FROM WOOD FLY ASH AND COAL FLY ASH By Tarun R. Naik, Rudolph N. Kraus, Shiw S. Singh, Lori-Lynn C of concrete mixtures incorporating wood fly ash (FA). Two series of non-air entrained concrete mixtures were

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

221

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

Center for By-Products Utilization FIFTEEN-YEAR PERFORMANCE OF HIGH-VOLUME FLY ASH CONCRETE ROADS OFHIGH-VOLUME FLY ASH CONCRETE ROADS By TarunR.Naik*,RudolphN.Kraus*,and Bruce W.Ramme** ABSTRACT was determined to be either very low or negligible for all concrete mixtures. Mixtures containing Class F fly ash

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

222

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

Center for By-Products Utilization GREENER CONCRETE FROM WOOD FLY ASH AND COAL FLY ASH By Tarun R OF WISCONSIN­MILWAUKEE #12;1 GREENER CONCRETE FROM WOOD FLY ASH AND COAL FLY ASH Synopsis: This investigation was carried out to establish production of concrete mixtures incorporating wood fly ash (FA). Two series

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

223

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

Center for By-Products Utilization EFFECT OF SOURCE OF FLY ASH ON ABRASION RESISTANCE OF CONCRETE-MILWAUKEE #12;2 EFFECT OF SOURCE OF FLY ASH ON ABRASION RESISTANCE OF CONCRETE By Tarun R. Naik, Shiw S. Singh and amount of fly ash on abrasion resistance of concrete. A reference concrete was proportioned to have a 28

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

224

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

Center for By-Products Utilization LONG-TERM PERFORMACE OF HIGH-VOLUME FLY ASH CONCRETE PAVEMENTS-VOLUME FLY ASH CONCRETE PAVEMENTS By: Tarun R. Naik, Bruce W. Ramme, Rudolph N. Kraus, and Rafat Siddique-Product Lightweight Aggregates, Committee 213 on Lightweight Concrete, and Committee 232 on Fly Ash in Concrete. ACI

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

225

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

Center for By-Products Utilization PERFORMANCE OF HIGH-VOLUME CLASS C FLY ASH CONCRETE SYSTEMS THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN - MILWAUKEE #12;PERFORMANCE OF HIGH-VOLUME CLASS C FLY ASH CONCRETE SYSTEMS UNDER-Volume Class C Fly Ash Concrete Systems Under Freezing and Thawing Environment By T.R. Naik and S.S. Singh

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

226

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

Center for By-Products Utilization LONG-TERM PERFORMACE OF HIGH-VOLUME FLY ASH CONCRETE PAVEMENTS OF WISCONSIN - MILWAUKEE #12;LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF HIGH-VOLUME FLY ASH CONCRETE-PAVEMENTS Tarun R. Naik their microstructure. Generally, strength development of concrete made with fly ash, especially Class F fly ash

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

227

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

Center for By-Products Utilization EFFECT OF SOURCE OF CLASS C FLY ASH ON BEHAVIOR OF CONCRETE OF CLASS C FLY ASH ON BEHAVIOR OF CONCRETE By Tarun R. Naik, Shiw S. Singh, and Bruce W. Ramme ABSTRACT, and low-strength flowable concrete. The major topics included are: properties of fly ash, effects of fly

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

228

Utility spot pricing, California  

E-print Network

The objective of the present spot pricing study carried out for SCE and PG&E is to develop the concepts which wculd lead to an experimental design for spot pricing in the two utilities. The report suggests a set of experiments ...

Schweppe, Fred C.

1982-01-01

229

Utilization-focused Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of any particular effort cannot be guaranteed. Each evaluation being a blend of unique ingredients, no standardized recipe can assure the outcome. We have only principles, premises, and utilization-focused processes to guide us, and we have much yet to learn. But, the potential benefits merit the efforts and risks involved. At stake is improving the effectiveness of programs

Michael Patton

230

Utility-Directed Allocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the problem of allocating discrete res ources according to utility functions reported by potential recip ients and relates this abstract problem to resource allocation in a Ut ility Data Center (UDC). A simple integer program formulation, which gen- eralizes well-known knapsack problems, permits a remarkable breadth of expression while retaining clarity and analytic tractab ility. In the

Terence Kelly

231

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

of information from sources of waste materials to markets for products made from recycled materials to recycling sludge, discarded tires, wood processing waste, etc.) as well as selected consumer waste materialsCenter for By-Products Utilization DEVELOPMENT OF A COMPREHENSIVE DATABASE FOR RECYCLING

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

232

INTRODUCTION Ukiah Electric Utility  

E-print Network

to fulfill unmet long-term generation resource needs, Ukiah adopts and implements this RPS Procurement Plan retired for the specified year x; this may include excess procurement and historic carryover that the POUINTRODUCTION Ukiah Electric Utility Renewable Energy Resources Procurement Plan Revision No.1 Per

233

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

, Mineral Admixture, Fly Ash, Silica Fume, Flexural Strength, Compressive Strength #12;ACI Fellow Tarun RCenter for By-Products Utilization FATIGUE PROPERTY OF CONCRETE WITH AND WITHOUT MINERAL ADMIXTURES PROPERTY OF CONCRETE WITH AND WITHOUT MINERAL ADMIXTURES* Tarun R. Naik, Ph.D., P.E. Director Center for By

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

234

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

). The first mixture (12.5 P) contained 20% Class C fly ash and 5% silica fume and the other mixture (12.5 E resistance, and alkali-silica reaction were evaluated. In general, concrete specimens cured in the VTCECenter for By-Products Utilization HIGH-PERFORMANCE CONCRETE FOR MANUFACTURE OF PRECAST

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

235

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

-husk ash, wood ash, GGBFS, silica fume, and other similar pozzolanic materials can reduce the useCenter for By-Products Utilization ENVIRONMENTAL-FRIENDLY CONCRETE WITH INDUSTRIAL AND POST and Applied Science THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN ­ MILWAUKEE #12;1 Environmental-Friendly Concrete

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

236

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

, Silica Fume, Slag, and Natural Pozzolans in Concrete, Bangkok, Thailand, May 31 - June 5, 1998Center for By-Products Utilization ABRASION RESISTANCE OF AIR-ENTRAINED CONCRETE MADE WITH VARIOUS OF WISCONSIN - MILWAUKEE #12;ABRASION RESISTANCE OF AIR-ENTRAINED CONCRETE MADE WITH VARIOUS SOURCES OF FLY ASH

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

237

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

For Presentation and Publication at the CANMET/ACI International Conference on Fly Ash, Silica Fume, SlagCenter for By-Products Utilization CO2 SEQUESTRATION IN NON-AIR ENTRAINED CONCRETE By Tarun R. Naik and Natural Pozzolans in Concrete, Poland, May 27 - June 1, 2007. Department of Civil Engineering

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

238

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

and Publication at the Eighth CANMET/ACI International Conference on Fly Ash, Silica Fume, Slag, and NaturalCenter for By-Products Utilization PROPERTIES OF CAST-CONCRETE PRODUCTS MADE WITH FBC ASH Pozzolans in Concrete, Las Vegas, May 23-29, 2004. Department of Civil Engineering and Mechanics College

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

239

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

/ACI International Conference on Fly Ash, Silica Fume, Slag, and Natural Pozzolans in Concrete, Bangkok, ThailandCenter for By-Products Utilization DEICING SALT SCALING RESISTANCE OF HIGH-VOLUME FLY ASH CONCRETE-Volume Fly Ash Concrete Using Various Sources of Fly Ash By T.R. Naik, S.S. Singh, R. N. Kraus, and M. M

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

240

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

OF WISCONSIN - MILWAUKEE #12;CHLORIDE PERMEABILITY OF SILICA FUME CONTAINING HIGH-PERFORMANCE CONCRETE By Tarun-PERFORMANCE (15,000 psi) SILICA FUME CONCRETE SUBJECTED TO TWO DIFFERENT CURING ENVIRONMENTS. THE CURINGCenter for By-Products Utilization Chloride Permeability of Silica Fume Containing High

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

241

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

Fume, Slag and Natural Pozzolans in Concrete, Poland, May 27 - June 1, 2007. Department of CivilCenter for By-Products Utilization CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION IN NO-FINES CONCRETE By Tarun R 2006 For Presentation and Publication at the CANMET/ACI International Conference on Fly Ash, Silica

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

242

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

on Fly Ash, Silica Fume, Slag, and Natural Pozzolans in Concrete, Las Vegas, May 23-29, 2004. DepartmentCenter for By-Products Utilization NO-FINES CONCRETE USING OFF-SPECIFICATION COAL COMBUSTION­MILWAUKEE #12;NO-FINES CONCRETE USING OFF-SPECIFICATION COAL COMBUSTION PRODUCTS by T. R. Naik (corresponding

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

243

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

C fly ash and 14% silica fume and the other mixture (Mix 15E) contained 25% Class C fly ash, 17% Class F fly ash, and 6% silica fume by weight of cementitious materials. Two types of curing methodsCenter for By-Products Utilization TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON HIGH-PERFORMANCE CONCRETE By Tarun R

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

244

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

and Publication at the Ninth CANMET/ACI International Conference on Fly Ash, Silica Fume, Slag, and NaturalCenter for By-Products Utilization SHRINKAGE OF CONCRETE WITH AND WITHOUT FLY ASH By Tarun R. Naik Pozzolans in Concrete, Poland, May - June 2007. Department of Civil Engineering and Mechanics College

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

245

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

: admixtures, concrete, durability, fly ash, no-fine concrete, pavement, RCC, RCCP, #12;2 silica fume. 1Center for By-Products Utilization STRENGTH AND DURABILITY OF ROLLER - COMPACTED HVFA CONCRETE and Durability of Roller-Compacted HVFA Concrete Pavements by Tarun R. Naik1 , Yoon-Moon Chun2 , Rudolph N. Kraus

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

246

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

pozzolans, GGBFS, silica fume, and other similar pozzolanic materials can reduce the use of manufacturedCenter for By-Products Utilization ENVIRONMENTAL-FRIENDLY DURABLE CONCRETE MADE WITH RECYCLED MATERIALS FOR SUSTAINABLE CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION By Tarun R. Naik and Giacomo Moriconi Report No. CBU-2005

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

247

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

-product materials as supplementary cementing materials is growing time to time. Fly ash, silica fume, granulatedCenter for By-Products Utilization RECYCLED MATERIALS IN CONCRETE INDUSTRY By Tarun R. Naik.0 INTRODUCTION Concrete industry is the single largest consumer of the natural resources available in the world

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

248

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

: admixtures, concrete, durability, fly ash, no-fine concrete, #12;3 3 pavement, RCC, RCCP, silica fume. 1 DrCenter for By-Products Utilization STRENGTH AND DURABILITY OF ROLLER - COMPACTED HVFA CONCRETE Strength and Durability of Roller-Compacted HVFA Concrete Pavements by Tarun R. Naik1 , Yoon-Moon Chun2

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

249

MAG. Mag Tape Utility  

SciTech Connect

MAG is a general-purpose tape utility program which runs on any Digital Equipment Corporation VAX computer system and can write and read fixed-block, fixed-record magnetic tapes. In addition, MAG can read tapes written using ANSI standard record format as well as the IBM Variable Blocked format. Translation from ASCII to EBCDIC and vice versa can be performed.

Thompson, Charles; Newman, Gerald K. [Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1986-07-13

250

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

Center for By-Products Utilization DEICING SALT SCALING RESISTANCE OF HIGH-VOLUME FLY ASH CONCRETE USING VARIOUS SOURCES OF FLY ASH By Tarun R. Naik, Shiw S. Singh, Rudolph N. Kraus and Mohammad M OF HIGH-VOLUME FLY ASH CONCRETE USING VARIOUS SOURCES OF FLY ASH By Tarun R. Naik, Ph.D., P.E. Director

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

251

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

The American Coal Ash Association has reported that over 11 million tons of ponded coal fly ash and bottom ash and ponded. A combination of fly ash and bottom ash were utilized for the CLSM manufactured at the facilities reported that over 11 million tons of ponded coal fly ash and bottom ash are generated each year (1999

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

252

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

Center for By-Products Utilization LONG-TERM PERFORMACE OF HIGH-VOLUME FLY ASH CONCRETE PAVEMENTS-TERM PERFORMANCE OF HIGH-VOLUME FLY ASH CONCRETE-PAVEMENTS Tarun R. Naik, Director, UWM Center for By ash (FA). Six different mixtures, three mixtures with Class C fly ash up to 70% cement replacement

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

253

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

Center for By-Products Utilization LONG-TERM PERFORMACE OF HIGH-VOLUME FLY ASH CONCRETE PAVEMENTS-Term Performance of High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete Pavements by Tarun R. Naik Director, Center for By ash (FA). Six different mixtures, three mixtures with Class C fly ash with up to 70% cement

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

254

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

Center for By-Products Utilization DURABILITY OF FLY ASH CONCRETE SYSTEM INCORPORATING HIGH-CALCIUM FLY ASH - A REVIEW By Tarun R. Naik, Shiw S. Singh, and Bruce W. Ramme Report No. CBU-1997-23 November #12;2 DURABILITY OF FLY ASH CONCRETE SYSTEM INCORPORATING HIGH-CALCIUM FLY ASH - A REVIEW By Tarun R

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

255

Module utilization committee  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photovoltaic collector modules were declared surplus to the needs of the U.S. Dept. of Energy. The Module Utilization Committee was formed to make appropriate disposition of the surplus modules on a national basis and to act as a broker for requests for these modules originating outside of the National Photovoltaics Program.

Volkmer, K.; Praver, G.

1984-01-01

256

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

of Engineering and Applied Sciences, the Office of Industrial Research and Technology Transfer of the Graduate that is used to control SO2 #12;-4- emissions from electric utility generating stations. Currently, at least 14 spray drying wastes are different from those of conventional fly ash and FGD scrubber sludge(3

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

257

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

Center for By-Products Utilization USE OF POST-CONSUMER WASTE PLASTICS IN CEMENT-BASED COMPOSITES of Wisconsin-Milwaukee #12;Use of Post-Consumer Waste Plastics in Cement-Based Composites (Communicated by Dr describes an innovative use of post-consumer waste HDPE plastic in concrete as a soft filler. A reference

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

258

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

Center for By-Products Utilization GREENER CONCRETE MADE WITH WOOD FLY ASH By Tarun R. Naik College of Engineering and Applied Science THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN ­ MILWAUKEE #12;1 Greener Concrete. Adams, P.O. Box 19002 Green Bay WI 54307 and Bruce W. Ramme Manager- Land Quality, We Energies

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

259

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

. Green materials also use less energy, resources, and can lead to high-performance cements and concreteCenter for By-Products Utilization SUSTAINABILITY OF CEMENT AND CONCRETE INDUSTRIES By Tarun R Concrete Opportunities, July 2005, Dundee, Scotland. Department of Civil Engineering and Mechanics College

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

260

INTRODUCTION Ukiah Electric Utility  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION Ukiah Electric Utility Renewable Energy Resources Procurement Plan Per Senate Billlx 2 renewable energy resources, including renewable energy credits, as a specified percentage of Ukiah's total,2011 to December 31, 2013, Ukiah shall procure renewable energy resources equivalent to an average of at least

261

Utility Grid EV charging  

E-print Network

to integrate increasing DC renewable source and load, such as , electrical vehicles, photovoltaic systems, fuel microgrid is an effective form of utilizing different energy resources and the analysis of this system for AC network, DC network and interlinking converter are reviewed so as to model it in the power flow

Chaudhary, Sanjay

262

Homeless service Utilization report  

E-print Network

Utilization Report to present a data-based perspective on the state's homeless people. Since 2006, there has been a significant increase in funds and facilities for the homeless: 601 new units of transitional the state's current inventory to a total of 1,188 units and 785 beds. Moreover, 110 new beds on Maui and 24

263

Advanced fossil energy utilization  

SciTech Connect

This special issue of Fuel is a selection of papers presented at the symposium ‘Advanced Fossil Energy Utilization’ co-sponsored by the Fuels and Petrochemicals Division and Research and New Technology Committee in the 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) Spring National Meeting Tampa, FL, on April 26–30, 2009.

Shekhawat, D.; Berry, D.; Spivey, J.; Pennline, H.; Granite, E.

2010-01-01

264

Debating Clinical Utility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical utility of genetic tests is determined by the outcomes following test use. Like other measures of value, it is often contested. Stakeholders may have different views about benefits and risks and about the importance of social versus health outcomes. They also commonly disagree about the evidence needed to determine whether a test is effective in achieving a specific

W. Burke; A.-M. Laberge

2010-01-01

265

Worldwide high-volume coal ash utilization  

SciTech Connect

The utilization of coal ash in concrete is the most extensive and widespread throughout the world, as compared to other uses of ash. However, in addition to the use in 1992 of over 39 million tons of coal ash in concrete, there were over 40 billion tons used in structural, land, or embankment fill; almost 7 million tons for pavement base course or subgrade; over 40 million tons for filler for mines, quarries or pits; almost 3 million tons for soil amendment; over 1.8 million tons for lightweight aggregate; and over 7 million tons for aerated blocks. In 1992, China had the largest production of coal ash as well as the largest utilization. Russian and the US had the second and third largest production. Russia, Germany, US, and Poland were next to China in utilization. This paper summarizes recent coal ash production and utilization in the world and presents a country-by-country survey of the high-volume users.

Manz, O.E. [Manz Associates, Alvarado, MN (United States)

1996-10-01

266

Double Shell Tank (DST) Utilities Specification  

SciTech Connect

This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides the references to the requisite codes and standards to he applied during the design of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Utilities Subsystems that support the first phase of waste feed delivery (WFD). The DST Utilities Subsystems provide electrical power, raw/potable water, and service/instrument air to the equipment and structures used to transfer low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) to designated DST staging tanks. The DST Utilities Subsystems also support the equipment and structures used to deliver blended LAW and HLW feed from these staging tanks to the River Protection Project (RPP) Privatization Contractor facility where the waste will be immobilized. This specification is intended to be the basis for new projects/installations. This specification is not intended to retroactively affect previously established project design criteria without specific direction by the program.

SUSIENE, W.T.

2000-04-27

267

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

Center for By-Products Utilization USE OF FBC ASH AND PONDED COAL-ASH IN READY-MIXED CONCRETE #12;Naik, Kraus, Chun, & Botha Use of FBC ash and Ponded Coal-Ash in Ready-Mixed Concrete 1 MS# M8-60. FINAL. October 2005. Use of FBC Ash and Ponded Coal-Ash in Ready-Mixed Concrete by Tarun R. Naik

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

268

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

of non-air entrained concretes incorporating conventional fly ash for structural applications and air-air entrained ready-mixed concrete can be manufactured for up to 60% fly ash content for structural applications and air entrained concrete for up to 30% fly ash content for normal concrete construction. INTRODUCTION

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

269

Proceedings of the distributed utility valuation project institutional issues workshop  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings summarize the discussions during a one-day working session on institutional issues related to the distributed utility (DU) concept. The purpose of the session was to provide an initial assessment of the {open_quotes}institutional{close_quotes} issues, including legal, regulatory, industry structure, utility organization, competition, and related matters that may affect the development and the relationships among distributed utility stakeholders. The assessment was to identify institutional barriers to utilities realizing benefits of the distributed concept (should these benefits be confirmed), as well as to identify opportunities for utilities and other stakeholders for moving ahead to more easily capture these benefits.

Not Available

1994-09-01

270

Coming utility squeeze play  

SciTech Connect

Like a sleeping giant, utilities are waking up and preparing to participate in the increasingly competitive power production industry. Some are establishing subsidiaries to participate in join venture deals with independents. Others are competing by offering lucrative discount or deferral rates to important industrial and commercial customers considering cogeneration. And now, a third approach is beginning to shape up- the disaggregation of generation assets into a separate generation company, or genco. This article briefly discusses these three and also devotes brief sections to functional segmentation and The regulatory arena.

Stoiaken, L.N.

1988-02-01

271

Light duty utility arm  

SciTech Connect

The Light-Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System is a mobile, multi-axis positioning system capable of deploying tools and sensors (end effecters) inside radioactive waste tanks for tank wall inspection, waste characterization, and waste retrieval. The LDUA robotic manipulator enters a tank through existing openings (risers) in the tank dome of the underground tanks. Using various end effecters, the LDUA System is a versatile system for high-level waste tank remediation. The LDUA System provides a means to deploy tools, while increasing the technology resources available to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Ongoing end effecter development will provide additional capabilities to remediate the waste tanks.

NONE

1998-12-01

272

Tribal Utility Feasibility Study  

SciTech Connect

The Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) assisted the Yurok Tribe in investigating the feasibility of creating a permanent energy services program for the Tribe. The original purpose of the DOE grant that funded this project was to determine the feasibility of creating a full-blown Yurok Tribal electric utility to buy and sell electric power and own and maintain all electric power infrastructure on the Reservation. The original project consultant found this opportunity to be infeasible for the Tribe. When SERC took over as project consultant, we took a different approach. We explored opportunities for the Tribe to develop its own renewable energy resources for use on the Reservation and/or off-Reservation sales as a means of generating revenue for the Tribe. We also looked at ways the Tribe can provide energy services to its members and how to fund such efforts. We identified opportunities for the development of renewable energy resources and energy services on the Yurok Reservation that fall into five basic categories: • Demand-side management – This refers to efforts to reduce energy use through energy efficiency and conservation measures. • Off-grid, facility and household scale renewable energy systems – These systems can provide electricity to individual homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not currently have access to the electric utility grid. • Village scale, micro-grid renewable energy systems - These are larger scale systems that can provide electricity to interconnected groups of homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not have access to the conventional electric grid. This will require the development of miniature electric grids to serve these interconnected facilities. • Medium to large scale renewable energy development for sale to the grid – In areas where viable renewable energy resources exist and there is access to the conventional electric utility grid, these resources can be developed and sold to the wholesale electricity market. • Facility scale, net metered renewable energy systems – These are renewable energy systems that provide power to individual households or facilities that are connected to conventional electric utility grid.

Engel, R. A.; Zoellick, J. J.

2007-06-30

273

Managing the nuclear utility  

SciTech Connect

The Florida Power and Light Company (FP and L) is the fifth largest investor-owned utility in the country. The success of nuclear power generation at the St. Lucie Units 1 and 2 and Turkey Point Units 3 and 4 has resulted from a continuing management commitment to the nuclear program. The management of the power plants rely strongly on teamwork for most large projects and activities whether they entail plant operation, construction, or maintenance. Various examples of how teamwork has been used to realize the successful completion of projects or solutions to problems are given.

Williams, J.W. Jr.

1985-11-01

274

Cost-utility analysis.  

PubMed Central

Decisions have to be made about allocating health resources. Currently the best economic evaluation method for doing this is cost-utility analysis. This compares the costs of different procedures with their outcomes measured in "utility based" units--that is, units that relate to a person's level of wellbeing. The most commonly used unit is the quality adjusted life year (QALY). QALYs are calculated by estimating the total life years gained from a procedure and weighting each year to reflect the quality of life in that year. To compare outcomes of different programmes the Rosser index is one measure that is widely used to assign quality of life scores to patients. Combined with a measure of life years gained from a procedure, this enables QALYs to be calculated and procedures ranked according to cost per QALY gained. In this article Ray Robinson explains the measures used and discusses how QALY league tables can be used to guide decisions on resource allocation. Images p862-a PMID:8401133

Robinson, R

1993-01-01

275

Lunar construction utility vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lunar construction utility vehicle (LCUV) is an all-purpose construction vehicle which will aid in the robotic assembly of a lunar outpost. The LCUV will have the following capabilities: (1) must be self supporting including repairs; (2) must offload itself from a lunar lander; (3) must be telerobotic and semi-autonomous; (4) must be able to transport one space station common module; (5) must allow for man-rated operation; and (6) must be able to move lunar regolith for site preparation. This study recommends the use of an elastic tracked vehicle. Detailed material analyses of most of the LCUV components were accomplished. The body frame, made of pinned truss elements, was stress analyzed using NASTRAN. A track connection system was developed; however, kinematic and stress analyses are still required. This design recommends the use of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells for power. Thermal control has proven to be a problem which may be the most challenging technically. A tentative solution has been proposed which utilizes an onboard and towable radiator. Detailed study of the heat dissipation requirements is needed to finalize radiator sizing. Preliminary work on a man-rated cabin has begun; however, this is not required during the first mission phase of the LCUV. Finally, still in the conceptual phases, are the communication, navigation and mechanical arm systems.

1989-01-01

276

Center for By-Products Utilization UTILIZATION OF POWDERED  

E-print Network

Center for By-Products Utilization UTILIZATION OF POWDERED GYPSUM-WALLBOARD IN CONCRETE By Tarun R fields into green fields ­ Opportunities are here, now!! #12;Center for By-Products Utilization Basic it may also be used in exterior sheathing applications or in concrete formwork. · Gypsum

Saldin, Dilano

277

Helping Utilities Make Smart Solar Decisions Utility Barriers  

E-print Network

Model - PSEG PSE&G Solar Loans PSE&G is offering ~$250MM in loans to finance solar system installations #12;About SEPA · Formed in 1992 as the Utility Photovoltaic Group · Educational non or Requirements Developing Utility Solar Business Models 5Helping Utilities Make Smart Solar Decisions Exelon

Homes, Christopher C.

278

Studying Evaluation Utilization through Simulations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of studies using simulation for the study of evaluation utilization is reviewed. Communication theory is used as the conceptual framework to interpret the potential influences on utilization. Implications for the practitioners are discussed. (Author/GK)

Braskamp, Larry A.; And Others

1982-01-01

279

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

%) of wood ash and coal fly ash; (3) non-air- entrained structural-grade concrete (up to 60 MPa 28-day compressive strength) with wood ash or its blends with coal fly ash (up to 40 %) as partial replacement of cement; and (4) good quality bricks/blocks/paving stones with wood ash or its blends with coal fly ash

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

280

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

­ MILWAUKEE #12;SUPERPLASTICIZED STRUCTURAL CONCRETE CONTMNING HIGH VOLUMES OF CLASS C FLY ASH By Tarun R to investigate performance of concrete containing high volumes of ASTM Class C fly ash. A portland cement. Concrete mixes are also proportioned to have various levels of cement replacement by fly ash ranging from

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

281

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

tires generated during the year 1990 - 1991 were reused, recycled, or recovered [4]. A number of uses of tires as reclaimed rubber, (4) use as a fuel through burning, (5) use of tires in the production manufacture of erosion control structures and artificial reefs, (7) use of tire as rubber in pavements, and

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

282

Strategic human resource utility analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – As the implementation and acceptance of utility analyses are afflicted by several problems, this paper sets out to describe how to circumvent these problems by implementing a new framework for utility analysis. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The HC BRidge™ model, developed by Boudreau and Ramstad, was implemented to determine the utility of assessment centers within a call center company. Findings

Jens Rowold; Martina Mönninghoff

2005-01-01

283

YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION  

SciTech Connect

This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover, and switchgrass--and Wyoming subbituminous coal were acquired for combustion tests in the 3-million-Btu/hr system. Blend levels were 20% biomass--80% coal on a heat basis. Hog fuel was prepared for the upcoming combustion test by air-drying and processing through a hammer mill and screen. A K-Tron biomass feeder capable of operating in both gravimetric and volumetric modes was selected as the HITAF feed system. Two oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys that would be used in the HITAF high-temperature heat exchanger were tested for slag corrosion rates. An alumina layer formed on one particular alloy, which was more corrosion-resistant than a chromia layer that formed on the other alloy. Research activities were completed in the development of an atmospheric pressure, fluidized-bed pyrolysis-type system called the controlled spontaneous reactor (CSR), which is used to process and condition biomass. Tree trimmings were physically and chemically altered by the CSR process, resulting in a fuel that was very suitable for feeding into a coal combustion or gasification system with little or no feed system modifications required. Experimental procedures were successful for producing hydrogen from biomass using the bacteria Thermotoga, a deep-ocean thermal vent organism. Analytical procedures for hydrogen were evaluated, a gas chromatography (GC) method was derived for measuring hydrogen yields, and adaptation culturing and protocols for mutagenesis were initiated to better develop strains that can use biomass cellulose. Fly ash derived from cofiring coal with waste paper, sunflower hulls, and wood waste showed a broad spectrum of chemical and physical characteristics, according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C618 procedures. Higher-than-normal levels of magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxide were observed for the biomass-coal fly ash, which may impact utilization in cement replacement in concrete under ASTM requirements. Other niche markets for biomass-derived fly ash were explored. Research was conducted to develop/optimize a catalytic partial oxidation-based concept for a simple, low-cost fuel processor (reformer). Work progressed to evaluate the effects of temperature and denaturant on ethanol catalytic partial oxidation. A catalyst was isolated that had a yield of 24 mole percent, with catalyst coking limited to less than 15% over a period of 2 hours. In biodiesel research, conversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel using an alternative alkaline catalyst was demonstrated without the need for subsequent water washing. In work related to biorefinery technologies, a continuous-flow reactor was used to react ethanol with lactic acid prepared from an ammonium lactate concentrate produced in fermentations conducted at the EERC. Good yields of ester were obtained even though the concentration of lactic acid in the feed was low with respect to the amount of water present. Esterification gave lower yields of ester, owing to the lowered lactic acid content of the feed. All lactic acid fermentation from amylose hydrolysate test trials was completed. Management activities included a decision to extend several projects to December 31, 2003, because of delays in receiving biomass feedstocks for testing and acquisition of commercial matching funds. In strategic studies, methods for producing acetate esters for high-value fibers, fuel additives, solvents, and chemical intermediates were discussed with several commercial entities. Commercial industries have an interest in efficient biomass gasification designs but are waiting for economic incentives. Utility, biorefinery, pulp and paper, or o

Christopher J. Zygarlicke

2004-11-01

284

Diversification performance of electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

Changes in the electric utility business environment has prompted a wave of diversification activity during the 1980s, although there has been little empirical research available to strategic decision makers in the utilities regarding most effective approaches to diversification. This study of 33 diversified electric utilities confirms that utilities pursuing investment in closely related businesses, rather than in financial services or other less related fields, have dramatically greater chances of succeeding. This article examines the extent and types of diversification pursued by investor-owned electric utilities as of 1990, and assesses the relationship between different approaches to diversification and resultant financial performance.

Silverman, M.

1993-03-01

285

PFBC Utility Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a summary of activities by American Electric Power Service Corporation during the first budget period of the PFBC Utility Demonstration Project. In April 1990, AEP signed a Cooperative Agreement with the US Department of Energy to repower the Philip Sporn Plant, Units 3 4 in New Haven, West Virginia, with a 330 KW PFBC plant. The purpose of the program was to demonstrate and verify PFBC in a full-scale commercial plant. The technical and cost baselines of the Cooperative Agreement were based on a preliminary engineering and design and a cost estimate developed by AEP subsequent to AEP's proposal submittal in May 1988, and prior to the signing of the Cooperative Agreement. The Statement of Work in the first budget period of the Cooperative Agreement included a task to develop a preliminary design and cost estimate for erecting a Greenfield plant and to conduct a comparison with the repowering option. The comparative assessment of the options concluded that erecting a Greenfield plant rather than repowering the existing Sporn Plant could be the technically and economically superior alternative. The Greenfield plant would have a capacity of 340 MW. The ten additional MW output is due to the ability to better match the steam cycle to the PFBC system with a new balance of plant design. In addition to this study, the conceptual design of the Sporn Repowering led to several items which warranted optimization studies with the goal to develop a more cost effective design.

Not Available

1992-11-01

286

Wind power utilization guide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report presents general information covering site wind potential and characteristics, specific design, system design, and siting requirements for utilization of wind energy conversion systems (WECS) at Navy installations. The objective of this report is also to provide a method for performing economic analysis to plan and justify a WECS in a particular Navy application. The information presented here is sufficient to enable an engineer to prepare a system's design to conduct a feasibility study for a given application of WECS. Most Navy applications of wind power will involve generation of electricity using small wind turbine generators (less than 60 kW size), with or without storage, located at remote Navy sites. Larger (over 100 kW size) WECS will, generally, be integrated with a base grid located on remote overseas or CONUS bases. This report, however, deals only with guidance for applying small WECS at Navy installations. The subject matter is divided into five parts dealing respectively with wind behavior and its determination with wind-driven turbines, power conditioning requirements, siting requirements, and the economics of wind power under different conditions. Three examples are given to demonstrate use of these sections in developing the required feasibility or design information for a given application.

Pal, D.

1981-09-01

287

Leak detection utilizing analog binaural (VLSI) techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detection method and system utilizing silicon models of the traveling wave structure of the human cochlea to spatially and temporally locate a specific sound source in the presence of high noise pandemonium. The detection system combines two-dimensional stereausis representations, which are output by at least three VLSI binaural hearing chips, to generate a three-dimensional stereausis representation including both binaural and spectral information which is then used to locate the sound source.

Hartley, Frank T. (inventor)

1995-01-01

288

Utility Computing: Reality and Beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Utility Computing is not a new concept. It involves organizing and providing a wide range of computing-related services as public utilities. Much like water, gas, electricity and telecommunications, the concept of computing as public utility was announced in 1955. Utility Computing remained a concept for near 50 years. Now some models and forms of Utility Computing are emerging such as storage and server virtualization, grid computing, and automated provisioning. Recent trends in Utility Computing as a complex technology involve business procedures that could profoundly transform the nature of companies' IT services, organizational IT strategies and technology infrastructure, and business models. In the ultimate Utility Computing models, organizations will be able to acquire as much IT services as they need, whenever and wherever they need them. Based on networked businesses and new secure online applications, Utility Computing would facilitate "agility-integration" of IT resources and services within and between virtual companies. With the application of Utility Computing there could be concealment of the complexity of IT, reduction of operational expenses, and converting of IT costs to variable `on-demand' services. How far should technology, business and society go to adopt Utility Computing forms, modes and models?

Ivanov, Ivan I.

289

43 CFR 3272.11 - How do I describe the proposed utilization facility?  

...determine the amount of resource utilized; (c) A contour map of the entire utilization site, showing production and injection well pads, pipeline routes, facility locations, drainage structures, existing and planned access, and lateral...

2014-10-01

290

43 CFR 3272.11 - How do I describe the proposed utilization facility?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...determine the amount of resource utilized; (c) A contour map of the entire utilization site, showing production and injection well pads, pipeline routes, facility locations, drainage structures, existing and planned access, and lateral...

2012-10-01

291

43 CFR 3272.11 - How do I describe the proposed utilization facility?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...determine the amount of resource utilized; (c) A contour map of the entire utilization site, showing production and injection well pads, pipeline routes, facility locations, drainage structures, existing and planned access, and lateral...

2011-10-01

292

43 CFR 3272.11 - How do I describe the proposed utilization facility?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...determine the amount of resource utilized; (c) A contour map of the entire utilization site, showing production and injection well pads, pipeline routes, facility locations, drainage structures, existing and planned access, and lateral...

2013-10-01

293

Utility solar water heating workshops  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to explore the problems and opportunities for utility participation with solar water heating as a DSM measure. Expected benefits from the workshops included an increased awareness and interest by utilities in solar water heating as well as greater understanding by federal research and policy officials of utility perspectives for purposes of planning and programming. Ultimately, the project could result in better information transfer, increased implementation of solar water heating programs, greater penetration of solar systems, and more effective research projects. The objective of the workshops was satisfied. Each workshop succeeded in exploring the problems and opportunities for utility participation with solar water heating as a DSM option. The participants provided a range of ideas and suggestions regarding useful next steps for utilities and NREL. According to evaluations, the participants believed the workshops were very valuable, and they returned to their utilities with new information, ideas, and commitment.

Barrett, L.B. (Barrett Consulting Associates, Inc., Colorado Springs, CO (United States))

1992-01-01

294

Electric utility industry and planning  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the workshop reported in these proceedings was to bring together planners, public officials, and community leaders with members of the utility industry to learn about utilities and to permit a meaningful exchange of information. This workshop was held at the Annual Meeting of the American Planning Association and its Energy Planning Division. The workshop was designed to inform planners about the electric-utility industry. A separate abstract was prepared for each of 4 individual presentations.

Schiffman, Y. (ed.)

1983-01-01

295

The changing electric utility industry  

SciTech Connect

Opinions are presented regarding deregulation of the electricity market. A review of restructing in the U.S. natural gas and United Kingdom electric power industry is presented. Restructuring of the U.S. electric industry is analyzed with regard to changing relations between utilities, changing relations among a utility`s subsidiaries, and changing relationships between supplier and customer. The key issues impeding restructuring are identified as stranded cost recovery and forced divestiture.

Wharton, J.B. [Brattel Group, Cambridge, MA (United States)

1996-12-31

296

Utilities must do more communicating  

SciTech Connect

The dramatic changes within the electric-utility industry over the past decade require them to do a greater and more effective job of communicating with their customers. When the revenues and advertising burgets for investor-owned electric utilities over a six-year period are compared with the revenues and ad dollars of other large industries and selected companies, the discrepancy is apparent. The ad costs for just one brand of cigarette are three-fourths of all utility ad spending. The utilities need to use advertising to explain new service programs and rate strategies to the public. 3 figures.

Uhler, R.G.

1981-01-01

297

Utility of Remote Sensing, Robotic Precursor Data and a Focused Science Hypothesis for a Follow-On Human Exploration Lunar Analogue Mission at the Mistastin Lake (Kamestastin) Impact Structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we summarize how remote sensing, robotic precursor data and a focused science hypothesis augmented the results from a lunar analogue mission to the Mistastin impact structure in Labrador, Canada. Join me as we go on a magical tour of this crater.

Tornabene, L. L.; Osinski, G. R.; Mader, M. M.; Chanou, A.; Francis, R.; Joliff, B. L.; Marion, C.; McCullough, E.; Pickersgill, A.; Sapers, H.; Souders, K.; Sylvester, P.; Young, K.; Zanetti, M.; Krash Operations; Science Team

2012-03-01

298

Special Section: The Value and Utility of Presence-Absence Data to Wildlife Monitoring and Research MODELING PATCH OCCUPANCY BY FOREST RODENTS: INCORPORATING DETECTABILITY AND SPATIAL AUTOCORRELATION WITH HIERARCHICALLY STRUCTURED DATA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Widespread conversion of deciduous forests to agriculture in the midwestern United States has resulted in landscapes whose remaining native habitats are highly fragmented, with well-documented consequences for wildlife community structure. We analyzed trap data for 5 forest rodent species from 525 sites in 35 study land- scapes throughout the upper Wabash River basin, which is dominated by agricultural use and

JEFFREY E. MOORE; ROBERT K. SWIHART

299

Acid rain & electric utilities II  

SciTech Connect

This document presents reports which were presented at the Acid Rain and Electric Utilities Conference. Topics include environmental issues and electric utilities; acid rain program overview; global climate change and carbon dioxide; emissions data management; compliance; emissions control; allowance and trading; nitrogen oxides; and assessment. Individual reports have been processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

NONE

1997-12-31

300

Utility photovoltaic group: Status report  

SciTech Connect

The Utility PhotoVoltaic Group (UPVG) was formed in October of 1992 with a mission to accelerate the use of cost-effective small-scale and emerging grid-connected applications of photovoltaics for the benefit of electric utilities and their customers. The UPVG is now implementing a program to install up to 50 megawatts of photovoltaics in small-scale and grid-connected applications. This program, called {ital TEAM}-{ital UP}, is a partnership of the U.S. electric utility industry and the U.S. Department of Energy to help develop utility PV markets. {ital TEAM}-{ital UP} is a utility-directed program to significantly increase utility PV experience by promoting installations of utility PV systems. Two primary program areas are proposed for {ital TEAM}-{ital UP}: (1) Small-Scale Applications (SSA){emdash}an initiative to aggregate utility purchases of small-scale, grid-independent applications; and (2) Grid-Connected Applications (GCA){emdash}an initiative to identify and competitively award cost-sharing contracts for grid-connected PV systems with high market growth potential, or collective purchase programs involving multiple buyers. This paper describes these programs and outlines the schedule, the procurement status, and the results of the {ital TEAM}-{ital UP} process. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Serfass, J.A.; Hester, S.L.; Wills, B.N. [Utility PhotoVoltaic Group, 1800 M Street, NW, Suite 300, Washington, District of Columbia 20036 (United States)

1996-01-01

301

The 1990 utility tax conference  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on the Sixth Annual Utility Tax Conference held in Washington, D.C. in October. Topics of the conference concerned tax issues associated with depreciable assets, employee benefits plans, valuation on utility property, pollution control, and restructuring and reorganization. Also discussed briefly were the tax changes being considered at that time as part of the negotiation of the details

1990-01-01

302

Utilization of the EBIS with RFQ linacs  

SciTech Connect

The radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) is a new linear accelerator structure in which rf electric fields are used to simultaneously focus, bunch, and accelerate an ion beam. Since the RFQ can provide strong focusing and adiabatic bunching at low velocities, it can capture almost all of the ions extracted from an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) at a low voltage and accelerate them to an energy of 1 to 2 MeV/nucleon in a distance of only a few meters. A successful test at the Los Alamos National Laboratory has confirmed the calculated performance of this structure and has stimulated interest in its use with the EBIS for a variety of applications. The general properties of the RFQ are reviewed, and the utilization of the EBIS with this structure is discussed. Several design examples of this combination are also presented.

Hamm, R.W.; Wangler, T.P.

1981-01-01

303

Back to Bentham? Explorations of Experienced Utility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two core meanings of 'utility' are distinguished. 'Decision utility' is the weight of an outcome in a decision. 'Experienced utility' is a hedonic quality, as in J. Bentham's usage. Experienced utility can be reported in real time (instant utility) or in retrospective evaluations of past episodes (remembered utility). Psychological research has documented systematic errors in retrospective evaluations, which can induce

Daniel Kahneman; Peter P. Wakker; Rakesh Sarin

1997-01-01

304

Identifying and managing inappropriate hospital utilization: a policy synthesis.  

PubMed Central

Utilization review, the assessment of the appropriateness and efficiency of hospital care through review of the medical record, and utilization management, deliberate action by payers or hospital administrators to influence providers of hospital services to increase the efficiency and effectiveness with which services are provided, are valuable but relatively unfamiliar strategies for containing hospital costs. The purpose of this synthesis is to increase awareness of the scope of and potential for these approaches among health services managers and administrators, third-party payers, policy analysts, and health services researchers. The synthesis will assist the reader to trace the conceptual context and the historical development of utilization review from unstructured methods using individual physicians' professional judgment to structured methods using explicit criteria; to establish the context of utilization review and clarify its uses; to understand the concepts and tools used in assessing the efficiency of hospital use; and to select, design, and evaluate utilization review and utilization management programs. The extent of inappropriate (medical unnecessary) hospital utilization and the factors associated with it are described. Implications for managers, providers, and third-party payers in targeting utilization review and in designing and evaluating utilization management programs are discussed. PMID:3121538

Payne, S M

1987-01-01

305

Structure of l-Xylulose-5-Phosphate 3-Epimerase (UlaE) from the Anaerobic l-Ascorbate Utilization Pathway of Escherichia coli: Identification of a Novel Phosphate Binding Motif within a TIM Barrel Fold?  

PubMed Central

Three catabolic enzymes, UlaD, UlaE, and UlaF, are involved in a pathway leading to fermentation of l-ascorbate under anaerobic conditions. UlaD catalyzes a ?-keto acid decarboxylation reaction to produce l-xylulose-5-phosphate, which undergoes successive epimerization reactions with UlaE (l-xylulose-5-phosphate 3-epimerase) and UlaF (l-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase), yielding d-xylulose-5-phosphate, an intermediate in the pentose phosphate pathway. We describe here crystallographic studies of UlaE from Escherichia coli O157:H7 that complete the structural characterization of this pathway. UlaE has a triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel fold and forms dimers. The active site is located at the C-terminal ends of the parallel ?-strands. The enzyme binds Zn2+, which is coordinated by Glu155, Asp185, His211, and Glu251. We identified a phosphate-binding site formed by residues from the ?1/?1 loop and ?3? helix in the N-terminal region. This site differs from the well-characterized phosphate-binding motif found in several TIM barrel superfamilies that is located at strands ?7 and ?8. The intrinsic flexibility of the active site region is reflected by two different conformations of loops forming part of the substrate-binding site. Based on computational docking of the l-xylulose 5-phosphate substrate to UlaE and structural similarities of the active site of this enzyme to the active sites of other epimerases, a metal-dependent epimerization mechanism for UlaE is proposed, and Glu155 and Glu251 are implicated as catalytic residues. Mutation and activity measurements for structurally equivalent residues in related epimerases supported this mechanistic proposal. PMID:18849419

Shi, Rong; Pineda, Marco; Ajamian, Eunice; Cui, Qizhi; Matte, Allan; Cygler, Miroslaw

2008-01-01

306

Utility Bill Analysis Saves Money.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of school utility bills is a good business practice for administrators. Efficient energy management of equipment is measured by the "load factor"--the ratio of average demand to maximum demand. An audit enables control of this factor. (CJH)

Lucht, Ray; Dembowski, Frederick L.

1987-01-01

307

Deregulating the electric utility industry  

E-print Network

Many functions must be performed in any large electric power system. A specific proposal for a deregulated power system, based on a real-time spot energy marketplace, is presented and analyzed. A central T&D utility acts ...

Bohn, Roger E.

1982-01-01

308

Photovoltaics: New opportunities for utilities  

SciTech Connect

This publication presents information on photovoltaics. The following topics are discussed: Residential Photovoltaics: The New England Experience Builds Confidence in PV; Austin's 300-kW Photovoltaic Power Station: Evaluating the Breakeven Costs; Residential Photovoltaics: The Lessons Learned; Photovoltaics for Electric Utility Use; Least-Cost Planning: The Environmental Link; Photovoltaics in the Distribution System; Photovoltaic Systems for the Rural Consumer; The Issues of Utility-Intertied Photovoltaics; and Photovoltaics for Large-Scale Use: Costs Ready to Drop Again.

Not Available

1991-07-01

309

Regulatory reform and public utilities  

SciTech Connect

This book results from two seminars regarding the subject title that were held at Rutgers the State University, New Brunswick, NJ on October 30, 1981 and March 26, 1982. The seminars received financial support from leading New Jersey utilities. The introductory chapter (by the editor) and the other nine chapters are all written within the context of the pressures facing regulated utilities and their regulators. A separate abstract was prepared for each chapter.

Crew, M.A. (ed.)

1982-01-01

310

Utility Functions in Autonomic Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Utility functions provide a natural and advantageous framework,for achieving self-optimization in distributedautonomic,computing,systems. We present a distributed architecture, implemented in a realistic prototype data cent er, that demonstrates,how utility functions can enable a collec - tion of autonomic,elements to continually optimize the use of computational resources in a dynamic, heterogeneous environment. Broadly, the architecture is a two-level struct ure of

William E. Walsh; Gerald Tesauro; Jeffrey O. Kephart; Rajarshi Das

2004-01-01

311

Facilities Utilization Program Implementation Handbook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Facilities Utilization Program Implementation Handbook (FUPIH) prescribes procedures for the review and the reporting on the utilization of NASA facilities. The Directors of NASA Field Installations should designate an Installation Official responsible for coordinating the assignment of buildings space and implementing the facilities utilization reviews and annual report preparation. The individual designated shall be known as the 'Facilities Utilization Officer (FUO).' Functional responsibilities of the FUO are detailed in NASA Management Instruction (NMI) 7234.1. It is recognized that titles used in the implementation of the Facilities Utilization Program may vary between field installations. The Facilities Utilization Program (FUP) is designed to provide a uniform and orderly process for meeting or addressing the following objectives: the establishment of sound facilities requirements to meet NASA's programmatic and institutional needs; the optimum allocation of available facilities and related resources to meet these requirements; and the early identification and request for required additional facilities resources. The detailed review and reporting system enacted by NMI 7234.1 should encourage more comprehensive utilization planning for all NASA facilities and ensure, to the maximum extent practicable, that all such facilities are put to their highest and best use consistent with NASA programmatic and institutional priorities. A principal purpose of the FUP is the early identification of NASA facilities which may be or may become underutilized or excess to NASA needs and to provide a timely reference point from which corrective actions (i.e., consolidation, elimination of duplication, improved utilization of disposal) may be taken. Because the supply of this handbook is limited, distribution should be controlled at the field installation level.

1987-01-01

312

Aspects concerning entropy and utility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expected utility maximization problem is one of the most useful tools in mathematical finance, decision analysis and economics.\\u000a Motivated by statistical model selection, via the principle of expected utility maximization, Friedman and Sandow (J Mach\\u000a Learn Res 4:257–291, 2003a) considered the model performance question from the point of view of an investor who evaluates\\u000a models based on the performance of

A. R. Hoseinzadeh; G. R. Mohtashami Borzadaran; G. H. Yari

2012-01-01

313

Utility of an alternative bicycle commute route of lower proximity to motorised traffic in decreasing exposure to ultra-fine particles, respiratory symptoms and airway inflammation - a structured exposure experiment  

PubMed Central

Background Bicycle commuting in an urban environment of high air pollution is known to be a potential health risk, especially for susceptible individuals. While risk management strategies aimed to reduce exposure to motorised traffic emissions have been suggested, only limited studies have assessed the utility of such strategies in real-world circumstances. Objectives The potential to lower exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP; < 0.1 ?m) during bicycle commuting by reducing proximity to motorised traffic was investigated with real-time air pollution and intermittent acute inflammatory measurements in healthy individuals using their typical higher proximity, and an alternative lower proximity, bicycle commute route. Methods Thirty-five healthy adults (mean ± SD: age = 39 ± 11 yr; 29% female) completed two return trips, one each in the condition of their typical route (HIGH) and a pre-determined alternative route of lower proximity to motorised traffic (LOW); proximity being determined by the proportion of on-road cycle paths. Particle number concentration (PNC) and diameter (PD) were monitored in-commute in real-time. Acute inflammatory indices of respiratory symptoms (as a scalar of frequency from very low to very high / 1 to 5), lung function and spontaneous sputum (for inflammatory cell analyses) were collected immediately pre-commute, and immediately and three hours post-commute. Results In the condition of LOW, compared to in the condition of HIGH, there was a significant decrease in mean PNC (1.91 x e4 ± 0.93 × e4 ppcc vs. 2.95 × e4 ± 1.50 × e4 ppcc; p ? 0.001), and the mean frequency of in-commute offensive odour detection (2.1 vs. 2.8; p = 0.019), dust and soot observation (1.7 vs. 2.3; p = 0.038) and nasopharyngeal irritation (1.5 vs. 1.9; p = 0.007). There were no significant differences between LOW and HIGH in the commute distance and duration (12.8 ± 7.1 vs. 12.0 ± 6.9 km and 44 ± 17 vs. 42 ± 17 min, respectively), or other indices of acute airway inflammation. Conclusions Exposure to PNC and offensive odour, and nasopharyngeal irritation, can be significantly lowered when utilising a route of lower proximity to motorised traffic whilst bicycle commuting, without significantly affecting commute distance or duration. This may bring health benefits for both healthy and susceptible individuals. PMID:23566176

2013-01-01

314

Utility & Regulatory Factors Affecting Cogeneration & Independent Power Plant Design & Operation  

E-print Network

considerations which could significantly affect the plant definition and, as a result, its attendant business and financing structure. Finally, suggestions are also made for facilitating the process of integration with the electric utility. INTRODUCTION... be seen from the recently encountered examples in Table I, many utility or regulatory preferences can have a significant affect on both conceptual and detailed plant design. In some instances, -they can even change the entire basic definition...

Felak, R. P.

315

The effect of regulation on the professionally managed utility  

SciTech Connect

Mixed empirical evidence concerning the A-J effect suggests that regulatory constraints affect utilities differently, depending upon their organizational structure. An important characteristic of firms is the concern for profits on the part of managements. This concern is related to the extent that management owns the firms' residual claims. In the case of many utilities, professional management means divorce of ownership from the firm's decision-making.

Czamanski, O.Z.

1980-12-01

316

Avian utilization of subsidence wetlands  

SciTech Connect

Diverse and productive wetlands have resulted from coal mining in the midwest. The trend from surface to underground mining has increased the potential for subsidence. Planned subsidence of longwall mining areas provides increased opportunities for wetland habitat establishment. Planned subsidence over a 180 meter (590 foot) deep longwall mine in southern Illinois during 1984 to 1986 produced three subsidence wetlands totaling 15 hectares (38 acres). The resulting palustrine emergent wetlands enhanced habitat diversity within the surrounding palustrine forested unsubsided area. Habitat assessments and evaluations of avian utilization of the subsidence wetlands were conducted during February 1990 through October 1991. Avian utilization was greatest within the subsided wetlands. Fifty-three bird species representing seven foraging guilds utilized the subsidence wetlands. Wading/fishing, dabbling waterfowl, and insectivorous avian guilds dominated the subsidence wetlands. The subsidence wetlands represented ideal habitat for wood ducks and great blue herons which utilized snags adjacent to and within the wetlands for nesting (19 great blue heron nests produced 25 young). Dense cover and a rich supply of macroinvertebrates provide excellent brood habitat for wood ducks, while herpetofauna and ichthyofauna provided abundant forage in shallow water zones for great blue herons and other wetland wading birds. The diversity of game and non-game avifauna utilizing the subsidence areas demonstrated the unique value of these wetlands. Preplanned subsidence wetlands can help mitigate loss of wetland habitats in the midwest.

Nawrot, J.R.; Conley, P.S.; Smout, C.L. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1995-09-01

317

Energy Efficiency and Electric Utilities  

SciTech Connect

The report is an overview of electric energy efficiency programs. It takes a concise look at what states are doing to encourage energy efficiency and how it impacts electric utilities. Energy efficiency programs began to be offered by utilities as a response to the energy crises of the 1970s. These regulatory-driven programs peaked in the early-1990s and then tapered off as deregulation took hold. Today, rising electricity prices, environmental concerns, and national security issues have renewed interest in increasing energy efficiency as an alternative to additional supply. In response, new methods for administering, managing, and delivering energy efficiency programs are being implemented. Topics covered in the report include: Analysis of the benefits of energy efficiency and key methods for achieving energy efficiency; evaluation of the business drivers spurring increased energy efficiency; Discussion of the major barriers to expanding energy efficiency programs; evaluation of the economic impacts of energy efficiency; discussion of the history of electric utility energy efficiency efforts; analysis of the impact of energy efficiency on utility profits and methods for protecting profitability; Discussion of non-utility management of energy efficiency programs; evaluation of major methods to spur energy efficiency - systems benefit charges, resource planning, and resource standards; and, analysis of the alternatives for encouraging customer participation in energy efficiency programs.

NONE

2007-11-15

318

Preparation of highly dispersed Pt-SnOx nanoparticles supported on multi-walled carbon nanotubes for methanol oxidation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To maximize the utilization of catalysts and thereby reduce the high price, a new strategy was developed to prepare highly dispersed Pt-SnOx nanoparticles supported on 8-Hydroxyquinoline (HQ) functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). HQ functionalized MWCNTs (HQ-MWCNTs) provide an ideal support for improving the utilization of platinum-based catalysts, and the introduction of SnOx to the catalyst prevents the CO poisoning effectively. The as-prepared catalysts are characterized by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman spectroscopy. It is found that the HQ functionalization process preserves the integrity and electronic structure of MWCNTs, and the resulting Pt-SnOx particles are well dispersed on the HQ-MWCNTs with an average diameter of ca. 2.2 nm. Based on the electrochemical properties characterized by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry, the Pt-SnOx/HQ-MWCNTs catalyst displays better electrocatalytic activity and stability for the methanol oxidation. It is worth mentioning that the forward peak current density of Pt-SnOx/HQ-MWCNTs catalyst is ca. 1.9 times of that of JM commercial 20% Pt/C catalyst, which makes it the preferable catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells.

Hu, Chuangang; Cao, Yanxia; Yang, Lin; Bai, Zhengyu; Guo, Yuming; Wang, Kui; Xu, Pengle; zhou, Jianguo

2011-07-01

319

Electric utility solar energy activities: 1980 survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brief descriptions of 839 projects being conducted by 236 utility companies are given. Also included are an index of projects by category, a statistical summary, a list of participating utilities with information contacts and addresses, a list of utilities with projects designated by category, a list of utilities organized by state, a list of available reports on utility sponsored projects,

M. C. Wentworth

1980-01-01

320

Ethanolamine utilization in Vibrio alginolyticus  

PubMed Central

Abstract Ethanolamine is used as an energy source by phylogenetically diverse bacteria including pathogens, by the concerted action of proteins from the eut-operon. Previous studies have revealed the presence of eutBC genes encoding ethanolamine-ammonia lyase, a key enzyme that breaks ethanolamine into acetaldehyde and ammonia, in about 100 bacterial genomes including members of gamma-proteobacteria. However, ethanolamine utilization has not been reported for any member of the Vibrio genus. Our comparative genomics study reveals the presence of genes that are involved in ethanolamine utilization in several Vibrio species. Using Vibrio alginolyticus as a model system we demonstrate that ethanolamine is better utilized as a nitrogen source than as a carbon source. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Dr. Lakshminarayan Iyer and Dr. Vivek Anantharaman (nominated by Dr. L Aravind). PMID:23234435

2012-01-01

321

Peaceful utilization of nuclear explosions  

SciTech Connect

Today the utilization of nuclear energy is mostly only related with the generation of electricity. There are, however, a number of further possibilities of application, beginning with the generation and application of radioactive isotopes, via nuclear reactors as marine and rocket propulsions, up to the utilization of nuclear explosions. The peaceful utilization of nuclear explosions was the subject of the American project 'Plough-Share' which had been started more than 20 years ago but definitely given up in 1977 by the Carter-government which is hostile to nuclear energy. Thus a programme was stopped which had opened up large fields of a virgin territory to science and technology. Dr. Gary Higgins of the Californian Lawrence Livermore Lab., a pioneer in that field, describes the history and successes of a most promising project of the 'Treasury Nuclear Energy'.

Higgins, G.

1982-08-01

322

Renewable energy and utility regulation  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a joint project on renewable energy of the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) and the US DOE. NARUC'S Task Force on Renewable Energy conducted a review of the current state of renewable energy technologies to evaluate their potential and extract key policy lessons from experience already gained in deployment of these technologies in numerous states. The main focus of this effort has been to clarify how utility regulators affect the development of renewable energy resources. The goal of the project was twofold: (1) identify the factors that have led to success or failure or renewable energy technologies in various energy markets, and (2) to develop an agenda on renewable energy and utility regulation for NARUC and the DOE. This report consists of three sections: renewable energy contributions, costs and potential; factors affecting development of renewable energy resources; and a renewable energy agenda for NARUC.

Not Available

1991-04-10

323

Renewable energy and utility regulation  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a joint project on renewable energy of the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) and the US DOE. NARUC`S Task Force on Renewable Energy conducted a review of the current state of renewable energy technologies to evaluate their potential and extract key policy lessons from experience already gained in deployment of these technologies in numerous states. The main focus of this effort has been to clarify how utility regulators affect the development of renewable energy resources. The goal of the project was twofold: (1) identify the factors that have led to success or failure or renewable energy technologies in various energy markets, and (2) to develop an agenda on renewable energy and utility regulation for NARUC and the DOE. This report consists of three sections: renewable energy contributions, costs and potential; factors affecting development of renewable energy resources; and a renewable energy agenda for NARUC.

Not Available

1991-04-10

324

Utilities` business plans include outsourcing  

SciTech Connect

A panel discussion on the benefits and drawbacks of outsourcing information system functions and telecommunications operations drew much interest at the UTC (the Telecommunications Association) Annual Conference and Exhibition, held here in late summer. A panel, consisting of executives from utilities that have outsourced these services discussed this controversial business management trend. {open_quotes}Outsourcing decisions should be a balance between corporate functional requirements and cost reduction,{close_quotes} said panelist Richard Kubica, Northeast Utilities Service Co.`s manager of network planning and engineering.

NONE

1995-11-01

325

Space platform utilities distribution study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Generic concepts for the installation of power data and thermal fluid distribution lines on large space platforms were discussed. Connections with central utility subsystem modules and pallet interfaces were also considered. Three system concept study platforms were used as basepoints for the detail development. The tradeoff of high voltage low voltage power distribution and the impact of fiber optics as a data distribution mechanism were analyzed. Thermal expansion and temperature control of utility lines and ducts were considered. Technology developments required for implementation of the generic distribution concepts were identified.

Lefever, A. E.

1980-01-01

326

Renewable energy utilization in Latvia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of Latvian energy sector development in the last years (1990–1996) shows that it is a positive tendency - increasing role of the local and renewable energy resources in the energy balance of Latvia. Increasing utilization of biomass, wind energy, energy from small hydro power stations, biogas, etc. was occurred in the last years. Perspective energy balance of Latvia for

P. Shipkovs; G. Kashkarova; M. Shipkovs

1999-01-01

327

Wind power excites utility interest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of federally supported and independently developed wind power technology on electrical utilities in the United States is reported. The construction of a 200-ft, 3-MW wind turbine by the Southern California Edison Company wholly without federal assistance represents the first of its size to be erected by any utility; however, the Department of Energy is still greatly involved in the support of windmill prototype development and various companies have already sold small-scale designs to utilities. A proposal is currently the subject of prolonged debate in Congress which would significantly expand the program of government subsidies for windmill research and utilization. Private concerns have also entered the wind energy supply market, notably Windfarms, Ltd. with its projected 80-MW wind energy installation for the island of Oahu. The reaction of the DOE to such independent ventures has so far been ambivalent; on the one hand there is concern that the privately supplied facilities will not perform adequately, while on the other hand the end of federal support programs is anticipated.

Smith, R. J.

1980-02-01

328

Administrative Utility Analysis: Study Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document summarizes the recommendations made as a result of a study on administrative utility analysis and vocational education programs for Puerto Rico. The major recommendation was that the Area of Vocational and Technical Education (AVTE) in the Puerto Rico Department of Education be restructured at the central organizational level, for…

Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co., San Juan, Puerto Rico.

329

FFTF utilization for irradiation testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

FFTF utilization for irradiation testing is beginning. Two Fuels Open Test Assemblies and one Vibration Open Test Assembly, both containing in-core contact instrumentation, are installed in the reactor. These assemblies will be used to confirm plant design performance predictions. Some 100 additional experiments are currently planned to follow these three. This will result in an average core loading of about

D. C. Corrigan; L. J. Julyk; C. W. Hoth; J. C. McGuire; W. R. Sloan

1980-01-01

330

Utility Marketing Strategies & Pricing Trends  

E-print Network

Marketing seems to have come out of the utility closet once again, but it is a far sight different from that of the 1970s. While some are still on a “sell, Sell, SELL!” campaign, most are soberly looking at their customers from a different...

Gilbert, J. S.

331

Solar energy storage and utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for storing and utilizing solar energy is disclosed which includes the use of solar energy collectors attached to heat pipes for changing solar flux into heat energy and transmitting the heat energy into the earth below the surface of the ground. An expanding array of pipes, formed of heat conductive material, distributes the heat throughout a large, unconstrained

Yuan

1979-01-01

332

OETR OETR Symposium Utilization of  

E-print Network

of Ocean Energy with Wind & Wave Hybrids Peter FUCHS (Floating Power Plant A/S) 12:20 Current StatusOETR OETR Symposium Utilization of Offshore Wind Energy for a New Landscape of Beautiful Japan OETR forward the development of Japanese renewable ocean energy arena. 1 Selection of ocean energy veri cation

Tokyo, University of

333

Manpower Utilization in Social Welfare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To study the problems of developing a useful conceptual framework for utilizing workers in the field of social welfare who received training at less than the highest professional level, four 2-day symposium sessions were held during the fall of 1968, Approximately 13 participants, predominanatly social workers and representatives from the fields…

Teare, Robert J.; McPheeters, Harold L.

334

Solar thermal utilization in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapid development of the Chinese economy, energy consumption has increased considerably, and this has increased pressure on energy production. On the other hand, this pressure has greatly assisted in the development of the renewable energy in the past two decades. This paper reports the latest developments in the solar thermal utilization in China. A great deal of successful

Chaofeng Xiao; Huilong Luo; Runsheng Tang; Hao Zhong

2004-01-01

335

Public Utilities Commission Consumer Programs  

E-print Network

California Public Utilities Commission Consumer Programs Water Programs The CPUC regulates privately owned water companies, which may provide specific as- sistance programs that are unique to each about consumer programs. For infor- mation on income eligibility limits and for a list of water

336

PACS Utilization in Radiologic Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale and ObjectivesThe authors investigated patterns of utilization of the digital picture archiving and communication system (PACS) in radiologic publications in order to ascertain whether there may be a correlation between PACS use and demographic\\/cultural factors such as geographic location, radiologic specialization, and use of advanced radiologic technologies.

Yelda Ozsunar; Merter Keçeli; Kutsi Köseo?lu; Gülten Coskun; Can Karaman

2003-01-01

337

Utilization & Sharing of School Facilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserting that as Georgia moves into the 21st century, its public education sector must examine alternative means of utilizing and sharing buildings and facilities, this paper explores the alternatives to relying on taxes alone to meet the ever-increasing needs for additional and improved school buildings, as well as ways to reduce the need for…

Georgia Governor's Office, Atlanta.

338

Subsidies in Chilean Public Utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

September 2000Chile's experience shows that it is possible to design direct subsidies (such as Chile's subsidy for potable drinking water) at relatively low cost to the state and without distorting poor people's behavior. Prices have fallen substantially in services that new operators have entered, showing that regulation is a poor substitute for competition.Serra analyzes subsidies in Chile's public utilities. Over

Pablo Serra

2000-01-01

339

Recovery and Utilization of Extraterrestrial Resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This special bibliography includes the extraction, processing, and utilization of lunar, planetary, and asteroid resources; mining and excavation equipment, oxygen and propellant production; and in situ resource utilization.

2004-01-01

340

Price impacts of electric-utility DSM programs  

SciTech Connect

As competition in the electricity industry increases, utilities (and others) worry more about the upward pressure on electricity prices that demand-side management (DSM) programs often impose. Because of these concerns, several utilities have recently reduced the scope of their DSM programs or focused these programs more on customer service and peak-demand reductions and less on improving energy efficiency. This study uses the Oak Ridge Financial Model (ORFIN) to calculate the rate impacts of DSM. The authors use ORFIN to examine the two factors that contribute to DSM`s upward pressure on prices: the cost of the programs themselves and the loss of revenue associated with fixed-cost recovery. This second factor reflects the reduction in revenues caused by the DSM-induced energy and demand savings that exceed the reduction in utility costs. This analysis examines DSM price impacts as functions of the following factors: the DSM program itself (cost, conservation load factor, geographic focus on deferral of transmission and distribution investments, and mix across customer classes); the utility`s cost and pricing structures (factors at least partly under the utility`s control, such as retail tariffs, fixed vs variable operating costs, and capital costs not related to kW or kWh growth); and external economic and regulatory factors (the level and temporal pattern of avoided energy and capacity costs; ratebasing vs expensing of DSM-program costs; shareholder incentives for DSM programs; load growth; and the rates for income, property, and revenue taxes).

Hirst, E.; Hadley, S.

1994-11-01

341

Uses and Applications of Climate Forecasts for Power Utilities.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The uses and potential applications of climate forecasts for electric and gas utilities were assessed 1) to discern needs for improving climate forecasts and guiding future research, and 2) to assist utilities in making wise use of forecasts. In-depth structured interviews were conducted with 56 decision makers in six utilities to assess existing and potential uses of climate forecasts. Only 3 of the 56 use forecasts. Eighty percent of those sampled envisioned applications of climate forecasts, given certain changes and additional information. Primary applications exist in power trading, load forecasting, fuel acquisition, and systems planning, with slight differences in interests between utilities. Utility staff understand probability-based forecasts but desire climatological information related to forecasted outcomes, including analogs similar to the forecasts, and explanations of the forecasts. Desired lead times vary from a week to three months, along with forecasts of up to four seasons ahead. The new NOAA forecasts initiated in 1995 provide the lead times and longer-term forecasts desired. Major hindrances to use of forecasts are hard-to-understand formats, lack of corporate acceptance, and lack of access to expertise. Recent changes in government regulations altered the utility industry, leading to a more competitive world wherein information about future weather conditions assumes much more value. Outreach efforts by government forecast agencies appear valuable to help achieve the appropriate and enhanced use of climate forecasts by the utility industry. An opportunity for service exists also for the private weather sector.

Changnon, Stanley A.; Changnon, Joyce M.; Changnon, David

1995-05-01

342

How focusing on value to customers changes a DSM portfolio: One utility`s example  

SciTech Connect

The controversy continues as to the appropriate strategy for demand-side management (DSM) in integrated resource planning. This disagreement centers around whether the goal of DSM is the minimization of rates or the minimization of the cost of energy services (as measured by the Total Resource Cost [TRC] or all ratepayers test). Each strategy has its drawbacks. A fallacy of the RIM test strategy is that it fails conservation programs that cost less to implement than the power they replace and that provide benefits to ratepayers as a whole. A particular problem with the TRC test strategy is that any increase in energy use-whether due to off-peak load building, overall load growth, or even takeback, is regarded as a cost and is seen as having no value, even to program participants. As a consequence, utilities adopting the TRC test strategy have a very difficult time undertaking actions that increase (or retain) even when they increase customer value. This assumption of no value is not only nonsensical but is also conceptually wrong. This paper discusses an alternative DSM strategy that explicitly accounts for changes in customer value. The basis of this strategy is a new value test that was developed rigorously from the economic principles of efficiency. However, we have structured the Value test strategy within the general framework of the existing tests, and we have found that it generally does not require any more or different information than the current tests. The results of applying this value strategy, however, can have a significant impact on a utility`s DSM plan, This paper begins with a brief discussion of the Value test perspective. We then present an empirical example of the calculation of the Value test and demonstrate how a utility`s DSM plan would change going from a strategy of either rate reduction or energy service cost reduction to a strategy of customer value.

Herman, P.; Chamberlin, J.

1994-12-31

343

Expected antenna utilization and overload  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The trade-offs between the number of antennas at Deep Space Network (DSN) Deep-Space Communications Complex and the fraction of continuous coverage provided to a set of hypothetical spacecraft, assuming random placement of the space craft passes during the day. The trade-offs are fairly robust with respect to the randomness assumption. A sample result is that a three-antenna complex provides an average of 82.6 percent utilization of facilities and coverage of nine spacecraft that each have 8-hour passes, whereas perfect phasing of the passes would yield 100 percent utilization and coverage. One key point is that sometimes fewer than three spacecraft are visible, so an antenna is idle, while at other times, there aren't enough antennas, and some spacecraft do without service. This point of view may be useful in helping to size the network or to develop a normalization for a figure of merit of DSN coverage.

Posner, Edward C.

1991-01-01

344

Upper stages utilizing electric propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The payload characteristics of geocentric missions which utilize electron bombardment ion thruster systems are discussed. A baseline LEO to GEO orbit transfer mission was selected to describe the payload capabilities. The impacts on payloads of both mission parameters and electric propulsion technology options were evaluated. The characteristics of the electric propulsion thrust system and the power requirements were specified in order to predict payload mass. This was completed by utilizing a previously developed methodology which provides a detailed thrust system description after the final mass on orbit, the thrusting time, and the specific impulse are specified. The impact on payloads of total mass in LEO, thrusting time, propellant type, specific impulse, and power source characteristics was evaluated.

Byers, D. C.

1980-01-01

345

Japanese plan for SSF utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) program has made significant progress. The JEM preliminary design review was completed in July 1992; construction of JEM operation facilities has begun; and the micro-G airplane, drop shaft, and micro-G experiment rocket are all operational. The national policy for JEM utilization was also established. The Space Experiment Laboratory (SEL) opened in June '92 and will function as a user support center. Eight JEM multiuser facilities are in phase B, and scientific requirements are being defined for 17 candidate multiuser facilities. The National Joint Research Program is about to start. Precursor missions and early Space Station utilization activities are being defined. This paper summarizes the program in outline and graphic form.

Mizuno, Toshio

1992-01-01

346

Utilization of the terrestrial cyanobacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The terrestrial, N _{2}-fixing cyanobacterium, Nostoc commune has expected to utilize for agriculture, food and terraforming cause of its extracellular polysaccharide, desiccation tolerance and nitrogen fixation. Previously, the first author indicated that desiccation related genes were analyzed and the suggested that the genes were related to nitrogen fixation and metabolisms. In this report, we suggest possibility of agriculture, using the cyanobacterium. Further, we also found radioactive compounds accumulated N. commune (cyanobacterium) in Fukushima, Japan after nuclear accident. Thus, it is investigated to decontaminate radioactive compounds from the surface soil by the cyanobacterium and showed to accumulate radioactive compounds using the cyanobacterium. We will discuss utilization of terrestrial cyanobacteria under closed environment. Keyword: Desiccation, terrestrial cyanobacteria, bioremediation, agriculture

Katoh, Hiroshi; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Furukawa, Jun; Kimura, Shunta; Yokoshima, Mika; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Takenaka, Hiroyuki

347

A Tutorial on Decomposition Methods for Network Utility Maximization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic understanding of the decomposability structures in network utility maximization is key to both resource allocation and functionality allocation. It helps us obtain the most appropriate distributed algorithm for a given network resource allocation problem, and quantifies the comparison across architectural alternatives of modularized network design. Decomposition theory naturally provides the mathematical language to build an analytic foundation for

Daniel Pérez Palomar; Mung Chiang

2006-01-01

348

Increasing bandwidth utilization in next generation iptv networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a novel idea regarding transmission of next generation IPTV content. Today IPTV systems utilize a GOP structure to provide stream synchronization points for the clients, these are used when a channel switch occur. Since channel switches made by TV audiences are quite rare it is redundant to send synchronization opportunities in a GOP manner. The

Ulf Jennehag; Tingting Zhang

2004-01-01

349

Enrichment, Isolation and Some Properties of Methane-utilizing Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY More than IOO Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, methane-utilizing bacteria were isolated. All used only methane and methanol of the substrates tested for growth. The organisms were classified into five groups on the basis of mor- phology, fine structure, and type of resting stage formed (exospores and different types of cysts) and into subgroups on other properties. Methods of enrichment, isolation

R. Whittenbury; K. C. Phillips; J. F. Wilkinson

1970-01-01

350

Electric utility trends -- and how customers will benefit  

Microsoft Academic Search

What`s ahead for the electric industry? What sort of changes are already taking place? How will energy users profit from these changes? And how will changes in electric utility structures affect the natural gas industry? The paper concludes that both costs and prices will go down. At the highest level, electric industry restructuring will affect the natural gas industry in

Rudden

1997-01-01

351

Application of thin films to solar energy utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal areas of utilization of thin films and coatings in the harnessing of solar energy are (1) thermal control of structures, where reflecting or partially reflecting coatings and antireflection coatings are used to control incident solar radiation or to retain thermal energy; (2) photothermal conversion where solar energy is converted to low-grade heat (<150 degreeC) using reflector films, antireflection

D. M. Mattox

1976-01-01

352

Unified Model for Generation Complex Networks with Utility Preferential Attachment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, based on the utility preferential attachment, we propose a new unified model to generate different network topologies such as scale-free, small-world and random networks. Moreover, a new network structure named super scale network is found, which has monopoly characteristic in our simulation experiments. Finally, the characteristics of this new network are given.

Wu, Jian-Jun; Gao, Zi-You; Sun, Hui-Jun

2006-07-01

353

Recent progress in techniques utilized for particle accelerator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle accelerators are widely used in scientific research and industry. Recently, techniques utilized for accelerator are developed rapidly in China. We briefly review the recent progress in this field and primarily focus on superconducting RF, innovative structures for particle production and acceleration and beam diagnosis. Several advanced compact user facilities are also introduced.

Liu, KeXin

2012-12-01

354

The Price of Feed Utilities.  

E-print Network

TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS W. B. BIZZELL, President BULLETIN NO. 323 September, 1924 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY THE PRICE OF FEED UTILITIES B. YOUNGBLOOD, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS... decided upon, the calculation of the prices of digestible protein a1 productive value is a simple matter. Let a=price of carbohydrate feed A in dollars per ton. b-price of protein feed B in dollars per ton. p-pounds digestible protein in 100 pounds...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1924-01-01

355

Dynamic exponential utility indifference valuation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the dynamics of the exponential utility indifference value process C(B;\\\\alpha) for a contingent claim B in a semimartingale model with a general continuous filtration. We prove that C(B;\\\\alpha) is (the first component of) the unique solution of a backward stochastic differential equation with a quadratic generator and obtain BMO estimates for the components of this solution. This allows

Michael Mania; Martin Schweizer

2005-01-01

356

Electric utility system master plan  

SciTech Connect

This publication contains the electric utility system plan and guidelines for providing adequate electric power to the various facilities of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in support of the mission of the Laboratory. The topics of the publication include general information on the current systems and their operation, a planning analysis for current and future growth in energy demand, proposed improvements and expansions required to meet long range site development and the site`s five-year plan.

Erickson, O.M.

1992-10-01

357

Selenium utilization strategy by microalgae.  

PubMed

The diversity of selenoproteins raises the question of why so many life forms require selenium. Selenoproteins are found in bacteria, archaea, and many eukaryotes. In photosynthetic microorganisms, the essential requirement for selenium has been reported in 33 species belonging to six phyla, although its biochemical significance is still unclear. According to genome databases, 20 species are defined as selenoprotein-producing organisms, including five photosynthetic organisms. In a marine coccolithophorid, Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta), we recently found unique characteristics of selenium utilization and novel selenoproteins using (75)Se-tracer experiments. In E. huxleyi, selenite, not selenate, is the main substrate used and its uptake is driven by an ATP-dependent high-affinity, active transport system. Selenite is immediately metabolized to low-molecular mass compounds and partly converted to at least six selenoproteins, named EhSEP1-6. The most (EhSEP2) and second-most abundant selenoproteins (EhSEP1) are disulfide isomerase (PDI) homologous protein and thioredoxin reductase (TR) 1, respectively. Involvement of selenium in PDI is unique in this organism, while TR1 is also found in other organisms. In this review, we summarize physiological, biochemical, and molecular aspects of selenium utilization by microalgae and discuss their strategy of selenium utilization. PMID:20032866

Araie, Hiroya; Shiraiwa, Yoshihiro

2009-01-01

358

77 FR 46987 - Utility Allowances Submetering  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the applicable Public Housing Authority (PHA) utility allowance established for the...applicable utility allowance is the applicable PHA utility allowance under Sec. 1.42-10...that the regulations should limit use of a PHA utility allowance for non-Section 8...

2012-08-07

359

Microbial Utilization and Selectivity of Pectin Fractions with Various Structures ?  

PubMed Central

To evaluate the fermentation properties of oligosaccharides derived from pectins and their parent polysaccharides, a 5-ml-working-volume, pH- and temperature-controlled fermentor was tested. Six pectic oligosaccharides representing specific substructures found within pectins were prepared. These consisted of oligogalacturonides (average degrees of polymerization [DP] of 5 and 9), methylated oligogalacturonides (average DP of 5), oligorhamnogalacturonides (average DP of 10 as a disaccharide unit of galacturonic acid and rhamnose), oligogalactosides (average DP of 5), and oligoarabinosides (average DP of 6). The influence of these carbohydrates on the human fecal microbiota was evaluated. Use of neutral sugar fractions resulted in an increase in Bifidobacterium populations and gave higher organic acid yields. The Bacteroides-Prevotella group significantly increased on all oligosaccharides except oligogalacturonides with an average DP of 5. The most selective substrates for bifidobacteria were arabinan, galactan, oligoarabinosides, and oligogalactosides. PMID:21724897

Onumpai, Chatchaya; Kolida, Sofia; Bonnin, Estelle; Rastall, Robert A.

2011-01-01

360

Botulinum and tetanus neurotoxins: structure, function and therapeutic utility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxic products of the anaerobic bacteria Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium butyricum,Clostridium barati and Clostridium tetani are the causative agents of botulism and tetanus. The ability of botulinum neurotoxins to disrupt neurotransmission, often for prolonged periods, has been exploited for use in several medical applications and the toxins, as licensed pharmaceutical products, now represent the therapeutics of choice for the treatment

Kathryn Turton; John A Chaddock; K. Ravi Acharya

2002-01-01

361

An Exploration of the Utility of a Knowledge Utilization Framework to Study the Gap between Reading Disabilities Research and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pre-pilot study explored the usefulness of a knowledge utilization framework comprised of Knott and Wildavsky's (1980) seven stages of knowledge use and Stone's (2002) three routes to knowledge use to investigate the gap between reading disabilities research and teachers' self-reported use of that research. Semi-structured interviews of ten…

Davidson, Katherine; Nowicki, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

362

Integrated utility system design concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conceptual design studies are performed to investigate the feasibility of the MIUS concept as an alternate method of providing utility services to communities and/or community facilities having advantages over current practices. Procured and operated is a large scale testbed of the MIUS concept in order to evaluate and test those integrated system technical details that do not lend themselves to analysis. These include materials compatibility, process instrumentation and control, predictability of water and air effluents, techniques of heat recovery, method of thermal distribution, etc.

Hays, E. L.

1974-01-01

363

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy utilizing two ports.  

PubMed

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is usually performed via four to five cannulas; a few surgeons employing only three. A technique utilizing two entry ports, an infraumbilical Hasson 10 mm and a medial subcostal 5 mm, is described. The operation was feasible in six of seven patients. In the seventh, a third cannula was placed to allow traction on a floppy gallbladder. No complications ensued and all patients went home the day following operation. While cosmesis was impressive, the patients appeared to experience pain similar to that of patients in whom more cannulas were employed. PMID:8694956

Laws, H L

1996-08-01

364

Cottonseed oil and meal utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

For five consecutive years world-wide production of cottonseed has set new highs, and cottonseed is more valuable as a source\\u000a of food, feed, and fiber than ever before. However this paper is primarily concerned with the utilization of cottonseed oil\\u000a and meal in the United States.\\u000a \\u000a During the three-year period, 1963–65, U.S. farmers received about $300 million annually for 6.18

K. M. Decossas; L. J. Molaison; A. de B. Kleppinger; V. L. Laporte

1968-01-01

365

Rollover of Sport Utility Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the PBS program "Frontline" examined the history of the development of the sport utility vehicle (SUV) and the efforts to force car makers to design SUVs that are less prone to rollover. The dangers of SUV rollovers were spotlighted in the fall of 2000, when the Ford-Firestone scandal prompted Congress to launch a series of hearings focusing on deaths and injuries related to faulty Firestone tires mounted on Ford Explorers. However, during the same 10-year period in which Ford-Firestone rollover crashes caused some 300 deaths, more than 12,000 people — 40 times as many — died in SUV rollovers unrelated to tire failure.

Penny, Desmond N.

2004-02-01

366

Thermal storage for electric utilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Applications of the thermal energy storage (TES) principle (storage of sensible heat or latent heat, or heat storage in reversible chemical reactions) in power systems are evaluated. Load leveling behind the meter, load following at conventional thermal power plants, solar thermal power generation, and waste heat utilization are the principal TES applications considered. Specific TES examples discussed include: storage heaters for electric-resistance space heating, air conditioning TES in the form of chilled water or eutectic salt baths, hot water TES, and trans-seasonal storage in heated water in confined aquifers.

Swet, C. J.; Masica, W. J.

1977-01-01

367

Solar energy research and utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of solar energy is visualized in the heating and cooling of buildings, in the production of renewable gaseous, liquid and solid fuels, and in the production of electric power over the next 45 years. Potential impacts of solar energy on various energy markets, and estimated costs of such solar energy systems are discussed. Some typical solar energy utilization processes are described in detail. It is expected that at least 20% of the U.S. total energy requirements by 2020 will be delivered from solar energy.

Cherry, W. R.

1974-01-01

368

Consumer's Guide to the economics of electric-utility ratemaking  

SciTech Connect

This guide deals primarily with the economics of electric utilities, although certain legal and organizational aspects of utilities are discussed. Each of the seven chapters addresses a particular facet of public-utility ratemaking. Chapter One contains a discussion of the evolution of the public-utility concept, as well as the legal and economic justification for public utilities. The second chapter sets forth an analytical economic model which provides the basis for the next four chapters. These chapters contain a detailed examination of total operating costs, the rate base, the rate of return, and the rate structure. The final chapter discusses a number of current issues regarding electric utilities, mainly factors related to fuel-adjustment costs, advertising, taxes, construction work in progress, and lifeline rates. Some of the examples used in the Guide are from particular states, such as Illinois and California. These examples are used to illustrate specific points. Consumers in other states can generalize them to their states and not change the meaning or significance of the points. 27 references, 8 tables.

Not Available

1980-05-01

369

Impacts of solar energy utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various methods of conducting surveys and analyses to determine the attitude of the public toward the energy crisis are discussed. Models to determine the impact of the energy crisis and proposed alternative sources of energy on the social structure are analyzed. The various interest groups which are concerned with energy and the nature of their interest are identified. The government structure for controlling resource production and allocation is defined.

1973-01-01

370

How utilizes can revitalize industry  

SciTech Connect

During the first weeks of his presidency, Bill Clinton asserted that the nation`s industries must modernize if Americans are to enjoy a rising standard of living. He noted that inadequate knowledge about new production technologies and inadequate capital for plant improvements were making it hard for manufacturers, particularly small and midsized firms, to improve their productivity and economic competitiveness. And though he said his administration would stress the benefits of government research, technology transfer, and financial assistance, President Clinton acknowledged that Washington needs new partners to help modernize U.S. industrial processes. Electric utilities are likely candidates. They have considerable technical expertise and access to large sums of capital that could help industry improve its productivity. Fortuitously, power companies also would benefit by such a partnership stimulating local economic activity and better managing electricity demands. Although many utilities pursue so-called demand-side management programs for their commercial and residential customers, most have not focused much attention on the industrial sector, in part because achieving industrial energy efficiency requires more specialized expertise than do routine energy audits to improve the insulation and lighting of homes and commercial buildings. Yet the reasons to target industry are compelling: Industrial firms consume more than 35 percent of the electricity in the United States, and investment in retooling manufacturing operations with energy-efficient and productive equipment could help spur economic revitalization.

De Vaul, D.; Bartsch, C. [Northeast Midwest Institute, Washington, DC (United States)

1993-12-31

371

Trade-off decisions in distribution utility management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a result of the "unbundling" of traditional monopolistic electricity generation and transmission enterprises into a free-market economy, power distribution utilities are faced with very difficult decisions pertaining to electricity supply options and quality of service to the customers. The management of distribution utilities has become increasingly complex, versatile, and dynamic to the extent that conventional, non-automated management tools are almost useless and obsolete. This thesis presents a novel and unified approach to managing electricity supply options and quality of service to customers. The technique formulates the problem in terms of variables, parameters, and constraints. An advanced Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) optimization formulation is developed together with novel, logical, decision-making algorithms. These tools enable the utility management to optimize various cost components and assess their time-trend impacts, taking into account the intangible issues such as customer perception, customer expectation, social pressures, and public response to service deterioration. The above concepts are further generalized and a Logical Proportion Analysis (LPA) methodology and associated software have been developed. Solutions using numbers are replaced with solutions using words (character strings) which more closely emulate the human decision-making process and advance the art of decision-making in the power utility environment. Using practical distribution utility operation data and customer surveys, the developments outlined in this thesis are successfully applied to several important utility management problems. These involve the evaluation of alternative electricity supply options, the impact of rate structures on utility business, and the decision of whether to continue to purchase from a main grid or generate locally (partially or totally) by building Non-Utility Generation (NUG).

Slavickas, Rimas Anthony

372

Calcium silicate insulation structure  

DOEpatents

An insulative structure including a powder-filled evacuated casing utilizes a quantity of finely divided synthetic calcium silicate having a relatively high surface area. The resultant structure-provides superior thermal insulating characteristics over a broad temperature range and is particularly well-suited as a panel for a refrigerator or freezer or the insulative barrier for a cooler or a insulated bottle.

Kollie, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1995-01-01

373

Biomass utilization by gut microbiomes.  

PubMed

Mammals rely entirely on symbiotic microorganisms within their digestive tract to gain energy from plant biomass that is resistant to mammalian digestive enzymes. Especially in herbivorous animals, specialized organs (the rumen, cecum, and colon) have evolved that allow highly efficient fermentation of ingested plant biomass by complex anaerobic microbial communities. We consider here the two most intensively studied, representative gut microbial communities involved in degradation of plant fiber: those of the rumen and the human large intestine. These communities are dominated by bacteria belonging to the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla. In Firmicutes, degradative capacity is largely restricted to the cell surface and involves elaborate cellulosome complexes in specialized cellulolytic species. By contrast, in the Bacteroidetes, utilization of soluble polysaccharides, encoded by gene clusters (PULs), entails outer membrane binding proteins, and degradation is largely periplasmic or intracellular. Biomass degradation involves complex interplay between these distinct groups of bacteria as well as (in the rumen) eukaryotic microorganisms. PMID:25002092

White, Bryan A; Lamed, Raphael; Bayer, Edward A; Flint, Harry J

2014-09-01

374

Spectral utilization in thermophotovoltaic devices  

SciTech Connect

Multilayer assemblies of epitaxially-grown, III-V semiconductor materials are being investigated for use in thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion applications. It has been observed that thick, highly-doped semiconductor layers within cell architectures dominate the parasitic free-carrier absorption (FCA) of devices at wavelengths above the bandgap of the semiconductor material. In this work, the wavelength-dependent, free-carrier absorption of p- and n-type InGaAs layers grown epitaxially onto semi-insulating (SI) InP substrates has been measured and related to the total absorption of long-wavelength photons in thermophotovoltaic devices. The optical responses of the TPV cells are then used in the calculation of spectral utilization factors and device efficiencies.

Clevenger, M.B.; Murray, C.S.

1997-12-31

375

San Francisco Public Utilities Commission  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (PUC) digital collection is based at the San Francisco Public Library. It includes over 300 images, spanning 1887 to 1968, of significant events and projects such as the building of the Hetch Hetchy Railroad and O'Shaughnessey Dam, the construction of the Golden Gate International Exposition on Treasure Island, and so on. These fascinating historic industrial photographs document the pipelines, tunnels, reservoirs, dams, powerhouses, and pumping stations that the PUC has built and maintained in order "to provide water, sewerage and municipal services to the City and County of San Francisco." Visitors can click on the link provided here to view the images, or perform their own detailed search across the entire collection. The views of the Calaveras Dam are quite dramatic and there are many photos documenting the Golden Gate International Exposition as well.

2012-07-13

376

The effect of deregulation on internal control of agency conflict: Evidence from the electric utility industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I investigate how deregulation leads firms to modify their internal governance structures to help control owner-manager agency conflict. Specifically, I explore how electric utilities respond to wholesale-level deregulation during the ten years surrounding the 1992 Energy Policy Act. I apply factor analysis to observable governance variables that exhibit change among utilities relative to industrial firms, and show that a single common factor captures firms' reliance on internal governance structure to control owner-manager agency problems. I find that deregulating utilities reduce their reliance on internal governance relative to industrial firms. I also show that the negative relation between deregulation and electric utilities' relative reliance on internal governance structure is largely explained by increases in competition and takeover activity among utilities relative to industrial firms. I conclude that competition and takeover activity substitute for firms' relative reliance on internal control of agency conflict.

Rennie, Craig G.

377

45 CFR 650.11 - Utilization reports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.11 Utilization reports. ...such utilization”. At this time, the Foundation does not plan to request such reports except in connection with...

2013-10-01

378

45 CFR 650.11 - Utilization reports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.11 Utilization reports. ...such utilization”. At this time, the Foundation does not plan to request such reports except in connection with...

2012-10-01

379

45 CFR 650.11 - Utilization reports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.11 Utilization reports. ...such utilization”. At this time, the Foundation does not plan to request such reports except in connection with...

2011-10-01

380

45 CFR 650.11 - Utilization reports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.11 Utilization reports. ...such utilization”. At this time, the Foundation does not plan to request such reports except in connection with...

2010-10-01

381

47 CFR 101.521 - Spectrum utilization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spectrum utilization. 101.521 Section 101.521 Telecommunication...Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.521 Spectrum utilization. All applicants for DEMS...

2010-10-01

382

47 CFR 101.521 - Spectrum utilization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Spectrum utilization. 101.521 Section 101.521 Telecommunication...Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.521 Spectrum utilization. All applicants for DEMS...

2011-10-01

383

Utility Energy Services Contracts: Lessons Learned  

SciTech Connect

This document describes best practices in the use of Utility Energy Services Contracts. The recommendations were generated by a group of innovative energy managers in many successful projects. The topics include project financing, competition between utility franchises, and water conservation.

Not Available

2001-08-01

384

Federal Utility Program Overview (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Fact sheet overview of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program's (FEMP) Federal Utility Program, including common contracts and services available to Federal agencies through local serving utilities.

Not Available

2009-07-01

385

Spot pricing of public utility services  

E-print Network

This thesis analyzes how public utility prices should be changed over time and space. Earlier static and non spatial models of public utility pricing emerge as special cases of the theory developed here. Electricity is ...

Bohn, Roger E.

1982-01-01

386

10 CFR 766.101 - Data utilization.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Data utilization. 766.101 Section 766.101 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY URANIUM ENRICHMENT DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING FUND; PROCEDURES FOR SPECIAL ASSESSMENT OF DOMESTIC UTILITIES...

2014-01-01

387

25 CFR 700.105 - Utility charges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Instructions Definitions § 700.105 Utility charges. Utility charges means the cost for heat, lighting, hot water, electricity, natural gas, butane, propane, wood, coal or other fuels water, sewer and trash...

2011-04-01

388

25 CFR 700.105 - Utility charges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Instructions Definitions § 700.105 Utility charges. Utility charges means the cost for heat, lighting, hot water, electricity, natural gas, butane, propane, wood, coal or other fuels water, sewer and trash...

2013-04-01

389

25 CFR 700.105 - Utility charges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Instructions Definitions § 700.105 Utility charges. Utility charges means the cost for heat, lighting, hot water, electricity, natural gas, butane, propane, wood, coal or other fuels water, sewer and trash...

2010-04-01

390

25 CFR 700.105 - Utility charges.  

...Instructions Definitions § 700.105 Utility charges. Utility charges means the cost for heat, lighting, hot water, electricity, natural gas, butane, propane, wood, coal or other fuels water, sewer and trash...

2014-04-01

391

DSP utilization in digital color printing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the utilization of DSP techniques to digital printing systems, particularly in transforming multidimensional signals from electronic to hardcopy formats by utilizing digital printing solutions and controlling the \\

E. Saber; S. Dianat; L. K. Mestha; P. Y. Li

2005-01-01

392

Utilization of consumer level digital cameras in astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a study of possible utilization of digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) cameras in astronomy. The DSLRs have a great advantage over the professional equipments in better cost efficiency with comparable usability for selected purposes. The quality of electro-optical system in the DSLR camera determines the area where it can be used with acceptable precision. At first a set of important camera parameters for astronomical utilization is introduced in the paper. Color filter array (CFA) structure, demosaicing algorithm, image sensor spectral properties, noise and transfer characteristics are the parameters that belong among the very important ones and these are further analyzed in the paper. Compression of astronomical images using the KLT approach is also described below. The potential impact of these parameters on position and photometric measurement is presented based on the analysis and measurements with the wide-angle lens. The prospective utilization of consumer DSLR camera as a substitute for expensive devices is discussed.

Páta, Petr; Fliegel, Karel; Klíma, Miloš; Blažek, Martin; ?e?ábek, Martin

2010-08-01

393

What Marketing Strategies Make Sense for Utilities  

E-print Network

? Employee care Growing influence of major customers ? Clear definition of purpose/value Changes in customer wants and needs. specification ? Experimentation/willingness to WHAT IS IT THAT CUSTOMERS WANT FROM tolerate failure. UTILITIES Utilities who... ? Employee care Growing influence of major customers ? Clear definition of purpose/value Changes in customer wants and needs. specification ? Experimentation/willingness to WHAT IS IT THAT CUSTOMERS WANT FROM tolerate failure. UTILITIES Utilities who...

Davis, T. D.

394

Optimized Utility Systems and Furnace Integration  

E-print Network

defines the Process/Utility interface. Clearly, changing the process design can result in different utility demands and possibly in different utility system designs. This paper presents a procedure, using Pinch Technology, for the simultaneous design... to the design and process integration of furnaces. The methodology used for designing an optimum Process/Utility interface is an extension of Pinch Technology. In recent years, Pinch Technology (1) has beco e widely accepted and applied within industry...

McMullan, A. S.; Spriggs, H. D.

395

The Structure of Marketing Cooperatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines marketing cooperatives’ (MCs’) structure from a members’ perspective. We support the notion that the utility\\u000a that members derive from the attributes of MC’s structure enhances our insight in members’ commitment. Using a conjoint experimental\\u000a design, we elicit the utility that producers attach to attributes of a MC. These attributes are related to the cooperative’s\\u000a internal organizational structure

Nikos Kalogeras; Joost M. E. Pennings; Gert van Dijk; Ivo A. van der Lans

396

Electric utility solar energy activities: 1979survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of surveys to determine the scope of solar energy projects sponsored by electric utilities in the United States are presented. It contains brief descriptions of 735 projects being conducted by 180 utility companies. Also included are an index of projects by category, a statistical summary, a list of participating utilities with information contacts and addresses, a list of

R. Furness

1979-01-01

397

Electric utility solar energy activities: 1983 survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of a survey to determine the scope of electric utility participation in solar energy projects in the United States. This ninth edition contains brief descriptions of 870 projects conducted by 184 utility companies. The report also includes an index of projects by category, a statistical summary, a list of new reports on utility-sponsored projects, a

1984-01-01

398

Electric utility solar energy activities: 1979 survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a survey to determine the scope of solar energy projects sponsored by electric utilities in the United States are presented. It contains brief descriptions of 735 projects being conducted by 180 utility companies. Also included are an index of projects by category, a statistical summary, a list of participating utilities with information contacts and addresses, a list

Furness

1979-01-01

399

UTILIZATION OF ALASKAN SALMON CANNERY WASTE  

E-print Network

UTILIZATION OF ALASKAN SALMON CANNERY WASTE Marine Biological Laboratory iM0V3Ul953 WOODS HOLE and Wildlife Service, John L. Farley, Director UTILIZATION OP ALASKM SALMON CANlTEaT WASH PAHTS I AHD II, September 1953 #12;#12;UTILIZATION OF AUSKAN SALMON CANNERY WASTE y PART I 1. Possibility of Development

400

Utilities: Emerging Opportunities in Performance Contracting  

E-print Network

Many utilities are struggling to decide on the types services they want to offer their large commercial and industrial customers. A&C Enercom is often consulted to help utilities develop packages of services for these customers. Many of the utility...

Wood, G. W.

401

UTILIZING SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT METHODS - A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are not many frameworks of method utilization or use in organization based on empirical studies nor is there a common understanding of these issues. This paper investigates how systems development methods are utilized in practice and proposes a framework to conceive method utilization. The explanatory value of the framework is illustrated by providing an analysis of a case study.

Lasse Vogelsang

402

Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2005)  

SciTech Connect

This report presents year-end 2005 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities to benchmark the success of their green power programs.

Bird, L.; Brown, E.

2006-10-01

403

Drawing the Line: The Cultural Cartography of Utilization Recommendations for Mental Health Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the 1990s, sociologists began to rethink the failure of utilization models to explain whether and why individuals accessed formal treatment systems. This effort focused on reconceptualizing the underlying assumptions and processes that shaped utilization patterns. While we have built a better understanding of how social networks structure…

Olafsdottir, Sigrun; Pescosolido, Bernice A.

2009-01-01

404

Energy essays: a focus on utility communication  

SciTech Connect

The following papers are included: (1) technology, customers, and the feedback loop, (2) utility communications: a need for understanding the American character, (3) utility programs and grass roots communication, (4) reading the tea leaves of public opinion, (5) the need for public opinion surveys in utility communication programs, (6) the role of assessment in effective utility communication programs, (7) utility customer communication; perspectives on current public policy and law, (8) customer communications - a notion in motion, (9) communication when your customer is your owner, (10) radio advertising, (11) television advertising, (12) newspaper advertising, and (13) magazine advertising. (MOW)

Selnow, G.W.; Crano, W.D.; Ludwig, S.; Messe, L.A. (eds.)

1981-08-01

405

Lunar resources and their utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper reviews the physical and chemical characteristics of lunar surface materials noting the thickness of the regolith, grain size distribution, regolith petrography, and the chemical composition of the regolith. A comprehensive design of a processing system for the production of structural metals, oxygen, silicon, glass, and ceramic materials is presented. Specifications regarding the location of the processing plant, and its mass, volume, and power requirements are reviewed.

Phinney, W. C.; Criswell, D.; Drexler, E.; Garmirian, J.

1977-01-01

406

Equity implications of utility energy conservation programs  

SciTech Connect

This paper uses the Residential Energy Consumption Survey undertaken by the Energy Information Administration in 1990 to estimate the statistical association between household income and participation in electric utility energy conservation programs and the association between participation and the electricity consumption. The results indicate that utility rebates, energy audits, load management programs and other conservation measures tend to be undertaken at greater frequency by high income households than by low income households. Participants in conservation programs tend to occupy relatively new and energy efficient residences and undertake conservation measures other than utility programs, which suggests that utility sponsored programs are substitutes for other conservation investments. Electricity consumption during 1990 is not significantly less for households participating in utility programs than for nonparticipants, which also implies that utility conservation programs are displacing other conservation investments. Apparently, utility programs are not avoiding costs of new construction and instead are transferring wealth, particularly to high income participating households.

Sutherland, R.J.

1994-03-15

407

Expected Utility Distributions for Flexible, Contingent Execution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a method for using expected utility distributions in the execution of flexible, contingent plans. A utility distribution maps the possible start times of an action to the expected utility of the plan suffix starting with that action. The contingent plan encodes a tree of possible courses of action and includes flexible temporal constraints and resource constraints. When execution reaches a branch point, the eligible option with the highest expected utility at that point in time is selected. The utility distributions make this selection sensitive to the runtime context, yet still efficient. Our approach uses predictions of action duration uncertainty as well as expectations of resource usage and availability to determine when an action can execute and with what probability. Execution windows and probabilities inevitably change as execution proceeds, but such changes do not invalidate the cached utility distributions, thus, dynamic updating of utility information is minimized.

Bresina, John L.; Washington, Richard

2000-01-01

408

CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR OFF-SITE UTILITIES SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) offsite utilities system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

J.A. Ziegler

1999-08-31

409

The 21st Century Water Utility Initiative: how to boost operational performance of water utilities by up to 20%.  

PubMed

The 21st Century Water Utility Initiative is a powerful and innovative approach to help water utilities assess their current operational performance, identify improvement actions and track impact year after year. First success cases suggest that cost reductions range from 10 to 20% within 1-3 years, with improved customer satisfaction. This approach can help water utilities in three ways. First, its benchmarking module focusses on cost drivers at a granular level, not only at an asset level, but also by profit and loss line or activity. Second, it is coupled with onsite diagnostics to understand the causes of underperformance and identify improvement ideas. Third, its transformation programme makes operational changes stick through a combination of measures that address management infrastructure and mindsets and behaviour. In short, the Initiative helps utilities identify improvement potential, seize the prize, and translate it into a transformation programme to drive sustainable implementation. This highly structured, standardised approach addresses the needs of both small and large utilities. PMID:24135096

Gage, G; Helmcke, S; Prigent, O

2013-01-01

410

[Thermodynamically controlled deracemization utilizing inclusion complexation].  

PubMed

Utilizing host-guest inclusion complexation in the solid state, alpha-monosubstituted ketones were deracemized using optically active host compounds such as (-)-trans-2,3-bis(hydroxydiphenylmethyl)-1,4-dioxaspiro[5.4]decene (1a) under alkali conditions. This new method afforded optically active alpha-monosubstituted ketones in excellent yields with high enantiomeric excesses. For example, (+/-)-2-benzylcyclohexanone (2a) and (+/-)-3-benzylhexan-2-one (3c) were converted to the R-isomer (74% ee) and the S-isomer (96% ee), respectively, in quantitative yields. An x-ray crystallographic study elucidated the structure of the inclusion complex of 1a and (R)-2a. The study showed that the host molecules 1a ingeniously includes the guest molecule (R)-2a via hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions. As an application of deracemization, coenzyme (R)-alpha-lipoic acid and (R)-(-)-epilachnene, the antipode of an defensive droplets from the Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis, were synthesized in short steps with>99% ee and 87% ee, respectively. PMID:18827463

Kaku, Hiroto

2008-10-01

411

Utilizing semantic networks to database and retrieve generalized stochastic colored Petri nets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous work has introduced the Planning Coordinator (PCOORD), a coordinator functioning within the hierarchy of the Intelligent Machine Mode. Within the structure of the Planning Coordinator resides the Primitive Structure Database (PSDB) functioning to provide the primitive structures utilized by the Planning Coordinator in the establishing of error recovery or on-line path plans. This report further explores the Primitive Structure Database and establishes the potential of utilizing semantic networks as a means of efficiently storing and retrieving the Generalized Stochastic Colored Petri Nets from which the error recovery plans are derived.

Farah, Jeffrey J.; Kelley, Robert B.

1992-01-01

412

The performance of water utilities in Jordan.  

PubMed

This paper aims to measure the relative performance of Jordan's water utilities for water sector (WS) and wastewater sector (WWS), and to investigate the major factors behind their inefficiencies. DEA (non-parametric method) and Tobit model (parametric method) were used at two stages. At the first stage DEA was used to evaluate the utilities' efficiency and to investigate the utilities' scale effect on efficiency. At the second stage Tobit model (regression) is applied to determine the impact of the non-controllable factors on utilities' inefficiencies where the efficiency score is the dependent variable in the regression. The results of DEA showed that there is a potential to reduce inputs level: water supply and operational expense (OPEX) for WS, and treated wastewater and OPEX for WWS, by around 15-20 and 23-27%, respectively. Aqaba and Jarash utilities are the most efficient utilities in the WS, while it is Amman utility in the WWS. The utility size has relatively moderate effect on the relative performance. It is concluded that the medium utility size for WS and large utility size for WWS is the most appropriate. Tobit model results indicate that commercialization activities have a clear positive impact on efficiency improvement for both sectors. PMID:20729581

Al-Assa'd, Tamer; Sauer, Johannes

2010-01-01

413

Utility-Interconnected Photovoltaic Systems: Evaluating the Rationale for the Utility-Accessible External Disconnect Switch  

SciTech Connect

The utility-accessible alternating current (AC) external disconnect switch (EDS) for distributed generators, including photovoltaic (PV) systems, is a hardware feature that allows a utility?s employees to manually disconnect a customer-owned generator from the electricity grid. This paper examines the utility-accessible EDS debate in the context of utility-interactive PV systems for residential and small commercial installations. It also evaluates the rationale for EDS requirements.

Coddington, M.; Margolis, R.M.; Aabakken, J.

2008-01-01

414

Lunar resources and their utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lunar surface materials offer a source of raw materials for space processing to produce structural metals, oxygen, silicon, glass, and ceramic products. Significant difference exist, however, between lunar surface materials in the highlands and those in the maria. In the highlands the soil depth is at least an order of magnitude greater, the Al:Fe ratio is ten times greater, the content of plagioclase as a source of clear glass is three times as great, and the content of Ti is at least an order of magnitude lower. Evaluation of the extractive metallurgy and chemical operations associated with carbothermic and silicothermic refinement of lunar regolith suggests that Fe, Al, Si, Mg and probably Ti, Cr and Mn can be recovered, while oxygen is produced as a by-product. A conservative plant design yields its own weight in oxygen, silicon, and structural metals in less than six days. Power requirements for a throughput of 300,000 tons per year is less than 500 megawatts. The processing is done more economically in space than on the lunar surface.

Phinney, W. C.; Criswell, D.; Drexler, E.; Garmirian, J.

1977-01-01

415

PROTEIN STRUCTURE REPORT Crystal structure of the Yersinia type III  

E-print Network

Yersinia pestis utilizes a contact-dependent (type III) secretion system (T3SS) to transport virulence of oligomerization is discussed. Keywords: Yersinia pestis; plague; type III secretion; YscE; crystal structure Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, utilizes a type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject

416

Utilities` ``obligation to serve`` under deregulation  

SciTech Connect

The utility no longer has protected status, and the traditional franchise concept is under attack. Exclusive rights once conveyed to the utilities are being denied and not just in the area of gas sales. Exclusive rights once conveyed to utilities will be denied in more areas. State by state, the utilities` franchise is being examined to see which, if any, of its provisions are necessary in a deregulated environment. Can the free market provide everything that`s been provided for many years under monopolistic arrangements? Some of the most critical and difficult of these provisions concern the obligation to serve, which utilities, in most states, have assumed as part of their franchise agreement. Regulators, courts, utilities, marketers and others are busy sorting through these issues, but resolution could take years. The paper discusses deregulation, universal service fee, representation without taxation, suppliers and marketer restrictions.

Alexander, C.B.

1997-02-01

417

Virtual Observatories: Requirements for Utility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principal act that separates science from engineering is that of discovery. Virtual Observatories are a development with great potential for advancing our ability to do science by enabling us to do research effectively and to do research across disciplines. Access to data is one of the factors that enables discovery. A well-designed VO should enable discovery as well as providing for a uniform means by which data are accessed: thus, enabling discovery is the key challenge of a VO in fact it is and should be the principle that distinguishes a VO from a traditional archive. As the number of satellites in the Heliophysics Great observatory starts to decline due to the slower launch cadence and the reduction in funding for extended missions, it becomes more imperative that the community have the means to fully utilize and access the available resources. With the proliferation of low-cost computing and community-based models, cross-disciplinary studies become the new frontier. Many, if not the great majority of research papers are, at this time, confined to a particular discipline. Some of this "stove piping" may be due to the difficulty in accessing products from outside one's own discipline. One would hope and expect that VOs would address this. Two of the principal challenges associated with the vitality of the VOs, aside from the provision of the funds required to maintain the VOs, is 1) the limitation on the availability of data from non-NASA sources and 2) the need for some level of continued support for expertise on the data accessed through the VOs. The first issue is one of culture - some organizations support the view that the data belong to the PI whereas in Heliophysics "data rights" are curtailed. The second issue is to be addressed by the concept of the Resident Archive. This talk will provide an overview of the issues and challenges associated with VOs, Resident Archives, data rights, space missions, and instruments and their associated ground data processing software.

Paxton, L. J.

2008-12-01

418

Regulatory climate and electric-utility diversification  

SciTech Connect

Potential benefits from diversification are drawing increasing numbers of electric utilities into new lines of business. This article reviews the evidence of comparatively superior financial performance by diversified utility companies and poses the question: Has favorable regulatory climate been a significant factor in the achievement of improved performance for those companies. The article highlights some of the concerns which regulators have about diversification, and examines several studies which evaluate the regulatory climate in which diversified utilities operate. 9 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

Welch, J.B.

1984-11-22

419

Evaluating Utility System Operations Using APLUS  

E-print Network

"Evaluating utility System Operations Using APLUS" Sanjay Pethe Sr. Process Engineer TENSA Services, Inc. 6200 Savoy Drive, Ste. 540 Houston, Texas 77036 ABSTRACT The steam system at a recycled paper fiberboard plant in Texas... package developed by TENSA Services Inc. with funding from EPRI for the purpose of evaluating utility systems and the cost of operating them. This paper describes the application of APLUS to the utility system of a recycled paper fiberboard plant...

Pethe, S.; Singh, R.

420

Utility Locating in the DOE Environment  

SciTech Connect

Some advances have been made in utility locating in recent years and standards have been recently published to try and categorize the level of information known about the utility in the subsurface. At the same time some characterization about the level of effort or technology in the geophysicist approach to utility locating may be generalized. The DOE environment poses some added difficulties and this presentation covers these issues, costs and the technical approach that has been developed at the INEEL to prevent utility hits and how it fits into the generalized classification of effort.

Clark Scott; Gail Heath

2006-04-01

421

Wind turbine value analysis for electric utilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A methodology for the analysis of the value of large-scale wind turbines to electric utilities, and its application to utility, socioeconomic and meteorological data in two case studies is described. The value analysis was carried out for the year of reference 1985 and included different levels of wind turbine penetration. Results of the value analysis are given. The utility planning procedures in current use and the unique problems of the integration of wind power into the power system are discussed. Observations and conclusions regarding the current and future potential of wind power for utilities are presented.

Dub, W.

1982-06-01

422

Instructional television utilization in the United States  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various aspects of utilizing instructional television (ITV) are summarized and evaluated and basic guidelines for future utilization of television as an instructional medium in education are considered. The role of technology in education, capabilities and limitations of television as an instructional media system and the state of ITV research efforts are discussed. Examples of various ongoing ITV programs are given and summarized. The problems involved in the three stages of the ITV process (production, distribution, and classroom utilization) are presented. A summary analysis outlines probable trends in future utilization.

Dumolin, J. R.

1971-01-01

423

Three essays on utility regulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To induce utilities in the gas distribution market to operate efficiently, US states have deployed consumer choice programs, price caps, and variations of sliding scale plans. My first essay studies the impact of these restructuring and deregulation efforts on consumer rates, using panel data from a custom survey of state commissions and the Department of Energy. I estimate the residential, small commercial and industrial price equations jointly, and use instrumental variables to control for the potentially endogenous demand and status of deregulation. Consumer choice programs lower the prices by 2.2-20.1% compared to the rate of return regulation, benefiting industrial consumers the most and households the least. These effects appear even one to two years prior to the programs' implementation, and become stronger over time. Price caps lower all prices by 0.0-20.0%, with the same ranking. The impacts of sliding scale plans are close to zero, between -2.6% and +4.0% The second paper evaluates health damages caused by air concentrations of SO2 under three alternative environmental policies leading to identical aggregate emissions: emission caps, a nationwide emission tax, and a system of tradable emission allowances such as the one currently used in the US. The numerical model of the industry finds generators' output, participation in energy trade and SO2 abatement effort under each policy. The resulting SO2 concentrations are used to derive the aggregate health damages using estimates in the medical literature. SO2 concentrations vary across policies even when the aggregate emissions are the same. These variations translate into substantially different losses for any individual state, and, nationwide, to hundreds of millions of dollars of difference in aggregate damages. Emission caps are found to lead to the lowest damages, outperforming the currently used system of allowances by 452 million. A uniform emission tax leads to very similar damages as the system of tradable allowances, in agreement with the theory. These results are consistent with prior academic studies, that emission allowances and uniform taxes may lead to higher damages than regulatory instruments that control regional emissions more closely. In terms of SO2 concentrations and health impacts, emission caps are shown to favor the southern and southeastern states, where they deliver 840 million lower damages than the system of allowances or an emission tax, while they deliver 390 million higher damages in the northern and northeastern states. In the third essay I compute health damages from SO2 under different assumptions on the relationship between the concentration levels and their marginal health impacts. I evaluate SO2 concentration profiles resulting under the three policies in the previous chapter. Using the ranges of marginal damage estimates in medical literature, emission caps are shown to lead to the lowest damages under all considered slopes, although their benefit over the system of tradable allowances falls as the slope of the marginal damage function increases. With the maxi?m slope consistent with current medical data, the savings in damages under the emission caps in the southern states fall to 670 million compared the system of allowances, while the excess in damages they cause in the north and the northeast rises to $600 million.

Hlasny, Vladimir

424

12 CFR 1320.11 - Consultation with financial market utility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Consultation with financial market utility. 1320.11 Section...OVERSIGHT COUNCIL DESIGNATION OF FINANCIAL MARKET UTILITIES Consultations...1320.11 Consultation with financial market utility. Before...

2012-01-01

425

12 CFR 1320.11 - Consultation with financial market utility.  

... false Consultation with financial market utility. 1320.11 Section...OVERSIGHT COUNCIL DESIGNATION OF FINANCIAL MARKET UTILITIES Consultations...1320.11 Consultation with financial market utility. Before...

2014-01-01

426

12 CFR 1320.11 - Consultation with financial market utility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Consultation with financial market utility. 1320.11 Section...OVERSIGHT COUNCIL DESIGNATION OF FINANCIAL MARKET UTILITIES Consultations...1320.11 Consultation with financial market utility. Before...

2013-01-01

427

Utility experience with SCR in Germany  

SciTech Connect

The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology was primarily developed by Japanese industry for the reduction of NOx concentrations from power plant flue gas emissions. The first commercial Japanese DeNOx plant began operation in 1980 while the first German high dust SCR plant started up in 1985 and the first German tail end SCR plant started up in 1986. Two German environmental resolutions (GFAVO of June, 1983 and UMK of April, 1984) enhanced the adaptation of the SCR technique in German power plants. From the end of 1984 to 1987 most German utility owners ran pilot plant studies in order to become acquainted with this technology and to determine whether there are special deterioration mechanisms. The first full-scale plant started operation at the end of 1985. Since then, around 120 SCR plants have been installed on coal, oil and gas fired utility power plants. SCR technology for NOx control has also been applied on waste-to-energy plants, wood fired boilers, chemical plants, hazardous waste incinerators, glass smelters, refinery crackers, stationary diesel generators and sewage sludge incinerators. In addition, a special catalyst was developed to control dioxin/furan emissions in waste-to-energy plants, hazardous waste incinerators, sewage sludge incinerators, crematoria, iron ore sintering plants, and other thermal processes requiring dioxin/furan control. The German NOx emission limit for utility power plants is 200 mg/Nm{sup 3} at 6% O{sub 2} for dry bottom boilers and 5% O{sub 2} for wet bottom boilers or about 117 ppmv NOx at 3% O{sub 2}. This is approximately 0.12 lbs/MMBtu. Many German SCR units achieve high online availability on an annual basis. In the following paper, the authors will emphasize some aspects of the SCR process: (a) The chemical and physical/chemical properties of the catalyst; (b) The chemical engineering design of the catalyst volume; (c) The deterioration of catalytic activity with time; and (d) The effect of NH{sub 3} slip (caused by catalyst deterioration or non-homogeneous NH{sub 3} distribution) and of side reactions. The basis of the SCR technique is described first and each of the above areas is then discussed. In extrapolating the German SCR experience to U.S. applications, one of the most significant factors will be catalyst deactivation due to the differences in some U.S. coals with high alkaline metals and others with high sulfur and SO{sub 3} contents. The loss of activity potential of SCR reactors, which is related to material activity constant (K-value) and the geometrically active surface area, can be caused by: Excessive heat; Erosion and pluggage; Pore blockage; Accumulation of catalyst poisons like arsenic and alkali metals; and Prevention of gas diffusion by the formation of blinding surface layers. KWH PreussenElektra has led many developments in the German SCR industry over the past 15 years. Some of the most relevant advancements include: Development of new derivative titanium based structures; Development of new erosive resistant materials; Optimization of the catalyst pitch; Development of regeneration programs; Institution of coal blending programs to extend catalyst life; Development of catalyst maintenance programs; and Development of improved flow-modeling techniques. These improvements have led to an extended catalyst life for many facilities. This paper will discuss the German SCR experience and how it is being extended to the U.S. power industry.

Hartenstein, H.U.; Gutberlet, H.; Licata, A.

1999-07-01

428

Electric utility mergers: Competition, deregulation and the evolving federal policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the electric utility industry moves from a regulated monopoly structure to a deregulated competitive market, horizontal and vertical merger activity has increased substantially. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ("FERC") generally takes the lead at the federal level for reviewing the competitive effects of electric utility mergers. Shortly after it issued its order open access order requiring utilities to allow others to use their transmission systems in 1996, FERC issued a merger policy statement outlining a new analytic approach that more accurately reflects the physical and economic realities of competition in a deregulated electric industry. This study will critically examine the federal merger review process and policies seeking to determine whether (1) the Commission's methodology provides an accurate and reliable measure of the effects of a merger on competition, (2) the market power remedies that the Commission has required from merger applicants mitigate potential market power and improve economic efficiency, and (3) transactions costs provide an alternative explanation for horizontal electric utility mergers. In addition to the economic analysis of these issues, the study includes an empirical analysis of the effects of three recent mergers.

Patton, David Baird

429

Regional vs. Utility Planning Power Committee Webinar  

E-print Network

Regional vs. Utility Planning Power Committee Webinar June 30, 2009 June 30, 2009 Power Webinar 2;June 30, 2009 Power Webinar 3 Adequate vs. Economical · Issue: ­ Adequacy assessment says power system is the desired resource strategy June 30, 2009 Power Webinar 4 Interpreting L/R Balance · Issue: ­ Utility L

430

Cyber Security Management for Utility Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strong identity management enforced with digital authentication mechanisms has become the leading requirement to improve cyber security for utility operations. Utility operators don?t really care how it works as long as they are confident that it does work. They want a solution that is standards-based, is interoperable with the commonly installed applications, and is extendable for legacy systems to lower

Dennis K. Holstein; Jose Diaz

2006-01-01

431

An Individualized Approach to Teaching Media Utilization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A basic media utilization course at the University of Utah was developed on a self-instructional basis and was designed to teach skills related to the effective utilization of media in instruction. The course was organized around a set of 12 self-instructional packages with each package covering one topical area of the course. Six components…

Duane, James E.

432

2009-2010 1 Energy & Utilities  

E-print Network

2009-2010 1 Energy & Utilities University of Virginia Facilities Management Annual Report 2009.........................................................................................................................35 B Plant Heating Energy Consumption Data......................................................................................................41 #12;2009-2010 3 Overview October 8, 2010 This 2009-2010 annual report for Energy & Utilities

Acton, Scott

433

Do utility DSM programs increase risk  

SciTech Connect

What is the effect on uncertainty of utility resource portfolios that are [open quotes]supply-only[close quotes] vs. those that include demand-side management as well The evidence from this analysis shows that inclusion of DSM programs among utility resources diversifies the portfolio beneficially, reducing both revenue requirements and risk.

Hirst, E. (Oak Ridge at the Land and Water Fund, Boulder, CO (United States))

1993-05-01

434

Optimal multiperiod operational planning for utility systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the operational planning problem for utility systems is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program (MILP). For multiperiod operation with piecewise constant varying demands for utilities, the optimal choice of units for each period is determined. The objective function accounts for both the operating costs for each period and changeover costs for startup\\/shutdown of units each between periods

Ramaswamy R. Iyer; Ignacio E. Grossmann

1997-01-01

435

Environmental impacts of coal mining and utilization  

SciTech Connect

The contents of this book include: Coal in the international energy scene; Land disturbance and reclamation after mining. Resource demands of coal production; Coal combustion; Coal conversion technologies; Application of the exposure commitment model to coal utilization emission problems; The environmental significance of coal-derived carbon compounds; The effect of coal utilization emissions on natural and man-managed terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems.

Beijer Inst

1987-01-01

436

Battery energy storage systems for utility applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

At a time when the need for energy storage by electric utilities has become increasingly apparent and the benefits of storage are being evaluated with greater insight, the lead-acid battery is being evaluated with greater insight, the lead-acid battery is receiving renewed interest as the only currently viable battery storage technology. Battery energy storage offers several advantages to electric utility

Eckroad

1986-01-01

437

Shelter Service Utilization of Domestic Violence Victims  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines service utilization among 283 adult victims of domestic violence identified by crisis responders as being in need of crisis services. The purpose of this study is to explore the differences between the domestic violence victims who choose to utilize shelter services and those who do not. Findings suggest that domestic violence victims who were more likely to

Brady J. Miller Clevenger; Dominique Roe-Sepowitz

2009-01-01

438

The Utility Battery Storage Systems Program Overview  

SciTech Connect

Utility battery energy storage allows a utility or customer to store electrical energy for dispatch at a time when its use is more economical, strategic, or efficient. The UBS program sponsors systems analyses, technology development of subsystems and systems integration, laboratory and field evaluation, and industry outreach. Achievements and planned activities in each area are discussed.

Not Available

1994-11-01

439

The Utility of Pollination for Autonomic Computing  

E-print Network

The Utility of Pollination for Autonomic Computing Holger Kasinger and Bernhard Bauer University. From the biology's point of view, pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants the pollination process between plants and insects im- plies inherently. To utilize pollination as a paradigm

Bauer, Bernhard

440

Clinical Utility and "DSM-V"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The construction of the American Psychiatric Association's diagnostic manual has been guided primarily by concerns of construct validity rather than of clinical utility, despite claims by its authors that the highest priority has in fact been clinical utility. The purpose of this article was to further articulate the concept and importance of…

Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N.; Widiger, Thomas A.

2009-01-01

441

1986 fuel oil utilization workshop: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

A workshop to consider problems related to fuel oil utilization was held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on October 7-9, 1986. The 77 participants included fuels, engineering, and operating representatives of 21 US utilities, one Canadian utility, the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (Mexico), the Central Electricity Generating Board (Great Britain), the Electric Power Research Institute, and contractors engaged in EPRI fuel oil projects. The primary objective of the meeting was the interchange of information related to fuel oil projects conducted by some of the utilities, EPRI, EPRI contractors, and others. Through the discussions, EPRI gained useful insight into directions for continuing and future studies and utility support efforts. The presentations and discussions addressed fuels and combustion related problems encountered in utility boiler systems burning residual fuel oils as the primary fuel. Included were the results of fundamental studies, plant tests and demonstrations, and operating experiences. Among the major topics covered were the fundamentals of particulate formation, technology for reducing particulate emissions, utility experiences with burning emulsions (both oil-in-water and water-in-oil), stability and compatibility of residual oils, fuel quality control, fuel oil research and experiences in Great Britain and Mexico, and the progress and results from EPRI sponsored efforts related to fuel oil utilization. All papers in this proceedings have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

Sanders, C.F.; McDonald, B.L.

1987-06-01

442

Concentrating solar energy for utility scale applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the concentrating solar technologies used for utility-scale solar power. Specifically, it explains the rationale behind the use of concentration for photovoltaic modules, and how concentrating photovoltaic technologies compare with concentrating solar thermal technologies. It describes innovations in both areas, and how they are addressing the cost challenges to meet the needs of the utility scale market.

Sherif, Raed

2009-08-01

443

Applying DSM evaluation results to utility planning  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the results of a study to assess the application of DSM evaluation results to utility forecasting and planning. The paper has three objectives: (1) identify forecasting and planning applications of evaluation studies, (2) identify major obstacles and problems associated with applying evaluation results to forecasting and planning, and (3) suggest approaches to address the major problems. The paper summarizes results from interviews with utilities, regulators, and consultants to determine how the utility industry currently applies evaluation results in forecasting and planning. The paper also includes results from a detailed case study of Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) and Southern California Edison Company (SCE), two utilities with large DSM programs and active evaluation efforts.

Baxter, L.W.

1995-07-01

444

Protection of the Mountain Ridgelines Utilizing GIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Korean peninsula is characterized by numerous hills and mountains. The longest mountain ridgeline starting from Mt. Baekdusan to Mt. Jirisan is called Baekdudaegan which is similar to the continental divide or topographical watershed. In this study, GIS data, such as remotesensing images, national digital map, and watershed map, are used to analyze Korean mountain ridgelines structure and one Baekdudaegan data and nine Ridgelines are extracted. When extracted Baekdudaegan and other Ridgelines are overlaid on geologic maps, granite and gneiss are main components on the mountain ridgelines. The main mountain ridgelines are considered as the spiritual heritage overlapped in the land in Korea. As the environmental state is relatively better than those of other region in Korea, so many mountain ridgelines are legally protected by national legislation. The mountain ridgelines has hierarchical system; Baekdudaegan, Jeongmaek, Gimaek and Jimaek etc. according to their scale and total lengths of ridgelines. As only part of mountain ridgelines are currently protected by law or managed in environmental impact assessment (EIA) procedure, we think that most part of them should be under protection. Considering the environmental state of the ridgelines, we think that some protective measures should be set up nearby 1 km on both sides of them. If there goes a development plan or project near the main mountain ridgelines, topographical change index (TCI) and topographical scale index (TSI) etc. are to be applied in EIA. This study intends: firstly, to analyze the topological characteristics of the Korean mountain ridgelines using GIS, secondly, to analyze the geological characteristics of nearby mountain ridgelines, and lastly, to find a way to utilize the results on EIA.

Lee, S.; Lee, M.

2013-12-01

445

Utility Accrual Scheduling under Arbitrary Time/Utility Functions and Multi-unit Resource Constraints  

E-print Network

Utility Intercept Mid-course Launch (c) Missile Control - Time 6 Utility (d) A Step TUF Figure 1: Example correlation, track maintenance, and missile control. Note that Figure 1(c) shows how the TUF of the missile

Ravindran, Binoy

446

INVESTOR-OWNED UTILITY/PREFERENCE UTILITY PROPOSAL FUTURE ROLE OF THE BONNEVILLE POWER ADMINISTRATION  

E-print Network

the sale of secondary energy by shifting to utilities through expanded use of the Slice product will offer new power supply and financial benefits contracts to its regional utility customers defining BPA

447

SIRU utilization. Volume 2: Software description and program documentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A complete description of the additional analysis, development and evaluation provided for the SIRU system as identified in the requirements for the SIRU utilization program is presented. The SIRU configuration is a modular inertial subsystem with hardware and software features that achieve fault tolerant operational capabilities. The SIRU redundant hardware design is formulated about a six gyro and six accelerometer instrument module package. The modules are mounted in this package so that their measurement input axes form a unique symmetrical pattern that corresponds to the array of perpendiculars to the faces of a regular dodecahedron. This six axes array provides redundant independent sensing and the symmetry enables the formulation of an optimal software redundant data processing structure with self-contained fault detection and isolation (FDI) capabilities. Documentation of the additional software and software modifications required to implement the utilization capabilities includes assembly listings and flow charts

Oehrle, J.; Whittredge, R.

1973-01-01

448

Utility classification group position on important to safety  

SciTech Connect

Do you properly maintain your NSR equipment. Do you use operating and maintenance procedures. Do you have a PM Program for this equipment. Do you have a formal QA Program for B.O.P.. These are some of the questions the NRC has recently been asking in connection with the safety classification issue. What has all this got to do with the safety classification issue. It appears the NRC is concerned how utilities maintain their NSR equipment. In order to satisfy their curiosity in this area, the NRC is attempting to redefine the term important to safety and establish formal requirements for NSR structures, systems, and components. The Utility Safety Classification Group was formed to interact with the NRC to resolve their concerns.

Davis, S.M.

1985-02-01

449

C H A P T E R From Experienced Utility to Decision Utility  

E-print Network

What for Brain Mechanisms of Outcome Utilities 330 Brain Mesolimbic Dopamine: Anticipated/Predicted Utility or Pure Decision Utility? 330 Berridge's Incentive Salience Theory: Dopamine as Pure Decision's Critique of the Dopamine Reward-Learning Hypothesis 335 O'Doherty's Response to the Critique of the Reward

Berridge, Kent

450

Fuel cell power plants for electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

Increase in power densities, and lifetime, has made phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC) a possible, viable electric generator. A 4.5MW demonstrator produced by United Technologies has been installed at Con Edison in New York City. Modifications to simplify the process, use commercial parts, improve performance, and create fuel flexibility have been successful. A Fuel Cell Users Group serves as surrogate users, and provides information on applications and benefits of PAFC to utilities. The electric utility market for fuel cells was assessed using the novel ''utility generation expansion model'' and methodology.

Gillis, E.A.; Fickett, A.P.

1983-06-01

451

Penalties for excess capacity in electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

This article tests to determine whether regulated electric utilities are penalized for overinvesting in generating capacity. The ordinary least-squares results indicate that there is a significant inverse relationship between excess capacity and profits. Apparently regulatory and market forces impose penalties upon utilities with excess capacity. Thus, regulatory scrutiny of investment in generating capacity serves not only to simulate competitive market forces under natural monopoly conditions by lowering profits for utilities with redundant capacity but also serves to moderate the Averch-Johnson incentive to pad the rate base with nonproductive capacity.

Humphreys, J.M. (Georgia Economic Forecasting Unit, Div. of Research, Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (US)); Kamerschen, D.R. (Economics Dept., Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (US))

1989-07-01

452

Damping and Structural Control of the JPL Phase 0 Testbed Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes recent advances in structural quieting technology as applied to active truss structures intended for high precision space based optics applica tions. The active structure incorporates piezoelectric active members which exert control forces internal to the structure and thereby improve the structure's dimensional stability. The control architecture involves two layers of feedback control. The first utilizes col located

James L. Fanson; Cheng-Chih Chu; Boris J. Lurie; Roy S. Smith

1991-01-01

453

Child Health USA 2013: Prenatal Care Utilization  

MedlinePLUS

... Accessed: on 7/31/13 ? Back to top Graphs This image is described in the Data section. ... this! Email Print-Friendly Downloads Prenatal Care Utilization Graphs (56k zipped folder of 2 GIFs) Prenatal Care ...

454

Avista Utilities 1411 East Mission Avenue  

E-print Network

management in the healthcare industry. Working as an administrator in the management of large utility and the Ronald McDonald House Charities of the Inland Northwest. Tom's hobbies include music performance

455

Inventories and capacity utilization in general equilibrium  

E-print Network

The primary goal of this dissertation is to gain a better understanding, in thecontext of a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium framework, of the role of inventories and capacity utilization (of both capital and labor) and, in particular...

Trupkin, Danilo Rogelio

2009-05-15

456

Utility FGD survey: January--December 1989  

SciTech Connect

This is Volume 1 of the Utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company.

Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M.

1992-03-01

457

Utility FGD survey, January--December 1988  

SciTech Connect

The Utility FGD Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, systems designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company. Simplified process flow diagrams of FGD systems, definitions, and a glossary of terms are attached to the report. Current data for domestic FGD systems show systems in operation, systems under construction, and systems planned. The current total FGD-controlled capacity in the United States is 67,091 MW.

Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. (IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States)) [IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1991-09-01

458

Successful rehabilitation program rests on service utilization.  

PubMed

An effective rehabilitation strategy is built upon three fundamentals: translating resident needs into delivered services, managing occupancy and marketing programs, and utilizing existing reimbursement mechanisms to ensure profitability of the venture. PMID:10127144

Lane, L

1993-07-01

459

Seattle Public Utilities Natural Drainage Systems (NDS)  

E-print Network

1 Seattle Public Utilities Natural Drainage Systems (NDS) Maintenance Manual #12;2 Revision Date of Natural Drainage System (NDS) Projects. Several non-routine maintenance activities are also included

Tullos, Desiree

460

Utility FGD survey, January--December 1988  

SciTech Connect

The Utility FGD Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company. Simplified process flow diagrams of FGD systems, definitions, and a glossary of terms are attached to the report. Current data for domestic FGD systems show systems in operation, systems under construction, and systems planned. The current total FGD-controlled capacity in the United States is 67,091 MW.

Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. (IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States)) [IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1991-09-01

461

Utility: Recent Theory and Some Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent theoretical advances in multi-attribute utility theory (MAUT) are described, particularly the requirements necessary for its application, and then applications of more or less strict versions of MAUT are described. (Author)

M. D. Deaton

1976-01-01

462

Utility Conservation Programs: Opportunities and Strategies  

E-print Network

(SWOT). This assessment should be done both internally to the utility and externally to the marketplace. Table 1 summarizes the SWOT analysis and provides strong reasons for utility involvement in the promotion of conservation investment... and other types of innovative financing are programs for customers offered by so-called "energy service companies" as well as manufacturers, installers and financiers of energy conservation equipment. These firms typical ly provide one-stop shopping...

Norland, D. L.; Wolf, J. L.

463

Solar energy in Israel: Utilization and research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The State of Israel has been a pioneer in solar energy development and utilization since it was founded. In the 50's, solar domestic hot water heaters (DHWS) became commercially available. At the same time, research work was started in different areas of solar energy, which led to more advanced solar systems for additional applications. The presentation includes some details on commercial utilization of solar energy and a brief description of the main R&D projects in industry, universities and research institutes.

Zvirin, Y.; Zamkow, Sophie

1991-05-01

464

Pulse-jet baghouses for utility applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent technological developments suggest that pulse-jet-cleaned fabric filters have the potential to become the next-generation particulate control technology for the US utility industry. Their small size and modular design offer capital cost savings of up to 40% in comparison with the reverse-gas baghouses commonly used by US utilities. A new EPRI-developed hybrid design combining an electrostatic precipitator and a pulse-jet

2009-01-01

465

Utility FGD survey, January--December 1988  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the status of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) technology as of December 1988. It highlights the status of the electric utility power industry, projected growth of coal-fired power generation, and the current status and future trends in FGD application. Also discussed is the implementation status of other control technologies such as fluidized bed boilers, which utilities may opt for instead of FGD systems. 15 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. (IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States))

1991-09-01

466

Enhanced carbon monoxide utilization in methanation process  

DOEpatents

Carbon monoxide - containing gas streams are passed over a catalyst to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon thereon essentially without the formation of inactive coke. The active carbon is subsequently reacted with steam or hydrogen to form methane. Surprisingly, hydrogen and water vapor present in the feed gas do not adversely affect CO utilization significantly, and such hydrogen actually results in a significant increase in CO utilization.

Elek, Louis F. (Peekskill, NY); Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY)

1984-01-01

467

Cascade multilevel inverters for utility applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cascade multilevel inverters have been developed by the authors for utility applications. A cascade M-level inverter consists of (M-1)\\/2 H-bridges in which each bridge has its own separate DC source. The new inverter: (1) can generate almost sinusoidal waveform voltage while only switching one time per fundamental cycle, (2) can eliminate transformers of multipulse inverters used in conventional utility interfaces

F. Z. Peng; J. W. McKeever; D. J. Adams

1997-01-01

468

Has branding failed the utility industry?  

SciTech Connect

Some flawed, and now discredited, experiments have thrown a shadow over the value of branding in the utility industry. But brands do have power in the energy industry, if they are well conceived and their execution is well supported. Branding has been enthusiastically embraced by those industries that are bearing the brunt of regulatory and technological changes. At the forefront of these are the telecommunications, airlines, financial services, and power utilities industries.

Brew, A. [Addison, New York, NY (United States)] [Addison, New York, NY (United States); [Addison, San Francisco, CA (United States); [Addison, Chicago, IL (United States); Phelps, L. [Phelps Consulting Group (United States)] [Phelps Consulting Group (United States)

1998-11-01

469

Creative utility right-of-way management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utility rights-of-way, representing about four million acres, can be effectively used for compatible purposes. A task force determined that use of easement land on private property would differ from fee-owned land, which can be more readily turned over to recreation and other public uses. A national and international survey of utilities indicates that fee-owned lands are more widely used and

Clemence

1977-01-01

470

Utility fog: A universal physical substance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Active, polymorphic material ('Utility Fog') can be designed as a conglomeration of 100-micron robotic cells ('foglets'). Such robots could be built with the techniques of molecular nanotechnology. Controllers with processing capabilities of 1000 MIPS per cubic micron, and electric motors with power densities of one milliwatt per cubic micron are assumed. Utility Fog should be capable of simulating most everyday materials, dynamically changing its form and properties, and forms a substrate for an integrated virtual reality and telerobotics.

Hall, J. Storrs

1993-01-01

471

Utilities as tax collectors. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

This report looks at taxation of the investor owned electric utility industry. We provide basic data and analysis addressing the question: ''How much of the consumer's electricity bill goes to taxes.'' We further analyze what relationship there might be between state and local taxation and state utility regulation. Although it is very difficult to link basic economic data with taxes by industry, some inferences can be drawn.

Not Available

1986-01-01

472

Gender, social roles and health care utilization  

E-print Network

GENDER, SOCIAL ROLES AND HEALTH CARE UTILIZATION A Thesis by JENNIFER LOUISE DAVID Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December... 1992 Major Subject: Sociology GENDER, SOCIAL ROLES AND HEALTH CARE UTILIZATION A Thesis by JENNIFER LOUISE DAVID Approved as to style and content by: Howard B. Kaplan (Chair of Committee) m. Alex Mclntosh (Member) J oehr (Member) 0 0N...

David, Jennifer Louise

2012-06-07

473

Symbiosis of sea anemones and hermit crabs: different resource utilization patterns in the Aegean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The small-scale distribution and resource utilization patterns of hermit crabs living in symbiosis with sea anemones were investigated in the Aegean Sea. Four hermit crab species, occupying shells of nine gastropod species, were found in symbiosis with the sea anemone Calliactis parasitica. Shell resource utilization patterns varied among hermit crabs, with Dardanus species utilizing a wide variety of shells. The size structure of hermit crab populations also affected shell resource utilization, with small-sized individuals inhabiting a larger variety of shells. Sea anemone utilization patterns varied both among hermit crab species and among residence shells, with larger crabs and shells hosting an increased abundance and biomass of C. parasitica. The examined biometric relationships suggested that small-sized crabs carry, proportionally to their weight, heavier shells and increased anemone biomass than larger ones. Exceptions to the above patterns are related either to local resource availability or to other environmental factors.

Vafeiadou, Anna-Maria; Antoniadou, Chryssanthi; Chintiroglou, Chariton

2012-09-01

474

Integration of photovoltaic units into electric utility grids: experiment information requirements and selected issues  

SciTech Connect

A number of investigations, including those conducted by The Aerospace Corporation and other contractors, have led to the recognition of technical, economic, and institutional issues relating to the interface between solar electric technologies and electric utility systems. These issues derive from three attributes of solar electric power concepts, including (1) the variability and unpredictability of the solar resources, (2) the dispersed nature of those resources which suggests the feasible deployment of small dispersed power units, and (3) a high initial capital cost coupled with relatively low operating costs. It is imperative that these integration issues be pursued in parallel with the development of each technology if the nation's electric utility systems are to effectively utilize these technologies in the near to intermediate term. Analyses of three of these issues are presented: utility information requirements, generation mix and production cost impacts, and rate structures in the context of photovoltaic units integrated into the utility system. (WHK)

Not Available

1980-09-01

475

The use of geospatial web services for exchanging utilities data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geographic information technologies and related geo-information systems currently play an important role in the management of public administration in Poland. One of these tasks is to maintain and update Geodetic Evidence of Public Utilities (GESUT), part of the National Geodetic and Cartographic Resource, which contains an important for many institutions information of technical infrastructure. It requires an active exchange of data between the Geodesy and Cartography Documentation Centers and institutions, which administrate transmission lines. The administrator of public utilities, is legally obliged to provide information about utilities to GESUT. The aim of the research work was to develop a universal data exchange methodology, which can be implemented on a variety of hardware and software platforms. This methodology use Unified Modeling Language (UML), eXtensible Markup Language (XML), and Geography Markup Language (GML). The proposed methodology is based on the two different strategies: Model Driven Architecture (MDA) and Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). Used solutions are consistent with the INSPIRE Directive and ISO 19100 series standards for geographic information. On the basis of analysis of the input data structures, conceptual models were built for both databases. Models were written in the universal modeling language: UML. Combined model that defines a common data structure was also built. This model was transformed into developed for the exchange of geographic information GML standard. The structure of the document describing the data that may be exchanged is defined in the .xsd file. Network services were selected and implemented in the system designed for data exchange based on open source tools. Methodology was implemented and tested. Data in the agreed data structure and metadata were set up on the server. Data access was provided by geospatial network services: data searching possibilities by Catalog Service for the Web (CSW), data collection by Web Feature Service (WFS). WFS provides also operation for modification data, for example to update them by utility administrator. The proposed solution significantly increases the efficiency of data exchange and facilitates maintenance the National Geodetic and Cartographic Resource.

Kuczy?ska, Joanna

2013-04-01

476

Advanced multi-megawatt wind turbine design for utility application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA/DOE program to develop a utility class multimegawatt wind turbine, the MOD-5A, is described. The MOD-5A features a 400 foot diameter rotor which is teetered and positioned upwind of the tower; a 7.3 megawatt power rating with a variable speed electric generating system; and a redundant rotor support and torque transmission structure. The rotor blades were fabricated from an epoxy-bonded wood laminate material which was a successful outgrowth of the MOD-OA airfoil design. Preliminary data from operational tests carried out at the NASA Plumbrook test facility are presented.

Pijawka, W. C.

1984-01-01

477

Evolutionary form-finding of tensegrity structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tensegrity structures are stable 3-dimensional mechanical structures which maintain their form due to an intricate balance of forces between disjoint rigid elements and continuous tensile elements. Tensegrity structures can give rise to lightweight structures with high strength-to-weight ratios and their utility has been appreciated in architecture, engineering and recently robotics. However, the determination of connectivity patterns of the rigid and

Chandana Paul; Hod Lipson; Francisco J. Valero Cuevas

2005-01-01

478

PROBABILISTIC FATIGUE LIFE EVALUATION OF COMPOSITE STRUCTURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods and corresponding computer codes are discussed for probabilistically evaluating composite structural fracture under cyclic fatigue. The progressive fracture of a composite structure under cyclic fatigue is simulated via an innovative approach independent of stress intensity factors and fracture toughness parameters. A computer code is utilized for the simulation of composite structural damage and fracture. Structural degradation response is assessed

Levon Minnetyan; Dade Huang; Christos C. Chamis

2002-01-01

479

Adsorption of Alq3 on Mg(001) surface: Role of chemical bonding, molecular distortion, and van der Waals interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nature of the interaction of tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) with the Mg(001) surface is investigated by means of the van der Waals density functional. We show that there are strong chemical bonds between adsorbate O and substrate Mg atoms. The bonding energy is, however, canceled out by the energy required to distort the molecule and the surface upon adsorption. The van der Waals (vdW) interaction between the ligand and the surface stabilizes the chemisorption state. Our study clarifies the subtle interplay between covalent bonds, vdW attraction, and structural distortion.

Yanagisawa, Susumu; Hamada, Ikutaro; Lee, Kyuho; Langreth, David C.; Morikawa, Yoshitada

2011-06-01

480

Effects of utility DSM programs on risk  

SciTech Connect

Electric utilities face a variety of uncertainties that complicate their long-term resource planning and acquisition. These uncertainties include future economic and load growths, fuel prices, environmental regulations, economic regulations, performance and construction cost of existing power plants, cost and availability of purchased power, and the costs and performance of new demand and supply resources. As utilities increasingly turn to demand-side management (DSM) programs to provide energy and capacity resources, it becomes more important to analyze the interactions between these programs and the uncertainties facing utilities. This report uses a new planning model (DIAMOND, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory) to explore quantitatively the uncertainty imp