Sample records for structure utilizing 8-hydroxyquinoline

  1. Catechol O-methyltransferase. 8. Structure-activity relationships for inhibtion by 8-hydroxyquinolines.

    PubMed

    Borchardt, R T; Thakker, D R; Warner, V D; Mirth, D B; Sane, J N

    1976-04-01

    A series of 5- and 7-substituted 8-hydroxyquinolines was evaluated as inhibitors of catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT, E.C. 2.1.1.6). The electronic character of the substituents in the 5 position appeared to have only a small effect if any on the inhibitory activity of these compounds. A significant factor which contributes to the inhibitory activity of these compounds appears to be the nature of the 7-substituent. The structure-activity relationship for this series of inhibitors is discussed relative to the nature of the enzymatic binding site. PMID:817025

  2. Electronic structure of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum thin films in the pristine and reduced states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, N.; Osada, T.; Stafström, S.; Salaneck, W. R.; Parente, V.; dos Santos, D. A.; Crispin, X.; Brédas, J. L.

    1999-08-01

    The electronic structure of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) has been studied in the pristine molecular solid state as well as upon interaction (doping) with potassium and lithium. We discuss the results of a joint theoretical and experimental investigation, based on a combination of x-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopies with quantum-chemical calculations at the density functional theory level. Upon doping, each electron transferred from an alkali metal atom is stored on one of the three ligands of the Alq3 molecule, resulting in a new spectral feature (peak) in the valence band that evolves uniformly when going from a doping level of one to three metal atoms per Alq3 molecule.

  3. Five 8-hydroxyquinolinate-based coordination polymers with tunable structures and photoluminescent properties for sensing nitroaromatics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liyan; Sun, Liying; Li, Xinyuan; Tian, Yulan; Yuan, Guozan

    2015-01-01

    Using two 8-hydroxyquinolinate ligands (L1-MOM and L2-MOM) containing 3-pyridyl or 4-pyridyl groups, five novel coordination polymers, namely, [Zn3(L1)6] (1), [Zn(L1)2]·2MeOH (2), [Zn(L2)2] (3), [Cd(L2)2] (4), and [Cd4(L1)6]·13H2O (5), were synthesized and characterized by a variety of techniques. Single-crystal X-ray structures have revealed that these coordination polymers exhibit a structural diversification due to the different choices of metal salts and the effect of pyridyl nitrogen position. Compounds 1-5 exhibited different fluorescence emissions and lifetimes upon excitation in the solid state. The sensing behavior of these polymers was also investigated upon exposure to vapors of various nitroaromatic molecules (analytes). The results show that all five polymers are capable of sensing these nitroaromatic molecules in the vapor phase through fluorescence quenching. Interestingly, 3 exhibits superior sensitivity to the analytes in comparison with other polymers. 2-Nitrotoluene quenches the emission of 3 by as much as 96%. PMID:25367871

  4. Quantitative structure-activity relationships for 5-substituted 8-hydroxyquinolines as inhibitors of dental plaque.

    PubMed

    Warner, V D; Musto, J D; Sane, J N; Kim, K H; Grunewald, G L

    1977-01-01

    Fourteen 8-hydroxyquinolines were tested for antiplaque activity by measuring their minimum inhibitory concentrations [MIC (M)] against Streptococcus mutans No. 6715. Linear regression analysis was conducted with the MIC (M) values and hydrophobic (log P), electronic (beta, pKaOH, pKaN), and steric [molar refractivity (MR), molecular weight (mol wt)] parameters. The best correlation (r2 = 0.90) was obtained with MR, log P, and beta. The smaller the steric contribution of the 5-substituent, the more active the compound. The parent 8-hydroxyquinoline was the most active. The negative contribution toward activity by 5-substituents larger than hydrogen can be overcome by the positive contributions of groups that are lipophilic and electron withdrawing; for example, the 5-chloro derivative is as active as the parent 8-hydroxyquinolines. PMID:401891

  5. Soft X-Ray Spectroscopic Studies of the Electronic Structure of Aluminum tris-8-hydroxyquinoline (Alq3)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Demasi; L. F. J. Piper; Y. Zhang; I. Reid; S. Wang; K. E. Smith; J. Downes; N. Peltekis; C. McGuinness; A. Matsuura

    2008-01-01

    The valence and core level electronic structure of the organic semiconductor aluminum tris-8-hydroxyquinoline (Alq3) has been measured using synchrotron radiation-excited resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy (RXES), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Samples were in the form of thin films, grown in-situ in an organic molecular beam deposition chamber attached to the spectrometer system. The films were found to be highly sensitive

  6. 8-Hydroxyquinoline-substituted boron-dipyrromethene compounds: synthesis, structure, and OFF-ON-OFF type of pH-sensing properties.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuting; Wang, Hailong; Wan, Liang; Bian, Yongzhong; Jiang, Jianzhuang

    2011-05-20

    A series of four novel 8-hydroxyquinoline-substituted boron-dipyrromethene derivatives, namely 4,4-difluoro-8-(5-(8-hydroxyquinoline))-3,5-dimethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene (1), 4,4-difluoro-8-(5-(8-hydroxyquinoline))-1,3,5,7-tetramethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene (2), 4,4-difluoro-8-(5-azastyryl-(8-hydroxyquinoline))-3,5-dimethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene (3), and 4,4-difluoro-8-(5-azastyryl-(8-hydroxyquinoline))-1,3,5,7-tetramethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene (4), have been synthesized and characterized by a series of spectroscopic methods. The molecular structures of 1 and 2 have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. The two methyl substituents attached at C-1 and C-7 positions of boron-dipyrromethene (Bodipy) in compound 2 was revealed to prevent the free rotation of the 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) moiety, resulting in an almost vertical 8-HQ-Bodipy configuration of this compound. This is obviously different from those for 1 with the dihedral angle between 8-hydroxyquinoline and Bodipy moieties of 65.44 and 66.79° due to the lack of methyl substituents in the latter compound. The intense fluorescence from the Bodipy subunit of these compounds was revealed to gradually get diminished along with either decreasing or increasing the pH value under acidic and basic conditions, respectively, in particular for 1, 2, and 4 because of the photoinduced intramolecular electron transfer from excited Bodipy moiety to 8-HQ unit and just an opposite process. This renders these compounds the first OFF-ON-OFF type of pH-dependent fluorescent sensors. Nevertheless, both the intrinsic fluorescence of these compounds and their fluorescent quenching properties along with the change in the pH value have been found to depend on the steric configuration as well as the linking group between 8-hydroxyquinoline and Bodipy moieties, revealing the effect of molecular structure on their fluorescence properties. PMID:21476586

  7. Soft x-ray-excited luminescence and optical x-ray absorption fine structures of tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naftel, S. J.; Zhang, P.; Kim, P.-S.; Sham, T. K.; Coulthard, I.; Antel, W. J.; Freeland, J. W.; Frigo, S. P.; Fung, M.-K.; Lee, S. T.; Hu, Y. F.; Yates, B. W.

    2001-03-01

    Photoluminescence from tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) films has been observed using tunable soft x rays as an excitation source. The photons were tuned to energies above and below the K absorption edges of C, N, O, and Al. The luminescence was in turn used to monitor the absorption. It was found that the luminescence induced by soft x ray exhibits additional emission bands at shorter wavelengths compared to ultraviolet excitation. While all K edges exhibit optical x-ray absorption fine structures (XAFS) similar to those of total electron and fluorescence yield, the optical XAFS at the C K-edge resonance are enhanced for the C1s to ?* transitions, indicating site specificity. These observations are attributed to the energetics of the process and the local electronic structure.

  8. Structural and optical properties of ?-phase tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum crystals prepared by using physical vapor deposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Wanfeng; Pang, Zhiyong; Zhao, Yu; Jiang, Feng; Yuan, Huimin; Song, Hui; Han, Shenghao

    2014-10-01

    Crystals of ?-phase tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (?-Alq3) were prepared by using physical vapor deposition (PVD) method in a double zone tube furnace. The structural properties of the ?-Alq3 crystals were investigated by using an X-ray single crystal diffractometer (XSCD) and a high resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM). Large straight steps were observed from the side face of the pine needle-like crystals. The straight steps are parallel with each other like terraces and the widths of the steps are fixed, indicating that the ?-Alq3 crystals may have layered structures. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra at different temperatures (7 K, 66 K, 220 K, 300 K and 350 K) and the absorption spectrum were also investigated. The optical band gap of the ?-Alq3 crystals was calculated to be about 2.82 eV. This value is a little larger than that of amorphous mer-Alq3 (about 2.7 eV), indicating a minimizing of impurities, grain boundaries and defects.

  9. Synthesis, structure and spectroscopic properties of Re(I) complexes incorporating 5-arylazo-8-hydroxyquinoline: a density functional theory/time-dependent density functional theory investigation.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Rupa; Mondal, Pallab; Rajak, Kajal Krishna

    2014-02-21

    Dinuclear rhenium(I) complexes having a fac-[Re(CO)3](+) moiety of general formula fac-[Re2(CO)6(hq)2] have been synthesized in excellent yield by reacting [Re(CO)5Cl] with Hhq in a ratio of 1?:?1 in toluene in an argon atmosphere. Here hq(-) is the deprotonated form of 5-phenylazo-8-hydroxyquinoline (Hhq(1)), 5-(2-naphthylazo)-8-hydroxyquinoline (Hhq(2)) and 5-(2-fluorineazo)-8-hydroxyquinoline (Hhq(3)). The reaction of synthesized dinuclear complexes with imidazole (Im) and N-methylimidazole (N-MeIm) in dry dichloromethane under argon atmosphere afforded the mononuclear complexes of general formula fac-[Re(CO)3(hq)(Im)] and fac-[Re(CO)3(hq)(N-MeIm)] respectively in high yield. The elemental analysis and ESI mass spectroscopic measurements confirm the formation of the desired complexes. Molecular structures of fac-[Re(CO)3(hq(1))(Im)] and fac-[Re(CO)3(hq(1))(N-MeIm)] were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The complexes were also characterized by different spectroscopic techniques. The complexes displayed bathochromically shifted intramolecular charge transfer (CT) bands as compared to complexes with unsubstituted 8-hydroxyquinoline complexes. The ground and excited-state geometries, NMR, absorption, and phosphorescence properties of nine Re(i) complexes were examined by DFT and TDDFT methods. The natural transition orbital (NTO) and spin density difference map analysis reveals the nature of excitations. The lowest lying triplet excited is associated with the (3)IL excited state (ligand-localized) having a cis conformation of the pendant arylazo moiety. The emission-like transition is consistent with the strong (3)ILCT character. PMID:24343365

  10. Structural and vibrational study of 8-hydroxyquinoline-2-carboxaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone--a potential metal-protein attenuating compound (MPAC) for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Leonardo Viana; da Silva, Cecilia C P; Ellena, Javier; Costa, Luiz Antônio Sodré; Rey, Nicolás A

    2013-12-01

    A comprehensive structural and vibrational study of the potential metal-protein attenuating compound 8-hydroxyquinoline-2-carboxaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone is reported. X-ray diffraction data, as well as FT-IR and Raman frequencies, were compared with the respective theoretical values obtained from DFT calculations. Theory agrees well with experiment. In this context, an attempt of total assignment concerning the FT-IR and Raman spectra of the title compound was performed, shedding new light on previous partial assignments published elsewhere. PMID:23896296

  11. Combined effects of one 8-hydroxyquinoline/picolinate and "CH"/N substitutions on the geometry, electronic structure and optical properties of mer-Alq(3).

    PubMed

    Gahungu, Godefroid; Zhang, Jingping; Ntakarutimana, Vestine; Gahungu, Nestor

    2010-01-14

    With the aim of evaluating the combined effect of one 8-hydroxyquinoline (q)/picolinate (p) and "CH"/N substitutions on the molecular geometry, electronic structure, and optical properties of tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum [Alq(3)], the density functional theory (B3LYP) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-B3LYP), using the 6-31G(d) and 3-21+G(d,p) basis sets were applied on Alq(3), Alq(2)p, and its "CH"/N-substitution derivatives. A comparison of the optimized ground-state (S(0)) geometries has shown that the molecular shape is conserved upon such a substitution. On the basis of the frontier molecular orbital and gap energy (E(g)) calculations, it was shown that, comparatively to the pristine Alq(2)p (and to the original parent Alq(3)), the HOMO and LUMO are stabilized, the net effect being an increasing or a decreasing E(g), depending on the position of the substituted group. The substitution of q(B) by p (from Alq(3) to Alq(2)p) was also found to induce the same feature. Starting from the S(0) and S(1) (first excited state) geometries, the effect of the substitution on the absorption (and emission) spectra was evaluated. It was found that the "CH"/N substitution in different positions on the two 8-hydroxyquinoline ligands may also constitute an efficient approach of tuning the Alq(2)p emitting color. In comparison with both Alq(3) and Alq(2)p, an important blue shift was predicted for the 5-substituted derivative, an important red shift being observed for the 4-substituted one. Also, relatively significant blue and red shifts were predicted for the 7- and 2-substituted derivatives. Finally, revisiting the correlation between the spectrum shifts and the metal-ligand bonding, our recent findings (2) were confirmed. PMID:19904976

  12. Electronic structure of the organic semiconductor Alq3 (aluminum tris-8-hydroxyquinoline) from soft x-ray spectroscopies and density functional theory calculations.

    PubMed

    DeMasi, A; Piper, L F J; Zhang, Y; Reid, I; Wang, S; Smith, K E; Downes, J E; Peltekis, N; McGuinness, C; Matsuura, A

    2008-12-14

    The element-specific electronic structure of the organic semiconductor aluminum tris-8-hydroxyquinoline (Alq(3)) has been studied using a combination of resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Resonant and nonresonant x-ray emission spectroscopy were used to measure directly the carbon, nitrogen and oxygen 2p partial densities of states in Alq(3), and good agreement was found with the results of DFT calculations. Furthermore, resonant x-ray emission at the carbon K-edge is shown to be able to measure the partial density of states associated with individual C sites. Finally, comparison of previous x-ray emission studies and the present data reveal the presence of clear photon-induced damage in the former. PMID:19071937

  13. Effect of thermal annealing on the structural and optical properties of tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum(III) (Alq3 ) films.

    PubMed

    Cuba, M; Muralidharan, G

    2014-07-18

    Tris-(8-hydroxyquionoline)aluminum (Alq3 ) was synthesized and coated on to a glass substrate using the dip coating method. The structural and optical properties of the Alq3 film after thermal annealing from 50°C to 300°C in 50° steps was studied. The films have been prepared with 2 to 16 layers (42-324 nm). The thickness and thermal annealing of Alq3 films were optimized for maximum luminescence yield. The Fourier transform infrared spectrum confirms the formation of quinoline with absorption in the region 700?-?500/cm. Partial sublimation and decomposition of quinoline ion was observed with the Alq3 films annealed at 300°C. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the Alq3 film annealed at 50°C to 150°C reveals the amorphous nature of the films. The Alq3 film annealed above 150°C were crystalline nature. Film annealed at 150°C exhibits a photoluminescence intensity maximum at 512 nm when excited at 390 nm. The Alq3 thin film deposited with 10 layers (220 nm) at 150°C exhibited maximum luminescence yield. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25044340

  14. Photoemission study of the electronic structures of tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum/Li2O/Al interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, K.; Cho, S. W.; Whang, C.-N.; Jeong, K.; Kang, S. J.; Yi, Y.

    2007-09-01

    The electronic structures of tris-(8-hydroquinoline) aluminum (Alq3)/Li2O/Al interfaces were studied using in situ ultraviolet and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopies (UPS and XPS). The UPS and XPS spectra allowed us to evaluate the complete energy level diagrams and to analyze the chemical interactions at the interfaces. Inserting Li2O between Al and Alq3 led to the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of Alq3 shifting to a higher binding energy compared to that without Li2O, which resulted in an improved electron injection. We also observed that the magnitude of the secondary cutoff shift was almost identical to that of the HOMO shift with the insertion of Li2O. This implies that the energy level alignment depends on the interface dipole and ionization energy of the adsorbate. Additionally, a gap state was observed in the gap of Alq3, which is related to the interfacial reaction. The N 1s spectra revealed that there were destructive chemical reactions between Alq3 and Al, which could be prevented by inserting Li2O between them.

  15. Luminance mechanisms in green organic light-emitting devices fabricated utilizing tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum/4,7-diphenyl-1, 10-phenanthroline multiple heterostructures acting as an electron transport layer.

    PubMed

    Choo, Dong Chul; Seo, Su Yul; Kim, Tae Whan; Jin, You Young; Seo, Ji Hyun; Kim, Young Kwan

    2010-05-01

    The electrical and the optical properties in green organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) fabricated utilizing tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3)/4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BPhen) multiple heterostructures acting as an electron transport layer (ETL) were investigated. The operating voltage of the OLEDs with a multiple heterostructure ETL increased with increasing the number of the Alq3/BPhen heterostructures because more electrons were accumulated at the Alq3/BPhen heterointerfaces. The number of the leakage holes existing in the multiple heterostructure ETL of the OLEDs at a low voltage range slightly increased due to an increase of the internal electric field generated from the accumulated electrons at the Alq3/BPhen heterointerface. The luminance efficiency of the OLEDs with a multiple heterostructure ETL at a high voltage range became stabilized because the increase of the number of the heterointerface decreased the quantity of electrons accumulated at each heterointerface. PMID:20359011

  16. Investigating the activity spectrum for ring-substituted 8-hydroxyquinolines.

    PubMed

    Musiol, Robert; Jampilek, Josef; Nycz, Jacek E; Pesko, Matus; Carroll, James; Kralova, Katarina; Vejsova, Marcela; O'Mahony, Jim; Coffey, Aidan; Mrozek, Anna; Polanski, Jaroslaw

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a series of fourteen ring-substituted 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives were prepared. The synthesis procedures are presented. The compounds were analyzed using RP-HPLC to determine lipophilicity. They were tested for their activity related to inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport (PET) in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) chloroplasts. Primary in vitro screening of the synthesized compounds was also performed against four mycobacterial strains and against eight fungal strains. Several compounds showed biological activity comparable with or higher than the standards isoniazid or fluconazole. For all the compounds, the relationships between the lipophilicity and the chemical structure of the studied compounds are discussed. PMID:20110891

  17. 8-Hydroxyquinoline derivatives induce the proliferation of rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs).

    PubMed

    Zeng, He-Ping; Wang, Ting-Ting; Ouyang, Xin-Hua; Zhou, Ya-Dong; Jing, Hui-Lian; Yuan, Guo-Zan; Chen, Dong-Feng; Du, Shao-Hui; Li, Hui; Zhou, Jian-Hong

    2006-08-15

    A series of 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives with different substituted groups at 2- or 5-position have been synthesized and characterized. Their effects on the proliferation of the rat marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) have been evaluated by MTT assay and flow cytometry. We also analyzed the ability of these compounds to regulate the proliferation of rMSCs and the relationship with the structures of 8-hydroxyquinoline. Compounds 8-11, in which, the vinyl-substituents are on the 2-position of 8-hydroxyquinoline, appear to be able to induce the proliferation of rMSCs. These results show that compounds 8-11 provide a kind of new substances for regulating the proliferation of rMSCs. PMID:16730996

  18. Photoelectron spectroscopy studies on the electronic structures of Al/RbF and Al/CaF2 cathodes for 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminium-based organic light-emitting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Park, Y.; Kim, D. Y.

    2002-12-01

    The electronic structures of Al/RbF/8-hydroxyquinoline aluminium (Alq3) and Al/CaF2/Alq3 interfaces were investigated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). For both systems, the UPS showed that a significant valence band shift occurred by evaporating the thin fluoride layer on Alq3. However, the gap state formation and the evolution of N 1s core level spectra showed rather different trends, suggesting that the alkali fluoride and alkali-earth fluoride interlayer have different reaction mechanisms at the interface with the Al cathode. In addition, the deposition of Al has considerably less effect on the valence band shift compared to the deposition of both RbF and CaF2. These results suggest that the complex charge transfer mechanism across the interface has considerably less effect on the enhancement of organic light-emitting device performance than the significant valence band shift as a result of deposition of interlayer materials.

  19. Polydentate analogues of 8-hydroxyquinoline and their complexes with ruthenium.

    PubMed

    El Ojaimi, Maya; Thummel, Randolph P

    2011-11-01

    Selective reduction of 2-nitro-3-methoxybenzaldehyde provides 2-amino-3-methoxybenzaldehyde that undergoes the Friedländer condensation with a variety of acetyl-substituted derivatives of pyridine and 1,10-phenanthroline. After cleavage of the methyl ether, the resulting polydentate analogues of 8-hydroxyquinoline are excellent ligands for ruthenium. The resulting oxidation state of the metal center depends on the anionic character of the ligands. The presence of two electron donating anionic ligands results in a Ru(III) complex as evidenced by paramagnetic NMR behavior. The electronic absorption and redox properties of the complexes were measured and found to be consistent with the anionic character of the 8-HQ moieties. A planar pentadentate ligand provides two Ru-O and two Ru-N bonds in the equatorial plane. An X-ray structure shows that the central pyridine of the ligand is oriented toward the metal but held at a distance of 2.44 Å. PMID:21985103

  20. Space-charge-limited electron currents in 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stößel, M.; Staudigel, J.; Steuber, F.; Blässing, J.; Simmerer, J.; Winnacker, A.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate electron injection and transport in single-layer devices of 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum sandwiched between two electrodes. Electrodes comprising a thin lithium fluoride layer are compared with co-evaporated magnesium-silver cathodes and with pure aluminum cathodes. By employing both transient and quasistatic current measurements, the impact of the LiF-layer thickness on electron injection is investigated. It is demonstrated that contacts comprising 0.1-0.2 nm LiF and an aluminum capping layer are able to sustain space-charge-limited currents in 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum. Further, steady-state current-voltage measurements as a function of temperature are discussed with respect to trap distributions in 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum.

  1. Synthesis and biological activity of some 5-substituted aminomethyl-8-hydroxyquinoline-7-sulphonic acids.

    PubMed

    Yanni, A S; Mohharam, A M

    1990-01-01

    5-Aryl (or alkyl)-8-hydroxyquinoline-7-sulphonic acids have been prepared by the Mannich reaction of 8-hydroxyquinoline-7-sulphonic acid with primary and secondary amines. Their bactericidal activities have been determined. PMID:1367477

  2. Synthesis and in vitro evaluation of 8-hydroxyquinoline analogs as inhibitors of dental plaque.

    PubMed

    Warner, V D; Sane, J N; Mirth, D B; Turesky, S S; Soloway, B

    1976-01-01

    A group of 5-substituted 8-hydroxyquinolines with predicted log P values in the 1-4 range has been prepared from either 8-hydroxyquinoline or its appropriate derivative. 5-Formyl-, 5-iodo-, 5-fluoro-, 5-acetyl-, and 5-methoxymethyl-8-hydroxyquinoline in addition to methyl-5(8-hydroxyquinolyl)acetate and ethyl 5-(8-hydroxyquinolyl)acetate displayed greater in vitro antiplaque activity than 8-hydroxyquinoline. PMID:812992

  3. Electron injection and transport in 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Stößel; J Staudigel; F Steuber; J Blässing; J Simmerer; A Winnacker; H Neuner; D Metzdorf; H.-H Johannes; W Kowalsky

    2000-01-01

    We have measured the current–voltage characteristics and device efficiency of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum (Alq3) in combination with several cathode layer setups. The electron injection properties of cathode metals evaporated under high vacuum (HV) and ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions are compared. Further, cathodes incorporating a thin layer of lithium fluoride, which is covered with a

  4. Space-charge-limited electron currents in 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Stößel; J. Staudigel; F. Steuber; J. Blässing; J. Simmerer; A. Winnacker

    2000-01-01

    We investigate electron injection and transport in single-layer devices of 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum sandwiched between two electrodes. Electrodes comprising a thin lithium fluoride layer are compared with co-evaporated magnesium-silver cathodes and with pure aluminum cathodes. By employing both transient and quasistatic current measurements, the impact of the LiF-layer thickness on electron injection is investigated. It is demonstrated that contacts comprising 0.1-0.2

  5. Uptake of 63Ni2+ in the central and peripheral nervous system of mice after oral administration: effects of treatments with halogenated 8-hydroxyquinolines.

    PubMed

    Borg, K; Tjälve, H

    1989-01-01

    Oral administration of 63Ni2+ to mice resulted in higher levels of the metal in the sciatic nerves, the trigeminal ganglia, spinal nerve roots and the spinal cord than in the cerebellum and the frontal cortex. In the sciatic nerves, the trigeminal ganglia and the spinal nerve roots a high vascular permeability may explain the preferential uptake of the 63Ni2+. The higher accumulation of the 63Ni2+ in the spinal cord than in the examined structures of the brain may be related to a diffusion from the cerebrospinal fluid. Administrations of halogenated 8-hydroxyquinolines [5,7-diiodo-8-hydroxyquinoline (diI-HQ), 5,7-dibromo-8-hydroxyquinoline (diBr-HQ), 5,7-dichloro-8-hydroxyquinoline (diCl-HQ) or 5-chloro-7-iodo-8-hydroxyquinoline (Cl-I-HQ)] together with the 63Ni2+ resulted in increased levels of the metal both in neural and extraneural tissues in comparison with mice given the 63Ni2+ alone. In most instances the tissue-levels of 63Ni2+ were 2-4 times higher in the animals treated with the halogenated 8-hydroxyquinolines than in the controls. Determinations of chloroform/water partition coefficients showed that lipophilic chelates are formed between each of these compounds and the nickel. Our results are probably explained by a facilitated passage of the complexed metal over the walls of the stomach and the intestine. The halogenated 8-hydroxyquinolines are linked with the SMON-syndrome, a disease which occurred primarily in Japan. The possibility that this syndrome may be causally connected with a concomitant intake of these drugs and metals is discussed. PMID:2916242

  6. Spin Polarization Properties of Na Doped Meridianal Tris(8-Hydroxyquinoline) Aluminum Studied by First Principles Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jun-Feng; Yuan, Xiao-Bo; Hu, Gui-Chao

    2014-04-01

    We theoretically investigate the electronic structure and spin polarization properties of Na-doped meridianal tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) by first principles calculations. It is found that the spin density is distributed mainly in the Alq3 part in the Alq3:Na complex. Electron charge transfer takes place from the Na atom to the Alq3 molecule, which induces asymmetric changing of the molecule bond lengths, thus the spin density distribution becomes asymmetric. Spin polarization of the complex originates from the preferable filling of the spin-split nitrogen and carbon p-orbitals because of the different bond length changes of the Alq3 molecule upon Na doping.

  7. 8-Hydroxyquinolines: a review of their metal chelating properties and medicinal applications

    PubMed Central

    Prachayasittikul, Veda; Prachayasittikul, Supaluk; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2013-01-01

    Metal ions play an important role in biological processes and in metal homeostasis. Metal imbalance is the leading cause for many neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and multiple sclerosis. 8-Hydroxyquinoline (8HQ) is a small planar molecule with a lipophilic effect and a metal chelating ability. As a result, 8HQ and its derivatives hold medicinal properties such as antineurodegenerative, anticancer, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic activities. Herein, diverse bioactivities of 8HQ and newly synthesized 8HQ-based compounds are discussed together with their mechanisms of actions and structure–activity relationships. PMID:24115839

  8. Experimental and Theoretical Study of O-Substituent Effect on the Fluorescence of 8-Hydroxyquinoline

    PubMed Central

    Zayed, Mohie E. M.; El-Shishtawy, Reda M.; Elroby, Shaaban A.; Obaid, Abdullah Y.; Al-amshany, Zahra M.

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of different ether and ester derivatives of 8-hydroxyquinoline have been made. UV-visible and fluorescence spectra of these compounds have revealed spectral dependence on both solvent and O-substituent. The fluorescence intensity of ether derivatives revealed higher intensity for 8-octyloxyquinoline compared with 8-methoxyquinoline, whereas those of ester derivatives had less fluorescence than 8-hydroxyquinoline. Theoretical calculations based on Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) were carried out for the quinolin-8-yl benzoate(8-OateQ) compound to understand the effect of O-substituent on the electronic absorption of 8-hydroxyquinaline (8-HQ). The calculations revealed comparable results with those obtained from the experimental data. Optimized geometrical structure was calculated with DFT at B3LYP/6-311++G** level of theory. The results indicated that 8-OateQ is not a coplanar structure. The absorption spectra of the compound were computed in gas-phase and solvent using B3LYP and CAM-B3LYP methods with 6-311++G ** basis set. The agreement between calculated and experimental wavelengths was very good at CAM-B3LYP/6-311++G** level of theory. PMID:25674853

  9. Re-condensation and decomposition of Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)-aluminum in a vapor transport ampoule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Fan-Hsuan; Lin, Ku-Yen; Jan, Da-Jeng; Tang, Shiow-Jing; Yang, Chun-Chuen; Lin, Chia-Her; Yeh, Jui-Ming; Chiu, Kuan-Cheng

    2012-10-01

    By choosing various crystalline forms of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)-aluminum (Alq3) source powders and using different transport gases under various inside-pressures pin, two constitutional supersaturation (CSS) zones were observed in a vapor transport ampoule with a source temperature of 300 °C and a growth period of 5.0 h. From UV-visible spectra, the material in the lower CSS zone (with sidewall temperature Tside?130-270 °C) was the re-condensed Alq3, while that in the upper zone (Tside around room temperature) was the decomposed 8-hydroxyquinoline (8Hq). With increasing pin from 1.3×102 to 9.3×104 Pa, the decomposition of Alq3 into 8Hq was enhanced, and the deposition of 8Hq CSS zone became apparent with the formation of several 8Hq needle crystals. In addition, a dependence of the crystal structure formed in the Alq3 CSS zone on the initial phase of the source powder was observed and discussed.

  10. Determination of uranium(VI) and thorium(IV) complexes of 5-chloro-7-amino-8-hydroxyquinoline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Ünak; T. Özkayalar; D. Özdemir; F. Yurt

    1995-01-01

    5-Chloro-7-amino-8-hydroxyquinoline which is a 8-hydroxyquinoline derivative was synthesized and its thorium(IV) and uranium(VI) complexes have been determined. 5-Chloro-7-nitro-8-hydroxyquinoline was prepared by nitration reaction of 5-chloro-8-hydroxyquinoline in aqueous solution of nitric acid. Then 5-chloro-7-amino-8-hydroxyquinoline was synthesized by reduction with sodium dithionite. Proton-ligand stability constants of 5-chloro-7-amino-8-hydroxyquinoline and stability constants of thorium(IV) and uranium(VI) complexes forming this ligand were determined by using

  11. Polynorbornene derived 8-hydroxyquinoline paper strips for ultrasensitive chemical nerve agent surrogate sensing.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Santu; Shunmugam, Raja

    2014-08-11

    The detection of nerve agent simulants is achieved by the photoinduced electron transfer (PET) mechanism. A "turn-on" fluorescence response upon phosphorylation at 8-hydroxyquinoline of norbornene-based triazolyl functionalized 8-hydroxyquinoline () followed by intramolecular rearrangement provides very intense green emission. The detection limit of polymer () coated paper strips is 25 ppb with instantaneous response. PMID:24948420

  12. Molecular Orbital Study of the First Excited State of the OLED Material Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum(III)

    E-print Network

    Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    Molecular Orbital Study of the First Excited State of the OLED Material Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum, Michigan 48202 Received February 6, 2001. Revised Manuscript Received May 16, 2001 Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum

  13. Photoemission study of aluminum/tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum and aluminum/LiF/tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Quoc Toan; Yan, Li; Gao, Yongli; Mason, M. G.; Giesen, D. J.; Tang, C. W.

    2000-01-01

    We have investigated the interfaces of aluminum on tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) and aluminum on LiF/Alq3, using x-ray and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS). Aluminum appears to react destructively with Alq3 causing significant modification of the oxygen, nitrogen, and aluminum spectra. The well-defined UPS spectrum of Alq3 is quickly destroyed by very low coverages of aluminum. With only a 5 Å layer of LiF on the Alq3, the reaction with aluminum is significantly suppressed. The Alq3 molecular orbital features in the UPS shift to higher binding energy but remain easily recognizable. In addition, a well-defined gap-state forms which is significantly different from that produced without LiF. Both the core-level spectra and the gap-state suggest that the Alq3 anion is formed in the presence of aluminum and LiF.

  14. Interface formation between tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum and ZnO nanowires and film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jung Han; Shin, Jeong Ho; Song, Jae Yong; Yi, Yeonjin

    2010-12-01

    The energy level alignments at the interface between tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) and ZnO nanowires and thin film were studied with in situ x-ray and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy. The changes of work functions, highest occupied molecular orbitals, and core levels were measured with step-by-step deposition of Alq3 on each ZnO substrate. Although both substrates show similar electronic structures, a larger interface dipole is induced at the interface between Alq3 and ZnO nanowires. This results in the reduction of the electron injection barrier at the interface of Alq3/ZnO nanowires. Thus, the ZnO nanowire substrate is expected to show better performance than that of ZnO film when used as a cathode. We discussed the different interface dipole formation at each interface.

  15. Synthesis and photophysical properties of aluminium tris-(4-morpholine-8-hydroxyquinoline)

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Walaa A.E.

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium tris(4-morpholinyl-8-hydroxyquinoline) has been synthesized and characterized. The photoluminescence measurements showed that the new derivative is blue shifted and has relative photoluminescence quantum yield two times higher compared to the pristine Al tris(8-hydroxyquinoline). Deferential scanning colorimetric studies revealed that the newly synthesized Alq3 derivative in this work is amorphous material with the highest transition glass temperature value among the reported amorphous Alq3 derivatives. PMID:25685461

  16. Synthesis and photophysical properties of aluminium tris-(4-morpholine-8-hydroxyquinoline).

    PubMed

    Omar, Walaa A E

    2013-11-01

    Aluminium tris(4-morpholinyl-8-hydroxyquinoline) has been synthesized and characterized. The photoluminescence measurements showed that the new derivative is blue shifted and has relative photoluminescence quantum yield two times higher compared to the pristine Al tris(8-hydroxyquinoline). Deferential scanning colorimetric studies revealed that the newly synthesized Alq3 derivative in this work is amorphous material with the highest transition glass temperature value among the reported amorphous Alq3 derivatives. PMID:25685461

  17. Synthesis of some 5-azo(4'-substituted benzene-sulphamoyl)-8-hydroxyquinolines with antidotal and antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Awad, I M; Aly, A A; Abdel-Alim, A M; Abdel-Aal, R A; Ahmed, S H

    1988-06-01

    5-Azo(4'-substituted benzenesulphamoyl)-8-hydroxyquinolines(III) have been prepared by coupling of the appropriate p-substituted benzenesulphamoyldiazonium acetates with 8-hydroxyquinoline. The corresponding copper chelates(IV) and iron chelates(V) were also prepared in a 1:2 metal to ligand ratio. Structures of III, IV and V were confirmed by some representative UV, IR, and NMR spectrometry in addition to microanalysis. Antidotal activity of four ligands (IIIa, IIId, IIIf, and IIIi) has been evaluated in mice against the toxicity of lead acetate and copper sulphate. Study revealed that compound IIIf elicited significant antidotal activity against lead and copper poisoning, while IIIi was potent only against lead poisoning. Antibacterial activity of compounds III, IV, and V was also determined in comparison to sulphanilamide against Staph. aureus, Bacill. cereus, and Esch. coli. The test compounds showed variable bacteriostatic activities, and some of them (IIIc, IIId, IIIf, Ve, IIIg, and Vi) are more effective than the reference drug, especially against Bacill. cereus. PMID:3137314

  18. Zinc8-hydroxyquinoline intercalated in calcium bentonite: A promising DO sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nitikorn Chuekuna; Atchana Wongchaisuwat; Ladda Meesuk

    2010-01-01

    Zn(II) and 8-hydroxyquinoline were made to react in an in situ solid?solid reaction in the interlayer space of Ca-bentonite from Thailand, resulting in [Zn(8-hydroxyquinoline)2]2+, the well known –Znq2. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the interlayer space of the bentonite increased from 1.56 to 1.67nm on going from Zn(II)-bentonite to Znq2-bentonite, which confirmed the intercalation of Znq2 in bentonite. The intercalated

  19. Influence of high hydrostatic pressure on Alq3, Gaq3, and Inq3 (q = 8-hydroxyquinoline).

    PubMed

    Hernández, Ignacio; Gillin, William P

    2009-10-29

    We have studied the spectroscopic properties of OLED materials Alq(3), Gaq(3) and Inq(3) (q = 8-hydroxyquinoline) under pressure. We discuss the results in terms of the influence of structural modifications, the isomeric state and the enhancement of the intermolecular interaction. As-grown Alq(3), Gaq(3), Inq(3) containing meridional (mer) isomer experience a red shift of nearly 90 nm (2400 cm(-1)) in the 0-8 GPa range. Abrupt changes in the photoluminescence occur during compression at intermediate pressures for all materials. We assign them to a phase transition, its critical pressure depending on the central cation. All three samples experience an amorphization at P approximately 6 GPa, with associated changes in the spectroscopic properties. The pressure-induced phase transitions present hysteresis to ambient conditions. Photoluminescence lifetime decreases in all cases in the explored pressure range. In the case of facial isomer containing polymorphs of Alq(3), luminescence does not change its energy significantly. The most significant spectroscopic change observed in fac-isomer containing materials corresponds to gamma-Alq(3), which presents a low energy component that gains relative importance when pressure is increased. We ascribe this phenomenon to the presence of sensitized mer isomer impurities. PMID:19795819

  20. Self-assembly of 2-aldehyde-8-hydroxyquinolinate-based lanthanide complexes and NIR luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Meiqi; Li, Hongfeng; Chen, Peng; Sun, Wenbin; Zhang, Lei; Yan, Pengfei

    2015-02-01

    Self-assembly reaction of 2-aldehyde-8-hydroxyquinoline, tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane and LnCl3?6H2O affords a series of mononuclear lanthanide complexes Ce(baho)2·Et2O (1) (H2baho = 2,8-bis(2-(8-hydroxylquinolinyl))-1-aza-5-hydroxymethyl-3,7-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane), Dy(nhm)2Cl·0.5H2O (2) and Ln(nhm)2Cl·0.5C6H14 (Ln = Ho (3), Er (4), Yb (5) and Hnhm = N-(2-(8-hydroxylquinolinyl)methylene)(trishydroxymethyl)methylamine. The crystal structures have been determined by X-ray crystallographic analysis, and the tetravalence of Ce in 1 has been proven by XPS. Interestingly, the positive charge of Ce4+ ion in 1 is neutralized by two deprotonated baho2- ligands, while two deprotonated nhm- ligands and one Cl- compensate the positive charge of Ln3+ ions in 2-5. Complex 5 exhibit essential NIR luminescence of Yb3+ ion with lifetime of 17.64 ?s in solid and 9.96 ?s in CH3OH solution.

  1. Synthesis, characterization and DFT calculation of 4-fluorophenyl substituted tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum(III) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suliman, FakhrEldin O.; Al-Nafai, Isehaq; Al-Busafi, Saleh N.

    2014-01-01

    New 4-fluorophenyl substituted 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives, 5-(4-fluorophenyl)quinolin-8-ol and 5,7-bis(4-fluorophenyl)quinolin-8-ol, were synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic methods. The aluminum complexes of 5-(4-fluorophenyl)quinolin-8-ol (AlQF) and of 5,7-bis(4-fluorophenyl)quinolin-8-ol (AlQF2) exhibit strong fluorescence emission centered at 525 nm and 530 nm respectively. The quantum yield of both complexes were enhanced compared to the parent tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminum(III) complex. Electronic structures and photophysical properties of the new complexes were investigated theoretically by ab initio and density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent DFT (TD-DFT). Geometries of the ground state (S0) and the first excited state (S1) of the new complexes were optimized at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) functional and configuration interaction singles (CIS) method respectively. The aryl substituents were found to contribute significantly to the frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs). We have observed that in both cases the lowest occupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy decreases while the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital is slightly increased. The most significant increase was observed for AlQF2.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and DFT calculation of 4-fluorophenyl substituted tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Suliman, Fakhreldin O; Al-Nafai, Isehaq; Al-Busafi, Saleh N

    2014-01-24

    New 4-fluorophenyl substituted 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives, 5-(4-fluorophenyl)quinolin-8-ol and 5,7-bis(4-fluorophenyl)quinolin-8-ol, were synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic methods. The aluminum complexes of 5-(4-fluorophenyl)quinolin-8-ol (AlQF) and of 5,7-bis(4-fluorophenyl)quinolin-8-ol (AlQF2) exhibit strong fluorescence emission centered at 525 nm and 530 nm respectively. The quantum yield of both complexes were enhanced compared to the parent tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminum(III) complex. Electronic structures and photophysical properties of the new complexes were investigated theoretically by ab initio and density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent DFT (TD-DFT). Geometries of the ground state (S0) and the first excited state (S1) of the new complexes were optimized at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) functional and configuration interaction singles (CIS) method respectively. The aryl substituents were found to contribute significantly to the frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs). We have observed that in both cases the lowest occupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy decreases while the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital is slightly increased. The most significant increase was observed for AlQF2. PMID:24036308

  3. Photoluminescence quenching of tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum thin films at interfaces with metal oxide films of different conductivities

    E-print Network

    . INTRODUCTION Metal oxide thin films have long been used as transparent electrodes in organic optoelectronic measure for evaporated thin films of tris- 8- hydroxyquinoline aluminum Alq3 on top of tin-oxide SnO2Photoluminescence quenching of tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum thin films at interfaces

  4. In vitro studies on the antioxidant and protective effect of 2-substituted -8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives against H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress in BMSCs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting-Ting; Zeng, Gong-Chang; Li, Xi-Can; Zeng, He-Ping

    2010-02-01

    Novel 2-vinyl-8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives as potential antioxidants and regulators of H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress in rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are first reported. The antiradical properties and the reducing power of these compounds were assessed using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and auto-oxidation of pyrogallol method, respectively. The activity against lipid peroxidation was determined using ammonium thiocyanate method. The results revealed that introduction of electron-donating groups at 2nd position decreased the antioxidant activities of 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives. In addition, compound 4, the structure of which is similar to melatonin, exhibited superior antioxidant activities in scavenging DPPH free radical, O(2) free radical, and anti-LPO activities. Except for compounds 7, 12, and 15, the other compounds exhibited a stimulatory effect on MSCs growth. Using hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), we also investigated the protective efficacy of 2-vinyl-8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives against oxidative stress-induced cell death of MSCs. Cell viability assayed by MTT method indicated that exposure of MSCs cultures to hydrogen peroxide resulted in a concentration-dependent decrease in cell viability, and compounds 4 and 5 at given concentration (2.62 x 10(-3) m) could protect MSCs against H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress in bone mesenchymal stem cell (BMSCs). PMID:20028394

  5. Synthesis of Red-Shifted 8-Hydroxyquinoline Derivatives Using Click Chemistry and Their Incorporation into Phosphorylation Chemosensors

    PubMed Central

    González-Vera, Juan A.; Lukovi?, Elvedin; Imperiali, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is a ubiquitous post-translational modification and protein kinases, the enzymes that catalyze the phosphoryl transfer, are involved in nearly every aspect of normal, as well as aberrant, cell function. Here we describe the synthesis of novel, red-shifted 8-hydroxyquinoline-based fluorophores and their incorporation into peptidyl kinase activity reporters. Replacement of the sulfonamide group of the sulfonamido-oxine (1, Sox) chromophore, which has been previously used in kinase sensing, by a 1,4-substituted-triazole moiety, via click chemistry, resulted in a significant bathochromic shift in the fluorescence excitation (15 nm) and emission (40 nm) maxima for the Mg2+ chelate. Furthermore, when a click derivative was incorporated into a chemosensor for MK2, the kinase accepted the new substrate as efficiently as the previously reported Sox-based sensor. Taken together, these results extend the utility range of kinase sensors that are based on chelation-enhanced fluorescence (CHEF). PMID:19725503

  6. Synthesis of red-shifted 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives using click chemistry and their incorporation into phosphorylation chemosensors.

    PubMed

    González-Vera, Juan A; Lukovi?, Elvedin; Imperiali, Barbara

    2009-10-01

    Protein phosphorylation is a ubiquitous post-translational modification, and protein kinases, the enzymes that catalyze the phosphoryl transfer, are involved in nearly every aspect of normal, as well as aberrant, cell function. Here we describe the synthesis of novel, red-shifted 8-hydroxyquinoline-based fluorophores and their incorporation into peptidyl kinase activity reporters. Replacement of the sulfonamide group of the sulfonamido-oxine (1, Sox) chromophore, which has been previously used in kinase sensing, by a 1,4-substituted triazole moiety prepared via click chemistry resulted in a significant bathochromic shift in the fluorescence excitation (15 nm) and emission (40 nm) maxima for the Mg(2+) chelate. Furthermore, when a click derivative was incorporated into a chemosensor for MK2, the kinase accepted the new substrate as efficiently as the previously reported Sox-based sensor. Taken together, these results extend the utility range of kinase sensors that are based on chelation-enhanced fluorescence (CHEF). PMID:19725503

  7. Effects of 2-amino-8-hydroxyquinoline interaction on the conformation of physiological isomers of human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Shiriskar, Sonali M; Agarwal, Neeraj; Pissurlenkar, Raghuvir R S; Ahmad, Basir

    2015-05-01

    The methods of synthetic chemistry create small molecules rapidly for screening, and ligand-protein interaction studies provide information on how a potential drug interacts with target or carrier proteins such as serum albumin. In this work, we investigate the interaction of amino derivative of 8-hydroxyquinoline, 2-amino-8-hydroxyquinoline (A8HQ), and the effects of its binding on the conformation of different isomers of human serum albumin (HSA) using multispectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling. We found that B isomer, which exists at pH 9, bound A8HQ (K a = 1.92 ± 0.07 × 10(5) M(-1) at 298 K) more strongly as compared with N isomer (K a = 1.19 ± 0.04 × 10(5) M(-1) at 298 K) of HSA, which is known to exist around pH 6. The binding constant at physiological pH (7.4) was also determined, and the value (K a = 1.38 ± 0.05 × 10(5) M(-1) at 298 K) was found to fall between those for N and B isomers, suggesting that both the N and B isomers exist in an equilibrium in plasma. We also determined the thermodynamic parameters such as changes in enthalpy, entropy?, and free energy of binding by measuring the binding at four different temperatures. Based on molecular modeling and thermodynamic studies, we propound that the A8HQ-HSA binding involves mainly hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding. Site-specific marker displacement experiments and molecular modeling showed that the molecule preferably binds in subdomain IIA close to Trp214. A8HQ binding to HSA isomers was found to cause both secondary and tertiary structural alterations in the protein. PMID:25761396

  8. Interaction of 8Hydroxyquinoline with Soil Environment Mediates Its Ecological Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inderjit; Devika Bajpai; M. S. Rajeswari; Stephen J. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundAllelopathic functions of plant-released chemicals are often studied through growth bioassays assuming that these chemicals will directly impact plant growth. This overlooks the role of soil factors in mediating allelopathic activities of chemicals, particularly non-volatiles. Here we examined the allelopathic potential of 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ), a chemical reported to be exuded from the roots of Centaurea diffusa.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsGrowth bioassays and HQ

  9. 8Hydroxyquinoline inhibition of DNA synthesis and intragenic recombination during yeast meiosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dallice Mills

    1978-01-01

    Complete inhibition of sporulation was observed in two strains of Saccharomyces cerevesiae to which 8-hydroxyquinoline was added at a final concentration of 5µg\\/ml during the initial 4 to 6 h of sporulation. The cells were most sensitive to the inhibitor during a 4 to 6 h interval beginning at approximately 2 h (T2). Its addition during that interval resulted in

  10. Photoluminescence quenching of tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum thin films at interfaces with metal oxide films of different conductivities

    E-print Network

    Mei, Jun

    We report a comprehensive study of photoluminescence (PL) quenching of tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq[subscript ]3) at interfaces with thin films of tin oxide (SnO[subscript 2]) using both steady-state and ...

  11. [Synthesis and adsorption property of Cd(II) - 8-hydroxyquinoline molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres].

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun-Yan; Chen, Fu-Bin; Zhao, Hui; Chang, Zi-Qiang; Zhang, Zhu-Jun

    2014-06-01

    Cd(II) ion could form a stable complex with 8-hydroxyquinoline (molar rate = 1 : 1) in ethanol solution as revealed by ultraviolet spectrum analysis. Based on this molar rate of Cd(II) ions and 8-hydroxyquinoline, Cd(II) ions imprinting polymer microspheres were synthesized by water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsions polymerization, using metal Cd(II) ions as template, 8-hydroxyquinoline as ligand, methacrylic acid as functional monomer, ethylene acrylic acid methyl ester as cross-linker, and azodiisobutyronitrile as initiator in aqueous phase. The influences of the dosage of emulsifier, porogen and outer aqueous phase on the morphology and adsorption property of MIP were studied. The morphology of MIP was characterized by SEM which showed that the diameter of MIP was of micrometer grade and the shape was homogeneous under some operating conditions. The adsorption properties of MIP synthesized under different conditions were compared. The influences of solution pH, adsorption time, initial concentration and temperature on MIP adsorbed Cd(II) ions were assessed. The results showed that MIP showed fast kinetics for adsorption and desorption of Cd(II) ions. It was concluded that MIP could be employed as an effective material for the selective removal of Cd(II) ions from waste water. PMID:25158499

  12. Synthesis and luminescence properties of polymeric complexes of Cu(II), Zn(II) and Al(III) with 8-hydroxyquinoline side group-containing polystyrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Baojiao; Wei, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Yanyan

    2013-01-01

    Three kinds of metalloquinolate-containing polystyrene were prepared via a polymer reaction and a coordination reaction. 5-Chloromethyl-8-hydroxyquinoline (CHQ) was first prepared through the chloromethylation reaction of 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ) with 1,4-bichloromethoxy-butane as chloromethylation reagent. A polymer reaction, Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction, was carried out between polystyrene (PS) and CHQ in the presence of Lewis catalyst, and HQ was bonded onto the side chains of PS, obtaining 8-hydroxyquinoline-functionalized Polystyrene, HQ-PS. And then, by using one-pot method with two-stage procedures, the coordination reaction of HQ-PS and small molecule HQ with metal ions including Al(III), Zn(II) and Cu(II) ions, was allowed to be carried out, and three polymeric metalloquinolates, AlQ3-PS, ZnQ2-PS and CuQ2-PS, were successfully prepared, respectively. In the chemical structures of these polymeric metalloquinolates, metalloquinolates were chemically attached onto the side chains of PS. HQ-PS and three polymeric metalloquinolates were fully characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR and TGA. The luminescence properties of the three polymeric metalloquinolates were mainly investigated by UV/Vis absorption spectra and fluorescence emission spectra in solutions and in solid film states. When excited by the ray at about 365 nm, the three polymeric metalloquinolates have blue-green luminescence, and the main emission peaks in the DMF solutions are located at 490, 482 and 502 nm for AlQ3-PS, ZnQ2-PS and CuQ2-PS, respectively. As compared with their emissions in solutions, the emissions in solid film states are red-shifted to some extent, and the main emission peaks are located at 500, 488 and 510 nm for AlQ3-PS, ZnQ2-PS and CuQ2-PS, respectively. Besides, these polymeric metalloquinolates have higher thermal stability than PS as polymeric skeleton.

  13. The synergistic inhibition between 8-hydroxyquinoline and chloride ion for the corrosion of cold rolled steel in 0.5 M sulfuric acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Libin Tang; Xueming Li; Yunsen Si; Guannan Mu; Guangheng Liu

    2006-01-01

    The corrosion inhibition of cold rolled steel in 0.5M sulfuric acid in the presence of 8-hydroxyquinoline and sodium chloride (NaCl) has been investigated by using weight loss and electrochemical techniques. The inhibition efficiency increases with increasing concentration of 8-hydroxyquinoline at the same temperature, but decreases with increasing temperature studied. A synergistic effect exists when 8-hydroxyquinoline and chloride ions are used

  14. Sorption concentration of copper, lead, and iron on carriers modified by 8-hydroxyquinoline and its derivatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. M. Ivanov; E. V. Antonova; E. N. Uskova

    2009-01-01

    Sorption of copper, lead, and iron ions on carriers (silochrome S-120, anion exchanger AB-17, enterosgel, polysorb) noncovalently\\u000a modified by 8-hydroxynoline, 5,7-dibrom-8-hydroxyquinoline, and 8-hydroxynoline-5-sulfo-acid has been studied. Optimal sorption\\u000a conditions have been found. The determination is not impeded by a 103-fold excess of potassium, natrium, calcium and magnesium. The methods have been tested on water and soil samples from Saransk\\u000a city.

  15. Stability of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)-aluminum(III) films investigated by vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopic ellipsometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Himcinschi, C.; Gordan, O.; Salvan, G.; Müller, F.; Zahn, D. R. T.; Cobet, C.; Esser, N.; Braun, W.

    2005-03-01

    The optical constants of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)-aluminum(III) (Alq3) thin films were determined in the vacuum ultraviolet range up to 9.5eV by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements performed using synchrotron radiation. The exposure to atmosphere of the Alq3 films grown by organic molecular-beam deposition induces changes in ellipsometric spectra that are interpreted in terms of surface morphology changes. Alq3 films deposited by organic vapor phase deposition were found to be more stable upon exposure to atmosphere. Employing time-dependent density functional theory calculations, the features of the extinction coefficient were assigned to singlet-singlet transitions.

  16. Synthesis and in vitro evaluation of 8-hydroxyquinolines as dental plaque inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Warner, V D; Musto, J D; Turesky, S S; Soloway, B

    1975-09-01

    Some 4- and 5-substituted 8-hydroxyquinolines, with predicted log P values in the range of 1.48-2.90, were synthesized by modified Skraup reactions or thermal cyclization. These hydroxyquinolines include the 5-methyl, 4,5-dimethyl, 4-methyl, 5-hydroxy-4-methyl, 5-methoxy, 5-methoxy-4-methyl, 4-hydroxy, 4-chloro, 4-amino, and 5-amino analogs. Partition coefficients, antibacterial activity, and antiplaque activity were determined. Four analogs showed in vitro antiplaque activity. None of the derivatives with ionizable functions was active. PMID:810572

  17. Preconcentration of some metal ions with lanthanum-8-hydroxyquinoline co-precipitation system.

    PubMed

    Feist, Barbara; Mikula, Barbara

    2014-03-15

    A method of separation and preconcentration of cadmium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc at trace level using 8-hydroxyquinoline as a chelating agent and lanthanum(III) as a carrier element is proposed. The heavy metals were determined after preconcentration by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The results were compared with those obtained using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (F-AAS). The influence of several parameters such as pH, amount of lanthanum(III) as a carrier element, amount of 8-hydroxyquinoline, duration of co-precipitation was examined. Moreover, effects of inorganic matrix on recovery of the determined elements were studied. The detection limits (DL) for ICP-OES were 0.31, 2.9, 1.4, 3.2 and 1.2 ?g L(-1) for Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, respectively, whereas for F-AAS DL were 0.63, 1.1, 3.2, 2.7 and 0.74 ?g L(-1). The recovery of the method for the determined elements was better than 94% with relative standard deviation between 0.63% and 2.9%. The preconcentration factor was 60. The proposed method was successfully applied for determination of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in plant materials. Accuracy of the proposed method was verified using certified reference material (NCS ZC85006 Tomato). PMID:24206710

  18. DNA-Binding Interaction Studies of Microwave Assisted Synthesized Sulfonamide Substituted 8-Hydroxyquinoline Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Ritu B; Patel, Tarosh S; Vanparia, Satish F; Kunjadiya, Anju P; Keharia, Harish R; Dixit, Bharat C

    2011-06-01

    Sulfonamide substituted 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives were prepared using a microwave synthesizer. The interaction of sulfonamide substituted 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives and their transition metal complexes with Plasmid (pUC 19) DNA and Calf Thymus DNA were investigated by UV spectroscopic studies and gel electrophoresis measurements. The interaction between ligand/metal complexes and DNA was carried out by increasing the concentration of DNA from 0 to 12 ?l in UV spectroscopic study, while the concentration of DNA in gel electrophoresis remained constant at 10 ?l. These studies supported the fact that, the complex binds to DNA by intercalation via ligand into the base pairs of DNA. The relative binding efficacy of the complexes to DNA was much higher than the binding efficacy of ligands, especially the complex of Cu-AHQMBSH had the highest binding ability to DNA. The mobility of the bands decreased as the concentration of the complex was increased, indicating that there was increase in the interaction between the metal ion and DNA. Complexes of AHQMBSH were excellent for DNA binding as compared to HQMABS. PMID:21773067

  19. Synthesis and third-order optical nonlinearities of nickel complexes of 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Yan; Cai, Minmin; Wang, Shuangqing; Yi, Yuanping; Shuai, Zhigang; Yang, Guoqiang

    2010-05-01

    A nickel complex of 5-(acrylamido)methyl-8-hydroxyquinoline, bis-(5-(acrylamido)methyl-8-hydroxyquinolino) nickel(II) (Ni(AAMQ) 2) has been synthesized and its third-order nonlinear optical properties was investigated with respect to that of bis-(8-hydroxyquinolino) nickel(II) (NiQ 2) by single beam Z-scan technique. The real parts ( ?R) of the molecular second-order hyperpolarizabilities were -6.0 × 10 -46 and -5.5 × 10 -46 m 5/v 2 for NiQ 2 and Ni(AAMQ) 2, respectively, indicative of similar nonlinear refraction both in sign and in magnitude. After substitution of an acrylamidomethyl group to the 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) ligand, the nonlinear absorption coefficient of Ni(AAMQ) 2 was enhanced by more than two times. The corresponding imaginary part ( ?I) of the molecular second-order hyperpolarizability was 3.4 × 10 -46 m 5/v 2 for Ni(AAMQ) 2 while 1.6 × 10 -46 m 5/v 2 for NiQ 2. The increase in nonlinear absorption was attributed to the substitution effect and the enhanced transition dipole moment due to the participation of ?-donor group of CH 2 in the molecular conjugation.

  20. DNA-Binding Interaction Studies of Microwave Assisted Synthesized Sulfonamide Substituted 8-Hydroxyquinoline Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Ritu B.; Patel, Tarosh S.; Vanparia, Satish F.; Kunjadiya, Anju P.; Keharia, Harish R.; Dixit, Bharat C.

    2011-01-01

    Sulfonamide substituted 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives were prepared using a microwave synthesizer. The interaction of sulfonamide substituted 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives and their transition metal complexes with Plasmid (pUC 19) DNA and Calf Thymus DNA were investigated by UV spectroscopic studies and gel electrophoresis measurements. The interaction between ligand/metal complexes and DNA was carried out by increasing the concentration of DNA from 0 to 12 ?l in UV spectroscopic study, while the concentration of DNA in gel electrophoresis remained constant at 10 ?l. These studies supported the fact that, the complex binds to DNA by intercalation via ligand into the base pairs of DNA. The relative binding efficacy of the complexes to DNA was much higher than the binding efficacy of ligands, especially the complex of Cu-AHQMBSH had the highest binding ability to DNA. The mobility of the bands decreased as the concentration of the complex was increased, indicating that there was increase in the interaction between the metal ion and DNA. Complexes of AHQMBSH were excellent for DNA binding as compared to HQMABS. PMID:21773067

  1. Magneto-Conductance in Tri-(8-Hydroxyquinoline) Aluminum-Based Organic Light Emitting Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kai; Yang, De-Zhi; Ma, Dong-Ge

    2013-08-01

    The origin of magneto-conductance (MC) in tri-(8-hydroxyquinoline)-aluminum (Alq3)-based organic light emitting diodes is investigated. Our results clearly show that the generated MC is related to the singlet polaron pair dissociation. Further studies on the MC in an electron blocking layer N,N?-bis(lnaphthyl)-N,N?-diphenyl-l,l?-biphentl-4,4?-diamine (NPB) and a hole blocking layer 2,2?,2?-(1,3,5-Benzinetriyl)-tris(1-phenyl-1-H-benzimidazole (TPBi)-based devices indicate that the holes reaching the cathode from the dissociation of singlet polaron pairs on Alq3 are the main cause of the MC generation. It is found that the MC can be significantly reduced by doping a red fluorescence dye DCJTB as a hole trapper in Alq3.

  2. Direct spectrophotometric determination of Nd and Er in mixed rare earths with 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulphonic acid and cetylpyridinium chloride.

    PubMed

    Zhou, S F; Wang, N X

    1990-03-01

    Neodymium and erbium can form stable ternary complexes with 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulphonic acid and cetylpyridinium chloride, but a photometric method based on this does not give high enough sensitivity and is subject to interference by cerium. Use of the third derivative spectra, however, eliminates the interference by cerium and increases the sensitivity. PMID:18964947

  3. Tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum-modified indium tin oxide for enhancing the efficiency and reliability of organic light-emitting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liew, Yoon-Fei; Zhu, Furong; Chua, Soo-Jin; Tang, Jian-Xin

    2004-11-01

    Tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3), which is typically used as an electron transport material for organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs), was used in this study for OLED anode modification. The electronic structure at the indium tin oxide (ITO)/organic interface for improvement of carrier injection was studied using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. The interfacial analysis reveals that the barrier height at the ITO/organic interface can be varied from ˜0.6-1.08eV. It is demonstrated that the barrier for hole injection from an ITO anode to a hole transporting layer can be engineered by inserting an ultrathin interlayer of Alq3, a few nanometers thick. The presence of an Alq3 interlayer is shown to improve the current balance, leading to an enhancement in the electroluminecent efficiency and operational stability of OLEDs.

  4. Isotope effect in the spin response of aluminum tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) based devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Tho D.; Basel, T. P.; Pu, Y.-J.; Li, X.-G.; Ehrenfreund, E.; Vardeny, Z. V.

    2012-06-01

    We studied the spin response of various magnetic field effects and magnetotransport in both protonated and deuterated aluminum tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) [Alq3]-based organic light emitting diodes and spin-valve devices. Both conductivity-detected magnetic resonance in diodes and magnetoresistance in spin valves show substantial isotope dependence pointing to the importance of the hyperfine interaction (HFI) in the spin response of spin ½ charge polarons in Alq3. In addition, the low field (B < 20 mT) magnetoelectroluminescence (MEL) response is also isotope sensitive, showing that HFI-induced spin mixing of polaron-pairs spin sublevels dominates this response too. However, the magnetoconductance (MC) response was found to be much less sensitive to isotope exchange at low fields, in agreement with previous studies. The disparity between the isotope sensitivity of MC and MEL responses in Alq3 indicates that the HFI in the MC response is overwhelmed by an isotope independent spin mixing mechanism. We propose that collisions of spin ½ carriers—with triplet species such as polaron pairs may be the main spin mixing mechanism in the low field MC response in Alq3 diodes.

  5. Interaction of 8-Hydroxyquinoline with Soil Environment Mediates Its Ecological Function

    PubMed Central

    Inderjit; Bajpai, Devika; Rajeswari, M. S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Allelopathic functions of plant-released chemicals are often studied through growth bioassays assuming that these chemicals will directly impact plant growth. This overlooks the role of soil factors in mediating allelopathic activities of chemicals, particularly non-volatiles. Here we examined the allelopathic potential of 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ), a chemical reported to be exuded from the roots of Centaurea diffusa. Methodology/Principal Findings Growth bioassays and HQ recovery experiments were performed in HQ-treated soils (non-sterile, sterile, organic matter-enriched and glucose-amended) and untreated control soil. Root growth of either Brassica campestris or Phalaris minor was not affected in HQ-treated non-sterile soil. Soil modifications (organic matter and glucose amendments) could not enhance the recovery of HQ in soil, which further supports the observation that HQ is not likely to be an allelopathic compound. Hydroxyquinoline-treated soil had lower values for the CO2 release compared to untreated non-sterile soil. Soil sterilization significantly influenced the organic matter content, PO4-P and total organic nitrogen levels. Conclusion/Significance Here, we concluded that evaluation of the effect of a chemical on plant growth is not enough in evaluating the ecological role of a chemical in plant-plant interactions. Interaction of the chemical with soil factors largely determines the impact of HQ on plant growth. PMID:20877629

  6. Interface formation between Al and Ca with tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Quoc T.; Mason, M. G.; Yan, Li; Choong-En, Vi; Forsythe, Eric W.; Tang, Ching W.; Gao, Yongli

    1999-05-01

    Using x-ray and UV photoemission spectroscopy (XPS and UPS), we have investigated the early stages of the interface formation between metals, namely Al and Ca, and tris-(8- hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3). Both interfaces show signs of reaction between the metal and Alq3. However, the detailed behaviors of the two interfaces are very different. In the case of Al/Alq3 interface, the metal was found to react preferentially with the quinolate oxygen as soon as it was deposited onto Alq3. No evidence of reaction with the carbon was found. Unlike with Ca, little interaction between Al and nitrogen of the pyridyl was observed. UPS spectra show a quick disappearance of the Alq3 features as early as 0.7 angstrom of Al deposition, and also suggest the formation of a gap state induced by Al. In the case of Ca/Alq3, the interface is characterized by a staged interface reaction: for low Ca coverages, negatively charged Alq3 radical anions are formed by electron transfer from the Ca. The emergence of new states in the energy gap is observed in the UPS spectra. At higher overages, the Ca reacts with the phenoxide oxygen resulting in the decomposition of the Alq3 molecule.

  7. Investigation of aromatase inhibitory activity of metal complexes of 8-hydroxyquinoline and uracil derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Prachayasittikul, Veda; Pingaew, Ratchanok; Nantasenamat, Chanin; Prachayasittikul, Supaluk; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Estrogens play important roles in the pathogenesis and progression of breast cancer as well as estrogen-related diseases. Aromatase is a key enzyme in the rate-limiting step of estrogen production, in which its inhibition is one strategy for controlling estrogen levels to improve prognosis of estrogen-related cancers and diseases. Herein, a series of metal (Mn, Cu, and Ni) complexes of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ) and uracil derivatives (4–9) were investigated for their aromatase inhibitory and cytotoxic activities. Methods The aromatase inhibition assay was performed according to a Gentest™ kit using CYP19 enzyme, wherein ketoconazole and letrozole were used as reference drugs. The cytotoxicity was tested on normal embryonic lung cells (MRC-5) using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Results Only Cu complexes (6 and 9) exhibited aromatase inhibitory effect with IC50 0.30 and 1.7 ?M, respectively. Cytotoxicity test against MRC-5 cells showed that Mn and Cu complexes (5 and 6), as well as free ligand 8HQ, exhibited activity with IC50 range 0.74–6.27 ?M. Conclusion Cu complexes (6 and 9) were found to act as a novel class of aromatase inhibitor. Our findings suggest that these 8HQ–Cu–uracil complexes are promising agents that could be potentially developed as a selective anticancer agent for breast cancer and other estrogen-related diseases. PMID:25152615

  8. Characterization of the 8-hydroxyquinoline scaffold for inhibitors of West Nile virus serine protease

    PubMed Central

    Ezgimen, Manolya; Lai, Huiguo; Mueller, Niklaus H.; Lee, Kyungae; Cuny, Gregory; Ostrov, David A.; Padmanabhan, Radhakrishnan

    2012-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne member of flaviviruses that causes significant morbidity and mortality especially among children. There is currently no approved vaccine or antiviral therapeutic for human use. In a previous study, we described compounds containing the 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) scaffold as inhibitors of West Nile virus serine protease (NS2B/NS3pro) in a high throughput screen (HTS) using the purified WNV NS2B/NS3pro as the target. In this study, we analyzed potencies of some commercially available as well as chemically synthesized derivatives of 8-HQ by biochemical assays. An insight into the contribution of various substitutions of 8-HQ moiety for inhibition of the protease activity was revealed. Most importantly, the substitution of the N1 of the 8-HQ ring by –CH– in compound 26 significantly reduced the inhibition of the viral protease by this naphthalen-1-ol derivative. The kinetic constant (Ki) for the most potent 8-HQ inhibitor (compound 14) with an IC50 value of 2.01 ± 0.08 ?M using the tetra-peptide substrate was determined to be 5.8 ?M. This compound inhibits the WNV NS2B/NS3pro by a competitive mode of inhibition which is supported by molecular modeling. PMID:22343093

  9. MWNT\\/Nafion composite modified glassy carbon electrode as the voltammetric sensor for sensitive determination of 8-hydroxyquinoline in cosmetic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sujuan Guo; Xianli Wu; Jing Zhou; Jing Wang; Baocheng Yang; Baoxian Ye

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a multiwall carbon nanotube\\/Nafion composite modified glassy carbon electrode (MWNT\\/Nafion\\/GCE) was used as a voltammetric sensor to determine 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) in cosmetic. This voltammetric sensor exhibited strong catalytic effect toward the oxidation of 8-HQ and caused an anodic peak at 0.97V in HAc-NaAc buffer solution (0.2M, pH 3.6). Under the optimized condition, the anodic peak current was

  10. Reactions of acyl isocyanates with 8-hydroxyquinoline and 2-amino derivatives of pyridine, thiazole, 4-thiazolinone, and benzotriazole

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. A. Nuridzhanyan; G. V. Kuznetsova

    1972-01-01

    The reaction of acyl isocyanates with 8-hydroxyquinoline and 2-amino derivatives of pyridine, thiazole, 4-thiazolinone, and benzotriazole gave, respectively, 8-quinolyl-N-acylcarbamates, 2-acylcarbamoyl derivatives of pyridine, thiazole, and 4-thiazolinone, and 1-acylcarbamoylbenzotriazoles. It was demonstrated by means of the IR, UV, and PMR spectra that the products of the addition of acyl isocyanates to 2-aminothiazole and 2-aminothiazolinone are tautomeric mixtures of the amine and

  11. Energy transfer ultraviolet photodetector with 8-hydroxyquinoline derivative-metal complexes as acceptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shuang-Hong; Li, Wen-Lian; Chen, Zhi; Li, Shi-Bin; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Wei, Xiong-Bang

    2015-02-01

    We choose 8-hydroxyquinoline derivative-metal complexes (Beq, Mgq, and Znq) as the acceptors (A) and 4,4',4”-tri-(2-methylphenyl phenylamino) triphenylaine (m-MTDATA) as the donor (D) respectively to study the existing energy transfer process in the organic ultraviolet (UV) photodetector (PD), which has an important influence on the sensitivity of PDs. The energy transfer process from D to A without exciplex formation is discussed, differing from the working mechanism of previous PDs with Gaq [Zisheng Su, Wenlian Li, Bei Chu, Tianle Li, Jianzhuo Zhu, Guang Zhang, Fei Yan, Xiao Li, Yiren Chen and Chun-Sing Lee 2008 Appl. Phys. Lett. 93 103309)] and REq [J. B. Wang, W. L. Li, B. Chu, L. L. Chen, G. Zhang, Z. S. Su, Y. R. Chen, D. F. Yang, J. Z. Zhu, S. H. Wu, F. Yan, H. H. Liu, C. S. Lee 2010 Org. Electron. 11 1301] used as an A material. Under 365-nm UV irradiation with an intensity of 1.2 mW/cm2, the m-MTDATA:Beq blend device with a weight ratio of 1:1 shows a response of 192 mA/W with a detectivity of 6.5× 1011 Jones, which exceeds those of PDs based on Mgq (146 mA/W) and Znq (182 mA/W) due to better energy level alignment between m-MTDATA/Beq and lower radiative decay. More photophysics processes of the PDs involved are discussed in detail. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61371046, 61405026, 61474016, and 61421002) and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2014M552330).

  12. Quantitative High-Throughput Screening Identifies 8-Hydroxyquinolines as Cell-Active Histone Demethylase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, Akane; Rose, Nathan R.; Ng, Stanley S.; Quinn, Amy M.; Rai, Ganesha; Mott, Bryan T.; Beswick, Paul; Klose, Robert J.; Oppermann, Udo; Jadhav, Ajit; Heightman, Tom D.; Maloney, David J.; Schofield, Christopher J.; Simeonov, Anton

    2010-01-01

    Background Small molecule modulators of epigenetic processes are currently sought as basic probes for biochemical mechanisms, and as starting points for development of therapeutic agents. N?-Methylation of lysine residues on histone tails is one of a number of post-translational modifications that together enable transcriptional regulation. Histone lysine demethylases antagonize the action of histone methyltransferases in a site- and methylation state-specific manner. N?-Methyllysine demethylases that use 2-oxoglutarate as co-factor are associated with diverse human diseases, including cancer, inflammation and X-linked mental retardation; they are proposed as targets for the therapeutic modulation of transcription. There are few reports on the identification of templates that are amenable to development as potent inhibitors in vivo and large diverse collections have yet to be exploited for the discovery of demethylase inhibitors. Principal Findings High-throughput screening of a ?236,000-member collection of diverse molecules arrayed as dilution series was used to identify inhibitors of the JMJD2 (KDM4) family of 2-oxoglutarate-dependent histone demethylases. Initial screening hits were prioritized by a combination of cheminformatics, counterscreening using a coupled assay enzyme, and orthogonal confirmatory detection of inhibition by mass spectrometric assays. Follow-up studies were carried out on one of the series identified, 8-hydroxyquinolines, which were shown by crystallographic analyses to inhibit by binding to the active site Fe(II) and to modulate demethylation at the H3K9 locus in a cell-based assay. Conclusions These studies demonstrate that diverse compound screening can yield novel inhibitors of 2OG dependent histone demethylases and provide starting points for the development of potent and selective agents to interrogate epigenetic regulation. PMID:21124847

  13. TAME5OX, abiotic siderophore analogue to enterobactin involving 8-hydroxyquinoline subunits: Thermodynamic and photophysical studies.

    PubMed

    Akbar, Rifat; Baral, Minati; Kanungo, B K

    2015-05-01

    The synthesis, thermodynamic and photophysical properties of trivalent metal complexes of biomimetic nonadentate analogue, 5,5'-(2-(((8-hydroxyquinolin-5-yl)methylamino)methyl)-2-methylpropane-1,3-diyl)bis(azanediyl)bis(methylene)diquinolin-8-ol (TAME5OX), have been described. Combination of absorption and emission spectrophotometry, potentiometry, electrospray mass spectrometry, IR, and theoretical investigation were used to fully characterize metal (Fe(+3), Al(+3) and Cr(+3)) chelates of TAME5OX. In solution, TAME5OX forms protonated complexes [M(H3L)](3+) below pH 3.4, which consecutively deprotonates through one to three-proton processes with rise of pH. The formation constants (Log?11n) of neutral complexes formed at or above physiological pH, have been determined to be 30.18, 23.27 and 22.02 with pM values of 31.16, 18.07 and 18.12 for Fe(+3), Al(+3) and Cr(+3) ions, respectively, calculated at pH 7.4, indicating TAME5OX is a powerful among synthetic metal chelator. The results clearly demonstrate that the ligand in a tripodal orchestration firmly binds these ions over wide pH range and forms distorted octahedral complexes. The binding and the coordination event could be monitored from absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The high thermodynamic stability in water at physiological pH of ferric complex of TAME5OX indicates that these complexes are resistant to hydrolysis and therefore are well suited for the development of device for applications as probes. The ligand displays high sensitive fluorescence enhancement to Al(3+) at pH 7.4, in water. Moreover, TAME5OX can distinguish Al(3+) from Fe(3+) and Cr(3+) via two different sensing mechanisms: photoinduced electron transfer (PET) for Al(3+) and internal charge transfer (ICT) for Fe(3+) and Cr(3+). Density functional theory was employed for optimization and evaluation of vibrational modes, NBO analysis, excitation and emission properties of the different species of metal complexes observed by solution studies. PMID:25703371

  14. The importance of holes in aluminium tris-8-hydroxyquinoline (Alq3) devices with Fe and NiFe contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongtao; Desai, P.; Zhan, Y. Q.; Drew, A. J.; Gillin, W. P.; Kreouzis, T.

    2014-01-01

    To study the dominant charge carrier polarity in aluminium tris-8-hydroxyquinoline (Alq3) based spin valves, single Alq3 layer devices with NiFe, ITO, Fe, and aluminium electrodes were fabricated and characterised by Time of Flight (ToF) and Dark Injection (DI) techniques, yielding a lower hole mobility compared to electron mobility. We compare the mobility measured by DI for the dominant carrier injected from NiFe and Fe electrodes into Alq3, to that of holes measured by ToF. This comparison leads us to conclude that the dominant charge carriers in Alq3 based spin valves with NiFe or Fe electrodes are holes.

  15. Tumor Cellular Proteasome Inhibition and Growth Suppression by 8-Hydroxyquinoline and Clioquinol Requires Their Capabilities to Bind Copper and Transport Copper into Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Shumei; Yang, Lei; Cui, Qiuzhi Cindy; Sun, Ying; Dou, Q. Ping; Yan, Bing

    2009-01-01

    We have previously reported that when mixed with copper, 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-OHQ) and its analog clioquinol (CQ) inhibited the proteasomal activity and proliferation in cultured human cancer cells. CQ treatment of high copper-containing human tumor xenografts also caused cancer suppression, associated with proteasome inhibition in vivo. However, the nature of copper dependence of these events has not been elucidated experimentally. In the current study, by using chemical probe molecules that mimic structures of 8-OHQ and CQ, but have no copper binding capability, we dissected the complex cellular processes elicited by 8-OHQ-Cu or CQ-Cu mixture and revealed that copper-binding to 8-OHQ or CQ is required for transportation of copper complex into human breast cancer cells and the consequent proteasome-inhibitory, growth-suppressive and apoptosis-inducing activities. In contrast, the non-copper-binding analogs of 8-OHQ or CQ blocked the very first step – copper binding in this chain of events mediated by 8-OHQ-Cu or CQ-Cu. PMID:19809836

  16. In situ monitoring of thermal crystallization of ultrathin tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum films using surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Muraki, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    Thermal crystallization of 3, 10, and 60 nm-thick tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) films is studied using surface-enhanced Raman scattering with a constant heating rate. An abrupt higher frequency shift of the quinoline-stretching mode is found to be an indication of a phase transition of Alq3 molecules from amorphous to crystalline. While the 60 nm-thick film shows the same crystallization temperature as a bulk sample, the thinner films were found to have a lower crystallization temperature and slower rate of crystallization. Non-isothermal kinetics analysis is performed to quantify kinetic properties such as the Avrami exponent constants and crystallization rates of ultrathin Alq3 films. PMID:24405952

  17. Biosynthesis of 8-hydroxyquinoline-2-carboxylic acid, an iron chelator from the gut of the lepidopteran Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Pesek, Jelena; Svoboda, Ji?í; Sattler, Martina; Bartram, Stefan; Boland, Wilhelm

    2015-01-01

    In the regurgitate (foregut content) of Spodoptera larvae we found high concentrations (0.5-5 mM) of 8-hydroxyquinoline-2-carboxylic acid (8-HQA). In a survey of different lepidopteran species, this compound was only detected in species belonging to the family of Noctuidae. 8-HQA was shown to derive from tryptophan metabolism. The amount of 8-HQA in the regurgitate was strongly dependent on the tryptophan content of the diet. In the insect 8-HQA is generated from tryptophan via kynurenine and 3-hydroxykynurenine. 8-HQA is produced by the larvae and not by their commensal gut bacteria. Analysis of different life stages of Spodoptera larvae revealed that 8-HQA is formed during the larval stage, probably acting as an iron chelator to control the gut microbiome. PMID:25356857

  18. An Introduction to Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares: Spectrophotometric Study of the Acid-Base Equilibria of 8-Hydroxyquinoline-5-Sulfonic Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Cristina; Amigo, Jose Manuel; Coello, Jordi; Maspoch, Santiago

    2007-01-01

    A spectrophotometric study of the acid-base equilibria of 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid to describe the multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares algorithm (MCR-ALS) is described. The algorithm provides a lot of information and hence is of great importance for the chemometrics research.

  19. Photoluminescence of Alq3 - and Tb-activated aluminium-tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) complex for blue chip-excited OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Yawalkar, P W; Dhoble, S J; Thejo Kalyani, N; Atram, R G; Kokode, N S

    2013-01-01

    The tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)-aluminium complex is the most important and widely studied as electron transporting and green light emitting material. Alq(3) and Tb(x) Al((1-x)) q(3) have been synthesized (where x = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 0.9) and blended films of Alq(3) and Tb(x) Al((1-x)) q(3) with PMMA and PS at different percentage weight (wt%) concentrations (e.g., 0.1, 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50 wt%) have been prepared. The synthesized materials and their blended thin films have been characterized by a photoluminescence (PL) technique; the synthesis and PL characterization are reported in this paper. The synthesized metal complex shows bright emission of green light with blue light excitation (440 nm) and the prepared Tb(x) Al((1-x)) q(3) phosphor may be applicable in blue chip-excited OLEDs for the newly developed wallpaper lighting technology. PMID:22733610

  20. Direct Observation of Charge Carriers in Highly Magnesium-Doped Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) Aluminum Thin Film by Electron Spin Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Donghyun; Shimoi, Yukihiro; Kizuka, Tokushi; Marumoto, Kazuhiro

    2013-05-01

    We report on an electron spin resonance (ESR) study of a tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) thin film doped highly with Mg. We observed a clear ESR signal of radical anions in the film prepared by coevaporating Alq3 and Mg (Alq3:Mg= 1:3). The g value and peak-to-peak ESR linewidth ?Hpp are obtained as 2.0030 and 2.24 mT, respectively, which coincide well with the reported values of an Alq3 thin film with a low Mg doping concentration. The spin susceptibility of the film was found to obey Curie's law, which indicates that no interaction exists between spins of Alq3 anions. The doped charges are found to be localized at deep trapping sites by lineshape analysis and from the temperature dependence of ?Hpp. The doping concentration was evaluated to be 4.3%. This low doping concentration can be explained by the formation of Mg clusters in the film, which was directly confirmed by transmission electron microscopy.

  1. A tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum-based organic bistable device using ITO surfaces modified by Ag nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Bo; Wu, Zhaoxin; Dong, Hua; Ning, Shuya; Hou, Xun

    2013-11-01

    A tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3)-based organic bistable device (OBD) using Al electrode and ITO electrode modified by Ag nanoparticles (NPs) was reported. The OBD exhibits high ON/OFF switching ratios in the range of 102-103 and long retention time over 104 s. The influence of the Ag NPs densities, as well as the Alq3 film thickness on the switch performance current-voltage (I-V) of the OBDs was studied. Correlation between filament formation mechanism and charge storage mechanism was observed by analysing the I-V characteristics of OBDs with different Alq3 film thickness. As for the Alq3 film with thickness of 300 nm, the trapping effect of Ag NPs leads to both ON and OFF states for OBD; for 100 nm thick Alq3 film, the effect of filamentation dominates in the ON and OFF states of OBD. For the case of 200 nm thick Alq3 film, however, the ON state results from the filamentation effect, while trapping effect is responsible for the OFF state. In addition, the diffusion effect of Al atoms in Alq3 film in the devices was discussed and was expected to explain this thickness-dependence relationship.

  2. Synthesis, Characterization, and Antibacterial Studies of Mixed Ligand Dioxouranium Complexes with 8-Hydroxyquinoline and Some Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Sunil S.; Thakur, Ganesh A.; Shaikh, Manzoor M.

    2011-01-01

    Mixed ligand complexes of dioxouranium (VI) of the type [UO2(Q)(L)·2H2O] have been synthesized using 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ) as a primary ligand and amino acids (HL) such as L-threonine, L-tryptophan, and L-isoleucine as secondary ligands. The metal complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, electrical conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurements, and spectral and thermal studies. The electrical conductance studies of the complexes indicate their nonelectrolytic nature. Magnetic susceptibility measurements revealed diamagnetic nature of the complexes. Electronic absorption spectra of the complexes show intraligand and charge transfer transitions, respectively. Bonding of the metal ion through N- and O-donor atoms of the ligands is revealed by IR studies, and the chemical environment of the protons is confirmed by NMR studies. The thermal analysis data of the complexes indicate the presence of coordinated water molecules. The agar cup and tube dilution methods have been used to study the antibacterial activity of the complexes against the pathogenic bacteria S. aureus, C. diphtheriae, S. typhi, and E. coli. PMID:22389843

  3. Study of optoelectronic energy bands and molecular energy levels of tris (8-hydroxyquinolinate) gallium and aluminum organometallic materials from their spectroscopic and electrochemical analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fahmi Fariq Muhammad; Ali Imran Abdul Hapip; Khaulah Sulaiman

    2010-01-01

    For the purpose of investigating electro-molecular absorption bands, energy gaps, Eg and molecular energy levels (ionization potential, IP and electron affinity, EA) of tris (8-hydroxyquinolinate) gallium and aluminum, spectral analysis in conjunction with electrochemical measurements was carried out. UV–Vis–NIR and FTIR spectroscopic measurements were used to assign the electronic and molecular absorption bands in both of the materials. The XRD

  4. Novel method for rapid copper chelation assessment confirmed low affinity of D-penicillamine for copper in comparison with trientine and 8-hydroxyquinolines.

    PubMed

    ?íha, Michal; Karlí?ková, Jana; Filipský, Tomáš; Macáková, Kate?ina; Hrdina, Radomír; Mlad?nka, P?emysl

    2013-06-01

    Copper is an essential trace element involved in many physiological processes. Since disorder of copper homeostasis is observed in various pathologies, copper chelators may represent a promising therapeutic tool. This study was aimed at: 1) formation of an in vitro methodology for screening of copper chelators, and 2) detailed analysis of the interaction of copper with clinically used D-penicillamine (D-PEN), triethylenetetramine (trientine), experimentally tested 8-hydroxyquinolines, and the disodium salt of EDTA as a standard chelator. Methodology based on bathocuproinedisulfonic acid disodium salt (BCS), usable at (patho)physiologically relevant pHs (4.5-7.5), enabled assessment of both cuprous and cupric ions chelation and comparison of the relative affinities of the tested compounds for copper. In the case of potent chelators, the stoichiometry could be estimated too. Clioquinol, chloroxine and EDTA formed very stable complexes with Cu(+)/Cu(2+) at all tested pHs, while copper complexes with trientine were stable only under neutral or slightly acidic conditions. Non-substituted 8-hydroxyquinoline was a less efficient copper chelator, but still unequivocally more potent than D-PEN. Both 8-hydroxyquinoline and D-PEN chelation potencies, similarly to that of trientine, were pH-dependent and decreased with pH. Moreover, only D-PEN was able to reduce cupric ions. Conclusively, BCS assay represents a rapid, simple and precise method for copper chelation measurement. In addition, lower binding affinity of D-PEN compared with 8-hydroxyquinolines and trientine was demonstrated. PMID:23563391

  5. Antiproliferative and iron chelating efficiency of the new bis-8-hydroxyquinoline benzylamine chelator S1 in hepatocyte cultures.

    PubMed

    Lescoat, Gérard; Léonce, Stéphane; Pierré, Alain; Gouffier, Lucie; Gaboriau, François

    2012-01-25

    If a new generation of iron chelators specifically devoted for cancer chemotherapy emerged these last years, any of them has not yet been approved at this time. Accordingly, there is a need to optimize new chelating molecules for iron chelation therapy and cancer treatment. So, the objective of the present investigation was to characterize the antiproliferative activity and the iron chelating capacity of the iron chelator S1 [bis-N-(8-hydroxyquinoline-5-ylmethyl)benzylamine]. Its effects were compared to O-trensox which binds ferric iron with a very high affinity (pFe(3+)=29.5). For this purpose, primary rat hepatocyte stimulated by EGF and human hepatoma HepaRG cell cultures were used. In these models, the anti-proliferative effect, the inhibition of DNA synthesis and the iron-chelating efficiency of increasing concentrations of S1 and O-trensox (0 up to 200 ?M) were investigated. In the two cell culture models, we observed that S1 was about 100 times more efficient than O-trensox and the antiproliferative effect of S1 in HepaRG cells appeared at concentrations as low as 0.1 ?M without cytotoxicity. Moreover, the stoichiometry of S1 for iron seemed to be in the range S1/Fe(3+)=1. Using the calcein fluorescence assay, we demonstrated that the affinity of S1 for iron was better than that of O-trensox since it was at least two times more effective to restore the fluorescence of calcein previously quenched by iron. So, the iron chelating efficiency of S1 could explain at least partially its higher anti-proliferative effect compared to O-trensox. Finally, these results suggest that molecules such as S1 may constitute a promising starting point to improve cancer treatment. PMID:22197641

  6. Sonochemical fabrication of 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum (Alq3) nanoflowers with high electrogenerated chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Mao, Chang-Jie; Wang, Dan-Chen; Pan, Hong-Cheng; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2011-03-01

    Well-defined Alq(3) nanoflowers were fabricated via a facile and fast sonochemical route. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the structure and shape of the as-prepared product. The results showed that the resulting Alq(3) was composed of nanobelts with thickness about 50 nm, average widths of 200 nm, and length up to 10 ?m. The Alq(3) nanoflowers exhibited good electrogenerated chemiluminescence behavior. PMID:20805037

  7. In vitro antimicrobial-activity studies on the mixed ligand complexes of Hg(II) with 8-hydroxyquinoline and salicylic acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y Anjaneyulu; R Prabhakar Rao; R Y Swamy; A Eknath; K Narasimha Rao

    1982-01-01

    A series of mixed ligand complexes of Hg(II) with the general formula Hg (OX) (SA) (where OX: 8-hydroxyquinoline, SA: salicylic,\\u000a 5-chloro-, 3,5-dibromo, 3,5-diiodo, 3,5-dinitro, acetyl thiosalicylic acids) are isolated in pure state and characterised\\u000a by elemental analysis and infrared data. The low molar conductance of the complexes in dimethylformamide indicates non-electrolyte\\u000a nature. The antimicrobial activity of these complexes against various

  8. N,N-Bis-(8-hydroxyquinoline-5-yl methyl)-benzyl substituted amines (HQNBA): peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-?) agonists with neuroprotective properties.

    PubMed

    Madonna, Sébastien; Maher, Pamela; Kraus, Jean-Louis

    2010-12-01

    We report on the neuroprotective effects of N,N-bis-(8-hydroxyquinoline-5-yl methyl)-benzyl substituted amines (HQNBA) in a model of oxidative stress-induced nerve cell death using mouse hippocampal-derived HT22 cells. The four derivatives (JLK1472, JLK1486, JLK1522 and JLK1535) protected the HT22 cells from death at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1 ?M. Their action is partially dependent on their ability to act as PPAR? agonists. These analogues also maintain GSH levels suggesting that they have indirect anti-oxidant effects. PMID:20971007

  9. Solid Phase Extraction of Inorganic Mercury Using 5-Phenylazo-8-hydroxyquinoline and Determination by Cold Vapor Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy in Natural Water Samples

    PubMed Central

    Daye, Mirna; Halwani, Jalal; Hamzeh, Mariam

    2013-01-01

    8-Hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) was chosen as a powerful ligand for Hg solid phase extraction. Among several chelating resins based on 8-HQ, 5-phenylazo-8-hydroxyquinoline (5Ph8HQ) is used for mercury extraction in which the adsorption dynamics were fully studied. It has been shown that Hg(II) is totally absorbed by 5Ph8HQ within the first 30 minutes of contact time with t1/2 5 minutes, following Langmuir adsorption model. At pH 4, the affinity of mercury is unchallenged by other metals except, for Cu(II), which have shown higher Kd value. With these latter characteristics, 5Ph8HQ was examined for the preconcentration of trace levels of Hg(II). The developed method showed quantitative recoveries of Hg(II) with LOD = 0.21?pg?mL?1 and RSD = 3–6% using cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (CV-AFS) with a preconcentration factor greater than 250. PMID:24459417

  10. High-efficiency tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) complexes for organic white-light-emitting diodes and solid-state lighting.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Bolívar, César; Takizawa, Shin-ya; Nishimura, Go; Montes, Victor A; Anzenbacher, Pavel

    2011-08-01

    Combinations of electron-withdrawing and -donating substituents on the 8-hydroxyquinoline ligand of the tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq(3)) complexes allow for control of the HOMO and LUMO energies and the HOMO-LUMO gap responsible for emission from the complexes. Here, we present a systematic study on tuning the emission and electroluminescence (EL) from Alq(3) complexes from the green to blue region. In this study, we explored the combination of electron-donating substituents on C4 and C6. Compounds 1-6 displayed the emission tuning between 478 and 526 nm, and fluorescence quantum yield between 0.15 and 0.57. The compounds 2-6 were used as emitters and hosts in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The highest OLED external quantum efficiency (EQE) observed was 4.6%, which is among the highest observed for Alq(3) complexes. Also, the compounds 3-5 were used as hosts for red phosphorescent dopants to obtain white light-emitting diodes (WOLED). The WOLEDs displayed high efficiency (EQE up to 19%) and high white color purity (color rendering index (CRI?85). PMID:21780202

  11. Improved efficiency in organic light-emitting devices with tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium doped 9,10-di(2-naphthyl) anthracene emission layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yongbo; Lian, Jiarong; Li, Shuang; Zhou, Xiang

    2008-11-01

    Organic light-emitting devices with tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium (Alq3) doped 9,10-di(2-naphthyl) anthracene (ADN) as the emission layer (EML) have been fabricated. These devices exhibit efficient electroluminescence (EL) originated from the Alq3 as the mass ratio of Alq3 to ADN was varied from 1 to 50%. The devices with an optimal Alq3 mass ratio of 10 wt% showed a peak EL efficiency and an external quantum efficiency of 9.1 cd A-1 and 2.7% at a luminance of 1371 cd m-2, which is improved by a factor of 2.2 compared with 4.1 cd A-1 and 1.2% at a luminance of 3267 cd m-2 for conventional devices with the neat Alq3 as the EML.

  12. The importance of holes in aluminium tris-8-hydroxyquinoline (Alq{sub 3}) devices with Fe and NiFe contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hongtao; Desai, P.; Kreouzis, T. [Materials Research Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)] [Materials Research Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Zhan, Y. Q. [Materials Research Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom) [Materials Research Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, Department of Microelectronics, SIST, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Drew, A. J. [Materials Research Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom) [Materials Research Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Gillin, W. P. [Materials Research Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom) [Materials Research Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, Department of Microelectronics, SIST, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2014-01-06

    To study the dominant charge carrier polarity in aluminium tris-8-hydroxyquinoline (Alq{sub 3}) based spin valves, single Alq{sub 3} layer devices with NiFe, ITO, Fe, and aluminium electrodes were fabricated and characterised by Time of Flight (ToF) and Dark Injection (DI) techniques, yielding a lower hole mobility compared to electron mobility. We compare the mobility measured by DI for the dominant carrier injected from NiFe and Fe electrodes into Alq{sub 3}, to that of holes measured by ToF. This comparison leads us to conclude that the dominant charge carriers in Alq{sub 3} based spin valves with NiFe or Fe electrodes are holes.

  13. Donepezil + propargylamine + 8-hydroxyquinoline hybrids as new multifunctional metal-chelators, ChE and MAO inhibitors for the potential treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Esteban, Gerard; Ojima, Masaki; Bautista-Aguilera, Oscar M; Inokuchi, Tsutomu; Moraleda, Ignacio; Iriepa, Isabel; Samadi, Abdelouahid; Youdim, Moussa B H; Romero, Alejandro; Soriano, Elena; Herrero, Raquel; Fernández Fernández, Ana Patricia; Ricardo-Martínez-Murillo; Marco-Contelles, José; Unzeta, Mercedes

    2014-06-10

    The synthesis, biochemical evaluation, ADMET, toxicity and molecular modeling of novel multi-target-directed Donepezil + Propargylamine + 8-Hydroxyquinoline (DPH) hybrids 1-7 for the potential prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease is described. The most interesting derivative was racemic ?-aminotrile4-(1-benzylpiperidin-4-yl)-2-(((8-hydroxyquinolin-5-yl)methyl)(prop-2-yn-1-yl)amino) butanenitrile (DPH6) [MAO A (IC50 = 6.2 ± 0.7 ?M; MAO B (IC50 = 10.2 ± 0.9 ?M); AChE (IC50 = 1.8 ± 0.1 ?M); BuChE (IC50 = 1.6 ± 0.25 ?M)], an irreversible MAO A/B inhibitor and mixed-type AChE inhibitor with metal-chelating properties. According to docking studies, both DPH6 enantiomers interact simultaneously with the catalytic and peripheral site of EeAChE through a linker of appropriate length, supporting the observed mixed-type AChE inhibition. Both enantiomers exhibited a relatively similar position of both hydroxyquinoline and benzyl moieties with the rest of the molecule easily accommodated in the relatively large cavity of MAO A. For MAO B, the quinoline system was hosted at the cavity entrance whereas for MAO A this system occupied the substrate cavity. In this disposition the quinoline moiety interacted directly with the FAD aromatic ring. Very similar binding affinity values were also observed for both enantiomers with ChE and MAO enzymes. DPH derivatives exhibited moderate to good ADMET properties and brain penetration capacity for CNS activity. DPH6 was less toxic than donepezil at high concentrations; while at low concentrations both displayed a similar cell viability profile. Finally, in a passive avoidance task, the antiamnesic effect of DPH6 was tested on mice with experimentally induced amnesia. DPH6 was capable to significantly decrease scopolamine-induced learning deficits in healthy adult mice. PMID:24813882

  14. Characterization of gold-thiol-8-hydroxyquinoline self-assembled monolayers for selective recognition of aluminum ion using voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Shervedani, Reza Karimi; Rezvaninia, Zeinab; Sabzyan, Hassan; Boeini, Hassan Zali

    2014-05-12

    Gold electrode surface is modified via covalent attachment of a synthesized thiol functionalized with 8-hydroxyquinoline, p-((8-hydroxyquinoline)azo) benzenethiol (SHQ), for the first time. The behavior of the nanostructured electrode surface (Au-SHQ) is characterized by electrochemical techniques including cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry (CV and DPV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The modified surface is stable in a wide range of potentials and pHs. A surface pKa of 6.0±0.1 is obtained for Au-SHQ electrode using surface acid/base titration curves constructed by CV and EIS measurements as a function of pH. These results helped to determine the charge state of the surface as a function of pH. The gold modified electrode surface showed good affinity for sensing the Al(III) ion at pH 5.5. The sensing process is based on (i) accumulation and complex formation between Al(III) from the solution phase and 8HQ function on the Au electrode surface (recognition step) and (ii) monitoring the impedance of the Au-SHQ-Al(III) complex against redox reaction rate of parabenzoquinone (PBQ) (signal transduction step). The PBQ is found to be a more suitable probe for this purpose, after testing several others. Thus, the sensor was tested for quantitative determination of Al(III) from the solution phase. At the optimized conditions, a linear response, from 1.0×10(-11) to 1.2×10(-5) M Al(III) in semi-logarithmic scale, with a detection limit of 8.32×10(-12) M and mean relative standard deviation of 3.2% for n=3 at 1.0×10(-7) M Al(III) is obtained. Possible interferences from coexisting cations and anions are also studied. The results show that many ions do not interfere significantly with the sensor response for Al(III). Validity of the method and applicability of the sensor are successfully tested by determination of Al(III) in human blood serum samples. PMID:24767148

  15. Absorption spectra of 4f electron transitions of neodymium and erbium with 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulphonic acid and diethylamine systems and its analytical application

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Naixing (Shandong Univ., Jinan (China)); Qi Ping

    1992-06-01

    In this paper the absorption spectra of 4f electron transitions of the systems of neodymium and erbium with 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulphonic acid and diethylamine have been studied by normal and third-derivative spectrophotometry. Their molar absorptivities are 80 1.mol{sup {minus}1}.cm{sup {minus}1} for neodymium and 65 1.mol{sup {minus}1}.cm{sup {minus}1} for erbium. Use of the third-derivative spectra, eliminates the interference by other rare earths and increases the sensitivity for Nd and Er. The derivative molar absorptivities are 390 1.mol{sup {minus}1}.cm{sup {minus}1} for Nd and 367 1.mol{sup {minus}1}.cm{sup {minus}1} for Er. The calibration graphs were linear up to 11.8 {mu}g/ml of Nd and 12.3 {mu}g/ml of Er, respectively. The relative standard deviations evaluated from eleven independent determinations of 7.2 {mu}g/ml (for Nd) and 8.3 {mu}g/ml (for Er) are 1.3% and 1.4%, respectively. The detection limits are 0.2 {mu}g/ml for Nd and 0.3 {mu}g/ml for Er. The method has been developed for determining those two elements in mixture of lanthanides by means of the third-derivative spectra and the analytical results obtained are satisfactory.

  16. TDDFT study on the excited-state proton transfer of 8-hydroxyquinoline: Key role of the excited-state hydrogen-bond strengthening.

    PubMed

    Lan, Sheng-Cheng; Liu, Yu-Hui

    2015-03-15

    Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations have been employed to study the excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) reaction of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ). Infrared spectra of 8HQ in both the ground and the lowest singlet excited states have been calculated, revealing a red-shift of the hydroxyl group (-OH) stretching band in the excited state. Hence, the intramolecular hydrogen bond (O-H···N) in 8HQ would be significantly strengthened upon photo-excitation to the S1 state. As the intramolecular proton-transfer reaction occurs through hydrogen bonding, the ESIPT reaction of 8HQ is effectively facilitated by strengthening of the electronic excited-state hydrogen bond (O-H···N). As a result, the intramolecular proton-transfer reaction would occur on an ultrafast timescale with a negligible barrier in the calculated potential energy curve for the ESIPT reaction. Therefore, although the intramolecular proton-transfer reaction is not favorable in the ground state, the ESIPT process is feasible in the excited state. Finally, we have identified that radiationless deactivation via internal conversion (IC) becomes the main dissipative channel for 8HQ by analyzing the energy gaps between the S1 and S0 states for the enol and keto forms. PMID:25554951

  17. Detection of charge storage on molecular thin films of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) by Kelvin force microscopy: a candidate system for high storage capacity memory cells.

    PubMed

    Paydavosi, Sarah; Aidala, Katherine E; Brown, Patrick R; Hashemi, Pouya; Supran, Geoffrey J; Osedach, Timothy P; Hoyt, Judy L; Bulovi?, Vladimir

    2012-03-14

    Retention and diffusion of charge in tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq(3)) molecular thin films are investigated by injecting electrons and holes via a biased conductive atomic force microscopy tip into the Alq(3) films. After the charge injection, Kelvin force microscopy measurements reveal minimal changes with time in the spatial extent of the trapped charge domains within Alq(3) films, even for high hole and electron densities of >10(12) cm(-2). We show that this finding is consistent with the very low mobility of charge carriers in Alq(3) thin films (<10(-7) cm(2)/(Vs)) and that it can benefit from the use of Alq(3) films as nanosegmented floating gates in flash memory cells. Memory capacitors using Alq(3) molecules as the floating gate are fabricated and measured, showing durability over more than 10(4) program/erase cycles and the hysteresis window of up to 7.8 V, corresponding to stored charge densities as high as 5.4 × 10(13) cm(-2). These results demonstrate the potential for use of molecular films in high storage capacity nonvolatile memory cells. PMID:22332966

  18. Use of 8-hydroxyquinoline-chitosan chelating resin in an automated on-line preconcentration system for determination of zinc(II) by F AAS.

    PubMed

    Carletto, Jeferson Schneider; Roux, Kalya Cravo Di Pietro; Maltez, Heloisa França; Martendal, Edmar; Carasek, Eduardo

    2008-08-30

    This study presents the development of an on-line preconcentration system for zinc(II) determination in aqueous samples. The analyte was trapped in a mini-column filled with a chelating resin based on a chitosan biopolymer modified with 8-hydroxyquinoline obtained by the diazotization reaction. Flow and chemical variables of the system, as well as the potential interference ions, were optimized through a multivariate procedure. The factors selected were sample pH, eluent concentration (HNO(3)), and sample and eluent flow rates. It was verified through a full factorial design that the sample pH and eluent flow rate factors were statistically significant at the 95% confidence level. A final optimization of the significant factors was carried out using a Doehlert matrix. The preconcentration system was linear between 2.5 and 75 microgL(-1), with a regression coefficient of 0.9995. The enrichment factor was 17.6. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.8 and 2.5 microgL(-1), respectively. The repeatability and the analytical frequency were, respectively, 2.7 (25.0 microgL(-1), n=8) and 18 samples per hour. Results for recovery tests using mineral water samples were between 85 and 93%. Certified reference materials were analyzed in order to check the accuracy of the proposed method. PMID:18243546

  19. Selective growth-inhibitory effect of 8-hydroxyquinoline towards Clostridium difficile and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum in co-culture analysed by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Novakova, Jitka; Džunková, Mária; Musilova, Sarka; Vlkova, Eva; Kokoska, Ladislav; Moya, Andrés; D'Auria, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    The major risk factor for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the use of antibiotics owing to the disruption of the equilibrium of the host gut microbiota. To preserve the beneficial resident probiotic bacteria during infection treatment, the use of molecules with selective antibacterial activity enhances the efficacy by selectively removing C. difficile. One of them is the plant alkaloid 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ), which has been shown to selectively inhibit clostridia without repressing bifidobacteria. Selective antimicrobial activity is generally tested by culture techniques of individual bacterial strains. However, the main limitation of these techniques is the inability to describe differential growth dynamics of more bacterial strains in co-culture within the same experiment. In the present study, we combined fluorescent in situ hybridization and flow cytometry to describe the changes in active and non-active cells of a mixed culture formed by the opportunistic pathogen C. difficile CECT 531 and the beneficial Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum CCMDMND BL1 after exposure to 8HQ. It was observed that without 8HQ, the proportion of both strains was almost equal, oscillating between 22.7 and 77.9?% during a time lapse of 12 h, whereas with 8HQ the proportion of active C. difficile decreased after 4 h, and persisted only between 8.8 and 17.5?%. In contrast, bifidobacterial growth was not disturbed by 8HQ. The results of this study showed the selective inhibitory effect of 8HQ on clostridial and bifidobacterial growth dynamics, and the potential of this compound for the development of selective agents to control CDIs. PMID:25298160

  20. JLK1486, a Bis 8-Hydroxyquinoline-Substituted Benzylamine, Displays Cytostatic Effects in Experimental Gliomas through MyT1 and STAT1 Activation and, to a Lesser Extent, PPAR? Activation12

    PubMed Central

    Bruyère, Céline; Madonna, Sébastien; Van Goietsenoven, Gwendoline; Mathieu, Véronique; Dessolin, Jean; Kraus, Jean-Louis; Lefranc, Florence; Kiss, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Gliomas account for 5% to 7% of all solid cancers in adults and up to 30% of solid cancers in children; glioblastomas are the most malignant type of glioma and often have dismal prognoses. The alkylating agent temozolomide provides the greatest chemotherapeutic benefits currently available; however, glioblastoma patients cannot be cured. Novel drugs that efficiently combat glioblastomas are therefore of great interest. We report here that JLK1486, an 8-hydroxyquinoline-substituted benzylamine, could represent a novel chemical scaffold to reach this goal. Indeed, JLK1486 mediated anticancer activity in vivo (through intravenous as well as oral routes of administrations) in an orthotopic xenograft model and displayed efficiency similar to that of temozolomide. The therapeutic benefits of JLK1486 seem to relate to its ability to activate various transcription factors (including Myt1, STAT1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?) in glioma cells. These transcription factors are implicated in the control of glioma cell proliferation, and the resultant global effect of their activation by JLK1486 was cytostatic, not cytotoxic. Thus, the current study opens the door for the development of novel compounds to combat glioblastoma using 8-hydroxyquinoline benzylamine analogs. PMID:21633668

  1. On-line preconcentration/determination of cadmium in drinking water on activated carbon using 8-hydroxyquinoline in a flow injection system coupled to an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerutti, S.; Silva, M. F.; Gásquez, J. A.; Olsina, R. A.; Martinez, L. D.

    2003-01-01

    An on-line cadmium preconcentration and determination system implemented with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry associated to flow injection was studied. Cadmium was retained as Cd-8-hydroxyquinoline complex at pH 10.0. The cadmium complex was removed from the conical minicolumn packed with activated carbon with 20% (v/v) nitric acid. An enrichment factor of 80-fold for a sample volume of 50 ml was obtained. The detection limit (DL) value for the preconcentration of 50 ml of sample was 18 ng l -1. The relative standard deviation was 2.5%, calculated from the peak heights obtained. The calibration graph using the preconcentration system for cadmium was linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.9995 at levels near the DLs up to at least 100 ng ml -1. The method was successfully applied to the determination of total cadmium in drinking water samples.

  2. A Potent (R)-alpha-bis-lipoyl Derivative Containing 8-Hydroxyquinoline Scaffold: Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Its Neuroprotective Capabilities in SH-SY5Y Human Neuroblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cacciatore, Ivana; Fornasari, Erika; Baldassarre, Leonardo; Cornacchia, Catia; Fulle, Stefania; Di Filippo, Ester Sara; Pietrangelo, Tiziana; Pinnen, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    A novel bis-lipoyl derivative containing 8-hydroxyquinoline scaffold (LA-HQ-LA, 5) was synthesized as a new multifunctional drug candidate with antioxidant, chelant, and neuroprotective properties for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. We have investigated the potential effectiveness of LA-HQ-LA against the cytotoxicity induced by 6-OHDA and H2O2 on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line. Our outcomes showed that LA-HQ-LA resulted in significant neuroprotective and antioxidant effects against H2O2- and 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, as assessed by MTT assay. In particular, it showed potent neuroprotective effects against 6-OHDA in RA/PMA differentiated cells at all the tested concentrations. PMID:24275787

  3. Analytical performance of a lab-made concomitant metal analyzer to generate volatile species of Ag, Au, Cd, Cu, Ni, Sn and Zn using 8-hydroxyquinoline as a reaction media.

    PubMed

    Villanueva-Alonso, Julia; Peña-Vázquez, Elena; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar

    2012-10-15

    This study evaluated the main parameters affecting Ag, Au, Cd, Cu, Ni, Sn and Zn vapor generation using a lab-made concomitant metal analyzer (CMA) as a reaction chamber and gas-liquid separator. The modifier used in the reaction media was 8-hydroxyquinoline, and Inductively-Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry was used as detection technique. The performance of the lab-made concomitant analyzer was compared with the performance of a continuous flow gas-liquid separator and of a cyclonic spray chamber. Standards were prepared in acid media and included 1 mg L(-1) of Co as a catalyzer. The optimum concentrations of the reagents in the standards were: 450 mg L(-1) of 8-hydroxyquinoline and 0.4 M nitric acid. The optimum concentration of sodium borohydride to generate the vapors was 2.25% (w/v) (prepared in 0.4% (w/v) NaOH). The volatile species were swept from the CMA to the torch by an argon flow of 0.6 mL min(-1). The use of the CMA led to an improvement of the detection limits for some elements compared to conventional nebulization: 1.1 ?g L(-1) for Ag, 7.0 ?g L(-1) for Au and 4.3 ?g L(-1) for Sn. The limit of detection for Cu was 1.4 ?g L(-1) and for Ni 22.5 ?g L(-1). The direct mixing of the reagents on the spray chamber was not effective for Cd and Zn; a deviation of the linearity was observed for these elements. PMID:23141310

  4. Structural design utilizing updated, approximate sensitivity derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scotti, Stephen J.

    1993-01-01

    A method to improve the computational efficiency of structural optimization algorithms is investigated. In this method, the calculations of 'exact' sensitivity derivatives of constraint functions are performed only at selected iterations during the optimization process. The sensitivity derivatives utilized within other iterations are approximate derivatives which are calculated using an inexpensive derivative update formula. Optimization results are presented for an analytic optimization problem (i.e., one having simple polynomial expressions for the objective and constraint functions) and for two structural optimization problems. The structural optimization results indicate that up to a factor of three improvement in computation time is possible when using the updated sensitivity derivatives.

  5. Alternative responses of primary tumor cells and glioblastoma cell lines to N,N-bis-(8-hydroxyquinoline-5-yl methyl)-benzyl substituted amines: cell death versus P53-independent senescence.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Jean-Louis; Conti, Filippo; Madonna, Sébastien; Tchoghandjian, Aurelie; Beclin, Christophe

    2010-12-01

    N,N-bis-(8-hydroxyquinoline-5-yl methyl)-benzyl substituted amines (HQNBA) represent a new class of compounds showing anti-cancer activity. At the chemical level the compounds were shown to react preferentially with thiol radicals which may lead to unfolded cysteine containing proteins and subsequent ER-stress. At the molecular level, treatment of U87 cells with this class of derivatives induced an over-expression of stress genes, including P53 and numerous P53 target genes. By generating shRNA U87 cell clones impaired in P53 expression we found that P53 mediates neither proliferation arrest of treated U87 cells nor over-expression of potential P53 targets. Moreover, we discovered that a representative HQNBA derivative (JLK1486) induces strong but transient senescence in U87 cells in a P53-independent manner. We demonstrate that, in contrast to its effect on established glioblastoma cell lines, JLK1486 induces extensive death of primary glioblastoma cells. We provide evidence that both caspase 3, and 7 activation, and cathepsin B and D activities account for at least part of this cell death. PMID:21042714

  6. The Urinary Antibiotic 5-Nitro-8-Hydroxyquinoline (Nitroxoline) Reduces the Formation and Induces the Dispersal of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms by Chelation of Iron and Zinc

    PubMed Central

    Klinger, M.; Hermann, B.; Sachse, S.; Nietzsche, S.; Makarewicz, O.; Keller, P. M.; Pfister, W.; Straube, E.

    2012-01-01

    Since cations have been reported as essential regulators of biofilm, we investigated the potential of the broad-spectrum antimicrobial and cation-chelator nitroxoline as an antibiofilm agent. Biofilm mass synthesis was reduced by up to 80% at sub-MIC nitroxoline concentrations in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and structures formed were reticulate rather than compact. In preformed biofilms, viable cell counts were reduced by 4 logs at therapeutic concentrations. Complexation of iron and zinc was demonstrated to underlie nitroxoline's potent antibiofilm activity. PMID:22926564

  7. The urinary antibiotic 5-nitro-8-hydroxyquinoline (Nitroxoline) reduces the formation and induces the dispersal of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms by chelation of iron and zinc.

    PubMed

    Sobke, A; Klinger, M; Hermann, B; Sachse, S; Nietzsche, S; Makarewicz, O; Keller, P M; Pfister, W; Straube, E

    2012-11-01

    Since cations have been reported as essential regulators of biofilm, we investigated the potential of the broad-spectrum antimicrobial and cation-chelator nitroxoline as an antibiofilm agent. Biofilm mass synthesis was reduced by up to 80% at sub-MIC nitroxoline concentrations in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and structures formed were reticulate rather than compact. In preformed biofilms, viable cell counts were reduced by 4 logs at therapeutic concentrations. Complexation of iron and zinc was demonstrated to underlie nitroxoline's potent antibiofilm activity. PMID:22926564

  8. On-line pre-concentration of Cr(III) and Mn(II) in FI-FAAS: A critical study involving interference effects and analytical use of an immobilized 8-hydroxyquinoline minicolumn.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, C G; Pino, F E; Campos, V H; Nóbrega, J A

    2002-09-01

    A flow injection system with a pre-concentration minicolumn based on a chelating resin was coupled to a flame atomic absorption spectrometer. The focus of this work was the investigation of interference effects and the analytical applicability of the azo-immobilized 8-hydroxyquinoline on controlled-pore glass for the determination of Cr and Mn in mussel and non-fat milk powder. All studied concomitants affected the retention of Cr(III). These effects are probably related to the formation of hydroxo-complexes at the optimum pH range 9.0-10. The positive effect caused by Ca(II) was exploited to increase the retention of Cr(III) species and to improve the slope by 70%. The interferences on Mn(II) retention were less severe. The quantification of Cr and Mn was performed by standard additions. The proposed methodology was validated by analysis of three certified reference materials of mussels (Cr and Mn) and non-fat milk powder (Mn) with a mean relative percent error of <6.5% and mean relative standard deviation of <13%. Chromium and Mn were determined in typical Chilean mussels samples, and Mn was determined in non-fat milk powder samples. Results agreed at the 95% confidence level with those obtained by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) using graphite furnace atomization. The method detection limits for a 30 s pre-concentration time were 0.9 and 1.1 micro g L(-1) for Mn, and 2.2 and 2.5 micro g L(-1) for Cr in acid digested solutions of mussel and non-fat milk, respectively. The methodology is simple, fast (sampling frequency 60-72 h(-1)), reliable, of low cost, and can be applied to the determination of traces of Cr (> or =0.18 micro g g(-1)) and Mn (> or =0.6 micro g g(-1)) in mussel samples, and Mn (> or =0.37 micro g g(-1)) in non-fat milk powder. PMID:12207254

  9. Improving resource utilization in hierarchy network by optimizing topological structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, G. L.; Peng, H. P.; Li, L. X.; Sun, F.; Yang, Y. X.

    2012-02-01

    We study the performance of peer-to-peer (P2P) network built on the top of hierarchy topological structure of local area networks (LAN). We find that the topological structure of the underlying physical network has significant impacts on the resource utilization of the P2P overlay network. The larger size of the physical network is, the lower resource utilization of the overlay network is. Through optimizing the topological structure of physical network, we propose two novel schemes to improve the resource utilization. The experimental results show that in any case the resource utilization of P2P network can always achieve 100% by these two schemes.

  10. Large platform assembler non-structural system requirements. [installing utilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernon, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    The impact on the design and operation of an automated structure assembler of requiring the assembler to also install the platform electrical and/or fluid utility circuits was examined. Possible utility requirements were defined and examined in conjunction with the automated assembler. Preliminary concepts are presented which permit the electrical and fluid circuits to be installed with the structural elements.

  11. A structural design decomposition method utilizing substructuring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scotti, Stephen J.

    1994-01-01

    A new method of design decomposition for structural analysis and optimization is described. For this method, the structure is divided into substructures where each substructure has its structural response described by a structural-response subproblem, and its structural sizing determined from a structural-sizing subproblem. The structural responses of substructures that have rigid body modes when separated from the remainder of the structure are further decomposed into displacements that have no rigid body components, and a set of rigid body modes. The structural-response subproblems are linked together through forces determined within a structural-sizing coordination subproblem which also determines the magnitude of any rigid body displacements. Structural-sizing subproblems having constraints local to the substructures are linked together through penalty terms that are determined by a structural-sizing coordination subproblem. All the substructure structural-response subproblems are totally decoupled from each other, as are all the substructure structural-sizing subproblems, thus there is significant potential for use of parallel solution methods for these subproblems.

  12. The Causal Structure of Utility Conditionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnefon, Jean-Francois; Sloman, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    The psychology of reasoning is increasingly considering agents' values and preferences, achieving greater integration with judgment and decision making, social cognition, and moral reasoning. Some of this research investigates utility conditionals, ‘"if 'p' then 'q'’" statements where the realization of "p" or "q" or both is valued by some agents.…

  13. Utilization of structural steel in buildings

    PubMed Central

    Moynihan, Muiris C.; Allwood, Julian M.

    2014-01-01

    Over one-quarter of steel produced annually is used in the construction of buildings. Making this steel causes carbon dioxide emissions, which climate change experts recommend be reduced by half in the next 37 years. One option to achieve this is to design and build more efficiently, still delivering the same service from buildings but using less steel to do so. To estimate how much steel could be saved from this option, 23 steel-framed building designs are studied, sourced from leading UK engineering firms. The utilization of each beam is found and buildings are analysed to find patterns. The results for over 10?000 beams show that average utilization is below 50% of their capacity. The primary reason for this low value is ‘rationalization’—providing extra material to reduce labour costs. By designing for minimum material rather than minimum cost, steel use in buildings could be drastically reduced, leading to an equivalent reduction in ‘embodied’ carbon emissions. PMID:25104911

  14. Dynamic and structural control utilizing smart materials and structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, C. A.; Robertshaw, H. H.

    1989-01-01

    An account is given of several novel 'smart material' structural control concepts that are currently under development. The thrust of these investigations is the evolution of intelligent materials and structures superceding the recently defined variable-geometry trusses and shape memory alloy-reinforced composites; the substances envisioned will be able to autonomously evaluate emergent environmental conditions and adapt to them, and even change their operational objectives. While until now the primary objective of the developmental efforts presently discussed has been materials that mimic biological functions, entirely novel concepts may be formulated in due course.

  15. The aerospace thermal model (HFLUX): Its structure and utility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, J. K.

    1980-12-01

    A one dimensional model of the boundary layer (HFLUX) developed at Penn State by Carlson and Boland to simulate the behavior of the ground temperature over complex terrain has been modified by The Aerospace Corporation for use in several field experiments that require the accurate prediction of the surface radiometric temperature as a function of surface (thermal inertia, albedo, and moisture availability) and meteorological (stability and wind speed) parameters. HFLUX has demonstrated its utility for use with a broad class of remote thermal imaging problems. The physical principles upon which the model is structured, a discussion of recent work with the Aerospace model, and future developmental objectives are included in this report.

  16. Structure and Expression of Propanediol Utilization Microcompartments in Acetonema longum

    PubMed Central

    Tocheva, Elitza I.; Matson, Eric G.; Cheng, Sarah N.; Chen, Wesley G.; Leadbetter, Jared R.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous bacteria assemble proteinaceous microcompartments to isolate certain biochemical reactions within the cytoplasm. The assembly, structure, contents, and functions of these microcompartments are active areas of research. Here we show that the Gram-negative sporulating bacterium Acetonema longum synthesizes propanediol utilization (PDU) microcompartments when starved or grown on 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD) or rhamnose. Electron cryotomography of intact cells revealed that PDU microcompartments are highly irregular in shape and size, similar to purified PDU microcompartments from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 that were imaged previously. Homology searches identified a 20-gene operon in A. longum that contains most of the structural, enzymatic, and regulatory genes thought to be involved in PDU microcompartment assembly and function. Transcriptional data on PduU and PduC, which are major structural and enzymatic proteins, respectively, as well as imaging, indicate that PDU microcompartment synthesis is induced within 24 h of growth on 1,2-PD and after 48 h of growth on rhamnose. PMID:24532773

  17. Design of intelligent mesoscale periodic array structures utilizing smart hydrogel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunkara, H. B.; Penn, B. G.; Frazier, D. O.; Weissman, J. M.; Asher, S. A.

    1996-01-01

    Mesoscale Periodic Array Structures (MPAS, also known as crystalline colloidal arrays), composed of aqueous or nonaqueous dispersions of self-assembled submicron colloidal spheres are emerging toward the development of advanced optical devices for technological applications. This is because of their unique optical diffraction properties and the ease with which these intriguing properties can be modulated experimentally. Moreover our recent advancements in this area which include 'locking' the liquid MPAS into solid or semisolid polymer matrices for greater stability with longer life span, and incorporation of CdS quantum dots and laser dyes into colloidal spheres to obtain nonlinear optical (NLO) responses further corroborate the use of MPAS in optical technology. Our long term goal is fabrication of all-optical and electro-optical devices such as spatial light modulators for optical signal processing and flat panel display devices by utilizing intelligent nonlinear periodic array structural materials. Here we show further progress in the design of novel linear MPAS which have the ability to sense and respond to an external source such as temperature. This is achieved by combining the self-assembly properties of polymer colloidal spheres and thermoshrinking properties of smart polymer gels. At selected temperatures the periodic array efficiently Bragg diffracts light and transmits most of the light at other temperatures. Hence these intelligent systems are of potential use as fixed notch filters optical switches or limiters to protect delicate optical sensors from high intensity laser radiation.

  18. Management structure: establishing a laboratory utilization program and tools for utilization management.

    PubMed

    Snozek, Christine; Kaleta, Erin; Hernandez, James S

    2014-01-01

    As laboratories are challenged to do more with fewer resources, the pathologist and laboratory director will play a greater role in improving the effectiveness of the laboratory, as well as addressing the overuse, misuse and underuse of laboratory testing. We describe the necessary characteristics for pathologists and laboratory directors to successfully lead utilization efforts, as well as key leadership tools and essential steps in creating a utilization management program. When we established a laboratory test utilization program de novo, it became clear how important the laboratory director was in guiding those initiatives by working with stakeholders outside of the laboratory, particularly clinicians, nurses and administrators. PMID:24076254

  19. Synthesis of 8-Hydroxyquinoline Derivatives as Novel Antitumor Agents

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This letter describes the preparation of quinoline derivatives and their cytotoxic potentials toward human carcinoma cell lines. Among the selected compounds, 8-hydroxy-2-quinolinecarbaldehyde (3) showed the best in vitro cytotoxicity against the human cancer cell lines, including MDA231, T-47D, Hs578t, SaoS2, K562, SKHep1 (with a MTS50 range of 12.5–25 ?g/mL) and Hep3B (with a MTS50 range of 6.25±0.034 ?g/mL). The in vivo antitumor activity of compound 3 on subcutenaous Hep3B hepatocellular carcinoma xenograft in athymic nude mice was then studied. The results showed that the dose of 10 mg/kg/day of compound 3 with intraperitoneal injection for 9 days totally abolished the growth of the xenograft tumor of Hep3B with no histological damage on vital organs as compared with the control. The experimental results suggested that compound 3 has a good potential as an antitumor agent. PMID:24900641

  20. Structure of Co-Doped Alq3 thin films investigated by grazing incidence X-ray absorption fine structure and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Liang; Pang, Zhiyong; Fang, Shaojie; Wang, Fenggong; Song, Shumei; Huang, Yuying; Wei, Xiangjun; Yu, Haisheng; Han, Shenghao

    2011-02-10

    The structural properties of Co-doped tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq(3)) have been studied by grazing incidence X-ray absorption fine structure (GIXAFS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). GIXAFS analysis suggests that there are multivalent Co-Alq(3) complexes and the doped Co atoms tend to locate at the attraction center with respect to N and O atoms and bond with them. The FTIR spectra indicate that the Co atoms interact with the meridional (mer) isomer of Alq(3) rather than forming inorganic compounds. PMID:21214213

  1. Utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Guozhi; Zhang, Ting-An; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Liu, Yan; Wang, Yanxiu; Guo, Fangfang; Zhao, Qiuyue; Zheng, Chaozhen

    2014-09-01

    In this study, a calcification-carbonation method is proposed to change the equilibrium structure of red mud produced from the Bayer process. The thermodynamics of both calcification and carbonation processes has been elucidated. In addition, the non-isothermal kinetics involved in the calcification process and the effects of different parameters on the hydrogarnet synthesis and carbonation decomposition are experimentally investigated using pure reagents. The results indicate that through a two-step carbonation treatment of calcified slag by the new method, the mass ratio of alumina to silica ( A/S) of the modified red mud has decreased to 0.44 and the Na2O content drops to 0.12 wt.% at the carbonation temperature of 120°C under the CO2 pressure of 1.2 MPa. The newly modified red mud could be directly used in the cement industry.

  2. Broadband Utilization in Space: Effects of Population and Economic Structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John B. Horrigan; Chandler Stolp; Robert H. Wilson

    2006-01-01

    The Internet segment of the information and communications technology industry has been forecast to reach nearly 1.5 billion users by 2007. Generally referred to as broadband, a number of alternative technologies are now deployed broadly across the United States. This article utilizes a unique data set of 9000 survey responses generated by the Pew Internet and American Life Project in

  3. Federal and State Structures to Support Financing Utility-Scale Solar Projects and the Business Models Designed to Utilize Them

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, M.; Kreycik, C.

    2012-04-01

    Utility-scale solar projects have grown rapidly in number and size over the last few years, driven in part by strong renewable portfolio standards (RPS) and federal incentives designed to stimulate investment in renewable energy technologies. This report provides an overview of such policies, as well as the project financial structures they enable, based on industry literature, publicly available data, and questionnaires conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).

  4. Structure of the electric utility industry, 1990. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, P.S.

    1980-04-01

    A vector of normalized inputs to a hypothetical 1990 electric-utility industry is created. Inputs and outputs from the industry are all considered as homogeneous components of Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) economic sectors at approximately the 2-digit (83-sector) level of aggregation. While the sector definitions are BEA-compatible, the vector is created at a 90-sector level of detail for use within the Energy Research Group (ERG) energy input-output model. The vector is listed as ERGELIN. The normalized vector of depreciation capital inputs is stored as ELINDEP. The sum of the two is the final depreciation-corrected vector of 1990 electric-utility industry inputs and is stored as EGELIND. All vectors have units Btu/Btue (1st five sectors) and $1967 per million Btue.

  5. Structure, constitution and utilization of low rank Indian coal

    SciTech Connect

    Iyengar, M.S.; Iyengar, V.A. [M.S. Iyengar and Associates, New Delhi (India)

    1996-12-31

    This paper briefly reviews the work done on lignite and sub-bituminous coals. Surface area and moisture adsorption dependency on functional group is described. The role of hydrogen bonding in the briquetting of lignite and of alkyl groups in inducing caking properties are discussed. The dualistic behavior of abnormal coals as both a low and high rank coal is also discussed in relation to the nature of their sulphur groups. On the utilization side, processes are described for: (1) Utilization of non-caking coal in the reduction of iron ore. Coal is first briquetted using a lime-tar binder. It is then carbonized for reducing iron ore. The bar is recovered and recycled. (2) Production of carbon black from low rank coals. In this process, coal is carbonized at high temperature in a fluidized bed. Carbon black, for tire industry, is obtained with char as by-product. (3) Utilization of flue gases of industry is also discussed. In this new approach, the flue gas is reduced to synthesis gas by additional fuel and the inevitable surplus heat. The viability of the process is illustrated by details of a recent study in a cement plant. In addition to the above, the implication of recycling flue gas in automobile engines to make them more environment friendly and cost effective, is also discussed.

  6. Investigation of dye-doped red emitting organic electroluminescent devices with metal-mirror microcavity structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Y. Sun; W. L. Li; Z. R. Hong; H. Z. Wei; F. X. Zang; L. L. Chen; Z. Shi; D. F. Bi; B. Li; Z. Q. Zhang; Z. Z. Hu

    2005-01-01

    Organic electroluminescent (EL) devices with planar microcavity structure, indium-tin-oxide\\/Ag\\/N,N'-diphenyl-N , N '-bis(3-methylphenyl)-1,1'-biphenyl-4 , 4'-diamine\\/tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)-aluminum (AlQ):4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethyl aminostyryl)-4H-pyran\\/AlQ\\/LiF\\/Al, were fabricated. The Ag and Al layers acted as not only hole-injection layer and cathode, respectively, but reflective mirrors, resulting in strong microcavity effects, such as spectral narrowing and directional emission. The effects of device parameters on the EL performance were studied in detail

  7. Electronic, magnetic, and physical structure of cobalt deposited on aluminum tris(8-hydroxy quinoline)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Weihao; Brauer, Jonathan; Szulczewski, Greg; Sky Driver, M.; Caruso, A. N.

    2009-06-01

    X-ray and ultraviolet photoemission of Co deposited onto aluminum tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) (Alq3) is investigated in situ. The initial Co deposited onto Alq3 reacts to form a complex. After 1 nm of Co is deposited core level and valence band spectra show evidence for the formation of metallic cobalt. After 2 nm of Co is deposited onto Alq3 x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectra reveals the Co is ferromagnetic at 300 K. Transmission electron microscopy images show an abrupt interface between Co and Alq3 with minimal intermixing. These results provide valuable insight into the electronic, magnetic, and physical structure of the Co/Alq3 interface.

  8. Hierarchical Behavior Structure for NAO Robot Utilizing Fuzzy Inference Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bahram Jozi; Ahamd Fakharian; Armita Karachi

    2010-01-01

    Playing soccer is not a simple task, and robot needs a hierarchical behavior structure to decide how to play at any situation during the game, in our previous work, we introduced a behavior structure for NAO humanoid robot. One significant task in playing soccer is proper decision making during the game, in this paper, to achieve better decision making, we

  9. Contrastive study between the biomass energy utilization structure and the ecotype energy utilization structure in rural residences — A case in Hunan province, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Q. Chen; N. P. Li; J. Guan; J. Ni; H. Zhou; F. M. Sun; Y. Q. Xie

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this study are to look into the actuality of rural residential energy consumption in Hunan province, China, to improve rural residential energy utilization structures, and to protect the environment. An investigation on rural residential energy consumption was carried out in the villages of Xintian and Jiangwan in the spring and summer of 2005. Biomass energy is used

  10. Impact of Industrial Electric Rate Structure on Energy Conservation - A Utility Viewpiont

    E-print Network

    Williams, M. M.

    1981-01-01

    As the price of energy rises, changes in industrial electric rates will have an impact on energy usage and conservation. Utilities interested in reducing system peak demands may reflect this need in the rate structure as an incentive...

  11. Constructing a Unique and Complex Tilt-Up- Panel Structure Utilizing 3D CAD and Animation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan D. Manrique; Mohamed Al-Hussein; Avi Telyas; Geoff Funston

    This paper presents the concept used to construct a complex residential Tilt-Up-Panel structure utilizing 3D-Modeling and animations. The residence is comprised of 108 panels of varying rectangular shapes with \\

  12. Multifunctional composite sandwich structures utilizing embedded microvascular networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tye, Jordan

    Sandwich composites possess exceptional specific flexural strengths, but currently lack the capability for multifunctional use of the volumes encapsulated within their cores. The objectives of this research are to (1) fabricate sacrificial fiber with increased production rates and decreased degradation times, (2) integrate sacrificial fibers into sandwich composite skins, and (3) transport, store, and recover fluid from cells within a honeycomb composite core. Melt-mixing and extrusion of PLA and tin (II) oxalate catalyst is used to increase production rates by five orders of magnitude and reduce evacuation times by a factor of four, while substantially lowering costs and eliminating hazardous chemical waste. Sacrificial fibers are woven into and fully evacuated from sandwich composite structures. Finally, fluid is successfully transported via the patterned microvascular pathways and stored within the core compartments, enabling sandwich composites suitable for applications such as structural fluid storage, heat dissipation, and damage sensing.

  13. A Direct Tunneling Memory (DTM) utilizing novel floating gate structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Horiguchi; T. Usuki; K. Goto; T. Futatsugi; T. Sugii; N. Yokoyama

    1999-01-01

    A novel floating gate (FG) memory, Direct Tunneling Memory (DTM) is demonstrated. The main features of DTM are an ultra-thin tunnel oxide with leakage stop barrier and sidewall control gate (CG) which prevent the overlap between a FG and source\\/drain (SD) extensions. This structure suppresses the gate leakage current and improves the retention time while high speed write\\/erase operations with

  14. Method for Molding Structural Parts Utilizing Modified Silicone Rubber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor); Baucom, Robert M. (Inventor); Snoha, John J. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    This invention improves upon a method for molding structural parts from preform material. Preform material to be used for the part is provided. A silicone rubber composition containing entrained air voids is prepared. The silicone rubber and preform material assembly is situated within a rigid mold cavity used to shape the preform material to die desired shape. The entire assembly is heated in a standard heating device so that the thermal expansion of the silicone rubber exerts the pressure necessary to force the preform material into contact with the mold container. The introduction of discrete air voids into the silicone rubber allows for accurately controlled pressure application on the preform material at the cure temperature.

  15. Utilizing ABAQUS to Analyze the Active Vibration Suppression of Structural Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian P. Baillargeon; Senthil S. Vel; Jeffery S. Koplik

    2004-01-01

    ABAQUS can be utilized in the numerical simulation of active feedback control for the purpose of vibration suppression of structural systems. Using the example of active control of a cantilever beam, the Positive Position Feedback (PPF) control algorithm is coupled into an ABAQUS dynamical structural model with the assistance of user-defined subroutines. The transient response of the beam with and

  16. Structural Basis of the Transcriptional Regulation of the Proline Utilization Regulon by Multifunctional PutA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuzhen Zhou; John D. Larson; Christopher A. Bottoms; Emilia C. Arturo; Michael T. Henzl; Jermaine L. Jenkins; Jay C. Nix; Donald F. Becker; John J. Tanner

    2008-01-01

    The multifunctional Escherichia coli proline utilization A (PutA) flavoprotein functions both as a membrane-associated proline catabolic enzyme and as a transcriptional repressor of the proline utilization genes putA and putP. To better understand the mechanism of transcriptional regulation by PutA, we have mapped the put-regulatory region, determined a crystal structure of the PutA ribbon–helix–helix domain (PutA52, a polypeptide corresponding to

  17. Evaluation of the Utility of NMR Structures Determined from Minimal NOE-Based Restraints for Structure-Based Drug Design, Using MMP-1 as an Example

    E-print Network

    Powers, Robert

    for Structure-Based Drug Design, Using MMP-1 as an Example Xuemei Huang, Franklin Moy, and Robert Powers in the utility of these structures for a structure-based drug design program. As an example, the catalytic on the protein structure and its utility in drug design with a particular interest in the effect on the active

  18. Assessment of Multiple Physician Competencies in Postgraduate Training: Utility of the Structured Oral Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferies, Ann; Simmons, Brian; Ng, Eugene; Skidmore, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Competency based medical education involves assessing physicians-in-training in multiple roles. Training programs are challenged by the need to introduce appropriate yet feasible assessment methods. We therefore examined the utility of a structured oral examination (SOE) in the assessment of the 7 CanMEDS roles (Medical Expert, Communicator,…

  19. A study on the utilization of advanced composites in commercial aircraft wing structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    A study was conducted to define the technology and data needed to support the introduction of advanced composite materials in the wing structure of future production aircraft. The study accomplished the following: (1) definition of acceptance factors, (2) identification of technology issues, (3) evaluation of six candidate wing structures, (4) evaluation of five program options, (5) definition of a composite wing technology development plan, (6) identification of full-scale tests, (7) estimation of program costs for the total development plan, (8) forecast of future utilization of composites in commercial transport aircraft and (9) identification of critical technologies for timely program planning.

  20. Integrating models and data to estimate the structural reliability of utility poles during hurricanes.

    PubMed

    Han, Seung-Ryong; Rosowsky, David; Guikema, Seth

    2014-06-01

    Utility systems such as power and communication systems regularly experience significant damage and loss of service during hurricanes. A primary damage mode for these systems is failure of wooden utility poles that support conductors and communication lines. In this article, we present an approach for combining structural reliability models for utility poles with observed data on pole performance during past hurricanes. This approach, based on Bayesian updating, starts from an imperfect but informative prior and updates this prior with observed performance data. We consider flexural and foundation failure mechanisms in the prior, acknowledging that these are an incomplete, but still informative, subset of the possible failure mechanisms for utility poles during hurricanes. We show how a model-based prior can be updated with observed failure data, using pole failure data from Hurricane Katrina as a case study. The results of this integration of model-based estimates and observed performance data then offer a more informative starting point for power system performance estimation for hurricane conditions. PMID:23952685

  1. A graph theoretic approach to utilizing protein structure to identify non-random somatic mutations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is well known that the development of cancer is caused by the accumulation of somatic mutations within the genome. For oncogenes specifically, current research suggests that there is a small set of "driver" mutations that are primarily responsible for tumorigenesis. Further, due to recent pharmacological successes in treating these driver mutations and their resulting tumors, a variety of approaches have been developed to identify potential driver mutations using methods such as machine learning and mutational clustering. We propose a novel methodology that increases our power to identify mutational clusters by taking into account protein tertiary structure via a graph theoretical approach. Results We have designed and implemented GraphPAC (Graph Protein Amino acid Clustering) to identify mutational clustering while considering protein spatial structure. Using GraphPAC, we are able to detect novel clusters in proteins that are known to exhibit mutation clustering as well as identify clusters in proteins without evidence of prior clustering based on current methods. Specifically, by utilizing the spatial information available in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) along with the mutational data in the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC), GraphPAC identifies new mutational clusters in well known oncogenes such as EGFR and KRAS. Further, by utilizing graph theory to account for the tertiary structure, GraphPAC discovers clusters in DPP4, NRP1 and other proteins not identified by existing methods. The R package is available at: http://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/GraphPAC.html. Conclusion GraphPAC provides an alternative to iPAC and an extension to current methodology when identifying potential activating driver mutations by utilizing a graph theoretic approach when considering protein tertiary structure. PMID:24669769

  2. Study on utilization of advanced composites in fuselage structures of large transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.; Thomson, L. W.; Wilson, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    The potential for utilizing advanced composites in fuselage structures of large transports was assessed. Six fuselage design concepts were selected and evaluated in terms of structural performance, weight, and manufacturing development and costs. Two concepts were selected that merit further consideration for composite fuselage application. These concepts are: (1) a full depth honeycomb design with no stringers, and (2) an I section stringer stiffened laminate skin design. Weight reductions due to applying composites to the fuselages of commercial and military transports were calculated. The benefits of applying composites to a fleet of military transports were determined. Significant technology issues pertinent to composite fuselage structures were identified and evaluated. Program plans for resolving the technology issues were developed.

  3. Process Developed for Fabricating Engineered Pore Structures for High- Fuel-Utilization Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sofie, Stephen W.; Cable, Thomas L.; Salamone, Sam M.

    2005-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have tremendous commercial potential because of their high efficiency, high energy density, and flexible fuel capability (ability to use fossil fuels). The drive for high-power-utilizing, ultrathin electrolytes (less than 10 microns), has placed an increased demand on the anode to provide structural support, yet allow sufficient fuel entry for sustained power generation. Concentration polarization, a condition where the fuel demand exceeds the supply, is evident in all commercial-based anode-supported cells, and it presents a significant roadblock to SOFC commercialization.

  4. In Silico Determination and Validation of Baumannii Acinetobactin Utilization A Structure and Ligand Binding Site

    PubMed Central

    Sefid, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a deadly nosocomial pathogen. Iron is an essential element for the pathogen. Under iron-restricted conditions, the bacterium expresses iron-regulated outer membrane proteins (IROMPs). Baumannii acinetobactin utilization (BauA) is the most important member of IROMPs in A. baumannii. Determination of its tertiary structure could help deduction of its functions and its interactions with ligands. The present study unveils BauA 3D structure via in silico approaches. Apart from ab initio, other rational methods such as homology modeling and threading were invoked to achieve the purpose. For homology modeling, BLAST was run on the sequence in order to find the best template. The template was then served to model the 3D structure. All the models built were evaluated qualitatively. The best model predicted by LOMETS was selected for analyses. Refinement of 3D structure as well as determination of its clefts and ligand binding sites was carried out on the structure. In contrast to the typical trimeric arrangement found in porins, BauA is monomeric. The barrel is formed by 22 antiparallel transmembrane ?-strands. There are short periplasmic turns and longer surface-located loops. An N-terminal domain referred to either as the cork, the plug, or the hatch domain occludes the ?-barrel. PMID:24106696

  5. Attaching solar collectors to a structural framework utilizing a flexible clip

    DOEpatents

    Kruse, John S

    2014-03-25

    Methods and apparatuses described herein provide for the attachment of solar collectors to a structural framework in a solar array assembly. A flexible clip is attached to either end of each solar collector and utilized to attach the solar collector to the structural framework. The solar collectors are positioned to allow a member of the framework to engage a pair of flexible clips attached to adjacent solar collectors during assembly of the solar array. Each flexible clip may have multiple frame-engaging portions, each with a flange on one end to cause the flexible clip to deflect inward when engaged by the framework member during assembly and to guide each of the frame-engaging portions into contact with a surface of the framework member for attachment.

  6. Vibration Based Wind Turbine Tower Foundation Design Utilizing Soil-Foundation-Structure Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Satari, P. E. Mohamed; Hussain, S. E. Saif

    2008-07-01

    Wind turbines have been used to generate electricity as an alternative energy source to conventional fossil fuels. This case study is for multiple wind towers located at different villages in Alaska where severe arctic weather conditions exist. The towers are supported by two different types of foundations; large mat or deep piles foundations. Initially, a Reinforced Concrete (RC) mat foundation was utilized to provide the system with vertical and lateral support. Where soil conditions required it, a pile foundation solution was devised utilizing a 30? thick RC mat containing an embedded steel grillage of W18 beams supported by 20?-24? grouted or un-grouted piles. The mixing and casting of concrete in-situ has become the major source of cost and difficulty of construction at these remote Alaska sites. An all-steel foundation was proposed for faster installation and lower cost, but was found to impact the natural frequencies of the structural system by significantly softening the foundation system. The tower-foundation support structure thus became near-resonant with the operational frequencies of the wind turbine leading to a likelihood of structural instability or even collapse. A detailed 3D Finite-Element model of the original tower-foundation-pile system with RC foundation was created using SAP2000. Soil springs were included in the model based on soil properties obtained from the geotechnical consultant. The natural frequency from the model was verified against the tower manufacturer analytical and the experimental values. Where piles were used, numerous iterations were carried out to eliminate the need for the RC and optimize the design. An optimized design was achieved with enough separation between the natural and operational frequencies to prevent damage to the structural system eliminating the need for any RC encasement to the steel foundation or grouting to the piles.

  7. Unique structural features and sequence motifs of proline utilization A (PutA).

    PubMed

    Singh, Ranjan K; Tanner, John J

    2012-01-01

    Proline utilization A proteins (PutAs) are bifunctional enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of proline to glutamate using spatially separated proline dehydrogenase and pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase active sites. Here we use the crystal structure of the minimalist PutA from Bradyrhizobium japonicum (BjPutA) along with sequence analysis to identify unique structural features of PutAs. This analysis shows that PutAs have secondary structural elements and domains not found in the related monofunctional enzymes. Some of these extra features are predicted to be important for substrate channeling in BjPutA. Multiple sequence alignment analysis shows that some PutAs have a 17-residue conserved motif in the C-terminal 20-30 residues of the polypeptide chain. The BjPutA structure shows that this motif helps seal the internal substrate-channeling cavity from the bulk medium. Finally, it is shown that some PutAs have a 100-200 residue domain of unknown function in the C-terminus that is not found in minimalist PutAs. Remote homology detection suggests that this domain is homologous to the oligomerization beta-hairpin and Rossmann fold domain of BjPutA. PMID:22201760

  8. Crystal structure of the bifunctional proline utilization A flavoenzyme from Bradyrhizobium japonicum

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Dhiraj; Schuermann, Jonathan P.; White, Tommi A.; Krishnan, Navasona; Sanyal, Nikhilesh; Hura, Greg L.; Tan, Anmin; Henzl, Michael T.; Becker, Donald F.; Tanner, John J.

    2010-01-01

    The bifunctional proline catabolic flavoenzyme, proline utilization A (PutA), catalyzes the oxidation of proline to glutamate via the sequential activities of FAD-dependent proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) and NAD+-dependent ?1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (P5CDH) domains. Although structures for some of the domains of PutA are known, a structure for the full-length protein has not previously been solved. Here we report the 2.1 ? resolution crystal structure of PutA from Bradyrhizobium japonicum, along with data from small-angle x-ray scattering, analytical ultracentrifugation, and steady-state and rapid-reaction kinetics. PutA forms a ring-shaped tetramer in solution having a diameter of 150 ?. Within each protomer, the PRODH and P5CDH active sites face each other at a distance of 41 ? and are connected by a large, irregularly shaped cavity. Kinetics measurements show that glutamate production occurs without a lag phase, suggesting that the intermediate, ?1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate, is preferably transferred to the P5CDH domain rather than released into the bulk medium. The structural and kinetic data imply that the cavity serves both as a microscopic vessel for the hydrolysis of ?1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate to glutamate semialdehyde and a protected conduit for the transport of glutamate semialdehyde to the P5CDH active site. PMID:20133651

  9. Unique Structural Features and Sequence Motifs of Proline Utilization A (PutA)

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ranjan K.; Tanner, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Proline utilization A proteins (PutAs) are bifunctional enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of proline to glutamate using spatially separated proline dehydrogenase and pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase active sites. Here we use the crystal structure of the minimalist PutA from Bradyrhizobium japonicum (BjPutA) along with sequence analysis to identify unique structural features of PutAs. This analysis shows that PutAs have secondary structural elements and domains not found in the related monofunctional enzymes. Some of these extra features are predicted to be important for substrate channeling in BjPutA. Multiple sequence alignment analysis shows that some PutAs have a 17-residue conserved motif in the C-terminal 20–30 residues of the polypeptide chain. The BjPutA structure shows that this motif helps seal the internal substrate-channeling cavity from the bulk medium. Finally, it is shown that some PutAs have a 100–200 residue domain of unknown function in the C-terminus that is not found in minimalist PutAs. Remote homology detection suggests that this domain is homologous to the oligomerization beta-hairpin and Rossmann fold domain of BjPutA. PMID:22201760

  10. Structural and biochemical basis for mannan utilization by Caldanaerobius polysaccharolyticus strain ATCC BAA-17.

    PubMed

    Chekan, Jonathan R; Kwon, In Hyuk; Agarwal, Vinayak; Dodd, Dylan; Revindran, Vanessa; Mackie, Roderick I; Cann, Isaac; Nair, Satish K

    2014-12-12

    Hemicelluloses, the polysaccharide component of plant cell walls, represent one of the most abundant biopolymers in nature. The most common hemicellulosic constituents of softwoods, such as conifers and cycads, are mannans consisting of a 1,4-linked ?-mannopyranosyl main chain with branch decorations. Efforts toward the utilization of hemicellulose for bioconversion into cellulosic biofuels have resulted in the identification of several families of glycoside hydrolases that can degrade mannan. However, effective biofermentation of manno-oligosaccharides is limited by a lack of appropriate uptake route in ethanologenic organisms. Here, we used transcriptome sequencing to gain insights into mannan degradation by the thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Caldanaerobius polysaccharolyticus. The most highly up-regulated genes during mannan fermentation occur in a cluster containing several genes encoding enzymes for efficient mannan hydrolysis as well as a solute-binding protein (CpMnBP1) that exhibits specificity for short mannose polymers but exhibited the flexibility to accommodate branched polysaccharide decorations. Co-crystal structures of CpMnBP1 in complex with mannobiose (1.4-Å resolution) and mannotriose (2.2-Å resolution) revealed the molecular rationale for chain length and oligosaccharide specificity. Calorimetric analysis of several active site variants confirmed the roles of residues critical to the function of CpMnBP1. This work represents the first biochemical characterization of a mannose-specific solute-binding protein and provides a framework for engineering mannan utilization capabilities for microbial fermentation. PMID:25342756

  11. Urban water infrastructure asset management - a structured approach in four water utilities.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, M A; Silva, M Santos; Coelho, S T; Almeida, M C; Covas, D I C

    2012-01-01

    Water services are a strategic sector of large social and economic relevance. It is therefore essential that they are managed rationally and efficiently. Advanced water supply and wastewater infrastructure asset management (IAM) is key in achieving adequate levels of service in the future, particularly with regard to reliable and high quality drinking water supply, prevention of urban flooding, efficient use of natural resources and prevention of pollution. This paper presents a methodology for supporting the development of urban water IAM, developed during the AWARE-P project as well as an appraisal of its implementation in four water utilities. Both water supply and wastewater systems were considered. Due to the different contexts and features of the utilities, the main concerns vary from case to case; some problems essentially are related to performance, others to risk. Cost is a common deciding factor. The paper describes the procedure applied, focusing on the diversity of drivers, constraints, benefits and outcomes. It also points out the main challenges and the results obtained through the implementation of a structured procedure for supporting urban water IAM. PMID:23109589

  12. Engaging families in the child welfare process utilizing the Family-Directed Structural Assesment Tool.

    PubMed

    McLendon, Tara; McLendon, Don; Dickerson, Pamela S; Lyons, Jane K; Tapp, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Effectively engaging parents in the provision of child welfare services is a crucial component of the helping process; however, it has proven to be an ongoing challenge for workers in this service area. The literature indicates that outcomes are improved for children and families when parents are actively involved in service provision. This article presents a literature review specific to parental engagement in child welfare services, identifies gaps in service provision, and introduces the Family-Directed Structural Assessment Tool, which addresses several challenges of engaging parents in this process. The pilot utilization of this assessment tool by two Bachelor of Social Work students is also presented. Finally, implications for child welfare practice are described. PMID:24843948

  13. Overcoming Structural Constraints to Patient Utilization of Electronic Medical Records: A Critical Review and Proposal for an Evaluation Framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Warren J Winkelman; Kevin J Leonard

    2004-01-01

    There are constraints embedded in medical record structure that limit use by patients in self-directed disease management. Through systematic review of the literature from a critical perspective, four characteristics that either enhance or mitigate the influence of medical record structure on patient utilization of an electronic patient record (EPR) system have been identified: environmental pressures, physician centeredness, collaborative organizational culture,

  14. Factor Structure and Predictive Utility of the 2 x 2 Achievement Goal Model in a Sample of Taiwan Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Yu-Tzu; Yeh, Yu-Chen; Lin, Sunny S. J.; Hwang, Fang-Ming

    2011-01-01

    This study examined structure and predictive utility of the 2 x 2 achievement goal model among Taiwan pre-university school students (ages 10 to 16) who learned Chinese language arts. The confirmatory factor analyses of Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Chinese version provided good fitting between the factorial and dimensional structures with the…

  15. Structural and spectroscopic characterizations of tetra-nuclear niobium(V) complexes of quinolinol derivatives.

    PubMed

    Amini, Mostafa M; Fazaeli, Yousef; Mohammadnezhad, Gholamhossein; Khavasi, Hamid Reza

    2015-06-01

    Reactions between niobium ethoxide and 8-hydroxy-2-methylquinoline or 5-chloro-8-hydroxyquinoline have been explored. Two new tetranuclear heteroleptic niobium complexes containing oxo, ethoxo, and quinolinate chelate rings have been synthesized and characterized by (1)H, (13)C and (93)Nb NMR, UV-Vis, and FT-IR spectroscopies, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The molecular structures of the niobium complexes, [Nb4(?-O)4(?-OEt)2(ONC10H8)2(OEt)8] (I) and [Nb4(?-O)4(?-OEt)2(ONC9H5Cl)2(OEt)8] (II), are composed of a pair of edge-sharing bioctahedral moieties in which connected via two almost linear oxo-bridges, with a large difference in the NbO distances. Single-crystal structures showed both complexes are centrosymmetric and contain two distinct Nb centers, and results confirmed by observation of two niobium signals in the (93)Nb NMR spectra of complexes. PMID:25756687

  16. Structural Basis of Transcriptional Regulation of the Proline Utilization Regulon by Multifunctional PutA

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yuzhen; Larson, John D.; Bottoms, Christopher A.; Arturo, Emilia C.; Henzl, Michael T.; Jenkins, Jermaine L.; Nix, Jay C.; Becker, Donald F.; Tanner, John J.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The multifunctional Escherichia coli PutA flavoprotein functions as both a membrane-associated proline catabolic enzyme and transcriptional repressor of the proline utilization genes putA and putP. To better understand the mechanism of transcriptional regulation by PutA, we have mapped the put regulatory region, determined a crystal structure of the PutA ribbon-helix-helix domain (PutA52) complexed with DNA and examined the thermodynamics of DNA binding to PutA52. Five operator sites, each containing the sequence motif 5?-GTTGCA-3?, were identified using gel-shift analysis. Three of the sites are shown to be critical for repression of putA, whereas the two other sites are important for repression of putP. The 2.25 Å resolution crystal structure of PutA52 bound to one of the operators (operator 2, 21-bp) shows that the protein contacts a 9-bp fragment, corresponding to the GTTGCA consensus motif plus three flanking base pairs. Since the operator sequences differ in flanking bases, the structure implies that PutA may have different affinities for the five operators. This hypothesis was explored using isothermal titration calorimetry. The binding of PutA52 to operator 2 is exothermic with an enthalpy of ?1.8 kcal/mol and a dissociation constant of 210 nM. Substitution of the flanking bases of operator 4 into operator 2 results in an unfavorable enthalpy of 0.2 kcal/mol and 15-fold lower affinity, which shows that base pairs outside of the consensus motif impact binding. The structural and thermodynamic data suggest that hydrogen bonds between Lys9 and bases adjacent to the GTTGCA motif contribute to transcriptional regulation by fine-tuning the affinity of PutA for put control operators. PMID:18586269

  17. Kinetic and structural characterization of tunnel-perturbing mutants in Bradyrhizobium japonicum proline utilization A.

    PubMed

    Arentson, Benjamin W; Luo, Min; Pemberton, Travis A; Tanner, John J; Becker, Donald F

    2014-08-12

    Proline utilization A from Bradyrhizobium japonicum (BjPutA) is a bifunctional flavoenzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of proline to glutamate using fused proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) and ?(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (P5CDH) domains. Recent crystal structures and kinetic data suggest an intramolecular channel connects the two active sites, promoting substrate channeling of the intermediate ?(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate/glutamate-?-semialdehyde (P5C/GSA). In this work, the structure of the channel was explored by inserting large side chain residues at four positions along the channel in BjPutA. Kinetic analysis of the different mutants revealed replacement of D779 with Tyr (D779Y) or Trp (D779W) significantly decreased the overall rate of the PRODH-P5CDH channeling reaction. X-ray crystal structures of D779Y and D779W revealed that the large side chains caused a constriction in the central section of the tunnel, thus likely impeding the travel of P5C/GSA in the channel. The D779Y and D779W mutants have PRODH activity similar to that of wild-type BjPutA but exhibit significantly lower P5CDH activity, suggesting that exogenous P5C/GSA enters the channel upstream of Asp779. Replacement of nearby Asp778 with Tyr (D778Y) did not impact BjPutA channeling activity. Consistent with the kinetic results, the X-ray crystal structure of D778Y shows that the main channel pathway is not impacted; however, an off-cavity pathway is closed off from the channel. These findings provide evidence that the off-cavity pathway is not essential for substrate channeling in BjPutA. PMID:25046425

  18. Inpatient treatment for pathological gamblers in Germany: setting, utilization, and structure.

    PubMed

    Buchner, Ursula Gisela; Erbas, Beate; Stürmer, Marco; Arnold, Melanie; Wodarz, Norbert; Wolstein, Jörg

    2015-03-01

    In Germany, there are two different approaches to inpatient treatment of pathological gambling (PG): Facilities focusing on addiction or on psychosomatic illness. However, little is known about how these differences influence utilization and structure of treatment. Therefore, in our study, we analyzed all known German gambling inpatient treatment centers concerning patients' sex, age and number of comorbid disorders and evaluated an expert assessment of the treatment system, access to treatment, and structure characteristics of inpatient treatment facilities. In 2011, 2,229 pathological gamblers were treated. This amounts to 1 % of all past-year pathological gamblers. 90 % of the patients were men, 93 % had at least one comorbid disorder. Access to treatment was mostly gained via psychosocial counseling centers, but was not readily available. Facilities with addiction departments treated less pathological gamblers per year (29.3 gamblers) than facilities with psychosomatic departments (53.3 gamblers) or with both departments (76.4 gamblers). Treatment duration was significantly longer in addiction departments treating PG as secondary diagnosis only, with a low rate of gamblers on all patients, or treating few gamblers. Some facilities specialized on PG and treated more gamblers, had a higher rate of gamblers on all patients, and offered specific treatment programs. The impact of this specialization on treatment outcome is still unclear. Although treatment numbers have risen steadily for the past years, only a small fraction of affected gamblers seek inpatient treatment. Therefore, awareness to the disease and access to treatment needs to be improved. PMID:24375259

  19. Structural and optical properties of 6,13-pentacenequinone thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, D. K.; Kim, Kibum; Kim, Jae Hoon; Im, Seongil; Jung, Duk-Young; Kim, Eugene

    2004-12-01

    We report on the structural and optical properties of 6,13-pentacenequinone thin films deposited on n-Si substrates by thermal evaporation at room temperature. X-ray diffraction data indicate excellent crystallinity but the films have two crystalline phases mixed. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra exhibited double peaks at 1.97 and 2.09 eV while the corresponding (double) peaks, associated with the highest occupied molecular orbital-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital transition, were also observed from direct absorption spectra at 2.94 and 3.11 eV. The yellow PL band was quite intense under UV illumination; the intensity was comparable to that from Tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) thin films. A large Stokes shift of ˜1eV found in our 6,13-pentacenequinone thin films suggests potential applications to UV-detectors and UV-detecting cards.

  20. Utilizing electron microscopy and spectroscopy methods to understand water structure and water doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Lior

    Water is the second most common element in the universe and the most studied material on earth. Most of the studies concerning water are from the fields of chemistry and biology. Hence, the structure of water molecules and short range order and interactions are well characterized and understood. However, the collective arrangement of water molecules and the long range order are still missing. Understanding of this long range order in water is needed, as it is the key to many water activities. To fill this gap, this study utilizes a new direct method for characterization of water in the vapor phase. Water samples from different water types were characterized using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) within a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Prior to characterizing water vapor, the measurement method for in-situ gas analysis was developed using pure gases. Water samples were also characterized using more conventional techniques, including: using cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (Cryo-SEM) in the solid state, after rapid freezing; and using high resolution TEM (HRTEM) and scanning TEM (STEM) after drying. Many other characterization techniques were evaluated but most of them were found to be not suitable, mainly due to detection limits. EELS characterization showed that samples from different water types have different electronic configurations, and they all have structures that are large enough in order to scatter electrons. From cryo SEM characterization it was found that water has nanoparticles inside with a size range of 10-100 nm, and these particles are ~500 nm apart. HRTEM/STEM characterization showed that particles from different water types have different shapes. The presence of particles provide surfaces to support water structures and the difference between the particles can explain the different properties of different water types Using tools and methods that are conventional in materials science for characterization of bulk materials and long range orders, resulted in characterization of water clusters that are significantly larger than what was known until now. By this we contribute a new point of view for water structure, which together with new insights on water properties can potentially advance later use of water as an active ingredient.

  1. Effect of questionnaire structure on recall of drug utilization in a population of university students

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Self-reported data are a common source of information about drug exposure. Modes of data collection differ considerably and the questionnaire's structure may affect prevalence estimates. We compared the recall of medication use evaluated by means of two questionnaires differing in structure and length. Methods Drug utilization was assessed by two alternative versions of a questionnaire (A – 4 pages, including specific questions for 12 indications/pharmacological groups and one question for "other medicines"; B – 1 page, including 1 open-ended question to cover overall drug consumption). Each of 32 classes in a private University in Maputo, Mozambique, was randomly assigned questionnaire A (233 participants) or B (276 participants). Logistic regression (allowing for clustering by classroom) was used to compare the two groups in terms of socio-demographic characteristics and medication used during the previous month. Results Overall, 67.4% of the subjects had used at least one drug during the previous month. The following prevalences were greater among participants completing questionnaire A: use of drugs from two or more pharmacological groups (60.5% vs. 34.4%, p < 0.001), use of two or more drugs (66.2% vs. 43.0%, p < 0.001), and use of antibiotics (14.6% vs. 6.9%, p = 0.001), antifungals (9.4% vs. 4.0%, p = 0.013), antiparasitics (5.6% vs. 1.8%, p = 0.031) and antacids (8.6% vs. 3.6%, p = 0.024). Information about duration of treatment and medical advice was more complete with version A. Conclusion The indication/drug-specific questions (questionnaire A) revealed a significantly higher prevalence of use of medicines – antibiotics, antifungals, antiparasitics and antacids – without compromising the completeness of the information. PMID:19563651

  2. StructureProperty Correlations in CoFeSiO2 Nanogranular Films Utilizing x-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Laughlin, David E.

    Structure­Property Correlations in CoFe­SiO2 Nanogranular Films Utilizing x-Ray Photoelectron and Magnetic Materials Team, Functional Materials Development Division, National Energy Technology Laboratory size and separation with increasing SiO2 resulted in a transition to superparamagnetic behavior

  3. Utilization patterns of cohorts of elderly clients: a structural equation model.

    PubMed Central

    Ellencweig, A Y; Pagliccia, N

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To identify a model that takes into account the interrelationship of health services utilization variables, and that allows examination of the utilization patterns of health services for a cohort of elderly clients. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SETTING. The data of each client in the study were taken from three computer databases maintained for administrative purposes by the Ministry of Health in British Columbia. Time frame for the utilization variables is one year before and one year after admission to the long-term care program in BC which occurred in 1981-1982. STUDY DESIGN. A basic model was fitted to the utilization data for the year before admission and patterns of utilization were assessed for each gender-age group for the year before admission and for the two periods, using LISREL. Fifteen utilization variables were included: number of GP and specialist visits in different settings (office, home, etc.) and number of other services such as lab tests, hospital stay, etc. DATA COLLECTION. The three files were linked to produce one record per client. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. A model was identified that fits the data well. The total effect of GP emergency room visits on hospital stay is 0.30 compared to 0.19 direct effect. The additional impact is produced via the effect of specialist consultations on hospital stay. This and similar findings by age, gender, and period are consistent with the joint dependency of utilization variables. CONCLUSIONS. The analysis shows that males and females have different utilization patterns, while age has no effect on utilization of health services by male clients and only a small effect on utilization patterns by female clients. Admission to LTC causes more specialist contacts resulting from contact with a GP and generally a more intensive use of diagnostic and surgical procedures. However, there is significantly less acute care hospital services utilization. PMID:8005791

  4. Assessment of multiple physician competencies in postgraduate training: utility of the structured oral examination.

    PubMed

    Jefferies, Ann; Simmons, Brian; Ng, Eugene; Skidmore, Martin

    2011-12-01

    Competency based medical education involves assessing physicians-in-training in multiple roles. Training programs are challenged by the need to introduce appropriate yet feasible assessment methods. We therefore examined the utility of a structured oral examination (SOE) in the assessment of the 7 CanMEDS roles (Medical Expert, Communicator, Collaborator, Manager, Health Advocate, Scholar and Professional) in a Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine subspecialty training program. Between 2004 and 2008, 68 trainees participated in an annual SOE. Each SOE consisted of 4 1st year and 4 2nd year clinical scenarios with standardized questions written by neonatologists that addressed all 7 CanMEDS roles. Examiners assigned a checklist score and global rating scores for knowledge and organization. A satisfaction survey was completed at the end of 3 examinations. Across the 5 SOEs, questions related to each competency were tabulated and an overall checklist score for each competency calculated. Inter-station reliability was determined for each CanMEDS role. Values for Cronbach's alpha were 0.62 ± 0.2 (Medical Expert), 0.43 (Communicator), 0.40 ± 0.34 (Collaborator), 0.19 ± 0.17 (Manager), 0.46 ± 0.32 (Advocate), 0.67 ± 0.18 (Scholar) and 0.79 (Professional). Inter-rater reliability, determined for the first examination when there were 2 examiners per case, was moderate to substantial for 67% of cases. Participant satisfaction was high. Electronic communication facilitated exam development and costs were minimal. The SOE demonstrates psychometric properties suitable for a formative, in-training assessment as well as low cost, ease of administration and acceptability. It may be a useful way to assess physician competencies in training programs. PMID:21279437

  5. Methods of application of 8-Hydroxyquinoline preservative on seed cotton during the harvesting operation

    E-print Network

    Morvant, Clifton Joseph

    1964-01-01

    : germination percentage, deterioration percentage, and the coefficient of velocity of germination. The moisture and free fatty acid content of the cotton seed samples were also determined. These tests were conducted by the Cottonseed Products Research... cent free fatty acid should have a low percentage viability. Although free fatty acid content is an index of viability, the best test for cotton seed viability is the germination test. The free fatty acid analysis, Table 34, indicated a significant...

  6. Photoluminescence (PL)-Detected Magnetic Resonance (PLDMR) Study of tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) Aluminum (Alq3).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, C.-H.; Shinar, J.

    2004-03-01

    A PLDMR study of Alq3 powder and vacuum-evaporated films is described. A positive (PL-enhancing) spin 1/2 polaron resonance is observed in both powder and films. Its observation implies that either it is not due to the conversion of nongeminate polaron pairs from the triplet to the singlet configuration (the delayed PL mechanism), or the yield of singlet excitons (SEs) in Alq3 organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) is > 25%. Other evidence clearly demonstrates the former. The resonance is therefore attributed to reduced quenching of SEs by a reduced population of polarons (the quenching mechanism). As it is weaker in powder than in the films, it is suggested that the films contain more defect sites which quench SEs and/or trap polarons. The behavior of the PL quantum yield (PLQY) is consistent with this conclusion: The PLQY of the powder is 0.33, while that of films is 0.18, indicating that the latter contain a higher density of such sites. The PLDMR of powders also includes full- and half-field triplet exciton (TE) patterns. In contrast to polymers, the full field pattern is negative (PL-quenching). Following rubrene, that resonance is tentatively attributed to reduced geminate TE-TE fusion to SEs. If this scenario is correct, it would imply that as in rubrene, SEs in Alq3 may fission to geminate triplet pairs, and triplet pairs may fuse to SEs.

  7. Chemistry between Magnesium and Multiple Molecules in Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) Aluminum Films

    E-print Network

    Schwartz, Jeffrey

    -hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) is widely used in modern organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) because of its excellent stability and electroluminescent properties.1 The efficiency of electroluminescent devices

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of Hemicage 8-Hydroxyquinoline Chelates with Enhanced Electrochemical and Photophysical Properties

    E-print Network

    Bernhard, Stefan

    report on small molecule-based organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) by Tang and VanSlyke, tris- (8. The photoluminescence quantum efficiency for the three hemicage complexes is 1.48, 1.79, and 1.26 times higher for Al due to the rigidity of the ligand system, which can efficiently decrease the nonradiative decay

  9. Preparation of 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives as potential antibiotics against Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Lam, Kim-Hung; Gambari, Roberto; Lee, Kenneth Ka-Ho; Chen, Yi-Xin; Kok, Stanton Hon-Lung; Wong, Raymond Siu-Ming; Lau, Fung-Yi; Cheng, Chor-Hing; Wong, Wai-Yeung; Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Chan, Albert Sun-Chi; Tang, Johnny Cheuk-On; Chui, Chung-Hin

    2014-01-01

    This work describes the preparation of quinoline compounds as possible anti-bacterial agents. The synthesized quinoline derivatives show anti-bacterial activity towards Staphylococcus aureus. It is interesting to observe that the synthetic 5,7-dibromo-2-methylquinolin-8-ol (4) shows a similar minimum inhibitory concentration of 6.25?g/mL as compared to that of methicillin (3.125?g/mL) against Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:24269165

  10. Form finding analysis based on variational method for multistable structure utilizing snap-through behaviour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Kurokawa; M. Shigematsu; M. Kohiyama

    2010-01-01

    This study proposed a multistable structure using snap-through behavior as an adaptable structure, which can change its size and transform its configuration easily. To know the stable configuration and stress of the structure, the form finding analysis method of the structure is formulated. Then, a design support system is proposed based on a calculation method of required forces to transform

  11. Simplified Structure of Ducted Darrieus-Type Hydro Turbine with Narrow Intake for Extra-low Head Hydropower Utilization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daisuke Matsushita; Kusuo Okuma; Satoshi Watanabe; Akinori Furukawa

    2008-01-01

    A ducted Darrieus-type hydro turbine has been proposed for extra-low head hydropower utilization of total head less than 2m, where development is almost not done in the commercial base. Though the efficiency of Darrieus-type turbine, which is cross flow type, is not so high as conventional type, the Darrieus-type has a cost-advantage due to the simple structure. By installing a

  12. A Novel Structure for Three-Phase Four-Wire Distribution System Utilizing Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vinod Khadkikar; Ambrish Chandra

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel structure for a three-phase four-wire (3P4W) distribution system utilizing unified power quality conditioner (UPQC). The 3P4W system is realized from a three-phase three-wire system where the neutral of series transformer used in series part UPQC is considered as the fourth wire for the 3P4W system. A new control strategy to balance the unbalanced load currents

  13. JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL PSYCHOLOGY 13, 296-322 (1976) Utility-uncertainty Trade-Off Structures*

    E-print Network

    Barrett, Jeffrey A.

    least. You may lose two things: the true and the good; and there are two things that you stake: your reason and your will, your knowledge and your beatitude; and your nature has two things from which Copyright 0 1976 by Academic Press, Inc. All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. #12;UTILITY

  14. Physician utilization among the elderly: An analysis using structural equation modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia Elizabeth Bradsher

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine physician utilization among the elderly within the framework of the Andersen behavioral model. The general research aim guiding this project was to determine which characteristics of individuals and their social environment predict physician use and to examine how these characteristics are interrelated.Using data from Version 3 of the Longitudinal Study on Aging,

  15. Optimized frequency-based foundation design for wind turbine towers utilizing soil–structure interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad AlHamaydeh; Saif Hussain

    2010-01-01

    This study illustrates design optimization for multiple wind towers located at different villages in Alaska. The towers are supported by two different types of foundations: large mat or deep piles foundations. Initially, a reinforced concrete (RC) mat foundation was proposed. Where soil conditions required it, a pile foundation solution was devised utilizing a 30in thick RC mat containing an embedded

  16. Creating a Test Validated Structural Dynamic Finite Element Model of the Multi-Utility Technology Test Bed Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-Gi; Truong, Samson S.

    2014-01-01

    Small modeling errors in the finite element model will eventually induce errors in the structural flexibility and mass, thus propagating into unpredictable errors in the unsteady aerodynamics and the control law design. One of the primary objectives of Multi Utility Technology Test Bed, X-56A, aircraft is the flight demonstration of active flutter suppression, and therefore in this study, the identification of the primary and secondary modes for the structural model tuning based on the flutter analysis of X-56A. The ground vibration test validated structural dynamic finite element model of the X-56A is created in this study. The structural dynamic finite element model of the X-56A is improved using a model tuning tool. In this study, two different weight configurations of the X-56A have been improved in a single optimization run.

  17. Utilizing elevator for wireless sensor data collection in high-rise structure monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feng Wang; Jiangchuan Liu; Dan Wang

    2011-01-01

    Recently wireless sensor networks have been widely suggested for Structural Health Monitoring. In such applications, diverse sensor nodes are deployed in a building structure, collecting ambient data such as temperature and strain from various locations and reporting them to a central base station for processing and diagnosing. For today's high-rise structures (e.g., the Guangzhou New TV Tower, a project that

  18. The intellectual structure and substance of the knowledge utilization field: A longitudinal author co-citation analysis, 1945 to 2004

    PubMed Central

    Estabrooks, Carole A; Derksen, Linda; Winther, Connie; Lavis, John N; Scott, Shannon D; Wallin, Lars; Profetto-McGrath, Joanne

    2008-01-01

    Background It has been argued that science and society are in the midst of a far-reaching renegotiation of the social contract between science and society, with society becoming a far more active partner in the creation of knowledge. On the one hand, new forms of knowledge production are emerging, and on the other, both science and society are experiencing a rapid acceleration in new forms of knowledge utilization. Concomitantly since the Second World War, the science underpinning the knowledge utilization field has had exponential growth. Few in-depth examinations of this field exist, and no comprehensive analyses have used bibliometric methods. Methods Using bibliometric analysis, specifically first author co-citation analysis, our group undertook a domain analysis of the knowledge utilization field, tracing its historical development between 1945 and 2004. Our purposes were to map the historical development of knowledge utilization as a field, and to identify the changing intellectual structure of its scientific domains. We analyzed more than 5,000 articles using citation data drawn from the Web of Science®. Search terms were combinations of knowledge, research, evidence, guidelines, ideas, science, innovation, technology, information theory and use, utilization, and uptake. Results We provide an overview of the intellectual structure and how it changed over six decades. The field does not become large enough to represent with a co-citation map until the mid-1960s. Our findings demonstrate vigorous growth from the mid-1960s through 2004, as well as the emergence of specialized domains reflecting distinct collectives of intellectual activity and thought. Until the mid-1980s, the major domains were focused on innovation diffusion, technology transfer, and knowledge utilization. Beginning slowly in the mid-1980s and then growing rapidly, a fourth scientific domain, evidence-based medicine, emerged. The field is dominated in all decades by one individual, Everett Rogers, and by one paradigm, innovation diffusion. Conclusion We conclude that the received view that social science disciplines are in a state where no accepted set of principles or theories guide research (i.e., that they are pre-paradigmatic) could not be supported for this field. Second, we document the emergence of a new domain within the knowledge utilization field, evidence-based medicine. Third, we conclude that Everett Rogers was the dominant figure in the field and, until the emergence of evidence-based medicine, his representation of the general diffusion model was the dominant paradigm in the field. PMID:19014512

  19. Structure and Electrochemistry of Copper Fluoride Nanocomposites Utilizing Mixed Conducting Matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Badway,F.; Mansour, A.; Pereira, N.; Al-Sharab, J.; Cosandey, F.; Plitz, I.; Amatucci, G.

    2007-01-01

    Near-theoretical utilization of high-energy-density CuF{sub 2} positive electrode materials for lithium batteries was enabled through the use of nanocomposites consisting of 2-30 nm domains of CuF{sub 2} within a mixed ionic + electronic conducting matrix of a metal oxide. Small but significant crystallographic changes to the core crystal of the CuF{sub 2} were found to occur in all oxide-based matrices. These modifications to the core crystal and the surrounding matrix were investigated through a host of characterization methods, including XRD, XPS, and XAS. This new approach to the enablement of the anhydrous CuF{sub 2} is distinctly superior in performance to that of macro CuF{sub 2} or CuF{sub 2} nanocomposites utilizing carbon as a matrix, the latter of which is also introduced herein for the first time.

  20. Optical properties of II-VI structures for solar energy utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrier, Joshua; Demchenko, Denis; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2007-03-01

    Although II-VI semiconductor materials are abundant, stable, and have direct band gaps, the band gaps are too large for optimal photovoltaic efficiency. However, staggered band alignments of pairs of these materials, and also the formation of intermediate impurity levels in the band gap (which has been demonstrated to increase the efficiency as compared to both single-junction devices), could be utilized to improve the suitability of these materials for solar energy utilization. Previous theoretical studies of these materials are limited, due to the well-known band gap underestimation by density-functional theory. To calculate the absorption spectra, we utilize a band-corrected planewave pseudopotential approach, which gives agreements of within 0.1 eV of the bulk optical gaps values. In this talk, I will present our work on predicting the optical properties of ZnO/ZnS and ZnO/ZnTe heterostructures, nanostructures, and alloys. This work was supported by U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No.DE-AC02-05CH11231 and used the resources of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center.

  1. Evaluating Cognitive Training Outcomes: Validity and Utility of Structural Knowledge Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark A. Davis; Mary B. Curtis; Jeffrey D. Tschetter

    2003-01-01

    Conventional approaches to evaluating cognitive outcomes of training typically use paper-and-pencil tests that emphasize gains or differences in declarative knowledge. Yet a key factor in differentiating expert and novice performance is the way individuals organize their knowledge. Accordingly, the acquisition of meaningful knowledge structures and methods of assessing structural knowledge are potentially important issues for designing and evaluating training programs.

  2. Analyzing and Utilizing the Collaboration Structure for Reliable Router-Level Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, Yu; Arakawa, Shin'ichi; Murata, Masayuki

    As the Internet represents a key social infrastructure, its reliability is essential if we are to survive failures. Physical connectivity of networks is also essential as it characterizes reliability. There are collaboration structures, which are topological structures where two or more nodes are connected to a node, and collaboration structures are observed in transcriptional regulatory networks and the router-level topologies of ISPs. These collaboration structures are related to the reliability of networks. The main objective of this research is to find whether an increase in collaboration structures would improve reliability or not. We first categorize the topology into a three-level hierarchy for this purpose, i.e., top-level, middle-level, and bottom-level layers. We then calculate the reliability of networks. The results indicate that the reliability of most transcriptional regulatory networks is higher than that of one of router-level topologies. We then investigate the number of collaboration structures. It is apparent that there are much fewer collaboration structures between top-level nodes and middle-level nodes in router-level topologies. Finally, we confirm that the reliability of router-level topologies can be improved by rewiring to increase the collaboration structures between top-level and middle-level nodes.

  3. Advanced Concepts in Structuring and Utilizing Local Advisory Councils and Craft Committees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Richard E.

    Adoption and implementation of advanced concepts in structuring and using a local advisory council and craft committees can result in significantly improved vocational education programs. The organizational structure of a vocational-technical school advisory council should be a vehicle that facilitates accomplishment of its prime function--to…

  4. A global clinicians' map of mental disorders to improve ICD-11: analysing meta-structure to enhance clinical utility.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Michael C; Reed, Geoffrey M; Medina-Mora, María Elena; Keeley, Jared W; Sharan, Pratap; Johnson, David K; Mari, Jair de Jesus; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis; Gureje, Oye; Xiao, Zeping; Maruta, Toshimasa; Khoury, Brigitte; Robles, Rebeca; Saxena, Shekhar

    2012-12-01

    Enhancing clinical utility is an emphasis of the World Health Organization's development of the mental and behavioural disorders chapter of the next International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). Understanding how clinicians conceptualize the structure of mental disorders can enable a more clinically intuitive classification architecture that will help professionals find the categories they need more efficiently. This study examined clinicians' conceptualizations of the relationships among mental disorders and the dimensions they use in making these judgements. Psychiatrists and psychologists from 64 countries (n = 1,371), participating in English or Spanish, rated the similarity of mental and behavioural disorders presented as paired comparisons. Data were analysed by multidimensional scaling procedures (INDSCAL) and by analyses of consistency. Participants used three distinctive dimensions to evaluate the similarity among disorders: internalizing versus externalizing, developmental versus adult onset, and functional versus organic. Clinicians' conceptual map of mental disorders was rational and highly stable across profession, language, and country income level. The proposed ICD-11 structure is a moderately better fit with clinicians' conceptual model than either ICD-10 or DSM-IV. Clinician judgements can be used to improve clinical utility of the ICD-11 without sacrificing validity based on a scientific approach to enhancing a logically organized classification meta-structure. PMID:23244613

  5. Direct in situ observation of structural transition driven actuation in VO2 utilizing electron transparent cantilevers.

    PubMed

    Viswanath, B; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2013-08-21

    Direct imaging and quantification of actuation in nanostructures that undergo structural phase transitions could advance our understanding of collective phenomena in the solid state. Here, we demonstrate visualization of structural phase transition induced actuation in a model correlated insulator vanadium dioxide by in situ Fresnel contrast imaging of electron transparent cantilevers. We quantify abrupt, reversible cantilever motion occurring due to the stress relaxation across the structural transition from a monoclinic to tetragonal phase with increasing temperature. Deflections measured in such nanoscale cantilevers can be directly correlated with macroscopic stress measurements by wafer curvature studies as well as temperature dependent electrical conduction allowing one to interrogate lattice dynamics across length scales. PMID:23832192

  6. Enhancing sexual desire and intimacy via the metaphor of a problem child: utilizing structural-strategic family therapy.

    PubMed

    Young, Teresa L; Negash, Sesen M; Long, Rhonda M

    2009-01-01

    This article explores structural-strategic family therapy as a treatment modality for couples with problems of intimacy and sexual desire. Parents whose presenting problem involves a child with problematic behavior may also struggle with problems in their intimate relationship. Instead of speaking to these problems directly, however, the couple may communicate about their intimate problems via the metaphor of their "problem" child. Structural-strategic family therapy can then be utilized to strengthen the parental subsystem by establishing a parenting team, which in turn nourishes the partner subsystem. Success is then measured not only by improvements in the child's behavior, but also by the enhancement of intimacy and sexual desire between partners. PMID:20183007

  7. A Study of the Utilization of Advanced Composites in Fuselage Structures of Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, D. J.; Sumida, P. T.; Bunin, B. L.; Janicki, G. S.; Walker, J. V.; Fox, B. R.

    1985-01-01

    A study was conducted to define the technology and data needed to support the introduction of advanced composites in the future production of fuselage structure in large transport aircraft. Fuselage structures of six candidate airplanes were evaluated for the baseline component. The MD-100 was selected on the basis of its representation of 1990s fuselage structure, an available data base, its impact on the schedule and cost of the development program, and its availability and suitability for flight service evaluation. Acceptance criteria were defined, technology issues were identified, and a composite fuselage technology development plan, including full-scale tests, was identified. The plan was based on composite materials to be available in the mid to late 1980s. Program resources required to develop composite fuselage technology are estimated at a rough order of magnitude to be 877 man-years exclusive of the bird strike and impact dynamic test components. A conceptual composite fuselage was designed, retaining the basic MD-100 structural arrangement for doors, windows, wing, wheel wells, cockpit enclosure, major bulkheads, etc., resulting in a 32 percent weight savings.

  8. Utility of R0 as a predictor of disease invasion in structured populations

    E-print Network

    Getz, Wayne M.

    influenza among wild birds underscores the need to understand whether insights derived from the theory to be a poor predictor of a disease pandemic because it typically does not account for group structure such as measles and pertussis (Salmon et al. 1999; Feikin et al. 2000). Similarly, the ongoing spread of H5N1

  9. GUIDELINES FOR UTILIZING STRONG-MOTION DATA FOR POST-EARTHQUAKE EVALUATION OF STRUCTURES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Rojahn; A. Gerald Brady; Craig D. Comartin

    This paper describes portions of the document, Guidelines for Using Strong-Motion Data for Postearthquake Response and Postearthquake Structural Evaluation, currently being developed by the Applied Technology Council for the California Geological Survey (formerly, California Division of Mines and Geology) Strong Motion Instrumentation Program 2000 Data Interpretation Project. The focus of the paper is on guidance for using strong- motion data

  10. GRASS SWARD STRUCTURE: AN ALTERNATIVE METHOD OF MEASURING POTENTIAL PASTURE UTILIZATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preliminary data indicate that pasture grasses differ in sward structure, or the distribution of dry matter and quality from the top to the bottom of the canopy. This could have a significant impact on intake and performance of grazing animals, depending on the grazing management imposed on the pas...

  11. An assessment of children's concepts of the earth utilizing structured interviews

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Nussbaum; Joseph D. Novak

    1976-01-01

    Structured interviews with second graders in the U.S. about the shape of Earth and the effects of gravity at the surface. Describes a highly effective and systematic interviewing strategy aropriate for investigating student conceptions. Most students consistently hold one of five notions: Earth is flat, Earth is round with flat places where people live, Earth is round and people can

  12. Biochemical and Structural Insights into Xylan Utilization by the Thermophilic Bacterium Caldanaerobius polysaccharolyticus*

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yejun; Agarwal, Vinayak; Dodd, Dylan; Kim, Jason; Bae, Brian; Mackie, Roderick I.; Nair, Satish K.; Cann, Isaac K. O.

    2012-01-01

    Hemicellulose is the next most abundant plant cell wall component after cellulose. The abundance of hemicellulose such as xylan suggests that their hydrolysis and conversion to biofuels can improve the economics of bioenergy production. In an effort to understand xylan hydrolysis at high temperatures, we sequenced the genome of the thermophilic bacterium Caldanaerobius polysaccharolyticus. Analysis of the partial genome sequence revealed a gene cluster that contained both hydrolytic enzymes and also enzymes key to the pentose-phosphate pathway. The hydrolytic enzymes in the gene cluster were demonstrated to convert products from a large endoxylanase (Xyn10A) predicted to anchor to the surface of the bacterium. We further use structural and calorimetric studies to demonstrate that the end products of Xyn10A hydrolysis of xylan are recognized and bound by XBP1, a putative solute-binding protein, likely for transport into the cell. The XBP1 protein showed preference for xylo-oligosaccharides as follows: xylotriose > xylobiose > xylotetraose. To elucidate the structural basis for the oligosaccharide preference, we solved the co-crystal structure of XBP1 complexed with xylotriose to a 1.8-? resolution. Analysis of the biochemical data in the context of the co-crystal structure reveals the molecular underpinnings of oligosaccharide length specificity. PMID:22918832

  13. Quantitative structure-activation barrier relationship modeling for Diels-Alder ligations utilizing quantum chemical structural descriptors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the present study, we show the correlation of quantum chemical structural descriptors with the activation barriers of the Diels-Alder ligations. A set of 72 non-catalysed Diels-Alder reactions were subjected to quantitative structure-activation barrier relationship (QSABR) under the framework of theoretical quantum chemical descriptors calculated solely from the structures of diene and dienophile reactants. Experimental activation barrier data were obtained from literature. Descriptors were computed using Hartree-Fock theory using 6-31G(d) basis set as implemented in Gaussian 09 software. Results Variable selection and model development were carried out by stepwise multiple linear regression methodology. Predictive performance of the quantitative structure-activation barrier relationship (QSABR) model was assessed by training and test set concept and by calculating leave-one-out cross-validated Q2 and predictive R2 values. The QSABR model can explain and predict 86.5% and 80% of the variances, respectively, in the activation energy barrier training data. Alternatively, a neural network model based on back propagation of errors was developed to assess the nonlinearity of the sought correlations between theoretical descriptors and experimental reaction barriers. Conclusions A reasonable predictability for the activation barrier of the test set reactions was obtained, which enabled an exploration and interpretation of the significant variables responsible for Diels-Alder interaction between dienes and dienophiles. Thus, studies in the direction of QSABR modelling that provide efficient and fast prediction of activation barriers of the Diels-Alder reactions turn out to be a meaningful alternative to transition state theory based computation. PMID:24171724

  14. Utilization of Structured Packing for Energy Savings in Distillation and Absorption Columns

    E-print Network

    Berven, O. J.; Howard, W. E.

    . As Figure No. 4 demonstrates, over 30% of the tray area is occupied by the bubbl e caps and downcomers, resulti ng ina much higher vapor or gas velocity at the deck of the tray. This, in turn, causes more entrainment, especially in those sections where... the ori9ina1 sieve trays. The revamped col umn can run as high as 210% of the Case 1 loads. Table No.8 summarizes the cost savings derived from this particular revamp when trays and structured packing are compa red at Case 1 rates. Based on $4. 00 per...

  15. Evaluation of commercial utility of ERTS-A imagery in structural reconnaissance for minerals and petroleum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, D. F.; Thomas, G. E.

    1973-01-01

    Five areas in North America (North Slope-Alaska, Superior Province-Canada, Williston Basin-Montana, Colorado and New Mexico-West Texas) are being studied for discernibility of geological evidence on ERTS-1 imagery, Evidence mapped is compared with known mineral/hydrocarbon accumulations to determine the value of the imagery in commercial exploration programs. Evaluation has proceeded in the New Mexico-West Texas area while awaiting imagery in the other areas. To date, results have been better than expected. Clearly discernible structural lineaments in New Mexico-West Texas are evident on the photographs. Comparison of this evidence with known major mining localities in New Mexico indicates a clear pattern of coincidence between the lineaments and mining localities. In West Texas, lineament and geomorphological evidence obtainable from the photographs define the petroleum-productive Central Basin Platform. Based on evaluation results in the New Mexico-West Texas area and on cursory results in the other four areas of North America, ERTS-1 imagery will be extremely valuable in defining the regional and local structure in any commercial exploration program.

  16. Study of utilization of advanced composites in fuselage structures of large transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, A. C.; Campion, M. C.; Pei, G.

    1984-01-01

    The effort required by the transport aircraft manufacturers to support the introduction of advanced composite materials into the fuselage structure of future commercial and military transport aircraft is investigated. Technology issues, potential benefits to military life cycle costs and commercial operating costs, and development plans are examined. The most urgent technology issues defined are impact dynamics, acoustic transmission, pressure containment and damage tolerance, post-buckling, cutouts, and joints and splices. A technology demonstration program is defined and a rough cost and schedule identified. The fabrication and test of a full-scale fuselage barrel section is presented. Commercial and military benefits are identified. Fuselage structure weight savings from use of advanced composites are 16.4 percent for the commercial and 21.8 percent for the military. For the all-composite airplanes the savings are 26 percent and 29 percent, respectively. Commercial/operating costs are reduced by 5 percent for the all-composite airplane and military life cycle costs by 10 percent.

  17. Innovative design of composite structures: Design, manufacturing, and testing of plates utilizing curvilinear fiber trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyer, M. W.; Rust, R. J.; Waters, W. A., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    As a means of improving structural design, the concept of fabricating flat plates containing holes by incorporating curvilinear fiber trajectories to transmit loads around the hole is studied. In the present discussion this concept is viewed from a structural level, where access holes, windows, doors, and other openings are of significant size. This is opposed to holes sized for mechanical fasteners. Instead of cutting the important load-bearing fibers at the hole edge, as a conventional straightline design does, the curvilinear design preserves the load-bearing fibers by orienting them in smooth trajectories around the holes, their loading not ending abruptly at the hole edge. Though the concept of curvilinear fiber trajectories has been studied before, attempts to manufacture and test such plates have been limited. This report describes a cooperative effort between Cincinnati Milacron Inc., NASA Langley Research Center, and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University to design, manufacture, and test plates using the curvilinear fiber trajectory concept. The paper discusses details of the plate design, details of the manufacturing, and a summary of results from testing the plates with inplane compressive buckling loads and tensile loads. Comparisons between the curvilinear and conventional straightline fiber designs based on measurements and observation are made. Failure modes, failure loads, strains, deflections, and other key responses are compared.

  18. Nano-Structured Materials Utilized in Biopolymer based Plastics for Food Packaging Applications.

    PubMed

    Ghanbarzadeh, Babak; Oleyaei, Seyed Amir; Almasi, Hadi

    2014-05-01

    Abstract Most materials currently used for food packaging are non-degradable, generating environmental problems. Several biopolymers have been exploited to develop materials for eco-friendly food packaging. However, the use of biopolymers has been limited because of their usually poor mechanical and barrier properties, which may be improved by adding reinforcing compounds (fillers), forming composites. Most reinforced materials present poor matrix-filler interactions, which tend to improve with decreasing filler dimensions. The use of fillers with at least one nanoscale dimension (nanoparticles) produces nanocomposites. Nanoparticles have proportionally larger surface area than their microscale counterparts, which favors the filler-matrix interactions and the performance of the resulting material. Besides nanoreinforcements, nanoparticles can have other functions when added to a polymer, such as antimicrobial activity, etc. in this review paper, the structure and properties of main kinds of nano structured materials which have been studied to use as nanofiller in biopolymer matrices are overviewed, as well as their effects and applications. PMID:24798951

  19. Full equations utilities (FEQUTL) model for the approximation of hydraulic characteristics of open channels and control structures during unsteady flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franz, Delbert D.; Melching, Charles S.

    1997-01-01

    The Full EQuations UTiLities (FEQUTL) model is a computer program for computation of tables that list the hydraulic characteristics of open channels and control structures as a function of upstream and downstream depths; these tables facilitate the simulation of unsteady flow in a stream system with the Full Equations (FEQ) model. Simulation of unsteady flow requires many iterations for each time period computed. Thus, computation of hydraulic characteristics during the simulations is impractical, and preparation of function tables and application of table look-up procedures facilitates simulation of unsteady flow. Three general types of function tables are computed: one-dimensional tables that relate hydraulic characteristics to upstream flow depth, two-dimensional tables that relate flow through control structures to upstream and downstream flow depth, and three-dimensional tables that relate flow through gated structures to upstream and downstream flow depth and gate setting. For open-channel reaches, six types of one-dimensional function tables contain different combinations of the top width of flow, area, first moment of area with respect to the water surface, conveyance, flux coefficients, and correction coefficients for channel curvilinearity. For hydraulic control structures, one type of one-dimensional function table contains relations between flow and upstream depth, and two types of two-dimensional function tables contain relations among flow and upstream and downstream flow depths. For hydraulic control structures with gates, a three-dimensional function table lists the system of two-dimensional tables that contain the relations among flow and upstream and downstream flow depths that correspond to different gate openings. Hydraulic control structures for which function tables containing flow relations are prepared in FEQUTL include expansions, contractions, bridges, culverts, embankments, weirs, closed conduits (circular, rectangular, and pipe-arch shapes), dam failures, floodways, and underflow gates (sluice and tainter gates). The theory for computation of the hydraulic characteristics is presented for open channels and for each hydraulic control structure. For the hydraulic control structures, the theory is developed from the results of experimental tests of flow through the structure for different upstream and downstream flow depths. These tests were done to describe flow hydraulics for a single, steady-flow design condition and, thus, do not provide complete information on flow transitions (for example, between free- and submerged-weir flow) that may result in simulation of unsteady flow. Therefore, new procedures are developed to approximate the hydraulics of flow transitions for culverts, embankments, weirs, and underflow gates.

  20. Alignment and structural control of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes by utilizing precursor concentration effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Weina; Chen, Xiaohua; Chen, Xian; Liu, Zheng; Zeng, Ying; Hu, Aiping; Xiong, Yina; Li, Zhe; Tang, Qunli

    2014-11-01

    Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNTs) were prepared using a simple ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method. The precursor concentration effect was examined to effectively control alignment, open tip and diameter of the NCNTs by changing xylene/cyclohexylamine ratio. The structure and morphology of the resultant NCNTs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The degree of alignment and the diameter of the NCNTs increased as the xylene/cyclohexylamine precursor mixture was changed from 0 to 35% cyclohexylamine. This precursor composition also caused a large number of open-ended nanotubes to form with graphite layers inside the cavities of the NCNTs. However, further increase cyclohexylamine content in the precursor reduced the degree of alignment and diameter of the NCNTs. We demonstrate control over the NCNT alignment and diameter, along with the formation of open-ended nanotube tips, and propose a growth mechanism to understand how these properties are interlinked.

  1. Study on utilization of advanced composites in commercial aircraft wing structures. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Ostrom, R. B.; Cardinale, S. V.

    1978-01-01

    The effort required by commercial transport manufacturers to accomplish the transition from current construction materials and practices to extensive use of composites in aircraft wings was investigated. The engineering and manufacturing disciplines which normally participate in the design, development, and production of an aircraft were employed to ensure that all of the factors that would enter a decision to commit to production of a composite wing structure were addressed. A conceptual design of an advanced technology reduced energy aircraft provided the framework for identifying and investigating unique design aspects. A plan development effort defined the essential technology needs and formulated approaches for effecting the required wing development. The wing development program plans, resource needs, and recommendations are summarized.

  2. End-to-end communication test on variable length packet structures utilizing AOS testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Warner H.; Sank, V.; Fong, Wai; Miko, J.; Powers, M.; Folk, John; Conaway, B.; Michael, K.; Yeh, Pen-Shu

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a communication test, which successfully demonstrated the transfer of losslessly compressed images in an end-to-end system. These compressed images were first formatted into variable length Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) packets in the Advanced Orbiting System Testbed (AOST). The CCSDS data Structures were transferred from the AOST to the Radio Frequency Simulations Operations Center (RFSOC), via a fiber optic link, where data was then transmitted through the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). The received data acquired at the White Sands Complex (WSC) was transferred back to the AOST where the data was captured and decompressed back to the original images. This paper describes the compression algorithm, the AOST configuration, key flight components, data formats, and the communication link characteristics and test results.

  3. Gift-Giving and Network Structure in Rural China: Utilizing Long-Term Spontaneous Gift Records

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi

    2014-01-01

    The tradition of keeping written records of gift received during household ceremonies in many countries offers researchers an underutilized means of data collection for social network analysis. This paper first summarizes unique features of the gift record data that circumvent five prevailing sampling and measurement issues in the literature, and we discuss their advantages over existing studies at both the individual level and the dyadic link level using previous data sources. We then document our research project in rural China that implements a multiple wave census-type household survey and a long-term gift record collection. The pattern of gift-giving in major household social events and its recent escalation is analyzed. There are significantly positive correlations between gift network centrality and various forms of informal insurance. Finally, economic inequality and competitive marriage market are among the main demographic and socioeconomic determinants of the observed gift network structure. PMID:25111696

  4. Factor Structure and Clinical Utility of BDI-II Factor Scores in Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Manian, Nanmathi; Schmidt, Elizabeth; Bornstein, Marc H.; Martinez, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of the current study was to examine the factorial dimensions underlying Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) in a large ethnically and economically diverse sample of postpartum women and to assess their relative contribution in differentiating clinical diagnoses in a subsample of depressed women. Methods We administered the BDI-II to 953 women between 4 and 20 weeks postpartum. Women who had low (1–7) and high (> 12) BDI-II total scores were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I). Results Exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) revealed three factors, Cognitive, Somatic, and Affective, that accounted for 49.09% of the overall variance of items. Logistic regression analyses showed that somatic and affective factors contributed to diagnosis of major depression, while the somatic factor alone contributed to the diagnosis of depression with comorbid anxiety. The cognitive factor differentiated women with major depression from women who were never depressed. Limitations Our definition of clinical depression included episodes of depression during the child’s lifetime, and depressive symptoms were not necessarily current at the time of the assessment, which may impact the relative contribution of BDI-II factors to clinical diagnosis. Conclusion Conceptualizing the structure of the BDI-II using these three factors could contribute to refining the measurement and scoring of depressive symptomatology and severity in postpartum women. Although somatic symptoms of depression may be difficult to differentiate from the physiological changes of normative postpartum adjustment, our results support the inclusion of somatic symptoms of depression in the calculation of a BDI-II total score. PMID:23521870

  5. Mott metal-insulator transition induced by utilizing a glasslike structural ordering in low-dimensional molecular conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Benedikt; Müller, Jens; Sasaki, Takahiko

    2014-11-01

    We utilize a glasslike structural transition in order to induce a Mott metal-insulator transition in the quasi-two-dimensional organic charge-transfer salt ? -(BEDT-TTF)2Cu [N (CN)2Br ]. In this material, the terminal ethylene groups of the BEDT-TTF molecules can adopt two different structural orientations within the crystal structure, namely eclipsed (E) and staggered (S) with the relative orientation of the outer C-C bonds being parallel and canted, respectively. These two conformations are thermally disordered at room temperature and undergo a glasslike ordering transition at Tg˜75 K. When cooling through Tg, a small fraction that depends on the cooling rate remains frozen in the S configuration, which is of slightly higher energy, corresponding to a controllable degree of structural disorder. We demonstrate that, when thermally coupled to a low-temperature heat bath, a pulsed heating current through the sample causes a very fast relaxation with cooling rates at Tg of the order of several 1000 K /min . The freezing of the structural degrees of freedom causes a decrease of the electronic bandwidth W with increasing cooling rate, and hence a Mott metal-insulator transition as the system crosses the critical ratio (W/U ) c of bandwidth to on-site Coulomb repulsion U . Due to the glassy character of the transition, the effect is persistent below Tg and can be reversibly repeated by melting the frozen configuration upon warming above Tg. Both by exploiting the characteristics of slowly changing relaxation times close to this temperature and by controlling the heating power, the materials can be fine-tuned across the Mott transition. A simple model allows for an estimate of the energy difference between the E and S state as well as the accompanying degree of frozen disorder in the population of the two orientations.

  6. Utilization of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) in risk assessment: Alkylphenols

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, B.D.; Toole, A.P.; Callahan, B.G.; Siddhanti, S.K. (Gradient Corporation, Cambridge, MA (United States))

    1991-12-01

    Alkylphenols are a class of environmentally pervasive compounds, found both in natural (e.g., crude oils) and in anthropogenic (e.g., wood tar, coal gasification waste) materials. Despite the frequent environmental occurrence of these chemicals, there is a limited toxicity database on alkylphenols. The authors have therefore developed a 'toxicity equivalence approach' for alkylphenols which is based on their ability to inhibit, in a specific manner, the enzyme cyclooxygenase. Enzyme-inhibiting ability for individual alkylphenols can be estimated based on the quantitative structure-activity relationship developed by Dewhirst (1980) and is a function of the free hydroxyl group, electron-donating ring substituents, and hydrophobic aromatic ring substituents. The authors evaluated the toxicological significance of cyclooxygenase inhibition by comparison of the inhibitory capacity of alkylphenols with the inhibitory capacity of acetylsalicylic acid, or aspirin, a compound whose low-level effects are due to cyclooxygenase inhibition. Since nearly complete absorption for alkylphenols and aspirin is predicted, based on estimates of hydrophobicity and fraction of charged molecules at gastrointestinal pHs, risks from alkylphenols can be expressed directly in terms of 'milligram aspirin equivalence,' without correction for absorption differences. They recommend this method for assessing risks of mixtures of alkylphenols, especially for those compounds with no chronic toxicity data.38 references.

  7. Experimental demonstration of a high-power slow wave electron cyclotron maser utilizing corrugated metal structure

    SciTech Connect

    Minami, K.; Ogura, K.; Kurashina, K; Kim, W. [Niigata Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Watanabe, Tsuguhiro [National Inst. for Fusion Research, Nagoya (Japan); Carmel, Y.; Destler, W.W.; Granatstein, V.L. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Inst. for Plasma Research

    1994-12-31

    High-power microwave (HPM) sources based on electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) such as gyrotrons are fast wave devices and velocity component of electron beam perpendicular to guiding magnetic field is the origin of HPM. HPM sources based on Cherenkove mechanism are slow wave devices and can be driven by a beam without initial perpendicular velocity. The authors present here the experimental result that seems to be the first demonstration of high-power slow wave electron cyclotron maser (ECM) consisting of a large diameter sinusoidally corrugated metal waveguide driven by a beam with predominant parallel velocity. The designed size parameters of slow wave structure (SWS) are as follows: average radius 30 mm, corrugation pitch 3.4 mm, its amplitude h = 1.7 mm and total length 238 mm. They use an annular beam with radius 26.3 mm, energy 55 keV, current 200 A in their experiment. Expected Cherenkov oscillation frequency of TM01 mode is 20 GHz. The observed high-power microwaves can be quantitatively explained by a backward wave oscillation with Cherenkov mechanism enhanced by positive feedback of anomalous Doppler slow cyclotron wave. In conclusion, the slow wave ECM presented here will be a competitive candidate against gyrotrons for generating multi-MW millimeter microwaves available in fusion plasma research.

  8. Pubic Bone Injuries after First Childbirth: Utility of MR in detection and differential diagnosis of structural injury

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, Catherine; Jacobson, Jon A.; Low, Lisa Kane; Park, Lee; DeLancey, John; Miller, Janis

    2013-01-01

    Objective Evaluate utility of MR in diagnosing structural injury in primiparous women with pelvic floor injury risks. Methods Observational study of 77 women with 3T MR imaging after delivery. Women (n=45) were operationally defined as High Risk for levator ani muscle tears (2nd stage labor> 150 minutes, anal sphincter tear, forceps, age> 35, birth weight > 4000 grams) or Low Risk (n=32): vaginally delivered without these risk factors (n=12); delivered by cesarean after 2nd stage labor >150 minutes (n=14), and cesarean without labor (n=6). All women were imaged using MR fluid sensitive sequences. Two musculoskeletal radiologists reviewed images for bone marrow edema, fracture, pubic symphysis measurements, and levator ani tear. Results MR imaging showed pubic bone fractures in 38% of women at High Risk and 13% of at Low Risk for pelvic floor injury (?2(3)= 9.27, p=0.03). Levator ani muscle tears were present in 44% of the High Risk and 9% of Low Risk women (X2(3)=11.57, p=0.010). Bone marrow edema in the pubic bones was present in 61% of women studied across delivery categories. Complex patterns of injury included combinations of bone marrow edema, fractures, levator ani tears and pubic symphysis injuries. No MR documented injuries were present in 18% of women at High Risk and 44% at Low Risk (?2(1)=6.2, p=.013). Conclusions Criteria identifying primiparous women at risk for pelvic floor injury can predict increased risk of bone and soft tissues changes at the pubic symphysis. Fluid sensitive MR imaging has utility for differential diagnosis of structural injury in postpartum women. PMID:21728205

  9. Simultaneous precision positioning and vibration suppression of an intelligent composite satellite structure utilizing piezoelectric sensors and actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, Kathleen Marie

    Adaptive or intelligent structures which have the capability for sensing and responding to their environment promise a novel approach to satisfying the stringent performance requirements of future space missions. This research effort focuses on the development of a smart thruster mount truss structure with precision positioning and active vibration suppression capability for use in a space satellite. The smart thruster mount would utilize piezoelectric sensors and actuators for precision positioning to provide fine tuning of position tolerance for thruster alignment. The same structure may be used for suppressing the vibration that resonates throughout the spacecraft during thruster firing. This vibration renders sensitive optical or measurement equipment non-operational until the disturbance has dissipated. This smart system approach would greatly enhance mission performance by fine tuning attitude control, potentially eliminating the nonoperational period as well as minimizing fuel consumption utilized for position correction. The configuration of the smart thruster mount truss system is that of a modified Stewart platform. Precision positioning of the truss structure is achieved using active members which extend or contract to tilt the upper platform where the thruster is mounted. An inverse kinematic analysis of a modified Stewart platform has been developed and is used to determine the required axial displacement of the active struts for the desired angular tilt of the smart platform. Experimental data is used to verify the precision positioning capabilities of the active struts. This information demonstrates the ability of the active strut to tilt the top of the smart platform by the required angular displacement. Analytical verification of the vibration suppression capabilities of the active struts in the smart composite platform using finite element analysis is presented. A model of an active strut with surface mounted sensors/actuators was used to develop a vibration suppression scheme. This technique was used successfully to analytically demonstrate both the lateral and axial vibration suppression capability of the active strut. The numerical and experimental results show that the proposed smart platform offers a promising method for achieving fine tuning of positioning tolerances of a thruster as well as minimizing the effect of the disturbance generated during thruster firing.

  10. Development of Antiwear Shim Inserts Utilizing Segment-Structured DLC Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takashima, Mai; Kuroda, Tsuyoshi; Saito, Masanori; Ohtake, Naoto; Matsuo, Makoto; Iwamoto, Yoshinao

    Wear and fretting fatigue are important technological problems in automotive, railway and aerospace fields. The purpose of this study is to find a method of reducing the wear of cast-iron (FCD)/aluminum components, which are often applied to automotives, and thus extend their lifetime. First, a stainless-steel (SUS) shim was designed, which can be inserted between an FCD plate and an aluminum plate. Second, diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings were applied to the shim inserts to prevent the FCD and aluminum plates from wear. Then, the tribological and fatigue characteristics of the shim were evaluated by a ball-on-disk (BoD) test and a bending fatigue test of up to 1×106 cycles. Each substrate was coated with DLC by Plasma-Based Ion Implantation and Deposition (PBII&D). A unique feature of our shim is that a segment-structured DLC film (S-DLC) is employed as well as a continuous DLC (C-DLC) film. The effect of the DLC coating on reducing the damage to the Al plate was apparent, because the surface roughness of the Al plate abraded with the DLC-coated shim was significantly smaller than that abraded directly with the FCD plate. Moreover, the average damage fraction to the C-DLC coating is approximately 20-fold larger than that to the S-DLC coating. The C-DLC film suffers severe damage near the bolt hole, whereas the S-DLC film suffered almost no damage even after 1×106 bending cycles. In conclusion, an S-DLC-coated SUS shim has a marked effect on reducing the wear of Al/FCD components and improving their lifetime.

  11. Quantum-dot blue light emitting diodes utilizing organic/inorganic hybrid structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Feifei; Hu, Lian; Zhang, Bingpo; Li, Ruifeng; Wu, Huizhen

    2015-02-01

    We report blue color quantum-dot light-emitting diodes (QDLEDs) using an organic–inorganic hybrid structure and CdZnS–ZnS core–shell quantum-dot emitters. In the device organic ploy(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):ploy(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and NN?-bis(3-methylphenyl)-NN?-bis(phenyl)-99-spiro-bifluorene (TPD) thin films are respectively used as the hole-injection layer (HIL) and the hole-transporting layer (HTL), and an inorganic ZnSnO thin film is used as the electron-transporting layer (ETL). In the blue QDLEDs, the function of the TPD-HTL is explored and it is found that the device employing a TPD-HTL exhibits much better optical characteristics compared with that having an identical device layout but without the TPD-HTL. The TPD HTL acts as a transition layer and offers a ladder for the injected holes from PEDOT:PSS to the QDs, leading to an more efficient hole injection. It is further found that the intensity ratio between surface-state emission (SSE) and band-edge emission (BEE) (RS/B) of the two devices shows significant difference at high bias voltages. The SSE becomes more prominent at higher bias voltage in the QDLEDs due to the imbalance injection of holes and electrons. The injected holes firstly encounter the excessive electrons accumulated at the surface of the charged QDs, thus the probability of hole–electron recombination at the QDs surface is greatly enhanced at high bias voltages.

  12. Mycobacterium tuberculosis utilizes a unique heterotetrameric structure for dehydrogenation of the cholesterol side chain

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Suzanne T.; Sampson, Nicole S.

    2013-01-01

    Compounding evidence supports the important role in pathogenesis that the metabolism of cholesterol by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) plays. Elucidating the pathway by which cholesterol is catabolized is necessary to understand the molecular mechanism by which this pathway contributes to infection. Based on early metabolite identification studies in multiple actinomycetes, it has been proposed that cholesterol side chain metabolism requires one or more acyl-CoA dehydrogenases (ACADs). There are 35 genes annotated as encoding ACADs in the M. tuberculosis genome. Here we characterize a heteromeric ACAD encoded by Rv3544c and Rv3543c, formerly named fadE28 and fadE29, respectively. We now refer to genes Rv3544c and Rv3543c as chsE1 and chsE2 in recognition of their validated activity in cholesterol side chain dehydrogenation. Analytical ultracentrifugation and LC/UV experiments establish that ChsE1-ChsE2 forms an ?2?2 heterotetramer, a new architecture for an ACAD. Our bioinformatic analysis and mutagenesis studies reveal that heterotetrameric ChsE1-ChsE2 has only two active sites. E241 in ChsE2 is required for catalysis of dehydrogenation by ChsE1-ChsE2. Steady state kinetic analysis establishes the enzyme is specific for an intact steroid ring system compared to hexahydroindanone substrates with specificity constants (kcat/KM) of 2.5 × 105 ± 0.5 s-1 M-1 vs 9.8 × 102 ± s-1 M-1 respectively, at pH 8.5. The characterization of a unique ACAD quaternary structure involved in sterol metabolism that is encoded by two distinct cistronic ACAD genes opens the way to identification of additional sterol metabolizing ACADs in M. tuberculosis and other actinomycetes through bioinformatic analysis. PMID:23560677

  13. Utilizing Changes in Repeating Earthquakes to Monitor Evolving Processes and Structure Before and During Volcanic Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotovec-Ellis, Alicia

    Repeating earthquakes are two or more earthquakes that share the same source location and source mechanism, which results in the earthquakes having highly similar waveforms when recorded at a seismic instrument. Repeating earthquakes have been observed in a wide variety of environments: from fault systems (such as the San Andreas and Cascadia subduction zone), to hydrothermal areas and volcanoes. Volcano seismologists are particularly concerned with repeating earthquakes, as they have been observed at volcanoes along the entire range of eruptive style and are often a prominent feature of eruption seismicity. The behavior of repeating earthquakes sometimes changes with time, which possibly reflects subtle changes in the mechanism creating the earthquakes. In Chapter 1, we document an example of repeating earthquakes during the 2009 eruption of Redoubt volcano that became increasingly frequent with time, until they blended into harmonic tremor prior to several explosions. We interpreted the source of the earthquakes as stick-slip on a fault near the conduit that slipped increasingly often as the explosion neared in response to the build-up of pressure in the system. The waveforms of repeating earthquakes may also change, even if the behavior does not. We can quantify changes in waveform using the technique of coda wave interferometry to differentiate between changes in source and medium. In Chapters 2 and 3, we document subtle changes in the coda of repeating earthquakes related to small changes in the near-surface velocity structure at Mount St. Helens before and during its eruption in 2004. Velocity changes have been observed prior to several volcanic eruptions, are thought to occur in response to volumetric strain and the opening or closing of cracks in the subsurface. We compared continuous records of velocity change against other geophysical data, and found that velocities at Mount St. Helens change in response to snow loading, fluid saturation, shaking from large distant earthquakes, shallow pressurization, and possibly lava extrusion. Velocity changes at Mount St. Helens are a complex mix of many different effects, and other complementary data are required to interpret the signal.

  14. Simplified Structure of Ducted Darrieus-Type Hydro Turbine with Narrow Intake for Extra-low Head Hydropower Utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, Daisuke; Okuma, Kusuo; Watanabe, Satoshi; Furukawa, Akinori

    A ducted Darrieus-type hydro turbine has been proposed for extra-low head hydropower utilization of total head less than 2m, where development is almost not done in the commercial base. Though the efficiency of Darrieus-type turbine, which is cross flow type, is not so high as conventional type, the Darrieus-type has a cost-advantage due to the simple structure. By installing a narrow intake at upstream of the runner, the efficiency becomes higher than normal intake that a width of which is the same as one of runner section. In the case of normal intake, the casing clearance between the runner pitch circle and the side-wall at the runner section becomes the influential factor which deteriorates the efficiency. On the other hand, in the case of narrow intake, it is possible to keep efficiency high, based on the fact that the distorting flow to the clearance is prevented. In the present paper, the effects of narrow intake and draft tube on turbine performance are experimentally examined and the design guideline of simplified structure for ducted Darrieus-type turbine with narrow intake is proposed.

  15. New Insight into the Transcarbamylase Family: The Structure of Putrescine Transcarbamylase, a Key Catalyst for Fermentative Utilization of Agmatine

    PubMed Central

    Polo, Luis Mariano; Gil-Ortiz, Fernando; Cantín, Angel; Rubio, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    Transcarbamylases reversibly transfer a carbamyl group from carbamylphosphate (CP) to an amine. Although aspartate transcarbamylase and ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) are well characterized, little was known about putrescine transcarbamylase (PTC), the enzyme that generates CP for ATP production in the fermentative catabolism of agmatine. We demonstrate that PTC (from Enterococcus faecalis), in addition to using putrescine, can utilize L-ornithine as a poor substrate. Crystal structures at 2.5 Å and 2.0 Å resolutions of PTC bound to its respective bisubstrate analog inhibitors for putrescine and ornithine use, N-(phosphonoacetyl)-putrescine and ?-N-(phosphonoacetyl)-L-ornithine, shed light on PTC preference for putrescine. Except for a highly prominent C-terminal helix that projects away and embraces an adjacent subunit, PTC closely resembles OTCs, suggesting recent divergence of the two enzymes. Since differences between the respective 230 and SMG loops of PTC and OTC appeared to account for the differential preference of these enzymes for putrescine and ornithine, we engineered the 230-loop of PTC to make it to resemble the SMG loop of OTCs, increasing the activity with ornithine and greatly decreasing the activity with putrescine. We also examined the role of the C-terminal helix that appears a constant and exclusive PTC trait. The enzyme lacking this helix remained active but the PTC trimer stability appeared decreased, since some of the enzyme eluted as monomers from a gel filtration column. In addition, truncated PTC tended to aggregate to hexamers, as shown both chromatographically and by X-ray crystallography. Therefore, the extra C-terminal helix plays a dual role: it stabilizes the PTC trimer and, by shielding helix 1 of an adjacent subunit, it prevents the supratrimeric oligomerizations of obscure significance observed with some OTCs. Guided by the structural data we identify signature traits that permit easy and unambiguous annotation of PTC sequences. PMID:22363663

  16. Microbial resource utilization traits and trade-offs: implications for community structure, functioning, and biogeochemical impacts at present and in the future

    PubMed Central

    Litchman, Elena; Edwards, Kyle F.; Klausmeier, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Trait-based approaches provide a mechanistic framework to understand and predict the structure and functioning of microbial communities. Resource utilization traits and trade-offs are among key microbial traits that describe population dynamics and competition among microbes. Several important trade-offs have been identified for prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial taxa that define contrasting ecological strategies and contribute to species coexistence and diversity. The shape, dimensionality, and hierarchy of trade-offs may determine coexistence patterns and need to be better characterized. Laboratory measured resource utilization traits can be used to explain temporal and spatial structure and dynamics of natural microbial communities and predict biogeochemical impacts. Global environmental change can alter microbial community composition through altering resource utilization by different microbes and, consequently, may modify biogeochemical impacts of microbes. PMID:25904900

  17. The Incremental Utility of Behavioral Rating Scales and a Structured Diagnostic Interview in the Assessment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Aaron J.; Hoza, Betsy

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the incremental utility of rating scales, a structured diagnostic interview, and multiple informants in a comprehensive assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The sample included 185 children with ADHD (M[subscript age] = 9.22, SD = 0.95) and 82 children without ADHD (M[subscript age] = 9.24, SD =…

  18. Lignin-based monomers: Utilization in high-performance polymers and the effects of their structures on polymer properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanzione, Joseph F., III

    With the uncertainty of petroleum reserves and future crude oil prices, lignocellulosic biomass is becoming an increasingly valuable resource for the sustainable development of fuels, chemicals, and materials, including vinyl ester resins (VERs). Petroleum-based VERs are used to produce polymer composites for a wide variety of commercial applications. Although possessing relatively high moduli, strengths, and glass transition temperatures, commercial VERs typically contain high concentrations of a reactive diluent, such as styrene. However, these reactive diluents are often considered hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and anticipated carcinogens. Moreover, bisphenol-A, which has gained considerable attention due to potential associated health-related issues, is utilized as a precursor in the synthesis of VERs. A green chemistry and engineering approach in the development of new VERs and renewable reactive diluents that are based on lignin is presented in this dissertation. Lignin, which is currently an abundant, renewable waste product of the paper and pulping industry, is primarily burned as a low value fuel. However, lignin has the potential to be a low cost feedstock in future lignocellulosic biorefineries that could yield highly valuable aromatic chemicals (lignin model compounds, LMCs) when strategically depolymerized. The incorporation of aromaticity in a resin's chemical structure is known to improve overall polymer composite performance and the high aromatic content found in lignin is ideal for novel resin development. Highlighted in this dissertation are three projects: (1) the synthesis and characterization of a lignin-based bio-oil resin/reactive diluent, (2) the use of functionalized LMCs as styrene replacements in VERs, and (3) the synthesis and characterization of a vanillin-based resin. Through the use of traditional and new polymer theory coupled with spectroscopic, thermal, and mechanical techniques, structure-property relationships are identified and related to polymer performance. These findings have important implications for the optimization and design of polymer composites that are based on sustainable resources and processes, are petroleum-independent, and have reduced toxicity with beneficial environmental impacts. In addition, these findings provide the incentive for continued investment in using lignin as a respected materials' feedstock. Lastly, several lignin-related research opportunities of scientific and commercial interest are recommended.

  19. White organic light-emitting diodes based on tandem structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fawen; Ma, Dongge

    2005-10-01

    White organic light-emitting diodes made of two electroluminescent (EL) units connected by a charge generation layer were fabricated. Thus, with a tandem structure of indium tin oxide/N ,N'-di(naphthalene-1-yl)-N ,N'-diphenyl-benzidine (NPB)/9,10-bis-(?-naphthyl)-anthrene (ADN)/2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BCP)/tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3)/BCP:Li/V2O5/NPB/Alq3:4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyle-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl)4H-pyran (DCJTB)/Alq3/LiF/Al, a stable white light with Commission Internationale De L'Eclairage chromaticity coordinates from (0.35, 0.32) at 18V to (0.36, 0.36) at 50V was generated. It was clearly seen that the EL spectra consist of red band at 600nm due to DCJTB, green band at 505nm due to Alq3, and blue band at 435nm due to ADN, and the current efficiency and brightness equal basically to the sum of the two EL units. As a result, the tandem devices showed white light emission with a maximum brightness of 10200cd /m2 at a bias of 40V and a maximum current efficiency of 10.7cd/A at a current density of 3.5mA/cm2.

  20. Crystal structures of the DNA-binding domain of Escherichia coli proline utilization A flavoprotein and analysis of the role of Lys9 in DNA recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Larson; Jermaine L. Jenkins; Jonathan P. Schuermann; Yuzhen Zhou; Donald F. Becker; John J. Tanner

    2006-01-01

    PutA (proline utilization A) from Escherichia coli is a 1320-amino-acid residue protein that is both a bifunctional proline catabolic enzyme and an autogenous transcriptional repressor. Here, we report the first crystal structure of a PutA DNA-binding domain along with functional analysis of a mutant PutA defective in DNA binding. Crystals were grown using a polypeptide corresponding to residues 1-52 of

  1. Biofunctional constituent isolated from Citrullus colocynthis fruits and structure-activity relationships of its analogues show acaricidal and insecticidal efficacy.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2014-08-27

    The acaricidal and insecticidal potential of the active constituent isolated from Citrullus colocynthis fruits and its structurally related analogues was evaluated by performing leaf disk, contact toxicity, and fumigant toxicity bioassays against Tetranychus urticae, Sitophilus oryzae, and Sitophilus zeamais adults. The active constituent of C. colocynthis fruits was isolated by chromatographic techniques and was identified as 4-methylquinoline on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. To investigate the structure-activity relationships, 4-methylquinoline and its structural analogues were tested against mites and two insect pests. On the basis of the LC50 values, 7,8-benzoquinoline was the most effective against T. urticae. Quinoline, 8-hydroxyquinoline, 2-methylquinoline, 4-methylquinoline, 6-methylquinoline, 8-methylquinoline, and 7,8-benzoquinoline showed high insecticidal activities against S. oryzae and S. zeamais regardless of the application method. These results indicate that introduction of a functional group into the quinoline skeleton and changing the position of the group have an important influence on the acaricidal and insecticidal activities. Furthermore, 4-methylquinoline isolated from C. colocynthis fruits, along with its structural analogues, could be effective natural pesticides for managing spider mites and stored grain weevils. PMID:25110971

  2. Antimony speciation at ultra trace levels using hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry and 8-hydroxyquinoline as an efficient masking agent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tian-Long Deng; Yu-Wei Chen; Nelson Belzile

    2001-01-01

    Depending on the pH of the matrix and the concentration of Sb(V), we observed that the atomic fluorescence emission due to Sb(V) could contribute up to 40% of the emission signal during the determination of Sb(III). This can cause significant errors in Sb speciation analyses. Besides, interferences from heavy metals such as Mn(II), Cu(II), Fe(III), Co(II) and Ni(II) can cause

  3. Understanding the role of electron and hole trions on current transport in aluminium tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) using organic magnetoresistance

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Sijie; Gillin, W. P., E-mail: w.gillin@qmul.ac.uk [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Materials Research Institute and School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Willis, M. [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Gotto, R.; Roy, K. A.; Kreouzis, T. [Materials Research Institute and School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Rolfe, N. J. [Materials Research Institute and School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 5XH (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-27

    The change in current through an organic light emitting diode (OLED) when it is placed in a magnetic field has been dubbed organic magnetoresistance and provides a means to understand the spin interactions that are occurring in working devices. Whilst there are a wide range of interactions that have been proposed to be the cause of the measured effects, there is still a need to identify their individual roles and in particular how they respond to an applied magnetic field. In this work, we investigate the effect of changing the balance of electron and hole injection in a simple aluminium tris(8-hydroxyqinoline) based OLED and demonstrate that the triplet polaron interaction appears to be much stronger for electrons than for holes in this material.

  4. Interaction of the anticancer gallium(III) complexes of 8-hydroxyquinoline and maltol with human serum proteins.

    PubMed

    Enyedy, Éva A; Dömötör, Orsolya; Bali, Krisztina; Hetényi, Anasztázia; Tuccinardi, Tiziano; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2015-01-01

    Tris(8-quinolinolato)gallium(III) (KP46) and tris(maltolato)gallium(III) (GaM) are promising orally active antitumor metallodrugs currently undergoing clinical trials. Their interaction with human serum albumin (HSA) and transferrin (Tf) was studied in detail in aqueous solution by the combination of various methods such as spectrofluorometry, UV-vis spectrophotometry, (1)H and saturation transfer difference NMR spectroscopy, and ultrafiltration-UV-vis spectrophotometry. Binding data were evaluated quantitatively. Tf was found to replace the original ligand much less efficiently in KP46 than in GaM, whereas a significant noncovalent binding of KP46 with HSA (log K' = 4.04) retaining the coordination environment around gallium(III) was found. The interaction between HSA and KP46 was also confirmed by protein-complex modeling calculations. On the basis of the conditional stability constants, the distribution of gallium(III) in serum was computed and compared for these metallodrugs under physiological conditions, and revealed the prominent role of HSA in the case of KP46 and that of Tf for GaM. PMID:25398250

  5. Investigations into the bovine serum albumin binding and fluorescence properties of Tb (III) complex of a novel 8-hydroxyquinoline ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Mingming; Tang, Ruiren; Xu, Shuai

    2015-01-01

    A novel ligand, 2-methyl-6-(8-quinolinyl)-dicarboxylate pyridine (L), and its corresponding Tb (III) complex, Na4Tb(L)2Cl4·3H2O, were successfully prepared and characterized. The luminescence spectra showed that the ligand L was an efficient sensitizer for Tb (III) luminescence. The interaction of the complex with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated through fluorescence spectroscopy under physiological conditions. The Stern-Volmer analysis indicated that the fluorescence quenching was resulted from static mechanism. The binding sites (n) approximated 1.0 and this meant that interaction of Na4Tb(L)2Cl4·3H2O with BSA had single binding site. The results showed van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonds played major roles in the binding reaction. Furthermore, circular dichroism (CD) spectra indicated that the conformation of BSA was changed.

  6. Investigations into the bovine serum albumin binding and fluorescence properties of Tb (III) complex of a novel 8-hydroxyquinoline ligand.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mingming; Tang, Ruiren; Xu, Shuai

    2015-01-25

    A novel ligand, 2-methyl-6-(8-quinolinyl)-dicarboxylate pyridine (L), and its corresponding Tb (III) complex, Na4Tb(L)2Cl4·3H2O, were successfully prepared and characterized. The luminescence spectra showed that the ligand L was an efficient sensitizer for Tb (III) luminescence. The interaction of the complex with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated through fluorescence spectroscopy under physiological conditions. The Stern-Volmer analysis indicated that the fluorescence quenching was resulted from static mechanism. The binding sites (n) approximated 1.0 and this meant that interaction of Na4Tb(L)2Cl4·3H2O with BSA had single binding site. The results showed van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonds played major roles in the binding reaction. Furthermore, circular dichroism (CD) spectra indicated that the conformation of BSA was changed. PMID:25168232

  7. Synthesis of Red-Shifted 8-Hydroxyquinoline Derivatives Using Click Chemistry and Their Incorporation into Phosphorylation Chemosensors

    E-print Network

    Gonzalez-Vera, Juan A.

    Protein phosphorylation is a ubiquitous post-translational modification, and protein kinases, the enzymes that catalyze the phosphoryl transfer, are involved in nearly every aspect of normal, as well as aberrant, cell ...

  8. Utility spot pricing study : Wisconsin

    E-print Network

    Caramanis, Michael C.

    1982-01-01

    Spot pricing covers a range of electric utility pricing structures which relate the marginal costs of electric generation to the prices seen by utility customers. At the shortest time frames prices change every five ...

  9. Enzymology and Structure of the GH13_31 Glucan 1,6-?-Glucosidase That Confers Isomaltooligosaccharide Utilization in the Probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Marie S.; Fredslund, Folmer; Majumder, Avishek; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Poulsen, Jens-Christian N.; Lo Leggio, Leila; Svensson, Birte

    2012-01-01

    Isomaltooligosaccharides (IMO) have been suggested as promising prebiotics that stimulate the growth of probiotic bacteria. Genomes of probiotic lactobacilli from the acidophilus group, as represented by Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, encode ?-1,6 glucosidases of the family GH13_31 (glycoside hydrolase family 13 subfamily 31) that confer degradation of IMO. These genes reside frequently within maltooligosaccharide utilization operons, which include an ATP-binding cassette transporter and ?-glucan active enzymes, e.g., maltogenic amylases and maltose phosphorylases, and they also occur separated from any carbohydrate transport or catabolism genes on the genomes of some acidophilus complex members, as in L. acidophilus NCFM. Besides the isolated locus encoding a GH13_31 enzyme, the ABC transporter and another GH13 in the maltooligosaccharide operon were induced in response to IMO or maltotetraose, as determined by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) transcriptional analysis, suggesting coregulation of ?-1,6- and ?-1,4-glucooligosaccharide utilization loci in L. acidophilus NCFM. The L. acidophilus NCFM GH13_31 (LaGH13_31) was produced recombinantly and shown to be a glucan 1,6-?-glucosidase active on IMO and dextran and product-inhibited by glucose. The catalytic efficiency of LaGH13_31 on dextran and the dextran/panose (trisaccharide) efficiency ratio were the highest reported for this class of enzymes, suggesting higher affinity at distal substrate binding sites. The crystal structure of LaGH13_31 was determined to a resolution of 2.05 Å and revealed additional substrate contacts at the +2 subsite in LaGH13_31 compared to the GH13_31 from Streptococcus mutans (SmGH13_31), providing a possible structural rationale to the relatively high affinity for dextran. A comprehensive phylogenetic and activity motif analysis mapped IMO utilization enzymes from gut microbiota to rationalize preferential utilization of IMO by gut residents. PMID:22685275

  10. Spatial Ecology of and Public Attitudes toward Monk Parakeets Nesting on Electric Utility Structures in Dallas and Tarrant Counties, Texas

    E-print Network

    Reed, Janet Elaine

    2014-07-29

    opposition to nest removal and structural modification. When opposing, they would most likely do so socially and through petitions. Participants were influenced by their desire for monk parakeets to feed at their bird feeders or nest in their yard, people...

  11. Recombination Zone by Mixed-Source Evaporation in Organic Light Emitting Diodes with Graded Mixed-Layer Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kee, Y. Y.; Siew, W. O.; Yap, S. S.; Tou, T. Y.

    Thermal evaporation of a mixed-source of electron and hole-transport materials at appropriate heating rates, namely, tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum(3) (Alq3) and N,N-diphenyl-N, N-bis(3-methylphenyl)-1, 1-diphenyl-4,4-diamine (TPD) can produce a continuously graded mixed-layer structure (CGM). This enables CGM-OLEDs to be fabricated on ITO-coated glass. Although I-V characteristic of CGM-OLEDs may not be significantly modified by a single mixed layer, as compared to the conventional bi-layer heterojunction (HJ) OLED, the power efficiency from the CGM-OLEDs can be increased by a factor of 3.3. The improvement in CGM-OLEDs can be largely explained by the broadening of its recombination zone. The spatial distributions of Alq3 and TPD in CGM-layers are obtained by depth-profiling of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. The optimum layer structure for CGM-OLEDs is discussed qualitatively in term of charge balance and electrode quenching.

  12. Reduction Substrate Alkaline Contamination by Utilizing Multi-Layer Bottom Antireflective Coating Structures in ArF Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsuen-Li; Shih, Ming-Chang; Hsieh, Ching-Feng; Chen, Ben-Chang; Ko, Fu-Hsiang

    2002-06-01

    A new multilayer bottom antireflective coating (BARC) structure composed of TEOS oxide and silicon nitride film stacks is demonstrated for ArF lithography. The top TEOS oxide film is an NH3-contaminant-free material that can be used as an NH3 capping layer. After an oxygen plasma treatment, the multilayer structure is shown to have high thermal stability by thermal desorption spectrometry (TDS). The required optical constants of the bottom silicon nitride films can be tuned by varying the gas flow rate ratio of NH3 to SiH4 using a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition process. The measured swing effect is found to be significantly reduced by adding a multilayer BARC on both silicon and aluminum film substrates. This BARC structure could also reduce the reflectance of various highly reflective substrates to less than 2%.

  13. Utility of coupled-HSQC experiments in the intact structural elucidation of three complex saponins from Blighia sapida.

    PubMed

    Mazzola, Eugene P; Parkinson, Ainsley; Kennelly, Edward J; Coxon, Bruce; Einbond, Linda S; Freedberg, Darón I

    2011-05-01

    The structures of three complex saponins from the fruit pods of Blighia sapida have been elucidated and their (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra assigned employing a variety of one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques without degradative chemistry. The saponins have either four or six monosaccharide units linked to a triterpene aglycone. High-resolution, proton-coupled-HSQC spectra were important for determining both the identities of the intact monosaccharide units and coupling constants in strongly coupled proton spin systems. These NMR experiments will prove crucial as the complexity of saponin structures reaches the limit that can be determined solely by NMR. PMID:21439554

  14. Utility of coupled-HSQC experiments in the intact structural elucidation of three complex saponins from Blighia sapida

    PubMed Central

    Mazzola, Eugene P.; Parkinson, Ainsley; Kennelly, Edward J.; Coxon, Bruce; Einbond, Linda S.; Freedberg, Darón I.

    2014-01-01

    The structures of three complex saponins from the fruit pods of Blighia sapida have been elucidated and their 1H and 13C NMR spectra assigned employing a variety of one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques without degradative chemistry. The saponins have either four or six monosaccharide units linked to a triterpene aglycone. High-resolution, proton-coupled-HSQC spectra were important for determining both the identities of the intact monosaccharide units and coupling constants in strongly coupled proton spin systems. These NMR experiments will prove crucial as the complexity of saponin structures reaches the limit that can be determined solely by NMR. PMID:21439554

  15. Six Zn(ii) and Cd(ii) coordination polymers assembled from a similar binuclear building unit: tunable structures and luminescence properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liyan; Rong, Lulu; Hu, Guoli; Jin, Suo; Jia, Wei-Guo; Liu, Ji; Yuan, Guozan

    2015-04-01

    Six Zn(ii) and Cd(ii) coordination polymers were constructed by treating a 2-substituted 8-hydroxyquinolinate ligand containing a pyridyl group with zinc or cadmium salts, and characterized by a variety of techniques. Interestingly, based on a similar binuclear Zn(ii) or Cd(ii) building unit, the supramolecular structures of the six coordination polymers () exhibit an unprecedented structural diversification due to the different choices of metal salts. and represent a novel 2D framework containing 1D infinite right- and left-handed helical chains. and are 2D coordination frameworks based on binuclear Cd(ii) building units. For and , the L ligands can bridge binuclear building units forming a 1D infinite chain. Interestingly, the adjacent Cd2O2 planes of the 1D chain in are in parallel with each other, while the dihedral angle between the two Zn2O2 planes in is 83.43°. Photoluminescence properties revealed that the six coordination polymers exhibit redshifted emission maximum compared with the free ligand HL, which can be ascribed to an increased conformational rigidity and the fabrication of coplanar binuclear building units M2L2 in . Coordination polymers also display distinct fluorescence lifetimes and quantum yields because of their different metal centers and supramolecular structures. PMID:25601297

  16. Utility of the sperm chromatin structure assay as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in the human fertility clinic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. P. Evenson; L. K. Jost; D. Marshall; M. J. Zinaman; E. Clegg; K. Purvis; P. de Angelis; O. P. Claussen

    1999-01-01

    The sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) was used to measure over 500 human semen samples from two independent studies: Study I, 402 samples from 165 presumably fertile couples wishing to achieve pregnancy over 12 menstrual cycles; Study II, samples from 115 patients seeking fertility counselling. The SCSA measures susceptibility to DNA denaturation in situ in spermatozoa exposed to acid for

  17. An Inverse Interpolation Method Utilizing In-Flight Strain Measurements for Determining Loads and Structural Response of Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shkarayev, S.; Krashantisa, R.; Tessler, A.

    2004-01-01

    An important and challenging technology aimed at the next generation of aerospace vehicles is that of structural health monitoring. The key problem is to determine accurately, reliably, and in real time the applied loads, stresses, and displacements experienced in flight, with such data establishing an information database for structural health monitoring. The present effort is aimed at developing a finite element-based methodology involving an inverse formulation that employs measured surface strains to recover the applied loads, stresses, and displacements in an aerospace vehicle in real time. The computational procedure uses a standard finite element model (i.e., "direct analysis") of a given airframe, with the subsequent application of the inverse interpolation approach. The inverse interpolation formulation is based on a parametric approximation of the loading and is further constructed through a least-squares minimization of calculated and measured strains. This procedure results in the governing system of linear algebraic equations, providing the unknown coefficients that accurately define the load approximation. Numerical simulations are carried out for problems involving various levels of structural approximation. These include plate-loading examples and an aircraft wing box. Accuracy and computational efficiency of the proposed method are discussed in detail. The experimental validation of the methodology by way of structural testing of an aircraft wing is also discussed.

  18. Genetic diversity, population structure, conservation and utilization of Theobroma cacao L., genetic resources in the Dominican Republic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is a significant agricultural commodity in the Dominican Republic, which ranks 11th in the world and number one in organic cacao exports. In an effort to identify propagation mistakes, and estimate genetic diversity and population structure in cacao germplasm accessions a...

  19. Utilization of high resolution computed tomography to visualize the three dimensional structure and function of plant vasculature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High resolution x-ray computed tomography (HRCT) is a non-destructive diagnostic imaging technique with sub-micron resolution capability that is now being used to evaluate the structure and function of plant xylem network in three dimensions (3D). HRCT imaging is based on the same principles as medi...

  20. Environmental impact assessment using a utility-based recursive evidential reasoning approach for structural flood mitigation measures in Metro Manila, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Gilbuena, Romeo; Kawamura, Akira; Medina, Reynaldo; Nakagawa, Naoko; Amaguchi, Hideo

    2013-12-15

    In recent years, the practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA) has created significant awareness on the role of environmentally sound projects in sustainable development. In view of the recent studies on the effects of climate change, the Philippine government has given high priority to the construction of flood control structures to alleviate the destructive effects of unmitigated floods, especially in highly urbanized areas like Metro Manila. EIA thus, should be carefully and effectively carried out to maximize or optimize the potential benefits that can be derived from structural flood mitigation measures (SFMMs). A utility-based environmental assessment approach may significantly aid flood managers and decision-makers in planning for effective and environmentally sound SFMM projects. This study proposes a utility-based assessment approach using the rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) technique, coupled with the evidential reasoning approach, to rationally and systematically evaluate the ecological and socio-economic impacts of 4 planned SFMM projects (i.e. 2 river channel improvements and 2 new open channels) in Metro Manila. Results show that the overall environmental effects of each of the planned SFMM projects are positive, which indicate that the utility of the positive impacts would generally outweigh the negative impacts. The results also imply that the planned river channel improvements will yield higher environmental benefits over the planned open channels. This study was able to present a clear and rational approach in the examination of overall environmental effects of SFMMs, which provides valuable insights that can be used by decision-makers and policy makers to improve the EIA practice and evaluation of projects in the Philippines. PMID:24157409

  1. Load monitoring of aerospace structures utilizing micro-electro-mechanical systems for static and quasi-static loading conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, M.; Rocha, B.; Li, M.; Shi, G.; Beltempo, A.; Rutledge, R.; Yanishevsky, M.

    2012-11-01

    The National Research Council Canada (NRC) has worked on the development of structural health monitoring (SHM) test platforms for assessing the performance of sensor systems for load monitoring applications. The first SHM platform consists of a 5.5 m cantilever aluminum beam that provides an optimal scenario for evaluating the ability of a load monitoring system to measure bending, torsion and shear loads. The second SHM platform contains an added level of structural complexity, by consisting of aluminum skins with bonded/riveted stringers, typical of an aircraft lower wing structure. These two load monitoring platforms are well characterized and documented, providing loading conditions similar to those encountered during service. In this study, a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) for acquiring data from triads of gyroscopes, accelerometers and magnetometers is described. The system was used to compute changes in angles at discrete stations along the platforms. The angles obtained from the MEMS were used to compute a second, third or fourth order degree polynomial surface from which displacements at every point could be computed. The use of a new Kalman filter was evaluated for angle estimation, from which displacements in the structure were computed. The outputs of the newly developed algorithms were then compared to the displacements obtained from the linear variable displacement transducers connected to the platforms. The displacement curves were subsequently post-processed either analytically, or with the help of a finite element model of the structure, to estimate strains and loads. The estimated strains were compared with baseline strain gauge instrumentation installed on the platforms. This new approach for load monitoring was able to provide accurate estimates of applied strains and shear loads.

  2. Crystal structures of the DNA-binding domain of Escherichia coli proline utilization A flavoprotein and analysis of the role of Lys9 in DNA recognition

    PubMed Central

    Larson, John D.; Jenkins, Jermaine L.; Schuermann, Jonathan P.; Zhou, Yuzhen; Becker, Donald F.; Tanner, John J.

    2006-01-01

    PutA (proline utilization A) from Escherichia coli is a 1320-amino-acid residue protein that is both a bifunctional proline catabolic enzyme and an autogenous transcriptional repressor. Here, we report the first crystal structure of a PutA DNA-binding domain along with functional analysis of a mutant PutA defective in DNA binding. Crystals were grown using a polypeptide corresponding to residues 1–52 of E. coli PutA (PutA52). The 2.1 Å resolution structure of PutA52 mutant Lys9Met was determined using Se-Met MAD phasing, and the structure of native PutA52 was solved at 1.9 Å resolution using molecular replacement. Residues 3–46 form a ribbon–helix–helix (RHH) substructure, thus establishing PutA as the largest protein to contain an RHH domain. The PutA RHH domain forms the intertwined dimer with tightly packed hydrophobic core that is characteristic of the RHH family. The structures were used to examine the three-dimensional context of residues conserved in PutA RHH domains. Homology modeling suggests that Lys9 and Thr5 contact DNA bases through the major groove, while Arg15, Thr28, and His30 may interact with the phosphate backbone. Lys9 is shown to be essential for specific recognition of put control DNA using gel shift analysis of the Lys9Met mutant of full-length PutA. Lys9 is disordered in the PutA52 structure, which implies an induced-fit binding mechanism in which the side chain of Lys9 becomes ordered through interaction with DNA. These results provide new insights into the structural basis of DNA recognition by PutA and reveal three-dimensional structural details of the PutA dimer interface. PMID:17001030

  3. Finite-Element Utilization in the Acoustical Improvement of Structure-Borne Noise of Large Industrial Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Sabeeh, Adel Khalid

    The structure-borne noise of two punch-presses is investigated by a theoretical approach based on the finite-element technique. The objective of this study is to identify the noise radiating frequency modes of large amplitude associated with components of the press structure in order to identify possible press modifications to reduce the overall noise level. In this study, firstly a Roper and Whitney hand -press is modeled using mainly three-dimensional 8-node linear solid elements. The model is analyzed for the natural frequencies and mode shapes from which a set of nodes is selected to reflect the characteristics of the large deflection regions of each mode. Further analysis is performed on the model where the forced displacement response of each selected node is obtained and plotted using a simplified simulation of the exciting force used in the press operation. Spectrum plots are obtained for the displacement dynamic response of each node in the set using the Fast-Fourier Analysis. The rms velocity components are also computed for each node in the set. From the dynamic characteristics and the theory of structure-borne sound radiation from vibrating surfaces, the large noise radiating modes and components are identified. Modifications are proposed, applied and reanalyzed. The identified noise radiating modes and components of the original and the modified press structure showed good agreement with the higher radiating frequencies which were measured experimentally. Secondly, based on the experience gained from the hand-press study, a similar analysis was performed on an automatic Bliss punch-press. This press has a more complicated geometrical shape and operation. Results and correlations demonstrate that despite the large computer time and disk space which the approach requires, nevertheless the approach appears to be effective, cost efficient, and applicable to both existing and newly proposed punch-press designs. Results also showed that a large portion of the overall press noise is caused by the structure vibrations and may possibly be reduced significantly by modifications in new designs once the noise radiating mechanism is understood.

  4. Structure-Property-Performance Relationships for Organic Photovoltaics and the Utilization of Photoconducting Atomic Force Microscopy for Characterizing Organic Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guide, Michele Elyse

    Progress in the development of organic photovoltaics (OPVs) depends on a continually growing understanding of the effects of chemical composition or processing method on the optoelectronic and structural properties and, in turn, how those properties influence device performance. Unfortunately, no single characterization method can provide all of the necessary information to develop these structure-property-performance relationships. This thesis details examples of structure-property-performance studies in which multiple characterization methods are used to identify the root cause of limited device performance for a particular photovoltaic system. As a large part of this work, the refinement and utilization of a nanoscale characterization technique, namely photoconducting atomic force microscopy (pc-AFM) is presented, not as an alternative to other characterization methods, but as a unique approach to characterizing the nanoscale morphology and local optoelectronic properties of an organic thin film simultaneously. The goal of this work was to make pc-AFM as robust and reliable a characterization tool and as close an analog to bulk OPV performance testing as possible. The first sections of this thesis focus on the development of pc-AFM for the characterization of OPVs. The capabilities of pc-AFM at the time this research commenced are illustrated in a study of a multilayered p/i/n architecture OPV system comprising a thermoset small molecule donor, tetrabenzoporphyrin (BP) and one of two structurally similar soluble fullerene derivative acceptors. By investigating the nanoscale topography, dark current, and photocurrent in each layer of these multilayer devices, the differences in bulk device performance can be rationalized and the composition of specific morphological features can be identified. At the same time, this study demonstrates how interpretation of pc-AFM measurements was not straightforward and required knowledge of the bulk performance. This issue prompted efforts to improve the technique to increase reliability and applicability to OPVs. Subsequently, sensitivity studies of the experimental parameters such as contact force, illumination intensity and spot size, and film processing conditions were performed, further elucidating factors that must be taken into consideration when designing and interpreting a pc-AFM experiment. In order to better control and monitor the environmental conditions during a pc-AFM experiment, a custom glovebox was designed to house and interface with the pc-AFM. Realization of this glovebox allowed further improvements in reliability of pc-AFM measurements and enabled the use of low workfunction AFM probes that better mimic the low workfunction top electrode typically employed in bulk OPVs. The initial use of BP as a donor material in pc-AFM measurements led to the utilization of BP in other OPV systems due to its rare properties as a solution-processable, thermoset, small molecule electron donor. The latter sections of this thesis describe two structure-property-performance relationship studies utilizing BP as a donor material. In the first study, the use of BP enables the facile testing of solution processable bilayer OPV devices with perylene-based acceptors as alternatives to solubilized fullerene derivatives. The second study compares the optoelectronic and performance characteristics of BP to a Cu-metalized derivative, CuBP, which, despite the promise of this material due to its high charge carrier mobility measured in FETs, performs poorly in OPV devices. Altogether, this work demonstrates the importance of developing structure-property-performance relationships, provides insight to the continued improvement of OPV performance, and sets the groundwork for the reliable utilization of pc-AFM as a technique for characterizing organic thin films.

  5. Identification of BDNF Sensitive Electrophysiological Markers of Synaptic Activity and Their Structural Correlates in Healthy Subjects Using a Genetic Approach Utilizing the Functional BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Soltész, Fruzsina; Suckling, John; Lawrence, Phil; Tait, Roger; Ooi, Cinly; Bentley, Graham; Dodds, Chris M.; Miller, Sam R.; Wille, David R.; Byrne, Misha; McHugh, Simon M.; Bellgrove, Mark A.; Croft, Rodney J.; Lu, Bai; Bullmore, Edward T.; Nathan, Pradeep J.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that synaptic dysfunction is a core pathophysiological hallmark of neurodegenerative disorders. Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) is key synaptogenic molecule and targeting synaptic repair through modulation of BDNF signalling has been suggested as a potential drug discovery strategy. The development of such “synaptogenic” therapies depend on the availability of BDNF sensitive markers of synaptic function that could be utilized as biomarkers for examining target engagement or drug efficacy in humans. Here we have utilized the BDNF Val66Met genetic polymorphism to examine the effect of the polymorphism and genetic load (i.e. Met allele load) on electrophysiological (EEG) markers of synaptic activity and their structural (MRI) correlates. Sixty healthy adults were prospectively recruited into the three genetic groups (Val/Val, Val/Met, Met/Met). Subjects also underwent fMRI, tDCS/TMS, and cognitive assessments as part of a larger study. Overall, some of the EEG markers of synaptic activity and brain structure measured with MRI were the most sensitive markers of the polymorphism. Met carriers showed decreased oscillatory activity and synchrony in the neural network subserving error-processing, as measured during a flanker task (ERN); and showed increased slow-wave activity during resting. There was no evidence for a Met load effect on the EEG measures and the polymorphism had no effects on MMN and P300. Met carriers also showed reduced grey matter volume in the anterior cingulate and in the (left) prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, anterior cingulate grey matter volume, and oscillatory EEG power during the flanker task predicted subsequent behavioural adaptation, indicating a BDNF dependent link between brain structure, function and behaviour associated with error processing and monitoring. These findings suggest that EEG markers such as ERN and resting EEG could be used as BDNF sensitive functional markers in early clinical development to examine target engagement or drug related efficacy of synaptic repair therapies in humans. PMID:24760076

  6. Identification of BDNF sensitive electrophysiological markers of synaptic activity and their structural correlates in healthy subjects using a genetic approach utilizing the functional BDNF Val66Met polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Soltész, Fruzsina; Suckling, John; Lawrence, Phil; Tait, Roger; Ooi, Cinly; Bentley, Graham; Dodds, Chris M; Miller, Sam R; Wille, David R; Byrne, Misha; McHugh, Simon M; Bellgrove, Mark A; Croft, Rodney J; Lu, Bai; Bullmore, Edward T; Nathan, Pradeep J

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that synaptic dysfunction is a core pathophysiological hallmark of neurodegenerative disorders. Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) is key synaptogenic molecule and targeting synaptic repair through modulation of BDNF signalling has been suggested as a potential drug discovery strategy. The development of such "synaptogenic" therapies depend on the availability of BDNF sensitive markers of synaptic function that could be utilized as biomarkers for examining target engagement or drug efficacy in humans. Here we have utilized the BDNF Val66Met genetic polymorphism to examine the effect of the polymorphism and genetic load (i.e. Met allele load) on electrophysiological (EEG) markers of synaptic activity and their structural (MRI) correlates. Sixty healthy adults were prospectively recruited into the three genetic groups (Val/Val, Val/Met, Met/Met). Subjects also underwent fMRI, tDCS/TMS, and cognitive assessments as part of a larger study. Overall, some of the EEG markers of synaptic activity and brain structure measured with MRI were the most sensitive markers of the polymorphism. Met carriers showed decreased oscillatory activity and synchrony in the neural network subserving error-processing, as measured during a flanker task (ERN); and showed increased slow-wave activity during resting. There was no evidence for a Met load effect on the EEG measures and the polymorphism had no effects on MMN and P300. Met carriers also showed reduced grey matter volume in the anterior cingulate and in the (left) prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, anterior cingulate grey matter volume, and oscillatory EEG power during the flanker task predicted subsequent behavioural adaptation, indicating a BDNF dependent link between brain structure, function and behaviour associated with error processing and monitoring. These findings suggest that EEG markers such as ERN and resting EEG could be used as BDNF sensitive functional markers in early clinical development to examine target engagement or drug related efficacy of synaptic repair therapies in humans. PMID:24760076

  7. Influence of guiding magnetic field on emission of stimulated photons in generators utilizing periodic slow-wave structures

    E-print Network

    Baryshevsky, V G; Baryshevsky, Vladimir G.; Batrakov, Konstantin G.

    2000-01-01

    Effect of guiding magnetic field on evolution of stimulated emission is considered. It is shown that the transverse dynamics of electrons contributes to generation process and that contribution decreases with the magnetic field grows. The equation of generation for stimulated radiation of electron beam passing over periodic medium in magnetic field of arbitrary value is derived. The critical value of guiding field for which the transverse dynamics of electron don't contribute to emission is determined. It is shown, that transverse dynamics of electron modifies the boundary conditions. It follows from the derived generation equation that transverse dynamics yields to ~25% increase of the increment magnitude in high gain regime. In the limit of small signal the generation gain twice increases when transverse dynamics evolves. Obtained results are valid for every FEL system, which use the mechanism of waves slowing in the slow-wave structures for generation.

  8. SPAR data handling utilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, G. L.; Haftka, R. T.

    1978-01-01

    The SPAR computer software system is a collection of processors that perform particular steps in the finite-element structural analysis procedure. The data generated by each processor are stored on a data base complex residing on an auxiliary storage device, and these data are then used by subsequent processors. The SPAR data handling utilities use routines to transfer data between the processors and the data base complex. A detailed description of the data base complex organization is presented. A discussion of how these SPAR data handling utilities are used in an application program to perform desired user functions is given with the steps necessary to convert an existing program to a SPAR processor by incorporating these utilities. Finally, a sample SPAR processor is included to illustrate the use of the data handling utilities.

  9. Technical decision making with higher order structure data: utilization of differential scanning calorimetry to elucidate critical protein structural changes resulting from oxidation.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Kelly K; Dinh, Nikita; Gabrielson, John P

    2015-04-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a useful tool for monitoring thermal stability of the molecular conformation of proteins. Here, we present an example of the sensitivity of DSC to changes in stability arising from a common chemical degradation pathway, oxidation. This Note is part of a series of industry case studies demonstrating the application of higher order structure data for technical decision making. For this study, six protein products from three structural classes were evaluated at multiple levels of oxidation. For each protein, the melting temperature (Tm ) decreased linearly as a function of oxidation; however, differences in the rate of change in Tm , as well as differences in domain Tm stability were observed across and within structural classes. For one protein, analysis of the impact of oxidation on protein function was also performed. For this protein, DSC was shown to be a leading indicator of decreased antigen binding suggesting a subtle conformation change may be underway that can be detected using DSC prior to any observable impact on product potency. Detectable changes in oxidized methionine by mass spectrometry (MS) occurred at oxidation levels below those with a detectable conformational or functional impact. Therefore, by using MS, DSC, and relative potency methods in concert, the intricate relationship between a primary structural modification, changes in conformational stability, and functional impact can be elucidated. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:1548-1554, 2015. PMID:25561411

  10. BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biomass utilization task consists of the evaluation of a biomass conversion technology including research and development initiatives. The project is expected to provide information on co-control of pollutants, as well as, to prove the feasibility of biomass conversion techn...

  11. Small-angle X-ray Scattering Studies of the Oligomeric State and Quaternary Structure of the Trifunctional Proline Utilization A (PutA) Flavoprotein from Escherichia coli*

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ranjan K.; Larson, John D.; Zhu, Weidong; Rambo, Robert P.; Hura, Greg L.; Becker, Donald F.; Tanner, John J.

    2011-01-01

    The trifunctional flavoprotein proline utilization A (PutA) links metabolism and gene regulation in Gram-negative bacteria by catalyzing the two-step oxidation of proline to glutamate and repressing transcription of the proline utilization regulon. Small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and domain deletion analysis were used to obtain solution structural information for the 1320-residue PutA from Escherichia coli. Shape reconstructions show that PutA is a symmetric V-shaped dimer having dimensions of 205 × 85 × 55 ?. The particle consists of two large lobes connected by a 30-? diameter cylinder. Domain deletion analysis shows that the N-terminal DNA-binding domain mediates dimerization. Rigid body modeling was performed using the crystal structure of the DNA-binding domain and a hybrid x-ray/homology model of residues 87–1113. The calculations suggest that the DNA-binding domain is located in the connecting cylinder, whereas residues 87–1113, which contain the two catalytic active sites, reside in the large lobes. The SAXS data and amino acid sequence analysis suggest that the ?1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase domains lack the conventional oligomerization flap, which is unprecedented for the aldehyde dehydrogenase superfamily. The data also provide insight into the function of the 200-residue C-terminal domain. It is proposed that this domain serves as a lid that covers the internal substrate channeling cavity, thus preventing escape of the catalytic intermediate into the bulk medium. Finally, the SAXS model is consistent with a cloaking mechanism of gene regulation whereby interaction of PutA with the membrane hides the DNA-binding surface from the put regulon thereby activating transcription. PMID:22013066

  12. NASA technology utilization house

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Following systems and features, which are predicted to save approximately $20,000 in utility costs over twenty year period, are incorporated into single-level, contemporarily designed, energy efficient residential structure: solar heating and cooling; energy efficient appliances; water recycling; security, smoke, and tornado detectors; and flat conductor electrical wiring.

  13. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    of in landfills. Because of the increasing disposal costs and the difficulty in locating new landfill site landfilled. Numerous applications of fly ash including in concrete, waste stabilization, structural fills and the liability associated with the use of landfill, beneficial utilization options for these industrial by

  14. Structure of a SusD Homologue, BT1043, Involved in Mucin O-Glycan Utilization in a Prominent Human Gut Symbiont

    SciTech Connect

    Koropatkin, Nicole; Martens, Eric C.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.; Smith, Thomas J.; (Danforth); (WU-MED)

    2009-05-21

    Mammalian distal gut bacteria have an expanded capacity to utilize glycans. In the absence of dietary sources, some species rely on host-derived mucosal glycans. The ability of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, a prominent human gut symbiont, to forage host glycans contributes to both its ability to persist within an individual host and its ability to be transmitted naturally to new hosts at birth. The molecular basis of host glycan recognition by this species is still unknown but likely occurs through an expanded suite of outermembrane glycan-binding proteins that are the primary interface between B. thetaiotaomicron and its environment. Presented here is the atomic structure of the B. thetaiotaomicron protein BT1043, an outer membrane lipoprotein involved in host glycan metabolism. Despite a lack of detectable amino acid sequence similarity, BT1043 is a structural homologue of the B. thetaiotaomicron starch-binding protein SusD. Both structures are dominated by tetratrico peptide repeats that may facilitate association with outer membrane {beta}-barrel transporters required for glycan uptake. The structure of BT1043 complexed with N-acetyllactosamine reveals that recognition is mediated via hydrogen bonding interactions with the reducing end of {beta}-N-acetylglucosamine, suggesting a role in binding glycans liberated from the mucin polypeptide. This is in contrast to CBM 32 family members that target the terminal nonreducing galactose residue of mucin glycans. The highly articulated glycan-binding pocket of BT1043 suggests that binding of ligands to BT1043 relies more upon interactions with the composite sugar residues than upon overall ligand conformation as previously observed for SusD. The diversity in amino acid sequence level likely reflects early divergence from a common ancestor, while the unique and conserved {alpha}-helical fold the SusD family suggests a similar function in glycan uptake.

  15. Molecular depth profiling of multilayer structures of organic semiconductor materials by secondary ion mass spectrometry with large argon cluster ion beams.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, Satoshi; Ichiki, Kazuya; Yamada, Hideaki; Nakata, Yoshihiko; Seki, Toshio; Aoki, Takaaki; Matsuo, Jiro

    2009-10-30

    In this study, we present molecular depth profiling of multilayer structures composed of organic semiconductor materials such as tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) and 4,4'-bis[N-(1-naphthyl)-N-phenylamino]biphenyl (NPD). Molecular ions produced from Alq3 and NPD were measured by linear-type time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry under 5.5 keV Ar70) ion bombardment. The organic multilayer films were analyzed and etched with large Ar cluster ion beams, and the interfaces between the organic layers were clearly distinguished. The effect of temperature on the diffusion of these materials was also investigated by the depth profiling analysis with Ar cluster ion beams. The thermal diffusion behavior was found to depend on the specific materials, and the diffusion of Alq3 molecules was observed to start at a lower temperature than that of NPD molecules. These results prove the great potential of large gas cluster ion beams for molecular depth profiling of organic multilayer samples. PMID:19757450

  16. Fault Diagnosis utilizing Structural Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mattias Krysander; Mattias Nyberg

    When designing model-based fault-diagnosis systems, the use of consistency relations (also called e.g. parity relations) is a common choice. Dierent subsets are sensi- tive to dierent subsets of faults, and thereby isolation can be achieved. This paper presents an algorithm for nding a small set of submodels that can be used to derive con- sistency relations with highest possible diagnosis

  17. Xylose utilization in recombinant Zymomonas

    DOEpatents

    Kahsay, Robel Y; Qi, Min; Tao, Luan; Viitanen, Paul V; Yang, Jianjun

    2013-01-07

    Zymomonas expressing xylose isomerase from A. missouriensis was found to have improved xylose utilization, growth, and ethanol production when grown in media containing xylose. Xylose isomerases related to that of A. missouriensis were identified structurally through molecular phylogenetic and Profile Hidden Markov Model analyses, providing xylose isomerases that may be used to improve xylose utilization.

  18. Structure of the Proline Utilization A Proline Dehydrogenase Domain Inactivated by N-propargylglycine Provides Insight into Conformational Changes Induced by Substrate Binding and Flavin Reduction†,‡

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Dhiraj; Zhu, Weidong; Johnson, William H.; Whitman, Christian P.; Becker, Donald F.; Tanner, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Proline utilization A (PutA) from Escherichia coli is a flavoprotein that has mutually exclusive roles as a transcriptional repressor of the put regulon and a membrane-associated enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of proline to glutamate. Previous studies have shown that the binding of proline in the proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) active site and subsequent reduction of the FAD trigger global conformational changes that enhance PutA-membrane affinity. These events cause PutA to switch from its repressor to enzymatic role, but the mechanism by which this signal is propagated from the active site to the distal membrane-binding domain is largely unknown. Here, it is shown that N-propargylglycine irreversibly inactivates PutA by covalently linking the flavin N(5) atom to the ?-amino of Lys329. Furthermore, inactivation locks PutA into a conformation that may mimic the proline reduced, membrane-associated form. The 2.15 Å resolution structure of the inactivated PRODH domain suggests that the initial events involved in broadcasting the reduced flavin state to the distal membrane binding domain include major reorganization of the flavin ribityl chain, severe (35 degree) butterfly bending of the isoalloxazine ring, and disruption of an electrostatic network involving the flavin N(5), Arg431, and Asp370. The structure also provides information about conformational changes associated with substrate binding. This analysis suggests that the active site is incompletely assembled in the absence of the substrate, and the binding of proline draws together conserved residues in helix 8 and the ?1-?l loop to complete the active site. PMID:19994913

  19. The regulation of public utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, C.F. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The current edition of [open quotes]The Regulation of Public Utilities[close quotes] is divided into 17 chapters which provide an historical analysis of the economic and legal concepts of public utility regulation, rate of return, rate base, operating expenses, rate structure, the electric power and natural gas industries, as well as the telecommunications and water industries. The value of the third edition is limited by the changes that have taken place in public utility regulation since 1992; current topic such as cogeneration, independent power production, and the sea-change in oil pipeline regulations are not discussed. The volume does, however, provide a comprehensive historical background of utility regulation.

  20. Development, cross-species/genera transferability of novel EST-SSR markers and their utility in revealing population structure and genetic diversity in sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ram K; Jena, Satya N; Khan, Suhail; Yadav, Sonia; Banarjee, Nandita; Raghuvanshi, Saurabh; Bhardwaj, Vasudha; Dattamajumder, Sanjay K; Kapur, Raman; Solomon, Sushil; Swapna, M; Srivastava, Sangeeta; Tyagi, Akhilesh K

    2013-07-25

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid) with complex polyploid genome requires a large number of informative DNA markers for various applications in genetics and breeding. Despite the great advances in genomic technology, it is observed in several crop species, especially in sugarcane, the availability of molecular tools such as microsatellite markers are limited. Now-a-days EST-SSR markers are preferred to genomic SSR (gSSR) as they represent only the functional part of the genome, which can be easily associated with desired trait. The present study was taken up with a new set of 351 EST-SSRs developed from the 4085 non redundant EST sequences of two Indian sugarcane cultivars. Among these EST-SSRs, TNR containing motifs were predominant with a frequency of 51.6%. Thirty percent EST-SSRs showed homology with annotated protein. A high frequency of SSRs was found in the 5'UTR and in the ORF (about 27%) and a low frequency was observed in the 3'UTR (about 8%). Two hundred twenty-seven EST-SSRs were evaluated, in sugarcane, allied genera of sugarcane and cereals, and 134 of these have revealed polymorphism with a range of PIC value 0.12 to 0.99. The cross transferability rate ranged from 87.0% to 93.4% in Saccharum complex, 80.0% to 87.0% in allied genera, and 76.0% to 80.0% in cereals. Cloning and sequencing of EST-SSR size variant amplicons revealed that the variation in the number of repeat-units was the main source of EST-SSR fragment polymorphism. When 124 sugarcane accessions were analyzed for population structure using model-based approach, seven genetically distinct groups or admixtures thereof were observed in sugarcane. Results of principal coordinate analysis or UPGMA to evaluate genetic relationships delineated also the 124 accessions into seven groups. Thus, a high level of polymorphism adequate genetic diversity and population structure assayed with the EST-SSR markers not only suggested their utility in various applications in genetics and genomics in sugarcane but also enriched the microsatellite marker resources in sugarcane. PMID:23587912

  1. Identification of four structural genes and two putative promoters necessary for utilization of phenanthrene naphthalene, fluoranthene, and by Sphingomonas paucimobilis var. EPA505

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra P Story; Stephen H Parker; Jon D Kline; Tzuen-Rong J Tzeng; James G Mueller; Ellis L Kline

    2000-01-01

    Sphingomonas paucimobilis var. EPA505 utilizes fluoranthene (FLA), naphthalene (NAP), and phenanthrene (PHE) as sole carbon sources for energy and growth. A genetic library of EPA505 was constructed using mini-Tn5 promoter reporter genes encoding for tetracycline resistance (tcp?) or luminescence (luxABp?). Out of 2250 Tn5 mutants, ten were deficient in utilization of FLA, NAP, and\\/or PHE as sole carbon sources. Three

  2. Secondary Structure, Backbone Dynamics, and Structural Topology of Phospholamban and Its Phosphorylated and Arg9Cys-Mutated Forms in Phospholipid Bilayers Utilizing 13C and 15N Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Phospholamban (PLB) is a membrane protein that regulates heart muscle relaxation rates via interactions with the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA). When PLB is phosphorylated or Arg9Cys (R9C) is mutated, inhibition of SERCA is relieved. 13C and 15N solid-state NMR spectroscopy is utilized to investigate conformational changes of PLB upon phosphorylation and R9C mutation. 13C=O NMR spectra of the cytoplasmic domain reveal two ?-helical structural components with population changes upon phosphorylation and R9C mutation. The appearance of an unstructured component is observed on domain Ib. 15N NMR spectra indicate an increase in backbone dynamics of the cytoplasmic domain. Wild-type PLB (WT-PLB), Ser16-phosphorylated PLB (P-PLB), and R9C-mutated PLB (R9C-PLB) all have a very dynamic domain Ib, and the transmembrane domain has an immobile component. 15N NMR spectra indicate that the cytoplasmic domain of R9C-PLB adopts an orientation similar to P-PLB and shifts away from the membrane surface. Domain Ib (Leu28) of P-PLB and R9C-PLB loses the alignment. The R9C-PLB adopts a conformation similar to P-PLB with a population shift to a more extended and disordered state. The NMR data suggest the more extended and disordered forms of PLB may relate to inhibition relief. PMID:24511878

  3. The impact of late adolescent substance use on young adult health status and utilization of health services: A structural- equation model over four years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael D. Newcomb; P. M. Bentler

    1987-01-01

    This study examined the impact of adolescent substance use on young adult health status and health service utilization, while controlling for earlier subjective and objective health problems and seeking medical care. Data were obtained from 654 participants when they were in late adolescence and 4 years later when they were young adults. Latent-variable models were used to determine what effect,

  4. Hualapai Tribal Utility Development Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hualapai Tribal Nation

    2008-05-25

    The first phase of the Hualapai Tribal Utility Development Project (Project) studied the feasibility of establishing a tribally operated utility to provide electric service to tribal customers at Grand Canyon West (see objective 1 below). The project was successful in completing the analysis of the energy production from the solar power systems at Grand Canyon West and developing a financial model, based on rates to be charged to Grand Canyon West customers connected to the solar systems, that would provide sufficient revenue for a Tribal Utility Authority to operate and maintain those systems. The objective to establish a central power grid over which the TUA would have authority and responsibility had to be modified because the construction schedule of GCW facilities, specifically the new air terminal, did not match up with the construction schedule for the solar power system. Therefore, two distributed systems were constructed instead of one central system with a high voltage distribution network. The Hualapai Tribal Council has not taken the action necessary to establish the Tribal Utility Authority that could be responsible for the electric service at GCW. The creation of a Tribal Utility Authority (TUA) was the subject of the second objective of the project. The second phase of the project examined the feasibility and strategy for establishing a tribal utility to serve the remainder of the Hualapai Reservation and the feasibility of including wind energy from a tribal wind generator in the energy resource portfolio of the tribal utility (see objective 2 below). It is currently unknown when the Tribal Council will consider the implementation of the results of the study. Objective 1 - Develop the basic organizational structure and operational strategy for a tribally controlled utility to operate at the Tribe’s tourism enterprise district, Grand Canyon West. Coordinate the development of the Tribal Utility structure with the development of the Grand Canyon West Power Project construction of the power infrastructure at Grand Canyon West. Develop the maintenance and operations capacity necessary to support utility operations. Develop rates for customers on the Grand Canyon West “mini-grid” sufficient for the tribal utility to be self-sustaining. Establish an implementation strategy for tribal utility service at Grand Canyon West Objective 2 - Develop a strategy for tribal utility takeover of electric service on the Reservation. Perform a cost analysis of Reservation electrical service. Develop an implementation strategy for tribal takeover of Reservation electrical service. Examine options and costs associated with integration of the Tribe’s wind resources.

  5. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    ....................................................................................................................................................................4 2.2 - Elemental Analysis of MPU North and South Silo Ashes.......................................................................................................7 2.3 - Leachate Analysis of MPU North and South Silo Ashes DIRT")UTILIZING MANITOWOC PUBLIC UTILITIES ASH A Report submitted to Manitowoc Public Utilities

  6. Electric utility companies and geothermal power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pivirotto, D. S.

    1976-01-01

    The requirements of the electric utility industry as the primary potential market for geothermal energy are analyzed, based on a series of structured interviews with utility companies and financial institution executives. The interviews were designed to determine what information and technologies would be required before utilities would make investment decisions in favor of geothermal energy, the time frame in which the information and technologies would have to be available, and the influence of the governmental politics. The paper describes the geothermal resources, electric utility industry, its structure, the forces influencing utility companies, and their relationship to geothermal energy. A strategy for federal stimulation of utility investment in geothermal energy is suggested. Possibilities are discussed for stimulating utility investment through financial incentives, amelioration of institutional barriers, and technological improvements.

  7. Mg2+ binding and structural stability of mature and in vitro synthesized unmodified Escherichia coli tRNAPhe.

    PubMed Central

    Serebrov, V; Vassilenko, K; Kholod, N; Gross, H J; Kisselev, L

    1998-01-01

    Mature tRNAPhe from Escherichia coli and the transcript of its gene lacking modified nucleotides were compared by a variety of physical techniques. Melting experiments revealed that at a low Mg2+level the transcript was partially denatured, while the mature tRNA possessed intact tertiary interactions. Mg2+binding to both tRNAs was studied by CD and UV techniques as well as by using the Mg2+-sensitive fluorescence indicator, 8-hydroxyquinoline 5-sulfonic acid. Both tRNA forms exhibited a single strong Mg2+-binding site, its dissociation constant was 10-fold higher for the transcript. Conformational changes in response to Mg2+ addition measured by CD and UV spectrometry revealed no difference for the estimated binding cooperativity and strong differences for affinities of Mg2+-binding sites for the two tRNA forms. Conformational transitions in mature and in in vitro synthesized tRNA required the binding of two Mg2+ ions per molecule and therefore should be associated not only with a single strong binding site. The Mg2+ dependence of Stokes radii measured by gel-filtration revealed insignificant differences between the overall sizes of the two tRNA forms at physiological Mg2+ levels (>1 mM). Taken together, these results suggest that modified nucleotides stabilize tertiary interactions and increase the structure stability without affecting the mechanism of Mg2+binding and overall folding of the tRNA molecule. This conclusion is supported by the known biological activity of the E. coli tRNAPhe gene transcript. PMID:9592160

  8. COMPARISON OF SILICA IMMOBILIZED POLY-L-CYSTEINE AND 8-HYDROXYQUINOLINE FOR TRACE METAL CHELATION AND PRECONCENTRATION. (R826694C651)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  9. Evaluation of Cyclohexenoesculetin-b-D-Galactoside and 8-Hydroxyquinoline-b-D-Galactoside as Substrates for the Detection of b-Galactosidase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. JAMES; J. D. PERRY; M. FORD; L. ARMSTRONG; K. GOULD

    1996-01-01

    Numerous substrates are available for the detection of b-ga- lactosidase, the most common being ortho-nitrophenyl-b-D- galactopyranoside (ONPG), which releases yellowo-nitrophe- nol upon hydrolysis (7). Fluorogenic substrates have also been used with labels such as resorufin, fluorescein, and 4-methyl- umbelliferone (2, 9). A major limitation of most of these sub- strates is that the aglycone released by hydrolysis has a tend-

  10. Field determination of fluoride in drinking water using a polymeric aluminium complex of 5-(2-carboxyphenylazo)-8-hydroxyquinoline impregnated paper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zaher Barghouthi; Sameer Amereih

    2012-01-01

    A simple field method which allows the determination of fluoride in drinking water with a small handheld instrument called Arsenator was developed. Arsenator is a commercially available instrument which was used successfully for reliable determination of arsenic. In the proposed method the functionality of the Arsenator which is based on a photometric measurement of a spot on the reagent paper

  11. Studies on antitumor mechanism of two planar platinum(II) complexes with 8-hydroxyquinoline: Synthesis, characterization, cytotoxicity, cell cycle and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Qin, Qi-Pin; Chen, Zhen-Feng; Qin, Jiao-Lan; He, Xiao-Ju; Li, Yu-Lan; Liu, Yan-Cheng; Huang, Ke-Bin; Liang, Hong

    2015-03-01

    [Pt(Q)2] (1) and [Pt(MQ)2] (2) exhibited enhanced cytotoxicity against BEL-7404, Hep-G2, NCI-H460, T-24, A549 tumor cells but low cytotoxicity on normal HL-7702 cells. 1 and 2 could cause the cell cycle arrest in G2 and S phase, respectively. While pifithrin-?, a specific p53 inhibitor, induced cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. Although 1, 2 and pifithrin-? caused serious inhibition on p53, 1 and 2 significantly cause the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and increase of the reactive oxygen species level, cytochrome c, apaf-1 and caspase-3/9 ratio in BEL-7404 cells. 1 and 2 may trigger the cell apoptosis through a mitochondrial dysfunction pathway whereas pifithrin-? does not. The interactions of 1 and 2 with DNA are most probably via an intercalation. PMID:25575314

  12. A research project is being carried out at the Center for By-Products Utilization, UW-Milwaukee on structural grade concrete containing low

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    -Milwaukee on structural grade concrete containing low cement and high volumes of fly ash. This report is primarily concerned with the literature information on high-volume fly ash concrete. An extensive literature search was completed about technologies involving high volume uses of fly ash in concrete for structural applications

  13. Time functions as utilities

    E-print Network

    E. Minguzzi

    2009-09-04

    Every time function on spacetime gives a (continuous) total preordering of the spacetime events which respects the notion of causal precedence. The problem of the existence of a (semi-)time function on spacetime and the problem of recovering the causal structure starting from the set of time functions are studied. It is pointed out that these problems have an analog in the field of microeconomics known as utility theory. In a chronological spacetime the semi-time functions correspond to the utilities for the chronological relation, while in a K-causal (stably causal) spacetime the time functions correspond to the utilities for the K^+ relation (Seifert's relation). By exploiting this analogy, we are able to import some mathematical results, most notably Peleg's and Levin's theorems, to the spacetime framework. As a consequence, we prove that a K-causal (i.e. stably causal) spacetime admits a time function and that the time or temporal functions can be used to recover the K^+ (or Seifert) relation which indeed turns out to be the intersection of the time or temporal orderings. This result tells us in which circumstances it is possible to recover the chronological or causal relation starting from the set of time or temporal functions allowed by the spacetime. Moreover, it is proved that a chronological spacetime in which the closure of the causal relation is transitive (for instance a reflective spacetime) admits a semi-time function. Along the way a new proof avoiding smoothing techniques is given that the existence of a time function implies stable causality, and a new short proof of the equivalence between K-causality and stable causality is given which takes advantage of Levin's theorem and smoothing techniques.

  14. The Potential Utility of Predicted One Bond Carbon-Proton Coupling Constants in the Structure Elucidation of Small Organic Molecules by NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Venkata, Chandrasekhar; Forster, Mark J.; Howe, Peter W. A.; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy is the most popular technique used for structure elucidation of small organic molecules in solution, but incorrect structures are regularly reported. One-bond proton-carbon J-couplings provide additional information about chemical structure because they are determined by different features of molecular structure than are proton and carbon chemical shifts. However, these couplings are not routinely used to validate proposed structures because few software tools exist to predict them. This study assesses the accuracy of Density Functional Theory for predicting them using 396 published experimental observations from a diverse range of small organic molecules. With the B3LYP functional and the TZVP basis set, Density Functional Theory calculations using the open-source software package NWChem can predict one-bond CH J-couplings with good accuracy for most classes of small organic molecule. The root-mean-square deviation after correction is 1.5 Hz for most sp3 CH pairs and 1.9 Hz for sp2 pairs; larger errors are observed for sp3 pairs with multiple electronegative substituents and for sp pairs. These results suggest that prediction of one-bond CH J-couplings by Density Functional Theory is sufficiently accurate for structure validation. This will be of particular use in strained ring systems and heterocycles which have characteristic couplings and which pose challenges for structure elucidation. PMID:25365289

  15. Asteroid exploration and utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radovich, Brian M.; Carlson, Alan E.; Date, Medha D.; Duarte, Manny G.; Erian, Neil F.; Gafka, George K.; Kappler, Peter H.; Patano, Scott J.; Perez, Martin; Ponce, Edgar

    1992-01-01

    The Earth is nearing depletion of its natural resources at a time when human beings are rapidly expanding the frontiers of space. The resources possessed by asteroids have enormous potential for aiding and enhancing human space exploration as well as life on Earth. Project STONER (Systematic Transfer of Near Earth Resources) is based on mining an asteroid and transporting raw materials back to Earth. The asteroid explorer/sample return mission is designed in the context of both scenarios and is the first phase of a long range plan for humans to utilize asteroid resources. Project STONER is divided into two parts: asteroid selection and explorer spacecraft design. The spacecraft design team is responsible for the selection and integration of the subsystems: GNC, communications, automation, propulsion, power, structures, thermal systems, scientific instruments, and mechanisms used on the surface to retrieve and store asteroid regolith. The sample return mission scenario consists of eight primary phases that are critical to the mission.

  16. Stability of utility-maximization in incomplete Kasper Larsen

    E-print Network

    Larsen, Kasper

    , in a certain sense. A novel result about the structure of the solution of the utility-maximization problem of the terminal wealth - the utility functional. Often, the utility functional is of the "expected-utility" type a given initial wealth x. U(·) is generally a concave and strictly increasing real-valued function defined

  17. Materials and structure synergistic with in-space materials utilization. [as means of reducing costs of space missions, colonization, and settlements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, Kumar; Shadman, Farhang; Sridhar, K. R.

    1992-01-01

    The significant advances made recently toward actual hardware realizations of various concepts for the application of in-space materials utilization (ISMU) are demonstrated. The overall plan for taking innovative concepts through technical feasibility, small-scale tests, scale-up, computer modeling, and larger-scale execution is outlined. Two specific fields of endeavor are surveyed: one has direct applications to construction on the moon, while the other has more basic implications, in addition to the practical aspects of lunar colonies. Several fundamental scientific advances made in the characterization of the physical and chemical processes that need to be elucidated for any intelligent application of the ISMU concepts in future space missions are described. A rigorous quantitative technique for the unambiguous evaluation of various components and component technology that form any space (or terrestrial mission) is also described.

  18. Exploring the Structural Relationships between High School Students' Scientific Epistemological Views and Their Utilization of Information Commitments toward Online Science Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chia-Ching; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the structural relationships between scientific epistemological views (SEVs) and information commitments (ICs) of high school students in Taiwan. Data were collected from 486 Taiwanese high school students via two self-reporting instruments: one was the SEV questionnaire, including five scales for…

  19. Proceedings of the ninth cellulose conference. I. Symposia on biosynthesis of cellulose, structure and physics of cellulose, and chemistry and utilization of lignin

    SciTech Connect

    Sarko, A. (ed.)

    1983-01-01

    Volume I of this conference contains 37 papers covering research programs in the biosynthesis of cellulose and its precursors and the structure and chemical composition of cellulose and lignin. All 37 papers have been abstracted separately. 1028 references, 344 figures, 63 tables.

  20. Utility of Magnetotelluric Data in Unravelling the Stratigraphic-Structural Framework of the Nechako Basin (NTS 092N; 093C, B, G, H), South-Central

    E-print Network

    Jones, Alan G.

    and sedimentary rocks, Creta- ceous sedimentary rocks and Jurassic sedimentary rocks (Fig 1). Understanding the distribution and structure of these sedimentary rocks atdepth is vitalfor assessing possi- ble resources-m, whereas sedimentary rocks are more con- ductive with values of 1 to 1000 ohm-m. In the 1980s

  1. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) evolution in populations of the hyperparasitic European mistletoe pathogen fungus, Sphaeropsis visci (Botryosphaeriaceae): The utility of ITS2 secondary structures.

    PubMed

    Poczai, Péter; Varga, Ildikó; Hyvönen, Jaakko

    2015-03-01

    We investigated patterns of nucleotide polymorphism in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region for Sphaeropsis visci, a hyperparasitic fungus that causes the leaf spot disease of the hemiparasite European mistletoe (Viscum album). Samples of S. visci were obtained from Hungary covering all major infected forest areas. For obtaining PCR products we used a fast and efficient direct PCR approach based on a high fidelity DNA polymerase. A total of 140 ITS sequences were subjected to an array of complementary sequence analyses, which included analyses of secondary structure stability, nucleotide polymorphism patterns, GC content, and presence of conserved motifs. Analysed sequences exhibited features of functional rRNAs. Overall, polymorphism was observed within less conserved motifs, such as loops and bulges, or, alternatively, as non-canonical G-U pairs within conserved regions of double stranded helices. The secondary structure of ITS2 provides new opportunities for obtaining further valuable information, which could be used in phylogenetic analyses, or at population level as demonstrated in our study. This is due to additional information provided by secondary structures and their models. The combined score matrix was used with the methods implemented in the programme 4SALE. Besides the pseudoprotein coding method of 4SALE, the molecular morphometric character coding also has potential for gaining further information for phylogenetic analyses based on the geometric features of the sub-structural elements of the ITS2 RNA transcript. PMID:25536165

  2. Unimolecular half-adders and half-subtractors based on acid-base reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Jiang; Hengyi Zhang; Yu Liu

    2009-01-01

    According to the structural analysis of reported molecular processors with acids and bases as inputs, we proposed a general\\u000a method for constructing molecular half-adders and\\/or half-subtractors based on acid-base reaction. The method is preliminarily\\u000a supported by four molecular processors (8-hydroxyquinoline, 4-hydroxypyridine, 4-aminophenol and 5-amino-1-naphthol) capable\\u000a of the elementary addition and\\/or subtraction algebraic operations. Noticeably, 8-hydroxyquinoline can mimic the functions\\u000a of

  3. Electric utility conservation programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. W. Gellings; D. R. Limaye

    1986-01-01

    The unprecedented financial pressures facing today's electric utilities have encouraged the evolution of conservation as a planning strategy. Electric Utility Conservation Programs is a book to isolate the problems electric utilities encounter and document the solutions they are finding throughout the design, operation, marketing, and evaluation stages of their conservation programs. Including coverage of customer acceptance of their programs and

  4. Miscellaneous Mathematical Utilities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Several online mathematical utilities intended for college and university students (math, physics, engineering, etc. students). Numerical utilities to solve (among others): N Equations in N Unknowns, Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors, Roots of Functions, and Numerical Integration. More utilities are constantly being added.

  5. 18 CFR 1304.301 - Utilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Utilities. 1304.301 Section 1304.301 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL OF CONSTRUCTION IN THE TENNESSEE RIVER SYSTEM AND REGULATION OF STRUCTURES AND OTHER ALTERATIONS Activities on TVA...

  6. 18 CFR 1304.301 - Utilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Utilities. 1304.301 Section 1304.301 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL OF CONSTRUCTION IN THE TENNESSEE RIVER SYSTEM AND REGULATION OF STRUCTURES AND OTHER ALTERATIONS Activities on TVA...

  7. I-III-VI.sub.2 based solar cell utilizing the structure CuInGaSe.sub.2 CdZnS/ZnO

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Wen S. (Seattle, WA); Stewart, John M. (Seattle, WA)

    1992-01-07

    A thin film I-III-VI.sub.2 based solar cell having a first layer of copper indium gallium selenide, a second layer of cadmium zinc sulfide, a double layer of zinc oxide, and a metallization structure comprised of a layer of nickel covered by a layer of aluminum. An optional antireflective coating may be placed on said metallization structure. The cadmium zinc sulfide layer is deposited by means of an aqueous solution growth deposition process and may actually consist of two layers: a low zinc content layer and a high zinc content layer. Photovoltaic efficiencies of 12.5% at Air Mass 1.5 illumination conditions and 10.4% under AMO illumination can be achieved.

  8. Isobaric-Isothermal Molecular Dynamics Utilizing Density Functional Theory: An Assessment of the Structure and Density of Water at Near-Ambient Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, J; VandeVondele, J; Kuo, I W; Sebastiani, D; Siepmann, J I; Hutter, J; Mundy, C J

    2009-03-06

    We present herein a comprehensive density functional theory study toward assessing the accuracy of two popular gradient-corrected exchange correlation functionals on the structure and density of liquid water at near ambient conditions in the isobaric-isothermal ensemble. Our results indicate that both PBE and BLYP functionals under predict the density and over structure the liquid. Adding the dispersion correction due to Grimme(1, 2) improves the predicted densities for both BLYP and PBE in a significant manner. Moreover, the addition of the dispersion correction for BLYP yields an oxygen-oxygen radial distribution function in excellent agreement with experiment. Thus, we conclude that one can obtain a very satisfactory model for water using BLYP and a correction for dispersion.

  9. Secondary structure analyses of the nuclear rRNA internal transcribed spacers and assessment of its phylogenetic utility across the Brassicaceae (mustards).

    PubMed

    Edger, Patrick P; Tang, Michelle; Bird, Kevin A; Mayfield, Dustin R; Conant, Gavin; Mummenhoff, Klaus; Koch, Marcus A; Pires, J Chris

    2014-01-01

    The internal transcribed spacers of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene cluster, termed ITS1 and ITS2, are the most frequently used nuclear markers for phylogenetic analyses across many eukaryotic groups including most plant families. The reasons for the popularity of these markers include: 1.) Ease of amplification due to high copy number of the gene clusters, 2.) Available cost-effective methods and highly conserved primers, 3.) Rapidly evolving markers (i.e. variable between closely related species), and 4.) The assumption (and/or treatment) that these sequences are non-functional, neutrally evolving phylogenetic markers. Here, our analyses of ITS1 and ITS2 for 50 species suggest that both sequences are instead under selective constraints to preserve proper secondary structure, likely to maintain complete self-splicing functions, and thus are not neutrally-evolving phylogenetic markers. Our results indicate the majority of sequence sites are co-evolving with other positions to form proper secondary structure, which has implications for phylogenetic inference. We also found that the lowest energy state and total number of possible alternate secondary structures are highly significantly different between ITS regions and random sequences with an identical overall length and Guanine-Cytosine (GC) content. Lastly, we review recent evidence highlighting some additional problematic issues with using these regions as the sole markers for phylogenetic studies, and thus strongly recommend additional markers and cost-effective approaches for future studies to estimate phylogenetic relationships. PMID:24984034

  10. Utilization of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for structural studies related to biology and disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costello, Catherine E.; Helin, Jari; Ngoka, Lambert C. M.

    1996-04-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), because of its high sensitivity and relatively straightforward requirements for sample preparation, is contributing to the solution of structural problems in biology and to the development of therapeutic approaches through increased understanding of pharmacology and enhanced capabilities for quality control of pharmaceuticals. We are using a reflectron TOF- MS for the determination of molecular weights of individual compounds and the components of mixtures that are naturally occurring or are generated through enzymic digests, and employing the post-source decay mode to elucidate structural details. To maximize the sensitivity and information content of the spectra, varied matrices, derivative, and stepwise degradation procedures are being explored. Present studies include investigations of oligosaccharides, neutral glycolipids, gangliosides, glycoproteins, neuropeptides and proteins. Rules for fragmentation are being developed with model compounds and used for the structural elucidation of unknowns. When adequate sample amounts are available, the results are compared with low- and high-energy collision-induced decomposition spectra obtained with tandem MS in order to provide a data base for the correlation of spectral features and guidance in selection of approaches for scarce biological samples. Current projects include biophysical studies of glycoplipids, glycoproteins and oligosaccharides and investigations of the substance P receptor, transthyretin genetic variants and cisplatin-DNA interactions.

  11. Development and utilization of digital image correlation techniques for the study of structural isomerism effects on strain development in epoxy network glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, Stephen Robert

    The specific aim of this dissertation is to present the findings regarding the effects of molecular structure on macroscopic mechanical performance and strain development in epoxy networks. Network molecular structure was altered through monomer isomerism and crosslink density/molecular weight between crosslinks. The use of structural isomerism provided a pathway for altering mechanical performance while maintaining identical chemical composition within the network. Isomerism was investigated primarily by the curing of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) using either the para- or meta-substituted derivatives of diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS). Additional insights into isomerism were gained through the investigation of networks composed of either para- or meta-triglycidyl aminophenol (TGAP) cured with 3,3'- or 4,4'-DDS. Crosslink density of the network was varied through two different methods: (a) increasing the equivalent weight of the linear DGEBA epoxy resin and (b) increasing the functionality of the epoxy resin through the use of TGAP. The effects of molecular structure on mechanical properties and strain development were monitored using a relatively new strain measurement technique known as digital image correlation (DIC). Strain measurement via DIC was particularly useful for the development of strain recovery procedures, which provided key insights to the deformation of epoxy network glasses of varying molecular structure by providing full field analysis of the epoxy specimens. Specific findings of this research revealed that network isomerism plays an important role in the deformation of epoxy network glasses. Networks containing meta-substituted monomers possessed higher modulus and yield stress values and lower yield strains. On the contrary, networks with para-substituted monomers displayed lower modulus and yield stress values, but increased ability to store energy through anelastic strain mechanisms, thereby delaying the onset of yielding. The increased energy storage of these networks was related to sub-Tg molecular motions and the ability for para-substituted phenyl rings to rotate along an axis of symmetry, thus creating more cooperative motion within the network. Insights into post-yield deformation of epoxy glasses were also gained where networks with meta-substitution were able to dissipate more stress post-yield through large segmental rearrangements.

  12. Realization of white organic light-emitting devices using single green emitter by coupled microcavities with two modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yue; Wu, Zhaoxin; Jiao, Bo; Ma, Lin; Chen, Han; Hou, Xun

    2015-02-01

    We fabricated a novel white organic light-emitting diode (WOLED) structure based on a single green emitting layer through coupled microcavities with two modes. By optical simulation and experiment, we showed that the two resonant modes can be adjusted by varying the thickness of the special layer to shape white light using only a single green emitter. Utilizing tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) as an emitting layer, we obtained a series of WOLEDs whose Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates are on the Planckian curve from (0.334,0.343) to (0,412,0.393) with current efficiencies in the range of 1.45–2.52 cd A?1. A maximum current efficiency of 10.12 cd A?1 and warm white emission at CIE (0.439,0.461) have been demonstrated using bis(2-phenylpyridine)(acetylacetonate)iridium(III) [Ir(ppy)2(acac)] as an emitter material.

  13. ERTS-1 imagery use in reconnaissance prospecting: Evaluation of commercial utility of ERTS-1 imagery in structural reconnaissance for minerals and petroleum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, D. F. (principal investigator); Thomas, G. L.; Kinsman, F. E.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Five areas in North America (North Slope-Alaska, Superior Province-Canada, Williston Basin-Montana, Colorado, and New Mexico-West Texas) are being studied for discernibility of geological evidence on ERTS-1 imagery. Evidence mapped is compared with known mineral/hydrocarbon accumulations to determine the value of the imagery in commercial exploration programs. Evaluation has proceeded in the New Mexico-Texas area, and to date, results have been better than expected. Clearly discernible structural lineaments in this area are evident on the photographs. Comparison of this evidence with known major mining localities in New Mexico indicates a clear pattern of coincidence between the lineaments and mining localities. In West Texas, lineament and geomorphological evidence obtainable from the photographs define the petroleum-productive Central Basin Platform. Based on evaluation of results in the New Mexico-West Texas area and on cursory results in the other four areas of North America, it is concluded that ERTS-1 imagery will be extremely valuable in defining the regional and local structure in any commercial exploration program.

  14. ERTS-1 imagery use in reconnaissance prospecting: Evaluation of commercial utility of ERTS-1 imagery in structural reconnaissance for minerals and petroleum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, D. F.; Thomas, G. E. (principal investigators); Kinsman, F. E.; Beatty, D. F.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This study was performed to investigate applications of ERTS-1 imagery in commercial reconnaissance for mineral and hydrocarbon resources. ERTS-1 imagery collected over five areas in North America (Montana; Colorado; New Mexico-West Texas; Superior Province, Canada; and North Slope, Alaska) has been analyzed for data content including linears, lineaments, and curvilinear anomalies. Locations of these features were mapped and compared with known locations of mineral and hydrocarbon accumulations. Results were analyzed in the context of a simple-shear, block-coupling model. Data analyses have resulted in detection of new lineaments, some of which may be continental in extent, detection of many curvilinear patterns not generally seen on aerial photos, strong evidence of continental regmatic fracture patterns, and realization that geological features can be explained in terms of a simple-shear, block-coupling model. The conculsions are that ERTS-1 imagery is of great value in photogeologic/geomorphic interpretations of regional features, and the simple-shear, block-coupling model provides a means of relating data from ERTS imagery to structures that have controlled emplacement of ore deposits and hydrocarbon accumulations, thus providing a basis for a new approach for reconnaissance for mineral, uranium, gas, and oil deposits and structures.

  15. Structural and functional characterization of an orphan ATP-binding cassette ATPase involved in manganese utilization and tolerance in Leptospira spp.

    PubMed

    Benaroudj, Nadia; Saul, Frederick; Bellalou, Jacques; Miras, Isabelle; Weber, Patrick; Bondet, Vincent; Murray, Gerald L; Adler, Ben; Ristow, Paula; Louvel, Hélène; Haouz, Ahmed; Picardeau, Mathieu

    2013-12-01

    Pathogenic Leptospira species are the etiological agents of the widespread zoonotic disease leptospirosis. Most organisms, including Leptospira, require divalent cations for proper growth, but because of their high reactivity, these metals are toxic at high concentrations. Therefore, bacteria have acquired strategies to maintain metal homeostasis, such as metal import and efflux. By screening Leptospira biflexa transposon mutants for their ability to use Mn(2+), we have identified a gene encoding a putative orphan ATP-binding cassette (ABC) ATPase of unknown function. Inactivation of this gene in both L. biflexa and L. interrogans strains led to mutants unable to grow in medium in which iron was replaced by Mn(2+), suggesting an involvement of this ABC ATPase in divalent cation uptake. A mutation in this ATPase-coding gene increased susceptibility to Mn(2+) toxicity. Recombinant ABC ATPase of the pathogen L. interrogans exhibited Mg(2+)-dependent ATPase activity involving a P-loop motif. The structure of this ATPase was solved from a crystal containing two monomers in the asymmetric unit. Each monomer adopted a canonical two-subdomain organization of the ABC ATPase fold with an ?/? subdomain containing the Walker motifs and an ? subdomain containing the ABC signature motif (LSSGE). The two monomers were arranged in a head-to-tail orientation, forming a V-shaped particle with all the conserved ABC motifs at the dimer interface, similar to functional ABC ATPases. These results provide the first structural and functional characterization of a leptospiral ABC ATPase. PMID:24123817

  16. A utility`s view of repowering

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, R.W. [Public Service Electric and Gas Co., Ridgefield, NJ (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Repowering existing fossil fired steam generation is an attractive alternative for utilities today. The repowered plant optimizes the re-use of the existing steam turbine generator and auxiliary assets along with the installation of clean, modern, efficient combustion turbine generators. The conversion results in a plant which compared favorably on a performance basis with a totally new ``greenfield`` plant, but is lower in capital cost. In addition, repowering makes prudent use of existing utility sites, infrastructure, and experience to provide the lowest cost energy for the end customer. The paper presents Public Service Electric and Gas Company`s views and describes an example of utility repowering at the Bergen Generating Station in New Jersey.

  17. Utility Solar Generation Valuation Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Thomas N.; Dion, Phillip J.

    2009-06-30

    Tucson Electric Power (TEP) developed, tested and verified the results of a new and appropriate method for accurately evaluating the capacity credit of time variant solar generating sources and reviewed new methods to appropriately and fairly evaluate the value of solar generation to electric utilities. The project also reviewed general integrated approaches for adequately compensating owners of solar generation for their benefits to utilities. However, given the limited funding support and time duration of this project combined with the significant differences between utilities regarding rate structures, solar resource availability and coincidence of solar generation with peak load periods, it is well beyond the scope of this project to develop specific rate, rebate, and interconnection approaches to capture utility benefits for all possible utilities. The project developed computer software based evaluation method models to compare solar generation production data measured in very short term time increments called Sample Intervals over a typical utility Dispatch Cycle during an Evaluation Period against utility system load data. Ten second resolution generation production data from the SGSSS and actual one minute resolution TEP system load data for 2006 and 2007, along with data from the Pennington Street Garage 60 kW DC capacity solar unit installed in downtown Tucson will be applied to the model for testing and verification of the evaluation method. Data was provided by other utilities, but critical time periods of data were missing making results derived from that data inaccurate. The algorithms are based on previous analysis and review of specific 2005 and 2006 SGSSS production data. The model was built, tested and verified by in house TEP personnel. For this phase of the project, TEP communicated with, shared solar production data with and collaborated on the development of solar generation valuation tools with other utilities, including Arizona Public Service, Salt River Project, Xcel and Nevada Power Company as well as the Arizona electric cooperatives. In the second phase of the project, three years of 10 second power output data of the SGSSS was used to evaluate the effectiveness of frequency domain analysis, normal statistical distribution analysis and finally maximum/minimum differential output analysis to test the applicability of these mathematic methods in accurately modeling the output variations produced by clouds passing over the SGSSS array.

  18. Diorganotin(IV) 2-pyridyl selenolates: synthesis, structures and their utility as molecular precursors for the preparation of tin selenide nanocrystals and thin films.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rakesh K; Kedarnath, G; Wadawale, Amey; Betty, C A; Vishwanadh, B; Jain, Vimal K

    2012-10-21

    Reactions of R(2)SnCl(2) (R = Me, Et, (t)Bu) with NaSeC(5)H(3)(R'-3)N (R' = H or Me) gave complexes of the composition [R(2)Sn{2-SeC(5)H(3)(R'-3)N)}(2)], which on treatment with R(2)SnCl(2) afforded chloro complexes, [R(2)Sn{2-SeC(5)H(3)(R'-3)N}Cl]. These complexes were characterized by elemental analyses and UV-vis and NMR ((1)H, (13)C, (77)Se and (119)Sn) spectroscopy. The crystal structures of [R(2)Sn(SeC(5)H(4)N)(2)] (R = Me or (t)Bu) and [Me(2)Sn{2-SeC(5)H(3)(Me-3)N}Cl] were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The tin atom in the former two structures acquires a skew trapezoidal configuration, whereas in the latter it adopts a distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry. Thermolysis of [R(2)Sn(2-SeC(5)H(4)N)(2)] (R = Me, Et or (t)Bu) and [Et(2)Sn{2-SeC(5)H(3)(Me-3)N}(2)] in oleylamine (OA) afforded tin selenide nanostructures. Thin films of SnSe were deposited on glass and silicon substrates by the AACVD of [(t)Bu(2)Sn(2-SeC(5)H(4)N)(2)]. The nanostructures and thin films were characterized by XRD, EDX, AFM, SEM, TEM and SAED techniques. The photovoltaic properties of the thin films have been evaluated. PMID:22918450

  19. Soft x-ray spectroscopic studies of the electronic structure of organic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yufeng

    Organic semiconductors have several unique properties, different from traditional inorganic semiconductors, such as flexibility and low cost production on a large scale. Potentially, they can be used in several new optoelectronic devices, such as organic solar cells, and organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) Phthalocyanines (Pc's) are one important type of molecular organic semiconductor. The ease with which a diverse set of cations can bond to the phthalocyanine ligand leads to Pc-based thin films that display a wide variety of optical and electrical properties. In these materials, the ligand has a complex electronic structure in itself, and the introduction of metal cations adds further complexity to the states near the Fermi level (EF) due to the overlap of metal d states with carbon and nitrogen 2p states. In this thesis, the electronic structure of several Pc's has been studied by soft x-ray spectroscopies, such as x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES). To avoid potential contamination and beam damage, the large area thin film samples have been prepared in situ by using organic molecular beam deposition (OMBD). The structure of samples were characterized ex situ by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The soft x-ray spectra recorded from stationary samples are found to represent the electronic structure from damaged molecules, which is caused by intense x-ray beams. Continuously translating samples during measurement overcomes this problem. Element, chemical, and symmetry specific occupied and unoccupied partial density of states (PDOS) from Pc's were observed. They show good agreement with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Studies of potassium doping non-transition metal Pc, fluorinated metal Pc, and metal oxide Pc's show several interesting phenomena, such as variation of molecular symmetry, and charge transfer and d-d* resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) features. These observations and comparisons with other organic semiconductors, such as Tri (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3), and metal oxides, such as V2O3, not only help to deepen our understanding of the optical and electrical properties of Pc's, but also provide valuable information for the studies of other materials.

  20. Utility of DPX2 cells for predicting CYP3A induction-mediated drug-drug interactions and associated structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Fahmi, Odette A; Raucy, Judy L; Ponce, Elsa; Hassanali, Saleema; Lasker, Jerome M

    2012-11-01

    The increase in cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme activity noted upon exposure to therapeutics can elicit marked drug-drug interactions (DDIs) that may ultimately result in poor clinical outcome or adverse drug effects. As such, in vitro model systems that can rapidly and accurately determine whether potential therapeutics activate the human pregnane X receptor (PXR) and thus induce CYP3A P450 levels are highly sought after tools for drug discovery. To that end, we assessed whether DPX2 cells, a HepG2-derived cell line stably integrated with a PXR expression vector plus a luciferase reporter, could detect agents that not only cause PXR activation/CYP3A induction but also elicit clinical DDIs. All 20 clinical inducers and 9 of 15 clinical noninducers examined activated PXR in DPX2 cells (E(max) > 8-fold), although activation parameters obtained with the noninducers were not predictive of DDI. The relative induction score, calculated by combining PXR activation parameters (EC(50) and E(max)) in DPX2 cells for seven inducers plus four noninducers with their efficacious total plasma concentrations, strongly correlated (R(2) = 0.90) with the magnitude of induction of midazolam clearance. Thus, the DPX cell-based PXR activation system is not only capable of distinguishing potential inducers in a high-throughput manner but can also differentiate among compounds in predicting the magnitude of induction-mediated DDIs, providing a means for structure-activity relationship screening during discovery and development. PMID:22912432

  1. Aberrant 3? splice sites in human disease genes: mutation pattern, nucleotide structure and comparison of computational tools that predict their utilization

    PubMed Central

    Vo?echovský, Igor

    2006-01-01

    The frequency distribution of mutation-induced aberrant 3? splice sites (3?ss) in exons and introns is more complex than for 5? splice sites, largely owing to sequence constraints upstream of intron/exon boundaries. As a result, prediction of their localization remains a challenging task. Here, nucleotide sequences of previously reported 218 aberrant 3?ss activated by disease-causing mutations in 131 human genes were compared with their authentic counterparts using currently available splice site prediction tools. Each tested algorithm distinguished authentic 3?ss from cryptic sites more effectively than from de novo sites. The best discrimination between aberrant and authentic 3?ss was achieved by the maximum entropy model. Almost one half of aberrant 3?ss was activated by AG-creating mutations and ?95% of the newly created AGs were selected in vivo. The overall nucleotide structure upstream of aberrant 3?ss was characterized by higher purine content than for authentic sites, particularly in position ?3, that may be compensated by more stringent requirements for positive and negative nucleotide signatures centred around position ?11. A newly developed online database of aberrant 3?ss will facilitate identification of splicing mutations in a gene or phenotype of interest and future optimization of splice site prediction tools. PMID:16963498

  2. The structure of state utility commissions and protection of the captive ratepayer: Is there a connection? Occasional paper {number_sign}23

    SciTech Connect

    Zearfoss, N.N.

    1998-06-01

    While there is a considerable body of literature on regulatory decision making, the dominant theories have emphasized the influence of external factors on commissioners, which largely result in capture. Underlying these theories is the assumption that resources translate into influence. The theory proposed in this research is that while resources are necessary in order to influence commission decisions, they are not sufficient. Instead, their effects are mediated by two conditions: one, the structural characteristics of each state commission, which enable it to acquire and analyze information and two, the attributes of the type of consumer safeguards, e.g. a rate freeze or quality-of-service standards with attached financial penalties, which commissions could have adopted. The guiding research hypothesis is that the greater the ability of the commission to acquire and analyze information, the more likely it is to enact more stringent measures to protect the captive ratepayer. The major implications of this research are two. (1) This research suggests that commissions react not just to political pressure and economic incentives, but also to information. Indeed, this research asserts that information is a significant determinant in the decision making process. (2) Where the general public has neither the knowledge nor the understanding to take a position with regard to an issue, a regulatory commission with greater resources and more professional personnel is more likely to be its champion than is a commission with fewer resources and less professional personnel.

  3. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization USE OF GLASS AND FLY ASH IN MANUFATURE OF CONTROLLED LOW-product materials including utilization of used foundry sand and fly ash in CLSM (Controlled Low Strength Materials high volumes of mixed colored, broken glass in Controlled Low Strength Materials (CLSM) meeting ACI 229

  4. Cogeneration - A Utility Perspective

    E-print Network

    Williams, M.

    1983-01-01

    will be successful. A project that benefi s one party at the expense of the other will fail. With or without PURPA, industry and utilities hare the opportunity to benefit from cogeneration. is essential that industry and utilities communi cate on their mutual...

  5. Homeless service Utilization report

    E-print Network

    Homeless service Utilization report H a w a i ` i 2 0 0 9 #12;2 Homeless service Utilization report Hawai`i is unique in having a statewide, centralized electronic data system in which all homeless`i and the Homeless Programs Branch of the Hawai`i Public Housing Authority (HPHA) issued the first Homeless Service

  6. Detect the sensitivity and response of protein molecular structure of whole canola seed (yellow and brown) to different heat processing methods and relation to protein utilization and availability using ATR-FT/IR molecular spectroscopy with chemometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samadi; Theodoridou, Katerina; Yu, Peiqiang

    2013-03-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to detect the sensitivity and response of protein molecular structure of whole canola seed to different heat processing [moisture (autoclaving) vs. dry (roasting) heating] and quantify heat-induced protein molecular structure changes in relation to protein utilization and availability. In this study, whole canola seeds were autoclaved (moisture heating) and dry (roasting) heated at 120 °C for 1 h, respectively. The parameters assessed included changes in (1) chemical composition profile, (2) CNCPS protein subfractions (PA, PB1, PB2, PB3, PC), (3) intestinal absorbed true protein supply, (4) energy values, and (5) protein molecular structures (amide I, amide II, ratio of amide I to II, ?-helix, ?-sheet, ratio of ?-helix to ?-sheet). The results showed that autoclave heating significantly decreased (P < 0.05) but dry heating increased (P < 0.05) the ratio of protein ?-helix to ?-sheet (with the ratios of 1.07, 0.95, 1.10 for the control (raw), autoclave heating and dry heating, respectively). The multivariate molecular spectral analyses (PCA, CLA) showed that there were significantly molecular structural differences in the protein amide I and II fingerprint region (ca. 1714-1480 cm-1) among the control, autoclave and dry heating. These differences were indicated by the form of separate class (PCA) and group of separate ellipse (CLA) between the treatments. The correlation analysis with spearman method showed that there were significantly and highly positive correlation (P < 0.05) between heat-induced protein molecular structure changes in terms of ?-helix to ?-sheet ratios and in situ protein degradation and significantly negative correlation between the protein ?-helix to ?-sheet ratios and intestinal digestibility of undegraded protein. The results indicated that heat-induced changes of protein molecular structure revealed by vibration molecular spectroscopy could be used as a potential predictor to protein degradation and intestinal protein digestion of whole canola seed. Future study is needed to study response and impact of heat processing to each inherent layer of canola seed from outside to inside tissues and between yellow canola and brown canola.

  7. JOURNAL OF DISPLAY TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 2, NO. 2, JUNE 2006 143 Maximizing Alq3 OLED Internal and External

    E-print Network

    Heikenfeld, Jason

    JOURNAL OF DISPLAY TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 2, NO. 2, JUNE 2006 143 Maximizing Alq3 OLED Internal bright, efficient Alq3-based [tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum] organic light-emitting diode (OLED (polymer/small molecule) OLED structure contains two spin-coated polymer layers and four thermally

  8. Synchrotron-based soft X-ray spectroscopic studies of the electronic structure of organic semiconducting molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demasi, Alexander

    Organic molecules have been the subject of many scientific studies due to their potential for use in a new generation of optoelectronic and semiconducting devices, such as organic photovoltaics and organic light emitting diodes. These studies are motivated by the fact that organic semiconductor devices have several advantages over traditional inorganic semiconductor devices. Unlike inorganic semiconductors, where the electronic properties are a result of the deliberate introduction of dopants to the material, the properties of organic semiconductors are often intrinsic to the molecules themselves. As a result, organic semiconductor devices are frequently less susceptible to contamination by impurities than their inorganic counterparts, which results in the relatively lower cost of producing such devices. Accurate experimental determination of the bulk and surface electronic structure of organic semiconductors is a prerequisite in developing a comprehensive understanding of such materials. The organic materials studied in this thesis were N,N-Ethylene-bis(1,1,1trifluoropentane-2,4-dioneiminato)-copper(ii) (abbreviated Cu-TFAC), aluminum tris-8hydroxyquinoline (A1g3), lithium quinolate (Liq), tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ), and tetrafluorotetracyanoquinodimethane (F4TCNQ). The electronic structures of these materials were measured with several synchrotron-based x-ray spectroscopies. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy was used to measure the occupied total density of states and the core-level states of the aforementioned materials. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was used to probe the element-specific unoccupied partial density of states (PDOS); its angle-resolved variant was used to measure the orientation of the molecules in a film and, in some circumstances, to gauge the extent of an organic film's crystallinity. Most notably, x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) measures the element- specific occupied PDOS and, when aided by XAS, resonant XES can additionally be used to probe the electronic structure of individual atomic sites within a molecule. Most of the results in this thesis are accompanied by the results of electronic structure calculations determined with density functional theory (DFT). DFT is a useful aid in interpreting the results of the x-ray spectroscopies employed. The experimental results, combined with DFT calculations, provide a wealth of information regarding the electronic structures of these organic materials. v

  9. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    gas. This mixed gas was used to simulate a typical flue gas generated from the combustion of coal, and support from Manitowoc Public Utilities, Manitowoc, WI, is gratefully acknowledged. #12;-iii- TABLE

  10. Industrial - Utility Cogeneration Systems

    E-print Network

    Harkins, H. L.

    1979-01-01

    will be described in technical arrangement as well as including a discussion of financial approaches and ownership arrangements available to the parties involved. There is a considerable impetus developing for the utilization of coal as the energy source...

  11. Iraq and the utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Studness, C.M.

    1990-09-13

    This article discusses the possible impact on the public utilities of the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq. The author feels the industry is in better shape to weather this than the energy crisis of 1973 and 1974. However regulatory policies that prohibit some utilities from recovering fuel costs through rate adjustments may cause distress for some. The author feels that a revision of regulatory policies is needed.

  12. Utilities Inspection Technologies

    E-print Network

    Messock, R. K.

    , natural gas, steam, and hot water. Technologies include: ? Enhanced optical methods (infrared thermography, boroscopes, and fiberscopes) ? Acoustic emissions and vibration signature analysis ? Locating and quantifying methods (deep probe... description of each inspection technolo , and discusses particular applications within utilJ" systems. Utility systems considered include compressed air, natural gas, hot water, electrici , and steam. References used for this paper are provided at the end...

  13. HOMELESS SERVICE UTILIZATION REPORT

    E-print Network

    HOMELESS SERVICE UTILIZATION REPORT H A W A I ` I 2 0 11 #12;State 2007 2,136 2,201 2,204 2,069 2) Hawai`i, Kaua`i and Maui Counties 2 HOMELESS SERVICE UTILIZATION REPORT The 2011 Homeless Service of Hawai`i and the Homeless Programs Office of the Hawai`i State Department of Human Services (DHS

  14. Influence of anionic sulfonate-containing co-ligands on the solid structures of silver complexes supported by 4,4'-bipyridine bridges.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hua; Dong, Xian-Wu; Liu, Hai-Yan; Ma, Jian-Fang; Li, Shun-Li; Yang, Jin; Liu, Ying-Ying; Su, Zhong-Min

    2008-10-21

    In this paper, ten new silver compounds, namely [Ag(bipy)](L1).H2O (1), [Ag(bipy)](L2).2H2O (2), [Ag2(bipy)2(H2O)2](L3).H2O (3), [Ag(L4)(bipy)].H2O (4), [Ag(L5)(bipy)] (5), [Ag(L6)(bipy)].0.5CH3CN (6), [Ag3(L7)2(bipy)2].2(H2O) (7), [Ag2(L8)(bipy)1.5(H2O)].H2O (8), [Ag2(L9)(bipy)2(H2O)2] (9) and [Ag3(L10)(bipy)2][(bipy)(H2O)2].(H2O)3.5 (10) (where bipy = 4,4'-bipyridine, L1 = 6-amino-1-naphthalenesulfonate anion, L2 = 2-naphthalenesulfonate anion, L3 = sulfosalicylate anion, L4 = p-aminobenzenesulfonate anion, L5 = 4-dimethyaminoazobenzenen-4'-sulfonate anion, L6 = 2,5-dichloro-4-amino-benzenesulfonate anion, L7 = 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonate anion, L8 = 2-nitroso-1-naphthol-4-sulfonate anion, L9 = 2,6-naphthalenedisulfonate anion and L10 = 1,3,5-naphthalenetrisulfonate anion), have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. In compounds 1-6, Ag(I) centers are linked by bipy ligands to form 1D Ag-bipy chain structures, in which the sulfonate anions of compounds 1-3 act as counter ions. The sulfonate anions of compounds 4 and 5 connect Ag-bipy chains to form 1D double chain structures, respectively. The sulfonate anions of compound 6 connect Ag-bipy chains to form a 2D layer structure. Unexpectedly, compound 7 shows a hinged chain structure, and these chains interlace with each other through hydrogen bonds and pi-pi interactions to generate a 3D structure with channels along the c axis. Compounds 8 and 9 show 1D ladder-like structures. In compound 10, the Ag-bipy chains are connected by sulfonate anions to generate a 3D poly-threaded network, in which an isolated Ag-bipy chain is inserted. The results indicate that the anionic sulfonate-containing co-ligands play an important role in the final structures of the Ag(I) complexes. Additionally, the luminescent properties of these compounds were also studied. PMID:18827940

  15. Electromagnetic machines which utilize microgeometry field structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, S. C.; Wood, John E.

    1990-04-01

    The Microfield Project at the Center for Engineering Design was originally motivated by a quest to understand how to improve the performance of actuators in demanding applications such as robots and artificial limbs. It was determined that by making the internal interactive elements of the system (actuator) numerous, closely packed, and very small (on the order of one to ten microns), sizeable force outputs and power densities could be produced, with improvements in impedance characteristics over conventional actuators. A by-product of these studies was the generation of a number of very interesting spin-off applications for microelectromechanical systems in general, including mechanical sensors, optical devices, actuators, and chemical sensors. Thus, for the Microfield Project, multiple exploratory investigations, both experimental and analytical, were undertaken aimed at: (1) understanding important issues necessary for the systematic design, analysis, fabrication, and testing of micro electro-mechanical sensors and actuators, and (2) establishing the feasibility of various concepts.

  16. Utilizing Faceted Structures for Information Systems Design

    E-print Network

    Priss, Uta

    and Information Science, Indiana University Bloomington ABSTRACT Even for the experienced information professional will improve access, websites of three leading Library and Infor- mation Science [LIS] were examined, such as music librarianship, from this school? · 4) When does the Fall/Spring semester start? · 5) What journals

  17. Finding low-utility data structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guoqing Xu; Nick Mitchell; Matthew Arnold; Atanas Rountev; Edith Schonberg; Gary Sevitsky

    2010-01-01

    Many opportunities for easy, big-win, program optimizations are missed by compilers. This is especially true in highly layered Java applications. Often at the heart of these missed optimization opportunities lie computations that, with great expense, produce data values that have little impact on the program's final output. Constructing a new date formatter to format every date, or populating a large

  18. Introduction Direct logic structures utilize microring resonators

    E-print Network

    Chen, Ray

    logic operation. The fabrication processes involved are fully roll-to roll compatible, which can enable/NOR directed logic device based on silicon micro-ring resonators," Opt. Express 39(7) 1937-1940 (2014) [2] R filters employing series-cascaded double-ring resonators" Optics Communications 228 (2003) 91

  19. Utility requirements for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Vondrasek, R.J.

    1982-02-01

    This report describes work done and results obtained during performance of Task 1 of a study of Utility Requirements and Criteria for Fusion Options. The work consisted of developing a list of utility requirements for fusion optics containing definition of the requirements and showing their relative importance to the utility industry. The project team members developed a preliminary list which was refined by discussions and literature searches. The refined list was recast as a questionnaire which was sent to a substantial portion of the utility industry in this country. Forty-three questionnaire recipients responded including thirty-two utilities. A workshop was held to develop a revised requirements list using the survey responses as a major input. The list prepared by the workshop was further refined by a panel consisting of vice presidents of the three project team firms. The results of the study indicate that in addition to considering the cost of energy for a power plant, utilities consider twenty-three other requirements. Four of the requirements were judged to be vital to plant acceptability: Plant Capital Cost, Financial Liability, Plant Safety and Licensability.

  20. Structuralism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piaget, Jean

    Provided is an overview of the analytical method known as structuralism. The first chapter discusses the three key components of the concept of a structure: the view of a system as a whole instead of so many parts; the study of the transformations in the system; and the fact that these transformations never lead beyond the system but always…

  1. Sucrose-Utilizing Transglucosidases for Biocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, Isabelle; Potocki-Véronèse, Gabrielle; Morel, Sandrine; Monsan, Pierre; Remaud-Siméon, Magali

    Sucrose-utilizing transglucosidases are valued tools in chemistry to generate glycodiversification. Not only do these enzymes use as substrate an abundant agroresource, sucrose, but they also share a remarkable versatility regarding the acceptor substrate, allowing the structurally-controlled synthesis of diverse glucosylated products. Latest research has demonstrated the potential of enzyme engineering to tailor novel sucrose-utilizing transglucosidases that give access to original carbohydrate-based structures. This chapter gives an overview of the recent achievements in biocatalysis using these enzymes.

  2. Utility terrestrial biodiversity issues

    SciTech Connect

    Breece, G.A. [Southern Company, Atlanta, GA (United States); Ward, B.J. [Carolina Power and Light Company, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Results from a survey of power utility biologists indicate that terrestrial biodiversity is considered a major issued by only a few utilities; however, a majority believe it may be a future issue. Over half of the respondents indicated that their company is involved in some management for biodiversity, and nearly all feel that it should be a goal for resource management. Only a few utilities are funding biodiversity research, but a majority felt more research was needed. Generally, larger utilities with extensive land holdings had greater opportunities and resources for biodiversity management. Biodiversity will most likely be a concern with transmission rights-of-way construction and maintenance, endangered species issues and general land resource management, including mining reclamation and hydro relicensing commitments. Over half of the companies surveyed have established voluntary partnerships with management groups, and biodiversity is a goal in nearly all the joint projects. Endangered species management and protection, prevention of forest fragmentation, wetland protection, and habitat creation and protection are the most common partnerships involving utility companies. Common management practices and unique approaches are presented, along with details of the survey. 4 refs.

  3. Utilization management in toxicology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Kwong, Tai C

    2014-01-01

    Recent upward trends in the prevalence of abuse of prescription drugs and illicit substances have resulted in increased demands for toxicology testing to support the emergency department and drug treatment in pain management programs. This review will discuss the challenges faced by clinical laboratories to manage the utilization of toxicology tests, particularly those ordered in managing poisoned patients in the emergency department and chronic pain patients on opioid therapy. Optimal utilization of toxicology tests to support the emergency department relies on selecting the appropriate tests for the patient, and the availability of the results in a timely fashion. Two tiers of toxicology testing systems with different requirements for turnaround time will be discussed. In patients with chronic pain urine drug testing, including screening and confirmation testing are used extensively in pain management to monitor patient compliance. A thorough understanding of the performance characteristics of the test methodologies and drug metabolism is a key to making a proper analytical and clinical interpretation of the test results and will contribute to effective utilization of these tests. In addition, the reimbursement system is an important factor in the decision making process for test selection utilization as significant costs can be incurred by both payers and patients. Collaboration, trust, and effective communication among clinicians, patients, and clinical laboratory professionals are essential for effective utilization of toxicology testing. PMID:24091099

  4. Theoretical investigations of the structures and electronic spectra of 8-hydroxylquinoline derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Pan; Ren, Tiegang; Zhang, Yanxin; Zhang, Jinglai

    2013-11-01

    The spectroscopic properties of 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives are theoretically investigated by means of density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) methods. The target molecules are divided into two groups: group (I): (E)-2-(2-(3,5-dimethyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)vinyl)quinolin-8-ol (A), together with corresponding potential reaction products of A with acetic acid, i.e., (E)-2-(2-(3,5-dimethyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)vinyl)quinolin-8-yl acetate (AR1), and (E)-2-(2-(3,5-dimethyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)vinyl)-8-hydroxyquinolinium (AR2); group (II): (E)-2-(2-(1-(4-chlorophenyl)-3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)vinyl)quinolin-8-ol (B), as well as potential reaction products of B with acetic acid, i.e., (E)-2-(2-(1-(4-chlorophenyl)-3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)vinyl)quinolin-8-yl acetate (BR1), and (E)-2-(2-(1-(4-chlorophenyl)-3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)vinyl)-8-hydroxyquinolinium (BR2). The geometries are optimized by B3LYP and M06 methods. The results indicate that product molecules tend to be effectively planar compared with reactants. Subsequently, UV absorption spectra are simulated through TD-DFT method with PCM model to further confirm the reasonable products of two reactions. AR2 and BR2 are identified as the target molecules through the experimental spectra for the real products. It is worth noting that the maximum absorption wavelengths of compounds AR2 and BR2 present prominent red shift compared the initial reactants A and B, respectively, which should be ascribed to the enhancive planarity of products that mentioned above and the decreased HOMO-LUMO energy gap. Geometric structures and optical properties for corresponding compounds are discussed in detail.

  5. Utility View of Risk Assessment

    E-print Network

    Bickham, J.

    This paper will address a utility perspective in regard to risk assessment, reliability, and impact on the utility system. Discussions will also include the critical issues for utilities when contracting for energy and capacity from cogenerators...

  6. Environmental assessment and utilization CFB ash

    SciTech Connect

    Conn, R. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp. (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Landfill disposal has generally been accepted as the most common option for ash management in CFB power plants. However, the cost of ash disposal continues to increase due to a reduction in landfill capacity and more stringent environmental regulations. As a result, beneficial uses of CFB ashes (versus landfilling) are being investigated in order to provide a more cost effective ash management program. The chemical and physical characteristics of CFB by-products will influence both their environmental impact and potential utilization options. Compared to conventional pulverized coal boiler ashes, CFB ashes generally have different chemical properties which may limit their utilization for production of Portland cement. Other diverse utilization options have been identified for CFB residues which include: agricultural applications, structural fill, and waste stabilization. Most of these applications have to meet specifications by following certain test methods. The exact utilization options for CFB by-products will depend primarily on the type of fuel being fired, and to a lesser extent, the type of sorbent utilized for sulfur capture. Based on laboratory investigation of ash characteristics, utilization options were concluded for different Foster Wheeler commercial boilers throughout the US and abroad. Based on the results of this study, it was demonstrated that most CFB ashes could be utilized for one or more of the purposes noted above.

  7. Microbial Cellulose Utilization: Fundamentals and Biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Lynd, Lee R.; Weimer, Paul J.; van Zyl, Willem H.; Pretorius, Isak S.

    2002-01-01

    Fundamental features of microbial cellulose utilization are examined at successively higher levels of aggregation encompassing the structure and composition of cellulosic biomass, taxonomic diversity, cellulase enzyme systems, molecular biology of cellulase enzymes, physiology of cellulolytic microorganisms, ecological aspects of cellulase-degrading communities, and rate-limiting factors in nature. The methodological basis for studying microbial cellulose utilization is considered relative to quantification of cells and enzymes in the presence of solid substrates as well as apparatus and analysis for cellulose-grown continuous cultures. Quantitative description of cellulose hydrolysis is addressed with respect to adsorption of cellulase enzymes, rates of enzymatic hydrolysis, bioenergetics of microbial cellulose utilization, kinetics of microbial cellulose utilization, and contrasting features compared to soluble substrate kinetics. A biological perspective on processing cellulosic biomass is presented, including features of pretreated substrates and alternative process configurations. Organism development is considered for “consolidated bioprocessing” (CBP), in which the production of cellulolytic enzymes, hydrolysis of biomass, and fermentation of resulting sugars to desired products occur in one step. Two organism development strategies for CBP are examined: (i) improve product yield and tolerance in microorganisms able to utilize cellulose, or (ii) express a heterologous system for cellulose hydrolysis and utilization in microorganisms that exhibit high product yield and tolerance. A concluding discussion identifies unresolved issues pertaining to microbial cellulose utilization, suggests approaches by which such issues might be resolved, and contrasts a microbially oriented cellulose hydrolysis paradigm to the more conventional enzymatically oriented paradigm in both fundamental and applied contexts. PMID:12209002

  8. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    pulp and paper mills were included in concrete. The average length of wood micro-fibers from resistant to FT with the use of the wood micro-fibers from pulp and paper mills. It was concludedCenter for By-Products Utilization USE OF WOOD MICRO-FIBERS TO INCREASE FREEZING AND THAWING

  9. Utility spot pricing, California

    E-print Network

    Schweppe, Fred C.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of the present spot pricing study carried out for SCE and PG&E is to develop the concepts which wculd lead to an experimental design for spot pricing in the two utilities. The report suggests a set of experiments ...

  10. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    of these 5.5 million tons of Illinois coal combustion products are landfilled and/or ponded near the plant million tons). Illinois coal, when it is burned in conventional boilers, produces Class F, low-lime, fly ash. In general, utilization rate of Class F fly ash in U.S.A. is lower relative to Class C, high-lime

  11. Advanced fossil energy utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Shekhawat, D.; Berry, D.; Spivey, J.; Pennline, H.; Granite, E.

    2010-01-01

    This special issue of Fuel is a selection of papers presented at the symposium ‘Advanced Fossil Energy Utilization’ co-sponsored by the Fuels and Petrochemicals Division and Research and New Technology Committee in the 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) Spring National Meeting Tampa, FL, on April 26–30, 2009.

  12. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    fly ash (low-calcium) and Class C fly ash (high-calcium). Class F fly ash is produced from combustionCenter for By-Products Utilization MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE INCORPORATING HIGH-CALCIUM FLY #12;2 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE INCORPORATING HIGH-CALCIUM FLY ASH - A REVIEW By Tarun R. Naik

  13. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization DEICING SALT SCALING RESISTANCE OF HIGH-VOLUME FLY ASH CONCRETE of used foundry sand and fly ash in CLSM (Controlled Low Strength Materials), evaluation and development USING VARIOUS SOURCES OF FLY ASH By Tarun R. Naik, Shiw S. Singh, Rudolph N. Kraus, and Mohammad M

  14. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    interests are fiber-reinforced concrete, high-volume fly ash concrete, high-strength high including utilization of used foundry sand and fly ash in CLSM (Controlled Low Strength Materials OF CONCRETE INCORPORATING WOOD FLY ASH By Tarun R. Naik, Rafat Siddique, and Rudolph N. Kraus Report No. CBU

  15. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    was proposed as the first of a two-phase project to test high-carbon fly ash as a component of Controlled Low Using High Carbon Fly Ash and Concrete By Rudolph N. Kraus, Tarun R. Naik, and David Yu Report No. CBU High Carbon Fly Ash By Rudolph N. Kraus Center for By-Products Utilization University of Wisconsin

  16. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    -setting times were relatively unaffected at low-percentage replacement of cement with Class C fly ash, although-entraining admixture (AEA), concrete, fly ash, gypsum, high-range water-reducing admixture (HRWRA), paste, retarderCenter for By-Products Utilization INFLUENCE OF FLY ASH AND CHEMICAL ADMIXTURES ON THE SETTING TIME

  17. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    of A SCE. #12;Presently, however, Class C (high calcium) fly ash, which is produced by burning low- sulfurCenter for By-Products Utilization HIGH-STRENGTH CONCRETE CONTAINING LARGE QUANTITIES OF FLY ASH research performed to identify and recommend mix designs for high fly ash content 3OW and 4000 psi (21

  18. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    . Therefore, in order to produce a good quality of low-cost concretes, addition of fly ash appear for obtaining adequate resistance to freezing and thawing actions if concrete has high strength and lowCenter for By-Products Utilization EFFECTS OF AIR CONTENT AND FLY ASH ON PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE

  19. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    of feasibility of using high-carbon fly ash in manufacturing electrically conductive controlled low- strengthCenter for By-Products Utilization USE OF HIGH-CARBON FLY ASH IN MANUFACTURING CONDUCTIVE CLSM THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN ­ MILWAUKEE #12;1 Use of High-Carbon Fly Ash in Manufacturing Conductive CLSM

  20. Utilities. [univac computer programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colquitt, W. N.

    1976-01-01

    Several sets of related Adage utility programs are described. A general description of the software group, instructions on how to use the programs, and a programmers description of the theory of operation are given along with a printed example of the program in use and a listing of the program.

  1. Electric utility restructuring

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, L. [Illinois Power Company, Decatur, IL (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses some of the changes that are happening in the electric utility industry. Lots of words like utility restructuring, competition, deregulation, open access and regulatory reform are being bandied about all over the country in discussions concerning the future of the electric utility industry. What does all this mean, and what does it mean for the coal industry? The author outlines the major changes which have impacted the electric utility industry in the past ten years, which include the impact of the clean air act and movement toward deregulation. Both of these efforts have had economic impacts on the coal industry. For coal fired power plants 70% of the cost of operation can be tied up in the cost of coal, therefore there are tremendous pressures on the economic aspects of purchasing this resource. The future is sure to bring major changes in the way electric power is marketed, and moved from source to customer, and these forces are sure to apply pressure to the way the coal industry does its daily business.

  2. Technology utilization program report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The application of aerospace technology to the solution of public health and industrial problems is reported. Data cover: (1) development of an externally rechargeable cardiac pacemaker, (2) utilization of ferrofluids-colloidal suspensions of ferrite particles - in the efficient separation of nonferrous metals as Ni, Zn, Cu, and Al from shredded automobile scrap, and (3) development of a breathing system for fire fighters.

  3. Classroom Use and Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Ira

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how classrooms are distributed by size on a campus, how well they are used, and how their use changes with faculty and student needs and desires. Details how to analyze classroom space, use, and utilization, taking into account such factors as scheduling and classroom stations. (EV)

  4. MAG. Mag Tape Utility

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Charles; Newman, Gerald K. (Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States))

    1986-07-13

    MAG is a general-purpose tape utility program which runs on any Digital Equipment Corporation VAX computer system and can write and read fixed-block, fixed-record magnetic tapes. In addition, MAG can read tapes written using ANSI standard record format as well as the IBM Variable Blocked format. Translation from ASCII to EBCDIC and vice versa can be performed.

  5. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    and construction demonstration and cost/benefit analysis of using wood ash in concrete and CLSM. Significant/benefit analysis of using wood ash in concrete and CLSM was carried out. Calculations revealed that each year UTILIZING WOOD ASH FROM WISCONSIN By Tarun R. Naik, Rudolph N. Kraus, and Rafat Siddique Report No. CBU-2003

  6. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON HIGH-PERFORMANCE CONCRETE By Tarun R and Applied Science THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN -MILWAUKEE #12;1 Temperature Effects On High, to simulate hot weather curing. Tests were conducted to study the influence of temperature on compressive

  7. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    the effects of temperature on the strength and durability of high-performance concrete (HPC) systems. TwoCenter for By-Products Utilization BEHAVIOR OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE CONCRETE IN SUMMER WEATHER By TarunNatural Pozzolans, March 14-19, 1999, Chicago, IL. Department of Civil Engineering and Mechanics College

  8. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND FLY ASH ON BEHAVIOR OF HIGH THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN - MILWAUKEE #12;EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND FLY ASH ON BEHAVIOR OF HIGH, to simulate hot weather curing. Tests were conducted to study the influence of temperature on compressive

  9. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    , and other organic matter generate CO2. Oil or coal burning power plants and cement producing industries of organic materials (e.g., wood, coal, oil, and other fuels), or by human and animal metabolism (respiration) in which oxygen is utilized and CO2 is given off as an end-product [1]. Also, dead animals, plants

  10. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization GLASS AS AGGREGATES IN FLOWABLE CONCRETE WITH FLY ASH By Tarun R be banned from landfills. INTRODUCTION Approximately 170,000 tons of glass by-products are generated each to the ACI, March 2001. Department of Civil Engineering and Mechanics College of Engineering and Applied

  11. Administrative Utility Analysis: Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co., San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    Appendixes to a study on administrative utility analysis and vocational education programs for the Area of Vocational and Technical Education (AVTE) in the Puerto Rico Department of Education contain the planning and budgeting system elements, position descriptions, and information on the growth of vocational education in Puerto Rico. The elements…

  12. Utility weatherization programs

    SciTech Connect

    Kier, P.H.

    1984-01-01

    Public utility commissions (PUCs) have recently ordered or approved an increasing number of programs that install weatherization measures in residences. These programs tend to install only low-cost weatherization measures (e.g., caulking, weatherstripping, plastic storm windows, door sweeps) or major weatherization measures (e.g., insulation, storm windows, storm doors). When a program does not have income restrictions for eligibility, part of the costs are paid by the participating customer. For programs that install low-cost measures, the participant usually pays at the time of installation for the measures chosen. To require payment for major weatherization measures at the time of installation could deter participation, so these programs usually provide loans with the interest subsidized by the sponsor. Low-income customers, who have little or no disposable income, tend to shun Residential Conservation Service, loan, and other utility conservation programs that have costs to participants. Therefore PUCs have turned to programs that install weatherization measures without charge in order to reach low-income customers. This paper discusses some of the regulatory issues raised by these programs and how they have been justified by PUCs. It also gives information on cost and energy savings for 10 weatherization programs, both utility-sponsored and non-utility-sponsored, and attempts to interpret this information.

  13. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization RECYCLING OF RESIDUAL SOLIDS FROM WISCONSIN PULP AND PAPER Sheet for 2004-2005 Funding Request Project Title Recycling of Residual Solids from Wisconsin Pulp and paper mill residual solids; and to study the technical, economical, and performance benefits of using

  14. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    , bottom ash, boiler slag, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) products from pulverized coal and advanced slag were produced in the world in 1989, only 90 Mt of this (16% of the total) was utilized [1, 2]. In 1992, based on available data, over 370 Mt of fly ash and 90 Mt of bottom ash and boiler slag were

  15. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    and Slag in Concrete and other Construction Materials, October 21, 1993, Milwaukee River Hilton Inn, Milwaukee, WI. (2) Second Workshop on Utilization of Used Foundry and Slag in Concrete and Other of Used Foundry Sand and Slag in Concrete and Other Construction Materials, October 18, 1996, Milwaukee

  16. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    (slag) produced from coal-fired power plants increases yearly along with the development and huge demand for Fly Ash and Slag Production in China from 1979 to 1988 (unit: Millions of tons) ` Lihua Wei, Research ash and slag in China from 1979 to 1988 [1]. Fig. 1. Total Production and Utilization of Fly Ash

  17. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    the use of fly ash as a raw material for metal recovery, filler for metal matrix composites, polymer International Conference onFly Ash Disposal and Utilization,onJanuary 20-22, 1998, New Delhi, India. COAL ASH substances solidify to form predominately #12;spherical particles which are called fly ash. The remaining

  18. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    .P.----superplasticizer R.W.R.---retarding water-reducer Fly ash: its chemical compositions and physical propertiesCenter for By-Products Utilization THE USE OF FLY ASH IN PUMPABLE MASS CONCRETE By Tarun R. Naik and Dean M. Golden, "The Use of Fly Ash in Pumpable Mass Concrete Department of Civil Engineering

  19. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    By Tarun R. Naik, Shiw S. Singh, Calvin O. Huber, and Brian S. Brodersen CBU-1996-01 REP-251 December 1994-Products Utilization Calvin O. Huber Professor, Department of Chemistry and Laboratory for Surface Studies and Brian S in the country. Cement-based materials are inherently brittle in nature and have low fracture toughness due

  20. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization CHARACTERIZATION OF MARBLE POWDER FOR ITS USE IN MORTAR #12;Characterization of Marble Powder for its Use in Mortar and Concrete By Valeria Corinaldesi, Giacomo Moriconi, and Tarun R. Naik Synopsis: A powder obtained as a by-product of marble sawing

  1. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    resistance. The Series 3 investigation consisted of four separate studies (study 3A, 3B, 3C, and 3D) which. Hossain Report No. REP-250 December 1994 Department of Civil Engineering and Mechanics College Research Associate, Center for By-Products Utilization Department of Civil Engineering and Mechanics

  2. Readability: Computer Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felsenthal, Helen

    Textual Analysis of Language Samples (TEXAN) is a computer program which can count a number of variables needed for use in readability formulas. Three studies which utilize TEXAN are reported in this paper: (1) In 1972, Norman and Helen Felsenthal randomly selected 20 books from the 1306 in Eakin's "Good Books for Children" and calculated their…

  3. Debating Clinical Utility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Burke; A.-M. Laberge

    2010-01-01

    The clinical utility of genetic tests is determined by the outcomes following test use. Like other measures of value, it is often contested. Stakeholders may have different views about benefits and risks and about the importance of social versus health outcomes. They also commonly disagree about the evidence needed to determine whether a test is effective in achieving a specific

  4. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization ABRASION RESISTANCE OF CONCRETE AS A FUNCTION OF INCLUSION THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN - MILWAUKEE #12;ABRASION RESISTANCE OF CONCRETE AS A FUNCTION OF INCLUSION OF FLY ASH of temperature and fly ash addition on concrete strength and abrasion resistance under simulated hot weather

  5. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization EFFECT OF SOURCE OF FLY ASH ON ABRASION RESISTANCE OF CONCRETE-MILWAUKEE #12;2 EFFECT OF SOURCE OF FLY ASH ON ABRASION RESISTANCE OF CONCRETE By Tarun R. Naik, Shiw S. Singh and amount of fly ash on abrasion resistance of concrete. A reference concrete was proportioned to have a 28

  6. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization ABRASION RESISTANCE OF AIR-ENTRAINED CONCRETE MADE WITH VARIOUS OF WISCONSIN - MILWAUKEE #12;ABRASION RESISTANCE OF AIR-ENTRAINED CONCRETE MADE WITH VARIOUS SOURCES OF FLY ASH the effects of the source and amount of fly ash on abrasion resistance of concrete. A reference concrete

  7. Helping Utilities Make Smart Solar Decisions Utility Barriers

    E-print Network

    Homes, Christopher C.

    Purchases 14Helping Utilities Make Smart Solar Decisions Energy Purchases Financing #12;Utility Financing Solar DecisionsSource: SEPA 2010 1,717 MW of utility scale solar or 63 % · Nevada & New Mexico 659 MWSource: SEPA 2010 · Rapidly growing market with new focus on utilities · Larger project sizes drive economies

  8. Distillers Grains: Production, Properties and Utilization (Book)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The book, Distillers Grains: Production, Properties and Utilization, brings together cutting edge information on many aspects of DDGS. It consists of six major sections, having 26 chapters in total. Section 1 has six chapters and covers introduction, perspectives, history, structure and compositio...

  9. NASA's Technology Utilization Program.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, C. F.

    1972-01-01

    NASA's Technology Utilization Program is described, illustrating how it can be useful in achieving improved productivity, providing more jobs, solving public sector challenges, and strengthening the international competitive situation. Underlying the program is the fact that research and development conducted in NASA's aeronautics and space programs have generated much technical information concerning processes, products, or techniques which may be useful to engineers, doctors, or to others. The program is based on acquisition and publication, working with the user, and applications engineering.

  10. Seasat data utilization project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Born, G. H.; Held, D. N.; Lame, D. B.; Lipes, R. G.; Montgomery, D. R.; Rygh, P. J.; Scott, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    During the three months of orbital operations, the satellite returned data from the world's oceans. Dozens of tropical storms, hurricanes and typhoons were observed, and two planned major intensive surface truth experiments were conducted. The utility of the Seasat-A microwave sensors as oceanographic tools was determined. Sensor and geophysical evaluations are discussed, including surface observations, and evaluation summaries of an altimeter, a scatterometer, a scanning multichannel microwave radiometer, a synthetic aperture radar, and a visible and infrared radiometer.

  11. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    FLY ASH By Tarun R. Naik and Rudolph N. Kraus Report No. CBU-2002-31 REP-483 November 2002 Submitted 11.1 11.3 93.1 93.011.6 92.8 11.3 93.0 Table 2: Specific Gravity of Biron Ash (ASTM C 311/C 188) Fly-EVALUATION CHEMICAL COMPOSITION #12;UWM Center for By-Products Utilization Table 5: Mineralogy of Biron Ash MINERALOGY

  12. European utility fuel procurement

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The article describes the major factors affecting the procurement strategies of European nuclear utilities for purchasing natural uranium, conversion services, and enrichment services. The role of the EURATOM Supply Agency in negotiating contracts for nuclear materials for the European Union is described. Bilateral agreements between the United States and EURATOM, and between the European Union and Russia are briefly outlined. National procurement strategies of Belgium, France, Germany, and Sweden are also discussed.

  13. Light duty utility arm

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Light-Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System is a mobile, multi-axis positioning system capable of deploying tools and sensors (end effecters) inside radioactive waste tanks for tank wall inspection, waste characterization, and waste retrieval. The LDUA robotic manipulator enters a tank through existing openings (risers) in the tank dome of the underground tanks. Using various end effecters, the LDUA System is a versatile system for high-level waste tank remediation. The LDUA System provides a means to deploy tools, while increasing the technology resources available to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Ongoing end effecter development will provide additional capabilities to remediate the waste tanks.

  14. Tribal Utility Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, R. A.; Zoellick, J. J.

    2007-06-30

    The Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) assisted the Yurok Tribe in investigating the feasibility of creating a permanent energy services program for the Tribe. The original purpose of the DOE grant that funded this project was to determine the feasibility of creating a full-blown Yurok Tribal electric utility to buy and sell electric power and own and maintain all electric power infrastructure on the Reservation. The original project consultant found this opportunity to be infeasible for the Tribe. When SERC took over as project consultant, we took a different approach. We explored opportunities for the Tribe to develop its own renewable energy resources for use on the Reservation and/or off-Reservation sales as a means of generating revenue for the Tribe. We also looked at ways the Tribe can provide energy services to its members and how to fund such efforts. We identified opportunities for the development of renewable energy resources and energy services on the Yurok Reservation that fall into five basic categories: • Demand-side management – This refers to efforts to reduce energy use through energy efficiency and conservation measures. • Off-grid, facility and household scale renewable energy systems – These systems can provide electricity to individual homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not currently have access to the electric utility grid. • Village scale, micro-grid renewable energy systems - These are larger scale systems that can provide electricity to interconnected groups of homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not have access to the conventional electric grid. This will require the development of miniature electric grids to serve these interconnected facilities. • Medium to large scale renewable energy development for sale to the grid – In areas where viable renewable energy resources exist and there is access to the conventional electric utility grid, these resources can be developed and sold to the wholesale electricity market. • Facility scale, net metered renewable energy systems – These are renewable energy systems that provide power to individual households or facilities that are connected to conventional electric utility grid.

  15. Lunar construction utility vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The lunar construction utility vehicle (LCUV) is an all-purpose construction vehicle which will aid in the robotic assembly of a lunar outpost. The LCUV will have the following capabilities: (1) must be self supporting including repairs; (2) must offload itself from a lunar lander; (3) must be telerobotic and semi-autonomous; (4) must be able to transport one space station common module; (5) must allow for man-rated operation; and (6) must be able to move lunar regolith for site preparation. This study recommends the use of an elastic tracked vehicle. Detailed material analyses of most of the LCUV components were accomplished. The body frame, made of pinned truss elements, was stress analyzed using NASTRAN. A track connection system was developed; however, kinematic and stress analyses are still required. This design recommends the use of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells for power. Thermal control has proven to be a problem which may be the most challenging technically. A tentative solution has been proposed which utilizes an onboard and towable radiator. Detailed study of the heat dissipation requirements is needed to finalize radiator sizing. Preliminary work on a man-rated cabin has begun; however, this is not required during the first mission phase of the LCUV. Finally, still in the conceptual phases, are the communication, navigation and mechanical arm systems.

  16. Cost-utility analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, R

    1993-01-01

    Decisions have to be made about allocating health resources. Currently the best economic evaluation method for doing this is cost-utility analysis. This compares the costs of different procedures with their outcomes measured in "utility based" units--that is, units that relate to a person's level of wellbeing. The most commonly used unit is the quality adjusted life year (QALY). QALYs are calculated by estimating the total life years gained from a procedure and weighting each year to reflect the quality of life in that year. To compare outcomes of different programmes the Rosser index is one measure that is widely used to assign quality of life scores to patients. Combined with a measure of life years gained from a procedure, this enables QALYs to be calculated and procedures ranked according to cost per QALY gained. In this article Ray Robinson explains the measures used and discusses how QALY league tables can be used to guide decisions on resource allocation. Images p862-a PMID:8401133

  17. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    of four separate studies (Study 3A, 3B, 3C, and 3D) which involved mixtures incorporating Class C of Materials and Structures, Paris, France Department of Civil Engineering and Mechanics College of Engineering

  18. Cogeneration: The Need for Utility-Industry Cooperation

    E-print Network

    Limaye, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    benefits may therefore be derived from cooperative cogeneration ventures among utilities and industrial firms. Many different organizational and financial arrangements can be structured, including third party financing. The, paper will briefly discuss...

  19. Alloyed steel wastes utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Sokol, I.V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Khabarovsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Materials

    1995-12-31

    Alloyed steel chips and swarf formed during metal processing are looked upon as additional raw materials in metallurgical production. This paper presents some new methods for steel waste chips and swarf cleaning. One of them is swarf and steel chips cleaning in tetrachloroethylene with ultrasonic assistance and solvent regeneration. Thermal cleaning of waste chips and swarf provides off gas products utilization. The catalyst influence of the metal surface on the thermal decomposition of liquid hydrocarbons during the cleaning process has been studied. It has been determined that the efficiency of this metal waste cleaning technique depends on the storage time of the swarf. The waste chips and swarf cleaning procedures have been proven to be economically advantageous and environmentally appropriate.

  20. National Utility Rate Database: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, S.; McKeel, R.

    2012-08-01

    When modeling solar energy technologies and other distributed energy systems, using high-quality expansive electricity rates is essential. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a utility rate platform for entering, storing, updating, and accessing a large collection of utility rates from around the United States. This utility rate platform lives on the Open Energy Information (OpenEI) website, OpenEI.org, allowing the data to be programmatically accessed from a web browser, using an application programming interface (API). The semantic-based utility rate platform currently has record of 1,885 utility rates and covers over 85% of the electricity consumption in the United States.

  1. Leak detection utilizing analog binaural (VLSI) techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T. (inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A detection method and system utilizing silicon models of the traveling wave structure of the human cochlea to spatially and temporally locate a specific sound source in the presence of high noise pandemonium. The detection system combines two-dimensional stereausis representations, which are output by at least three VLSI binaural hearing chips, to generate a three-dimensional stereausis representation including both binaural and spectral information which is then used to locate the sound source.

  2. Leak detection utilizing analog binaural (VLSI) techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartley, Frank T.

    1995-06-01

    A detection method and system utilizing silicon models of the traveling wave structure of the human cochlea to spatially and temporally locate a specific sound source in the presence of high noise pandemonium. The detection system combines two-dimensional stereausis representations, which are output by at least three VLSI binaural hearing chips, to generate a three-dimensional stereausis representation including both binaural and spectral information which is then used to locate the sound source.

  3. Leak detection utilizing analog binaural (VLSI) techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartley, Frank T.

    1993-08-01

    A detection method and system utilizing silicon models of the traveling wave structure of the human cochlea to spatially and temporally locate a specific sound source in the presence of high noise pandemonium is presented. The detection system combines two-dimensional stereausis representations, which are output by at least three VLSI binaural hearing chips, to generate a three-dimensional stereausis representation including both binaural and spectral information which is then used to locate the sound source.

  4. Administrative Utility Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co., San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    Puerto Rico's economic growth has accentuated the need for a larger vocational education program capable of handling the demand for occupationally-trained personnel. The Area of Vocational and Technical Education (AVTE) operates within the general structure of the Puerto Rico Department of Education, and AVTE programs must be adapted to the growth…

  5. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    composition of fly ash and its performance in concrete. Physical properties of a fly ash, especially fineness OF CLASS C FLY ASH By Tarun R. Naik and Shiw S. Singh Report No. CBU-1991-10 August 1991 Department ­ MILWAUKEE #12;SUPERPLASTICIZED STRUCTURAL CONCRETE CONTMNING HIGH VOLUMES OF CLASS C FLY ASH By Tarun R

  6. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    ;INTRODUCTION Over the years, a large number of underground storage tanks (USTs) as well as above ground storage not adequately designed, installed, and maintained to avoid leakage. Consequently, a significant number, hexane and octane. Aromatic compounds are composed of carbon molecular ring structures. These compounds

  7. By-Products Utilization

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    external or internal vibration or rodding, but flows and becomes compacted under its self-weight. The use construction. This project was conducted to provide the ready-mixed concrete and precast/prestressed concrete and reconstruction from deteriorating concrete bridges, pavements, and structures. Wisconsin industry and taxpayers

  8. YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2004-11-01

    This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover, and switchgrass--and Wyoming subbituminous coal were acquired for combustion tests in the 3-million-Btu/hr system. Blend levels were 20% biomass--80% coal on a heat basis. Hog fuel was prepared for the upcoming combustion test by air-drying and processing through a hammer mill and screen. A K-Tron biomass feeder capable of operating in both gravimetric and volumetric modes was selected as the HITAF feed system. Two oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys that would be used in the HITAF high-temperature heat exchanger were tested for slag corrosion rates. An alumina layer formed on one particular alloy, which was more corrosion-resistant than a chromia layer that formed on the other alloy. Research activities were completed in the development of an atmospheric pressure, fluidized-bed pyrolysis-type system called the controlled spontaneous reactor (CSR), which is used to process and condition biomass. Tree trimmings were physically and chemically altered by the CSR process, resulting in a fuel that was very suitable for feeding into a coal combustion or gasification system with little or no feed system modifications required. Experimental procedures were successful for producing hydrogen from biomass using the bacteria Thermotoga, a deep-ocean thermal vent organism. Analytical procedures for hydrogen were evaluated, a gas chromatography (GC) method was derived for measuring hydrogen yields, and adaptation culturing and protocols for mutagenesis were initiated to better develop strains that can use biomass cellulose. Fly ash derived from cofiring coal with waste paper, sunflower hulls, and wood waste showed a broad spectrum of chemical and physical characteristics, according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C618 procedures. Higher-than-normal levels of magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxide were observed for the biomass-coal fly ash, which may impact utilization in cement replacement in concrete under ASTM requirements. Other niche markets for biomass-derived fly ash were explored. Research was conducted to develop/optimize a catalytic partial oxidation-based concept for a simple, low-cost fuel processor (reformer). Work progressed to evaluate the effects of temperature and denaturant on ethanol catalytic partial oxidation. A catalyst was isolated that had a yield of 24 mole percent, with catalyst coking limited to less than 15% over a period of 2 hours. In biodiesel research, conversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel using an alternative alkaline catalyst was demonstrated without the need for subsequent water washing. In work related to biorefinery technologies, a continuous-flow reactor was used to react ethanol with lactic acid prepared from an ammonium lactate concentrate produced in fermentations conducted at the EERC. Good yields of ester were obtained even though the concentration of lactic acid in the feed was low with respect to the amount of water present. Esterification gave lower yields of ester, owing to the lowered lactic acid content of the feed. All lactic acid fermentation from amylose hydrolysate test trials was completed. Management activities included a decision to extend several projects to December 31, 2003, because of delays in receiving biomass feedstocks for testing and acquisition of commercial matching funds. In strategic studies, methods for producing acetate esters for high-value fibers, fuel additives, solvents, and chemical intermediates were discussed with several commercial entities. Commercial industries have an interest in efficient biomass gasification designs but are waiting for economic incentives. Utility, biorefinery, pulp and paper, or o

  9. Nanomaterial enabled laser transfer for organic light emitting material direct writing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seung H. Ko; Heng Pan; Sang G. Ryu; Nipun Misra; Costas. P. Grigoropoulos; Hee K. Park

    2008-01-01

    Organic light emitting material direct writing is demonstrated based on nanomaterial enabled laser transfer. Through utilization of proper nanoparticle size and type and the laser wavelength choice, a single laser pulse could transfer well-defined and arbitrarily shaped tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)Al patterns ranging from several microns to millimeter size. The unique properties of nanomaterials allow laser induced forward transfer at low laser energy

  10. Supplier Selection Using Weighted Utility Additive Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karande, Prasad; Chakraborty, Shankar

    2015-02-01

    Supplier selection is a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem which mainly involves evaluating a number of available suppliers according to a set of common criteria for choosing the best one to meet the organizational needs. For any manufacturing or service organization, selecting the right upstream suppliers is a key success factor that will significantly reduce purchasing cost, increase downstream customer satisfaction and improve competitive ability. The past researchers have attempted to solve the supplier selection problem employing different MCDM techniques which involve active participation of the decision makers in the decision-making process. This paper deals with the application of weighted utility additive (WUTA) method for solving supplier selection problems. The WUTA method, an extension of utility additive approach, is based on ordinal regression and consists of building a piece-wise linear additive decision model from a preference structure using linear programming (LP). It adopts preference disaggregation principle and addresses the decision-making activities through operational models which need implicit preferences in the form of a preorder of reference alternatives or a subset of these alternatives present in the process. The preferential preorder provided by the decision maker is used as a restriction of a LP problem, which has its own objective function, minimization of the sum of the errors associated with the ranking of each alternative. Based on a given reference ranking of alternatives, one or more additive utility functions are derived. Using these utility functions, the weighted utilities for individual criterion values are combined into an overall weighted utility for a given alternative. It is observed that WUTA method, having a sound mathematical background, can provide accurate ranking to the candidate suppliers and choose the best one to fulfill the organizational requirements. Two real time examples are illustrated to prove its applicability and appropriateness in solving supplier selection problems.

  11. Facile and green fabrication of organic single-crystal hollow micro/nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun; Chen, Yingzhi; Zhang, Xiujuan; Ou, Xuemei; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2011-07-01

    Under high humidity and appropriate temperature, tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) solid micro/nanostructures may be etched into hollow structures and still retain their crystalline structures and surface morphologies. The shapes and sizes of the hollow structures are easily adjusted by varying the experimental parameters. Throughout the entire process, water is introduced into the system instead of organic or corrosive solvents, making this method convenient and environmentally friendly; it can also be extended to application in other materials such as TCNQ.

  12. Utility solar water heating workshops

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, L.B. [Barrett Consulting Associates, Inc., Colorado Springs, CO (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this project was to explore the problems and opportunities for utility participation with solar water heating as a DSM measure. Expected benefits from the workshops included an increased awareness and interest by utilities in solar water heating as well as greater understanding by federal research and policy officials of utility perspectives for purposes of planning and programming. Ultimately, the project could result in better information transfer, increased implementation of solar water heating programs, greater penetration of solar systems, and more effective research projects. The objective of the workshops was satisfied. Each workshop succeeded in exploring the problems and opportunities for utility participation with solar water heating as a DSM option. The participants provided a range of ideas and suggestions regarding useful next steps for utilities and NREL. According to evaluations, the participants believed the workshops were very valuable, and they returned to their utilities with new information, ideas, and commitment.

  13. Utilities must do more communicating

    SciTech Connect

    Uhler, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    The dramatic changes within the electric-utility industry over the past decade require them to do a greater and more effective job of communicating with their customers. When the revenues and advertising burgets for investor-owned electric utilities over a six-year period are compared with the revenues and ad dollars of other large industries and selected companies, the discrepancy is apparent. The ad costs for just one brand of cigarette are three-fourths of all utility ad spending. The utilities need to use advertising to explain new service programs and rate strategies to the public. 3 figures.

  14. Acid rain & electric utilities II

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This document presents reports which were presented at the Acid Rain and Electric Utilities Conference. Topics include environmental issues and electric utilities; acid rain program overview; global climate change and carbon dioxide; emissions data management; compliance; emissions control; allowance and trading; nitrogen oxides; and assessment. Individual reports have been processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

  15. Methods of Estimating Additive Utilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter C. Fishburn

    1967-01-01

    Additive utility formulations for risky and nonrisky multiple-factor decision situations are reviewed. Twenty-four methods of estimating additive utilities are listed and classified. References to the theory and technique of each method are given along with a short discussion of each. A number of examples are used to illustrate the methods.

  16. Xylose utilization in recombinant zymomonas

    DOEpatents

    Caimi, Perry G; McCole, Laura; Tao, Luan; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Viitanen, Paul V

    2014-03-25

    Xylose-utilizing Zymomonas strains studied were found to accumulate ribulose when grown in xylose-containing media. Engineering these strains to increase ribose-5-phosphate isomerase activity led to reduced ribulose accumulation, improved growth, improved xylose utilization, and increased ethanol production.

  17. Subjective expected utility: A review of normative theories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter C. Fishburn

    1981-01-01

    This paper reviews theories of subjective expected utility for decision making under uncertainty. It focuses on normative interpretations and discusses the primitives, axioms and representation-uniqueness theorems for a number of theories. Similarities and differences among the various theories are highlighted. The interplay between realistic decision structures and structural axioms that facilitate mathematical derivations is also emphasized.

  18. Cost Avoidance vs. Utility Bill Accounting - Explaining theDiscrepancy Between Guaranteed Savings in ESPC Projects and UtilityBills

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, S.; Sartor, D.

    2005-08-15

    Federal agencies often ask if Energy Savings PerformanceContracts (ESPCs) result in the energy and cost savings projected duringthe project development phase. After investing in ESPCs, federal agenciesexpect a reduction in the total energy use and energy cost at the agencylevel. Such questions about the program are common when implementing anESPC project. But is this a fair or accurate perception? Moreimportantly, should the federal agencies evaluate the success or failureof ESPCs by comparing the utility costs before and after projectimplementation?In fact, ESPC contracts employ measurement andverification (M&V) protocols to measure and ensure kilowatt-hour orBTU savings at the project level. In most cases, the translation toenergy cost savings is not based on actual utility rate structure, but acontracted utility rate that takes the existing utility rate at the timethe contract is signed with a clause to escalate the utility rate by afixed percentage for the duration of the contract. Reporting mechanisms,which advertise these savings in dollars, may imply an impact to budgetsat a much higher level depending on actual utility rate structure. FEMPhas prepared the following analysis to explain why the utility billreduction may not materialize, demonstrate its larger implication onagency s energy reduction goals, and advocate setting the rightexpectations at the outset to preempt the often asked question why I amnot seeing the savings in my utility bill?

  19. Identifying and managing inappropriate hospital utilization: a policy synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Payne, S M

    1987-01-01

    Utilization review, the assessment of the appropriateness and efficiency of hospital care through review of the medical record, and utilization management, deliberate action by payers or hospital administrators to influence providers of hospital services to increase the efficiency and effectiveness with which services are provided, are valuable but relatively unfamiliar strategies for containing hospital costs. The purpose of this synthesis is to increase awareness of the scope of and potential for these approaches among health services managers and administrators, third-party payers, policy analysts, and health services researchers. The synthesis will assist the reader to trace the conceptual context and the historical development of utilization review from unstructured methods using individual physicians' professional judgment to structured methods using explicit criteria; to establish the context of utilization review and clarify its uses; to understand the concepts and tools used in assessing the efficiency of hospital use; and to select, design, and evaluate utilization review and utilization management programs. The extent of inappropriate (medical unnecessary) hospital utilization and the factors associated with it are described. Implications for managers, providers, and third-party payers in targeting utilization review and in designing and evaluating utilization management programs are discussed. PMID:3121538

  20. Morphology and photoluminescence properties of electrospun microfibers of poly(9-vinylcarbazole)/tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum and poly(9-vinylcarbazole)/4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, G. L.; Balderas, J. U.; Falcony, C.; Caro, R.; Salmerón-Quiroz, B. B.; Mondragón, M.

    2015-04-01

    Green fluorescent electrospun fibers of poly(9-vinylcarbazole) (PVK)/tris-(8-quinolinolato)aluminum (Alq3) and PVK/4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bphen) with widths on the micrometer scale were successfully obtained from solutions in dichloroethane (DCE). The concentration of the electron-transport molecules (Alq3 or Bphen) was from 0.5 to 60 (wt%). PVK/Alq3 fibers were thick and rough whereas PVK/Bphen fibers were thin and uniform; additionally, the electrospinnability of the solutions with Bphen was enhanced significantly. Studies of photoluminescence (PL) indicate an efficient energy transfer from PVK to Alq3 in electrospun PVK/Alq3 fibers. As for PVK/Bphen fibers, the consistent decrease of the broad PVK emission is mainly attributed to Bphen favoring the formation of fully overlapping, sandwich-like configurations in the PVK. The parallel decrease of the PLE spectra as Bphen increases corroborates the increment in excimer formation.

  1. Holding company schemes avoid regulators: utilities seek vehicle for excess cash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nogee

    2009-01-01

    The healthiest financial status in decades has burdened non-nuclear utilities with excess cash, and the industry is exploring new structures and definitions for its business in order to capitalize on gains. Utilities are chasing higher profits and escaping regulation by establishing holding companies. A Spring 1985 survey by the Edison Electric Institute showed that 86 of the 120 utilities surveyed

  2. The effect of regulation on the professionally managed utility

    SciTech Connect

    Czamanski, O.Z.

    1980-12-01

    Mixed empirical evidence concerning the A-J effect suggests that regulatory constraints affect utilities differently, depending upon their organizational structure. An important characteristic of firms is the concern for profits on the part of managements. This concern is related to the extent that management owns the firms' residual claims. In the case of many utilities, professional management means divorce of ownership from the firm's decision-making.

  3. Structural study of a Ag3.4In3.7Sb76.4Te16.5 quadruple compound utilized for phase-change optical disks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshiyuki Matsunaga; Yukihiro Umetani; Noboru Yamada

    2001-01-01

    The behavior of a quadruple compound, Ag3.4In3.7Sb76.4Te16.5, is investigated at various temperatures using the large Debye-Sherrer camera installed in BL02B2 at SPring-8, to elucidate its crystal structure. The low-temperature phase of this crystal has an A7 structure with atoms of Ag, In, Sb, or Te randomly occupying the 6(c) site in the R3¯m space group. The crystal lattice thermally expands

  4. Utilizing Kernelized Advection Schemes in Ocean Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadeh, N.; Balaji, V.

    2008-12-01

    There has been a recent effort in the ocean model community to use a set of generic FORTRAN library routines for advection of scalar tracers in the ocean. In a collaborative project called Hybrid Ocean Model Environement (HOME), vastly different advection schemes (space-differencing schemes for advection equation) become available to modelers in the form of subroutine calls (kernels). In this talk we explore the possibility of utilizing ESMF data structures in wrapping these kernels so that they can be readily used in ESMF gridded components.

  5. Energy Conservation Through Effective Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Charles A.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses various ways in which the demand for energy could be decreased, focusing not so much on discouraging demand by increasing prices, as on reducing energy consumption by improving efficiency of energy utilization in buildings and in industry. (JR)

  6. IDENTIFYING VULNERABLE SURFACE WATER UTILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to provide a mechanism and framework with which utility managers could analyze the effects of upstream discharges on source waters. Specific components of the project included selection, implementation, and demonstration of a microcomputer-based commerci...

  7. Photovoltaics: New opportunities for utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    This publication presents information on photovoltaics. The following topics are discussed: Residential Photovoltaics: The New England Experience Builds Confidence in PV; Austin's 300-kW Photovoltaic Power Station: Evaluating the Breakeven Costs; Residential Photovoltaics: The Lessons Learned; Photovoltaics for Electric Utility Use; Least-Cost Planning: The Environmental Link; Photovoltaics in the Distribution System; Photovoltaic Systems for the Rural Consumer; The Issues of Utility-Intertied Photovoltaics; and Photovoltaics for Large-Scale Use: Costs Ready to Drop Again.

  8. Enduring values of municipal utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Telly, C.S.; Grove, J.F.

    1981-05-01

    The value of municipal utilities is assessed in terms of their social responsibility, the political responsiveness of the owners, and pricing policy - issues which conflict with the traditional concept of corporate responsibility to the shareholder and which reveal a growing demand for accountability. Although municipal utilities are only a small part of the economic, legal, and political setting, they contribute as a small, locally-controlled natural monopoly to the American goals of democracy and self-determination. (DCK)

  9. Facilities Utilization Program Implementation Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This Facilities Utilization Program Implementation Handbook (FUPIH) prescribes procedures for the review and the reporting on the utilization of NASA facilities. The Directors of NASA Field Installations should designate an Installation Official responsible for coordinating the assignment of buildings space and implementing the facilities utilization reviews and annual report preparation. The individual designated shall be known as the 'Facilities Utilization Officer (FUO).' Functional responsibilities of the FUO are detailed in NASA Management Instruction (NMI) 7234.1. It is recognized that titles used in the implementation of the Facilities Utilization Program may vary between field installations. The Facilities Utilization Program (FUP) is designed to provide a uniform and orderly process for meeting or addressing the following objectives: the establishment of sound facilities requirements to meet NASA's programmatic and institutional needs; the optimum allocation of available facilities and related resources to meet these requirements; and the early identification and request for required additional facilities resources. The detailed review and reporting system enacted by NMI 7234.1 should encourage more comprehensive utilization planning for all NASA facilities and ensure, to the maximum extent practicable, that all such facilities are put to their highest and best use consistent with NASA programmatic and institutional priorities. A principal purpose of the FUP is the early identification of NASA facilities which may be or may become underutilized or excess to NASA needs and to provide a timely reference point from which corrective actions (i.e., consolidation, elimination of duplication, improved utilization of disposal) may be taken. Because the supply of this handbook is limited, distribution should be controlled at the field installation level.

  10. Utility values and diabetic retinopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melissa M Brown; Gary C Brown; Sanjay Sharma; Gaurav Shah

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE:To ascertain the utility values associated with diabetic retinopathy and varying degrees of visual loss.METHODS:One hundred consecutive patients with diabetic retinopathy and best-corrected visual acuity decreased to 20\\/40 or worse in at least one eye occurring primarily as a result of diabetic retinopathy were evaluated in a cross-sectional study. Utility values were ascertained in five groups using both the time

  11. Photovoltaics: New opportunities for utilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-07-01

    This publication presents information on photovoltaics. The following topics are discussed: residential photovoltaics- the New England experience builds confidence in PV; Austin's 300-kW Photovoltaic Power Station- evaluating the breakeven costs; residential photovoltaics- the lessons learned; photovoltaics for electric utility use; least-cost planning- the environmental link; photovoltaics in the distribution system; photovoltaic systems for the rural consumer; the issues of utility-intertied photovoltaics; and photovoltaics for large-scale use- costs ready to drop again.

  12. Special Section: The Value and Utility of Presence-Absence Data to Wildlife Monitoring and Research MODELING PATCH OCCUPANCY BY FOREST RODENTS: INCORPORATING DETECTABILITY AND SPATIAL AUTOCORRELATION WITH HIERARCHICALLY STRUCTURED DATA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JEFFREY E. MOORE; ROBERT K. SWIHART

    Widespread conversion of deciduous forests to agriculture in the midwestern United States has resulted in landscapes whose remaining native habitats are highly fragmented, with well-documented consequences for wildlife community structure. We analyzed trap data for 5 forest rodent species from 525 sites in 35 study land- scapes throughout the upper Wabash River basin, which is dominated by agricultural use and

  13. Utility of Remote Sensing, Robotic Precursor Data and a Focused Science Hypothesis for a Follow-On Human Exploration Lunar Analogue Mission at the Mistastin Lake (Kamestastin) Impact Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornabene, L. L.; Osinski, G. R.; Mader, M. M.; Chanou, A.; Francis, R.; Joliff, B. L.; Marion, C.; McCullough, E.; Pickersgill, A.; Sapers, H.; Souders, K.; Sylvester, P.; Young, K.; Zanetti, M.; Krash Operations; Science Team

    2012-03-01

    Here we summarize how remote sensing, robotic precursor data and a focused science hypothesis augmented the results from a lunar analogue mission to the Mistastin impact structure in Labrador, Canada. Join me as we go on a magical tour of this crater.

  14. Kinesthetic Structures

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dong, Kevin

    This paper describes how students are engaged in hands-on activities that reinforce complex engineering principles. In addition to utilizing chalk board examples for design and analysis problems, physical modeling, not necessarily traditional laboratory testing, is implemented to link engineering theory with building behavior. Students design, build, and learn how structures behave in three dimensions.

  15. Avian utilization of subsidence wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Nawrot, J.R.; Conley, P.S.; Smout, C.L. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Diverse and productive wetlands have resulted from coal mining in the midwest. The trend from surface to underground mining has increased the potential for subsidence. Planned subsidence of longwall mining areas provides increased opportunities for wetland habitat establishment. Planned subsidence over a 180 meter (590 foot) deep longwall mine in southern Illinois during 1984 to 1986 produced three subsidence wetlands totaling 15 hectares (38 acres). The resulting palustrine emergent wetlands enhanced habitat diversity within the surrounding palustrine forested unsubsided area. Habitat assessments and evaluations of avian utilization of the subsidence wetlands were conducted during February 1990 through October 1991. Avian utilization was greatest within the subsided wetlands. Fifty-three bird species representing seven foraging guilds utilized the subsidence wetlands. Wading/fishing, dabbling waterfowl, and insectivorous avian guilds dominated the subsidence wetlands. The subsidence wetlands represented ideal habitat for wood ducks and great blue herons which utilized snags adjacent to and within the wetlands for nesting (19 great blue heron nests produced 25 young). Dense cover and a rich supply of macroinvertebrates provide excellent brood habitat for wood ducks, while herpetofauna and ichthyofauna provided abundant forage in shallow water zones for great blue herons and other wetland wading birds. The diversity of game and non-game avifauna utilizing the subsidence areas demonstrated the unique value of these wetlands. Preplanned subsidence wetlands can help mitigate loss of wetland habitats in the midwest.

  16. Energy Efficiency and Electric Utilities

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    The report is an overview of electric energy efficiency programs. It takes a concise look at what states are doing to encourage energy efficiency and how it impacts electric utilities. Energy efficiency programs began to be offered by utilities as a response to the energy crises of the 1970s. These regulatory-driven programs peaked in the early-1990s and then tapered off as deregulation took hold. Today, rising electricity prices, environmental concerns, and national security issues have renewed interest in increasing energy efficiency as an alternative to additional supply. In response, new methods for administering, managing, and delivering energy efficiency programs are being implemented. Topics covered in the report include: Analysis of the benefits of energy efficiency and key methods for achieving energy efficiency; evaluation of the business drivers spurring increased energy efficiency; Discussion of the major barriers to expanding energy efficiency programs; evaluation of the economic impacts of energy efficiency; discussion of the history of electric utility energy efficiency efforts; analysis of the impact of energy efficiency on utility profits and methods for protecting profitability; Discussion of non-utility management of energy efficiency programs; evaluation of major methods to spur energy efficiency - systems benefit charges, resource planning, and resource standards; and, analysis of the alternatives for encouraging customer participation in energy efficiency programs.

  17. Moose (Alces alces) reacts to high summer temperatures by utilizing thermal shelters in boreal forests - an analysis based on airborne laser scanning of the canopy structure at moose locations.

    PubMed

    Melin, Markus; Matala, Juho; Mehtätalo, Lauri; Tiilikainen, Raisa; Tikkanen, Olli-Pekka; Maltamo, Matti; Pusenius, Jyrki; Packalen, Petteri

    2014-04-01

    The adaptation of different species to warming temperatures has been increasingly studied. Moose (Alces alces) is the largest of the ungulate species occupying the northern latitudes across the globe, and in Finland it is the most important game species. It is very well adapted to severe cold temperatures, but has a relatively low tolerance to warm temperatures. Previous studies have documented changes in habitat use by moose due to high temperatures. In many of these studies, the used areas have been classified according to how much thermal cover they were assumed to offer based on satellite/aerial imagery data. Here, we identified the vegetation structure in the areas used by moose under different thermal conditions. For this purpose, we used airborne laser scanning (ALS) data extracted from the locations of GPS-collared moose. This provided us with detailed information about the relationships between moose and the structure of forests it uses in different thermal conditions and we were therefore able to determine and differentiate between the canopy structures at locations occupied by moose during different thermal conditions. We also discovered a threshold beyond which moose behaviour began to change significantly: as day temperatures began to reach 20 °C and higher, the search for areas with higher and denser canopies during daytime became evident. The difference was clear when compared to habitat use at lower temperatures, and was so strong that it provides supporting evidence to previous studies, suggesting that moose are able to modify their behaviour to cope with high temperatures, but also that the species is likely to be affected by warming climate. PMID:24115403

  18. Potentially increasing the metabolic stability of drug candidates via computational site of metabolism prediction by CYP2C9: The utility of incorporating protein flexibility via an ensemble of structures.

    PubMed

    Danielson, Matthew L; Desai, Prashant V; Mohutsky, Michael A; Wrighton, Steven A; Lill, Markus A

    2011-09-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes are responsible for metabolizing many endogenous and xenobiotic molecules encountered by the human body. It has been estimated that 75% of all drugs are metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes. Thus, predicting a compound's potential sites of metabolism (SOM) is highly advantageous early in the drug development process. We have combined molecular dynamics, AutoDock Vina docking, the neighboring atom type (NAT) reactivity model, and a solvent-accessible surface-area term to form a reactivity-accessibility model capable of predicting SOM for cytochrome P450 2C9 substrates. To investigate the importance of protein flexibility during the ligand-binding process, the results of SOM prediction using a static protein structure for docking were compared to SOM prediction using multiple protein structures in ensemble docking. The results reported here indicate that ensemble docking increases the number of ligands that can be docked in a bioactive conformation (ensemble: 96%, static: 85%) but only leads to a slight improvement (49% vs. 44%) in predicting an experimentally known SOM in the top-1 position for a ligand library of 75 CYP2C9 substrates. Using ensemble docking, the reactivity-accessibility model accurately predicts SOM in the top-1 ranked position for 49% of the ligand library and considering the top-3 predicted sites increases the prediction success rate to approximately 70% of the ligand library. Further classifying the substrate library according to K(m) values leads to an improvement in SOM prediction for substrates with low K(m) values (57% at top-1). While the current predictive power of the reactivity-accessibility model still leaves significant room for improvement, the results illustrate the usefulness of this method to identify key protein-ligand interactions and guide structural modifications of the ligand to increase its metabolic stability. PMID:21703735

  19. Utilizing \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose Orlando Melendez; Shikharesh Majumdar

    2011-01-01

    Clouds and grids are distributed resource infrastructures that are subjected to both On Demand (OD) as well as Advance reservation (AR) requests. This paper focuses on the revenue that can be earned on cloud and grid systems using different matchmaking strategies that map requests to resources. Existing research on matchmaking uses a priori knowledge of the local scheduling policy used

  20. Renewable energy and utility regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-10

    This report summarizes the results of a joint project on renewable energy of the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) and the US DOE. NARUC'S Task Force on Renewable Energy conducted a review of the current state of renewable energy technologies to evaluate their potential and extract key policy lessons from experience already gained in deployment of these technologies in numerous states. The main focus of this effort has been to clarify how utility regulators affect the development of renewable energy resources. The goal of the project was twofold: (1) identify the factors that have led to success or failure or renewable energy technologies in various energy markets, and (2) to develop an agenda on renewable energy and utility regulation for NARUC and the DOE. This report consists of three sections: renewable energy contributions, costs and potential; factors affecting development of renewable energy resources; and a renewable energy agenda for NARUC.

  1. Renewable energy and utility regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-10

    This report summarizes the results of a joint project on renewable energy of the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) and the US DOE. NARUC`S Task Force on Renewable Energy conducted a review of the current state of renewable energy technologies to evaluate their potential and extract key policy lessons from experience already gained in deployment of these technologies in numerous states. The main focus of this effort has been to clarify how utility regulators affect the development of renewable energy resources. The goal of the project was twofold: (1) identify the factors that have led to success or failure or renewable energy technologies in various energy markets, and (2) to develop an agenda on renewable energy and utility regulation for NARUC and the DOE. This report consists of three sections: renewable energy contributions, costs and potential; factors affecting development of renewable energy resources; and a renewable energy agenda for NARUC.

  2. Ethanolamine utilization in Vibrio alginolyticus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Ethanolamine is used as an energy source by phylogenetically diverse bacteria including pathogens, by the concerted action of proteins from the eut-operon. Previous studies have revealed the presence of eutBC genes encoding ethanolamine-ammonia lyase, a key enzyme that breaks ethanolamine into acetaldehyde and ammonia, in about 100 bacterial genomes including members of gamma-proteobacteria. However, ethanolamine utilization has not been reported for any member of the Vibrio genus. Our comparative genomics study reveals the presence of genes that are involved in ethanolamine utilization in several Vibrio species. Using Vibrio alginolyticus as a model system we demonstrate that ethanolamine is better utilized as a nitrogen source than as a carbon source. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Dr. Lakshminarayan Iyer and Dr. Vivek Anantharaman (nominated by Dr. L Aravind). PMID:23234435

  3. Utility Roles in Preserving the Industrial Base

    E-print Network

    Gilbert, J. S.

    , and Florida as examples; these observations are related to a framework of roles a utility or public utility commission can play. The conclusion is that utilities must exercise caution yet take appropriate action in preserving the industrial base....

  4. Space platform utilities distribution study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lefever, A. E.

    1980-01-01

    Generic concepts for the installation of power data and thermal fluid distribution lines on large space platforms were discussed. Connections with central utility subsystem modules and pallet interfaces were also considered. Three system concept study platforms were used as basepoints for the detail development. The tradeoff of high voltage low voltage power distribution and the impact of fiber optics as a data distribution mechanism were analyzed. Thermal expansion and temperature control of utility lines and ducts were considered. Technology developments required for implementation of the generic distribution concepts were identified.

  5. Utilizing Structures of CYP2D6 and BACE1 Complexes To Reduce Risk of Drug-Drug Interactions with a Novel Series of Centrally Efficacious BACE1 Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Brodney, Michael A; Beck, Elizabeth M; Butler, Christopher R; Barreiro, Gabriela; Johnson, Eric F; Riddell, David; Parris, Kevin; Nolan, Charles E; Fan, Ying; Atchison, Kevin; Gonzales, Cathleen; Robshaw, Ashley E; Doran, Shawn D; Bundesmann, Mark W; Buzon, Leanne; Dutra, Jason; Henegar, Kevin; LaChapelle, Erik; Hou, Xinjun; Rogers, Bruce N; Pandit, Jayvardhan; Lira, Ricardo; Martinez-Alsina, Luis; Mikochik, Peter; Murray, John C; Ogilvie, Kevin; Price, Loren; Sakya, Subas M; Yu, Aijia; Zhang, Yong; O'Neill, Brian T

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, the first generation of ?-secretase (BACE1) inhibitors advanced into clinical development for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the alignment of drug-like properties and selectivity remains a major challenge. Herein, we describe the discovery of a novel class of potent, low clearance, CNS penetrant BACE1 inhibitors represented by thioamidine 5. Further profiling suggested that a high fraction of the metabolism (>95%) was due to CYP2D6, increasing the potential risk for victim-based drug-drug interactions (DDI) and variable exposure in the clinic due to the polymorphic nature of this enzyme. To guide future design, we solved crystal structures of CYP2D6 complexes with substrate 5 and its corresponding metabolic product pyrazole 6, which provided insight into the binding mode and movements between substrate/inhibitor complexes. Guided by the BACE1 and CYP2D6 crystal structures, we designed and synthesized analogues with reduced risk for DDI, central efficacy, and improved hERG therapeutic margins. PMID:25781223

  6. Recovery and Utilization of Extraterrestrial Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This special bibliography includes the extraction, processing, and utilization of lunar, planetary, and asteroid resources; mining and excavation equipment, oxygen and propellant production; and in situ resource utilization.

  7. Utility of an alternative bicycle commute route of lower proximity to motorised traffic in decreasing exposure to ultra-fine particles, respiratory symptoms and airway inflammation – a structured exposure experiment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bicycle commuting in an urban environment of high air pollution is known to be a potential health risk, especially for susceptible individuals. While risk management strategies aimed to reduce exposure to motorised traffic emissions have been suggested, only limited studies have assessed the utility of such strategies in real-world circumstances. Objectives The potential to lower exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP; < 0.1 ?m) during bicycle commuting by reducing proximity to motorised traffic was investigated with real-time air pollution and intermittent acute inflammatory measurements in healthy individuals using their typical higher proximity, and an alternative lower proximity, bicycle commute route. Methods Thirty-five healthy adults (mean ± SD: age = 39 ± 11 yr; 29% female) completed two return trips, one each in the condition of their typical route (HIGH) and a pre-determined alternative route of lower proximity to motorised traffic (LOW); proximity being determined by the proportion of on-road cycle paths. Particle number concentration (PNC) and diameter (PD) were monitored in-commute in real-time. Acute inflammatory indices of respiratory symptoms (as a scalar of frequency from very low to very high / 1 to 5), lung function and spontaneous sputum (for inflammatory cell analyses) were collected immediately pre-commute, and immediately and three hours post-commute. Results In the condition of LOW, compared to in the condition of HIGH, there was a significant decrease in mean PNC (1.91 x e4 ± 0.93 × e4 ppcc vs. 2.95 × e4 ± 1.50 × e4 ppcc; p ? 0.001), and the mean frequency of in-commute offensive odour detection (2.1 vs. 2.8; p = 0.019), dust and soot observation (1.7 vs. 2.3; p = 0.038) and nasopharyngeal irritation (1.5 vs. 1.9; p = 0.007). There were no significant differences between LOW and HIGH in the commute distance and duration (12.8 ± 7.1 vs. 12.0 ± 6.9 km and 44 ± 17 vs. 42 ± 17 min, respectively), or other indices of acute airway inflammation. Conclusions Exposure to PNC and offensive odour, and nasopharyngeal irritation, can be significantly lowered when utilising a route of lower proximity to motorised traffic whilst bicycle commuting, without significantly affecting commute distance or duration. This may bring health benefits for both healthy and susceptible individuals. PMID:23566176

  8. Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The topics addressed in Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference are: (1) space station freedom overview and research capabilities; (2) space station freedom research plans and opportunities; (3) life sciences research on space station freedom; (4) technology research on space station freedom; (5) microgravity research and biotechnology on space station freedom; and (6) closing plenary.

  9. Utilizing Volunteers on Fisheries Projects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura L. Leslie; Cristina E. Velez; Scott A. Bonar

    2004-01-01

    We utilized 253 volunteers on a research project investigating predation impacts of nonnative fishes on native fishes in the Verde River, Arizona. Volunteers donated time that equated to over $42,000 in salary costs. We exposed a diverse group of volunteers to conservation issues, helped deflate misconceptions about conservation and agency roles, developed a network of expertise, and completed a research

  10. CAPACITY UTILIZATION IN INDIAN AIRLINES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danish A. Hashim

    2003-01-01

    The financial performance of the state -owned Indian Airlines has deteriorated since 1989- 90. The main reasons cited for the poor financial performance of Indian Airlines include: rising fuel prices, excess staff, serving uneconomic routes and increasing expenses on insurance. However, low capacity utilization has rarely been cited as one of the main reasons for the poor performance. The present

  11. Wind energy utilization: A bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Bibliography cites documents published to and including 1974 with abstracts and references, and is indexed by topic, author, organization, title, and keywords. Topics include: Wind Energy Potential and Economic Feasibility, Utilization, Wind Power Plants and Generators, Wind Machines, Wind Data and Properties, Energy Storage, and related topics.

  12. Analytical Utility of Campylobacter Methodologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods (NACMCF, or the Committee) was asked to address the analytical utility of Campylobacter methodologies in preparation for an upcoming United States Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) baseline study to enumerate Campylobacter...

  13. ELECTROLYSIS-UTILITY INTEGRATION WORKSHOP

    E-print Network

    ELECTROLYSIS-UTILITY INTEGRATION WORKSHOP Renaissance Suites at Flatirons, Broomfield, CO SeptemberQueen, Energetics 9:00 am Electrolysis Hydrogen Generation, Steve Cohen, Teledyne Energy Systems 9:20 am Commission 1:00 pm Electrolysis Technology Development and Fueling Infrastructure Options, Matthew Kauffman

  14. Electrolysis-Utility Integration Workshop

    E-print Network

    Electrolysis-Utility Integration Workshop September 22-23, 2004 Broomfield, CO Shawna McQueen #12-spread deployment of electrolysis based hydrogen production in the U.S. #12;Key Drivers ! Water electrolysis will be needed in the early stages ! DOE electrolysis cost goal: $2.85/kg by 2010 ! Today's cost is $4-$6/kg H2

  15. Solar thermal utilization in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chaofeng Xiao; Huilong Luo; Runsheng Tang; Hao Zhong

    2004-01-01

    With the rapid development of the Chinese economy, energy consumption has increased considerably, and this has increased pressure on energy production. On the other hand, this pressure has greatly assisted in the development of the renewable energy in the past two decades. This paper reports the latest developments in the solar thermal utilization in China. A great deal of successful

  16. Dissemination and Utilization: An Imperative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, J. Dale

    A well-developed approach to dissemination and utilization (D&U) at the four levels of spread, exchange, choice, and implementation is essential if vocational education research and development (R&D) is to achieve the measurable impact found lacking in a Committee on Vocational Education Research and Development (COVERD) assessment (1956). Federal…

  17. Chiropractic utilization in Taekwondo athletes

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Shearer, Heather

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine chiropractic utilization following a sport-related injury among National Team members and other high level Taekwondo athletes. Methods Retrospective surveys were conducted among Canadian male and female Taekwondo athletes (Group A, n = 60) competing in a national tournament and National Taekwondo team athletes (Group B, n = 16) at a training camp. Results A response rate of 46.7% (Group A) and 100% (Group B) was achieved. Twenty five percent (n = 4) of Group A athletes reported never seen a doctor of chiropractic (DC) regarding their injuries. Over 12% (n = 2) reported visiting a DC often, while just over 6% (n = 1) reported that they usually visited the DC following an injury. When injured, over 36% (n = 7) of the National Team members visit their family physician, over 15% (n = 3) visit a chiropractor or physiotherapist and the remaining athletes (n = 6) equally visit osteopaths, massage therapists, or athletic therapist following an injury. Conclusion There is a lack of information surrounding chiropractic utilization in the majority of sports and minimal research published regarding the health care utilization of Taekwondo athletes. Chiropractors, and particularly those with extensive athlete contact, should endeavour to further utilization studies. PMID:18516286

  18. Hybrid electric sport utility vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason M. Tyrus; Ryan M. Long; Marina Kramskaya; Yuriy Fertman; Ali Emadi

    2004-01-01

    Drive-train hybridization improves the fuel economy and emissions of vehicles. This is the concept of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Application of this concept in sport utility vehicles (SUVs), which consume more fuel as compared to passenger cars, will positively have a great impact. However, dynamic performances such as acceleration and gradeability also are of great importance in SUVs. Therefore, the

  19. Efficient electric-utility operation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seevers

    1982-01-01

    Eelctric utilities should be organized to provide reliable service at the lowest possible cost. Changes should be made to eliminate outdated procedures and institute new methods of operation in those areas that will respond to efficiency improvements. The author describes his efficiency-rating system, which should apply to a 12-month monitoring schedule. His major concerns are land rights, tree clearing, lightning,

  20. Utilization ROLE OF COAL COMBUSTION

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for Products Utilization ROLE OF COAL COMBUSTION PRODUCTS IN SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION and Applied Science THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN - MILWAUKEE #12;ROLE OF COAL COMBUSTION PRODUCTS, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC., U.S.A. SYNOPSIS Over one hundred million tonnes of coal

  1. Enhancing utilization review program results.

    PubMed

    Martin, M; Milstein, A; Loveland, D V

    1988-01-01

    Utilization review programs are increasing in number and type, but their true contributions to payers' health care and cost management efforts vary tremendously, according to evaluations of over 100 private UR firms by National Medical Audit. Three senior executives of that firm discuss state-of-the-art criteria and methods for gauging the effectiveness of a UR program. PMID:10286636

  2. Administrative Utility Analysis: Study Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co., San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    This document summarizes the recommendations made as a result of a study on administrative utility analysis and vocational education programs for Puerto Rico. The major recommendation was that the Area of Vocational and Technical Education (AVTE) in the Puerto Rico Department of Education be restructured at the central organizational level, for…

  3. Annual Electric Generator Report - Utility

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This recently updated database from the Energy Information Administration contains the information reported on the Annual Electric Generator Report - Utility form, or Form EIA-860A. The database holds information from 1992 to January 2000 and includes the fields capacity, energy source, and initial year of operation.

  4. Zymomonas with improved xylose utilization

    DOEpatents

    Viitanen, Paul V. (West Chester, PA); Tao, Luan (Havertown, PA); Zhang, Yuying (New Hope, PA); Caimi, Perry G. (Kennett Square, PA); McCutchen, Carol M. (Wilmington, DE); McCole, Laura (East Fallowfield, PA); Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Chou, Yat-Chen (Lakewood, CO); Franden, Mary Ann (Centennial, CO)

    2011-08-16

    Strains of Zymomonas were engineered by introducing a chimeric xylose isomerase gene that contains a mutant promoter of the Z. mobilis glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene. The promoter directs increased expression of xylose isomerase, and when the strain is in addition engineered for expression of xylulokinase, transaldolase and transketolase, improved utilization of xylose is obtained.

  5. Utility Marketing Strategies & Pricing Trends

    E-print Network

    Gilbert, J. S.

    Marketing seems to have come out of the utility closet once again, but it is a far sight different from that of the 1970s. While some are still on a “sell, Sell, SELL!” campaign, most are soberly looking at their customers from a different...

  6. Alternative scenarios utilizing nonterrestrial resources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles H. Eldred; Barney B. Roberts

    1992-01-01

    A collection of alternative scenarios that are enabled or substantially enhanced by the utilization of nonterrestrial resources is provided. We take a generalized approach to scenario building so that our report will have value in the context of whatever goals are eventually chosen. Some of the topics covered include the following: lunar materials processing; asteroid mining; lunar resources; construction of

  7. Vibration analysis utilizing Mossbauer effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roughton, N. A.

    1967-01-01

    Measuring instrument analyzes mechanical vibrations in transducers at amplitudes in the range of a few to 100 angstroms. This instrument utilizes the Mossbauer effect, the phenomenon of the recoil-free emission and resonant absorption of nuclear gamma rays in solids.

  8. Frameworks for Reasoning about Syntax that Utilize Quotation and Evaluation$

    E-print Network

    Farmer, William M.

    Frameworks for Reasoning about Syntax that Utilize Quotation and Evaluation$ William M. Farmer1). This paper introduces a mathematical structure called a syntax framework that is intended to be an abstract model of a system for reasoning about the syntax of an interpreted language. Like many concrete systems

  9. On the marginal utility of network topology measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Bar-ford; Azer Bestavros; John W. Byers; Mark Crovella

    2001-01-01

    The cost and complexity of deploying measurement infrastructure in the Internet for the purpose of analyzing its structure and behavior is considerable. Basic questions about the utility of increasing the number of measurements and measurement sites have not yet been addressed which has led to a \\

  10. Self-monitored pain intensity: Psychometric properties and clinical utility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert D. Kerns; Paul Finn; Jennifer Haythornthwaite

    1988-01-01

    A procedure for the evaluation of fluctuations in perceived pain intensity among chronic pain patients is described, and its psychometric properties and clinical and heuristic utility are examined. A heterogeneous sample of 97 chronic pain patients recorded 2 weeks of hourly self-monitored pain intensity (SMPI), completed a structured interview and several questionnaires, and established behavioral goals prior to participation in

  11. Kaa: an autonomous serpentine robot utilizes behavior control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajiv S. Desai; Charles J. Rosenberg; Joseph L. Jones

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an autonomous serpentine robot. This robot is a 12 degree of freedom, untethered, hyper-redundant planar robot, named Kaa. Experiments were conducted in its application to mobility tasks that would be useful in locomotion among parallel pipe structures similar to those found in industrial plants. Kaa utilizes a behavior control system. Unlike classical approaches, that

  12. A Tutorial on Decomposition Methods for Network Utility Maximization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Pérez Palomar; Mung Chiang

    2006-01-01

    A systematic understanding of the decomposability structures in network utility maximization is key to both resource allocation and functionality allocation. It helps us obtain the most appropriate distributed algorithm for a given network resource allocation problem, and quantifies the comparison across architectural alternatives of modularized network design. Decomposition theory naturally provides the mathematical language to build an analytic foundation for

  13. Directional Decomposition of Multiattribute Utility Ronen I. Brafman1

    E-print Network

    Brafman, Ronen

    structured elicitation process, very similar to that of Bayesian networks. 1 Introduction Specifying a multi of intelligent systems. It requires quantifying one's preferences ­ a non-trivial cognitive task which involves of a system. Yet, the preference and utility elicitation tasks must be carried out when analyzing decision

  14. THE UTILITY OF AGED SEEDS IN DNA BANKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The long-term utility of DNA banks is predicated on the stability of DNA structure during storage. The quality and yield of DNA extracted from seeds from four garden species that varied in age from 1 to about 135 years old (seeds found in an attic in Georgia, USA wrapped in newspaper dating to the ...

  15. Enrichment, Isolation and Some Properties of Methane-utilizing Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Whittenbury; K. C. Phillips; J. F. Wilkinson

    1970-01-01

    SUMMARY More than IOO Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, methane-utilizing bacteria were isolated. All used only methane and methanol of the substrates tested for growth. The organisms were classified into five groups on the basis of mor- phology, fine structure, and type of resting stage formed (exospores and different types of cysts) and into subgroups on other properties. Methods of enrichment, isolation

  16. Power Sales to Electric Utilities

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1989-02-01

    The Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) of 1979 requires that electrical utilities interconnect with qualifying facilities and purchase electricity at a rate based upon their full avoided costs (i.e., costs of providing both capacity and energy). Qualifying facilities (QF) include solar or geothermal electric units, hydropower, municipal solid waste or biomass-fired power plants, and cogeneration projects that satisfy maximum size, fuel use, ownership, location, and/or efficiency criteria. In Washington State, neither standard power purchase prices based upon a proxy ''avoided plant'', standard contracts, or a standard offer process have been used. Instead, a variety of power purchase contracts have been negotiated by developers of qualifying facilities with investor-owned utilities, public utility districts, and municipally-owned and operated utilities. With a hydro-based system, benefits associated with resource acquisition are determined in large part by how compatible the resource is with a utility's existing generation mix. Power purchase rates are negotiated and vary according to firm energy production, guarantees, ability to schedule maintenance or downtime, rights of refusal, power plant purchase options, project start date and length of contract; front-loading or levelization provisions; and the ability of the project to provide ''demonstrated'' capacity. Legislation was also enacted which allows PURPA to work effectively. Initial laws established ownership rights and provided irrigation districts, PUDs, and municipalities with expanded enabling powers. Financial processes were streamlined and, in some cases, simplified. Finally, laws were passed which are designed to ensure that development proceeds in an environmentally acceptable manner. In retrospect, PURPA has worked well within Washington. In the state of Washington, 20 small-scale hydroelectric projects with a combined generating capacity of 77 MW, 3 solid waste-to-energy facilities with 55 MW of electrical output, 4 cogeneration projects with 34.5 MW of generating capability, and 4 wastewater treatment facility digester gas-to-energy projects with 5 MW of electrical production have come on-line (or are in the final stages of construction) since the passage of PURPA. These numbers represent only a small portion of Washington's untapped and underutilized cogeneration and renewable resource generating potentials. [DJE-2005

  17. "BAYES' THEOREM" FOR UTILITY Leigh Tesfatsion

    E-print Network

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    ,. "BAYES' THEOREM" FOR UTILITY by Leigh Tesfatsion Discussion Paper No. 76-65, April 1976 Center of transitional utility (loss) assessments, in a manner analogous to Bayes' theorem for probability. Specification to utility and probability. #12;"BAYES' THEOREM" FOR UTILITY* by Leigh Tesfatsion 1. INTRODUCTION

  18. Expected utility theory without the completeness axiom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Dubra; Fabio Maccheroni; Efe A. Ok

    2004-01-01

    We study the problem of obtaining an expected utility representation for a potentially incomplete preference relation over lotteries by means of a set of von Neumann–Morgenstern utility functions. It is shown that, when the prize space is a compact metric space, a preference relation admits such a multi-utility representation provided that it satisfies the standard axioms of expected utility theory.

  19. Utility applications program. Annual report for 1981

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. Doherty; W. V. Loscutoff

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of the Utility Applications Program is to provide information and assistance to interested utilities on central station energy storage systems. Compressed air and underground pumped hydroelectric energy storage are the primary technical focus. Smaller utilities are the primary targets of this program, as they may not have resources to track and utilize new energy conservation developments. The program,

  20. Golf Carts and Utility Vehicles Effective Date

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    SUBJECT: Golf Carts and Utility Vehicles Effective Date: 8-3-10 Policy Number: 4.1.6 Supersedes: EH/ACCOUNTABILITY: This policy applies to all golf cart/utility vehicle operators who operate golf carts/utility vehicles on Florida Atlantic University property whether a golf cart/utility vehicle is owned and operated

  1. In-depth study of tripeptide-based alpha-ketoheterocycles as inhibitors of thrombin. Effective utilization of the S1' subsite and its implications to structure-based drug design.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Michael J; Almond, Harold R; Hecker, Leonard R; Schott, Mary R; Yabut, Stephen C; Zhang, Han-Cheng; Andrade-Gordon, Patricia; Corcoran, Thomas W; Giardino, Edward C; Kauffman, Jack A; Lewis, Joan M; de Garavilla, Lawrence; Haertlein, Barbara J; Maryanoff, Bruce E

    2005-03-24

    Thrombin inhibitors are potentially useful in medicine for their anticoagulant and antithrombotic effects. We synthesized and evaluated diverse heterocycle-activated ketones based on the d-Phe-Pro-Arg, and related thrombin active-site recognition motifs, as candidate inhibitors. The peptide-based alpha-ketoheterocycles were typically prepared by either an imidate or a Weinreb amide route (Schemes 1 and 2), the latter of which proved to be more general. Test compounds were generally assayed for inhibition of human alpha-thrombin and bovine trypsin. From a structure-based design standpoint, the heterocycle allows one to explore and adjust interactions within the S1' subsite of thrombin. The preferred alpha-ketoheterocycle is a pi-rich 2-substituted azole with at least two heteroatoms proximal to the carbon bearing the keto group, and a preferred thrombin inhibitor is 2-ketobenzothiazole 3, with a potent K(i) value of 0.2 nM and ca. 15-fold selectivity over trypsin. 2-Ketobenzothiazole 13 exhibited exceedingly potent thrombin inhibition (K(i) = 0.000 65 nM; slow tight binding). Several alpha-ketoheterocycles had thrombin K(i) values in the range 0.1-400 nM. The "Arg" unit in the alpha-ketoheterocycles can be sensitive to stereomutation under mildy basic conditions. For example, 2-ketothiazoles 4 and 59 readily epimerize at pH 7.4, although they are fairly stable stereochemically at pH 3-4; thus, suitable conditions had to be selected for the enzymatic assays. Lead d-Phe-Pro-Arg 2-benzothiazoles 3, 4, and 68 displayed good selectivity for thrombin over other key coagulation enzymes (e.g., factor Xa, plasmin, protein Ca, uPA, tPA, and streptokinase); however, their selectivity for thrombin over trypsin was modest (<25-fold). Compounds 3, 4, and 68 exhibited potent in vitro antithrombotic activity as measured by inhibition of gel-filtered platelet aggregation induced by alpha-thrombin (IC(50) = 30-40 nM). They also proved to be potent anticoagulant/antithrombotic agents in vivo on intravenous administration, as determined in the canine arteriovenous shunt (ED(50) = 0.45-0.65 mg/kg) and the rabbit deep vein thrombosis (ED(50) = 0.1-0.4 mg/kg) models. Intravenous administration of 3, and several analogues, to guinea pigs caused hypotension and electrocardiogram abnormalities. Such cardiovascular side effects were also observed with some nonguanidine inhibitors and inhibitors having recognition motifs other than d-Phe-Pro-Arg. 2-Benzothiazolecarboxylates 4 and 68 exhibited significantly diminished cardiovascular side effects, and benzothiazolecarboxylic acid 4 had the best profile with respect to therapeutic index. The X-ray crystal structures of the ternary complexes 3-thrombin-hirugen and 4-thrombin-hirugen depict novel interactions in the S(1)' region, with the benzothiazole ring forming a hydrogen bond with His-57 and an aromatic stacking interaction with Trp-60D of thrombin's insertion loop. The benzothiazole ring of 3 displaces the Lys-60F side chain into a U-shaped gauche conformation, whereas the benzothiazole carboxylate of 4 forms a salt bridge with the side chain of Lys-60F such that it adopts an extended anti conformation. Since 3 has a 10-fold greater affinity for thrombin than does 4, any increase in binding energy resulting from this salt bridge is apparently offset by perturbations across the enzyme (viz. Figure 4). The increased affinity and selectivity of 2-ketobenzothiazole inhibitors, such as 3, may be primarily due to the aromatic stacking interaction with Trp-60D. However, energy contour calculations with the computer program GRID also indicate a favorable interaction between the benzothiazole sulfur atom and a hydrophobic patch on the surface of thrombin. PMID:15771442

  2. Identifying Chelators for Metalloprotein Inhibitors Using a Fragment-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Jennifer A.; Fullagar, Jessica; Miller, Melissa T.; Cohen, Seth M.

    2011-01-01

    Fragment-based lead design (FBLD) has been used to identify new metal-binding groups for metalloenzyme inhibitors. When screened at 1 mM, a chelator fragment library (CFL-1.1) of 96 compounds produced hit rates ranging from 29–43% for five matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), 24% for anthrax lethal factor (LF), 49% for 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), and 60% for tyrosinase (TY). The ligand efficiencies (LE) of the fragment hits are excellent, in the range of 0.4–0.8 kcal/mol. The MMP enzymes all generally elicit the same chelators as hits from CFL-1.1; however, the chelator fragments that inhibit structurally unrelated metalloenzymes (LF, 5-LO, TY) vary considerably. To develop more advanced hits, one hit from CFL-1.1, 8-hydroxyquinoline, was elaborated at four different positions around the ring system to generate new fragments. 8-Hydroxyquinoline fragments substituted at either the 5- or 7-positions gave potent hits against MMP-2, with IC50 values in the low micromolar range. The 8-hydroxyquinoline represents a promising, new chelator scaffold for the development of MMP inhibitors that was discovered by use of a metalloprotein-focused chelator fragment library. PMID:21189019

  3. Utilization of the terrestrial cyanobacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katoh, Hiroshi; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Furukawa, Jun; Kimura, Shunta; Yokoshima, Mika; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Takenaka, Hiroyuki

    The terrestrial, N _{2}-fixing cyanobacterium, Nostoc commune has expected to utilize for agriculture, food and terraforming cause of its extracellular polysaccharide, desiccation tolerance and nitrogen fixation. Previously, the first author indicated that desiccation related genes were analyzed and the suggested that the genes were related to nitrogen fixation and metabolisms. In this report, we suggest possibility of agriculture, using the cyanobacterium. Further, we also found radioactive compounds accumulated N. commune (cyanobacterium) in Fukushima, Japan after nuclear accident. Thus, it is investigated to decontaminate radioactive compounds from the surface soil by the cyanobacterium and showed to accumulate radioactive compounds using the cyanobacterium. We will discuss utilization of terrestrial cyanobacteria under closed environment. Keyword: Desiccation, terrestrial cyanobacteria, bioremediation, agriculture

  4. Alternative scenarios utilizing nonterrestrial resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldred, Charles H.; Roberts, Barney B.

    1992-01-01

    A collection of alternative scenarios that are enabled or substantially enhanced by the utilization of nonterrestrial resources is provided. We take a generalized approach to scenario building so that our report will have value in the context of whatever goals are eventually chosen. Some of the topics covered include the following: lunar materials processing; asteroid mining; lunar resources; construction of a large solar power station; solar dynamic power for the space station; reduced gravity; mission characteristics and options; and tourism.

  5. Purdue Solar Energy Utilization Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Rakesh [Purdue] [Purdue

    2014-01-21

    The objective of this project is to establish and set-up a laboratory that will facilitate research and development of new low-cost and high-efficiency solar energy utilization technologies at Purdue University. The outcome will help spur the creation of solar energy start-up companies and eventually a solar energy industry in Indiana that can help fulfill the growing national demand for solar energy.

  6. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morford, Megan A.; Khodadad, Christina L.; Caro, Janicce I.; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Richards, Jeffery T.; Strayer, Richard F.; Birmele, Michele N.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, like aboard the International Space Station or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of the Synthetic Biology project, Cow in a Column, was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel-through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) in order to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms were optimized in the laboratory and the desired end-products, sugars and lipids, were analyzed. Trichoderma reesei, a known cellulolytic fungus, was utilized to drive the production of glucose, with the intent that the produced glucose would serve as the carbon source for milk fat production and be a substitute for the milk sugar lactose. Lipid production would be carried out by Rhodosporidium toruloides, yeast known to accumulate those lipids that are typically found in milk fat. Results showed that glucose and total lipid content were below what was expected during this phase of experimentation. In addition, individual analysis of six fatty acids revealed that the percentage of each fatty acid was lower than naturally produced bovine milk. Overall, this research indicates that microorganisms could be utilized to breakdown inedible solid waste to produce useable products. For future work, the production of the casein protein for milk would require the development of a genetically modified organism, which was beyond the scope of the original project. Additional trials would be needed to further refine the required environment/organisms for the production of desired sugar and lipid end-products.

  7. Electric utility system master plan

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, O.M.

    1992-10-01

    This publication contains the electric utility system plan and guidelines for providing adequate electric power to the various facilities of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in support of the mission of the Laboratory. The topics of the publication include general information on the current systems and their operation, a planning analysis for current and future growth in energy demand, proposed improvements and expansions required to meet long range site development and the site`s five-year plan.

  8. Waterproof Raised Floor Makes Utility Lines Accessible

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, M. M.

    1984-01-01

    Floor for laboratories, hospitals and factories waterproof yet allows access to subfloor utilities. Elevated access floor system designed for installations with multitude of diverse utility systems routed under and up through floor and requirement of separation of potentially conflicting utility services. Floor covered by continuous sheet of heat resealable vinyl. Floor system cut open when changes are made in utility lines and ducts. After modifications, floor covering resealed to protect subfloor utilities from spills and leaks.

  9. Support for 5-HT2C receptor functional selectivity in vivo utilizing structurally diverse, selective 5-HT2C receptor ligands and the 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine elicited head-twitch response model

    PubMed Central

    Canal, Clinton E.; Booth, Raymond G.; Morgan, Drake

    2013-01-01

    There are seemingly conflicting data in the literature regarding the role of serotonin (5-HT) 5-HT2C receptors in the mouse head-twitch response (HTR) elicited by the hallucinogenic 5-HT2A/2B/2C receptor agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI). Namely, both 5-HT2C receptor agonists and antagonists, regarding 5-HT2C receptor-mediated Gq-phospholipase C (PLC) signaling, reportedly attenuate the HTR response. The present experiments tested the hypothesis that both classes of 5-HT2C receptor compounds could attenuate the DOI-elicited-HTR in a single strain of mice, C57Bl/6J. The expected results were considered in accordance with ligand functional selectivity. Commercially-available 5-HT2C agonists (CP 809101, Ro 60-0175, WAY 161503, mCPP, and 1-methylpsilocin), novel 4-phenyl-2-N,N-dimethyl-aminotetralin (PAT)-type 5-HT2C agonists (with 5-HT2A/2B antagonist activity), and antagonists selective for 5-HT2A (M100907), 5-HT2C (SB-242084), and 5-HT2B/2C (SB-206553) receptors attenuated the DOI-elicited-HTR. In contrast, there were differential effects on locomotion across classes of compounds. The 5-HT2C agonists and M100907 decreased locomotion, SB-242084 increased locomotion, SB-206553 resulted in dose-dependent biphasic effects on locomotion, and the PATs did not alter locomotion. In vitro molecular pharmacology studies showed that 5-HT2C agonists potent for attenuating the DOI-elicited-HTR also reduced the efficacy of DOI to activate mouse 5-HT2C receptor-mediated PLC signaling in HEK cells. Although there were differences in affinities of a few compounds at mouse compared to human 5-HT2A or 5-HT2C receptors, all compounds tested retained their selectivity for either receptor, regardless of receptor species. Results indicate that 5-HT2C receptor agonists and antagonists attenuate the DOI-elicited-HTR in C57Bl/6J mice, and suggest that structurally diverse 5-HT2C ligands result in different 5-HT2C receptor signaling outcomes compared to DOI. PMID:23353901

  10. Structural changes in a binary mixed phospholipid bilayer of DOPG and DOPS upon saposin C interaction at acidic pH utilizing 31P and 2H solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Abu-Baker, Shadi; Qi, Xiaoyang; Newstadt, Justin; Lorigan, Gary A

    2005-11-10

    Saposin C (Sap C) is known to stimulate the catalytic activity of the lysosomal enzyme glucosylceramidase (GCase) that facilitates the hydrolysis of glucosylceramide to ceramide and glucose. Both Sap C and acidic phospholipids are required for full activity of GCase. In order to better understand this interaction, mixed bilayer samples prepared from dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol (DOPG) and dioleoylphosphatidylserine (DOPS) (5:3 ratio) and Sap C were investigated using (2)H and (31)P solid-state NMR spectroscopy at temperatures ranging from 25 to 50 degrees C at pH 4.7. The Sap C concentrations used to carry out these experiments were 0 mol%, 1 mol% and 3 mol% with respect to the phospholipids. The molecular order parameters (S(CD)) were calculated from the dePaked (2)H solid-state NMR spectra of Distearoyl-d70-phosphatidylglycerol (DSPG-d70) incorporated with DOPG and DOPS binary mixed bilayers. The S(CD) profiles indicate that the addition of Sap C to the negatively charged phospholipids is concentration dependent. S(CD) profiles of 1 mol% of the Sap C protein show only a very slight decrease in the acyl chain order. However, the S(CD) profiles of the 3 mol% of Sap C protein indicate that the interaction is predominantly increasing the disorder in the first half of the acyl chain near the head group (C1-C8) indicating that the amino and the carboxyl termini of Sap C are not inserting deep into the DOPG and DOPS mixed bilayers. The (31)P solid-state NMR spectra show that the chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) for both phospholipids decrease and the spectral broadening increases upon addition of Sap C to the mixed bilayers. The data indicate that Sap C interacts similarly with the head groups of both acidic phospholipids and that Sap C has no preference to DOPS over DOPG. Moreover, our solid-state NMR spectroscopic data agree with the structural model previously proposed in the literature [X. Qi, G.A. Grabowski, Differential membrane interactions of saposins A and C. Implication for the functional specificity, J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 27010-27017] [1]. PMID:16289479

  11. The regulation of public utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, C.F.

    1988-01-01

    This book includes discussions of the determinants of market structure, limitations on government regulation, federal-state jurisdictional controversies, the regulation of accounting practices, legal and economic concepts of property valuation, criteria of a sound rate structure, cost of capital standards, and rate structures in practice. In addition, the author examines regulation as a substitute for competition and explores the need for regulatory policy review.

  12. Consumer's Guide to the economics of electric-utility ratemaking

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    This guide deals primarily with the economics of electric utilities, although certain legal and organizational aspects of utilities are discussed. Each of the seven chapters addresses a particular facet of public-utility ratemaking. Chapter One contains a discussion of the evolution of the public-utility concept, as well as the legal and economic justification for public utilities. The second chapter sets forth an analytical economic model which provides the basis for the next four chapters. These chapters contain a detailed examination of total operating costs, the rate base, the rate of return, and the rate structure. The final chapter discusses a number of current issues regarding electric utilities, mainly factors related to fuel-adjustment costs, advertising, taxes, construction work in progress, and lifeline rates. Some of the examples used in the Guide are from particular states, such as Illinois and California. These examples are used to illustrate specific points. Consumers in other states can generalize them to their states and not change the meaning or significance of the points. 27 references, 8 tables.

  13. Other Fabric Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Architects, engineers and building owners are turning increasingly to fabric structures because of their aesthetic appeal, relatively low initial cost, low maintenance outlays, energy efficiency and good space utilization. Several examples are shown.

  14. Trade-off decisions in distribution utility management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavickas, Rimas Anthony

    As a result of the "unbundling" of traditional monopolistic electricity generation and transmission enterprises into a free-market economy, power distribution utilities are faced with very difficult decisions pertaining to electricity supply options and quality of service to the customers. The management of distribution utilities has become increasingly complex, versatile, and dynamic to the extent that conventional, non-automated management tools are almost useless and obsolete. This thesis presents a novel and unified approach to managing electricity supply options and quality of service to customers. The technique formulates the problem in terms of variables, parameters, and constraints. An advanced Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) optimization formulation is developed together with novel, logical, decision-making algorithms. These tools enable the utility management to optimize various cost components and assess their time-trend impacts, taking into account the intangible issues such as customer perception, customer expectation, social pressures, and public response to service deterioration. The above concepts are further generalized and a Logical Proportion Analysis (LPA) methodology and associated software have been developed. Solutions using numbers are replaced with solutions using words (character strings) which more closely emulate the human decision-making process and advance the art of decision-making in the power utility environment. Using practical distribution utility operation data and customer surveys, the developments outlined in this thesis are successfully applied to several important utility management problems. These involve the evaluation of alternative electricity supply options, the impact of rate structures on utility business, and the decision of whether to continue to purchase from a main grid or generate locally (partially or totally) by building Non-Utility Generation (NUG).

  15. Application of Case-Based Reasoning Technology in Decision-Making System of Rural New Energy Utilization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    QiuFeng Sun; Li Tan; Lu Wang; ChongChong Yu

    2010-01-01

    Established rural new energy utilization decision making system structure based on analyzing and summarizing the relevant theory and technology of new energy in rural areas and the field investigation data, proposed an object-oriented representing of case of rural new energy utilization, Through analyzing the survey data of the typical energy use in rural areas, the typical rural new energy utilization

  16. Optimized Utility Systems and Furnace Integration

    E-print Network

    McMullan, A. S.; Spriggs, H. D.

    ABOVE PI~H. Figure 3: Above and below pinch enthalpy balance H Figure 2 Composite curves and the "Pinch" The concept of targeting has been extended to include capital cost in addition to energy cost (2). A trade-off exists between minimum... is in heat balance with its respective utility. Above the pinch only hot utility is required. The use of cold utility in this region increases the hot utility demand. Similarly, below the pinch only cold utility is required. The use of hot utility here...

  17. Rollover of Sport Utility Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penny, Desmond N.

    2004-02-01

    Recently, the PBS program "Frontline" examined the history of the development of the sport utility vehicle (SUV) and the efforts to force car makers to design SUVs that are less prone to rollover. The dangers of SUV rollovers were spotlighted in the fall of 2000, when the Ford-Firestone scandal prompted Congress to launch a series of hearings focusing on deaths and injuries related to faulty Firestone tires mounted on Ford Explorers. However, during the same 10-year period in which Ford-Firestone rollover crashes caused some 300 deaths, more than 12,000 people — 40 times as many — died in SUV rollovers unrelated to tire failure.

  18. Orbiter electrical equipment utilization baseline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The baseline for utilization of Orbiter electrical equipment in both electrical and Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) thermal analyses is established. It is a composite catalog of Space Shuttle equipment, as defined in the Shuttle Operational Data Book. The major functions and expected usage of each component type are described. Functional descriptions are designed to provide a fundamental understanding of the Orbiter electrical equipment, to insure correlation of equipment usage within nominal analyses, and to aid analysts in the formulation of off-nominal, contingency analyses.

  19. Thermal storage for electric utilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swet, C. J.; Masica, W. J.

    1977-01-01

    Applications of the thermal energy storage (TES) principle (storage of sensible heat or latent heat, or heat storage in reversible chemical reactions) in power systems are evaluated. Load leveling behind the meter, load following at conventional thermal power plants, solar thermal power generation, and waste heat utilization are the principal TES applications considered. Specific TES examples discussed include: storage heaters for electric-resistance space heating, air conditioning TES in the form of chilled water or eutectic salt baths, hot water TES, and trans-seasonal storage in heated water in confined aquifers.

  20. Resource utilization during software development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelkowitz, Marvin V.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses resource utilization over the life cycle of software development and discusses the role that the current 'waterfall' model plays in the actual software life cycle. Software production in the NASA environment was analyzed to measure these differences. The data from 13 different projects were collected by the Software Engineering Laboratory at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and analyzed for similarities and differences. The results indicate that the waterfall model is not very realistic in practice, and that as technology introduces further perturbations to this model with concepts like executable specifications, rapid prototyping, and wide-spectrum languages, we need to modify our model of this process.

  1. Solar energy research and utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    The role of solar energy is visualized in the heating and cooling of buildings, in the production of renewable gaseous, liquid and solid fuels, and in the production of electric power over the next 45 years. Potential impacts of solar energy on various energy markets, and estimated costs of such solar energy systems are discussed. Some typical solar energy utilization processes are described in detail. It is expected that at least 20% of the U.S. total energy requirements by 2020 will be delivered from solar energy.

  2. Utilizing inheritance in requirements engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaindl, Hermann

    1994-01-01

    The scope of this paper is the utilization of inheritance for requirements specification, i.e., the tasks of analyzing and modeling the domain, as well as forming and defining requirements. Our approach and the tool supporting it are named RETH (Requirements Engineering Through Hypertext). Actually, RETH uses a combination of various technologies, including object-oriented approaches and artificial intelligence (in particular frames). We do not attempt to exclude or replace formal representations, but try to complement and provide means for gradually developing them. Among others, RETH has been applied in the CERN (Conseil Europeen pour la Rechereche Nucleaire) Cortex project. While it would be impossible to explain this project in detail here, it should be sufficient to know that it deals with a generic distributed control system. Since this project is not finished yet, it is difficult to state its size precisely. In order to give an idea, its final goal is to substitute the many existing similar control systems at CERN by this generic approach. Currently, RETH is also tested using real-world requirements for the Pastel Mission Planning System at ESOC in Darmstadt. First, we outline how hypertext is integrated into a frame system in our approach. Moreover, the usefulness of inheritance is demonstrated as performed by the tool RETH. We then summarize our experiences of utilizing inheritance in the Cortex project. Lastly, RETH will be related to existing work.

  3. Chinese Manned Space Utility Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Y.

    Since 1992 China has been carrying out a conspicuous manned space mission A utility project has been defined and created during the same period The Utility Project of the Chinese Manned Space Mission involves wide science areas such as earth observation life science micro-gravity fluid physics and material science astronomy space environment etc In the earth observation area it is focused on the changes of global environments and relevant exploration technologies A Middle Revolution Image Spectrometer and a Multi-model Micro-wave Remote Sensor have been developed The detectors for cirrostratus distribution solar constant earth emission budget earth-atmosphere ultra-violet spectrum and flux have been manufactured and tested All of above equipment was engaged in orbital experiments on-board the Shenzhou series spacecrafts Space life science biotechnologies and micro-gravity science were much concerned with the project A series of experiments has been made both in ground laboratories and spacecraft capsules The environmental effect in different biological bodies in space protein crystallization electrical cell-fusion animal cells cultural research on separation by using free-low electrophoresis a liquid drop Marangoni migration experiment under micro-gravity as well as a set of crystal growth and metal processing was successfully operated in space The Gamma-ray burst and high-energy emission from solar flares have been explored A set of particle detectors and a mass spectrometer measured

  4. Drawing the Line: The Cultural Cartography of Utilization Recommendations for Mental Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olafsdottir, Sigrun; Pescosolido, Bernice A.

    2009-01-01

    In the 1990s, sociologists began to rethink the failure of utilization models to explain whether and why individuals accessed formal treatment systems. This effort focused on reconceptualizing the underlying assumptions and processes that shaped utilization patterns. While we have built a better understanding of how social networks structure

  5. Do Credit Ratings Reflect Underlying Firm Characteristics? Evidence from the Utility Industry

    E-print Network

    Saskatchewan, University of

    among industry professionals is that utilities are being punished by credit rating agencies. Contrary) following deregulation. Although rating agencies often cite regulatory reasons for placing utilities. We also find that while firms in other industries adjust their capital structures following rating

  6. Fabrication of bimetallic Cu\\/Pt nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode and its catalytic activity toward hydrogen evolution reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jahan Bakhsh Raoof; Reza Ojani; Salehe Asghari Esfeden; Sahar Rashid Nadimi

    2010-01-01

    The film of poly(8-hydroxyquinoline) was formed by cyclic voltammetery method on the surface of glassy carbon electrode and poly(8-hydroxyquinoline) modified glassy carbon electrode, p(8-HQ)MGCE, was prepared. Cu2+ ion was adsorbed on the polymer matrix due to complexation with 8-hydroxyquinoline units Copper nanoparticles were deposited onto p(8-HQ)MGCE by applying potential and prepared copper nanoparticles galvanic replaced with platinum to fabricate poly(8-hydroxyquinoline)–Pt\\/Cu

  7. Impacts of solar energy utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Various methods of conducting surveys and analyses to determine the attitude of the public toward the energy crisis are discussed. Models to determine the impact of the energy crisis and proposed alternative sources of energy on the social structure are analyzed. The various interest groups which are concerned with energy and the nature of their interest are identified. The government structure for controlling resource production and allocation is defined.

  8. Inventories and capacity utilization in general equilibrium

    E-print Network

    Trupkin, Danilo Rogelio

    2009-05-15

    -response experiments show that inventories and the rate of capital utilization aremostly complements, while inventories and the rate of labor utilization are mostlysubstitutes. Moreover, low-persistence shocks emphasize the role of inventories asbeing a "shock absorber...

  9. 47 CFR 101.521 - Spectrum utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Spectrum utilization. 101.521 Section 101.521 Telecommunication...Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.521 Spectrum utilization. All applicants for DEMS...

  10. 47 CFR 101.521 - Spectrum utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Spectrum utilization. 101.521 Section 101.521 Telecommunication...Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.521 Spectrum utilization. All applicants for DEMS...

  11. 47 CFR 101.521 - Spectrum utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spectrum utilization. 101.521 Section 101.521 Telecommunication...Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.521 Spectrum utilization. All applicants for DEMS...

  12. 47 CFR 101.521 - Spectrum utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Spectrum utilization. 101.521 Section 101.521 Telecommunication...Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.521 Spectrum utilization. All applicants for DEMS...

  13. 47 CFR 101.521 - Spectrum utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Spectrum utilization. 101.521 Section 101.521 Telecommunication...Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.521 Spectrum utilization. All applicants for DEMS...

  14. 25 CFR 700.105 - Utility charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Instructions Definitions § 700.105 Utility charges. Utility charges means the cost for heat, lighting, hot water, electricity, natural gas, butane, propane, wood, coal or other fuels water, sewer and trash...

  15. 25 CFR 700.105 - Utility charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Instructions Definitions § 700.105 Utility charges. Utility charges means the cost for heat, lighting, hot water, electricity, natural gas, butane, propane, wood, coal or other fuels water, sewer and trash...

  16. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2001-08-01

    This document describes best practices in the use of Utility Energy Services Contracts. The recommendations were generated by a group of innovative energy managers in many successful projects. The topics include project financing, competition between utility franchises, and water conservation.

  17. Federal Utility Program Overview (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-07-01

    Fact sheet overview of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program's (FEMP) Federal Utility Program, including common contracts and services available to Federal agencies through local serving utilities.

  18. Telecomm disaster recovery planning for electric utilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Banks

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides the rural electric utility operator with guidelines for telecomm disaster recovery planning. These considerations are for utilization during long-term telecommunications service outages and provide recommended alternative measures to be taken.

  19. Spot pricing of public utility services

    E-print Network

    Bohn, Roger E.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis analyzes how public utility prices should be changed over time and space. Earlier static and non spatial models of public utility pricing emerge as special cases of the theory developed here. Electricity is ...

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF THE ADVANCED UTILITY SIMULATION MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the development of the Advanced Utility Simulation Model (AUSM), developed for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP), to forecast air emissions of pollutants from electric utilities. USM integrates generating unit engineering detail with d...