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1

Synthesis and structure-activity relationship study of 8-hydroxyquinoline-derived Mannich bases as anticancer agents.  

PubMed

To continue our early study on the structural modifications of clioquinol, more 8-hydroxyquinoline-derived Mannich bases were synthesized and examined for growth-inhibitory effect. Taken Mannich base 1 as our lead compound, upon replacement of either sulfonyl group with methylene group or piperazine ring with ethylenediamine group resulted in an appreciable increase in potency. On the other hand, as 8-hydroxyquinoline was replaced with phenol, 3-hydroxypyridine and 1-naphthol, a dramatic decrease in activity was observed, indicating that 8-hydroxyquinoline is a crucial scaffold for activity. Further 3D-QSAR analysis on HeLa cells revealed that both steric and electronic effects contributed equally to growth inhibition. Taken together, the structure-activity relationships obtained from both in vitro data and CoMFA model warrant a valuable reference for further study. PMID:20359788

Shaw, Arthur Y; Chang, Chun-Yi; Hsu, Mei-Yuan; Lu, Pei-Jung; Yang, Chia-Ning; Chen, Hui-Ling; Lo, Cheng-Wei; Shiau, Chung-Wai; Chern, Ming-Kai

2010-07-01

2

Five 8-hydroxyquinolinate-based coordination polymers with tunable structures and photoluminescent properties for sensing nitroaromatics.  

PubMed

Using two 8-hydroxyquinolinate ligands (L1-MOM and L2-MOM) containing 3-pyridyl or 4-pyridyl groups, five novel coordination polymers, namely, [Zn3(L1)6] (1), [Zn(L1)2]·2MeOH (2), [Zn(L2)2] (3), [Cd(L2)2] (4), and [Cd4(L1)6]·13H2O (5), were synthesized and characterized by a variety of techniques. Single-crystal X-ray structures have revealed that these coordination polymers exhibit a structural diversification due to the different choices of metal salts and the effect of pyridyl nitrogen position. Compounds 1-5 exhibited different fluorescence emissions and lifetimes upon excitation in the solid state. The sensing behavior of these polymers was also investigated upon exposure to vapors of various nitroaromatic molecules (analytes). The results show that all five polymers are capable of sensing these nitroaromatic molecules in the vapor phase through fluorescence quenching. Interestingly, 3 exhibits superior sensitivity to the analytes in comparison with other polymers. 2-Nitrotoluene quenches the emission of 3 by as much as 96%. PMID:25367871

Zhang, Liyan; Sun, Liying; Li, Xinyuan; Tian, Yulan; Yuan, Guozan

2015-01-01

3

Soft x-ray-excited luminescence and optical x-ray absorption fine structures of tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum  

SciTech Connect

Photoluminescence from tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq{sub 3}) films has been observed using tunable soft x rays as an excitation source. The photons were tuned to energies above and below the K absorption edges of C, N, O, and Al. The luminescence was in turn used to monitor the absorption. It was found that the luminescence induced by soft x ray exhibits additional emission bands at shorter wavelengths compared to ultraviolet excitation. While all K edges exhibit optical x-ray absorption fine structures (XAFS) similar to those of total electron and fluorescence yield, the optical XAFS at the C K-edge resonance are enhanced for the C1s to {pi}{sup *} transitions, indicating site specificity. These observations are attributed to the energetics of the process and the local electronic structure.

Naftel, S. J.; Zhang, P.; Kim, P.-S.; Sham, T. K.; Coulthard, I.; Antel, W. J.; Freeland, J. W.; Frigo, S. P.; Fung, M.-K.; Lee, S. T. (and others)

2001-03-26

4

Utilization of solid phase spectrophotometry for the determination of trace amounts of copper using 5-(2-benzothiazolylazo)-8-hydroxyquinoline  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, selective, highly sensitive and accurate procedure for the determination of trace amounts of copper has been developed\\u000a based on solid-phase spectrophotometry. Copper reacts with 5-(2-benzothiazolylazo)-8-hydroxyquinoline (BTAHQ) to give a complex\\u000a with high molar absorptivity (3.17 × 107 L mol?1 cm?1, 3.07 × 108 L mol?1 cm?1, 1.22 × 109 L mol?1 cm?1, and 1.80 × 109 L mol?1

Alaa S. Amin

2009-01-01

5

Structural and optical properties of ?-phase tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum crystals prepared by using physical vapor deposition method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crystals of ?-phase tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (?-Alq3) were prepared by using physical vapor deposition (PVD) method in a double zone tube furnace. The structural properties of the ?-Alq3 crystals were investigated by using an X-ray single crystal diffractometer (XSCD) and a high resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM). Large straight steps were observed from the side face of the pine needle-like crystals. The straight steps are parallel with each other like terraces and the widths of the steps are fixed, indicating that the ?-Alq3 crystals may have layered structures. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra at different temperatures (7 K, 66 K, 220 K, 300 K and 350 K) and the absorption spectrum were also investigated. The optical band gap of the ?-Alq3 crystals was calculated to be about 2.82 eV. This value is a little larger than that of amorphous mer-Alq3 (about 2.7 eV), indicating a minimizing of impurities, grain boundaries and defects.

Xie, Wanfeng; Pang, Zhiyong; Zhao, Yu; Jiang, Feng; Yuan, Huimin; Song, Hui; Han, Shenghao

2014-10-01

6

Structural and vibrational study of 8-hydroxyquinoline-2-carboxaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone - A potential metal-protein attenuating compound (MPAC) for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive structural and vibrational study of the potential metal-protein attenuating compound 8-hydroxyquinoline-2-carboxaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone is reported. X-ray diffraction data, as well as FT-IR and Raman frequencies, were compared with the respective theoretical values obtained from DFT calculations. Theory agrees well with experiment. In this context, an attempt of total assignment concerning the FT-IR and Raman spectra of the title compound was performed, shedding new light on previous partial assignments published elsewhere.

de Freitas, Leonardo Viana; da Silva, Cecilia C. P.; Ellena, Javier; Costa, Luiz Antônio Sodré; Rey, Nicolás A.

2013-12-01

7

Investigation on growth, structure and characterization of succinate salt of 8-hydroxyquinoline: An organic NLO crystal.  

PubMed

8-Hydroxyquinolinium succinate (8-HQSU) has been synthesized and single crystals were grown from ethanol solvent by employing the technique of slow evaporation at room temperature. The structure of the grown crystal has been elucidated by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. It reveals that 8-HQSU crystallizes in monoclinic system with non-centro symmetric space group P21. FTIR, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectral investigations have been carried out to identify the vibrational modes of various functional groups and placement of proton and carbon in the 8-HQSU compound, respectively. UV-vis-NIR transmission spectrum shows the cutoff wavelength around 357nm. In addition, a photoluminescence spectral analysis was carried out for 8-HQSU crystals. The thermal properties of crystals were evaluated from TGA and DTA techniques and the crystal was found to be stable up to 145°C. The dielectric studies show that the dielectric constant and dielectric loss decrease exponentially with frequency at different temperatures. Photoconductivity studies were carried out on the grown crystals it reveals the positive photo conducting nature. Powder second harmonic generation property of the crystal was confirmed by Kurtz and Perry powder SHG technique and it is found to be 1.3 times greater than that of KDP. PMID:25589396

Thirumurugan, R; Babu, B; Anitha, K; Chandrasekaran, J

2015-04-01

8

Structural and vibrational study of 8-hydroxyquinoline-2-carboxaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone--a potential metal-protein attenuating compound (MPAC) for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

A comprehensive structural and vibrational study of the potential metal-protein attenuating compound 8-hydroxyquinoline-2-carboxaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone is reported. X-ray diffraction data, as well as FT-IR and Raman frequencies, were compared with the respective theoretical values obtained from DFT calculations. Theory agrees well with experiment. In this context, an attempt of total assignment concerning the FT-IR and Raman spectra of the title compound was performed, shedding new light on previous partial assignments published elsewhere. PMID:23896296

de Freitas, Leonardo Viana; da Silva, Cecilia C P; Ellena, Javier; Costa, Luiz Antônio Sodré; Rey, Nicolás A

2013-12-01

9

Studies on the growth, structural, optical, mechanical properties of 8-hydroxyquinoline single crystal by vertical Bridgman technique  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} Growth of bulk single crystal of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) by vertical Bridgman technique for the first time. {yields} The crystalline perfection is reasonably good. {yields} The photoluminescence spectrum shows that the material is suitable for blue light emission. -- Abstract: Single crystal of organic nonlinear optical material, 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) of dimension 52 mm (length) x 12 mm (dia.) was grown from melt using vertical Bridgman technique. The crystal system of the material was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction analysis. The crystalline perfection of the grown crystal was examined by high-resolution X-ray diffraction study. Low angular spread around 400'' of the diffraction curve and the low full width half maximum values show that the crystalline perfection is reasonably good. The recorded photoluminescence spectrum shows that the material is suitable for blue light emission. Optical transmittance for the UV and visible region was measured and mechanical strength was estimated from Vicker's microhardness test along the growth face of the grown crystal.

Prabhakaran, SP. [Crystal Growth and Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024, Tamil Nadu (India)] [Crystal Growth and Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024, Tamil Nadu (India); Babu, R. Ramesh, E-mail: rampap2k@yahoo.co.in [Crystal Growth and Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024, Tamil Nadu (India); Velusamy, P.; Ramamurthi, K. [Crystal Growth and Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024, Tamil Nadu (India)] [Crystal Growth and Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024, Tamil Nadu (India)

2011-11-15

10

Electronic structure of the organic semiconductor Alq3 (aluminum tris-8-hydroxyquinoline) from soft x-ray spectroscopies and density functional theory calculations.  

PubMed

The element-specific electronic structure of the organic semiconductor aluminum tris-8-hydroxyquinoline (Alq(3)) has been studied using a combination of resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Resonant and nonresonant x-ray emission spectroscopy were used to measure directly the carbon, nitrogen and oxygen 2p partial densities of states in Alq(3), and good agreement was found with the results of DFT calculations. Furthermore, resonant x-ray emission at the carbon K-edge is shown to be able to measure the partial density of states associated with individual C sites. Finally, comparison of previous x-ray emission studies and the present data reveal the presence of clear photon-induced damage in the former. PMID:19071937

DeMasi, A; Piper, L F J; Zhang, Y; Reid, I; Wang, S; Smith, K E; Downes, J E; Peltekis, N; McGuinness, C; Matsuura, A

2008-12-14

11

Electronic Structure of the Organic Semiconductor Alq3 (aluminum tris-8-hydroxyquinoline) from Soft X-ray Spectroscopies and Density Functional Theory Calculations  

SciTech Connect

The element-specific electronic structure of the organic semiconductor aluminum tris-8-hydroxyquinoline (Alq3) has been studied using a combination of resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Resonant and nonresonant x-ray emission spectroscopy were used to measure directly the carbon, nitrogen and oxygen 2p partial densities of states in Alq3, and good agreement was found with the results of DFT calculations. Furthermore, resonant x-ray emission at the carbon K-edge is shown to be able to measure the partial density of states associated with individual C sites. Finally, comparison of previous x-ray emission studies and the present data reveal the presence of clear photon-induced damage in the former.

DeMasi, A.; Piper, L; Zhang, Y; Reid, I; Wang, S; Smith, K; Downes, J; Pelkekis, N; McGuinness, C; Matsuura, A

2008-01-01

12

Photoemission study of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum/aluminum oxide/tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum interface  

SciTech Connect

The evolution of the interface electronic structure of a sandwich structure involving aluminum oxide and tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq), i.e. (Alq/AlO{sub x}/Alq), has been investigated with photoemission spectroscopy. Strong chemical reactions have been observed due to aluminum deposition onto the Alq substrate. The subsequent oxygen exposure releases some of the Alq molecules from the interaction with aluminum. Finally, the deposition of the top Alq layer leads to an asymmetry in the electronic energy level alignment with respect to the AlO{sub x} interlayer.

Ding Huanjun; Zorba, Serkan; Gao Yongli; Ma Liping; Yang Yang [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

2006-12-01

13

Effect of thermal annealing on the structural and optical properties of tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum(III) (Alq3 ) films.  

PubMed

Tris-(8-hydroxyquionoline)aluminum (Alq3 ) was synthesized and coated on to a glass substrate using the dip coating method. The structural and optical properties of the Alq3 film after thermal annealing from 50°C to 300°C in 50° steps was studied. The films have been prepared with 2 to 16 layers (42-324 nm). The thickness and thermal annealing of Alq3 films were optimized for maximum luminescence yield. The Fourier transform infrared spectrum confirms the formation of quinoline with absorption in the region 700?-?500/cm. Partial sublimation and decomposition of quinoline ion was observed with the Alq3 films annealed at 300°C. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the Alq3 film annealed at 50°C to 150°C reveals the amorphous nature of the films. The Alq3 film annealed above 150°C were crystalline nature. Film annealed at 150°C exhibits a photoluminescence intensity maximum at 512 nm when excited at 390 nm. The Alq3 thin film deposited with 10 layers (220 nm) at 150°C exhibited maximum luminescence yield. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25044340

Cuba, M; Muralidharan, G

2014-07-18

14

Luminance mechanisms in green organic light-emitting devices fabricated utilizing tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum/4,7-diphenyl-1, 10-phenanthroline multiple heterostructures acting as an electron transport layer.  

PubMed

The electrical and the optical properties in green organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) fabricated utilizing tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3)/4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BPhen) multiple heterostructures acting as an electron transport layer (ETL) were investigated. The operating voltage of the OLEDs with a multiple heterostructure ETL increased with increasing the number of the Alq3/BPhen heterostructures because more electrons were accumulated at the Alq3/BPhen heterointerfaces. The number of the leakage holes existing in the multiple heterostructure ETL of the OLEDs at a low voltage range slightly increased due to an increase of the internal electric field generated from the accumulated electrons at the Alq3/BPhen heterointerface. The luminance efficiency of the OLEDs with a multiple heterostructure ETL at a high voltage range became stabilized because the increase of the number of the heterointerface decreased the quantity of electrons accumulated at each heterointerface. PMID:20359011

Choo, Dong Chul; Seo, Su Yul; Kim, Tae Whan; Jin, You Young; Seo, Ji Hyun; Kim, Young Kwan

2010-05-01

15

The structure of Mn-doped tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)gallium by extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and first principles calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metal-Mqx (M = Al, Ga, Zn, Be, and Ca, x = 2 or 3) complexes play a key role in organic spintronics and organic optoelectronics. However, the accurate structure determination of these complexes has been a challenge for a long time. Here, we report the structure of Mn-Gaq3 investigated by using first-principle density functional theory (DFT) calculations and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. First, the structures of Mn-Gaq3 were predicted by first-principle DFT calculations. Then, all reasonable structures achieved from the calculations were used to fit the EXAFS spectra. By this method, the structure of Mn-Gaq3 is well obtained. We believe this method is also applicable to other metal-Mqx films.

Fang, Shaojie; Pang, Zhiyong; Du, Yonghua; Zheng, Lirong; Zhang, Xijian; Wang, Fenggong; Yuan, Huimin; Han, Shenghao

2012-12-01

16

New approach to synthesize 8-hydroxyquinoline-based complexes with Zn2+ and their luminescent properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, zinc(II) bis-(8-hydroxyquinoline) dihydrate (ZnQ2·2H2O) and zinc(II) bis-(2-methyl-8-hydroxyquinoline) monohydrate (Zn(MQ)2·H2O) were successfully prepared by a room-temperature solid-state chemical reaction using zinc acetate (Zn(CH3COO)2·2H2O), 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ) and 2-methyl-8-hydroxyquinoline (2-methyl-8-HQ) as the starting materials. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal analysis (TG/DSC) demonstrated that the chemical composition of the products were ZnQ2·2H2O and Zn(MQ)2·H2O. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that the products ZnQ2·2H2O and Zn(MQ)2·H2O had sheet-like morphology with a thickness of about 50 nm. The UV-vis absorption spectra of ZnQ2·2H2O and Zn(MQ)2·H2O indicated that they existed charge transfer from the metal to the ligand (MLCT bands). The room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra of ZnQ2·2H2O revealed that the sample possessed largely blue shift compared with the previous reports. Besides, the two complexes presented a consistent decline situation along with the decline concentration in chloroform solution, which due to solvate effect and structural similarity. The fluorescence quantum yields were measured at 36.58% and 0.07%, and the emission colors were blue-green and light-blue, respectively. The fluorescence quantum yield of ZnQ2·2H2O was higher than some reported similar structure. The method was believed to largely facilitate the fabrication and application of organometallic complex nanomaterials.

Wang, Ruifang; Cao, Yali; Jia, Dianzeng; Liu, Lang; Li, Fang

2013-12-01

17

Synthesis and Characterization of Hemicage 8-Hydroxyquinoline Chelates with Enhanced Electrochemical and Photophysical Properties  

E-print Network

Synthesis and Characterization of Hemicage 8-Hydroxyquinoline Chelates with Enhanced, tripodal 8-hydroxyquinoline ligand (QH3) and its trivalent metal chelates (MQ, M ) Al3+, Ga3+, In3 facial geometry, in contrast to their uncaged cousins with 8-hydroxyquinoline (Mq3) and 3-methyl-8

Bernhard, Stefan

18

Effects of nitrogen, oxygen, and moisture on the electron transport in tris,,8-hydroxyquinoline... aluminum  

E-print Network

Effects of nitrogen, oxygen, and moisture on the electron transport in tris,,8-hydroxyquinoline mobilities of tris 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum Alq3 have been examined by time-of-flight TOF technique or during processing. Among all organic charge transporting materials, tris 8- hydroxyquinoline aluminum Alq

So, Shu K.

19

Hole transporting properties of tris,,8-hydroxyquinoline... aluminum ,,Alq3... H. H. Fonga  

E-print Network

Hole transporting properties of tris,,8-hydroxyquinoline... aluminum ,,Alq3... H. H. Fonga and S. K of tris 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum Alq3 were investigated by time-of-flight TOF technique between 278 be desirable to understand the electrical properties of the slow carriers. Tris 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum Alq

So, Shu K.

20

Electron injection and transport in 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have measured the current–voltage characteristics and device efficiency of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum (Alq3) in combination with several cathode layer setups. The electron injection properties of cathode metals evaporated under high vacuum (HV) and ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions are compared. Further, cathodes incorporating a thin layer of lithium fluoride, which is covered with a

M Stößel; J Staudigel; F Steuber; J Blässing; J Simmerer; A Winnacker; H Neuner; D Metzdorf; H.-H Johannes; W Kowalsky

2000-01-01

21

Spin Polarization Properties of Na Doped Meridianal Tris(8-Hydroxyquinoline) Aluminum Studied by First Principles Calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We theoretically investigate the electronic structure and spin polarization properties of Na-doped meridianal tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) by first principles calculations. It is found that the spin density is distributed mainly in the Alq3 part in the Alq3:Na complex. Electron charge transfer takes place from the Na atom to the Alq3 molecule, which induces asymmetric changing of the molecule bond lengths, thus the spin density distribution becomes asymmetric. Spin polarization of the complex originates from the preferable filling of the spin-split nitrogen and carbon p-orbitals because of the different bond length changes of the Alq3 molecule upon Na doping.

Ren, Jun-Feng; Yuan, Xiao-Bo; Hu, Gui-Chao

2014-04-01

22

Experimental and theoretical study of o-substituent effect on the fluorescence of 8-hydroxyquinoline.  

PubMed

The synthesis and characterization of different ether and ester derivatives of 8-hydroxyquinoline have been made. UV-visible and fluorescence spectra of these compounds have revealed spectral dependence on both solvent and O-substituent. The fluorescence intensity of ether derivatives revealed higher intensity for 8-octyloxyquinoline compared with 8-methoxyquinoline, whereas those of ester derivatives had less fluorescence than 8-hydroxyquinoline. Theoretical calculations based on Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) were carried out for the quinolin-8-yl benzoate (8-OateQ) compound to understand the effect of O-substituent on the electronic absorption of 8-hydroxyquinaline (8-HQ). The calculations revealed comparable results with those obtained from the experimental data. Optimized geometrical structure was calculated with DFT at B3LYP/6-311++G** level of theory. The results indicated that 8-OateQ is not a coplanar structure. The absorption spectra of the compound were computed in gas-phase and solvent using B3LYP and CAM-B3LYP methods with 6-311++G ** basis set. The agreement between calculated and experimental wavelengths was very good at CAM-B3LYP/6-311++G** level of theory. PMID:25674853

Zayed, Mohie E M; El-Shishtawy, Reda M; Elroby, Shaaban A; Obaid, Abdullah Y; Al-Amshany, Zahra M

2015-01-01

23

Re-condensation and decomposition of Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)-aluminum in a vapor transport ampoule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By choosing various crystalline forms of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)-aluminum (Alq3) source powders and using different transport gases under various inside-pressures pin, two constitutional supersaturation (CSS) zones were observed in a vapor transport ampoule with a source temperature of 300 °C and a growth period of 5.0 h. From UV-visible spectra, the material in the lower CSS zone (with sidewall temperature Tside?130-270 °C) was the re-condensed Alq3, while that in the upper zone (Tside around room temperature) was the decomposed 8-hydroxyquinoline (8Hq). With increasing pin from 1.3×102 to 9.3×104 Pa, the decomposition of Alq3 into 8Hq was enhanced, and the deposition of 8Hq CSS zone became apparent with the formation of several 8Hq needle crystals. In addition, a dependence of the crystal structure formed in the Alq3 CSS zone on the initial phase of the source powder was observed and discussed.

Kao, Fan-Hsuan; Lin, Ku-Yen; Jan, Da-Jeng; Tang, Shiow-Jing; Yang, Chun-Chuen; Lin, Chia-Her; Yeh, Jui-Ming; Chiu, Kuan-Cheng

2012-10-01

24

Polynorbornene derived 8-hydroxyquinoline paper strips for ultrasensitive chemical nerve agent surrogate sensing.  

PubMed

The detection of nerve agent simulants is achieved by the photoinduced electron transfer (PET) mechanism. A "turn-on" fluorescence response upon phosphorylation at 8-hydroxyquinoline of norbornene-based triazolyl functionalized 8-hydroxyquinoline () followed by intramolecular rearrangement provides very intense green emission. The detection limit of polymer () coated paper strips is 25 ppb with instantaneous response. PMID:24948420

Sarkar, Santu; Shunmugam, Raja

2014-08-11

25

Molecular Orbital Study of the First Excited State of the OLED Material Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum(III)  

E-print Network

Molecular Orbital Study of the First Excited State of the OLED Material Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum, Michigan 48202 Received February 6, 2001. Revised Manuscript Received May 16, 2001 Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum

Schlegel, H. Bernhard

26

Photoluminescence quenching of tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum thin films at interfaces with metal oxide films of different conductivities  

E-print Network

Photoluminescence quenching of tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum thin films at interfaces a comprehensive study of photoluminescence PL quenching of tris- 8-hydroxyquinoline alu- minum Alq3 at interfaces measure for evaporated thin films of tris- 8- hydroxyquinoline aluminum Alq3 on top of tin-oxide SnO2

27

Synthesis and antiproliferative activity of 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives containing a 1,2,3-triazole moiety.  

PubMed

Twelve novel 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives were synthesized with good yields by performing copper-catalyzed Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition ("click" reaction) between an 8-O-alkylated-quinoline containing a terminal alkyne and various aromatic or protected sugar azides. These compounds were evaluated in vitro for their antiproliferative activity on various cancer cell types. Protected sugar derivative 16 was the most active compound in the series, exhibiting potent antiproliferative activity and high selectivity toward ovarian cancer cells (OVCAR-03, GI50 < 0.25 ?g mL(-1)); this derivative was more active than the reference drug doxorubicin (OVCAR-03, GI50 = 0.43 ?g mL(-1)). In structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies, the physico-chemical parameters of the compounds were evaluated and docking calculations were performed for the ?-glucosidase active site to predict the possible mechanism of action of this series of compounds. PMID:25062010

Freitas, Luiza B de O; Borgati, Thiago F; de Freitas, Rossimiriam P; Ruiz, Ana L T G; Marchetti, Gabriela M; de Carvalho, João E; da Cunha, Elaine F F; Ramalho, Teodorico C; Alves, Rosemeire B

2014-09-12

28

Porous silicon optical microcavity for chemical sensing application using tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper reports the study of a porous silicon based microcavity for a potential chemical sensing application using tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) molecules. Porous silicon based planar microcavity was first designed and fabricated using the electrochemical etching technique. Photoluminescence emission of a single porous silicon layer after immersion in an Alq3 solution was first carried out in order to verify that the Alq3 molecules were bound to the porous surface. A wide green band centered at 519 nm, typical of a nano-structured Alq3 film, was observed. Reflectivity measurements of the porous silicon microcavity were then performed for different aluminum concentrations of the Alq3 solution. The microcavity device showed a good sensibility for the Alq3 molecules and an important shift of the microcavity photonic resonance was observed. This device might be considered for a potential aluminiun sensing application.

Bardaoui, A.; Bchir, R.; Hamzaoui, H.; Chtourou, R.

2010-09-01

29

Theoretical study of intramolecular proton transfer in 8-hydroxyquinoline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

8-Hydroxyquinoline (oxine, Figure 1) is a powerful bidentate ligand which allows extraction of metallic traces. Some of the organo-metallic complexes formed with oxine are also known for their biological activity, and are extensively used for their fungicide properties. This theoretical study deals with the intra-molecular hydrogen bonding in oxine: the intramolecular proton transfer pathways from the neutral to the zwitterionic form are computed using ab initio methods for the isolated system and semi-empirical methods (AM1, PM3) for the molecule solvated by nH2O water molecules (nH2O=1 to 3). The most accurate ab initio calculation indicates that the zwitterionic form is less stable than the neutral form, and a minimum on the proton transfer potential energy surface is found. Up to three water molecules, the hydrated zwitterion is still less stable than the neutral form, but the energy difference (?E) diminishes with the number of water molecules nH2O. Extrapolation of the ?E versus nH2O law indicates that the zwitterionic form should be more stable for n?5. The proton transfer barrier and energy differences are strongly sensitive to correlation.

Petit, S.; Coquerel, G.; Langlet, J.; Kassab, E.

1995-04-01

30

Design and synthesis of 8-hydroxyquinoline-based radioprotective agents.  

PubMed

In radiation therapy, adverse side effects are often induced due to the excessive cell death that occurs in radiosensitive normal cells. The radiation-induced cell death of normal cells is caused, at least in part, by apoptosis, which undergoes via activation of p53 and increase in the p53 protein, a zinc-containing transcriptional factor, in response to cellular damage. Therefore, radioprotective drugs that can protect normal cells from radiation and thus suppress adverse side effects would be highly desirable. We report herein on the radioprotective activity of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ) derivatives that were initially designed so as to interact with the Zn(2+) in p53. Indeed, the 5,7-bis(methylaminosulfonyl)-8HQ and 8-methoxyquinoline derivatives considerably protected MOLT-4 cells against ?-ray radiation (10 Gy), accompanied by a low cytotoxicity. However, mechanistic studies revealed that the interaction of these drugs with p53 is weak and the mechanism for inhibiting apoptosis appears to be different from that of previously reported radioprotectors such as bispicen, which inhibits apoptosis via the denaturation of p53 as well as by blocking both transcription-dependent and -independent apoptotic pathways. PMID:25002230

Ariyasu, Shinya; Sawa, Akiko; Morita, Akinori; Hanaya, Kengo; Hoshi, Misato; Takahashi, Ippei; Wang, Bing; Aoki, Shin

2014-08-01

31

Chemistry between Magnesium and Multiple Molecules in Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) Aluminum Films  

E-print Network

Chemistry between Magnesium and Multiple Molecules in Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) Aluminum Films-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) is widely used in modern organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) because of its

Schwartz, Jeffrey

32

The study of 8-Hydroxyquinoline-2-Carboxyllic acid and its metal ion complexing properties.  

E-print Network

??The metal ion coordinating properties of the ligand HQC (8-hydroxyquinoline-2- carboxylic acid) were studied by UV-visible spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. The protonation constants of HQC… (more)

McDonald, F. Crisp Jr.

2009-01-01

33

Distribution of alkaline earth elements between aqueous solutions and polymeric sorbent impregnated with 8-hydroxyquinoline  

SciTech Connect

The interphase distribution of microimpurities of alkaline earth elements (AEE) between solutions of alkali metal chlorides and a macroporous styrene-divinyl-benzene copolymer impregnated with 8-hydroxyquinoline was studied. The influence of the phase composition on the distribution coefficients of AEE and 8-hydroxyquinoline was examined. The advantages of sorption of the impurities by an impregnated sorbent over liquid extraction for thorough purification of salt solutions were shown.

Turanov, A.N.; Kremenskaya, I.N.; Putrya, L.V.

1987-07-01

34

Synthesis and photophysical properties of aluminium tris-(4-morpholine-8-hydroxyquinoline)  

PubMed Central

Aluminium tris(4-morpholinyl-8-hydroxyquinoline) has been synthesized and characterized. The photoluminescence measurements showed that the new derivative is blue shifted and has relative photoluminescence quantum yield two times higher compared to the pristine Al tris(8-hydroxyquinoline). Deferential scanning colorimetric studies revealed that the newly synthesized Alq3 derivative in this work is amorphous material with the highest transition glass temperature value among the reported amorphous Alq3 derivatives.

Omar, Walaa A.E.

2012-01-01

35

Bipolar resistive switching based on bis(8-hydroxyquinoline) cadmium complex: Mechanism and non-volatile memory application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable and persistent bipolar resistive switching was observed in an organic diode with the structure of indium-tin oxide (ITO)/bis(8-hydroxyquinoline) cadmium (Cdq2)/Al. Aggregate formation and electric field driven trapping and de-trapping of charge carriers in the aggregate states that lie in the energy gap of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of the organic molecule were proposed as the mechanism of the observed bipolar resistive switching, and this was solidly supported by the results of AFM investigations. Repeatedly set, read, and reset measurements demonstrated that the device is potentially applicable in non-volatile memories.

Wang, Ying; Yang, Ting; Xie, Ji-Peng; Lü, Wen-Li; Fan, Guo-Ying; Liu, Su

2013-07-01

36

Perylene diimide appended with 8-hydroxyquinoline for ratiometric detection of Cu2+ ions and metal displacement driven "turn on" cyanide sensing.  

PubMed

Perylene diimide (PDI) 3 and 4 appended with 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives have been synthesized and their photophysical and spectroscopic properties have been experimentally determined. Moreover, PDIs 3 and 4 show ratiometric behavior to detect Cu(2+) colorimetrically with visible color change from coral red to light pink, whereas 3 and 4 show "turn-off" behavior in fluorescence with lowest limit of detection 5 × 10(-7) M. The PDI 3 could be further utilized for ratiometric CN(-) detection colorimetrically and as "turn-on" sensor for CN(-) detection fluorometrically with lowest limit of detection 8 × 10(-6) M. The comparison of spectroscopic properties of PDI 1-4 highlights the importance of linking 8-hydroxyquinoline units on the PDI core at bay position for achieving Cu(2+) recognition event into ratiometric signal. PMID:24627119

Singh, Prabhpreet; Mittal, Lalit Singh; Kumar, Sandeep; Bhargava, Gaurav; Kumar, Subodh

2014-05-01

37

Complexes of metals with benzeneazo-8-hydroxyquinoline immobilized on a silica surface  

SciTech Connect

Silochrome with benzeneazo-8-hydroxyquinoline chemically attached to its surface in an amount equal to 0.060-0.076 mmole/g has been obtained. The sorption of Cu/sup 2 +/, Ni/sup 2 +/, and Co/sup 2 +/ ions as a function of their concentration and the ambient pH has been studied. It has been shown that Cu/sup 2 +/, Ni/sup 2 +/, and Co/sup 2 +/ ions form complexes with immobilized benzeneazo-8-hydroxyquinoline with an M:L ratio equal to 1:1 and with the participation of the nitrogen atom in the pyridine ring and the hydroxyl group of 8-hydroxyquinoline.

Kotlyar, S.S.; Tertykh, V.A.; Yanishpol'skii, V.V.

1986-06-01

38

8-Hydroxyquinoline and hydroxamic acid inhibitors of botulinum neurotoxin BoNT/A.  

PubMed

We describe here the state of the art of certain aspects concerning potential small molecule therapy directed toward botulism, by inhibition of the zinc-protease containing light chain (LC) of botulinum neurotoxin BoNT/A from the anaerobic bacillus Clostridium botulinum. Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are comprised of eight serologically-distinct proteins (A - H), several of which are further divided, such as BoNT/A which has five subtypes. The BoNTs are the most toxic substances known to mankind, causing a form of flaccid paralysis that can be rapid and is often lethal. BoNT/A is comprised of a ~100 kDa heavy chain (HC) attached via a single disulfide Cys-Cys bond to a ~50 kDa LC. The HC mediates transport to and uptake by presynaptic glutamatergic neurons, where the LC cleaves the protein SNAP-25 and thus prevents vesicular trafficking and release of acetylcholine. The Zn-endoprotease activity of the LC of BoNT/A is a target for the development of small molecule inhibitors of BoNT/A-mediated toxicity. A variety of BoNT/A LC inhibitors have been described to date and we focus here primarily on the Zn-binding 8-hydroxyquinoline structural type as well as some of the previously-described hydroxamic acids. PMID:25335884

Dickerson, Tobin J; Smith, Garry R; Pelletier, Jeffrey C; Reitz, Allen B

2014-01-01

39

Influence of high hydrostatic pressure on Alq3, Gaq3, and Inq3 (q = 8-hydroxyquinoline).  

PubMed

We have studied the spectroscopic properties of OLED materials Alq(3), Gaq(3) and Inq(3) (q = 8-hydroxyquinoline) under pressure. We discuss the results in terms of the influence of structural modifications, the isomeric state and the enhancement of the intermolecular interaction. As-grown Alq(3), Gaq(3), Inq(3) containing meridional (mer) isomer experience a red shift of nearly 90 nm (2400 cm(-1)) in the 0-8 GPa range. Abrupt changes in the photoluminescence occur during compression at intermediate pressures for all materials. We assign them to a phase transition, its critical pressure depending on the central cation. All three samples experience an amorphization at P approximately 6 GPa, with associated changes in the spectroscopic properties. The pressure-induced phase transitions present hysteresis to ambient conditions. Photoluminescence lifetime decreases in all cases in the explored pressure range. In the case of facial isomer containing polymorphs of Alq(3), luminescence does not change its energy significantly. The most significant spectroscopic change observed in fac-isomer containing materials corresponds to gamma-Alq(3), which presents a low energy component that gains relative importance when pressure is increased. We ascribe this phenomenon to the presence of sensitized mer isomer impurities. PMID:19795819

Hernández, Ignacio; Gillin, William P

2009-10-29

40

Self-assembly of 2-aldehyde-8-hydroxyquinolinate-based lanthanide complexes and NIR luminescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-assembly reaction of 2-aldehyde-8-hydroxyquinoline, tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane and LnCl3?6H2O affords a series of mononuclear lanthanide complexes Ce(baho)2·Et2O (1) (H2baho = 2,8-bis(2-(8-hydroxylquinolinyl))-1-aza-5-hydroxymethyl-3,7-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane), Dy(nhm)2Cl·0.5H2O (2) and Ln(nhm)2Cl·0.5C6H14 (Ln = Ho (3), Er (4), Yb (5) and Hnhm = N-(2-(8-hydroxylquinolinyl)methylene)(trishydroxymethyl)methylamine. The crystal structures have been determined by X-ray crystallographic analysis, and the tetravalence of Ce in 1 has been proven by XPS. Interestingly, the positive charge of Ce4+ ion in 1 is neutralized by two deprotonated baho2- ligands, while two deprotonated nhm- ligands and one Cl- compensate the positive charge of Ln3+ ions in 2-5. Complex 5 exhibit essential NIR luminescence of Yb3+ ion with lifetime of 17.64 ?s in solid and 9.96 ?s in CH3OH solution.

Zhang, Meiqi; Li, Hongfeng; Chen, Peng; Sun, Wenbin; Zhang, Lei; Yan, Pengfei

2015-02-01

41

Synthesis, characterization and DFT calculation of 4-fluorophenyl substituted tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum(III) complexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New 4-fluorophenyl substituted 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives, 5-(4-fluorophenyl)quinolin-8-ol and 5,7-bis(4-fluorophenyl)quinolin-8-ol, were synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic methods. The aluminum complexes of 5-(4-fluorophenyl)quinolin-8-ol (AlQF) and of 5,7-bis(4-fluorophenyl)quinolin-8-ol (AlQF2) exhibit strong fluorescence emission centered at 525 nm and 530 nm respectively. The quantum yield of both complexes were enhanced compared to the parent tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminum(III) complex. Electronic structures and photophysical properties of the new complexes were investigated theoretically by ab initio and density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent DFT (TD-DFT). Geometries of the ground state (S0) and the first excited state (S1) of the new complexes were optimized at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) functional and configuration interaction singles (CIS) method respectively. The aryl substituents were found to contribute significantly to the frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs). We have observed that in both cases the lowest occupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy decreases while the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital is slightly increased. The most significant increase was observed for AlQF2.

Suliman, FakhrEldin O.; Al-Nafai, Isehaq; Al-Busafi, Saleh N.

2014-01-01

42

Tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum thin film as ETL in efficient green phosphorescent OLEDs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum thin film as ETL in green phosphorescent OLEDs improves the device performances to a maximum of 34.2 cd/A, 11.3% with the maximum brightness of 63,150 cd/m2 and broadens the device emission in yellow-green region suitable in the white OLEDs for the lighting applications.

Thangaraju, K.; Kim, Yun-Hi; Kwon, Soon-Ki

2013-02-01

43

8-hydroxyquinoline method for labile and total aluminum in soil extracts  

SciTech Connect

The 8-hydroxyquinoline method was modified to measure kinetically labile Al in aqueous soil extracts containing Al-complexing ligands and to measure total soluble Al after removal of fluoride and origanic C. Nonlabile Al complexed by F, C, Si, and OH in the original samples is calculated as the difference between total and labile forms. The method measured as little as 100 ng of AL in soil extracts and natural water samples. 19 references, 6 figures.

James, B.R.; Clark, C.J.; Riha, S.J.

1983-01-01

44

In vitro selective inhibitory effect of 8-hydroxyquinoline against bifidobacteria and clostridia.  

PubMed

8-Hydroxyquinoline (8HQ) inhibited Clostridium tertium, Clostridium clostridioforme, Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens in vitro with MICs of 8, 16, 32 and 32 ?g/mL, respectively. In contrast, MICs of most bifidobacteria (84%) were 512 ?g/mL or higher. Thus, 8HQ could be used as anti-clostridial agent or in selective media for bifidobacteria isolation. PMID:23770542

Novakova, Jitka; Vlkova, Eva; Bonusova, Bela; Rada, Vojtech; Kokoska, Ladislav

2013-08-01

45

Effects of nitrogen, oxygen, and moisture on the electron transport in tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of nitrogen, oxygen, and moisture on the electron mobilities of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) have been examined by time-of-flight (TOF) technique at room temperature under an applied electric-field range of 0.3-1 MV\\/cm. Our results suggest that both oxygen and water molecules can impede electron conduction in Alq3. Detailed analysis suggests that water molecules induce electron traps even at very

H. H. Fong; S. K. So

2005-01-01

46

Photoluminescence quenching of tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum thin films at interfaces with metal oxide films of different conductivities  

E-print Network

We report a comprehensive study of photoluminescence (PL) quenching of tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq[subscript ]3) at interfaces with thin films of tin oxide (SnO[subscript 2]) using both steady-state and ...

Mei, Jun

47

New 8-hydroxyquinoline galactosides. The role of the sugar in the antiproliferative activity of copper(II) ionophores.  

PubMed

8-Hydroxyquinoline derivatives and their metal complexes have recently awakened interest as promising therapeutic agents in cancer therapy. We have previously synthesized and evaluated glucoconjugated 8-hydroxyquinolines as copper ionophores activated by ?-glucosidases. In order to further evaluate the crucial role of the sugar, we designed and synthesized a series of new galactoconjugates of 8-hydroxyquinolines and investigated their biological properties in comparison with the 8-hydroxyquinoline analogs. The effect of copper(II) ions on their biological activities was evaluated. In particular, two compounds possess a pharmacologically relevant antiproliferative activity against specific tumor cells in the presence of copper(II) ions. Furthermore, the antiproliferative activity of the selected galactosides was successfully investigated in the presence of ?-galactosidase as a preliminary model of antibody directed enzyme prodrug therapy. PMID:25450024

Oliveri, Valentina; Viale, Maurizio; Aiello, Cinzia; Vecchio, Graziella

2014-10-17

48

Synthesis and luminescence properties of polymeric complexes of Cu(II), Zn(II) and Al(III) with 8-hydroxyquinoline side group-containing polystyrene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three kinds of metalloquinolate-containing polystyrene were prepared via a polymer reaction and a coordination reaction. 5-Chloromethyl-8-hydroxyquinoline (CHQ) was first prepared through the chloromethylation reaction of 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ) with 1,4-bichloromethoxy-butane as chloromethylation reagent. A polymer reaction, Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction, was carried out between polystyrene (PS) and CHQ in the presence of Lewis catalyst, and HQ was bonded onto the side chains of PS, obtaining 8-hydroxyquinoline-functionalized Polystyrene, HQ-PS. And then, by using one-pot method with two-stage procedures, the coordination reaction of HQ-PS and small molecule HQ with metal ions including Al(III), Zn(II) and Cu(II) ions, was allowed to be carried out, and three polymeric metalloquinolates, AlQ3-PS, ZnQ2-PS and CuQ2-PS, were successfully prepared, respectively. In the chemical structures of these polymeric metalloquinolates, metalloquinolates were chemically attached onto the side chains of PS. HQ-PS and three polymeric metalloquinolates were fully characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR and TGA. The luminescence properties of the three polymeric metalloquinolates were mainly investigated by UV/Vis absorption spectra and fluorescence emission spectra in solutions and in solid film states. When excited by the ray at about 365 nm, the three polymeric metalloquinolates have blue-green luminescence, and the main emission peaks in the DMF solutions are located at 490, 482 and 502 nm for AlQ3-PS, ZnQ2-PS and CuQ2-PS, respectively. As compared with their emissions in solutions, the emissions in solid film states are red-shifted to some extent, and the main emission peaks are located at 500, 488 and 510 nm for AlQ3-PS, ZnQ2-PS and CuQ2-PS, respectively. Besides, these polymeric metalloquinolates have higher thermal stability than PS as polymeric skeleton.

Gao, Baojiao; Wei, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Yanyan

2013-01-01

49

Intensity and temperature-dependent photoluminescence of tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum films  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the recombination of excitons in tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum films by intensity and temperature dependent time-resolved photoluminescence (PL). At low temperature (15 K) and elevated excitation intensity the radiative emission is quenched by singlet-singlet annihilation processes. With rising temperature the PL quenching is strongly reduced resulting in a PL efficiency maximum at ?170 K. The reduced exciton annihilation is attributed to thermally activated occupation of non-quenchable trapped exciton states. Above 170 K the PL efficiency decreases due to thermal de-trapping of radiative states and subsequent migration to non-radiative centers.

Ajward, A. M.; Wang, X.; Wagner, H. P. [Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221 (United States)

2013-12-04

50

Intensity and temperature-dependent photoluminescence of tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the recombination of excitons in tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum films by intensity and temperature dependent time-resolved photoluminescence (PL). At low temperature (15 K) and elevated excitation intensity the radiative emission is quenched by singlet-singlet annihilation processes. With rising temperature the PL quenching is strongly reduced resulting in a PL efficiency maximum at ˜170 K. The reduced exciton annihilation is attributed to thermally activated occupation of non-quenchable trapped exciton states. Above 170 K the PL efficiency decreases due to thermal de-trapping of radiative states and subsequent migration to non-radiative centers.

Ajward, A. M.; Wang, X.; Wagner, H. P.

2013-12-01

51

Kinetics of the complexation of nickel (II) with 8-hydroxyquinoline in aqueous solution  

SciTech Connect

The complexation of nickel ion (II) with 8-Hydroxyquinoline were studied in aqueous solution for the pH range from 4.6 to 5.4 and the temperature range from 15/degrees/C to 50/degrees/C. The reactions were found to be first-order for the nickel ion concentration and inverse first-order for the hydrogen ion concentration. The formula of the observed rate constant may be expressed as k/sub obs/ = k/sub +1/K/sub H1/ (N/sub i//sup + +/)/(H/sup +/) + k/sub /minus/1/ where k/sub +1/ and k/sub /minus/1/ represent the forward and the backward step reaction rate constant, and K/sub Hl/ is the equilibrium constant for 8-hydroxyquinoline in aqueous solution. Both k/sub +1/ and k/sub /minus/1/ follow Arrhenius equation behavior and the activation energy is calculated as 8.9 Kcal/g-mole for the forward reaction and 10.63 kCal/g-mole for the backward reaction.

Li, K.Y.; Smith, L.L.

1988-10-01

52

Novel acid mono azo dye compound: Synthesis, characterization, vibrational, optical and theoretical investigations of 2-[(E)-(8-hydroxyquinolin-5-yl)-diazenyl]-4,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel acid mono azo dye, 2-[(E)-(8-hydroxyquinolin-5yl)-diazenyl]-4,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid (HQD), was synthesized by coupling diazonium salt solution of 2-amino-4,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid (DMA) with 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ). This dye was characterized by UV-vis, IR & Raman, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic techniques and elemental analysis. The normal coordinate analysis of HQD was also performed to assign each band in vibrational spectra. DFT (B3LYP and B3PW91) calculations were employed to optimize the geometry, to interpret NMR spectra, to calculate and to determine the stable tautomeric structure of the compound. Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis was performed to investigate intramolecular interactions. The vibrational spectral data obtained from solid phase IR & Raman spectra were assigned based on the results of the theoretical calculations. UV-vis spectroscopic technique was employed to obtain the optical band gap of HQD. The analysis of the optical absorption data revealed the existence of direct and indirect transitions in the optical band gaps. The optical band gaps of HQD have been found 1.95 and 1.90 eV for direct and indirect transitions, respectively.

Saçmac?, Mustafa; Çavu?, Hatice Kanbur; Ar?, Hatice; ?ahingöz, Recep; Özpozan, Talat

2012-11-01

53

Thermally stimulated luminescence of naphthyl-substituted benzidine derivative and tris-8-(hydroxyquinoline) aluminum with and without metal layers  

SciTech Connect

Multilayer organic light emitting devices based on tris-8-(hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq{sub 3}) and a naphthyl-substituted benzidine derivative (NPB) have demonstrated practical electroluminescence with a wide range of color. Trap states in these materials play an important role in the carrier transport as well as the light emission process. The authors report the first observation of thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) from Alq{sub 3} and NPB. The TSL spectra from 8K to 300K were used to determine the trap states in Alq{sub 3} and NPB. The results for Alq{sub 3} show a significant trap distribution at 156K, which corresponds to a mean trap depth ranging from 0.18 to 0.12 eV, whereas the trap states in NPB are centered from 0.15 eV to 0.01 eV. The authors have used TSL to study the trap state properties of thin metal layers in the Alq{sub 3} films. In addition, they report photoluminescence as a function of temperature for Alq{sub 3}. TSL spectroscopy provides a technique to study the trap states in a specific layer of the device structure.

Forsythe, E.W.; Morton, D.C.; Gao, Y.

1998-07-01

54

Vinyl polymer agglomerate based transition metal cation chelating ion-exchange resin containing the 8-hydroxyquinoline functional group  

SciTech Connect

A simple synthetic route has been developed for the immobilization of 8-hydroxyquinoline onto Fractogel TSK, a highly porous, mechanically and chemically stable, hydrophilic organic resin gel. The product exhibits an exchange capacity comparable to the highest values reported for silica-immobilized 8-hydroxyquinoline but is more stable at high pH. The resin's selectivity and efficiency of collection of cationic metal species from freshwater and seawater were investigated. The resin was used in a column sequence to obtain concentration and speciation data for Al, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, and Cd in an organic-rich freshwater sample.

Landing, W.M.; Haraldsson, C.; Paxeus, N.

1986-12-01

55

Synthesis and photophysics of novel 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum metal complex with fluorene units.  

PubMed

A novel luminescent metal complex, (MQPF)3Al2, with 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum and 9,9-diphenylfluorene was synthesized. The optical properties were investigated by UV-vis absorption and fluorescence emission spectra. The results showed that the luminescence quantum yield of (MQPF)3Al2 was 0.612 in THF and it emitted red light with the band gap of 3.18 eV estimated from the onset absorption. The emission spectra exhibited obvious solvent effect. With the increase of polarity of solvents the fluorescence spectra changed obviously and appeared blue shift about 60 nm at room temperature. In addition, the light-emitting can be quenched by both electron donor (N,N-dimethylaniline) and electron acceptor (Fullerene), where the processes followed the Stern-Volmer equation. However, when adding 1,4-dicyanobenzene (DCB) which was a stronger electron acceptor to the solution of (MQPF)3Al2, the fluorescent intensity was increased. PMID:17395526

Feng, Liheng; Wang, Xiaoju; Zhao, Sanhu; Chen, Zhaobin

2007-11-01

56

Synthesis and photophysics of novel 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum metal complex with fluorene units  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel luminescent metal complex, (MQPF) 3Al 2, with 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum and 9,9-diphenylfluorene was synthesized. The optical properties were investigated by UV-vis absorption and fluorescence emission spectra. The results showed that the luminescence quantum yield of (MQPF) 3Al 2 was 0.612 in THF and it emitted red light with the band gap of 3.18 eV estimated from the onset absorption. The emission spectra exhibited obvious solvent effect. With the increase of polarity of solvents the fluorescence spectra changed obviously and appeared blue shift about 60 nm at room temperature. In addition, the light-emitting can be quenched by both electron donor ( N, N-dimethylaniline) and electron acceptor (Fullerene), where the processes followed the Stern-Volmer equation. However, when adding 1,4-dicyanobenzene (DCB) which was a stronger electron acceptor to the solution of (MQPF) 3Al 2, the fluorescent intensity was increased.

Feng, Liheng; Wang, Xiaoju; Zhao, Sanhu; Chen, Zhaobin

2007-11-01

57

Magneto-Conductance in Tri-(8-Hydroxyquinoline) Aluminum-Based Organic Light Emitting Diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin of magneto-conductance (MC) in tri-(8-hydroxyquinoline)-aluminum (Alq3)-based organic light emitting diodes is investigated. Our results clearly show that the generated MC is related to the singlet polaron pair dissociation. Further studies on the MC in an electron blocking layer N,N?-bis(lnaphthyl)-N,N?-diphenyl-l,l?-biphentl-4,4?-diamine (NPB) and a hole blocking layer 2,2?,2?-(1,3,5-Benzinetriyl)-tris(1-phenyl-1-H-benzimidazole (TPBi)-based devices indicate that the holes reaching the cathode from the dissociation of singlet polaron pairs on Alq3 are the main cause of the MC generation. It is found that the MC can be significantly reduced by doping a red fluorescence dye DCJTB as a hole trapper in Alq3.

Xu, Kai; Yang, De-Zhi; Ma, Dong-Ge

2013-08-01

58

Kinetics of the complexation of ferric iron with 8-hydroxyquinoline and KELEX 100  

SciTech Connect

The complexation reactions of ferric iron with 8-Hydroxyquinoline and KELEX-100 in both aqueous and methanol solutions were studied by using a stopped-flow spectrophotometer. In the aqueous solutions, the observed rate law was found to be first-order with respect to both iron(III) and oxine and inverse-first-order with respect to the hydrogen ion. While in the methanol solution, the rate law was first-order with respect to iron(III) and KELEX-100. Reaction pathes with the formation of the first complex, FeAS , from either FeT or Fe(OH)S were proposed to explain the observed rate law. The activation energies were found to be 5.5 kcal/g-mole and 15 kcal/g-mole for the aqueous and methanol solutions, respectively.

Ki, K.Y; Lemert, R.M.; Chang, H.K.

1987-01-01

59

Fluorescence quenching determination of metallothioneins using 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulphonic acid-Cd(II) chelate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel method for the determination of metallothioneins (MTs) in urine was developed by fluorescence quenching strategy. The response signals linearly correlated with the concentration of MTs in the ranges of 3.12 × 10-8-1.23 × 10-6 mol L-1, and the limit of detection (LOD) was 9.36 × 10-9 mol L-1. The proposed method avoids the label and derivatization steps in common methods, and is reliable, inexpensive and sensitive. Furthermore, the interaction of MTs and 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulphonic acid (HQS)-Cd(II) chelate was investigated, and a static quenching mode was proposed to be primarily responsible for the fluorescence quenching event. It could provide a promising potential for the detection of the biomacromolecules which have no native fluorescence, and be benefit to extend the application of fluorescence strategy.

Qian, Qiu-Mei; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Zhou, Bin; Xue, Jin-Hua; Li, Le; Wang, Yong-Song; Wang, Jia-Cheng; Yin, Ji-Cheng; Liu, Shan-Du; Zhao, Hui; Liu, Hui

2014-01-01

60

Multifunctional 8-hydroxyquinoline-appended cyclodextrins as new inhibitors of metal-induced protein aggregation.  

PubMed

Mounting evidence suggests a pivotal role of metal imbalances in protein misfolding and amyloid diseases. As such, metal ions represent a promising therapeutic target. In this context, the synthesis of chelators that also contain complementary functionalities to combat the multifactorial nature of neurodegenerative diseases is a highly topical issue. We report two new 8-hydroxyquinoline-appended cyclodextrins and highlight their multifunctional properties, including their Cu(II) and Zn(II) binding abilities, and capacity to act as antioxidants and metal-induced antiaggregants. In particular, the latter property has been applied in the development of an effective assay that exploits the formation of amyloid fibrils when ?-lactoglobulin?A is heated in the presence of metal ions. PMID:24863958

Oliveri, Valentina; Attanasio, Francesco; Puglisi, Antonino; Spencer, John; Sgarlata, Carmelo; Vecchio, Graziella

2014-07-14

61

Fluorescence properties of metal complexes of 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid and chromatographic applications  

SciTech Connect

Seventy-eight metal species are examined for fluorescence properties of their chelates with 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid (HQS); 42 of these fluoresce, many intensely. The optimum pH, determined by ligand ionization vs. hydroxo complex formation, lies between 5 and 8. Cadmium forms the most fluorescent complex in a purely aqueous solution. Fluorescence is enhanced for many metals in surfactant (hexadecyltrimethylammonium ion, HTA/sup +/) containing media and in a water:dimethylformamide solvent. A number of metal ions quench the fluorescence of other metal-HQS chelates, Fe(III) being by far the most effective, and such quenching is accentuated in media containing HTA/sup +/. The fluorescence properties can be exploited by introducing the ligand through a postcolumn reactor or by incorporating it in the eluent in a chromatographic system. Subpicomole detection limits are attainable for Cd, Mg, and Zn.

Soroka, K.; Vithanage, R.S.; Phillips, D.A.; Walker, B.; Dasgupta, P.K.

1987-02-15

62

The dielectric response of 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum used in multilayer organic devices  

SciTech Connect

The authors present optical measurements of 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum (Alq{sub 3}) a metal-chelate complex which is an important material used for multilayer light emitting diodes. Thin films of Alq{sub 3} produced by vacuum deposition were investigated by transmission and reflectance spectroscopy, and the dielectric coefficients in the near IR to UV-Vis energy range were calculated. Kramers-Kronig analysis was used to determine the real and imaginary dielectric spectral dependence of the thin films. Values obtained by internal field distribution measurements in organic double layer LED's are compared to those determined from optical data. A near-IR value of epsilon (real component) close to 3 was obtained from optical measurements.

Niko, A.; Hochfilzer, C.; Jost, T.; Graupner, W.; Leising, G.

1998-07-01

63

Fluorescence quenching determination of metallothioneins using 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulphonic acid-Cd(II) chelate.  

PubMed

A novel method for the determination of metallothioneins (MTs) in urine was developed by fluorescence quenching strategy. The response signals linearly correlated with the concentration of MTs in the ranges of 3.12×10(-8)-1.23×10(-6) mol L(-1), and the limit of detection (LOD) was 9.36×10(-9) mol L(-1). The proposed method avoids the label and derivatization steps in common methods, and is reliable, inexpensive and sensitive. Furthermore, the interaction of MTs and 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulphonic acid (HQS)-Cd(II) chelate was investigated, and a static quenching mode was proposed to be primarily responsible for the fluorescence quenching event. It could provide a promising potential for the detection of the biomacromolecules which have no native fluorescence, and be benefit to extend the application of fluorescence strategy. PMID:24161863

Qian, Qiu-Mei; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Zhou, Bin; Xue, Jin-Hua; Li, Le; Wang, Yong-Song; Wang, Jia-Cheng; Yin, Ji-Cheng; Liu, Shan-Du; Zhao, Hui; Liu, Hui

2014-01-24

64

Interaction of 8-Hydroxyquinoline with Soil Environment Mediates Its Ecological Function  

PubMed Central

Background Allelopathic functions of plant-released chemicals are often studied through growth bioassays assuming that these chemicals will directly impact plant growth. This overlooks the role of soil factors in mediating allelopathic activities of chemicals, particularly non-volatiles. Here we examined the allelopathic potential of 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ), a chemical reported to be exuded from the roots of Centaurea diffusa. Methodology/Principal Findings Growth bioassays and HQ recovery experiments were performed in HQ-treated soils (non-sterile, sterile, organic matter-enriched and glucose-amended) and untreated control soil. Root growth of either Brassica campestris or Phalaris minor was not affected in HQ-treated non-sterile soil. Soil modifications (organic matter and glucose amendments) could not enhance the recovery of HQ in soil, which further supports the observation that HQ is not likely to be an allelopathic compound. Hydroxyquinoline-treated soil had lower values for the CO2 release compared to untreated non-sterile soil. Soil sterilization significantly influenced the organic matter content, PO4-P and total organic nitrogen levels. Conclusion/Significance Here, we concluded that evaluation of the effect of a chemical on plant growth is not enough in evaluating the ecological role of a chemical in plant-plant interactions. Interaction of the chemical with soil factors largely determines the impact of HQ on plant growth. PMID:20877629

Inderjit; Bajpai, Devika; Rajeswari, M. S.

2010-01-01

65

Different 8-hydroxyquinolines protect models of TDP-43 protein, ?-synuclein, and polyglutamine proteotoxicity through distinct mechanisms.  

PubMed

No current therapies target the underlying cellular pathologies of age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Model organisms provide a platform for discovering compounds that protect against the toxic, misfolded proteins that initiate these diseases. One such protein, TDP-43, is implicated in multiple neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. In yeast, TDP-43 expression is toxic, and genetic modifiers first discovered in yeast have proven to modulate TDP-43 toxicity in both neurons and humans. Here, we describe a phenotypic screen for small molecules that reverse TDP-43 toxicity in yeast. One group of hit compounds was 8-hydroxyquinolines (8-OHQ), a class of clinically relevant bioactive metal chelators related to clioquinol. Surprisingly, in otherwise wild-type yeast cells, different 8-OHQs had selectivity for rescuing the distinct toxicities caused by the expression of TDP-43, ?-synuclein, or polyglutamine proteins. In fact, each 8-OHQ synergized with the other, clearly establishing that they function in different ways. Comparative growth and molecular analyses also revealed that 8-OHQs have distinct metal chelation and ionophore activities. The diverse bioactivity of 8-OHQs indicates that altering different aspects of metal homeostasis and/or metalloprotein activity elicits distinct protective mechanisms against several neurotoxic proteins. Indeed, phase II clinical trials of an 8-OHQ has produced encouraging results in modifying Alzheimer disease. Our unbiased identification of 8-OHQs in a yeast TDP-43 toxicity model suggests that tailoring 8-OHQ activity to a particular neurodegenerative disease may be a viable therapeutic strategy. PMID:22147697

Tardiff, Daniel F; Tucci, Michelle L; Caldwell, Kim A; Caldwell, Guy A; Lindquist, Susan

2012-02-01

66

Fluorescent complexes of nucleic acids/8-hydroxyquinoline/lanthanum(III) and the fluorometry of nucleic acids  

SciTech Connect

The ternary fluorescent complexes of nucleic acids/8-hydroxyquinoline/lanthanum (III) were studied. Nucleic acids in the study involve natured and thermally denatured calf thymus DNA, fish sperm DNA and yeast RNA. In the range of PH 8.0-8.4 (controlled by NH{sub 3}-NH{sub 4}Cl buffer) ternary fluorescent complexes are formed which emit at 485.0 nm for calf thymus DNA and at 480.0 nm for fish sperm DNA when excited at 265.0 nm. Based on the fluorescence reactions sensitive fluorometric methods for nucleic acids were proposed. Using optimal conditions, the calibration curves were linear in the range of 0.4 --3.6 {mu}g{sup .}ml{sup -1} for calf thymus DNA, 0.4 -- 4.0 {mu}g{sup .}ml{sup -1} for fish sperm DNA and 0.4 --4.0{mu}g{sup .}ml{sup -1} for yeast RNA, respectively. Five synthetic samples were determined with satisfaction.

Cheng Zhi Huang; Ke An Li; Shen Yang Tong [Peking Univ., Beijing (China)

1996-07-01

67

White light emission from exciplex using tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum as chromaticity-tuning layer  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate efficient organic white light-emitting devices (LEDs), using N,N{prime}-diphenyl-N,N{prime}-bis(1-naphthyl){endash}(1,1{prime}-biphenyl)-4,4{prime}-diamine (NPB) as the hole-transporting layer, 1,6-bis(2-hydroxyphenyl)pyridine boron complex [(dppy)BF] as the emitting layer, tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq) as the electron-transporting and chromaticity-tuning layer. The white light comes from exciplex emission at the solid-state interface between (dppy)BF and NPB in addition to the exciton emission from NPB and (dppy)BF, respectively. The chromaticity of white emission can be tuned by adjusting the thickness of the Alq layer. The white LEDs with an Alq thickness of 15 nm exhibit a maximum luminescence of 2000 cd/m2 and efficiency of 0.58 lm/W, and the Commission Internationale De l{close_quote}Eclairage coordinates of resulting emission vary from (0.29,0.33) to (0.31,0.35) with increasing forward bias from 10 to 25 V. The region is very close to the equienergy white point (0.33,0.33). {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

Feng, Jing; Li, Feng; Gao, Wenbao; Liu, Shiyong; Liu, Yu; Wang, Yue

2001-06-18

68

Investigation of aromatase inhibitory activity of metal complexes of 8-hydroxyquinoline and uracil derivatives  

PubMed Central

Purpose Estrogens play important roles in the pathogenesis and progression of breast cancer as well as estrogen-related diseases. Aromatase is a key enzyme in the rate-limiting step of estrogen production, in which its inhibition is one strategy for controlling estrogen levels to improve prognosis of estrogen-related cancers and diseases. Herein, a series of metal (Mn, Cu, and Ni) complexes of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ) and uracil derivatives (4–9) were investigated for their aromatase inhibitory and cytotoxic activities. Methods The aromatase inhibition assay was performed according to a Gentest™ kit using CYP19 enzyme, wherein ketoconazole and letrozole were used as reference drugs. The cytotoxicity was tested on normal embryonic lung cells (MRC-5) using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Results Only Cu complexes (6 and 9) exhibited aromatase inhibitory effect with IC50 0.30 and 1.7 ?M, respectively. Cytotoxicity test against MRC-5 cells showed that Mn and Cu complexes (5 and 6), as well as free ligand 8HQ, exhibited activity with IC50 range 0.74–6.27 ?M. Conclusion Cu complexes (6 and 9) were found to act as a novel class of aromatase inhibitor. Our findings suggest that these 8HQ–Cu–uracil complexes are promising agents that could be potentially developed as a selective anticancer agent for breast cancer and other estrogen-related diseases. PMID:25152615

Prachayasittikul, Veda; Pingaew, Ratchanok; Nantasenamat, Chanin; Prachayasittikul, Supaluk; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

2014-01-01

69

Morphological effects in the chemical and photoluminescent behavior of aluminum tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) (AlQ{sub 3})  

SciTech Connect

Light emitting diodes (LEDs) based either on sublimable organics or polymeric materials have attracted considerable attention from both the scientific and technological fields. Aluminum tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) (Alq{sub 3}) is presently considered one of the most reliable electron transporting and emitting materials for molecular-based organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). This paper discusses the effects of sample morphology on the hydrolysis and photoluminescence response of Alq{sub 3}. The evolution of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-Hq), a volatile byproduct of the hydrolysis of Alq{sub 3}, was quantified using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) analysis on samples of different morphology. Annealed (more crystalline) samples exhibited greater chemical stability than freshly sublimed films, at the expense of photoluminescence efficiency. These phenomena are discussed with respect to possible failure mechanisms that Alq{sub 3}-based OLEDs might undergo during prolonged operation.

Higginson, K.A.; Zhang, X.M.; Papadimitrakopoulos, F.

1998-07-01

70

The use of 8-hydroxyquinoline for the isolation and prequalification of plant growth-stimulating rhizosphere pseudomonads  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8OHQ) in a low-iron medium is demonstrated to be an important selective agent providing a simple and non-laborious method in the search for plant growth-stimulating and antagonistic fluorescent pseudomonads. Eleven isolates obtained from low-iron plates containing 120 ppm 8OHQ possessed similar or even better antagonistic properties in vitro than the reference strains Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS 374

F. P. Geels; E. D. L. Schmidt; B. Schippers

1985-01-01

71

Effects of Anthracene Doping on Electrical and Light-Emitting Behavior of 8-Hydroxyquinoline-Aluminum-Based Electroluminescent Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic electroluminescent (EL) cells consisting of an anthracene-doped 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum light-emitting layer and a hole transport layer were prepared by co-evaporation, and their electrical and light-emitting behavior was examined. It was confirmed that anthracene doping increased the available current density of the EL cells and EL efficiency, which caused an increase in EL brightness. However, the EL spectrum was only slightly affected by the anthracene doping.

Takeuchi, Manabu; Masui, Hisashi; Kikuma, Isao; Masui, Masayoshi; Muranoi, Tetsuo; Wada, Tatsuaki

1992-04-01

72

Two-dimensional optical waveguiding and luminescence vapochromic properties of 8-hydroxyquinoline zinc (Znq2) hexagonal microsheets.  

PubMed

Two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal microsheets of 8-hydroxyquinoline zinc (Znq2) were synthesized readily via a mixed solvent induced self-assembly method. The 2D optical waveguiding properties of the microsheets have been clearly revealed by both fluorescence microscopy and confocal microscopy. In addition, the reversible vapochromic properties of the microsheets have also been demonstrated when the Znq2 is exposed to HCl and NH3 vapors. PMID:25087552

Sun, Yan-Qiu; Lei, Yi-Long; Gao, Jing; Sun, Xu-Hui; Lin, Sheng-Huang; Bao, Qiao-Liang; Liao, Qing; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Liao, Liang-Sheng

2014-09-25

73

Physical and chemical aging of aluminum(III) 8-hydroxyquinoline: Failure and materials design in organic light-emitting diodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical and physical aging of aluminum(III) 8-hydroxyquinoline (Alq3) films was studied by a variety of techniques. The products of these mechanisms produce electron trap states below the conduction band, or lowest unoccupied molecular orbital level (LUMO), of Alq3. The distribution of these trap states was shown to affect the charge transport and luminescence characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs)

Keith Andrew Higginson

1999-01-01

74

The Nature of Chemical Impurities Formed during Degradation o Aluminum(III) 8Hydroxyquinoline: Implications for Organic Light-Emitting Diodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical degradation of aluminum tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) (Alq3) films and powders was studied by a variety of techniques. The thermal decomposition of Alq3, observed chiefly through the evolution of the byproduct 8-hydroxyquinoline (Hq), was characterized with gas chromatography and rate data were measured in order to extrapolate its importance at device operating conditions. Electrochemical reduction of Alq3 was also found to

Fotios Papadimitrakopoulos; D. L. Thomsen; Keith Higginson

2000-01-01

75

Human platelets labeled with In-111 8-hydroxyquinoline: kinetics, distribution, and estimates of radiation dose  

SciTech Connect

Platelets from nine normal male subjects were labeled with In-111 8-hydroxyquinoline (In-111 oxine) in the presence of plasma in either ''closed'' blood transfer packs or in ''open'' test tubes. The mean labeling efficiencies in these two systems were 27 and 53%, respectively. Mean survival time of In-111-labeled autologous platelets was 8.76 days, with a standard deviation of 1.05 according to the maximum-likelihood estimate of the gamma-function model. The initial recovery of In-111 platelets in the circulation was 57% with a standard deviation of 11%. The distribution of In-111 platelets in liver and spleen was quantitated by anterior, posterior, and transmission gamma-camera imaging. During the first 30 min, 38% of the injected dose accumulated in the spleen, 13% in the liver. No significant increase in In-111 radioactivity was observed in either of the two organs over a 3-9-day period. The bone marrow was an additional site of In-111 accumulation. The spleen was the critical organ with respect to radiation dose. The splenic dose was estimated to be 34 rad/mCi In-111 platelets, that of the liver 2.1 rad/mCi. With the injection of 100-150 microCi of In-111-labeled platelets in normal subjects, giving a splenic radiation of 5 rad, a complete 10-day survival study can be performed and uptake of In-111 in different organs can be measured quantitatively for at least 3-4 days.

Scheffel, U.; Tsan, M.F.; Mitchell, T.G.; Camargo, E.E.; Braine, H.; Ezekowitz, M.D.; Nickoloff, E.L.; Hill-Zobel, R.; Murphy, E.; McIntyre, P.A.

1982-02-01

76

The importance of holes in aluminium tris-8-hydroxyquinoline (Alq3) devices with Fe and NiFe contacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study the dominant charge carrier polarity in aluminium tris-8-hydroxyquinoline (Alq3) based spin valves, single Alq3 layer devices with NiFe, ITO, Fe, and aluminium electrodes were fabricated and characterised by Time of Flight (ToF) and Dark Injection (DI) techniques, yielding a lower hole mobility compared to electron mobility. We compare the mobility measured by DI for the dominant carrier injected from NiFe and Fe electrodes into Alq3, to that of holes measured by ToF. This comparison leads us to conclude that the dominant charge carriers in Alq3 based spin valves with NiFe or Fe electrodes are holes.

Zhang, Hongtao; Desai, P.; Zhan, Y. Q.; Drew, A. J.; Gillin, W. P.; Kreouzis, T.

2014-01-01

77

Analysis of liquid extraction for hydrometallurgical systems: Iron (III) sulfate-. beta. -alkenyl-8-hydroxyquinoline/xylene system  

SciTech Connect

The performance of a continuous-flow stirred tank hydrometallurgical extractor has been simulated. Two models are used for such simulations: a noninteraction model based on macroscopic material balances and an interaction model featuring a stochastic treatment of the microscopic hydrodynamics of the dispersion. The models incorporate equilibrium and intrinsic kinetic expressions pertaining to chemical system of hydrometallurgical interest: iron(III) sulfate-..beta..-alkenyl-8-hydroxyquinoline/xylene. Comparison between the model predictions and the experimental results indicates the interaction model to be more accurate than the noninteraction model.

Savastano, C.A.; Bapat, P.M.; Lee, C.K.; Tavlarides, L.L.

1987-01-01

78

Some features of electro-optical properties of polymeric compositions doped with 8-hydroxyquinoline based azodyes and their cobalt complexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymeric composites based on the copolymer butyl methacrylate: nonyl methacrylate (3:1) doped 8-hydroxyquinoline azo dyes with donor and acceptor substitutes and their complexes with cobalt are obtained. The influence of the external electric field on the polymeric films transmission of linear polarized light in the long-wave part of the azo dyes absorption range, (corresponding ??* azo fragments absorption range) and their metal complexes are observed. The influence of the electric field on the transmission is connected with the aligning forces for dipole moments of azobenzene groups and metal ions.

Davidenko, N. A.; Davidenko, I. I.; Savchenko, I. A.; Sinyugina, A. T.; Studzinsky, S. L.; Tonkopieva, L. S.; Deberdeev, T. R.; Kolendo, A. Yu.; Zaikov, G. E.

2014-05-01

79

METAL ION PRECONCENTRATION WITH AMBERLITE XAD-2 FUNCTIONALIZED WITH 5PALMITOYL8HYDROXYQUINOLINE AND ITS ANALYTICAL APPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Amberlite XAD-2 resin, functionalized with 5-palmitoyl-8-hydroxyquinoline, was prepared and used for the preconcentration of Fe(III), Cr(III), Cu(II), Cd(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Pb(II) prior to their determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Both batch and column sorption studies were carried out. The optimum pH range is between 4.5–6.0, for all the metal ions. All these metal ions can be desorbed

Hayati Filik

2002-01-01

80

Modeling of Space-Charge and Field Distribution in Tris-8-Hydroxyquinoline Aluminum based Organic Light Emitting Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modeling of Space-Charge and Field Distribution in Tris-8-Hydroxyquinoline Aluminum based Organic Light Emitting Devices Vincent V. Dinh, Univ of California, Dept of Applied Science, Davis at Livermore, CA; Gil R. Delgado, Louis J. Terminello, Howard W. Lee, Tony Van Buuren, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Chemistry and Material Science Directorate, Livermore, CA. Tris-8-Hydroxyquinoline Aluminum (Alq3) has been the subject of much interest due to its use as an electron transport and light emissive host in organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). Carrier injection and transport properties are of great importance in determining device performance and lifetime. But the fundamental charge and field distributions in Alq3 are not well understood. In this report we study the effects of variable electron and hole lifetimes on the distribution functions. In addition we also look at the effects of various injection rates. Our first order approximation predicts narrow recombination regions. This and the effects of injection rates and lifetimes on the charge and field distributions will be discussed in the context of OLED degradation. Vincent V. Dinh acknowledges a fellowship from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The work is supported by the US-DOE, BES Material Science under contract W-7405-ENG-48, LLNL.

Dinh, Vincent; Delgado, Gil; Terminello, Louis; van Buuren, Tony; Lee, Howard

2000-03-01

81

Modulating the near-infrared luminescence of neodymium and ytterbium complexes with tridentate ligands based on benzoxazole-substituted 8-hydroxyquinolines.  

PubMed

An improved synthesis of 2-(2'-benzothiazole)- and 2-(2'-benzoxazole)-8-hydroxyquinoline ligands that combine a tridentate N,N,O-chelating unit for metal binding and extended chromophore for light harvesting is developed. The 2-(2'-benzoxazole)-8-hydroxyquinoline ligands form mononuclear nine-coordinate complexes with neodymium, [Nd(kappa(3)-ligand)(3)], and an eight-coordinate complex with ytterbium, [Yb(kappa(3)-ligand)(2) x (kappa(1)-ligand) x H(2)O], as verified by crystallographic characterization of five complexes with four different ligands. The chemical stability of the complexes increases when the ligand contains 5,7-dihalo-8-hydroxyquinoline versus an 8-hydroxyquinoline group. The complexes feature a ligand-centered visible absorption band with a maximum at 508-527 nm and an intensity of (7.5-9.6) x 10(3) M(-1) x cm(-1). Upon excitation with UV and visible light within ligand absorption transitions, the complexes display characteristic lanthanide luminescence in the near-infrared at 850-1450 nm with quantum yields and lifetimes in the solid state at room temperature as high as 0.33% and 1.88 micros, respectively. The lanthanide luminescence in the complexes is enhanced upon halogenation of the 5,7-positions in the 8-hydroxyquinoline group and upon the addition of electron-donating substituents to the benzoxazole ring. Facile modification of chromophore units in 2-(2'-benzoxazole)-8-hydroxyquinoline ligands provides means for controlling the luminescence properties of their lanthanide complexes. PMID:19245256

Shavaleev, Nail M; Scopelliti, Rosario; Gumy, Frédéric; Bünzli, Jean-Claude G

2009-04-01

82

In situ monitoring of thermal crystallization of ultrathin tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum films using surface-enhanced Raman scattering.  

PubMed

Thermal crystallization of 3, 10, and 60 nm-thick tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) films is studied using surface-enhanced Raman scattering with a constant heating rate. An abrupt higher frequency shift of the quinoline-stretching mode is found to be an indication of a phase transition of Alq3 molecules from amorphous to crystalline. While the 60 nm-thick film shows the same crystallization temperature as a bulk sample, the thinner films were found to have a lower crystallization temperature and slower rate of crystallization. Non-isothermal kinetics analysis is performed to quantify kinetic properties such as the Avrami exponent constants and crystallization rates of ultrathin Alq3 films. PMID:24405952

Muraki, Naoki

2014-01-01

83

Biosynthesis of 8-hydroxyquinoline-2-carboxylic acid, an iron chelator from the gut of the lepidopteran Spodoptera littoralis.  

PubMed

In the regurgitate (foregut content) of Spodoptera larvae we found high concentrations (0.5-5 mM) of 8-hydroxyquinoline-2-carboxylic acid (8-HQA). In a survey of different lepidopteran species, this compound was only detected in species belonging to the family of Noctuidae. 8-HQA was shown to derive from tryptophan metabolism. The amount of 8-HQA in the regurgitate was strongly dependent on the tryptophan content of the diet. In the insect 8-HQA is generated from tryptophan via kynurenine and 3-hydroxykynurenine. 8-HQA is produced by the larvae and not by their commensal gut bacteria. Analysis of different life stages of Spodoptera larvae revealed that 8-HQA is formed during the larval stage, probably acting as an iron chelator to control the gut microbiome. PMID:25356857

Pesek, Jelena; Svoboda, Ji?í; Sattler, Martina; Bartram, Stefan; Boland, Wilhelm

2015-01-01

84

Determination of trace metals in seawater by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with preconcentration on silica-immobilized 8-hydroxyquinoline  

SciTech Connect

The application of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to the determination of eight trace metals in a coastal seawater reference material is described. Accurate calibration has been achieved for Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb by standard additions techniques, while stable isotopes dilution has been applied for Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb. In both cases the race metals were separated from the seawater and concentrated 50-fold by adsorption on silica-immobilized 8-hydroxyquinoline prior to instrumental determination. Detection limits are in the range from 0.2 to 2 ng L/sup -1/, low enough to permit the analysis of even open ocean samples. 12 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

McLaren, J.W.; Mykytiuk, A.P.; Willie, S.N.; Berman, S.S.

1985-12-01

85

Experimental and DFT studies of (E)-2-[2-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)ethenyl]-8-hydroxyquinoline: Electronic and vibrational properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The title molecule (E)-2-[2-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)ethenyl]-8-hydroxyquinoline (DPEQ) was synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, UV-vis, NMR spectroscopy. The molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies and gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) 1H and 13C NMR chemical shift values of the compound in the ground state have been calculated by using the density functional theory (DFT) method. All the assignments of the theoretical frequencies were performed by potential energy distributions using VEDA 4 program. The calculated results indicate that the theoretical vibrational frequencies, 1H and 13C NMR chemical shift values show good agreement with experimental data. The electronic properties like UV-vis spectral analysis and HOMO-LUMO analysis of DPEQ have been reported and compared with experimental data. Information about the size, shape, charge density distribution and site of chemical reactivity of the molecule has been obtained by mapping electron density isosurface with molecular electrostatic potential (MEP).

Sun, Wenqi; Yuan, Guozan; Liu, Jingxin; Ma, Li; Liu, Chengbu

2013-04-01

86

An Introduction to Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares: Spectrophotometric Study of the Acid-Base Equilibria of 8-Hydroxyquinoline-5-Sulfonic Acid  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A spectrophotometric study of the acid-base equilibria of 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid to describe the multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares algorithm (MCR-ALS) is described. The algorithm provides a lot of information and hence is of great importance for the chemometrics research.

Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Cristina; Amigo, Jose Manuel; Coello, Jordi; Maspoch, Santiago

2007-01-01

87

A tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum-based organic bistable device using ITO surfaces modified by Ag nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3)-based organic bistable device (OBD) using Al electrode and ITO electrode modified by Ag nanoparticles (NPs) was reported. The OBD exhibits high ON/OFF switching ratios in the range of 102-103 and long retention time over 104 s. The influence of the Ag NPs densities, as well as the Alq3 film thickness on the switch performance current-voltage (I-V) of the OBDs was studied. Correlation between filament formation mechanism and charge storage mechanism was observed by analysing the I-V characteristics of OBDs with different Alq3 film thickness. As for the Alq3 film with thickness of 300 nm, the trapping effect of Ag NPs leads to both ON and OFF states for OBD; for 100 nm thick Alq3 film, the effect of filamentation dominates in the ON and OFF states of OBD. For the case of 200 nm thick Alq3 film, however, the ON state results from the filamentation effect, while trapping effect is responsible for the OFF state. In addition, the diffusion effect of Al atoms in Alq3 film in the devices was discussed and was expected to explain this thickness-dependence relationship.

Jiao, Bo; Wu, Zhaoxin; Dong, Hua; Ning, Shuya; Hou, Xun

2013-11-01

88

Direct Observation of Charge Carriers in Highly Magnesium-Doped Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) Aluminum Thin Film by Electron Spin Resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on an electron spin resonance (ESR) study of a tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) thin film doped highly with Mg. We observed a clear ESR signal of radical anions in the film prepared by coevaporating Alq3 and Mg (Alq3:Mg= 1:3). The g value and peak-to-peak ESR linewidth ?Hpp are obtained as 2.0030 and 2.24 mT, respectively, which coincide well with the reported values of an Alq3 thin film with a low Mg doping concentration. The spin susceptibility of the film was found to obey Curie's law, which indicates that no interaction exists between spins of Alq3 anions. The doped charges are found to be localized at deep trapping sites by lineshape analysis and from the temperature dependence of ?Hpp. The doping concentration was evaluated to be 4.3%. This low doping concentration can be explained by the formation of Mg clusters in the film, which was directly confirmed by transmission electron microscopy.

Son, Donghyun; Shimoi, Yukihiro; Kizuka, Tokushi; Marumoto, Kazuhiro

2013-05-01

89

Photoluminescence of Alq3 - and Tb-activated aluminium-tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) complex for blue chip-excited OLEDs.  

PubMed

The tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)-aluminium complex is the most important and widely studied as electron transporting and green light emitting material. Alq(3) and Tb(x) Al((1-x)) q(3) have been synthesized (where x = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 0.9) and blended films of Alq(3) and Tb(x) Al((1-x)) q(3) with PMMA and PS at different percentage weight (wt%) concentrations (e.g., 0.1, 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50 wt%) have been prepared. The synthesized materials and their blended thin films have been characterized by a photoluminescence (PL) technique; the synthesis and PL characterization are reported in this paper. The synthesized metal complex shows bright emission of green light with blue light excitation (440 nm) and the prepared Tb(x) Al((1-x)) q(3) phosphor may be applicable in blue chip-excited OLEDs for the newly developed wallpaper lighting technology. PMID:22733610

Yawalkar, P W; Dhoble, S J; Thejo Kalyani, N; Atram, R G; Kokode, N S

2013-01-01

90

Indium-tin-oxide-free tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) Al organic light-emitting diodes with 80% enhanced power efficiency  

SciTech Connect

Efficient indium tin oxide (ITO)-free small molecule organic light-emitting diodes (SMOLEDs) with multilayered highly conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as the anode are demonstrated. PEDOT:PSS/MoO{sub 3}/N,N'-diphenyl- N,N'-bis(1-naphthylphenyl)-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (NPD)/tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) Al (Alq{sub 3})/4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BPhen)/LiF/Al SMOLEDs exhibited a peak power efficiency of 3.82 lm/W, 81% higher than that of similar ITO-based SMOLEDs (2.11 lm/W). The improved performance is believed to be due to the higher work function, lower refractive index, and decreased surface roughness of PEDOT:PSS vs ITO, and to Ohmic hole injection from PEDOT:PSS to the NPD layer via the MoO{sub 3} interlayer. The results demonstrate that PEDOT:PSS can substitute ITO in SMOLEDs with strongly improved device performance.

Cai, Min; Xiao, Teng; Liu, Rui; Chen, Ying; Shinar, Ruth; Shinar, Joseph

2011-10-11

91

Synthesis, Characterization, and Antibacterial Studies of Mixed Ligand Dioxouranium Complexes with 8-Hydroxyquinoline and Some Amino Acids  

PubMed Central

Mixed ligand complexes of dioxouranium (VI) of the type [UO2(Q)(L)·2H2O] have been synthesized using 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ) as a primary ligand and amino acids (HL) such as L-threonine, L-tryptophan, and L-isoleucine as secondary ligands. The metal complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, electrical conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurements, and spectral and thermal studies. The electrical conductance studies of the complexes indicate their nonelectrolytic nature. Magnetic susceptibility measurements revealed diamagnetic nature of the complexes. Electronic absorption spectra of the complexes show intraligand and charge transfer transitions, respectively. Bonding of the metal ion through N- and O-donor atoms of the ligands is revealed by IR studies, and the chemical environment of the protons is confirmed by NMR studies. The thermal analysis data of the complexes indicate the presence of coordinated water molecules. The agar cup and tube dilution methods have been used to study the antibacterial activity of the complexes against the pathogenic bacteria S. aureus, C. diphtheriae, S. typhi, and E. coli. PMID:22389843

Patil, Sunil S.; Thakur, Ganesh A.; Shaikh, Manzoor M.

2011-01-01

92

Extraction of Pm(III) and Gd(III) by 8-hydroxyquinoline and some related amines in chloroform from nitrate medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of the trivalent radioactive lanthanides (Ln), Pm and Gd from nitrate aqueous medium by 8-hydroxyquinoline (HOX) and\\/or trilaurylamine (TLA), trioctylamine (TOA), tributylamine (TBA), tripropylamine (TPA) or triallylamine (TAA),L, in chloroform was investigated. The chemical formulae of the extracted organic phase species for both lanthanides were found Ln.NOâ.(OX)â for the chelate and Ln.NOâ(OX)â.L for the adduct. The respective extraction

F. A. Shehata; S. M. Khalifa; S. I. El-Dessouky; H. F. Aly

1993-01-01

93

EXTRACTION OF Pm(III) AND Gd(III) BY 8HYDROXYQUINOLINE AND SOHE RELATED AMINES IN CHLOROFORM FROM NITRATE MEDIUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of the trivalent radioactive lantha-nides ( Ln) Pm and Gd from nitrate aqueous medium by 8-hydroxyquinoline ( HOX) and\\/or trilaurylamine ( TLA) trioctylamine ( TOA) tributylamine ( TBA),tripropylamine (TPA) or triallylamine (TAA ),L, in chloroform was investigated. The chemical formulae of the extracted organic phase species for both lanthanides were found Ln.NO3.( OX) for the chelate and Ln.NO3(

F. A. Shehata; S. I. El-Dessouky; H. F. Aly

1993-01-01

94

Aspects thermodynamiques et cinétiques de la complexation de cations métalliques (Cu²+ et Ni²+) par la 5-phénylazo-8-hydroxyquinoline (5Ph8HQ) et le cyclame greffés sur des nanoparticules de silice en suspension colloïdale.  

E-print Network

??Nous avons considéré autant les aspects thermodynamiques que cinétiques de la complexation d'ions métalliques (Cu2+ et Ni2+) par la 5-phénylazo-8-hydroxyquinoline (5Ph8HQ) et le cyclame greffés… (more)

Rose-Hélène, Maureen

2011-01-01

95

8-Hydroxyquinoline Schiff-base compounds as antioxidants and modulators of copper-mediated A? peptide aggregation.  

PubMed

One of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the brain are amyloid-? (A?) plaques, and metal ions such as copper(II) and zinc(II) have been shown to play a role in the aggregation and toxicity of the A? peptide, the major constituent of these extracellular aggregates. Metal binding agents can promote the disaggregation of A? plaques, and have shown promise as AD therapeutics. Herein, we describe the syntheses and characterization of an acetohydrazone (8-H2QH), a thiosemicarbazone (8-H2QT), and a semicarbazone (8-H2QS) derived from 8-hydroxyquinoline. The three compounds are shown to be neutral at pH7.4, and are potent antioxidants as measured by a Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) assay. The ligands form complexes with Cu(II), 8-H2QT in a 1:1 metal:ligand ratio, and 8-H2QH and 8-H2QS in a 1:2 metal:ligand ratio. A preliminary aggregation inhibition assay using the A?1-40 peptide showed that 8-H2QS and 8-H2QH inhibit peptide aggregation in the presence of Cu(II). Native gel electrophoresis/Western blot and TEM images were obtained to give a more detailed picture of the extent and pathways of A? aggregation using the more neurotoxic A?1-42 in the presence and absence of Cu(II), 8-H2QH, 8-H2QS and the drug candidate PBT2. An increase in the formation of oligomeric species is evident in the presence of Cu(II). However, in the presence of ligands and Cu(II), the results match those for the peptide alone, suggesting that the ligands function by sequestering Cu(II) and limiting oligomer formation in this assay. PMID:25019963

Gomes, Luiza M F; Vieira, Rafael P; Jones, Michael R; Wang, Michael C P; Dyrager, Christine; Souza-Fagundes, Elaine M; Da Silva, Jeferson G; Storr, Tim; Beraldo, Heloisa

2014-10-01

96

Sonochemical fabrication of 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum (Alq3) nanoflowers with high electrogenerated chemiluminescence.  

PubMed

Well-defined Alq(3) nanoflowers were fabricated via a facile and fast sonochemical route. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the structure and shape of the as-prepared product. The results showed that the resulting Alq(3) was composed of nanobelts with thickness about 50 nm, average widths of 200 nm, and length up to 10 ?m. The Alq(3) nanoflowers exhibited good electrogenerated chemiluminescence behavior. PMID:20805037

Mao, Chang-Jie; Wang, Dan-Chen; Pan, Hong-Cheng; Zhu, Jun-Jie

2011-03-01

97

Determination of aluminium with 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid in presence of a cationic surfactant by first and second derivative synchronous fluorimetry  

SciTech Connect

An analytical method has been developed for the fluorimetric determination of nanogram amounts of aluminium in solution. The method is based on the reaction of aluminium with 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid presence of hexadeciltrimethylammonium bromide as a surfactant agent. Synchronous scanned first and second derivative fluorimetry has been employed to increase the sensitivity of the method. The influence of reaction variables as well as instrumental parameters is discussed. The interference of various foreign ions has also been examined and in some cases eliminated or reduced by addition of 1,10-phenanthroline.

Salinas, F.; de la Pena, A.; Duran, M.S.

1988-08-01

98

Observation of the temperature dependence of the dynamics of photoexcited states in pristine tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (AlQ{sub 3})  

SciTech Connect

The authors have investigated the temperature dependence of the dynamics of radiative excited states in pristine thin films of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq{sub 3}). By measuring the transient photoluminescence (PL) response with subnanosecond resolution, their results revealed an increase in the radiative excited state lifetime and fluorescence quantum yield with decreasing temperature from 300K to 77K. At low temperature the authors observed a decrease in the bimolecular recombination rate constant, singlet exciton diffusion coefficient and diffusion length. A singlet exciton trapping model is used to explain these results.

Priestley, R.; Walser, A.D.; Dorsinville, R.

1998-07-01

99

High-efficiency tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) complexes for organic white-light-emitting diodes and solid-state lighting.  

PubMed

Combinations of electron-withdrawing and -donating substituents on the 8-hydroxyquinoline ligand of the tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq(3)) complexes allow for control of the HOMO and LUMO energies and the HOMO-LUMO gap responsible for emission from the complexes. Here, we present a systematic study on tuning the emission and electroluminescence (EL) from Alq(3) complexes from the green to blue region. In this study, we explored the combination of electron-donating substituents on C4 and C6. Compounds 1-6 displayed the emission tuning between 478 and 526 nm, and fluorescence quantum yield between 0.15 and 0.57. The compounds 2-6 were used as emitters and hosts in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The highest OLED external quantum efficiency (EQE) observed was 4.6%, which is among the highest observed for Alq(3) complexes. Also, the compounds 3-5 were used as hosts for red phosphorescent dopants to obtain white light-emitting diodes (WOLED). The WOLEDs displayed high efficiency (EQE up to 19%) and high white color purity (color rendering index (CRI?85). PMID:21780202

Pérez-Bolívar, César; Takizawa, Shin-ya; Nishimura, Go; Montes, Victor A; Anzenbacher, Pavel

2011-08-01

100

Solid Phase Extraction of Inorganic Mercury Using 5-Phenylazo-8-hydroxyquinoline and Determination by Cold Vapor Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy in Natural Water Samples  

PubMed Central

8-Hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) was chosen as a powerful ligand for Hg solid phase extraction. Among several chelating resins based on 8-HQ, 5-phenylazo-8-hydroxyquinoline (5Ph8HQ) is used for mercury extraction in which the adsorption dynamics were fully studied. It has been shown that Hg(II) is totally absorbed by 5Ph8HQ within the first 30 minutes of contact time with t1/2 5 minutes, following Langmuir adsorption model. At pH 4, the affinity of mercury is unchallenged by other metals except, for Cu(II), which have shown higher Kd value. With these latter characteristics, 5Ph8HQ was examined for the preconcentration of trace levels of Hg(II). The developed method showed quantitative recoveries of Hg(II) with LOD = 0.21?pg?mL?1 and RSD = 3–6% using cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (CV-AFS) with a preconcentration factor greater than 250. PMID:24459417

Daye, Mirna; Halwani, Jalal; Hamzeh, Mariam

2013-01-01

101

A simple spectrophotometric method for the determination of cadmium in industrial, environmental, biological and soil samples using 5,7-dibromo-8-hydroxyquinoline.  

PubMed

A very simple, ultra-sensitive and highly selective non-extractive spectrophotometric method for the determination of trace amount of cadmium using 5,7-dibromo-8-hydroxyquinoline (DBHQ) has been developed. DBHQ reacts in a slightly acidic solution with cadmium to give a deep greenish-yellow chelate, which has an absorption maximum at 396 nm. The average molar absorption co-efficient and Sandell's sensitivity were found to be 5.3 x 10(3) L mol(-1) cm(-2) and 20 ng cm(-2) of Cd, respectively. Linear calibration graphs were obtained for 0.1-30 microg mL(-1) of Cd. A large excess of over 50 cations, anions and some common complexing agents do not interfere with the determination. The method was successfully used in the determination of cadmium in several Standard Reference Materials as well as in some environmental waters, biological and soil samples. PMID:15228125

Ahmed, M Jamaluddin; Chowdhury, M Tauhidul Islam

2004-06-01

102

The importance of holes in aluminium tris-8-hydroxyquinoline (Alq{sub 3}) devices with Fe and NiFe contacts  

SciTech Connect

To study the dominant charge carrier polarity in aluminium tris-8-hydroxyquinoline (Alq{sub 3}) based spin valves, single Alq{sub 3} layer devices with NiFe, ITO, Fe, and aluminium electrodes were fabricated and characterised by Time of Flight (ToF) and Dark Injection (DI) techniques, yielding a lower hole mobility compared to electron mobility. We compare the mobility measured by DI for the dominant carrier injected from NiFe and Fe electrodes into Alq{sub 3}, to that of holes measured by ToF. This comparison leads us to conclude that the dominant charge carriers in Alq{sub 3} based spin valves with NiFe or Fe electrodes are holes.

Zhang, Hongtao; Desai, P.; Kreouzis, T. [Materials Research Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)] [Materials Research Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Zhan, Y. Q. [Materials Research Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom) [Materials Research Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, Department of Microelectronics, SIST, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Drew, A. J. [Materials Research Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom) [Materials Research Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Gillin, W. P. [Materials Research Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom) [Materials Research Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, Department of Microelectronics, SIST, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

2014-01-06

103

Improved efficiency in organic light-emitting devices with tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium doped 9,10-di(2-naphthyl) anthracene emission layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic light-emitting devices with tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium (Alq3) doped 9,10-di(2-naphthyl) anthracene (ADN) as the emission layer (EML) have been fabricated. These devices exhibit efficient electroluminescence (EL) originated from the Alq3 as the mass ratio of Alq3 to ADN was varied from 1 to 50%. The devices with an optimal Alq3 mass ratio of 10 wt% showed a peak EL efficiency and an external quantum efficiency of 9.1 cd A-1 and 2.7% at a luminance of 1371 cd m-2, which is improved by a factor of 2.2 compared with 4.1 cd A-1 and 1.2% at a luminance of 3267 cd m-2 for conventional devices with the neat Alq3 as the EML.

Yuan, Yongbo; Lian, Jiarong; Li, Shuang; Zhou, Xiang

2008-11-01

104

Extraction of Pm(III) and Gd(III) by 8-hydroxyquinoline and some related amines in chloroform from nitrate medium  

SciTech Connect

The extraction of the trivalent radioactive lanthanides (Ln), Pm and Gd from nitrate aqueous medium by 8-hydroxyquinoline (HOX) and/or trilaurylamine (TLA), trioctylamine (TOA), tributylamine (TBA), tripropylamine (TPA) or triallylamine (TAA),L, in chloroform was investigated. The chemical formulae of the extracted organic phase species for both lanthanides were found Ln.NO{sub 3}.(OX){sub 2} for the chelate and Ln.NO{sub 3}(OX){sub 2}.L for the adduct. The respective extraction and formation constants were evaluated. The synergic extraction of Pm and Gd by HOX-amine was investigated as a function of temperature. The thermodynamic parameters, free energy change, enthalpy change and entropy change were evaluated. The stoichiometry of the extracted organic phase species was established and the different data obtained were discussed. 15 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Shehata, F.A.; Khalifa, S.M.; El-Dessouky, S.I.; Aly, H.F. [Atomic Energy Authority (Egypt)

1993-10-01

105

Preconcentration and purification of rare earth elements in natural waters using silica-immobilized 8-hydroxyquinoline and a supported organophosphorus extractant  

SciTech Connect

8-Hydroxyquinoline immobilized on silica gel (silica-8HQ) and RE-Spec, a supported organophosphorus extractant, were used to preconcentrate and purify rare earth elements (REEs) from natural waters prior to their determination by isotope-dilution inductivity coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICPMS). Preconcentration onto silica-8HQ is applicable to a wide range of trace metals, making it suitable for multielement ID-ICPMS studies. The silica-8HQ, RE-Spec technique concentrates REEs from 1 L or less of water into 1 mL of salt-free 0.1% nitric acid. The technique is rapid and has high REE yields (>80%) and low REE blanks (<2[minus]6 pg). In addition, Ba separation is high, allowing determination of La and Eu by ID-<300 pg of Ba is present in the final concentrates of sample solutions initially containing > 4 [mu]g of Ba. 24 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Esser, B.K.; Volpe, A.; Kenneally, J.M.; Smith, D.K. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

1994-05-15

106

A spectrofluorimetric method for cysteine and glutathione using the fluorescence system of Zn(II)-8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulphonic acid complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The addition of thiol compounds to the fluorescence system of Zn(II)-8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulphonic acid complex (Zn(II)-HQS) in H 3BO 3-Na 2B 4O 7 buffer (pH 8.50) solution led to immediate fluorescence inhibition, which was proportional to their amounts. Based on this finding, a novel spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of cysteine (Cys) and reduced glutathione (GSH) has been developed. The detection limits were 17 ng ml -1 and 0.6 ?g ml -1, respectively. Most amino acids had no interference at high concentrations. The proposed method has been applied to the determination of Cys in protein hydrolysate and cystine electrolyte, and GSH in human blood serum with recoveries of 95.6-104.5%.

Wang, Hong; Wang, Wei-Sheng; Zhang, Hua-Shan

2001-10-01

107

Characterization of gold-thiol-8-hydroxyquinoline self-assembled monolayers for selective recognition of aluminum ion using voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Gold electrode surface is modified via covalent attachment of a synthesized thiol functionalized with 8-hydroxyquinoline, p-((8-hydroxyquinoline)azo) benzenethiol (SHQ), for the first time. The behavior of the nanostructured electrode surface (Au-SHQ) is characterized by electrochemical techniques including cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry (CV and DPV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The modified surface is stable in a wide range of potentials and pHs. A surface pKa of 6.0±0.1 is obtained for Au-SHQ electrode using surface acid/base titration curves constructed by CV and EIS measurements as a function of pH. These results helped to determine the charge state of the surface as a function of pH. The gold modified electrode surface showed good affinity for sensing the Al(III) ion at pH 5.5. The sensing process is based on (i) accumulation and complex formation between Al(III) from the solution phase and 8HQ function on the Au electrode surface (recognition step) and (ii) monitoring the impedance of the Au-SHQ-Al(III) complex against redox reaction rate of parabenzoquinone (PBQ) (signal transduction step). The PBQ is found to be a more suitable probe for this purpose, after testing several others. Thus, the sensor was tested for quantitative determination of Al(III) from the solution phase. At the optimized conditions, a linear response, from 1.0×10(-11) to 1.2×10(-5) M Al(III) in semi-logarithmic scale, with a detection limit of 8.32×10(-12) M and mean relative standard deviation of 3.2% for n=3 at 1.0×10(-7) M Al(III) is obtained. Possible interferences from coexisting cations and anions are also studied. The results show that many ions do not interfere significantly with the sensor response for Al(III). Validity of the method and applicability of the sensor are successfully tested by determination of Al(III) in human blood serum samples. PMID:24767148

Shervedani, Reza Karimi; Rezvaninia, Zeinab; Sabzyan, Hassan; Boeini, Hassan Zali

2014-05-12

108

A density functional theory study of the topology of the charge density of complexes of 8-hydroxyquinoline with Mn(III), Fe(III), and Co(III).  

PubMed

By use of the quantum theory of atoms in molecules, it was found that the electronic charge distribution rho(r) of the metal atoms in Mn(III), Fe(III), and Co(III) complexes of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ) showed eight nonbonded concentrations in their valence shell that were located at the corners of a cube and a depletion region was located in each of its six faces. Coordination was such that regions of charge concentration of the ligands matched the depletion ones of the metal. The O- and N-metal bonds showed low rho(r(c)) values at the bond critical point r(c) and low and positive ones for its Laplacian indicating that they were dative bonds of close shell type with a degree of covalency. Most changes in rho(r) were located around the N and O atoms of 8HQ directly involved in dative bonds. By use of the delocalization index delta(C(A),C(B)) only for C-C bonds, it was found that coordination increased the aromaticity of most of them. The most important changes in rho(r) were found in the C-H bonds were a noticeable increase in bond strength was obtained upon coordination. PMID:19351130

Murgich, Juan; Franco, Héctor J

2009-04-30

109

Absorption spectra of 4f electron transitions of neodymium and erbium with 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulphonic acid and diethylamine systems and its analytical application  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the absorption spectra of 4f electron transitions of the systems of neodymium and erbium with 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulphonic acid and diethylamine have been studied by normal and third-derivative spectrophotometry. Their molar absorptivities are 80 1.mol{sup {minus}1}.cm{sup {minus}1} for neodymium and 65 1.mol{sup {minus}1}.cm{sup {minus}1} for erbium. Use of the third-derivative spectra, eliminates the interference by other rare earths and increases the sensitivity for Nd and Er. The derivative molar absorptivities are 390 1.mol{sup {minus}1}.cm{sup {minus}1} for Nd and 367 1.mol{sup {minus}1}.cm{sup {minus}1} for Er. The calibration graphs were linear up to 11.8 {mu}g/ml of Nd and 12.3 {mu}g/ml of Er, respectively. The relative standard deviations evaluated from eleven independent determinations of 7.2 {mu}g/ml (for Nd) and 8.3 {mu}g/ml (for Er) are 1.3% and 1.4%, respectively. The detection limits are 0.2 {mu}g/ml for Nd and 0.3 {mu}g/ml for Er. The method has been developed for determining those two elements in mixture of lanthanides by means of the third-derivative spectra and the analytical results obtained are satisfactory.

Wang Naixing (Shandong Univ., Jinan (China)); Qi Ping

1992-06-01

110

TDDFT study on the excited-state proton transfer of 8-hydroxyquinoline: Key role of the excited-state hydrogen-bond strengthening.  

PubMed

Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations have been employed to study the excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) reaction of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ). Infrared spectra of 8HQ in both the ground and the lowest singlet excited states have been calculated, revealing a red-shift of the hydroxyl group (-OH) stretching band in the excited state. Hence, the intramolecular hydrogen bond (O-H···N) in 8HQ would be significantly strengthened upon photo-excitation to the S1 state. As the intramolecular proton-transfer reaction occurs through hydrogen bonding, the ESIPT reaction of 8HQ is effectively facilitated by strengthening of the electronic excited-state hydrogen bond (O-H···N). As a result, the intramolecular proton-transfer reaction would occur on an ultrafast timescale with a negligible barrier in the calculated potential energy curve for the ESIPT reaction. Therefore, although the intramolecular proton-transfer reaction is not favorable in the ground state, the ESIPT process is feasible in the excited state. Finally, we have identified that radiationless deactivation via internal conversion (IC) becomes the main dissipative channel for 8HQ by analyzing the energy gaps between the S1 and S0 states for the enol and keto forms. PMID:25554951

Lan, Sheng-Cheng; Liu, Yu-Hui

2015-03-15

111

Detection of charge storage on molecular thin films of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) by Kelvin force microscopy: a candidate system for high storage capacity memory cells.  

PubMed

Retention and diffusion of charge in tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq(3)) molecular thin films are investigated by injecting electrons and holes via a biased conductive atomic force microscopy tip into the Alq(3) films. After the charge injection, Kelvin force microscopy measurements reveal minimal changes with time in the spatial extent of the trapped charge domains within Alq(3) films, even for high hole and electron densities of >10(12) cm(-2). We show that this finding is consistent with the very low mobility of charge carriers in Alq(3) thin films (<10(-7) cm(2)/(Vs)) and that it can benefit from the use of Alq(3) films as nanosegmented floating gates in flash memory cells. Memory capacitors using Alq(3) molecules as the floating gate are fabricated and measured, showing durability over more than 10(4) program/erase cycles and the hysteresis window of up to 7.8 V, corresponding to stored charge densities as high as 5.4 × 10(13) cm(-2). These results demonstrate the potential for use of molecular films in high storage capacity nonvolatile memory cells. PMID:22332966

Paydavosi, Sarah; Aidala, Katherine E; Brown, Patrick R; Hashemi, Pouya; Supran, Geoffrey J; Osedach, Timothy P; Hoyt, Judy L; Bulovi?, Vladimir

2012-03-14

112

Determination of metal ions by capillary zone electrophoresis with on-column chelation using 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid  

SciTech Connect

A novel method of separating and detecting metal cations by capillary zone electrophoresis is described. 8-Hydroxy-quinoline-5-sulfonic acid (HQS{sup {minus}}) is added to the mobile phase, so that metal HQS complexes are formed within the capillary. These complexes can be selectively and sensitively detected by using laser-based fluorimetry. Furthermore, by controlling mobile-phase parameters which affect the complexation reaction, the observed electrophoretic mobility of the metal can be manipulated. The utility of this method for metal analysis is investigated with three test ions: Ca(II), Mg(II), and Zn(II). Limits of detection in the parts per billion range are achieved, and a model for predicting the mobility of the band is tested. The technique is applied to the detection of Ca(II) and Mg(II) in blood serum.

Swaile, D.F.; Sepaniak, M.J. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States))

1991-01-15

113

Selective growth-inhibitory effect of 8-hydroxyquinoline towards Clostridium difficile and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum in co-culture analysed by flow cytometry.  

PubMed

The major risk factor for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the use of antibiotics owing to the disruption of the equilibrium of the host gut microbiota. To preserve the beneficial resident probiotic bacteria during infection treatment, the use of molecules with selective antibacterial activity enhances the efficacy by selectively removing C. difficile. One of them is the plant alkaloid 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ), which has been shown to selectively inhibit clostridia without repressing bifidobacteria. Selective antimicrobial activity is generally tested by culture techniques of individual bacterial strains. However, the main limitation of these techniques is the inability to describe differential growth dynamics of more bacterial strains in co-culture within the same experiment. In the present study, we combined fluorescent in situ hybridization and flow cytometry to describe the changes in active and non-active cells of a mixed culture formed by the opportunistic pathogen C. difficile CECT 531 and the beneficial Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum CCMDMND BL1 after exposure to 8HQ. It was observed that without 8HQ, the proportion of both strains was almost equal, oscillating between 22.7 and 77.9?% during a time lapse of 12 h, whereas with 8HQ the proportion of active C. difficile decreased after 4 h, and persisted only between 8.8 and 17.5?%. In contrast, bifidobacterial growth was not disturbed by 8HQ. The results of this study showed the selective inhibitory effect of 8HQ on clostridial and bifidobacterial growth dynamics, and the potential of this compound for the development of selective agents to control CDIs. PMID:25298160

Novakova, Jitka; Džunková, Mária; Musilova, Sarka; Vlkova, Eva; Kokoska, Ladislav; Moya, Andrés; D'Auria, Giuseppe

2014-12-01

114

Mixed?Ligand Complexes of a Schiff Base, 8?Hydroxyquinoline and Oxalic Acid with Cu(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), and Fe(III) Ions: Pyrolytic Products and Biological Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Binary mononuclear complexes of the Schiff base ligand 1,4?di(hydroxybenzylidene)thiosemicarbazide (H2L) and the transition metal ions Cu(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), and Fe(III) were prepared in the presence of various molar ratios of LiOH. The binary complexes react with 8?hydroxyquinoline (8?HOqu) and oxalic acid (H2Ox) to form mixed?ligand complexes. The mixed ligand complexes were prepared by using various molar ratios of LiOH. The

Mahmoud M. Mashaly; A. A. Faheim

2004-01-01

115

Structural design utilizing updated, approximate sensitivity derivatives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method to improve the computational efficiency of structural optimization algorithms is investigated. In this method, the calculations of 'exact' sensitivity derivatives of constraint functions are performed only at selected iterations during the optimization process. The sensitivity derivatives utilized within other iterations are approximate derivatives which are calculated using an inexpensive derivative update formula. Optimization results are presented for an analytic optimization problem (i.e., one having simple polynomial expressions for the objective and constraint functions) and for two structural optimization problems. The structural optimization results indicate that up to a factor of three improvement in computation time is possible when using the updated sensitivity derivatives.

Scotti, Stephen J.

1993-01-01

116

Spacecraft hazard avoidance utilizing structured light  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At JPL, a <5 kg free-flying micro-inspector spacecraft is being designed for host-vehicle inspection. The spacecraft includes a hazard avoidance sensor to navigate relative to the vehicle being inspected. Structured light was selected for hazard avoidance because of its low mass and cost. Structured light is a method of remote sensing 3-dimensional structure of the proximity utilizing a laser, a grating, and a single regular APS camera. The laser beam is split into 400 different beams by a grating to form a regular spaced grid of laser beams that are projected into the field of view of an APS camera. The laser source and the APS camera are separated forming the base of a triangle. The distance to all beam intersections of the host are calculated based on triangulation.

Liebe, Carl Christian; Padgett, Curtis; Chapsky, Jacob; Wilson, Daniel; Brown, Kenneth; Jerebets, Sergei; Goldberg, Hannah; Schroeder, Jeffrey

2006-01-01

117

New trick for an old ligand! The sensing of Zn(II) using a lanthanide based ternary Yb(III)-cyclen-8-hydroxyquinoline system as a dual emissive probe for displacement assay.  

PubMed

A novel near-infrared (NIR) emissive lanthanide-based zinc sensor was designed, based on the self-assembly in aqueous solution between the nonemissive coordinatively unsaturated Yb(III) cyclen complex 2·Yb and the sulfonated 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQS) chromophore, which was employed as a sensitizing antenna. The resulting ternary complex, 2·Yb·8-HQS, displayed metal-centered emission in the NIR range upon excitation of the antenna with high quantum yield of Q = 0.23 ± 0.03% in pH 7.4 buffered aqueous solution; demonstrating efficient sensitization from 8-HQS. The addition of zinc led to quenching of the NIR emission as a result of the dissociation of the luminescent ternary 2·Yb·8-HQS complex, where the 8-HQS antenna was displaced from the Yb(III) center in favor of the formation of more stable chelates with Zn(II). These newly formed Zn(II) complexes were shown to exhibit strong green fluorescence; allowing for the simultaneous sensing of Zn(II) both within the visible and the NIR regions at physiological pH in competitive media. Furthermore, 2·Yb·8-HQS was shown to be able to detect Zn(II) with good selectivity and in a reversible manner, even in the presence of competitive group (I) and (II) metal ions as well as in the presence of several biologically important d-metal ions. PMID:22974321

Comby, Steve; Tuck, Sarah A; Truman, Laura K; Kotova, Oxana; Gunnlaugsson, Thorfinnur

2012-10-01

118

Light-emitting devices based on ruthenium( style="font-variant: small-caps">II)(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline)3: Device response rate and efficiency by use of tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light-emitting devices based on ruthenium( style="font-variant: small-caps">II)(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline)3 ([Ru(dphphen)3]2+) as emitter have been fabricated. The effect of an electron transport layer of tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) on device performance has been investigated. The emission, peaking at 630 nm, for the indium-tin-oxide (ITO)glass/[Ru(dphphen)3]2+/Ag device reaches maximum luminance after about 15 min at a turn on voltage of 2.5 V. The use of an ITO/[Ru(dphphen)3]2+/Alq3/Ag device reduces this response time to about 120 s at a turn on voltage of 7 V. A maximum brightness of 1300 cd/m2 can be obtained at 15 V within 2 s, with a luminous efficiency of 0.27 cd/A. Based on the charge transporting characteristics of [Ru(dphphen)3]2+ and Alq3 films determined by surface photovoltage spectroscopy, the improved device response time and efficiency are attributed to the enhanced electron injection at [Ru(dphphen)3]2+/Alq3 interface.

Yang, Jihua; Gordon, Keith C.; Zidon, Yigal; Shapira, Yoram

2003-11-01

119

A structural design decomposition method utilizing substructuring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new method of design decomposition for structural analysis and optimization is described. For this method, the structure is divided into substructures where each substructure has its structural response described by a structural-response subproblem, and its structural sizing determined from a structural-sizing subproblem. The structural responses of substructures that have rigid body modes when separated from the remainder of the structure are further decomposed into displacements that have no rigid body components, and a set of rigid body modes. The structural-response subproblems are linked together through forces determined within a structural-sizing coordination subproblem which also determines the magnitude of any rigid body displacements. Structural-sizing subproblems having constraints local to the substructures are linked together through penalty terms that are determined by a structural-sizing coordination subproblem. All the substructure structural-response subproblems are totally decoupled from each other, as are all the substructure structural-sizing subproblems, thus there is significant potential for use of parallel solution methods for these subproblems.

Scotti, Stephen J.

1994-01-01

120

The Causal Structure of Utility Conditionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The psychology of reasoning is increasingly considering agents' values and preferences, achieving greater integration with judgment and decision making, social cognition, and moral reasoning. Some of this research investigates utility conditionals, ‘"if 'p' then 'q'’" statements where the realization of "p" or "q" or both is valued by some agents.…

Bonnefon, Jean-Francois; Sloman, Steven A.

2013-01-01

121

Synthesis, structural characterization, electrochemistry and spectroelectrochemistry of dinuclear copper(II) metal complexes stabilized by a tetradentate NOOO salicylaldimine ligands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The synthesis, structure, spectroscopic and electro-spectrochemical properties of salicylaldimine Schiff-base ligands (L nH) ( n = 1, 2, and 3) (L 1H = N-[2-amino-8-hydroxyquinoline]-salicylaldimine, L 2H = N-[2-amino-8-hydroxyquinoline]-5-bromosalicylaldimine and L 3H = N-[2-amino-8-hydroxyquinoline]-5-methoxysalicylaldimine), respectively, and their dinuclear copper(II) complexes [Cu 2(L n) 2] are described. Three new dissymmetric tetradentate salicylaldimine ligands containing a donor set of NOOO were prepared by reaction of 2-amino-8-hydroxyquinoline with different salicylaldehydes. The dinuclear copper(II) metal complexes of these ligands were synthesized by treating an ethanolic solution of the appropriate ligand with an equimolar amount of Cu(Ac) 2·H 2O. The ligands and their copper complexes were characterized by FT-IR, UV-vis, 1H NMR, elemental analysis, molar conductivity, mass spectra and thermal analysis methods in addition to magnetic susceptibility and spectroelectrochemical techniques. The reaction of these ligands in a 1:1 mole ratio with copper(II) acetate afforded dinuclear Cu(II) metal complexes. The room temperature magnetic moments of [Cu 2(L n) 2] complexes are found between 1.12 and 1.28 BM for per Cu(II) molecule.

Tas, E.; Onal, I. H.; Yilmaz, I.; Kilic, A.; Durgun, M.

2009-06-01

122

Utilization of structural steel in buildings  

PubMed Central

Over one-quarter of steel produced annually is used in the construction of buildings. Making this steel causes carbon dioxide emissions, which climate change experts recommend be reduced by half in the next 37 years. One option to achieve this is to design and build more efficiently, still delivering the same service from buildings but using less steel to do so. To estimate how much steel could be saved from this option, 23 steel-framed building designs are studied, sourced from leading UK engineering firms. The utilization of each beam is found and buildings are analysed to find patterns. The results for over 10?000 beams show that average utilization is below 50% of their capacity. The primary reason for this low value is ‘rationalization’—providing extra material to reduce labour costs. By designing for minimum material rather than minimum cost, steel use in buildings could be drastically reduced, leading to an equivalent reduction in ‘embodied’ carbon emissions. PMID:25104911

Moynihan, Muiris C.; Allwood, Julian M.

2014-01-01

123

Utilization of protein intrinsic disorder knowledge in structural proteomics  

PubMed Central

Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and proteins with long disordered regions are highly abundant in various proteomes. Despite their lack of well-defined ordered structure, these proteins and regions are frequently involved in crucial biological processes. Although in recent years these proteins have attracted the attention of many researchers, IDPs represent a significant challenge for structural characterization since these proteins can impact many of the processes in the structure determination pipeline. Here we investigate the effects of IDPs on the structure determination process and the utility of disorder prediction in selecting and improving proteins for structural characterization. Examination of the extent of intrinsic disorder in existing crystal structures found that relatively few protein crystal structures contain extensive regions of intrinsic disorder. Although intrinsic disorder is not the only cause of crystallization failures and many structured proteins cannot be crystallized, filtering out highly disordered proteins from structure-determination target lists is still likely to be cost effective. Therefore it is desirable to avoid highly disordered proteins from structure-determination target lists and we show that disorder prediction can be applied effectively to enrich structure determination pipelines with proteins more likely to yield crystal structures. For structural investigation of specific proteins, disorder prediction can be used to improve targets for structure determination. Finally, a framework for considering intrinsic disorder in the structure determination pipeline is proposed. PMID:23232152

Oldfield, Christopher J.; Xue, Bin; Van, Ya-Yue; Ulrich, Eldon L.; Markley, John L.; Dunker, A. Keith; Uversky, Vladimir N.

2014-01-01

124

Dynamic and structural control utilizing smart materials and structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An account is given of several novel 'smart material' structural control concepts that are currently under development. The thrust of these investigations is the evolution of intelligent materials and structures superceding the recently defined variable-geometry trusses and shape memory alloy-reinforced composites; the substances envisioned will be able to autonomously evaluate emergent environmental conditions and adapt to them, and even change their operational objectives. While until now the primary objective of the developmental efforts presently discussed has been materials that mimic biological functions, entirely novel concepts may be formulated in due course.

Rogers, C. A.; Robertshaw, H. H.

1989-01-01

125

Study on the structure and luminescence properties of the coordinated ZnO crystallites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coordinated ZnO nanoparticles and crystallites have been produced by focused pulsed laser ablation of ZnO target submerged in the ethanol solution of 8-hydroxyquinoline. The structure of the nanoparticles was characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The ZnO crystallites properties were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis coupled to differential scanning calorimetry (TG/DSC), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and luminescence spectrometry. The results show the surface Zn2+ ions of the ZnO nanoparticles are coordinated by the 8-hydroxyquinoline. The crystal class and the space group of the coordinated ZnO crystallites are triclinic and P-1(2), respectively. The lattice parameters are refined to a=1.1904 nm, b=1.2135 nm, c=0.8586 nm, ?=108.28?, ?=100.27? and ?=85.50?, respectively. The coordinated ZnO crystallites have better thermo stability than bis(8-hydroxyquinoline)zinc and can emit yellow-green light under UV and visible radiations.

Chen, Qian-huo; Liu, Qing; Li, Qing; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Wen-gong

2013-10-01

126

Structure and Expression of Propanediol Utilization Microcompartments in Acetonema longum  

PubMed Central

Numerous bacteria assemble proteinaceous microcompartments to isolate certain biochemical reactions within the cytoplasm. The assembly, structure, contents, and functions of these microcompartments are active areas of research. Here we show that the Gram-negative sporulating bacterium Acetonema longum synthesizes propanediol utilization (PDU) microcompartments when starved or grown on 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD) or rhamnose. Electron cryotomography of intact cells revealed that PDU microcompartments are highly irregular in shape and size, similar to purified PDU microcompartments from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 that were imaged previously. Homology searches identified a 20-gene operon in A. longum that contains most of the structural, enzymatic, and regulatory genes thought to be involved in PDU microcompartment assembly and function. Transcriptional data on PduU and PduC, which are major structural and enzymatic proteins, respectively, as well as imaging, indicate that PDU microcompartment synthesis is induced within 24 h of growth on 1,2-PD and after 48 h of growth on rhamnose. PMID:24532773

Tocheva, Elitza I.; Matson, Eric G.; Cheng, Sarah N.; Chen, Wesley G.; Leadbetter, Jared R.

2014-01-01

127

Design of intelligent mesoscale periodic array structures utilizing smart hydrogel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mesoscale Periodic Array Structures (MPAS, also known as crystalline colloidal arrays), composed of aqueous or nonaqueous dispersions of self-assembled submicron colloidal spheres are emerging toward the development of advanced optical devices for technological applications. This is because of their unique optical diffraction properties and the ease with which these intriguing properties can be modulated experimentally. Moreover our recent advancements in this area which include 'locking' the liquid MPAS into solid or semisolid polymer matrices for greater stability with longer life span, and incorporation of CdS quantum dots and laser dyes into colloidal spheres to obtain nonlinear optical (NLO) responses further corroborate the use of MPAS in optical technology. Our long term goal is fabrication of all-optical and electro-optical devices such as spatial light modulators for optical signal processing and flat panel display devices by utilizing intelligent nonlinear periodic array structural materials. Here we show further progress in the design of novel linear MPAS which have the ability to sense and respond to an external source such as temperature. This is achieved by combining the self-assembly properties of polymer colloidal spheres and thermoshrinking properties of smart polymer gels. At selected temperatures the periodic array efficiently Bragg diffracts light and transmits most of the light at other temperatures. Hence these intelligent systems are of potential use as fixed notch filters optical switches or limiters to protect delicate optical sensors from high intensity laser radiation.

Sunkara, H. B.; Penn, B. G.; Frazier, D. O.; Weissman, J. M.; Asher, S. A.

1996-01-01

128

Utilization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a calcification-carbonation method is proposed to change the equilibrium structure of red mud produced from the Bayer process. The thermodynamics of both calcification and carbonation processes has been elucidated. In addition, the non-isothermal kinetics involved in the calcification process and the effects of different parameters on the hydrogarnet synthesis and carbonation decomposition are experimentally investigated using pure reagents. The results indicate that through a two-step carbonation treatment of calcified slag by the new method, the mass ratio of alumina to silica ( A/S) of the modified red mud has decreased to 0.44 and the Na2O content drops to 0.12 wt.% at the carbonation temperature of 120°C under the CO2 pressure of 1.2 MPa. The newly modified red mud could be directly used in the cement industry.

Lu, Guozhi; Zhang, Ting-An; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Liu, Yan; Wang, Yanxiu; Guo, Fangfang; Zhao, Qiuyue; Zheng, Chaozhen

2014-09-01

129

Federal and State Structures to Support Financing Utility-Scale Solar Projects and the Business Models Designed to Utilize Them  

SciTech Connect

Utility-scale solar projects have grown rapidly in number and size over the last few years, driven in part by strong renewable portfolio standards (RPS) and federal incentives designed to stimulate investment in renewable energy technologies. This report provides an overview of such policies, as well as the project financial structures they enable, based on industry literature, publicly available data, and questionnaires conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).

Mendelsohn, M.; Kreycik, C.

2012-04-01

130

Structure, constitution and utilization of low rank Indian coal  

SciTech Connect

This paper briefly reviews the work done on lignite and sub-bituminous coals. Surface area and moisture adsorption dependency on functional group is described. The role of hydrogen bonding in the briquetting of lignite and of alkyl groups in inducing caking properties are discussed. The dualistic behavior of abnormal coals as both a low and high rank coal is also discussed in relation to the nature of their sulphur groups. On the utilization side, processes are described for: (1) Utilization of non-caking coal in the reduction of iron ore. Coal is first briquetted using a lime-tar binder. It is then carbonized for reducing iron ore. The bar is recovered and recycled. (2) Production of carbon black from low rank coals. In this process, coal is carbonized at high temperature in a fluidized bed. Carbon black, for tire industry, is obtained with char as by-product. (3) Utilization of flue gases of industry is also discussed. In this new approach, the flue gas is reduced to synthesis gas by additional fuel and the inevitable surplus heat. The viability of the process is illustrated by details of a recent study in a cement plant. In addition to the above, the implication of recycling flue gas in automobile engines to make them more environment friendly and cost effective, is also discussed.

Iyengar, M.S.; Iyengar, V.A. [M.S. Iyengar and Associates, New Delhi (India)

1996-12-31

131

Structure of Co-Doped Alq3 thin films investigated by grazing incidence X-ray absorption fine structure and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The structural properties of Co-doped tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq(3)) have been studied by grazing incidence X-ray absorption fine structure (GIXAFS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). GIXAFS analysis suggests that there are multivalent Co-Alq(3) complexes and the doped Co atoms tend to locate at the attraction center with respect to N and O atoms and bond with them. The FTIR spectra indicate that the Co atoms interact with the meridional (mer) isomer of Alq(3) rather than forming inorganic compounds. PMID:21214213

Lin, Liang; Pang, Zhiyong; Fang, Shaojie; Wang, Fenggong; Song, Shumei; Huang, Yuying; Wei, Xiangjun; Yu, Haisheng; Han, Shenghao

2011-02-10

132

The ''optimal'' structure of the deregulated electric utility industry  

SciTech Connect

The optimal structure is one that does not adopt policies that interfere with competitive markets nor create price incentives or subsidies to serve special interests in an attempt to artificially stimulate retail competition. It needs to recognize that the ''natural monopoly'' and public interest criteria still require the regulation of delivery service. (author)

Switzer, Sheldon; Trout, Jeffrey P.

2007-07-15

133

Investigation of Coronal Large Scale Structures Utilizing Spartan 201 Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two telescopes aboard Spartan 201, a small satellite has been launched from the Space Shuttles, on April 8th, 1993, September 8th, 1994, September 7th, 1995 and November 20th, 1997. The main objective of the mission was to answer some of the most fundamental unanswered questions of solar physics-What accelerates the solar wind and what heats the corona? The two telescopes are 1) Ultraviolet Coronal Spectrometer (UVCS) provided by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory which uses ultraviolet emissions from neutral hydrogen and ions in the corona to determine velocities of the coronal plasma within the solar wind source region, and the temperature and density distributions of protons and 2) White Light Coronagraph (WLC) provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center which measures visible light to determine the density distribution of coronal electrons within the same region. The PI has had the primary responsibility in the development and application of computer codes necessary for scientific data analysis activities, end instrument calibration for the white-light coronagraph for the entire Spartan mission. The PI was responsible for the science output from the WLC instrument. PI has also been involved in the investigation of coronal density distributions in large-scale structures by use of numerical models which are (mathematically) sufficient to reproduce the details of the observed brightness and polarized brightness distributions found in SPARTAN 201 data.

Guhathakurta, Madhulika

1998-01-01

134

Construction of DNA logic gates utilizing a H+/Ag+ induced i-motif structure.  

PubMed

A simple technology to construct diverse DNA logic gates (OR and INHIBIT) has been designed utilizing a H(+) and/or Ag(+) induced i-motif structure. The logic gates are easily controlled and also show a real time response towards inputs. The research provides a new insight for designing DNA logic gates using an i-motif DNA structure. PMID:25349963

Shi, Yunhua; Sun, Hongxia; Xiang, Junfeng; Chen, Hongbo; Yang, Qianfan; Guan, Aijiao; Li, Qian; Yu, Lijia; Tang, Yalin

2014-12-18

135

Utilization of Structured Packing for Energy Savings in Distillation and Absorption Columns  

E-print Network

capacity is required or where there a e severe and internals is less than six months. This assumes that coking problems, Style II F1exigrid 0 packing, hich has the F1exipac@ structured packing can be installed during very low holdUp and minimum dead..."UTILIZATION OF STRUCTURED PACKING FOR ENERGY SAVINGS IN DISTILLATION AND ABSORPTION COLUMNS" O. Jeffrey Berven and Wendell E. Howard Koch Engineering Company, Inc. Wi chita, Kansas As the need to reduce production costs causes...

Berven, O. J.; Howard, W. E.

136

Characterization of LD Structures and the Utility of HapMap in Genetic Association Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observed distribution of and variation in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with respect to the evolution history and disease transmission in a population is the driving force behind the current wave of genome?wide association (GWA) studies of complex human diseases. An extensive literature covers topics from haplotype analysis that utilizes local LD structures in candidate genes and regions to genome?wide organization of

C. Charles Gu; Kai Yu; D. C. Rao

2008-01-01

137

Rate watcher's guide: how to shape up your utility's rate structure  

SciTech Connect

Utility officials and regulators are hesitant to reject the time-honored principles used in designing utility rate structures even though today's economic conditions dictate that kilowatt-hour rates should no longer reward large users. Even harder than convincing rate commissions is the self interest of power companies and their large customers, who are the beneficiaries of promotional rates. Citizen campaigns have brought rate reform, however, and this book describes the experience gained by pioneering efforts in hopes that it will speed the process of adopting rates structures that encourage conservation and affordable prices. Separate chapters deal with the history of rate design, the bases for rates, social and economic policy goals imbedded in rates, load management, and how to organize to effect rate reform. 175 references.

Morgan, R.E.

1980-01-01

138

Active pipe-embedded structures in buildings for utilizing low-grade energy sources: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-grade energy sources such as geothermal energy, favorable ambient air and industrial waste heat etc. exist widely. Sufficient utilization of these low-grade energy sources may reduce our daily dependence on high-grade energy sources such as electricity resulting in reduced emission of green house gas for environmental conservation. Active pipe-embedded structure as floor\\/ceiling usually with water as the medium to carry

Xinhua Xu; Shengwei Wang; Jinbo Wang; Fu Xiao

2010-01-01

139

Integrating models and data to estimate the structural reliability of utility poles during hurricanes.  

PubMed

Utility systems such as power and communication systems regularly experience significant damage and loss of service during hurricanes. A primary damage mode for these systems is failure of wooden utility poles that support conductors and communication lines. In this article, we present an approach for combining structural reliability models for utility poles with observed data on pole performance during past hurricanes. This approach, based on Bayesian updating, starts from an imperfect but informative prior and updates this prior with observed performance data. We consider flexural and foundation failure mechanisms in the prior, acknowledging that these are an incomplete, but still informative, subset of the possible failure mechanisms for utility poles during hurricanes. We show how a model-based prior can be updated with observed failure data, using pole failure data from Hurricane Katrina as a case study. The results of this integration of model-based estimates and observed performance data then offer a more informative starting point for power system performance estimation for hurricane conditions. PMID:23952685

Han, Seung-Ryong; Rosowsky, David; Guikema, Seth

2014-06-01

140

Study on utilization of advanced composites in fuselage structures of large transports  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential for utilizing advanced composites in fuselage structures of large transports was assessed. Six fuselage design concepts were selected and evaluated in terms of structural performance, weight, and manufacturing development and costs. Two concepts were selected that merit further consideration for composite fuselage application. These concepts are: (1) a full depth honeycomb design with no stringers, and (2) an I section stringer stiffened laminate skin design. Weight reductions due to applying composites to the fuselages of commercial and military transports were calculated. The benefits of applying composites to a fleet of military transports were determined. Significant technology issues pertinent to composite fuselage structures were identified and evaluated. Program plans for resolving the technology issues were developed.

Johnson, R. W.; Thomson, L. W.; Wilson, R. D.

1985-01-01

141

Process Developed for Fabricating Engineered Pore Structures for High- Fuel-Utilization Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have tremendous commercial potential because of their high efficiency, high energy density, and flexible fuel capability (ability to use fossil fuels). The drive for high-power-utilizing, ultrathin electrolytes (less than 10 microns), has placed an increased demand on the anode to provide structural support, yet allow sufficient fuel entry for sustained power generation. Concentration polarization, a condition where the fuel demand exceeds the supply, is evident in all commercial-based anode-supported cells, and it presents a significant roadblock to SOFC commercialization.

Sofie, Stephen W.; Cable, Thomas L.; Salamone, Sam M.

2005-01-01

142

Attaching solar collectors to a structural framework utilizing a flexible clip  

DOEpatents

Methods and apparatuses described herein provide for the attachment of solar collectors to a structural framework in a solar array assembly. A flexible clip is attached to either end of each solar collector and utilized to attach the solar collector to the structural framework. The solar collectors are positioned to allow a member of the framework to engage a pair of flexible clips attached to adjacent solar collectors during assembly of the solar array. Each flexible clip may have multiple frame-engaging portions, each with a flange on one end to cause the flexible clip to deflect inward when engaged by the framework member during assembly and to guide each of the frame-engaging portions into contact with a surface of the framework member for attachment.

Kruse, John S

2014-03-25

143

Vibration Based Wind Turbine Tower Foundation Design Utilizing Soil-Foundation-Structure Interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind turbines have been used to generate electricity as an alternative energy source to conventional fossil fuels. This case study is for multiple wind towers located at different villages in Alaska where severe arctic weather conditions exist. The towers are supported by two different types of foundations; large mat or deep piles foundations. Initially, a Reinforced Concrete (RC) mat foundation was utilized to provide the system with vertical and lateral support. Where soil conditions required it, a pile foundation solution was devised utilizing a 30? thick RC mat containing an embedded steel grillage of W18 beams supported by 20?-24? grouted or un-grouted piles. The mixing and casting of concrete in-situ has become the major source of cost and difficulty of construction at these remote Alaska sites. An all-steel foundation was proposed for faster installation and lower cost, but was found to impact the natural frequencies of the structural system by significantly softening the foundation system. The tower-foundation support structure thus became near-resonant with the operational frequencies of the wind turbine leading to a likelihood of structural instability or even collapse. A detailed 3D Finite-Element model of the original tower-foundation-pile system with RC foundation was created using SAP2000. Soil springs were included in the model based on soil properties obtained from the geotechnical consultant. The natural frequency from the model was verified against the tower manufacturer analytical and the experimental values. Where piles were used, numerous iterations were carried out to eliminate the need for the RC and optimize the design. An optimized design was achieved with enough separation between the natural and operational frequencies to prevent damage to the structural system eliminating the need for any RC encasement to the steel foundation or grouting to the piles.

Al Satari, P. E. Mohamed; Hussain, S. E. Saif

2008-07-01

144

Trust-oriented Utility-based Community Structure in Multiagent Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem we address in this chapter is how to design the community structure of a multiagent system in such a way that agents join the communities that will maximize their utility and communities accept the agents that will maximize their utility, towards a stable and productive multiagent system. In order to accomplish this goal, we propose allowing communities to exchange information about the reputability of agents. In particular, it agent a 1 exists in community c 1 and would now like to join c 2, c 2 will ask c 1 for the reputation rating of a 1 and then decide whether to allow the agent to join. Allowing for the sharing of reputation ratings then requires i) a method for determining the truthfulness of the reputation reports ii) an incentive mechanism to encourage the sharing of information iii) some consideration of privacy of information within the system. In order for agents to make effective selection of communities in which to participate, it is also ideal community enjoy and about the tendency for the community to be truthful, when it reports reputation ratings of agents. We present a reputation sharing system that promotes effective community structure, along with examples to demonstrate the benefit of this particular approach.

Kastidou, Georgia; Cohen, Robin

145

Secondary Structure and Phylogenetic Utility of the Ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2) in Scleractinian Corals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chaolun Allen Chen, Chau-Ching Chang, Nuwei Vivian Wei, Chien-Hsun Chen, Yi-Ting Lein, Ho-E Lin, Chang-Feng Dai and Carden C. Wallace (2004) Secondary structure and phylogenetic utility of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) in scleractinian corals. Zoological Studies 43(4): 759-771. In this study, we examined the nucleotide characteristics, the secondary structure, and phylogenetic utility of the ribosomal internal spacer

Chaolun Allen Chen; Chau-Ching Chang; Nuwei Vivian Wei; Chien-Hsun Chen; Yi-Ting Lein; Ho-E Lin; Chang-Feng Dai; Carden C. Wallace

2004-01-01

146

Development of self-actuated in-flight de-icing technology utilizing smart structure concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ice accretions on aircraft components have severe and sometimes fatal effects. Aircraft wings are one of the many components that are prone to severe ice accretions. The de-icing/anti-icing technologies currently being used are bulky, cover the airfoil surface and consume high energies. Addressing these drawbacks, the current study proposes a novel de-icing technique utilizing lightweight piezoelectric actuators to break the weak adhesive shear bond of ice-substrate interface. When structures are excited at their natural frequencies, high shear stresses are generated in certain modes. These high shear stresses can break the weak adhesive shear bond of ice-substrate interface with minimal energy inputs. The proposed de-icing technique is applied on two structures, (1) a laminated composite cantilever rectangular plate, and (2) a prototyped aluminum leading edge. Theoretical investigations are fist performed to determine the frequencies and modes in which high amount of shear stresses and debonding of the ice layers occurred. After determining optimal actuator locations, experimental set-up is designed and structures are built. Experimentation of the proposed technique is carried out inside a freezer by forming two types of ice layers on the surfaces and exciting the structures to the determined frequencies. Testing is carried out at five different temperatures ranging from 5°F to 25°F. De-icing is observed for both types of ice layers in both the structures. While the average de-icing times increased with decreased temperatures, longer de-icing times are noted for the aluminum leading edge. In addition, energy requirements of the piezoelectric actuators to actuate an adaptive composite wing structure are evaluated and a composite material is designed to improve deicing of the leading edge.

Venna, Suresh Venkata

147

Urban water infrastructure asset management - a structured approach in four water utilities.  

PubMed

Water services are a strategic sector of large social and economic relevance. It is therefore essential that they are managed rationally and efficiently. Advanced water supply and wastewater infrastructure asset management (IAM) is key in achieving adequate levels of service in the future, particularly with regard to reliable and high quality drinking water supply, prevention of urban flooding, efficient use of natural resources and prevention of pollution. This paper presents a methodology for supporting the development of urban water IAM, developed during the AWARE-P project as well as an appraisal of its implementation in four water utilities. Both water supply and wastewater systems were considered. Due to the different contexts and features of the utilities, the main concerns vary from case to case; some problems essentially are related to performance, others to risk. Cost is a common deciding factor. The paper describes the procedure applied, focusing on the diversity of drivers, constraints, benefits and outcomes. It also points out the main challenges and the results obtained through the implementation of a structured procedure for supporting urban water IAM. PMID:23109589

Cardoso, M A; Silva, M Santos; Coelho, S T; Almeida, M C; Covas, D I C

2012-01-01

148

Structural and Biochemical Basis for Mannan Utilization by Caldanaerobius polysaccharolyticus Strain ATCC BAA-17.  

PubMed

Hemicelluloses, the polysaccharide component of plant cell walls, represent one of the most abundant biopolymers in nature. The most common hemicellulosic constituents of softwoods, such as conifers and cycads, are mannans consisting of a 1,4-linked ?-mannopyranosyl main chain with branch decorations. Efforts toward the utilization of hemicellulose for bioconversion into cellulosic biofuels have resulted in the identification of several families of glycoside hydrolases that can degrade mannan. However, effective biofermentation of manno-oligosaccharides is limited by a lack of appropriate uptake route in ethanologenic organisms. Here, we used transcriptome sequencing to gain insights into mannan degradation by the thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Caldanaerobius polysaccharolyticus. The most highly up-regulated genes during mannan fermentation occur in a cluster containing several genes encoding enzymes for efficient mannan hydrolysis as well as a solute-binding protein (CpMnBP1) that exhibits specificity for short mannose polymers but exhibited the flexibility to accommodate branched polysaccharide decorations. Co-crystal structures of CpMnBP1 in complex with mannobiose (1.4-Å resolution) and mannotriose (2.2-Å resolution) revealed the molecular rationale for chain length and oligosaccharide specificity. Calorimetric analysis of several active site variants confirmed the roles of residues critical to the function of CpMnBP1. This work represents the first biochemical characterization of a mannose-specific solute-binding protein and provides a framework for engineering mannan utilization capabilities for microbial fermentation. PMID:25342756

Chekan, Jonathan R; Kwon, In Hyuk; Agarwal, Vinayak; Dodd, Dylan; Revindran, Vanessa; Mackie, Roderick I; Cann, Isaac; Nair, Satish K

2014-12-12

149

Factor Structure and Predictive Utility of the 2 x 2 Achievement Goal Model in a Sample of Taiwan Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined structure and predictive utility of the 2 x 2 achievement goal model among Taiwan pre-university school students (ages 10 to 16) who learned Chinese language arts. The confirmatory factor analyses of Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Chinese version provided good fitting between the factorial and dimensional structures with the…

Chiang, Yu-Tzu; Yeh, Yu-Chen; Lin, Sunny S. J.; Hwang, Fang-Ming

2011-01-01

150

Assessing the Size, Stability, and Utility of Isotropically Tumbling Bicelle Systems for Structural Biology  

PubMed Central

Aqueous phospholipid mixtures that form bilayered micelles (bicelles) have gained wide use by molecular biophysicists during the past 20 years for spectroscopic studies of membrane-bound peptides and structural refinement of soluble protein structures. Nonetheless, the utility of bicelle systems may be compromised by considerations of cost, chemical stability, and preservation of the bicelle aggregate organization under a broad range of temperature, concentration, pH, and ionic strength conditions. In the current work, 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been used to monitor the size and morphology of isotropically tumbling small bicelles formed by mixtures of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) or 1,2-di-O-tetradecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DIOMPC) with either 1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC) or 1,2-di-O-hexyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-choline (DIOHPC), testing their tolerance of variations in commonly used experimental conditions. 1H-15N 2D NMR has been used to demonstrate the usefulness of the robust DMPC-DIOHPC system for conformational studies of a fatty acid-binding protein that shuttles small ligands to and from biological membranes. PMID:19914202

Wu, Hongwei; Su, Kai; Guan, Xudong; Sublette, M. Elizabeth; Stark, Ruth E.

2009-01-01

151

Variations in methanobactin structure influences copper utilization by methane-oxidizing bacteria  

PubMed Central

Methane-oxidizing bacteria are nature’s primary biological mechanism for suppressing atmospheric levels of the second-most important greenhouse gas via methane monooxygenases (MMOs). The copper-containing particulate enzyme is the most widespread and efficient MMO. Under low-copper conditions methane-oxidizing bacteria secrete the small copper-binding peptide methanobactin (mbtin) to acquire copper, but how variations in the structures of mbtins influence copper metabolism and species selection are unknown. Methanobactins have been isolated from Methylocystis strains M and hirsuta CSC1, organisms that can switch to using an iron-containing soluble MMO when copper is limiting, and the nonswitchover Methylocystis rosea. These mbtins are shorter, and have different amino acid compositions, than the characterized mbtin from Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. A coordinating pyrazinedione ring in the Methylocystis mbtins has little influence on the Cu(I) site structure. The Methylocystis mbtins have a sulfate group that helps stabilize the Cu(I) forms, resulting in affinities of approximately 1021 M-1. The Cu(II) affinities vary over three orders of magnitude with reduction potentials covering approximately 250 mV, which may dictate the mechanism of intracellular copper release. Copper uptake and the switchover from using the iron-containing soluble MMO to the copper-containing particulate enzyme is faster when mediated by the native mbtin, suggesting that the amino acid sequence is important for the interaction of mbtins with receptors. The differences in structures and properties of mbtins, and their influence on copper utilization by methane-oxidizing bacteria, have important implications for the ecology and global function of these environmentally vital organisms. PMID:22582172

El Ghazouani, Abdelnasser; Baslé, Arnaud; Gray, Joe; Graham, David W.; Firbank, Susan J.; Dennison, Christopher

2012-01-01

152

Utilizing electron microscopy and spectroscopy methods to understand water structure and water doping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is the second most common element in the universe and the most studied material on earth. Most of the studies concerning water are from the fields of chemistry and biology. Hence, the structure of water molecules and short range order and interactions are well characterized and understood. However, the collective arrangement of water molecules and the long range order are still missing. Understanding of this long range order in water is needed, as it is the key to many water activities. To fill this gap, this study utilizes a new direct method for characterization of water in the vapor phase. Water samples from different water types were characterized using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) within a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Prior to characterizing water vapor, the measurement method for in-situ gas analysis was developed using pure gases. Water samples were also characterized using more conventional techniques, including: using cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (Cryo-SEM) in the solid state, after rapid freezing; and using high resolution TEM (HRTEM) and scanning TEM (STEM) after drying. Many other characterization techniques were evaluated but most of them were found to be not suitable, mainly due to detection limits. EELS characterization showed that samples from different water types have different electronic configurations, and they all have structures that are large enough in order to scatter electrons. From cryo SEM characterization it was found that water has nanoparticles inside with a size range of 10-100 nm, and these particles are ~500 nm apart. HRTEM/STEM characterization showed that particles from different water types have different shapes. The presence of particles provide surfaces to support water structures and the difference between the particles can explain the different properties of different water types Using tools and methods that are conventional in materials science for characterization of bulk materials and long range orders, resulted in characterization of water clusters that are significantly larger than what was known until now. By this we contribute a new point of view for water structure, which together with new insights on water properties can potentially advance later use of water as an active ingredient.

Miller, Lior

153

Factor structure and predictive utility of the 2 × 2 achievement goal model in a sample of Taiwan students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined structure and predictive utility of the 2×2 achievement goal model among Taiwan pre-university school students (ages 10 to 16) who learned Chinese language arts. The confirmatory factor analyses of Achievement Goal Questionnaire—Chinese version provided good fitting between the factorial and dimensional structures with the data. The mastery-avoidance goals are distinctive perceived by Taiwan students but do not

Yu-Tzu Chiang; Yu-Chen Yeh; Sunny S. J. Lin; Fang-Ming Hwang

2011-01-01

154

Phospholipid fatty acid profiles and carbon utilization patterns for analysis of microbial community structure under field and greenhouse conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The description of soil microbial community structure by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles is based on the relationship between the phylogeny of microorganisms and their PLFA profiles. Based on this relationship, two community based microbiological measurements, namely, potential C source utilization patterns in Biolog microtiter plates and PLFA profiles were used to examine metabolic fingerprints of soil microbial communities and

Abasiofiok M Ibekwe; Ann. C Kennedy

1998-01-01

155

Local Error Estimates Dramatically Improve the Utility of Homology Models for Solving Crystal Structures by Molecular Replacement  

PubMed Central

Summary Predicted structures submitted for CASP10 have been evaluated as molecular replacement models against the corresponding sets of structure factor amplitudes. It has been found that the log-likelihood gain score computed for each prediction correlates well with common structure quality indicators but is more sensitive when the accuracy of the models is high. In addition, it was observed that using coordinate error estimates submitted by predictors to weight the model can improve its utility in molecular replacement dramatically, and several groups have been identified who reliably provide accurate error estimates that could be used to extend the application of molecular replacement for low-homology cases. PMID:25619999

Bunkóczi, Gábor; Wallner, Björn; Read, Randy J.

2015-01-01

156

Structural and optical properties of 6,13-pentacenequinone thin films  

SciTech Connect

We report on the structural and optical properties of 6,13-pentacenequinone thin films deposited on n-Si substrates by thermal evaporation at room temperature. X-ray diffraction data indicate excellent crystallinity but the films have two crystalline phases mixed. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra exhibited double peaks at 1.97 and 2.09 eV while the corresponding (double) peaks, associated with the highest occupied molecular orbital-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital transition, were also observed from direct absorption spectra at 2.94 and 3.11 eV. The yellow PL band was quite intense under UV illumination; the intensity was comparable to that from Tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq{sub 3}) thin films. A large Stokes shift of {approx}1 eV found in our 6,13-pentacenequinone thin films suggests potential applications to UV-detectors and UV-detecting cards.

Hwang, D.K.; Kim, Kibum; Kim, Jae Hoon; Im, Seongil; Jung, Duk-Young; Kim, Eugene [Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Hongik University, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of)

2004-12-06

157

Microbial Diversity and Community Structure of Postdisturbance Forest Soils as Determined by Sole-Carbon-Source Utilization Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of clear-cutting, scarification, and prescribed burning on forest soil microbial community structure was assessed\\u000a using sole-carbon-source utilization (SCSU). Organic and mineral soil samples were collected on two dates from Pinus banksiana plots that had been clear-cut, clear-cut followed by prescribed burning, clear-cut followed by scarification, or had not\\u000a been harvested. Microorganisms were extracted from the soil samples and

W. J. Staddon; L. C. Duchesne; J. T. Trevors

1997-01-01

158

Prismatic sealed nickel-cadmium batteries utilizing fiber structured electrodes. II. Applications as a maintenance free aircraft battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

For pt.I see ibid., p.286-9 (1990). Test data on prismatic sealed Ni-Cd batteries utilizing fiber structured electrodes (sealed FNC) is discussed. It is shown that, under a voltage limited charging scheme, the charge acceptance of the sealed FNC battery is far superior to that of the standard vented aircraft Ni-Cd batteries. This results in the sealed FNC battery maintaining its

Menahem Anderman; Gabor Benczur-Urmossy; Friedrich Haschka

1990-01-01

159

Elf ect of autoclaving and physical structure of diets on their utilization by mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A pelleted and 2 expanded rodent diets were auto- claved at 121°C for 20 minutes, and fed to DBA\\/l and LACA strains of mice. Reproduction was not significantly different on any diet and autoclaving had no effect other than increasing the intervals between litters. However, apparent food consumption was greater and efficiency of food utilization (ex- pressed as young

D. J. FORD

160

Optimized frequency-based foundation design for wind turbine towers utilizing soil–structure interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study illustrates design optimization for multiple wind towers located at different villages in Alaska. The towers are supported by two different types of foundations: large mat or deep piles foundations. Initially, a reinforced concrete (RC) mat foundation was proposed. Where soil conditions required it, a pile foundation solution was devised utilizing a 30in thick RC mat containing an embedded

Mohammad AlHamaydeh; Saif Hussain

2010-01-01

161

The Perceived Utility of Performance Appraisals: A Structural Model and Organizational Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on performance appraisals has often overlooked the importance of attitudinal and organizational variables. To test a model of the influence of organizational contextual variables on the perceived utility of performance appraisals, 239 Virginia mental health workers completed a questionnaire. The 21 items were designed to measure the four…

Dickinson, Terry L.; Davis, Donald D.

162

The intellectual structure and substance of the knowledge utilization field: A longitudinal author co-citation analysis, 1945 to 2004  

PubMed Central

Background It has been argued that science and society are in the midst of a far-reaching renegotiation of the social contract between science and society, with society becoming a far more active partner in the creation of knowledge. On the one hand, new forms of knowledge production are emerging, and on the other, both science and society are experiencing a rapid acceleration in new forms of knowledge utilization. Concomitantly since the Second World War, the science underpinning the knowledge utilization field has had exponential growth. Few in-depth examinations of this field exist, and no comprehensive analyses have used bibliometric methods. Methods Using bibliometric analysis, specifically first author co-citation analysis, our group undertook a domain analysis of the knowledge utilization field, tracing its historical development between 1945 and 2004. Our purposes were to map the historical development of knowledge utilization as a field, and to identify the changing intellectual structure of its scientific domains. We analyzed more than 5,000 articles using citation data drawn from the Web of Science®. Search terms were combinations of knowledge, research, evidence, guidelines, ideas, science, innovation, technology, information theory and use, utilization, and uptake. Results We provide an overview of the intellectual structure and how it changed over six decades. The field does not become large enough to represent with a co-citation map until the mid-1960s. Our findings demonstrate vigorous growth from the mid-1960s through 2004, as well as the emergence of specialized domains reflecting distinct collectives of intellectual activity and thought. Until the mid-1980s, the major domains were focused on innovation diffusion, technology transfer, and knowledge utilization. Beginning slowly in the mid-1980s and then growing rapidly, a fourth scientific domain, evidence-based medicine, emerged. The field is dominated in all decades by one individual, Everett Rogers, and by one paradigm, innovation diffusion. Conclusion We conclude that the received view that social science disciplines are in a state where no accepted set of principles or theories guide research (i.e., that they are pre-paradigmatic) could not be supported for this field. Second, we document the emergence of a new domain within the knowledge utilization field, evidence-based medicine. Third, we conclude that Everett Rogers was the dominant figure in the field and, until the emergence of evidence-based medicine, his representation of the general diffusion model was the dominant paradigm in the field. PMID:19014512

Estabrooks, Carole A; Derksen, Linda; Winther, Connie; Lavis, John N; Scott, Shannon D; Wallin, Lars; Profetto-McGrath, Joanne

2008-01-01

163

Different 8-Hydroxyquinolines Protect Models of TDP-43 Protein, -Synuclein, and Polyglutamine Proteotoxicity  

E-print Network

-related neurodegenerative diseases. Model organ- isms provide a platform for discovering compounds that protect against degeneration. In yeast, TDP-43 expres- sion is toxic, and genetic modifiers first discovered in yeast have II clinical trials of an 8-OHQ has produced encouraging results in mod- ifying Alzheimer disease. Our

Caldwell, Guy

164

Photoluminescence (PL)-Detected Magnetic Resonance (PLDMR) Study of tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) Aluminum (Alq3).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A PLDMR study of Alq3 powder and vacuum-evaporated films is described. A positive (PL-enhancing) spin 1/2 polaron resonance is observed in both powder and films. Its observation implies that either it is not due to the conversion of nongeminate polaron pairs from the triplet to the singlet configuration (the delayed PL mechanism), or the yield of singlet excitons (SEs) in Alq3 organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) is > 25%. Other evidence clearly demonstrates the former. The resonance is therefore attributed to reduced quenching of SEs by a reduced population of polarons (the quenching mechanism). As it is weaker in powder than in the films, it is suggested that the films contain more defect sites which quench SEs and/or trap polarons. The behavior of the PL quantum yield (PLQY) is consistent with this conclusion: The PLQY of the powder is 0.33, while that of films is 0.18, indicating that the latter contain a higher density of such sites. The PLDMR of powders also includes full- and half-field triplet exciton (TE) patterns. In contrast to polymers, the full field pattern is negative (PL-quenching). Following rubrene, that resonance is tentatively attributed to reduced geminate TE-TE fusion to SEs. If this scenario is correct, it would imply that as in rubrene, SEs in Alq3 may fission to geminate triplet pairs, and triplet pairs may fuse to SEs.

Kim, C.-H.; Shinar, J.

2004-03-01

165

Methods of application of 8-Hydroxyquinoline preservative on seed cotton during the harvesting operation  

E-print Network

in each box. These boxes were not opened until the end of the storate period. Five replications were stored under normal atmospheric conditions encountered in the Agricultural Engineering Research Laboratory, College Station. Three of the replications... stored were used to obtain an 8-pound gin sample at 4-day intervals. Two of the replications were used to obtain 24 an hourly temperature record of the seed cotton mass during storage. These two replications were not opened until the end...

Morvant, Clifton Joseph

2012-06-07

166

Structural characterization and biological evaluation of a clioquinol-ruthenium complex with copper-independent antileukaemic activity.  

PubMed

In this study, we present the synthesis, biological characterization, and first crystal structure of an organometallic-clioquinol complex. Combining ruthenium with the established apoptotic agent and 8-hydroxyquinoline derivative, clioquinol, resulted in a complex that induces caspase-dependent cell death in leukaemia cells. This activity is copper independent and is improved compared to the parent compound, clioquinol. The study of the mode of action reveals that this clioquinol-ruthenium complex does not intercalate between DNA base pairs. Additionally, this clioquinol-ruthenium complex shows proteasome-independent inhibition of the NF?B signalling pathway, with no effects on cell-cycle distribution. These data suggest a mechanism of action that involves a target profile that is different from that for clioquinol alone. PMID:24781711

Gobec, Martina; Kljun, Jakob; Sosi?, Izidor; Mlinari?-Raš?an, Irena; Urši?, Matija; Gobec, Stanislav; Turel, Iztok

2014-06-28

167

Confirming the Factor Structure of the Cognitive Test Anxiety Scale: Comparing the Utility of Three Solutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study validated the factor structure of a popular assessment of learner's cognitive test anxiety. Following recent findings in a study with Argentinean students' use of the Spanish version of the Cognitive Test Anxiety Scale (CTAS), this study tested the factor structure using data from 742 students who completed the original…

Cassady, Jerrell C.; Finch, W. Holmes

2014-01-01

168

Parameter and structure-activity data bases: management for maximum utility.  

PubMed Central

Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) in the fields of medicinal chemistry, pesticide science, biochemistry and toxicology are being published at an ever increasing rate. In addition to these biological correlation equations, thousands of such equations have been published for all kinds of organic reactions. There is a great need to develop a computerized system to enable one to make comparisons and to draw generalizations about the effects of structure on chemical and biological activity. A proposal is made for a systematic approach to this problem based on the physicochemical properties of organic compounds. PMID:4065069

Leo, A

1985-01-01

169

End-to-end communication test on variable length packet structures utilizing AOS testbed  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a communication test, which successfully demonstrated the transfer of losslessly compressed images in an end-to-end system. These compressed images were first formatted into variable length Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) packets in the Advanced Orbiting System Testbed (AOST). The CCSDS data Structures were transferred from the AOST to the Radio Frequency Simulations Operations Center (RFSOC),

Warner H. Miller; V. Sank; Wai Fong; J. Miko; M. Powers; John Folk; B. Conaway; K. Michael; Pen-Shu Yeh

1994-01-01

170

Biochemical and Structural Insights into Xylan Utilization by the Thermophilic Bacterium Caldanaerobius polysaccharolyticus*  

PubMed Central

Hemicellulose is the next most abundant plant cell wall component after cellulose. The abundance of hemicellulose such as xylan suggests that their hydrolysis and conversion to biofuels can improve the economics of bioenergy production. In an effort to understand xylan hydrolysis at high temperatures, we sequenced the genome of the thermophilic bacterium Caldanaerobius polysaccharolyticus. Analysis of the partial genome sequence revealed a gene cluster that contained both hydrolytic enzymes and also enzymes key to the pentose-phosphate pathway. The hydrolytic enzymes in the gene cluster were demonstrated to convert products from a large endoxylanase (Xyn10A) predicted to anchor to the surface of the bacterium. We further use structural and calorimetric studies to demonstrate that the end products of Xyn10A hydrolysis of xylan are recognized and bound by XBP1, a putative solute-binding protein, likely for transport into the cell. The XBP1 protein showed preference for xylo-oligosaccharides as follows: xylotriose > xylobiose > xylotetraose. To elucidate the structural basis for the oligosaccharide preference, we solved the co-crystal structure of XBP1 complexed with xylotriose to a 1.8-? resolution. Analysis of the biochemical data in the context of the co-crystal structure reveals the molecular underpinnings of oligosaccharide length specificity. PMID:22918832

Han, Yejun; Agarwal, Vinayak; Dodd, Dylan; Kim, Jason; Bae, Brian; Mackie, Roderick I.; Nair, Satish K.; Cann, Isaac K. O.

2012-01-01

171

Utilization of 2D ECEI images for the study of the core instability structures under ECRH  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wide variety of sawtooth patterns have been observed in the core of plasmas assisted by electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) in a large number of tokamaks. In the KSTAR tokamak, the sawtoothing core under ECRH has been visualized in 2D using an electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECE-I) system. The 2D images revealed a variety of instability structures such as dual cores, triple cores, and crescent shaped structure, which are different from the internal kink mode of the normal sawteeth. For rapid identification of the core structure using 1D ECE signals, the characteristic patterns in the ECE time traces have been explained by the corresponding 2D ECEI images. The statistical analysis for more than 600 discharges using this identification method suggests that the current perturbation due to ECRH inside the q=1 surface may be responsible for the altered core instability structures. A simulation based on linearized two-field reduced MHD model is planned to study the role of localized current perturbations.

Choe, G. H.; Nam, Y.; Yun, G. S.; Lee, J. E.; Choi, M. J.; Park, H. K.; Bierwage, A.; Lee, K. D.

2012-10-01

172

The Factor Structure and Screening Utility of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The widely used Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS; R. P. Mattick & J. C. Clarke, 1998) possesses favorable psychometric properties, but questions remain concerning its factor structure and item properties. Analyses included 445 people with social anxiety disorder and 1,689 undergraduates. Simple unifactorial models fit poorly, and models that…

Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Woods, Carol M.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Liebowitz, Michael R.; Schneier, Franklin R.

2006-01-01

173

An assessment of children's concepts of the earth utilizing structured interviews  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structured interviews with second graders in the U.S. about the shape of Earth and the effects of gravity at the surface. Describes a highly effective and systematic interviewing strategy aropriate for investigating student conceptions. Most students consistently hold one of five notions: Earth is flat, Earth is round with flat places where people live, Earth is round and people can

Joseph Nussbaum; Joseph D. Novak

1976-01-01

174

Human Cytochrome P450 1A1 Structure and Utility in Understanding Drug and Xenobiotic Metabolism*  

PubMed Central

Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 is an extrahepatic monooxygenase involved in the metabolism of endogenous substrates and drugs, as well as the activation of certain toxins and environmental pollutants. CYP1A1 is particularly well known for its ability to biotransform polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzo[a]pyrene in tobacco smoke, into carcinogens. CYP1A1 possesses functional similarities and differences with human CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 enzymes, but the structural basis for this has been unclear. We determined a 2.6 ? structure of human CYP1A1 with the inhibitor ?-naphthoflavone. ?-Naphthoflavone binds within an enclosed active site, with the planar benzochromen-4-one core packed flat against the I helix that composes one wall of the active site, and the 2-phenyl substituent oriented toward the catalytic heme iron. Comparisons with previously determined structures of the related cytochrome P450 1A2 and 1B1 enzymes reveal distinct features among the active sites that may underlie the functional variability of these enzymes. Finally, docking studies probed the ability of CYP1A structures to assist in understanding their known in vitro interactions with several typical substrates and inhibitors. PMID:23508959

Walsh, Agnes A.; Szklarz, Grazyna D.; Scott, Emily E.

2013-01-01

175

Tomographic TR-PIV measurement of coherent structure spatial topology utilizing an improved quadrant splitting method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we calculated the spatial local-averaged velocity strains along the streamwise direction at four spatial scales according to the concept of spatial local-averaged velocity structure function by using the three-dimensional three-component database of time series of velocity vector field in the turbulent boundary layer measured by tomographic time-resolved particle image velocimetry. An improved quadrant splitting method, based on the spatial local-averaged velocity strains together with a new conditional sampling phase average technique, was introduced as a criterion to detect the coherent structure topology. Furthermore, we used them to detect and extract the spatial topologies of fluctuating velocity and fluctuating vorticity whose center is a strong second-quadrant event (Q2) or a fourth-quadrant event (Q4). Results illustrate that a closer similarity of the multi-scale coherent structures is present in the wall-normal direction, compared to the one in the other two directions. The relationship among such topological coherent structures and Reynolds stress bursting events, as well as the fluctuating vorticity was discussed. When other burst events are surveyed (the first-quadrant event Q1 and the third-quadrant event Q3), a fascinating bursting period circularly occurs: Q4-S-Q2-Q3-Q2-Q1-Q4-S-Q2-Q3-Q2-Q1 in the center of such topological structures along the streamwise direction. In addition, the probability of the Q2 bursting event occurrence is slightly higher than that of the Q4 event occurrence. The spatial instable singularity that almost simultaneously appears together with typical Q2 or Q4 events has been observed, which is the main character of the mutual induction mechanism and vortex auto-generation mechanism explaining how the turbulence is produced and maintained.

Yang, ShaoQiong; Jiang, Nan

2012-10-01

176

Quantification of urban structure on building block level utilizing multisensoral remote sensing data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamics of urban environments are a challenge to a sustainable development. Urban areas promise wealth, realization of individual dreams and power. Hence, many cities are characterized by a population growth as well as physical development. Traditional, visual mapping and updating of urban structure information of cities is a very laborious and cost-intensive task, especially for large urban areas. For this purpose, we developed a workflow for the extraction of the relevant information by means of object-based image classification. In this manner, multisensoral remote sensing data has been analyzed in terms of very high resolution optical satellite imagery together with height information by a digital surface model to retrieve a detailed 3D city model with the relevant land-use / land-cover information. This information has been aggregated on the level of the building block to describe the urban structure by physical indicators. A comparison between the indicators derived by the classification and a reference classification has been accomplished to show the correlation between the individual indicators and a reference classification of urban structure types. The indicators have been used to apply a cluster analysis to group the individual blocks into similar clusters.

Wurm, Michael; Taubenböck, Hannes; Dech, Stefan

2010-10-01

177

Structural analysis of the central Columbia Plateau utilizing radar, digital topography, and magnetic data bases  

SciTech Connect

Interest in the Hanford site (Washington) as a nuclear production, power, and waste disposal site has led to generation of a vast quantity of geophysical and remote sensing data sets of the central Columbia Plateau. To data, these various studies, including at least 13 independent magnetic linear and image lineament studies, have not been adequately correlated. Therefore, these studies provide a unique opportunity to compare and contrast the viability of the different geophysical and remote sensing techniques. The geology of the central Columbia Plateau is characterized by subdued topography and limited outcrop, with most of the exposure concentrated in localized folded/faulted mountains (the Yakima folds) and along river canyons. In order to efficiently compare lineament data bases, we have written an automated computer routine that correlated lineaments that are within a user specified distance of each other. The angle between their trends has to be less than an input maximum separation angle. If more than two lineament maps exist for the area, the analyst may also specify the minimum number of times each structure must be seen. The lineament correlation routine was applied to data bases of all aeromagnetic linears as well as lineaments seen on radar and a digital elevation model DEM image. Geologic structures align with a set of three-dimensional planar structures identified with our Geologic Spatial Analysis (GSA) system. The GSA analysis is based upon computer automated detection of valley bottoms as defined by a DEM.

Thiessen, R.L.; Eliason, J.R.; Johnson, L.K.; Brougher, C.W. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Geology; Foley, M.G.; Beaver, D.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1991-08-01

178

Quantitative structure-activation barrier relationship modeling for Diels-Alder ligations utilizing quantum chemical structural descriptors  

PubMed Central

Background In the present study, we show the correlation of quantum chemical structural descriptors with the activation barriers of the Diels-Alder ligations. A set of 72 non-catalysed Diels-Alder reactions were subjected to quantitative structure-activation barrier relationship (QSABR) under the framework of theoretical quantum chemical descriptors calculated solely from the structures of diene and dienophile reactants. Experimental activation barrier data were obtained from literature. Descriptors were computed using Hartree-Fock theory using 6-31G(d) basis set as implemented in Gaussian 09 software. Results Variable selection and model development were carried out by stepwise multiple linear regression methodology. Predictive performance of the quantitative structure-activation barrier relationship (QSABR) model was assessed by training and test set concept and by calculating leave-one-out cross-validated Q2 and predictive R2 values. The QSABR model can explain and predict 86.5% and 80% of the variances, respectively, in the activation energy barrier training data. Alternatively, a neural network model based on back propagation of errors was developed to assess the nonlinearity of the sought correlations between theoretical descriptors and experimental reaction barriers. Conclusions A reasonable predictability for the activation barrier of the test set reactions was obtained, which enabled an exploration and interpretation of the significant variables responsible for Diels-Alder interaction between dienes and dienophiles. Thus, studies in the direction of QSABR modelling that provide efficient and fast prediction of activation barriers of the Diels-Alder reactions turn out to be a meaningful alternative to transition state theory based computation. PMID:24171724

2013-01-01

179

Biomass utilization  

SciTech Connect

Forty papers are presented in 6 sections: Biomass utilization - the concept; The raw material and its preparation; The structure and chemical composition of biomass; Conversion methods - biological; Conversion methods - thermochemical; and Engineering and economics in biomass utilization. Ten papers are of particular forestry interest: Forest inventories as the basis for a continuous monitoring of forest biomass resources (Cunia, T.); Aerial photo biomass equation (Kasile, J.); Forest biomass utilization in Greece (Tsoumis, C.); Mass propagation of selected trees for biomass by tissue culture (Venketeswaran, S. et al.); The anatomy, ultrastructure and chemical composition of wood (Coete, W.A.); Some structural characteristics of acid hydrolysis lignins (Papadopoulos, J.); Thermochemical routes to chemicals, fuels and energy from forestry and agricultural residues (Soltes, E.J.); Pyrolysis of wood wastes (Figueiredo, J.L. et al.); Efficient utilization of woody biomass: a cellulose-particleboard-synfuels model (Young, R.A.; Achmadi, S.); and Methanol from wood, a state of the art review (Beenackers, A.A.C.M.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van).

Coute, W.A. (ed.)

1983-01-01

180

Evaluation of commercial utility of ERTS-A imagery in structural reconnaissance for minerals and petroleum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Five areas in North America (North Slope-Alaska, Superior Province-Canada, Williston Basin-Montana, Colorado and New Mexico-West Texas) are being studied for discernibility of geological evidence on ERTS-1 imagery, Evidence mapped is compared with known mineral/hydrocarbon accumulations to determine the value of the imagery in commercial exploration programs. Evaluation has proceeded in the New Mexico-West Texas area while awaiting imagery in the other areas. To date, results have been better than expected. Clearly discernible structural lineaments in New Mexico-West Texas are evident on the photographs. Comparison of this evidence with known major mining localities in New Mexico indicates a clear pattern of coincidence between the lineaments and mining localities. In West Texas, lineament and geomorphological evidence obtainable from the photographs define the petroleum-productive Central Basin Platform. Based on evaluation results in the New Mexico-West Texas area and on cursory results in the other four areas of North America, ERTS-1 imagery will be extremely valuable in defining the regional and local structure in any commercial exploration program.

Saunders, D. F.; Thomas, G. E.

1973-01-01

181

The utility of petroleum seismic exploration data in delineating structural features within salt anticlines  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Salt Valley anticline, in the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah, is under investigation for use as a location for storage of solid nuclear waste. Delineation of thin, nonsalt interbeds within the upper reaches of the salt body is extremely important because the nature and character of any such fluid- or gas-saturated horizons would be critical to the mode of emplacement of wastes into the structure. Analysis of 50 km of conventional seismic-reflection data, in the vicinity of the anticline, indicates that mapping of thin beds at shallow depths may well be possible using a specially designed adaptation of state-of-the-art seismic oil-exploration procedures. Computer ray-trace modeling of thin beds in salt reveals that the frequency and spatial resolution required to map the details of interbeds at shallow depths (less than 750 m) may be on the order of 500 Hz, with surface-spread lengths of less than 350 m. Consideration should be given to the burial of sources and receivers in order to attenuate surface noise and to record the desired high frequencies. Correlation of the seismic-reflection data with available well data and surface geology reveals the complex, structurally initiated diapir, whose upward flow was maintained by rapid contemporaneous deposition of continental clastic sediments on its flanks. Severe collapse faulting near the crests of these structures has distorted the seismic response. Evidence exists, however, that intrasalt thin beds of anhydrite, dolomite, and black shale are mappable on seismic record sections either as short, discontinuous reflected events or as amplitude anomalies that result from focusing of the reflected seismic energy by the thin beds; computer modeling of the folded interbeds confirms both of these as possible causes of seismic response from within the salt diapir. Prediction of the seismic signatures of the interbeds can be made from computer-model studies. Petroleum seismic-reflection data are unsatisfactory for mapping the thin beds because of the lack of sufficient resolution to provide direct evidence of the presence of the thin beds. However, indirect evidence, present in these data as discontinuous seismic events, suggests that two geophysical techniques designed for this specific problem would allow direct detection of the interbeds in salt. These techniques are vertical seismic profiling and shallow, short-offset, high-frequency, seismic-reflection recording.

Stockton, S.L.; Balch, Alfred H.

1978-01-01

182

Gift-giving and network structure in rural China: utilizing long-term spontaneous gift records.  

PubMed

The tradition of keeping written records of gift received during household ceremonies in many countries offers researchers an underutilized means of data collection for social network analysis. This paper first summarizes unique features of the gift record data that circumvent five prevailing sampling and measurement issues in the literature, and we discuss their advantages over existing studies at both the individual level and the dyadic link level using previous data sources. We then document our research project in rural China that implements a multiple wave census-type household survey and a long-term gift record collection. The pattern of gift-giving in major household social events and its recent escalation is analyzed. There are significantly positive correlations between gift network centrality and various forms of informal insurance. Finally, economic inequality and competitive marriage market are among the main demographic and socioeconomic determinants of the observed gift network structure. PMID:25111696

Chen, Xi

2014-01-01

183

Alignment and structural control of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes by utilizing precursor concentration effect.  

PubMed

Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNTs) were prepared using a simple ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method. The precursor concentration effect was examined to effectively control alignment, open tip and diameter of the NCNTs by changing xylene/cyclohexylamine ratio. The structure and morphology of the resultant NCNTs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The degree of alignment and the diameter of the NCNTs increased as the xylene/cyclohexylamine precursor mixture was changed from 0 to 35% cyclohexylamine. This precursor composition also caused a large number of open-ended nanotubes to form with graphite layers inside the cavities of the NCNTs. However, further increase cyclohexylamine content in the precursor reduced the degree of alignment and diameter of the NCNTs. We demonstrate control over the NCNT alignment and diameter, along with the formation of open-ended nanotube tips, and propose a growth mechanism to understand how these properties are interlinked. PMID:25369800

Deng, Weina; Chen, Xiaohua; Chen, Xian; Liu, Zheng; Zeng, Ying; Hu, Aiping; Xiong, Yina; Li, Zhe; Tang, Qunli

2014-11-28

184

End-to-end communication test on variable length packet structures utilizing AOS testbed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a communication test, which successfully demonstrated the transfer of losslessly compressed images in an end-to-end system. These compressed images were first formatted into variable length Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) packets in the Advanced Orbiting System Testbed (AOST). The CCSDS data Structures were transferred from the AOST to the Radio Frequency Simulations Operations Center (RFSOC), via a fiber optic link, where data was then transmitted through the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). The received data acquired at the White Sands Complex (WSC) was transferred back to the AOST where the data was captured and decompressed back to the original images. This paper describes the compression algorithm, the AOST configuration, key flight components, data formats, and the communication link characteristics and test results.

Miller, Warner H.; Sank, V.; Fong, Wai; Miko, J.; Powers, M.; Folk, John; Conaway, B.; Michael, K.; Yeh, Pen-Shu

1994-01-01

185

[Utility of the L-alanine-aminopeptidase test for differentiating the cell wall structure of bacteria].  

PubMed

Evaluation of a detection test for L-alanine-aminopeptidase enzyme (Bactident Aminopeptidase) for determining the structure of bacterial cell wall. In a total of 246 clinical isolates of aerobic, microaerophilic and anaerobic bacteria, we detect the presence or absence of L-alanine-aminopeptidase using commercial kits (Bactident Aminopeptidase, Merck Diagnostica). We also identify and further classified the 246 strains. In nearly all gram-negative bacteria L-alanine-aminopeptidase was found, with the exception of Campylobacter spp and gram-negative anaerobic bacilli. All gram-positive and gram-variable bacteria were negative for the L-alanine-aminopeptidase presence. The results suggest a good correlation between the presence or absence of L-alanine-aminopeptidase and Gram stain method. PMID:1726575

Hernández Molina, J M; Martínez, A; Parra, M C; Ortega, M I

1991-12-01

186

Utility of anion and cation combinations for phasing of protein structures.  

PubMed

We report the use of anionic (I(-)), cationic (Ba(2+), Cd(2+)) and ionic mixtures (I(-) plus Ba(2+)) for derivatizing liver fatty acid binding protein (LFABP) crystals. Use of cationic and anionic salts in phasing experiments revealed distinct non-overlapping sites for these ions, suggesting exclusive binding regions on LFABP. Interestingly, cations of identical charge and valency (like Ba(2+) and Cd(2+)) bound to distinct pockets on the protein surface. Furthermore, a mixture of salts containing both I(-) and Ba(2+) was very useful in phasing experiments as these oppositely charged ions bound to different regions of LFABP. Our data therefore suggest that cationic and anionic salt mixtures like BaCl(2) with NH(4)I or salts like CdI, BaI where each ion has a significant anomalous signal for a given X-ray wavelength may be valuable reagents for phasing during structure determination. PMID:22562242

Sharma, Ashwani; Yogavel, Manickam; Sharma, Amit

2012-09-01

187

Full equations utilities (FEQUTL) model for the approximation of hydraulic characteristics of open channels and control structures during unsteady flow  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Full EQuations UTiLities (FEQUTL) model is a computer program for computation of tables that list the hydraulic characteristics of open channels and control structures as a function of upstream and downstream depths; these tables facilitate the simulation of unsteady flow in a stream system with the Full Equations (FEQ) model. Simulation of unsteady flow requires many iterations for each time period computed. Thus, computation of hydraulic characteristics during the simulations is impractical, and preparation of function tables and application of table look-up procedures facilitates simulation of unsteady flow. Three general types of function tables are computed: one-dimensional tables that relate hydraulic characteristics to upstream flow depth, two-dimensional tables that relate flow through control structures to upstream and downstream flow depth, and three-dimensional tables that relate flow through gated structures to upstream and downstream flow depth and gate setting. For open-channel reaches, six types of one-dimensional function tables contain different combinations of the top width of flow, area, first moment of area with respect to the water surface, conveyance, flux coefficients, and correction coefficients for channel curvilinearity. For hydraulic control structures, one type of one-dimensional function table contains relations between flow and upstream depth, and two types of two-dimensional function tables contain relations among flow and upstream and downstream flow depths. For hydraulic control structures with gates, a three-dimensional function table lists the system of two-dimensional tables that contain the relations among flow and upstream and downstream flow depths that correspond to different gate openings. Hydraulic control structures for which function tables containing flow relations are prepared in FEQUTL include expansions, contractions, bridges, culverts, embankments, weirs, closed conduits (circular, rectangular, and pipe-arch shapes), dam failures, floodways, and underflow gates (sluice and tainter gates). The theory for computation of the hydraulic characteristics is presented for open channels and for each hydraulic control structure. For the hydraulic control structures, the theory is developed from the results of experimental tests of flow through the structure for different upstream and downstream flow depths. These tests were done to describe flow hydraulics for a single, steady-flow design condition and, thus, do not provide complete information on flow transitions (for example, between free- and submerged-weir flow) that may result in simulation of unsteady flow. Therefore, new procedures are developed to approximate the hydraulics of flow transitions for culverts, embankments, weirs, and underflow gates.

Franz, Delbert D.; Melching, Charles S.

1997-01-01

188

Sensor Array Devices Utilizing Nano-structured Metal-oxides for Hazardous Gas Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane and carbon monoxide are two hazardous gases which require continuous monitoring by gas sensors in underground coal mines for explosion prevention and toxicity, respectively. This work explored implementing miniaturized gas sensors in this area to simultaneously detect both gases for benefits of increased portability and reduced power consumption of the chemiresistive gas sensor device. The focus of this research was to understand how the particle size, morphology, and microstructure of the metaloxide film affected the gas sensor performance to the two gases of interest on miniaturized gas sensor devices in the form of microhotplate platforms. This was done through three main research studies. The first was conducted by growing SnO2 nanowires from SnO 2 particles using an Au-catalyst. Growth conditions including temperature, time, and oxygen partial pressure were explored to determine the formation aspects of the SnO2 nanowires. Gas sensor studies were completed that provided evidence that the SnO2 nanowires increased detection to a fixed concentration of carbon monoxide compared to SnO2 particles without nano-structure formation. A second research study was performed to compare the gas sensor performance of SnO2 nanoparticles, hierarchical particles, and micron-size particles. The nanoparticles were developed into an ink and deposited via ink-jet printing on the microhotplate substrates to control the microstructure of the metal-oxide film. By preventing agglomeration of the nanoparticle film, the SnO2 nanoparticles displayed similar gas sensor performance to methane and carbon monoxide as the hierarchical particles. Both nano-structures had much higher gas sensor response than the micron-size particles which confirms the surface area of the metal-oxide film is critical for reaction of the analyte gas at the surface. The last research study presented in the dissertation describes an oxide nanoparticle array developed for detecting methane and carbon monoxide in the presence of one another. A design of experiments was constructed and principal component analysis was used for determining the optimum temperatures of the metal-oxide elements. A four element array was developed with the SnO 2 and TiO2 sensor elements able to detect methane concentrations of interest and the ZnO and NiO sensor elements able to detect the carbon monoxide concentrations. A linear based prediction model was developed and tested for accuracy and reproducibility of the model to a series of random gas concentrations.

Andio, Mark A.

189

Ert Applied to the Characterization of Subsidence in Mexico City: Ancient Structures Affecting Urban Utilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of subsidence in Mexico City is basically due to the rapid extraction of groundwater for water supply in addition to the geological conditions. The most typical manifestations of the phenomena are presented as cracks and fractures due to compaction of ancient lake clayish sediments. This phenomenon has caused major affectations to city infrastructure because of the differential subsidence. Fractured buildings, sinkholes, among others manifestations, are potentially sources of collapses, which exposes the population to a serious risk. A small portion of Iztacalco County is being affected by this problem, specifically, in a crossroad formed by two important avenues: La Viga and Plutarco Elias Calles, where the area apparently increases its topographical level. The Electrical Resistivity Tomography technique was selected in order to obtain a resistivity image of the subsoil, which allows identify the main features associated to the terrain uprising. Three (ERT) profiles 200 m, were deployed on the mentioned crossroad in order to characterize the subsurface structures affecting the topographical level of the avenues. A big resistivity anomaly (~ 1000 ohm-m) could be observed towards the central part of the crossroad, coinciding with the major lifting level on surface. This feature appears at 15 m deep in all the profiles and depicts an approximate extension of 100 m in the E-W direction and 60 m in N-S axis. On the other hand, the surrounding material seems to correspond to a higher-saturated environment (lacustrine sediments <10 ohm-m). Shallow anomalies were also detected related to urban artifacts (pipes, sewers, etcetera). The apparently terrain uprising can be associated to a differential subsidence. However, the mentioned avenues were ancient water channels since pre-Hispanic times, where the caudal was enough to allow small steam boating at late nineteenth century. These waterways served as main routes for the exchange of goods during colonial times until the early twentieth century, and just at the junction of the channels, there was a custom gate, where the merchandise used to be registered before its arrival to the downtown market. We suspect that these high resistivity structures could be remains of those buildings that were not removed when the authorities decided to drain the channels in 1921.

Arango, C.; Chavez, R. E.; Cifuentes-Nava, G.; Hernández-Quintero, E.

2013-05-01

190

Mott metal-insulator transition induced by utilizing a glasslike structural ordering in low-dimensional molecular conductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We utilize a glasslike structural transition in order to induce a Mott metal-insulator transition in the quasi-two-dimensional organic charge-transfer salt ? -(BEDT-TTF)2Cu [N (CN)2Br ]. In this material, the terminal ethylene groups of the BEDT-TTF molecules can adopt two different structural orientations within the crystal structure, namely eclipsed (E) and staggered (S) with the relative orientation of the outer C-C bonds being parallel and canted, respectively. These two conformations are thermally disordered at room temperature and undergo a glasslike ordering transition at Tg˜75 K. When cooling through Tg, a small fraction that depends on the cooling rate remains frozen in the S configuration, which is of slightly higher energy, corresponding to a controllable degree of structural disorder. We demonstrate that, when thermally coupled to a low-temperature heat bath, a pulsed heating current through the sample causes a very fast relaxation with cooling rates at Tg of the order of several 1000 K /min . The freezing of the structural degrees of freedom causes a decrease of the electronic bandwidth W with increasing cooling rate, and hence a Mott metal-insulator transition as the system crosses the critical ratio (W/U ) c of bandwidth to on-site Coulomb repulsion U . Due to the glassy character of the transition, the effect is persistent below Tg and can be reversibly repeated by melting the frozen configuration upon warming above Tg. Both by exploiting the characteristics of slowly changing relaxation times close to this temperature and by controlling the heating power, the materials can be fine-tuned across the Mott transition. A simple model allows for an estimate of the energy difference between the E and S state as well as the accompanying degree of frozen disorder in the population of the two orientations.

Hartmann, Benedikt; Müller, Jens; Sasaki, Takahiko

2014-11-01

191

Experimental demonstration of a high-power slow wave electron cyclotron maser utilizing corrugated metal structure  

SciTech Connect

High-power microwave (HPM) sources based on electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) such as gyrotrons are fast wave devices and velocity component of electron beam perpendicular to guiding magnetic field is the origin of HPM. HPM sources based on Cherenkove mechanism are slow wave devices and can be driven by a beam without initial perpendicular velocity. The authors present here the experimental result that seems to be the first demonstration of high-power slow wave electron cyclotron maser (ECM) consisting of a large diameter sinusoidally corrugated metal waveguide driven by a beam with predominant parallel velocity. The designed size parameters of slow wave structure (SWS) are as follows: average radius 30 mm, corrugation pitch 3.4 mm, its amplitude h = 1.7 mm and total length 238 mm. They use an annular beam with radius 26.3 mm, energy 55 keV, current 200 A in their experiment. Expected Cherenkov oscillation frequency of TM01 mode is 20 GHz. The observed high-power microwaves can be quantitatively explained by a backward wave oscillation with Cherenkov mechanism enhanced by positive feedback of anomalous Doppler slow cyclotron wave. In conclusion, the slow wave ECM presented here will be a competitive candidate against gyrotrons for generating multi-MW millimeter microwaves available in fusion plasma research.

Minami, K.; Ogura, K.; Kurashina, K; Kim, W. [Niigata Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Watanabe, Tsuguhiro [National Inst. for Fusion Research, Nagoya (Japan); Carmel, Y.; Destler, W.W.; Granatstein, V.L. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Inst. for Plasma Research

1994-12-31

192

The structure of myostatin:follistatin 288: insights into receptor utilization and heparin binding  

SciTech Connect

Myostatin is a member of the transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}) family and a strong negative regulator of muscle growth. Here, we present the crystal structure of myostatin in complex with the antagonist follistatin 288 (Fst288). We find that the prehelix region of myostatin very closely resembles that of TGF-{beta} class members and that this region alone can be swapped into activin A to confer signalling through the non-canonical type I receptor Alk5. Furthermore, the N-terminal domain of Fst288 undergoes conformational rearrangements to bind myostatin and likely acts as a site of specificity for the antagonist. In addition, a unique continuous electropositive surface is created when myostatin binds Fst288, which significantly increases the affinity for heparin. This translates into stronger interactions with the cell surface and enhanced myostatin degradation in the presence of either Fst288 or Fst315. Overall, we have identified several characteristics unique to myostatin that will be paramount to the rational design of myostatin inhibitors that could be used in the treatment of muscle-wasting disorders.

Cash, Jennifer N.; Rejon, Carlis A.; McPherron, Alexandra C.; Bernard, Daniel J.; Thompson, Thomas B.; (UCIN); (McGill); (NIH)

2009-09-29

193

Utilization of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) in risk assessment: Alkylphenols  

SciTech Connect

Alkylphenols are a class of environmentally pervasive compounds, found both in natural (e.g., crude oils) and in anthropogenic (e.g., wood tar, coal gasification waste) materials. Despite the frequent environmental occurrence of these chemicals, there is a limited toxicity database on alkylphenols. The authors have therefore developed a 'toxicity equivalence approach' for alkylphenols which is based on their ability to inhibit, in a specific manner, the enzyme cyclooxygenase. Enzyme-inhibiting ability for individual alkylphenols can be estimated based on the quantitative structure-activity relationship developed by Dewhirst (1980) and is a function of the free hydroxyl group, electron-donating ring substituents, and hydrophobic aromatic ring substituents. The authors evaluated the toxicological significance of cyclooxygenase inhibition by comparison of the inhibitory capacity of alkylphenols with the inhibitory capacity of acetylsalicylic acid, or aspirin, a compound whose low-level effects are due to cyclooxygenase inhibition. Since nearly complete absorption for alkylphenols and aspirin is predicted, based on estimates of hydrophobicity and fraction of charged molecules at gastrointestinal pHs, risks from alkylphenols can be expressed directly in terms of 'milligram aspirin equivalence,' without correction for absorption differences. They recommend this method for assessing risks of mixtures of alkylphenols, especially for those compounds with no chronic toxicity data.38 references.

Beck, B.D.; Toole, A.P.; Callahan, B.G.; Siddhanti, S.K. (Gradient Corporation, Cambridge, MA (United States))

1991-12-01

194

Development of Antiwear Shim Inserts Utilizing Segment-Structured DLC Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wear and fretting fatigue are important technological problems in automotive, railway and aerospace fields. The purpose of this study is to find a method of reducing the wear of cast-iron (FCD)/aluminum components, which are often applied to automotives, and thus extend their lifetime. First, a stainless-steel (SUS) shim was designed, which can be inserted between an FCD plate and an aluminum plate. Second, diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings were applied to the shim inserts to prevent the FCD and aluminum plates from wear. Then, the tribological and fatigue characteristics of the shim were evaluated by a ball-on-disk (BoD) test and a bending fatigue test of up to 1×106 cycles. Each substrate was coated with DLC by Plasma-Based Ion Implantation and Deposition (PBII&D). A unique feature of our shim is that a segment-structured DLC film (S-DLC) is employed as well as a continuous DLC (C-DLC) film. The effect of the DLC coating on reducing the damage to the Al plate was apparent, because the surface roughness of the Al plate abraded with the DLC-coated shim was significantly smaller than that abraded directly with the FCD plate. Moreover, the average damage fraction to the C-DLC coating is approximately 20-fold larger than that to the S-DLC coating. The C-DLC film suffers severe damage near the bolt hole, whereas the S-DLC film suffered almost no damage even after 1×106 bending cycles. In conclusion, an S-DLC-coated SUS shim has a marked effect on reducing the wear of Al/FCD components and improving their lifetime.

Takashima, Mai; Kuroda, Tsuyoshi; Saito, Masanori; Ohtake, Naoto; Matsuo, Makoto; Iwamoto, Yoshinao

195

Quantum-dot blue light emitting diodes utilizing organic/inorganic hybrid structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report blue color quantum-dot light-emitting diodes (QDLEDs) using an organic–inorganic hybrid structure and CdZnS–ZnS core–shell quantum-dot emitters. In the device organic ploy(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):ploy(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and NN?-bis(3-methylphenyl)-NN?-bis(phenyl)-99-spiro-bifluorene (TPD) thin films are respectively used as the hole-injection layer (HIL) and the hole-transporting layer (HTL), and an inorganic ZnSnO thin film is used as the electron-transporting layer (ETL). In the blue QDLEDs, the function of the TPD-HTL is explored and it is found that the device employing a TPD-HTL exhibits much better optical characteristics compared with that having an identical device layout but without the TPD-HTL. The TPD HTL acts as a transition layer and offers a ladder for the injected holes from PEDOT:PSS to the QDs, leading to an more efficient hole injection. It is further found that the intensity ratio between surface-state emission (SSE) and band-edge emission (BEE) (RS/B) of the two devices shows significant difference at high bias voltages. The SSE becomes more prominent at higher bias voltage in the QDLEDs due to the imbalance injection of holes and electrons. The injected holes firstly encounter the excessive electrons accumulated at the surface of the charged QDs, thus the probability of hole–electron recombination at the QDs surface is greatly enhanced at high bias voltages.

Wu, Feifei; Hu, Lian; Zhang, Bingpo; Li, Ruifeng; Wu, Huizhen

2015-02-01

196

Teaching Three-Dimensional Structural Chemistry Using Crystal Structure Databases. 2. Teaching Units that Utilize an Interactive Web-Accessible Subset of the Cambridge Structural Database  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of online interactive teaching units have been developed that illustrate the use of experimentally measured three-dimensional (3D) structures to teach fundamental chemistry concepts. The units integrate a 500-structure subset of the Cambridge Structural Database specially chosen for their pedagogical value. The units span a number of key…

Battle, Gary M.; Allen, Frank H.; Ferrence, Gregory M.

2010-01-01

197

Phospholipid fatty acid pro¢les and carbon utilization patterns for analysis of microbial community structure under ¢eld and greenhouse conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The description of soil microbial community structure by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles is based on the relationship between the phylogeny of microorganisms and their PLFA profiles. Based on this relationship, two community based microbiological measurements, namely, potential C source utilization patterns in Biolog microtiter plates and PLFA profiles were used to examine metabolic fingerprints of soil microbial communities and

M. Ibekwe; C. Kennedy

198

The Incremental Utility of Behavioral Rating Scales and a Structured Diagnostic Interview in the Assessment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined the incremental utility of rating scales, a structured diagnostic interview, and multiple informants in a comprehensive assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The sample included 185 children with ADHD (M[subscript age] = 9.22, SD = 0.95) and 82 children without ADHD (M[subscript age] = 9.24, SD =…

Vaughn, Aaron J.; Hoza, Betsy

2013-01-01

199

Chapter 9. Utilizing mineralogical and chemical information in PTFs (A. Bruand) Soil structure is known to reflect mineralogical composition of clay fraction and soil  

E-print Network

Chapter 9. Utilizing mineralogical and chemical information in PTFs (A. Bruand) Soil structure., 1991). Nevertheless, the quantitative, pedotransfer-type information about the effect of clay not find any significant difference with no grouping the 105 horizons from Greek soils. Gaiser et al. (2000

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

200

Lignin-based monomers: Utilization in high-performance polymers and the effects of their structures on polymer properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the uncertainty of petroleum reserves and future crude oil prices, lignocellulosic biomass is becoming an increasingly valuable resource for the sustainable development of fuels, chemicals, and materials, including vinyl ester resins (VERs). Petroleum-based VERs are used to produce polymer composites for a wide variety of commercial applications. Although possessing relatively high moduli, strengths, and glass transition temperatures, commercial VERs typically contain high concentrations of a reactive diluent, such as styrene. However, these reactive diluents are often considered hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and anticipated carcinogens. Moreover, bisphenol-A, which has gained considerable attention due to potential associated health-related issues, is utilized as a precursor in the synthesis of VERs. A green chemistry and engineering approach in the development of new VERs and renewable reactive diluents that are based on lignin is presented in this dissertation. Lignin, which is currently an abundant, renewable waste product of the paper and pulping industry, is primarily burned as a low value fuel. However, lignin has the potential to be a low cost feedstock in future lignocellulosic biorefineries that could yield highly valuable aromatic chemicals (lignin model compounds, LMCs) when strategically depolymerized. The incorporation of aromaticity in a resin's chemical structure is known to improve overall polymer composite performance and the high aromatic content found in lignin is ideal for novel resin development. Highlighted in this dissertation are three projects: (1) the synthesis and characterization of a lignin-based bio-oil resin/reactive diluent, (2) the use of functionalized LMCs as styrene replacements in VERs, and (3) the synthesis and characterization of a vanillin-based resin. Through the use of traditional and new polymer theory coupled with spectroscopic, thermal, and mechanical techniques, structure-property relationships are identified and related to polymer performance. These findings have important implications for the optimization and design of polymer composites that are based on sustainable resources and processes, are petroleum-independent, and have reduced toxicity with beneficial environmental impacts. In addition, these findings provide the incentive for continued investment in using lignin as a respected materials' feedstock. Lastly, several lignin-related research opportunities of scientific and commercial interest are recommended.

Stanzione, Joseph F., III

201

Innovative Utility Pricing for Industry  

E-print Network

INNOVATIVE UTILITY PRICING FOR INDUSTRY James A. Ross Drazen-Brubaker &Associates, Inc. St. Louis, Missouri ABSTRACT The electric utility industry represents only one source of power available to industry. Al though the monopolistic... structure of the electric utility industry may convey a perception that an electric utility is unaffected by competition, this is an erroneous perception with regard to in dustry. Electric utilities face increased compe tition, both from other utilities...

Ross, J. A.

202

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

for use of wood ash generated by the forest products industry in concrete (structural-grade concreteCenter for By-Products Utilization DEMONSTRATION OF MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY FOR CONCRETE AND CLSM Principal Investigator: Tarun R. Naik UWM Center for By-Products Utilization University of Wisconsin

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

203

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

generated by the Wisconsin forest products industry in concrete (structural-grade concrete) and flowableCenter for By-Products Utilization DEMONSTRATION OF MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY FOR CONCRETE AND CLSM. Naik UWM Center for By-Products Utilization University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee Other Project Personnel

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

204

White organic light-emitting diodes based on tandem structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

White organic light-emitting diodes made of two electroluminescent (EL) units connected by a charge generation layer were fabricated. Thus, with a tandem structure of indium tin oxide/N ,N'-di(naphthalene-1-yl)-N ,N'-diphenyl-benzidine (NPB)/9,10-bis-(?-naphthyl)-anthrene (ADN)/2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BCP)/tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3)/BCP:Li/V2O5/NPB/Alq3:4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyle-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl)4H-pyran (DCJTB)/Alq3/LiF/Al, a stable white light with Commission Internationale De L'Eclairage chromaticity coordinates from (0.35, 0.32) at 18V to (0.36, 0.36) at 50V was generated. It was clearly seen that the EL spectra consist of red band at 600nm due to DCJTB, green band at 505nm due to Alq3, and blue band at 435nm due to ADN, and the current efficiency and brightness equal basically to the sum of the two EL units. As a result, the tandem devices showed white light emission with a maximum brightness of 10200cd /m2 at a bias of 40V and a maximum current efficiency of 10.7cd/A at a current density of 3.5mA/cm2.

Guo, Fawen; Ma, Dongge

2005-10-01

205

The solution structure of the copper clioquinol complex.  

PubMed

Clioquinol (5-chloro-7-iodo-8-hydroxyquinoline) recently has shown promising results in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and in cancer therapy, both of which also are thought to be due to clioquinol's ability as a lipophilic copper chelator. Previously, clioquinol was used as an anti-fungal and anti-protozoal drug that was responsible for an epidemic of subacute myelo-optic neuropathy (SMON) in Japan during the 1960s, probably a myeloneuropathy arising from a clioquinol-induced copper deficiency. Previous X-ray absorption spectroscopy of solutions of copper chelates of clioquinol suggested unusual coordination chemistry. Here we use a combination of electron paramagnetic, UV-visible and X-ray absorption spectroscopies to provide clarification of the chelation chemistry between clioquinol and copper. We find that the solution structures for the copper complexes formed with stoichiometric and excess clioquinol are conventional 8-hydroxyquinolate chelates. Thus, the promise of clioquinol in new treatments for Alzheimer's disease and in cancer therapy is not likely to be due to any novel chelation chemistry, but rather due to other factors including the high lipophilicity of the free ligand and chelate complexes. PMID:24503514

Pushie, M Jake; Nienaber, Kurt H; Summers, Kelly L; Cotelesage, Julien J H; Ponomarenko, Olena; Nichol, Helen K; Pickering, Ingrid J; George, Graham N

2014-04-01

206

Super-high density Si quantum dot thin film utilizing a gradient Si-rich oxide multilayer structure.  

PubMed

A gradient Si-rich oxide multilayer (GSRO-ML) deposition structure is proposed to achieve super-high density Si quantum dot (QD) thin film formation while preserving QD size controllability for better photovoltaic properties. Our results indicate that the Si QD thin film using a GSRO-ML structure can efficiently increase the QD density and control the QD size. Its optical properties clearly promise the capability of effective bandgap engineering even though these QDs are closely formed. The Si QD thin film using a GSRO-ML structure obviously reveals better electro-optical properties than those using a [silicon dioxide/silicon-rich oxide] multilayer ([SiO2/SRO]-ML) structure owing to the better optical absorption and carrier transport properties. Therefore, we successfully demonstrate that our proposed GSRO-ML structure has great potential for application in solar cells integrating Si QD thin films. PMID:23579196

Kuo, Kuang-Yang; Huang, Pin-Ruei; Lee, Po-Tsung

2013-05-17

207

Enzymology and Structure of the GH13_31 Glucan 1,6-?-Glucosidase That Confers Isomaltooligosaccharide Utilization in the Probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM  

PubMed Central

Isomaltooligosaccharides (IMO) have been suggested as promising prebiotics that stimulate the growth of probiotic bacteria. Genomes of probiotic lactobacilli from the acidophilus group, as represented by Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, encode ?-1,6 glucosidases of the family GH13_31 (glycoside hydrolase family 13 subfamily 31) that confer degradation of IMO. These genes reside frequently within maltooligosaccharide utilization operons, which include an ATP-binding cassette transporter and ?-glucan active enzymes, e.g., maltogenic amylases and maltose phosphorylases, and they also occur separated from any carbohydrate transport or catabolism genes on the genomes of some acidophilus complex members, as in L. acidophilus NCFM. Besides the isolated locus encoding a GH13_31 enzyme, the ABC transporter and another GH13 in the maltooligosaccharide operon were induced in response to IMO or maltotetraose, as determined by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) transcriptional analysis, suggesting coregulation of ?-1,6- and ?-1,4-glucooligosaccharide utilization loci in L. acidophilus NCFM. The L. acidophilus NCFM GH13_31 (LaGH13_31) was produced recombinantly and shown to be a glucan 1,6-?-glucosidase active on IMO and dextran and product-inhibited by glucose. The catalytic efficiency of LaGH13_31 on dextran and the dextran/panose (trisaccharide) efficiency ratio were the highest reported for this class of enzymes, suggesting higher affinity at distal substrate binding sites. The crystal structure of LaGH13_31 was determined to a resolution of 2.05 Å and revealed additional substrate contacts at the +2 subsite in LaGH13_31 compared to the GH13_31 from Streptococcus mutans (SmGH13_31), providing a possible structural rationale to the relatively high affinity for dextran. A comprehensive phylogenetic and activity motif analysis mapped IMO utilization enzymes from gut microbiota to rationalize preferential utilization of IMO by gut residents. PMID:22685275

Møller, Marie S.; Fredslund, Folmer; Majumder, Avishek; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Poulsen, Jens-Christian N.; Lo Leggio, Leila; Svensson, Birte

2012-01-01

208

Atomistic simulation on charge mobility of amorphous tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3): origin of Poole-Frenkel-type behavior.  

PubMed

The atomistic simulation of charge transfer process for an amorphous Alq(3) system is reported. By employing electrostatic potential charges, we calculate site energies and find that the standard deviation of site energy distribution is about twice as large as predicted in previous research. The charge mobility is calculated via the Miller-Abrahams formalism and the master equation approach. We find that the wide site energy distribution governs Poole-Frenkel-type behavior of charge mobility against electric field, while the spatially correlated site energy is not a dominant mechanism of Poole-Frenkel behavior in the range from 2x10(5) to 1.4x10(6) V/cm. Also we reveal that randomly meshed connectivities are, in principle, required to account for the Poole-Frenkel mechanism. Charge carriers find a zigzag pathway at low electric field, while they find a straight pathway along electric field when a high electric field is applied. In the space-charge-limited current scheme, the charge-carrier density increases with electric field strength so that the nonlinear behavior of charge mobility is enhanced through the strong charge-carrier density dependence of charge mobility. PMID:18647040

Nagata, Yuki; Lennartz, Christian

2008-07-21

209

Investigations into the bovine serum albumin binding and fluorescence properties of Tb (III) complex of a novel 8-hydroxyquinoline ligand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel ligand, 2-methyl-6-(8-quinolinyl)-dicarboxylate pyridine (L), and its corresponding Tb (III) complex, Na4Tb(L)2Cl4·3H2O, were successfully prepared and characterized. The luminescence spectra showed that the ligand L was an efficient sensitizer for Tb (III) luminescence. The interaction of the complex with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated through fluorescence spectroscopy under physiological conditions. The Stern-Volmer analysis indicated that the fluorescence quenching was resulted from static mechanism. The binding sites (n) approximated 1.0 and this meant that interaction of Na4Tb(L)2Cl4·3H2O with BSA had single binding site. The results showed van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonds played major roles in the binding reaction. Furthermore, circular dichroism (CD) spectra indicated that the conformation of BSA was changed.

Zhao, Mingming; Tang, Ruiren; Xu, Shuai

2015-01-01

210

Synthesis of Red-Shifted 8-Hydroxyquinoline Derivatives Using Click Chemistry and Their Incorporation into Phosphorylation Chemosensors  

E-print Network

Protein phosphorylation is a ubiquitous post-translational modification, and protein kinases, the enzymes that catalyze the phosphoryl transfer, are involved in nearly every aspect of normal, as well as aberrant, cell ...

Gonzalez-Vera, Juan A.

211

Understanding the role of electron and hole trions on current transport in aluminium tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) using organic magnetoresistance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The change in current through an organic light emitting diode (OLED) when it is placed in a magnetic field has been dubbed organic magnetoresistance and provides a means to understand the spin interactions that are occurring in working devices. Whilst there are a wide range of interactions that have been proposed to be the cause of the measured effects, there is still a need to identify their individual roles and in particular how they respond to an applied magnetic field. In this work, we investigate the effect of changing the balance of electron and hole injection in a simple aluminium tris(8-hydroxyqinoline) based OLED and demonstrate that the triplet polaron interaction appears to be much stronger for electrons than for holes in this material.

Zhang, Sijie; Willis, M.; Gotto, R.; Roy, K. A.; Rolfe, N. J.; Kreouzis, T.; Gillin, W. P.

2014-01-01

212

A chelating ion exchanger for gallium recovery from alkaline solution using 5-palmitoyl-8-hydroxyquinoline immobilized on a nonpolar adsorbent  

SciTech Connect

The recently developed method of gallium recovery from alkaline solution by alkanoyl oxine/chloroform extraction has been improved by immobilizing palmitoyl oxine on hydrophobic macroporous styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer Amberlite XAD-2 and passing the GA-containing alkaline solution of pH 13.5 through the synthesized resin column. The developed column showed reasonable efficiency after successive passages, and the selectivity of Ga over Al was very high, suggesting the utilizibility of the method in Ga recovery from the basic aluminate liquor of the Bayer process. The Ga capacity of the oxine-based resin was 3.94 {micro}mol/g. Two mg Ga retained on 10 g resin could be eluted with 25 mL of 2 N HCl at a throughput rate of 2 mL/min. The developed process has prospective use in Ga separation from Al in a strongly alkaline solution.

Filik, H.; Apak, R. [Istanbul Univ. (Turkey)

1998-06-01

213

Interaction of the anticancer gallium(III) complexes of 8-hydroxyquinoline and maltol with human serum proteins.  

PubMed

Tris(8-quinolinolato)gallium(III) (KP46) and tris(maltolato)gallium(III) (GaM) are promising orally active antitumor metallodrugs currently undergoing clinical trials. Their interaction with human serum albumin (HSA) and transferrin (Tf) was studied in detail in aqueous solution by the combination of various methods such as spectrofluorometry, UV-vis spectrophotometry, (1)H and saturation transfer difference NMR spectroscopy, and ultrafiltration-UV-vis spectrophotometry. Binding data were evaluated quantitatively. Tf was found to replace the original ligand much less efficiently in KP46 than in GaM, whereas a significant noncovalent binding of KP46 with HSA (log K' = 4.04) retaining the coordination environment around gallium(III) was found. The interaction between HSA and KP46 was also confirmed by protein-complex modeling calculations. On the basis of the conditional stability constants, the distribution of gallium(III) in serum was computed and compared for these metallodrugs under physiological conditions, and revealed the prominent role of HSA in the case of KP46 and that of Tf for GaM. PMID:25398250

Enyedy, Éva A; Dömötör, Orsolya; Bali, Krisztina; Hetényi, Anasztázia; Tuccinardi, Tiziano; Keppler, Bernhard K

2015-01-01

214

Understanding the role of electron and hole trions on current transport in aluminium tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) using organic magnetoresistance  

SciTech Connect

The change in current through an organic light emitting diode (OLED) when it is placed in a magnetic field has been dubbed organic magnetoresistance and provides a means to understand the spin interactions that are occurring in working devices. Whilst there are a wide range of interactions that have been proposed to be the cause of the measured effects, there is still a need to identify their individual roles and in particular how they respond to an applied magnetic field. In this work, we investigate the effect of changing the balance of electron and hole injection in a simple aluminium tris(8-hydroxyqinoline) based OLED and demonstrate that the triplet polaron interaction appears to be much stronger for electrons than for holes in this material.

Zhang, Sijie; Gillin, W. P., E-mail: w.gillin@qmul.ac.uk [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Materials Research Institute and School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Willis, M. [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Gotto, R.; Roy, K. A.; Kreouzis, T. [Materials Research Institute and School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Rolfe, N. J. [Materials Research Institute and School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 5XH (United Kingdom)

2014-01-27

215

Molecular modeling of metal hydrides: 2. Calculation of lattice defect structures and energies utilizing the Embedded Atom Method  

SciTech Connect

Lattice defect structures and energies for palladium, nickel and aluminum computed include: single vacancy, self-interstitial, intrinsic stacking fault, coherent twin boundary and (100), (110), and (111) free surfaces. The importance of considering lattice defects in obtaining an accurate Embedded Atom Method (EAM) description of real materials, and the application of the EAM to the computation of lattice defect structures for palladium, nickel and aluminium is discussed. The EAM functions developed in this study reproduce defect properties well and are suitable for future investigations of metal hydrides involving defect related structures. 24 refs., 6 tabs.

Wolf, R.J.; Mansour, K.A.

1990-12-01

216

Effect of high loading on substrate utilization kinetics and microbial community structure in super fast submerged membrane bioreactor.  

PubMed

The study investigated the effect of high substrate loading on substrate utilization kinetics, and changes inflicted on the composition of the microbial community in a superfast submerged membrane bioreactor. Submerged MBR was sequentially fed with a substrate mixture and acetate; its performance was monitored at steady-state, at extremely low sludge age values of 2.0, 1.0 and 0.5d, all adjusted to a single hydraulic retention time of 8.0 h. Each MBR run was repeated when substrate feeding was increased from 200 mg COD/L to 1000 mg COD/L. Substrate utilization kinetics was altered to significantly lower levels when the MBR was adjusted to higher substrate loadings. Molecular analysis of the biomass revealed that variable process kinetics could be correlated with parallel changes in the composition of the microbial community, mainly by a replacement mechanism, where newer species, better adapted to the new growth conditions, substituted others that are washed out from the system. PMID:24632634

Sözen, S; Çokgör, E U; Ba?aran, S Teksoy; Aysel, M; Akarsuba??, A; Ergal, I; Kurt, H; Pala-Ozkok, I; Orhon, D

2014-05-01

217

Reduction Substrate Alkaline Contamination by Utilizing Multi-Layer Bottom Antireflective Coating Structures in ArF Lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new multilayer bottom antireflective coating (BARC) structure composed of TEOS oxide and silicon nitride film stacks is demonstrated for ArF lithography. The top TEOS oxide film is an NH3-contaminant-free material that can be used as an NH3 capping layer. After an oxygen plasma treatment, the multilayer structure is shown to have high thermal stability by thermal desorption spectrometry (TDS). The required optical constants of the bottom silicon nitride films can be tuned by varying the gas flow rate ratio of NH3 to SiH4 using a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition process. The measured swing effect is found to be significantly reduced by adding a multilayer BARC on both silicon and aluminum film substrates. This BARC structure could also reduce the reflectance of various highly reflective substrates to less than 2%.

Chen, Hsuen-Li; Shih, Ming-Chang; Hsieh, Ching-Feng; Chen, Ben-Chang; Ko, Fu-Hsiang

2002-06-01

218

Utility of coupled-HSQC experiments in the intact structural elucidation of three complex saponins from Blighia sapida  

PubMed Central

The structures of three complex saponins from the fruit pods of Blighia sapida have been elucidated and their 1H and 13C NMR spectra assigned employing a variety of one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques without degradative chemistry. The saponins have either four or six monosaccharide units linked to a triterpene aglycone. High-resolution, proton-coupled-HSQC spectra were important for determining both the identities of the intact monosaccharide units and coupling constants in strongly coupled proton spin systems. These NMR experiments will prove crucial as the complexity of saponin structures reaches the limit that can be determined solely by NMR. PMID:21439554

Mazzola, Eugene P.; Parkinson, Ainsley; Kennelly, Edward J.; Coxon, Bruce; Einbond, Linda S.; Freedberg, Darón I.

2014-01-01

219

Biofunctional constituent isolated from Citrullus colocynthis fruits and structure-activity relationships of its analogues show acaricidal and insecticidal efficacy.  

PubMed

The acaricidal and insecticidal potential of the active constituent isolated from Citrullus colocynthis fruits and its structurally related analogues was evaluated by performing leaf disk, contact toxicity, and fumigant toxicity bioassays against Tetranychus urticae, Sitophilus oryzae, and Sitophilus zeamais adults. The active constituent of C. colocynthis fruits was isolated by chromatographic techniques and was identified as 4-methylquinoline on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. To investigate the structure-activity relationships, 4-methylquinoline and its structural analogues were tested against mites and two insect pests. On the basis of the LC50 values, 7,8-benzoquinoline was the most effective against T. urticae. Quinoline, 8-hydroxyquinoline, 2-methylquinoline, 4-methylquinoline, 6-methylquinoline, 8-methylquinoline, and 7,8-benzoquinoline showed high insecticidal activities against S. oryzae and S. zeamais regardless of the application method. These results indicate that introduction of a functional group into the quinoline skeleton and changing the position of the group have an important influence on the acaricidal and insecticidal activities. Furthermore, 4-methylquinoline isolated from C. colocynthis fruits, along with its structural analogues, could be effective natural pesticides for managing spider mites and stored grain weevils. PMID:25110971

Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Hoi-Seon

2014-08-27

220

Health Services Utilization  

PubMed Central

Five different approaches that have been used to study the utilization of health services are reviewed: the sociocultural, sociodemographic, social-psychological, organizational, and social systems. Studies characterizing each approach are described and the limitations of each perspective are outlined. It is suggested that social system models that explicate causal structures and that incorporate features of all the other approaches may provide important new insights into utilization behavior. PMID:4593850

Anderson, James G.

1973-01-01

221

An Inverse Interpolation Method Utilizing In-Flight Strain Measurements for Determining Loads and Structural Response of Aerospace Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An important and challenging technology aimed at the next generation of aerospace vehicles is that of structural health monitoring. The key problem is to determine accurately, reliably, and in real time the applied loads, stresses, and displacements experienced in flight, with such data establishing an information database for structural health monitoring. The present effort is aimed at developing a finite element-based methodology involving an inverse formulation that employs measured surface strains to recover the applied loads, stresses, and displacements in an aerospace vehicle in real time. The computational procedure uses a standard finite element model (i.e., "direct analysis") of a given airframe, with the subsequent application of the inverse interpolation approach. The inverse interpolation formulation is based on a parametric approximation of the loading and is further constructed through a least-squares minimization of calculated and measured strains. This procedure results in the governing system of linear algebraic equations, providing the unknown coefficients that accurately define the load approximation. Numerical simulations are carried out for problems involving various levels of structural approximation. These include plate-loading examples and an aircraft wing box. Accuracy and computational efficiency of the proposed method are discussed in detail. The experimental validation of the methodology by way of structural testing of an aircraft wing is also discussed.

Shkarayev, S.; Krashantisa, R.; Tessler, A.

2004-01-01

222

Genetic diversity, population structure, conservation and utilization of Theobroma cacao L., genetic resources in the Dominican Republic  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is a significant agricultural commodity in the Dominican Republic, which ranks 11th in the world and number one in organic cacao exports. In an effort to identify propagation mistakes, and estimate genetic diversity and population structure in cacao germplasm accessions a...

223

Utilization of high resolution computed tomography to visualize the three dimensional structure and function of plant vasculature  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

High resolution x-ray computed tomography (HRCT) is a non-destructive diagnostic imaging technique with sub-micron resolution capability that is now being used to evaluate the structure and function of plant xylem network in three dimensions (3D). HRCT imaging is based on the same principles as medi...

224

Utility of the sperm chromatin structure assay as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in the human fertility clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) was used to measure over 500 human semen samples from two independent studies: Study I, 402 samples from 165 presumably fertile couples wishing to achieve pregnancy over 12 menstrual cycles; Study II, samples from 115 patients seeking fertility counselling. The SCSA measures susceptibility to DNA denaturation in situ in spermatozoa exposed to acid for

D. P. Evenson; L. K. Jost; D. Marshall; M. J. Zinaman; E. Clegg; K. Purvis; P. de Angelis; O. P. Claussen

1999-01-01

225

In conclusion, a new SOl structure has been proposed and fabricated by utilizing Si-MBE growth on porous sili-  

E-print Network

for the removal of both oxygen and water vapor from most inert gases, and (iii) the use of a hot palladium X 7 superlattice pattern which is characteris- tic of a high-quality Sit111) crystal structure; accepted for publication 20 April 1982) A technique for the removal of small amounts of water vapor

Woodall, Jerry M.

226

SIAscopy assists in the diagnosis of melanoma by utilizing computer vision techniques to visualise the internal structure of the  

E-print Network

.4% in US [2] The well-publicised risks of sun exposure and skin cancer in Europe and North America [3] result in an estimated tens of millions of patients visiting general practitioners each year. Skin cancer the internal structure of the skin Marc Moncrieff1* , Symon Cotton2 , Per Hall1 , R. Schiffner4 , U.Lepski4

Claridge, Ela

227

Crystal structures of the DNA-binding domain of Escherichia coli proline utilization A flavoprotein and analysis of the role of Lys9 in DNA recognition  

PubMed Central

PutA (proline utilization A) from Escherichia coli is a 1320-amino-acid residue protein that is both a bifunctional proline catabolic enzyme and an autogenous transcriptional repressor. Here, we report the first crystal structure of a PutA DNA-binding domain along with functional analysis of a mutant PutA defective in DNA binding. Crystals were grown using a polypeptide corresponding to residues 1–52 of E. coli PutA (PutA52). The 2.1 Å resolution structure of PutA52 mutant Lys9Met was determined using Se-Met MAD phasing, and the structure of native PutA52 was solved at 1.9 Å resolution using molecular replacement. Residues 3–46 form a ribbon–helix–helix (RHH) substructure, thus establishing PutA as the largest protein to contain an RHH domain. The PutA RHH domain forms the intertwined dimer with tightly packed hydrophobic core that is characteristic of the RHH family. The structures were used to examine the three-dimensional context of residues conserved in PutA RHH domains. Homology modeling suggests that Lys9 and Thr5 contact DNA bases through the major groove, while Arg15, Thr28, and His30 may interact with the phosphate backbone. Lys9 is shown to be essential for specific recognition of put control DNA using gel shift analysis of the Lys9Met mutant of full-length PutA. Lys9 is disordered in the PutA52 structure, which implies an induced-fit binding mechanism in which the side chain of Lys9 becomes ordered through interaction with DNA. These results provide new insights into the structural basis of DNA recognition by PutA and reveal three-dimensional structural details of the PutA dimer interface. PMID:17001030

Larson, John D.; Jenkins, Jermaine L.; Schuermann, Jonathan P.; Zhou, Yuzhen; Becker, Donald F.; Tanner, John J.

2006-01-01

228

Structural and functional characterization of the LldR from Corynebacterium glutamicum: a transcriptional repressor involved in l-lactate and sugar utilization  

PubMed Central

LldR (CGL2915) from Corynebacterium glutamicum is a transcription factor belonging to the GntR family, which is typically involved in the regulation of oxidized substrates associated with amino acid metabolism. In the present study, the crystal structure of LldR was determined at 2.05-Å resolution. The structure consists of N- and C-domains similar to those of FadR, but with distinct domain orientations. LldR and FadR dimers achieve similar structures by domain swapping, which was first observed in dimeric assembly of transcription factors. A structural feature of Zn2+ binding in the regulatory domain was also observed, as a difference from the FadR subfamily. DNA microarray and DNase I footprint analyses suggested that LldR acts as a repressor regulating cgl2917-lldD and cgl1934-fruK-ptsF operons, which are indispensable for l-lactate and fructose/sucrose utilization, respectively. Furthermore, the stoichiometries and affinities of LldR and DNAs were determined by isothermal titration calorimetry measurements. The transcriptional start site and repression of LldR on the cgl2917-lldD operon were analysed by primer extension assay. Mutation experiments showed that residues Lys4, Arg32, Arg42 and Gly63 are crucial for DNA binding. The location of the putative ligand binding cavity and the regulatory mechanism of LldR on its affinity for DNA were proposed. PMID:18988622

Gao, Yong-Gui; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Itou, Hiroshi; Zhou, Yong; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Wachi, Masaaki; Watanabe, Nobuhisa; Tanaka, Isao; Yao, Min

2008-01-01

229

Structure-Property-Performance Relationships for Organic Photovoltaics and the Utilization of Photoconducting Atomic Force Microscopy for Characterizing Organic Thin Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progress in the development of organic photovoltaics (OPVs) depends on a continually growing understanding of the effects of chemical composition or processing method on the optoelectronic and structural properties and, in turn, how those properties influence device performance. Unfortunately, no single characterization method can provide all of the necessary information to develop these structure-property-performance relationships. This thesis details examples of structure-property-performance studies in which multiple characterization methods are used to identify the root cause of limited device performance for a particular photovoltaic system. As a large part of this work, the refinement and utilization of a nanoscale characterization technique, namely photoconducting atomic force microscopy (pc-AFM) is presented, not as an alternative to other characterization methods, but as a unique approach to characterizing the nanoscale morphology and local optoelectronic properties of an organic thin film simultaneously. The goal of this work was to make pc-AFM as robust and reliable a characterization tool and as close an analog to bulk OPV performance testing as possible. The first sections of this thesis focus on the development of pc-AFM for the characterization of OPVs. The capabilities of pc-AFM at the time this research commenced are illustrated in a study of a multilayered p/i/n architecture OPV system comprising a thermoset small molecule donor, tetrabenzoporphyrin (BP) and one of two structurally similar soluble fullerene derivative acceptors. By investigating the nanoscale topography, dark current, and photocurrent in each layer of these multilayer devices, the differences in bulk device performance can be rationalized and the composition of specific morphological features can be identified. At the same time, this study demonstrates how interpretation of pc-AFM measurements was not straightforward and required knowledge of the bulk performance. This issue prompted efforts to improve the technique to increase reliability and applicability to OPVs. Subsequently, sensitivity studies of the experimental parameters such as contact force, illumination intensity and spot size, and film processing conditions were performed, further elucidating factors that must be taken into consideration when designing and interpreting a pc-AFM experiment. In order to better control and monitor the environmental conditions during a pc-AFM experiment, a custom glovebox was designed to house and interface with the pc-AFM. Realization of this glovebox allowed further improvements in reliability of pc-AFM measurements and enabled the use of low workfunction AFM probes that better mimic the low workfunction top electrode typically employed in bulk OPVs. The initial use of BP as a donor material in pc-AFM measurements led to the utilization of BP in other OPV systems due to its rare properties as a solution-processable, thermoset, small molecule electron donor. The latter sections of this thesis describe two structure-property-performance relationship studies utilizing BP as a donor material. In the first study, the use of BP enables the facile testing of solution processable bilayer OPV devices with perylene-based acceptors as alternatives to solubilized fullerene derivatives. The second study compares the optoelectronic and performance characteristics of BP to a Cu-metalized derivative, CuBP, which, despite the promise of this material due to its high charge carrier mobility measured in FETs, performs poorly in OPV devices. Altogether, this work demonstrates the importance of developing structure-property-performance relationships, provides insight to the continued improvement of OPV performance, and sets the groundwork for the reliable utilization of pc-AFM as a technique for characterizing organic thin films.

Guide, Michele Elyse

230

Identification of BDNF Sensitive Electrophysiological Markers of Synaptic Activity and Their Structural Correlates in Healthy Subjects Using a Genetic Approach Utilizing the Functional BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism  

PubMed Central

Increasing evidence suggests that synaptic dysfunction is a core pathophysiological hallmark of neurodegenerative disorders. Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) is key synaptogenic molecule and targeting synaptic repair through modulation of BDNF signalling has been suggested as a potential drug discovery strategy. The development of such “synaptogenic” therapies depend on the availability of BDNF sensitive markers of synaptic function that could be utilized as biomarkers for examining target engagement or drug efficacy in humans. Here we have utilized the BDNF Val66Met genetic polymorphism to examine the effect of the polymorphism and genetic load (i.e. Met allele load) on electrophysiological (EEG) markers of synaptic activity and their structural (MRI) correlates. Sixty healthy adults were prospectively recruited into the three genetic groups (Val/Val, Val/Met, Met/Met). Subjects also underwent fMRI, tDCS/TMS, and cognitive assessments as part of a larger study. Overall, some of the EEG markers of synaptic activity and brain structure measured with MRI were the most sensitive markers of the polymorphism. Met carriers showed decreased oscillatory activity and synchrony in the neural network subserving error-processing, as measured during a flanker task (ERN); and showed increased slow-wave activity during resting. There was no evidence for a Met load effect on the EEG measures and the polymorphism had no effects on MMN and P300. Met carriers also showed reduced grey matter volume in the anterior cingulate and in the (left) prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, anterior cingulate grey matter volume, and oscillatory EEG power during the flanker task predicted subsequent behavioural adaptation, indicating a BDNF dependent link between brain structure, function and behaviour associated with error processing and monitoring. These findings suggest that EEG markers such as ERN and resting EEG could be used as BDNF sensitive functional markers in early clinical development to examine target engagement or drug related efficacy of synaptic repair therapies in humans. PMID:24760076

Soltész, Fruzsina; Suckling, John; Lawrence, Phil; Tait, Roger; Ooi, Cinly; Bentley, Graham; Dodds, Chris M.; Miller, Sam R.; Wille, David R.; Byrne, Misha; McHugh, Simon M.; Bellgrove, Mark A.; Croft, Rodney J.; Lu, Bai; Bullmore, Edward T.; Nathan, Pradeep J.

2014-01-01

231

Utilizing the GAAA tetraloop/receptor to facilitate crystal packing and structure determination of a CUG RNA helix  

PubMed Central

Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a microsatellite expansion disorder caused by the aberrant expansion of CTG repeats in the 3’ untranslated region of the DMPK gene. When transcribed, the toxic RNA CUG repeats sequester RNA binding proteins, which leads to disease symptoms. The expanded CUG repeats can adopt a double-stranded structure, and targeting this helix is a therapeutic strategy for DM1. In order to better understand the 5’CUG/3’GUC motif, and how it may interact with proteins and small molecules, we designed a short CUG helix attached to a GAAA tetraloop/receptor in order to facilitate crystal packing. Here we report the highest resolution structure (1.95 Å) to date of a GAAA tetraloop/receptor and the CUG helix it was used to crystallize. Within the CUG helix, we identify two different forms of non-canonical U-U pairs and reconfirm that CUG repeats are essentially A-form. An analysis of all non-canonical U-U pairs in the context of CUG repeats revealed six different classes of conformations that the non-canonical U-U pairs are able to adopt. PMID:23025897

Coonrod, Leslie A.; Lohman, Jeremy R.; Berglund, J. Andrew

2012-01-01

232

Glary Utilities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Glary Utilities offers this free application to help users improve their system's performance and also protect their privacy. After installing the application, users can remove and back up faculty registry entries, along with offering a secure file deletion feature. This version is compatible with computers running Windows 98 and newer.

2008-01-01

233

Schottky energy barriers and charge injection in metal/Alq/metal structures  

SciTech Connect

We present internal photoemission, photocurrent versus bias voltage, and current{endash}voltage measurements of metal/tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum [Alq]/metal structures. Internal photoemission and photocurrent versus bias measurements were used to determine metal/Alq Schottky energy barriers for a range of contact metals with work functions from 2.7 eV (Sm) to 5.6 eV (Pt). The electron Schottky barrier for low work-function metals ({lt}about 3.6 eV) is pinned at about 0.6 eV. For metals with higher work functions ({gt} about 3.6 eV) the ideal Schottky model is generally accurate. A previously established device model was used to describe the current{endash}voltage characteristics using the measured Schottky barriers. The results imply comparable electron and hole mobilities of about 2{times}10{sup {minus}5} cm{sup 2}/V s at an electric field of 10{sup 6} V/cm. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

Campbell, I.H.; Smith, D.L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

1999-01-01

234

Interferometer-based structured-illumination microscopy utilizing complementary phase relationship through constructive and destructive image detection by two cameras.  

PubMed

In an interferometer-based fluorescence microscope, a beam splitter is often used to combine two emission wavefronts interferometrically. There are two perpendicular paths along which the interference fringes can propagate and normally only one is used for imaging. However, the other path also contains useful information. Here we introduced a second camera to our interferometer-based three-dimensional structured-illumination microscope (I(5)S) to capture the fringes along the normally unused path, which are out of phase by ? relative to the fringes along the other path. Based on this complementary phase relationship and the well-defined phase interrelationships among the I(5)S data components, we can deduce and then computationally eliminate the path length errors within the interferometer loop using the simultaneously recorded fringes along the two imaging paths. This self-correction capability can greatly relax the requirement for eliminating the path length differences before and maintaining that status during each imaging session, which are practically challenging tasks. Experimental data is shown to support the theory. PMID:22472010

Shao, L; Winoto, L; Agard, D A; Gustafsson, M G L; Sedat, J W

2012-06-01

235

Structured kinetic model to represent the utilization of multiple substrates in complex media during rifamycin B fermentation.  

PubMed

Industrial fermentations typically use media that are balanced with multiple substitutable substrates including complex carbon and nitrogen source. Yet, much of the modeling effort to date has mainly focused on defined media. Here, we present a structured model that accounts for growth and product formation kinetics of rifamycin B fermentation in a multi-substrate complex medium. The phenomenological model considers the organism to be an optimal strategist with an in-built mechanism that regulates the sequential and simultaneous uptake of the substrate combinations. This regulatory process is modeled by assuming that the uptake of a substrate depends on the level of a key enzyme or a set of enzymes, which may be inducible. Further, the fraction of flux through a given metabolic branch is estimated using a simple multi-variable constrained optimization. The model has the typical form of Monod equation with terms incorporating multiple limiting substrates and substrate inhibition. Several batch runs were set up with varying initial substrate concentrations to estimate the kinetic parameters for the rifamycin overproducer strain Amycolatopsis mediterranei S699. Glucose and ammonium sulfate (AMS) demonstrated significant substrate inhibition toward growth as well as product formation. The model correctly predicts the experimentally observed regulated simultaneous uptake of the substitutable substrate combinations under different fermentation conditions. The modeling results may have applications in the optimization and control of rifamycin B fermentation while the modeling strategy presented here would be applicable to other industrially important fermentations. PMID:16302259

Bapat, Prashant M; Bhartiya, Sharad; Venkatesh, K V; Wangikar, Pramod P

2006-03-01

236

A cost-effective structure of a centralized-light-source WDM-PON utilizing inverse-duobinary-RZ downstream and DPSK upstream  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a new structure of a centralized-light-source wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) utilizing inverse-duobinary-return-to-zero (inverse-duobinary-RZ) downstream and DPSK upstream. It reuses downstream light for the upstream modulation, which retrenches lasers assembled at each optical network unit (ONU), and ultimately cuts down the cost of ONUs a great deal. Meanwhile, a 50-km-reach WDM-PON experiment with 10-Gb/s inverse-duobinary-RZ downstream and 6-Gb/s DPSK upstream is demonstrated here. It is revealed to be a novel cost-effective alternative for the next generation access network.

Chen, Long-Quan; Qiao, Yao-Jun; Ji, Yue-Feng

2013-05-01

237

Recombination Zone by Mixed-Source Evaporation in Organic Light Emitting Diodes with Graded Mixed-Layer Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal evaporation of a mixed-source of electron and hole-transport materials at appropriate heating rates, namely, tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum(3) (Alq3) and N,N-diphenyl-N, N-bis(3-methylphenyl)-1, 1-diphenyl-4,4-diamine (TPD) can produce a continuously graded mixed-layer structure (CGM). This enables CGM-OLEDs to be fabricated on ITO-coated glass. Although I-V characteristic of CGM-OLEDs may not be significantly modified by a single mixed layer, as compared to the conventional bi-layer heterojunction (HJ) OLED, the power efficiency from the CGM-OLEDs can be increased by a factor of 3.3. The improvement in CGM-OLEDs can be largely explained by the broadening of its recombination zone. The spatial distributions of Alq3 and TPD in CGM-layers are obtained by depth-profiling of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. The optimum layer structure for CGM-OLEDs is discussed qualitatively in term of charge balance and electrode quenching.

Kee, Y. Y.; Siew, W. O.; Yap, S. S.; Tou, T. Y.

238

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

of in landfills. Because of the increasing disposal costs and the difficulty in locating new landfill site landfilled. Numerous applications of fly ash including in concrete, waste stabilization, structural fills and the liability associated with the use of landfill, beneficial utilization options for these industrial by

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

239

NASA technology utilization house  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Following systems and features, which are predicted to save approximately $20,000 in utility costs over twenty year period, are incorporated into single-level, contemporarily designed, energy efficient residential structure: solar heating and cooling; energy efficient appliances; water recycling; security, smoke, and tornado detectors; and flat conductor electrical wiring.

1977-01-01

240

Utility of petrophysical and geophysical data to constrain the subsurface structure of the Kitakami plutons, northeast Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Geological Survey of Japan (GSJ), AIST has been systematically measuring physical properties of basement rocks in Japan for more than 30 years and has started to construct a petrophysical database called PB-Rock 21 (Petrophysical Database of Basement rocks in Japan for the 21st Century, http://www.aist.go.jp/RIODB/PB-Rock21/ ). The petrophysical data has been integrated with aeromagnetic data to determine the subsurface structure of the Himekami and Sobanokami plutons, members of the Kitakami plutonic belt, northeast Japan. For the Himekami pluton, the result of apparent magnetization intensity mapping clearly shows zonation within sub-plutons as well as regional rock type differences between the North (felsic) and South (felsic and mafic complex) sub-plutons. The bottom depths of the pluton were estimated by a successive 3-D magnetic modeling to be 1.7 km (North sub-pluton) and 1.5 km below sea level (South sub-pluton), respectively. Magnetic modeling of the Sobanokami pluton, which is partly exposed at the eastern edge of the Ishinomaki Plain, implies that the main part of the pluton extends to the northwest below the surface. Its western edge is cut by the Ishinomaki-wan fault, believed to be the upward extension of the fault plane of the 2003 northern Miyagi earthquake as defined by seismic observations and reflection seismic surveys conducted after the earthquake. Integrated magnetic and gravity modeling suggests that the Kakeyama Formation, a Neogene conglomerate deposited in a half-graben along the Ishinomaki-wan fault during Miocene rifting, contains more granitic fragments toward the south than to the north in the Ishinomaki Plain.

Okuma, Shigeo; Kanaya, Hiroshi

2005-08-01

241

Utilization management in anatomic pathology.  

PubMed

There is relatively little published literature concerning utilization management in anatomic pathology. Nonetheless there are many utilization management opportunities that currently exist and are well recognized. Some of these impact only the cost structure within the pathology department itself whereas others reduce charges for third party payers. Utilization management may result in medical legal liabilities for breaching the standard of care. For this reason it will be important for pathology professional societies to develop national utilization guidelines to assist individual practices in implementing a medically sound approach to utilization management. PMID:24140174

Lewandrowski, Kent; Black-Schaffer, Steven

2014-01-01

242

Development of Cymbidium ensifolium genic-SSR markers and their utility in genetic diversity and population structure analysis in cymbidiums.  

PubMed

Background Cymbidium is a genus of 68 species in the orchid family, with extremely high ornamental value. Marker-assisted selection has proven to be an effective strategy in accelerating plant breeding for many plant species. Analysis of cymbidiums genetic background by molecular markers can be of great value in assisting parental selection and breeding strategy design, however, in plants such as cymbidiums limited genomic resources exist. In order to obtain efficient markers, we deep sequenced the C. ensifolium transcriptome to identify simple sequence repeats derived from gene regions (genic-SSR).ResultThe 7,936 genic-SSR markers were identified. A total of 80 genic-SSRs were selected, and primers were designed according to their flanking sequences. Of the 80 genic-SSR primer sets, 62 were amplified in C. ensifolium successfully, and 55 showed polymorphism when cross-tested among 9 Cymbidium species comprising 59 accessions. Unigenes containing the 62 genic-SSRs were searched against Non-redundant (Nr), Gene Ontology database (GO), eukaryotic orthologous groups (KOGs) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. The search resulted in 53 matching Nr sequences, of which 39 had GO terms, 18 were assigned to KOGs, and 15 were annotated with KEGG. Genetic diversity and population structure were analyzed based on 55 polymorphic genic-SSR data among 59 accessions. The genetic distance averaged 0.3911, ranging from 0.016 to 0.618. The polymorphic index content (PIC) of 55 polymorphic markers averaged 0.407, ranging from 0.033 to 0.863. A model-based clustering analysis revealed that five genetic groups existed in the collection. Accessions from the same species were typically grouped together; however, C. goeringii accessions did not always form a separate cluster, suggesting that C. goeringii accessions were polyphyletic.ConclusionThe genic-SSR identified in this study constitute a set of markers that can be applied across multiple Cymbidium species and used for the evaluation of genetic relationships as well as qualitative and quantitative trait mapping studies. Genic-SSR¿s coupled with the functional annotations provided by the unigenes will aid in mapping candidate genes of specific function. PMID:25481640

Li, Xiaobai; Jin, Feng; Jin, Liang; Jackson, Aaron; Huang, Cheng; Li, Kehu; Shu, Xiaoli

2014-12-01

243

Xylose utilization in recombinant Zymomonas  

DOEpatents

Zymomonas expressing xylose isomerase from A. missouriensis was found to have improved xylose utilization, growth, and ethanol production when grown in media containing xylose. Xylose isomerases related to that of A. missouriensis were identified structurally through molecular phylogenetic and Profile Hidden Markov Model analyses, providing xylose isomerases that may be used to improve xylose utilization.

Kahsay, Robel Y; Qi, Min; Tao, Luan; Viitanen, Paul V; Yang, Jianjun

2013-01-07

244

Molecular depth profiling of multilayer structures of organic semiconductor materials by secondary ion mass spectrometry with large argon cluster ion beams.  

PubMed

In this study, we present molecular depth profiling of multilayer structures composed of organic semiconductor materials such as tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) and 4,4'-bis[N-(1-naphthyl)-N-phenylamino]biphenyl (NPD). Molecular ions produced from Alq3 and NPD were measured by linear-type time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry under 5.5 keV Ar70) ion bombardment. The organic multilayer films were analyzed and etched with large Ar cluster ion beams, and the interfaces between the organic layers were clearly distinguished. The effect of temperature on the diffusion of these materials was also investigated by the depth profiling analysis with Ar cluster ion beams. The thermal diffusion behavior was found to depend on the specific materials, and the diffusion of Alq3 molecules was observed to start at a lower temperature than that of NPD molecules. These results prove the great potential of large gas cluster ion beams for molecular depth profiling of organic multilayer samples. PMID:19757450

Ninomiya, Satoshi; Ichiki, Kazuya; Yamada, Hideaki; Nakata, Yoshihiko; Seki, Toshio; Aoki, Takaaki; Matsuo, Jiro

2009-10-30

245

Laser Diode-Pumped Organic Semiconductor Lasers Utilizing Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Resonators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-dimensional photonic crystal lasers based on the small molecule organic semiconductor tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq 3) doped with 4-Dicyanomethylene-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM) are optically pumped with a conventional low-cost pulsed (In)GaN laser diode. We compare photonic crystal resonators providing first- and second-order distributed feedback and find threshold values of 1.9 and 3.2kW\\/cm2, respectively. Such inorganic-organic hybrid laser systems open up a way to

Christian Karnutsch; Marc Stroisch; Martin Punke; Uli Lemmer; Jing Wang; Thomas Weimann

2007-01-01

246

Utility of the structured inventory of malingered symptomatology (SIMS) and the assessment of depression inventory (ADI) in screening for malingering among disability seeking outpatients.  

E-print Network

??Sixty-four individuals undergoing a social security disability evaluation were administered the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS), Structured Inventory of Malingered Symptomatology (SIMS), and Assessment… (more)

Clegg, Carl B., 1977-

2007-01-01

247

Preparation and properties of hybrid bilayer structures based on organic Alq3, ferromagnetic La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 and Fe3O4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report preparation and properties of hybrid bilayer structures composed of the organic semiconductor, 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum (Alq3), p-type Si and two ferromagnetic oxides, namely, colossal magnetoresistance manganite, La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 (LSMO), and magnetite (Fe3O4). Thin Alq3 films were thermally evaporated in vacuum. The bottom LSMO films were grown in-situ at 750°C by dc magnetron sputtering on crystalline SrTiO3 while Fe3O4 films were magnetron sputtered at 400°C on glass. Current versus voltage in a case of vertical current flow has been investigated for the heterojunctions. The investigations revealed dominating role of thermoionic emission in a barrier of Schottky type for the Alq3/p-Si heterojunction while a mechanism based on carrier tunnelling through an interface and space charge limited current processes were considered to explain nonlinear electrical transport in the Alq3/LSMO, Alq3/ Fe3O4 heterojunctions. The Alq3/LSMO demonstrated magnetoresistance values up to 11 % (at T=240 K and B=1 T).

Vengalis, B.; Šliužien?, K.; ?erniuk?, I.; Butkut?, R.; Lisauskas, V.; Maneikis, A.

2008-09-01

248

Identification of the interior noise generated by sport utility vehicle axles and structural modification of the axle system for noise reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents experimental and analytical methods for reducing the interior noise generated by the axle system of a sport utility vehicle. The test vehicle has a whine noise problem at the passenger seats. To identify the transfer path of the interior noise caused by the axle system, a vibration path analysis, modal analysis, and operational deflection shape analysis are

2008-01-01

249

Hualapai Tribal Utility Development Project  

SciTech Connect

The first phase of the Hualapai Tribal Utility Development Project (Project) studied the feasibility of establishing a tribally operated utility to provide electric service to tribal customers at Grand Canyon West (see objective 1 below). The project was successful in completing the analysis of the energy production from the solar power systems at Grand Canyon West and developing a financial model, based on rates to be charged to Grand Canyon West customers connected to the solar systems, that would provide sufficient revenue for a Tribal Utility Authority to operate and maintain those systems. The objective to establish a central power grid over which the TUA would have authority and responsibility had to be modified because the construction schedule of GCW facilities, specifically the new air terminal, did not match up with the construction schedule for the solar power system. Therefore, two distributed systems were constructed instead of one central system with a high voltage distribution network. The Hualapai Tribal Council has not taken the action necessary to establish the Tribal Utility Authority that could be responsible for the electric service at GCW. The creation of a Tribal Utility Authority (TUA) was the subject of the second objective of the project. The second phase of the project examined the feasibility and strategy for establishing a tribal utility to serve the remainder of the Hualapai Reservation and the feasibility of including wind energy from a tribal wind generator in the energy resource portfolio of the tribal utility (see objective 2 below). It is currently unknown when the Tribal Council will consider the implementation of the results of the study. Objective 1 - Develop the basic organizational structure and operational strategy for a tribally controlled utility to operate at the Tribe’s tourism enterprise district, Grand Canyon West. Coordinate the development of the Tribal Utility structure with the development of the Grand Canyon West Power Project construction of the power infrastructure at Grand Canyon West. Develop the maintenance and operations capacity necessary to support utility operations. Develop rates for customers on the Grand Canyon West “mini-grid” sufficient for the tribal utility to be self-sustaining. Establish an implementation strategy for tribal utility service at Grand Canyon West Objective 2 - Develop a strategy for tribal utility takeover of electric service on the Reservation. Perform a cost analysis of Reservation electrical service. Develop an implementation strategy for tribal takeover of Reservation electrical service. Examine options and costs associated with integration of the Tribe’s wind resources.

Hualapai Tribal Nation

2008-05-25

250

Electric utility companies and geothermal power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The requirements of the electric utility industry as the primary potential market for geothermal energy are analyzed, based on a series of structured interviews with utility companies and financial institution executives. The interviews were designed to determine what information and technologies would be required before utilities would make investment decisions in favor of geothermal energy, the time frame in which the information and technologies would have to be available, and the influence of the governmental politics. The paper describes the geothermal resources, electric utility industry, its structure, the forces influencing utility companies, and their relationship to geothermal energy. A strategy for federal stimulation of utility investment in geothermal energy is suggested. Possibilities are discussed for stimulating utility investment through financial incentives, amelioration of institutional barriers, and technological improvements.

Pivirotto, D. S.

1976-01-01

251

Time functions as utilities  

E-print Network

Every time function on spacetime gives a (continuous) total preordering of the spacetime events which respects the notion of causal precedence. The problem of the existence of a (semi-)time function on spacetime and the problem of recovering the causal structure starting from the set of time functions are studied. It is pointed out that these problems have an analog in the field of microeconomics known as utility theory. In a chronological spacetime the semi-time functions correspond to the utilities for the chronological relation, while in a K-causal (stably causal) spacetime the time functions correspond to the utilities for the K^+ relation (Seifert's relation). By exploiting this analogy, we are able to import some mathematical results, most notably Peleg's and Levin's theorems, to the spacetime framework. As a consequence, we prove that a K-causal (i.e. stably causal) spacetime admits a time function and that the time or temporal functions can be used to recover the K^+ (or Seifert) relation which indeed turns out to be the intersection of the time or temporal orderings. This result tells us in which circumstances it is possible to recover the chronological or causal relation starting from the set of time or temporal functions allowed by the spacetime. Moreover, it is proved that a chronological spacetime in which the closure of the causal relation is transitive (for instance a reflective spacetime) admits a semi-time function. Along the way a new proof avoiding smoothing techniques is given that the existence of a time function implies stable causality, and a new short proof of the equivalence between K-causality and stable causality is given which takes advantage of Levin's theorem and smoothing techniques.

E. Minguzzi

2009-09-04

252

Time Functions as Utilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Every time function on spacetime gives a (continuous) total preordering of the spacetime events which respects the notion of causal precedence. The problem of the existence of a (semi-)time function on spacetime and the problem of recovering the causal structure starting from the set of time functions are studied. It is pointed out that these problems have an analog in the field of microeconomics known as utility theory. In a chronological spacetime the semi-time functions correspond to the utilities for the chronological relation, while in a K-causal (stably causal) spacetime the time functions correspond to the utilities for the K + relation (Seifert’s relation). By exploiting this analogy, we are able to import some mathematical results, most notably Peleg’s and Levin’s theorems, to the spacetime framework. As a consequence, we prove that a K-causal (i.e. stably causal) spacetime admits a time function and that the time or temporal functions can be used to recover the K + (or Seifert) relation which indeed turns out to be the intersection of the time or temporal orderings. This result tells us in which circumstances it is possible to recover the chronological or causal relation starting from the set of time or temporal functions allowed by the spacetime. Moreover, it is proved that a chronological spacetime in which the closure of the causal relation is transitive (for instance a reflective spacetime) admits a semi-time function. Along the way a new proof avoiding smoothing techniques is given that the existence of a time function implies stable causality, and a new short proof of the equivalence between K-causality and stable causality is given which takes advantage of Levin’s theorem and smoothing techniques.

Minguzzi, E.

2010-09-01

253

Estimation of phytotoxic aluminum in soil solution using three spectrophotometric methods  

SciTech Connect

In the current investigation three spectrophotometric techniques -8-hydroxyquinoline, aluminon, and ferron- were compared for their ability to estimate phytotoxic Al in soil solution. Soil solution Al reacting with 8-hydroxyquinoline in 15 s, ferron in 30 s, and aluminon in 30 min were related to root and shoot growth of subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L. cv. Mt. Barket) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L. cv. Cave-in-Rock) in limed and unlimed treatments of 10 acidic subsoil horizons. Across all 10 soils the amount of Al reacting with 8-hydroxyquinoline was generally the lowest, and that reacting with ferron the highest, although overlap among methods did occur. Manganese interference in several of the soil solutions limited the utility of the ferron method. The amounts of Al reacting with 8-hydroxyquinoline and aluminon were significantly related (P < 0.05) to root and shoot growth limitations exhibited by subterranean clover and switch-grass. Activities of Al/sup 3 +/ (a/sub Al/sup 3 +//) calculated from the GEOCHEM program using the Al reacting with 8-hydroxyquinoline and aluminon as the Al inputs were generally the best predictors of root and shoot growth.

Wright, R.J.; Wright, S.F.

1987-09-01

254

The potential utility of predicted one bond carbon-proton coupling constants in the structure elucidation of small organic molecules by NMR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

NMR spectroscopy is the most popular technique used for structure elucidation of small organic molecules in solution, but incorrect structures are regularly reported. One-bond proton-carbon J-couplings provide additional information about chemical structure because they are determined by different features of molecular structure than are proton and carbon chemical shifts. However, these couplings are not routinely used to validate proposed structures because few software tools exist to predict them. This study assesses the accuracy of Density Functional Theory for predicting them using 396 published experimental observations from a diverse range of small organic molecules. With the B3LYP functional and the TZVP basis set, Density Functional Theory calculations using the open-source software package NWChem can predict one-bond CH J-couplings with good accuracy for most classes of small organic molecule. The root-mean-square deviation after correction is 1.5 Hz for most sp3 CH pairs and 1.9 Hz for sp2 pairs; larger errors are observed for sp3 pairs with multiple electronegative substituents and for sp pairs. These results suggest that prediction of one-bond CH J-couplings by Density Functional Theory is sufficiently accurate for structure validation. This will be of particular use in strained ring systems and heterocycles which have characteristic couplings and which pose challenges for structure elucidation. PMID:25365289

Venkata, Chandrasekhar; Forster, Mark J; Howe, Peter W A; Steinbeck, Christoph

2014-01-01

255

The Potential Utility of Predicted One Bond Carbon-Proton Coupling Constants in the Structure Elucidation of Small Organic Molecules by NMR Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

NMR spectroscopy is the most popular technique used for structure elucidation of small organic molecules in solution, but incorrect structures are regularly reported. One-bond proton-carbon J-couplings provide additional information about chemical structure because they are determined by different features of molecular structure than are proton and carbon chemical shifts. However, these couplings are not routinely used to validate proposed structures because few software tools exist to predict them. This study assesses the accuracy of Density Functional Theory for predicting them using 396 published experimental observations from a diverse range of small organic molecules. With the B3LYP functional and the TZVP basis set, Density Functional Theory calculations using the open-source software package NWChem can predict one-bond CH J-couplings with good accuracy for most classes of small organic molecule. The root-mean-square deviation after correction is 1.5 Hz for most sp3 CH pairs and 1.9 Hz for sp2 pairs; larger errors are observed for sp3 pairs with multiple electronegative substituents and for sp pairs. These results suggest that prediction of one-bond CH J-couplings by Density Functional Theory is sufficiently accurate for structure validation. This will be of particular use in strained ring systems and heterocycles which have characteristic couplings and which pose challenges for structure elucidation. PMID:25365289

Venkata, Chandrasekhar; Forster, Mark J.; Howe, Peter W. A.; Steinbeck, Christoph

2014-01-01

256

Comparative Genomics of Ethanolamine Utilization? † ‡  

PubMed Central

Ethanolamine can be used as a source of carbon and nitrogen by phylogenetically diverse bacteria. Ethanolamine-ammonia lyase, the enzyme that breaks ethanolamine into acetaldehyde and ammonia, is encoded by the gene tandem eutBC. Despite extensive studies of ethanolamine utilization in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, much remains to be learned about EutBC structure and catalytic mechanism, about the evolutionary origin of ethanolamine utilization, and about regulatory links between the metabolism of ethanolamine itself and the ethanolamine-ammonia lyase cofactor adenosylcobalamin. We used computational analysis of sequences, structures, genome contexts, and phylogenies of ethanolamine-ammonia lyases to address these questions and to evaluate recent data-mining studies that have suggested an association between bacterial food poisoning and the diol utilization pathways. We found that EutBC evolution included recruitment of a TIM barrel and a Rossmann fold domain and their fusion to N-terminal ?-helical domains to give EutB and EutC, respectively. This fusion was followed by recruitment and occasional loss of auxiliary ethanolamine utilization genes in Firmicutes and by several horizontal transfers, most notably from the firmicute stem to the Enterobacteriaceae and from Alphaproteobacteria to Actinobacteria. We identified a conserved DNA motif that likely represents the EutR-binding site and is shared by the ethanolamine and cobalamin operons in several enterobacterial species, suggesting a mechanism for coupling the biosyntheses of apoenzyme and cofactor in these species. Finally, we found that the food poisoning phenotype is associated with the structural components of metabolosome more strongly than with ethanolamine utilization genes or with paralogous propanediol utilization genes per se. PMID:19783625

Tsoy, Olga; Ravcheev, Dmitry; Mushegian, Arcady

2009-01-01

257

Environmental status of cobalt and its microdetermination with 7-nitroso-8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid in waters, aquatic weeds and animal tissues  

SciTech Connect

A method is presented for the spectrophotometric microdetermination of cobalt (II) in fresh waters, aquatic weeds, and animal tissues employing 7-nitroso-8-hydroxy-quinoline-5-sulfonic acid. The method enables direct determination of cobalt (II) in presence of a large number of anions and cations commonly associated with cobalt, and is adequate for determining the metal in the concentration range of 0.001-10 ppm, which is commonly encountered in environmental samples.

Abbasi, S.A.; Nipaney, P.C.; Soni, R.

1989-01-01

258

Photochemical H/sub 2/ generation by visible light. Sensitization of TiO/sub 2/ particles by surface complexation with 8-hydroxyquinoline  

SciTech Connect

The surface modification of large band gap semiconductors such as TiO/sub 2/ and SnO/sub 2/ by adsorbed or covalently linked photoactive dyes is a subject of increasing interest in view of potential applications to solar energy conversion. In both photoelectrochemical cells and H/sub 2/- generating photochemical systems, the phenomenon of photosensitized charge injection is used to effect charge separation with light of less than band gap energy. Results given in this article concerned the surface modification of anatase TiO/sub 2/ by the prototype dye 8-hydroxy-orthoquinoline and the ability of such modified TiO/sub 2/ powders to generate H/sub 2/ in a sacrificial water reduction system using visible light. Initial evidence for H/sub 2/ production via a charge injection mechanism is presented. 13 references, 1 figure. (DP)

Houlding, V.H.; Graetzel, M.

1983-08-24

259

A simple visual and highly selective colorimetric detection of Hg2+ based on gold nanoparticles modified by 8-hydroxyquinolines and oxalates.  

PubMed

Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) modified by 8-hydroxy-quinoline (8-HQ) and stabilized by polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were used for highly selective and sensitive colorimetric detection of Hg(2+) based on the quick aggregation of AuNPs leading to a color change from wine red to gray. The limit of Hg(2+) detection in real environmental water samples is 4.0 × 10(-7) M by the naked eyes and 1.0 × 10(-8) M by UV-vis spectroscopy. PMID:24622578

Gao, Yuexia; Li, Xing; Li, Yonglong; Li, Tianhua; Zhao, Yayun; Wu, Aiguo

2014-06-21

260

Amberlite IR120 Modified with 8Hydroxyquinoline as Efficient Adsorbent for SolidPhase Extraction and Flame Atomic Absorption Determination of Trace Amounts of Some Metal Ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a solid-phase extraction method combined with atomic absorption spectrometry for extraction, preconcentration,\\u000a and determination of iron (Fe3+), copper (Cu2+), and lead (Pb2+) ions at trace levels in water samples has been reported. The influences of effective parameters such as flow rate, pH, eluent\\u000a conditions (type, volume, and concentration), sample volumes, and interference of matrix ions on metal

Ali Daneshfar; M. Ghaedi; S. Vafafard; L. Shiri; R. Sahrai; M. Soylak

261

Model for nonequilibrium binding and affinity chromatography: characterization of 8-hydroxyquinoline immobilized on controlled pore glass using a flow injection system with a packed microcolumn  

PubMed

This paper discusses the use of pulse techniques for analysis of zonal elution data for the determination of mass-transfer and axial dispersion constants for porous support materials with adsorption to the surface or to a surface-bonded phase. As an example, this paper considers the case of controlled pore glass (CPG) with a bonded phase that is used with microcolumns and a flow injection analysis system. For the CPG, axial dispersion in the form of eddy mixing can be described by l = 0.203, and the overall mass-transfer term, K(OL) = 3.9 x 10(-6) cm/s. Additionally, an affinity chromatography model was adapted to effectively describe systems employing CPG as the support material through modification of equations describing typical affinity chromatography systems and by inclusion of an axial dispersion term in the calculation of N. This model was used to predict breakthrough curves for cadmium adsorption by 8-hydroxyquinolinol immobilized on CPG packed in microcolumns. In general, the information from the model can be used to extract equilibrium-based constants (binding strengths and site capacities) from a nonequilibrium flow system. The data and model can also be employed in determining the performance for scaled-up extraction systems. The modified model is available in EXCEL spreadsheet format as Supporting Information. PMID:10959984

Howard; Holcombe

2000-08-15

262

COMPARISON OF SILICA IMMOBILIZED POLY-L-CYSTEINE AND 8-HYDROXYQUINOLINE FOR TRACE METAL CHELATION AND PRECONCENTRATION. (R826694C651)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

263

Approach to high open-circuit voltage in organic solar cells utilizing a structural change of the oxazolino-c70 derivative.  

PubMed

Reactions of 2,5-Bn2 C70 (Bn=CH2 Ph) with hydroxide and ArCN (Ar=Ph, m-ClPh) followed by quenching with I2 and BnBr afforded dibenzylated and tetrabenzylated oxazolino[70]fullerenes, respectively. The latter has a novel structural configuration, in which the addends are positioned from the polar to the transequatorial region. A key structural feature of this compound is that the oxygen atom of the oxazoline ring is bound to the equatorial belt region of C70 , giving structural change in its reduced state. This enables stabilization of the reduced state, suppressing charge recombination dynamics in organic solar cells to give a high open-circuit voltage (0.85, 0.93, and 1.11?V in devices using P3HT, PTB7, and DPP(TBFu)2 , respectively). PMID:25488150

Li, Shu-Hui; Li, Zong-Jun; Nakagawa, Takafumi; Ryan, James W; Matsuo, Yutaka; Gao, Xiang

2015-01-26

264

Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) evolution in populations of the hyperparasitic European mistletoe pathogen fungus, Sphaeropsis visci (Botryosphaeriaceae): The utility of ITS2 secondary structures.  

PubMed

We investigated patterns of nucleotide polymorphism in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region for Sphaeropsis visci, a hyperparasitic fungus that causes the leaf spot disease of the hemiparasite European mistletoe (Viscum album). Samples of S. visci were obtained from Hungary covering all major infected forest areas. For obtaining PCR products we used a fast and efficient direct PCR approach based on a high fidelity DNA polymerase. A total of 140 ITS sequences were subjected to an array of complementary sequence analyses, which included analyses of secondary structure stability, nucleotide polymorphism patterns, GC content, and presence of conserved motifs. Analysed sequences exhibited features of functional rRNAs. Overall, polymorphism was observed within less conserved motifs, such as loops and bulges, or, alternatively, as non-canonical G-U pairs within conserved regions of double stranded helices. The secondary structure of ITS2 provides new opportunities for obtaining further valuable information, which could be used in phylogenetic analyses, or at population level as demonstrated in our study. This is due to additional information provided by secondary structures and their models. The combined score matrix was used with the methods implemented in the programme 4SALE. Besides the pseudoprotein coding method of 4SALE, the molecular morphometric character coding also has potential for gaining further information for phylogenetic analyses based on the geometric features of the sub-structural elements of the ITS2 RNA transcript. PMID:25536165

Poczai, Péter; Varga, Ildikó; Hyvönen, Jaakko

2015-03-01

265

Exploring the Structural Relationships between High School Students' Scientific Epistemological Views and Their Utilization of Information Commitments toward Online Science Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this study was to examine the structural relationships between scientific epistemological views (SEVs) and information commitments (ICs) of high school students in Taiwan. Data were collected from 486 Taiwanese high school students via two self-reporting instruments: one was the SEV questionnaire, including five scales for…

Lin, Chia-Ching; Tsai, Chin-Chung

2008-01-01

266

Miscellaneous Mathematical Utilities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Several online mathematical utilities intended for college and university students (math, physics, engineering, etc. students). Numerical utilities to solve (among others): N Equations in N Unknowns, Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors, Roots of Functions, and Numerical Integration. More utilities are constantly being added.

2007-08-09

267

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

and Applied Science THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN - MILWAUKEE #12;COAL ASH GENERATIONANDUTILIZATION: A REVIEW International Conference onFly Ash Disposal and Utilization,onJanuary 20-22, 1998, New Delhi, India. COAL ASH and utilization of coal ash in many parts of the world. The utilization potential for coal ash generated from

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

268

Highly efficient tandem organic light-emitting devices utilizing the connecting structure based on n-doped electron-transport layer/HATCN/hole-transport layer.  

PubMed

In this work, we conducted studies of tandem organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) based on the connecting structure consisting of n-doped electron-transport layer (n-ETL)/1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile (HATCN)/hole-transport layer. We investigated effects of different n-ETL materials and different HATCN thicknesses on characteristics of tandem OLEDs. Results show that the tandem OLEDs with n-BPhen and a 20 nm layer of HATCN in the connecting structure exhibited the best performance. With these, highly efficient and bright green phosphorescent two-emitting-unit tandem OLEDs, with drive voltages significantly lower than twice that of the single-unit benchmark device and current efficiencies higher than twice that of the single-unit benchmark device, were demonstrated. PMID:25090347

Wu, Yi-Lin; Chen, Chien-Yu; Huang, Yi-Hsiang; Lu, Yin-Jui; Chou, Cheng-Hsu; Wu, Chung-Chih

2014-08-01

269

I-III-VI.sub.2 based solar cell utilizing the structure CuInGaSe.sub.2 CdZnS/ZnO  

DOEpatents

A thin film I-III-VI.sub.2 based solar cell having a first layer of copper indium gallium selenide, a second layer of cadmium zinc sulfide, a double layer of zinc oxide, and a metallization structure comprised of a layer of nickel covered by a layer of aluminum. An optional antireflective coating may be placed on said metallization structure. The cadmium zinc sulfide layer is deposited by means of an aqueous solution growth deposition process and may actually consist of two layers: a low zinc content layer and a high zinc content layer. Photovoltaic efficiencies of 12.5% at Air Mass 1.5 illumination conditions and 10.4% under AMO illumination can be achieved.

Chen, Wen S. (Seattle, WA); Stewart, John M. (Seattle, WA)

1992-01-07

270

Isobaric-Isothermal Molecular Dynamics Utilizing Density Functional Theory: An Assessment of the Structure and Density of Water at Near-Ambient Conditions  

SciTech Connect

We present herein a comprehensive density functional theory study toward assessing the accuracy of two popular gradient-corrected exchange correlation functionals on the structure and density of liquid water at near ambient conditions in the isobaric-isothermal ensemble. Our results indicate that both PBE and BLYP functionals under predict the density and over structure the liquid. Adding the dispersion correction due to Grimme(1, 2) improves the predicted densities for both BLYP and PBE in a significant manner. Moreover, the addition of the dispersion correction for BLYP yields an oxygen-oxygen radial distribution function in excellent agreement with experiment. Thus, we conclude that one can obtain a very satisfactory model for water using BLYP and a correction for dispersion.

Schmidt, J; VandeVondele, J; Kuo, I W; Sebastiani, D; Siepmann, J I; Hutter, J; Mundy, C J

2009-03-06

271

Hybrid FE\\/BI modeling of 3-D doubly periodic structures utilizing triangular prismatic elements and an MPIE formulation accelerated by the Ewald transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the formulation of a finite-element\\/boundary-integral method for the analysis of three-dimensional doubly periodic structures based on arbitrary nonorthogonal lattice configurations. The method starts from a functional description of the field problem where only a single unit cell of the array is considered. This unit cell is meshed with triangular prismatic volume elements and the electric field intensity is

Thomas F. Eibert; John L. Volakis; Donald R. Wilton; David R. Jackson

1999-01-01

272

A fractional- N frequency synthesizer architecture utilizing a mismatch compensated PFD\\/DAC structure for reduced quantization-induced phase noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Techniques are proposed to dramatically reduce the impact of quantization noise in ?? fractional-N synthesizers, thereby improving the existing tradeoff between phase noise and bandwidth that exists in these systems. The key innovation is the introduction of new techniques to overcome nonidealities in a phase-frequency detector (PFD)\\/digital-to-analog converter (DAC) structure, which combines the functionality of both phase detector and cancellation

Scott E. Meninger; Michael H. Perrott

2003-01-01

273

18 CFR 1304.301 - Utilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Utilities. 1304.301 Section 1304.301 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL OF CONSTRUCTION IN THE TENNESSEE RIVER SYSTEM AND REGULATION OF STRUCTURES AND OTHER ALTERATIONS Activities on TVA...

2013-04-01

274

18 CFR 1304.301 - Utilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Utilities. 1304.301 Section 1304.301 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL OF CONSTRUCTION IN THE TENNESSEE RIVER SYSTEM AND REGULATION OF STRUCTURES AND OTHER ALTERATIONS Activities on TVA...

2011-04-01

275

Designing a Thermal Energy Storage Program for Electric Utilities  

E-print Network

Electric utilities are looking at thermal energy storage technology as a viable demand side management (DSM) option. In order for this DSM measure to be effective, it must be incorporated into a workable, well-structured utility program. This paper...

Niehus, T. L.

1994-01-01

276

ERTS-1 imagery use in reconnaissance prospecting: Evaluation of commercial utility of ERTS-1 imagery in structural reconnaissance for minerals and petroleum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Five areas in North America (North Slope-Alaska, Superior Province-Canada, Williston Basin-Montana, Colorado, and New Mexico-West Texas) are being studied for discernibility of geological evidence on ERTS-1 imagery. Evidence mapped is compared with known mineral/hydrocarbon accumulations to determine the value of the imagery in commercial exploration programs. Evaluation has proceeded in the New Mexico-Texas area, and to date, results have been better than expected. Clearly discernible structural lineaments in this area are evident on the photographs. Comparison of this evidence with known major mining localities in New Mexico indicates a clear pattern of coincidence between the lineaments and mining localities. In West Texas, lineament and geomorphological evidence obtainable from the photographs define the petroleum-productive Central Basin Platform. Based on evaluation of results in the New Mexico-West Texas area and on cursory results in the other four areas of North America, it is concluded that ERTS-1 imagery will be extremely valuable in defining the regional and local structure in any commercial exploration program.

Saunders, D. F. (principal investigator); Thomas, G. L.; Kinsman, F. E.

1973-01-01

277

ERTS-1 imagery use in reconnaissance prospecting: Evaluation of commercial utility of ERTS-1 imagery in structural reconnaissance for minerals and petroleum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. This study was performed to investigate applications of ERTS-1 imagery in commercial reconnaissance for mineral and hydrocarbon resources. ERTS-1 imagery collected over five areas in North America (Montana; Colorado; New Mexico-West Texas; Superior Province, Canada; and North Slope, Alaska) has been analyzed for data content including linears, lineaments, and curvilinear anomalies. Locations of these features were mapped and compared with known locations of mineral and hydrocarbon accumulations. Results were analyzed in the context of a simple-shear, block-coupling model. Data analyses have resulted in detection of new lineaments, some of which may be continental in extent, detection of many curvilinear patterns not generally seen on aerial photos, strong evidence of continental regmatic fracture patterns, and realization that geological features can be explained in terms of a simple-shear, block-coupling model. The conculsions are that ERTS-1 imagery is of great value in photogeologic/geomorphic interpretations of regional features, and the simple-shear, block-coupling model provides a means of relating data from ERTS imagery to structures that have controlled emplacement of ore deposits and hydrocarbon accumulations, thus providing a basis for a new approach for reconnaissance for mineral, uranium, gas, and oil deposits and structures.

Saunders, D. F.; Thomas, G. E. (principal investigators); Kinsman, F. E.; Beatty, D. F.

1973-01-01

278

Utility Solar Generation Valuation Methods  

SciTech Connect

Tucson Electric Power (TEP) developed, tested and verified the results of a new and appropriate method for accurately evaluating the capacity credit of time variant solar generating sources and reviewed new methods to appropriately and fairly evaluate the value of solar generation to electric utilities. The project also reviewed general integrated approaches for adequately compensating owners of solar generation for their benefits to utilities. However, given the limited funding support and time duration of this project combined with the significant differences between utilities regarding rate structures, solar resource availability and coincidence of solar generation with peak load periods, it is well beyond the scope of this project to develop specific rate, rebate, and interconnection approaches to capture utility benefits for all possible utilities. The project developed computer software based evaluation method models to compare solar generation production data measured in very short term time increments called Sample Intervals over a typical utility Dispatch Cycle during an Evaluation Period against utility system load data. Ten second resolution generation production data from the SGSSS and actual one minute resolution TEP system load data for 2006 and 2007, along with data from the Pennington Street Garage 60 kW DC capacity solar unit installed in downtown Tucson will be applied to the model for testing and verification of the evaluation method. Data was provided by other utilities, but critical time periods of data were missing making results derived from that data inaccurate. The algorithms are based on previous analysis and review of specific 2005 and 2006 SGSSS production data. The model was built, tested and verified by in house TEP personnel. For this phase of the project, TEP communicated with, shared solar production data with and collaborated on the development of solar generation valuation tools with other utilities, including Arizona Public Service, Salt River Project, Xcel and Nevada Power Company as well as the Arizona electric cooperatives. In the second phase of the project, three years of 10 second power output data of the SGSSS was used to evaluate the effectiveness of frequency domain analysis, normal statistical distribution analysis and finally maximum/minimum differential output analysis to test the applicability of these mathematic methods in accurately modeling the output variations produced by clouds passing over the SGSSS array.

Hansen, Thomas N.; Dion, Phillip J.

2009-06-30

279

Structure-Property Correlations in CoFe-SiO2 Nanogranular Films Utilizing x-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Small-Angle Scattering Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quantitative structure-property correlation study of thin films consisting of CoFe nanoparticles embedded in SiO2 is presented, comparing film microstructure and chemistry with measured magnetic properties. SiO2 was fully percolated for all films with > ~50% SiO2 by volume, and decreasing CoFe-nanoparticle size and separation with increasing SiO2 resulted in a transition to superparamagnetic behavior. Partial oxidation of transition-metal elements is observed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and evidence for interparticle magnetic interactions can be resolved in soft x-ray resonant small-angle scattering experiments, highlighting the need for additional detailed and quantitative studies in this class of soft magnetic materials.

Ohodnicki, P. R.; Sokalski, V.; Baltrus, J.; Kortright, J. B.; Zuo, X.; Shen, S.; DeGeorge, V.; McHenry, M. E.; Laughlin, D. E.

2014-01-01

280

Diorganotin(IV) 2-pyridyl selenolates: synthesis, structures and their utility as molecular precursors for the preparation of tin selenide nanocrystals and thin films.  

PubMed

Reactions of R(2)SnCl(2) (R = Me, Et, (t)Bu) with NaSeC(5)H(3)(R'-3)N (R' = H or Me) gave complexes of the composition [R(2)Sn{2-SeC(5)H(3)(R'-3)N)}(2)], which on treatment with R(2)SnCl(2) afforded chloro complexes, [R(2)Sn{2-SeC(5)H(3)(R'-3)N}Cl]. These complexes were characterized by elemental analyses and UV-vis and NMR ((1)H, (13)C, (77)Se and (119)Sn) spectroscopy. The crystal structures of [R(2)Sn(SeC(5)H(4)N)(2)] (R = Me or (t)Bu) and [Me(2)Sn{2-SeC(5)H(3)(Me-3)N}Cl] were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The tin atom in the former two structures acquires a skew trapezoidal configuration, whereas in the latter it adopts a distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry. Thermolysis of [R(2)Sn(2-SeC(5)H(4)N)(2)] (R = Me, Et or (t)Bu) and [Et(2)Sn{2-SeC(5)H(3)(Me-3)N}(2)] in oleylamine (OA) afforded tin selenide nanostructures. Thin films of SnSe were deposited on glass and silicon substrates by the AACVD of [(t)Bu(2)Sn(2-SeC(5)H(4)N)(2)]. The nanostructures and thin films were characterized by XRD, EDX, AFM, SEM, TEM and SAED techniques. The photovoltaic properties of the thin films have been evaluated. PMID:22918450

Sharma, Rakesh K; Kedarnath, G; Wadawale, Amey; Betty, C A; Vishwanadh, B; Jain, Vimal K

2012-10-21

281

The structure of state utility commissions and protection of the captive ratepayer: Is there a connection? Occasional paper {number_sign}23  

SciTech Connect

While there is a considerable body of literature on regulatory decision making, the dominant theories have emphasized the influence of external factors on commissioners, which largely result in capture. Underlying these theories is the assumption that resources translate into influence. The theory proposed in this research is that while resources are necessary in order to influence commission decisions, they are not sufficient. Instead, their effects are mediated by two conditions: one, the structural characteristics of each state commission, which enable it to acquire and analyze information and two, the attributes of the type of consumer safeguards, e.g. a rate freeze or quality-of-service standards with attached financial penalties, which commissions could have adopted. The guiding research hypothesis is that the greater the ability of the commission to acquire and analyze information, the more likely it is to enact more stringent measures to protect the captive ratepayer. The major implications of this research are two. (1) This research suggests that commissions react not just to political pressure and economic incentives, but also to information. Indeed, this research asserts that information is a significant determinant in the decision making process. (2) Where the general public has neither the knowledge nor the understanding to take a position with regard to an issue, a regulatory commission with greater resources and more professional personnel is more likely to be its champion than is a commission with fewer resources and less professional personnel.

Zearfoss, N.N.

1998-06-01

282

Isobaric-Isothermal Molecular Dynamics Simulations Utilizing Density Functional Theory: An Assessment of the Structure and Density of Water at Near-Ambient Conditions  

SciTech Connect

We present herein, a comprehensive density functional theory study towards assessing the accuracy of two popular gradient corrected exchange correlation functionals on the structure and density of liquid water at near ambient conditions in the isobaric-isotherma ensemble. Our results indicate that both PBE and BLYP functionals underpredict the density and overstructure the liquid. Adding the dispersion correction due to Grimme [1, 2] improves the predicted densities for both BLYP and PBE in a significant manner. Moreover, the addition of the dispersion correction for BLYP yields an oxygen-oxygen radial distribution function in excellent agreement with experiment. Thus, we conclude that one can obtain a very satisfactory model for water using BLYP and a correction for dispersion. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences program, and was performed in part using the Molecular Science Computing Facility (MSCF) in the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a DOE national scientific user facility located at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated by Battelle for DOE.

Schmidt, Jochen; VandeVondele, Joost; Kuo, I-F W.; Sebastiani, Daniel; Siepmann, Joern L.; hutter, juerg; Mundy, Christopher J.

2009-09-03

283

Structure and expression profile of the sucrose synthase gene family in the rubber tree: indicative of roles in stress response and sucrose utilization in the laticifers.  

PubMed

Sucrose synthase (Sus, EC 2.4.1.13) is widely recognized as a key enzyme in sucrose metabolism in plants. However, nothing is known about this gene family in Hevea brasiliensis (para rubber tree). Here, we identified six Sus genes in H. brasiliensis that comprise the entire Sus family in this species. Analysis of the gene structure and phylogeny of the Sus genes demonstrates evolutionary conservation in the Sus families across Hevea and other plant species. The expression of Sus genes was investigated via Solexa sequencing and quantitative PCR in various tissues, at various phases of leaf development, and under abiotic stresses and ethylene treatment. The Sus genes exhibited distinct but partially redundant expression profiles. Each tissue has one abundant Sus isoform, with HbSus3, 4 and 5 being the predominant isoforms in latex (cytoplasm of rubber-producing laticifers), bark and root, respectively. HbSus1 and 6 were barely expressed in any tissue examined. In mature leaves (source), all HbSus genes were expressed at low levels, but HbSus3 and 4 were abundantly expressed in immature leaves (sink). Low temperature and drought treatments conspicuously induced HbSus5 expression in root and leaf, suggesting a role in stress responses. HbSus2 and 3 transcripts were decreased by ethylene treatment, consistent with the reduced sucrose-synthesizing activity of Sus enzymes in the latex in response to ethylene stimulation. Our results are beneficial to further determination of functions for the Sus genes in Hevea trees, especially roles in regulating latex regeneration. PMID:24279382

Xiao, Xiaohu; Tang, Chaorong; Fang, Yongjun; Yang, Meng; Zhou, Binhui; Qi, Jiyan; Zhang, Yi

2014-01-01

284

The dynamic process of atmospheric water sorption in [BMIM][Ac]: quantifying bulk versus surface sorption and utilizing atmospheric water as a structure probe.  

PubMed

The dynamic process of the atmospheric water absorbed in acetate-based ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium acetate ([BMIM][Ac]) within 360 min could be described with three steps by using two-dimensional correlation infrared (IR) spectroscopy technique. In Step 1 (0-120 min), only bulk sorption via hydrogen bonding interaction occurs. In Step 2 (120-320 min), bulk and surface sorption takes place simultaneously via both hydrogen bonding interaction and van der Waals force. In Step 3, from 320 min to steady state, only surface sorption via van der Waals force occurs. Specifically, Step 2 could be divided into three substeps. Most bulk sorption with little surface sorption takes place in Step 2a (120-180 min), comparative bulk and surface sorption happens in Step 2b (180-260 min), and most surface sorption while little bulk sorption occurs in Step 2c (260-320 min). Interestingly, atmospheric water is found for the first time to be able to be used as a probe to detect the chemical structure of [BMIM][Ac]. Results show that one anion is surrounded by three C4,5H molecules and two anions are surrounded by five C2H molecules via hydrogen bonds, which are very susceptible to moisture water especially for the former one. The remaining five anions form a multimer (equilibrating with one dimer and one trimer) via a strong hydrogen bonding interaction, which is not easily affected by the introduction of atmospheric water. The alkyl of the [BMIM][Ac] cation aggregates to some extent by van der Walls force, which is moderately susceptible to the water attack. Furthermore, the proportion of bulk sorption vs surface sorption is quantified as about 70% and 30% within 320 min, 63% and 37% within 360 min, and 11% and 89% until steady-state, respectively. PMID:24840011

Chen, Yu; Cao, Yuanyuan; Yan, Chuanyu; Zhang, Yuwei; Mu, Tiancheng

2014-06-19

285

WOOD PRODUCTS AND UTILIZATION  

E-print Network

WOOD PRODUCTS AND UTILIZATION V #12;#12;443USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-160. 1997. Section Overview Wood Products and Utilization1 John R. Shelly2 Forests are obviously a very important asset to California, and their economic and social value to the state is well documented. Wood

Standiford, Richard B.

286

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

, roadways, and airfield pavements. Three types of CCPs, two flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) by. Two processes typically used are flue gas desulfurization (FGD) to reduce SOx emissions and low standards, utilities are utilizing supplemental flue gas treatments to reduce emissions. These treatments

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

287

Instructional Facility Utilization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data describing campus facility use for instructional and related purposes for one week of activity in Fall 1978 were collected and evaluated at Kalamazoo Valley Community College. Four measures of space utilization were used: (1) percent of available time used; (2) percent of available space used; (3) percent of scheduled space utilized; and (4)…

Kalamazoo Valley Community Coll., MI.

288

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

Approximately 121 million tons of coal combustion products (71 million tons of fly ash, 19 million tons in the year 2001. The overall utilization rate in the USA for all coal ashes was approximately 34% in the year products containing clean coal ash compared to conventional coal ash. Utilization of clean coal ash is much

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

289

Disutility of utility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marginal utility theory, being the main framework of consumer economic behavior theory, has aroused and keeps arousing objections of many economists. The impossibility of a quantitative measurement and the doubtfulness of qualitative characteristics of utility continue generating attempts to create alternative theories of consumer behavior. One of possible alternatives is an attempt to consider consumer behavior in the same manner

Gennady Bilych

2011-01-01

290

Detect the sensitivity and response of protein molecular structure of whole canola seed (yellow and brown) to different heat processing methods and relation to protein utilization and availability using ATR-FT/IR molecular spectroscopy with chemometrics.  

PubMed

The objectives of this experiment were to detect the sensitivity and response of protein molecular structure of whole canola seed to different heat processing [moisture (autoclaving) vs. dry (roasting) heating] and quantify heat-induced protein molecular structure changes in relation to protein utilization and availability. In this study, whole canola seeds were autoclaved (moisture heating) and dry (roasting) heated at 120 °C for 1h, respectively. The parameters assessed included changes in (1) chemical composition profile, (2) CNCPS protein subfractions (PA, PB1, PB2, PB3, PC), (3) intestinal absorbed true protein supply, (4) energy values, and (5) protein molecular structures (amide I, amide II, ratio of amide I to II, ?-helix, ?-sheet, ratio of ?-helix to ?-sheet). The results showed that autoclave heating significantly decreased (P<0.05) but dry heating increased (P<0.05) the ratio of protein ?-helix to ?-sheet (with the ratios of 1.07, 0.95, 1.10 for the control (raw), autoclave heating and dry heating, respectively). The multivariate molecular spectral analyses (PCA, CLA) showed that there were significantly molecular structural differences in the protein amide I and II fingerprint region (ca. 1714-1480 cm(-1)) among the control, autoclave and dry heating. These differences were indicated by the form of separate class (PCA) and group of separate ellipse (CLA) between the treatments. The correlation analysis with spearman method showed that there were significantly and highly positive correlation (P<0.05) between heat-induced protein molecular structure changes in terms of ?-helix to ?-sheet ratios and in situ protein degradation and significantly negative correlation between the protein ?-helix to ?-sheet ratios and intestinal digestibility of undegraded protein. The results indicated that heat-induced changes of protein molecular structure revealed by vibration molecular spectroscopy could be used as a potential predictor to protein degradation and intestinal protein digestion of whole canola seed. Future study is needed to study response and impact of heat processing to each inherent layer of canola seed from outside to inside tissues and between yellow canola and brown canola. PMID:23318774

Samadi; Theodoridou, Katerina; Yu, Peiqiang

2013-03-15

291

Delivering energy services: the emerging role of California's municipal utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The financial circumstances and energy service opportunities for California's municipal electric utilities are explored. The structure and financial operation of municipal utilities, including the new role of joint powers agency financing, are analyzed. The advantages which conservation and alternative energy resources can offer municipal utilities are discussed: reduced capital requirements, increased cash flow, oil displacement, improved air quality, reduced risk

M. H. Dawson; C. G. Praul; W. B. Marcus

1982-01-01

292

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

Center for By-Products Utilization PRELIMINARY DRAFT REPORT LIME KILN DUST (LKD) By Tarun R. Naik OF CONTENTS LIME KILN DUST (LKD) ...........................................................................1 ....................................................... 5 USES OF LIME KILN DUST.....................................................................5

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

293

Cogeneration - A Utility Perspective  

E-print Network

Cogeneration has become an extremely popular subject when discussing conservation and energy saving techniques. One of the key factors which effect conservation is the utility viewpoint on PURPA and cogeneration rule making. These topics...

Williams, M.

1983-01-01

294

Utility Systems Management and Operational Optimization  

E-print Network

can be faced with a bewildering array of tariff options. Making the right choice of supplier is not simply a case of choosing the lowest unit cost of utility (e.g., cents per kWh). Most tariff structures include elements of maximum demand charges...-Wide Deployment", Joint AspenTech Celanese Press Announcement (February 27, 2002) 4. "Optimization of Refinery Utility Systems for Cost and Emissions Reduction", Eric Petela and Alison Eccleston, ERTC Environmental Conference, Vienna, Austria (April 2001) 83...

Dhole, V.; Seillier, D.; Garza, K.

295

Iraq and the utilities  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses the possible impact on the public utilities of the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq. The author feels the industry is in better shape to weather this than the energy crisis of 1973 and 1974. However regulatory policies that prohibit some utilities from recovering fuel costs through rate adjustments may cause distress for some. The author feels that a revision of regulatory policies is needed.

Studness, C.M.

1990-09-13

296

Wind energy utilization prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chief technical, economic, and environmental aspects of wind energy utilization are considered. One approach being studied is to allow the aeroturbine RPM to vary with wind velocity and employ variable-speed, constant-frequency generating systems to obtain constant-frequency power to be pumped into existing utility mains. Study of generation costs for wind energy systems indicates that wind energy has the potential

R. Ramakumar; W. L. Hughes; H. J. Allison

1975-01-01

297

Catching utility thieves  

SciTech Connect

Increasing theft of electric power has forced utilities like Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division to employ detectives to identify those who cheat by tampering with their meters or reconnecting disconnected power. Thieves also risk lethal shocks to themselves and the safety of their neighbors. Residential customers are the largest problem and the easiest to detect by watching for billing discrepancies, evidences of meter tampering, and the reports of informers. Both state and city statutes against utility theft impose fines. (DCK)

Tankersley, D.; Cooke, L.

1981-07-01

298

Anion-directed self-assembly of two half-sandwich ruthenium-based metallamacrocycles as catalysts for water oxidation.  

PubMed

The binuclear [?(6) -(cymene)Ru(L)]2 (OTf)2 (TfO(-) =trifluoromethanesulfonate) and tetranuclear [?(6) -(cymene)Ru(L)]4 (NO3 )4 metallacycles were prepared by treating the pyridyl-substituted 8-hydroxyquinoline ligand (E)-2-[2-(pyridin-3-yl)vinyl]quinolin-8-ol (HL) with [(p-cymene)Ru(?-Cl)Cl]2 in the presence of AgOTf or AgNO3 . The molecular structures of these complexes were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, which revealed that both complexes have macrocycle frameworks induced by the TfO(-) and NO3 (-) counteranions, respectively. The electrochemical properties of the two metallacycles were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, which showed that they have great potential as catalysts for water oxidation. Good efficiency was obtained by utilizing the nitrate complex as a water oxidation catalyst in the presence of a Ce(IV) salt as an oxidant at high pH values. PMID:25303729

Yu, Wei-Bin; He, Qing-Ya; Shi, Hua-Tian; Yuan, Guozan; Wei, Xianwen

2015-01-01

299

Voltage reduction in organic light-emitting diodes  

SciTech Connect

For practical applications, it is important to operate organic light-emitting devices at low voltages and low power consumption. When both the cathode and anode are perfectly injecting, low electron mobility in electron-transport materials, such as tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq), becomes a limiting factor on voltage reduction. In this letter copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) is replaced for Alq as an electron-transport layer, and interfacial modification is utilized to enhance electron injection from the CuPc electron-transport layer into the Alq emissive layer. The outcome of this structure significantly facilitates electron transport through the organic materials, thus resulting in substantial reduction in operating voltages and power consumption. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

Hung, L. S.; Mason, M. G.

2001-06-04

300

Realization of white organic light-emitting devices using single green emitter by coupled microcavities with two modes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We fabricated a novel white organic light-emitting diode (WOLED) structure based on a single green emitting layer through coupled microcavities with two modes. By optical simulation and experiment, we showed that the two resonant modes can be adjusted by varying the thickness of the special layer to shape white light using only a single green emitter. Utilizing tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) as an emitting layer, we obtained a series of WOLEDs whose Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates are on the Planckian curve from (0.334,0.343) to (0,412,0.393) with current efficiencies in the range of 1.45–2.52 cd A?1. A maximum current efficiency of 10.12 cd A?1 and warm white emission at CIE (0.439,0.461) have been demonstrated using bis(2-phenylpyridine)(acetylacetonate)iridium(III) [Ir(ppy)2(acac)] as an emitter material.

Yu, Yue; Wu, Zhaoxin; Jiao, Bo; Ma, Lin; Chen, Han; Hou, Xun

2015-02-01

301

Utility requirements for fusion  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work done and results obtained during performance of Task 1 of a study of Utility Requirements and Criteria for Fusion Options. The work consisted of developing a list of utility requirements for fusion optics containing definition of the requirements and showing their relative importance to the utility industry. The project team members developed a preliminary list which was refined by discussions and literature searches. The refined list was recast as a questionnaire which was sent to a substantial portion of the utility industry in this country. Forty-three questionnaire recipients responded including thirty-two utilities. A workshop was held to develop a revised requirements list using the survey responses as a major input. The list prepared by the workshop was further refined by a panel consisting of vice presidents of the three project team firms. The results of the study indicate that in addition to considering the cost of energy for a power plant, utilities consider twenty-three other requirements. Four of the requirements were judged to be vital to plant acceptability: Plant Capital Cost, Financial Liability, Plant Safety and Licensability.

Vondrasek, R.J.

1982-02-01

302

Utility requirements for fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Work done and results obtained during performance of Task 1 of a study of Utility Requirements and Criteria for Fusion Options are described. The work consisted of developing a list of utility requirements for fusion optics containing definition of the requirements and showing their relative importance to the utility industry. The project team members developed a preliminary list which was refined by discussions and literature searches. The refined list was recast as a questionnaire which was sent to a substantial portion of the utility industry in this country. Forty-three questionnaire recipients responded including thirty-two utilities. A workshop was held to develop a revised requirements list using the survey responses as a major input. The list prepared by the workshop was further refined by a panel consisting of vice presidents of the three project team firms. The results of the study indicate that in addition to considering the cost of energy for a power plant, utilities consider twenty-three other requirements. Four of the requirements were judged to be vital to plant acceptability: Plant Capital Cost, Financial Liability, Plant Safety and Licensability.

Vondrasek, R. J.

1982-02-01

303

Utility terrestrial biodiversity issues  

SciTech Connect

Results from a survey of power utility biologists indicate that terrestrial biodiversity is considered a major issued by only a few utilities; however, a majority believe it may be a future issue. Over half of the respondents indicated that their company is involved in some management for biodiversity, and nearly all feel that it should be a goal for resource management. Only a few utilities are funding biodiversity research, but a majority felt more research was needed. Generally, larger utilities with extensive land holdings had greater opportunities and resources for biodiversity management. Biodiversity will most likely be a concern with transmission rights-of-way construction and maintenance, endangered species issues and general land resource management, including mining reclamation and hydro relicensing commitments. Over half of the companies surveyed have established voluntary partnerships with management groups, and biodiversity is a goal in nearly all the joint projects. Endangered species management and protection, prevention of forest fragmentation, wetland protection, and habitat creation and protection are the most common partnerships involving utility companies. Common management practices and unique approaches are presented, along with details of the survey. 4 refs.

Breece, G.A. [Southern Company, Atlanta, GA (United States); Ward, B.J. [Carolina Power and Light Company, Raleigh, NC (United States)

1996-11-01

304

Sucrose-Utilizing Transglucosidases for Biocatalysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sucrose-utilizing transglucosidases are valued tools in chemistry to generate glycodiversification. Not only do these enzymes use as substrate an abundant agroresource, sucrose, but they also share a remarkable versatility regarding the acceptor substrate, allowing the structurally-controlled synthesis of diverse glucosylated products. Latest research has demonstrated the potential of enzyme engineering to tailor novel sucrose-utilizing transglucosidases that give access to original carbohydrate-based structures. This chapter gives an overview of the recent achievements in biocatalysis using these enzymes.

André, Isabelle; Potocki-Véronèse, Gabrielle; Morel, Sandrine; Monsan, Pierre; Remaud-Siméon, Magali

305

Radiological Laboratory Utility Office Building The Radiological Laboratory Util-  

E-print Network

RLUOB Radiological Laboratory Utility Office Building The Radiological Laboratory Util- ity Office Research building. Capabilities RLUOB provides: · Nearly 20,000 square feet of radiological laboratory

306

Part I: In situ pulse electrochemical deposition of platinum nanoparticles for efficient catalyst utilization in fuel cells. Part II: Fabrication and characterization of polyelectrolyte-quantum dot hybrid structures using layer-by-layer self assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis work is entirely committed towards extensive research on application of polyelectrolytes/polyelectrolyte membranes on the fields of materials science and electroanalytical chemistry. Part I highlights development of new electroanalytical techniques to deposit the electrocatalyst in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. In this section of thesis work the major directions are to improve our basic knowledge and understanding factors limiting the efficient use of the electrocatalyst in fuel cells and develop and optimize a means for overcoming these limitations. Initially systematic studies will be performed to identify the limitations associated with the commercially available fuel cells followed by optimizing and utilizing the methods developed in this thesis work to manufacture functioning hydrogen PEM fuel cells using NafionRTM membrane via in situ electrodeposition of Pt. This research involves a detailed optimization of the pulse electrodeposition technique to deposit Pt using NafionRTM membrane as a template. Characterization of these experiments were done using techniques such as Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), Energy Dispersion X-ray Spectrometry (EDX) and Inductively Couple Plasma (ICP). Finally construction of hydrogen fuel cells was done by in situ pulse electrochemical deposition through complete membrane electrode assemblies. Much of the attention of Part II is dedicated to construct and characterize polyelectrolyte and quantum dot hybrid multilayer structures. Much of the attention is focused towards investigation of the Forster energy transfer processes between the donor polyelectrolytes (poly-p-phenylelvinylene, PPV) and the acceptor ZnS/CdSe core/shell quantum dots with respect to its separation. The work shown in Chapter 7 explains the process of introduction of quantum dots to these multilayer thin films and analysis of these hybrid structures using Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy (LSCM), excited state life time decay studies and UV-Vis absorption studies.

Ranasinghe, Asanga Devinda

2007-12-01

307

Photovoltaics and electric utilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long term value of grid connected, residential photovoltaic (PV) systems is determined. The value of the PV electricity is defined as the full avoided cost in accordance with the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act of 1978. The avoided cost is computed using a long range utility planning approach to measure revenue requirement changes in response to the time phased introduction of PV systems into the grid. A case study approach to three utility systems is used. The changing value of PV electricity over a twenty year period from 1985 is presented, and the fuel and capital savings due to FY are analyzed. These values are translated into measures of breakeven capital investment under several options of power interchange and pricing.

Bright, R.; Leigh, R.; Sills, T.

1981-12-01

308

Structuralism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provided is an overview of the analytical method known as structuralism. The first chapter discusses the three key components of the concept of a structure: the view of a system as a whole instead of so many parts; the study of the transformations in the system; and the fact that these transformations never lead beyond the system but always…

Piaget, Jean

309

Utilizing Foundational Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue of "Educational Foundations" contains five articles that utilize an array of foundational perspectives that give reader insight into the organization of schools, the viewpoints of children and parents, the ideological and political nature of community organizing, and mathematics instruction in the Soviet Union. In "Cooperative…

Educational Foundations, 1991

1991-01-01

310

Technology utilization program report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of aerospace technology to the solution of public health and industrial problems is reported. Data cover: (1) development of an externally rechargeable cardiac pacemaker, (2) utilization of ferrofluids-colloidal suspensions of ferrite particles - in the efficient separation of nonferrous metals as Ni, Zn, Cu, and Al from shredded automobile scrap, and (3) development of a breathing system for fire fighters.

1974-01-01

311

YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover,

Christopher J. Zygarlicke

2004-01-01

312

Module utilization committee  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photovoltaic collector modules were declared surplus to the needs of the U.S. Dept. of Energy. The Module Utilization Committee was formed to make appropriate disposition of the surplus modules on a national basis and to act as a broker for requests for these modules originating outside of the National Photovoltaics Program.

Volkmer, K.; Praver, G.

1984-01-01

313

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

Center for By-Products Utilization SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FOR THE FOREST PRODUCTS INDUSTRY: USE Paper APPLICABLE WISCONSIN INDUSTRIES OF THE FUTURE CLUSTER(S): Forest Products #12;-2- TITLE: SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FOR THE FOREST PRODUCTS INDUSTRY: USE OF WOOD ASH IN CONCRETE AND FLOWABLE SLURRY

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

314

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

of bottom ash, 2.3 million tonnes of boiler slag, and 26 million tonnes of flue gas desulfurization (FGD clean-coal technologies such as SO2 Control Systems, NOx Control Technology, Fluidized Bed Combustion conducted in developing products containing FGD material compared to conventional coal ash. Utilization

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

315

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

or steam, and (iii) reuse of ground tire rubber in number of plastic and rubber products. In additionCenter for By-Products Utilization PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE CONTAINING SCRAP TIRE RUBBER to this, about 3 billion tires are stockpiled. Several studies have been carried out to reuse scrap tires

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

316

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

Center for By-Products Utilization MANUFACTURE OF MASONRY PRODUCTS CONTAINING LARGE AMOUNTS OF FLY #12;Manufacture of Masonry Products Containing Large Amounts of Fly Ash By: Tarun R. Naik, Shiw S database for manufacturing of concrete masonry products incorporating high volumes of ASTM Class F fly ash

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

317

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

clean coal technology, are not extensively utilized in the cast concrete masonry products (bricks, blocks, and paving stones) industry. This project was directed toward developing cast (masonry) concrete ashes. Using these six different ash samples, eleven masonry mixtures were proportioned for initial

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

318

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

tires generated during the year 1990 - 1991 were reused, recycled, or recovered [4]. A number of usesCenter for By-Products Utilization CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS INCORPORATING DISCARDED TIRES By Tarun R - MILWAUKEE #12;CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS INCORPORATING DISCARDED TIRES* By Tarun R. Naik Director, Center for By

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

319

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

, By-Product Lightweight Aggregates; 213, Lightweight Concrete; 229, Controlled Low-Strength MaterialsCenter for By-Products Utilization DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH-STRENGTH SELF- CONSOLIDATING CONCRETE;1 Development of High-Strength Self-Consolidating Concrete by Tarun R. Naik Academic Program Director

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

320

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

, Committee 213 on Lightweight Concrete, and Committee 232 on Fly Ash in Concrete. ACI member Rudolph N. KrausCenter for By-Products Utilization LONG-TERM PERFORMACE OF HIGH-VOLUME FLY ASH CONCRETE PAVEMENTS-Term Performance of High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete Pavements by Tarun R. Naik Director, Center for By

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

321

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

, Committee 213 on Lightweight Concrete, and Committee 232 on Use of Fly Ash and Natural Pozzolans in ConcreteCenter for By-Products Utilization ENHANCED MATERIALS FOR CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION USING FOUNDRY BY for Presentation and Publication at the CANMET/ACI International Symposium on "Sustainable Development and Concrete

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

322

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

-Product Lightweight Aggregates, Committee 213 on Lightweight Concrete, and Committee 232 on Fly Ash in Concrete. ACICenter for By-Products Utilization LONG-TERM PERFORMACE OF HIGH-VOLUME FLY ASH CONCRETE PAVEMENTS-VOLUME FLY ASH CONCRETE PAVEMENTS By: Tarun R. Naik, Bruce W. Ramme, Rudolph N. Kraus, and Rafat Siddique

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

323

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

-Products Utilization (UWM-CBU). He is a member of ACI Committees 213 (Lightweight Aggregate and Concrete), 229, evaluation of lightweight aggregates, and use of by-product materials in the production of cast-concrete EXPANSION OF CONCRETE By Rudolph N. Kraus, Tarun R. Naik, Rakesh Kumar, and Yoon-Moon Chun Report No. CBU

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

324

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

, Committee 213 on Lightweight Concrete, and Committee 232 on Fly Ash in Concrete. INTRODUCTION RollerCenter for By-Products Utilization STRENGTH AND DURABILITY OF ROLLER - COMPACTED HVFA CONCRETE Strength and Durability of Roller-Compacted HVFA Concrete Pavements by Tarun R. Naik1 , Yoon-Moon Chun2

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

325

INTRODUCTION Ukiah Electric Utility  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION Ukiah Electric Utility Renewable Energy Resources Procurement Plan Per Senate Billlx 2 renewable energy resources, including renewable energy credits, as a specified percentage of Ukiah's total,2020, inclusive. D. Annual Compliance Periods: Annually after 2020. 3. Procurement Targets of Renewable Energy

326

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

energy for internal use. Such combustion fumes carry fly ashes which are collected and available as a new is much easier [2] than typical combustion ashes from such materials. The aim of this study was to recycleCenter for By-Products Utilization REUSE OF PAPER MILL ASHES IN CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS By Saveria

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

327

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

of an investigation carried out to develop permeable base course materials using coal combustion products (CCPsCenter for By-Products Utilization USE OF COAL COMBUSTION PRODUCTS IN PERMEABLE ROADWAY BASE-02 REP-495 January 2003 For Presentation and Publication at the Third International Conference on Fly ash

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

328

Utility earns high marks  

SciTech Connect

Stock analysts, utility industry consultants and management agree that Duke Power Co. has achieved a record of better-than-average economics, efficiency, availability, and reliability in the design, construction, completion, scheduling, and operation of both its nuclear and fossil plants. The company also exhibits an unusual frankness in its dealings with regulatory agencies and in cases involving investigative scrutiny.

Friedlander, G.D.

1984-01-01

329

Uncertainty, Utility, and Understanding  

E-print Network

Models Bayesian networks, influence diagrams Encode independence, crisp semantics Fundamentally HR BP HR EKG HR SAT LV FAILURE PCWP HEART RATE ERROR LOW OUTPUT ERROR CAUTER TPR BLOOD PRESSURE for Action Utility Action E2 World State En E1 E3 Influence diagrams (Howard & Matheson) #12;Delivering

Horvitz, Eric

330

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

at the UWM-CBU. His research interests include the use of coal fly ash, coal bottom ash, and used foundryCenter for By-Products Utilization SHRINKAGE OF CONCRETE WITH AND WITHOUT FLY ASH By Tarun R. Naik and Publication at the Ninth CANMET/ACI International Conference on Fly Ash, Silica Fume, Slag, and Natural

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

331

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

Center for By-Products Utilization EVALUATION OF COAL FLY ASH FROM CORN PRODUCTS INTERNATIONAL THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN - MILWAUKEE Preliminary Draft #12;ii Evaluation of Coal Fly Ash From Corn Products EXECUTIVE SUMMARY TITLE: Evaluation of Coal Fly Ash From Corn Products International As a Potential Source

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

332

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

. CHARACTERIZATION AND APPLICATION OF CLASS F FLY ASH AND CLEAN-COAL ASH FOR CEMENT-BASED MATERIALS 2 The majorCenter for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik-Strength Materials (CLSM); 232, Fly Ash and Natural Pozzolans in Concrete; 214, Evaluation of Results of Tests Used

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

333

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

reaction) after water was added. CHARACTERIZATION AND APPLICATION OF CLASS F FLY ASH AND CLEAN-COAL ASH FLY ASH AND CLEAN-COAL ASH BLENDS FOR CAST CONCRETE PRODUCTS [3] High-sulfur coal ash, particularlyCenter for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

334

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

research interests include the use of coal fly ash, coal bottom ash, and used foundry sand in concreteCenter for By-Products Utilization COAL-COMBUSTION BOTTOM ASH FOR REDUCING SHRINKAGE OF CONCRETE-Combustion Bottom Ash for Reducing the Shrinkage... 1 Jean Pera Symposium Coal-Combustion Bottom Ash for Reducing

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

335

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

Center for By-Products Utilization CLSM CONTAINING MIXTURES OF COAL ASH AND A NEW POZZOLANIC 53201 Significant amount of ash is generated from burning wood with supplementary fuels such as coal, Committee 232, "Fly Ash and Natural Pozzolans in Concrete", Committee 214, "Evaluation of Results

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

336

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

Center for By-Products Utilization HIGH-STRENGTH HVFA CONCRETE CONTAINING CLEAN COAL ASH By Tarun R #12;1 HIGH-STRENGTH HVFA CONCRETE CONTAINING CLEAN COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik, Shiw S. Singh, and Bruce for manufacture of cement-based products using ashes generated from combustion of high-sulfur coals. A clean coal

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

337

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

Center for By-Products Utilization USE OF CLEAN COAL ASH AS SETTING TIME REGULATOR IN PORTLAND OF WISCONSIN ­ MILWAUKEE #12;2 Use of Clean Coal Ash as Setting Time Regulator in Portland Cement by Zichao Wu as setting time regulator for portland cement production. In this paper a source of clean coal ash (CCA

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

338

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

of high-carbon (33 %), wet- collected coal bottom ash and fly ash (CCPs, coal combustion products, high-carbon coal ash, no-fines concrete, permeable base, porous concrete, freezing and thawingCenter for By-Products Utilization NO-FINES CONCRETE USING OFF-SPECIFICATION COAL COMBUSTION

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

339

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

) coal-ash and by replacing up to 9% of aggregates with wet-collected, low-lime, coarse coal-ash. Cast of coal fly ash, coal bottom ash, and used foundry sand in concrete and cast-concrete productsCenter for By-Products Utilization PROPERTIES OF CAST-CONCRETE PRODUCTS MADE WITH FBC ASH

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

340

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

clay bricks. Based upon previous test data collected from other sources of coal ash, wood ash, and combined coal and wood ash, the Prince Albert ash could be used as a partial replacement of aggregates andCenter for By-Products Utilization EVALUATION OF PRINCE ALBERT MILL ASH AS A POTENTIAL SOURCE

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

341

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

The American Coal Ash Association has reported that over 11 million tons of ponded coal fly ash and bottom ash. The source of coal ash utilized for this project was a Class F coal ash from Illinois that was wet collected of different combinations of ponded coal ash and fine crushed sand, from 0% coal ash and 100% fine sand, to 100

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

342

Microbial Cellulose Utilization: Fundamentals and Biotechnology  

PubMed Central

Fundamental features of microbial cellulose utilization are examined at successively higher levels of aggregation encompassing the structure and composition of cellulosic biomass, taxonomic diversity, cellulase enzyme systems, molecular biology of cellulase enzymes, physiology of cellulolytic microorganisms, ecological aspects of cellulase-degrading communities, and rate-limiting factors in nature. The methodological basis for studying microbial cellulose utilization is considered relative to quantification of cells and enzymes in the presence of solid substrates as well as apparatus and analysis for cellulose-grown continuous cultures. Quantitative description of cellulose hydrolysis is addressed with respect to adsorption of cellulase enzymes, rates of enzymatic hydrolysis, bioenergetics of microbial cellulose utilization, kinetics of microbial cellulose utilization, and contrasting features compared to soluble substrate kinetics. A biological perspective on processing cellulosic biomass is presented, including features of pretreated substrates and alternative process configurations. Organism development is considered for “consolidated bioprocessing” (CBP), in which the production of cellulolytic enzymes, hydrolysis of biomass, and fermentation of resulting sugars to desired products occur in one step. Two organism development strategies for CBP are examined: (i) improve product yield and tolerance in microorganisms able to utilize cellulose, or (ii) express a heterologous system for cellulose hydrolysis and utilization in microorganisms that exhibit high product yield and tolerance. A concluding discussion identifies unresolved issues pertaining to microbial cellulose utilization, suggests approaches by which such issues might be resolved, and contrasts a microbially oriented cellulose hydrolysis paradigm to the more conventional enzymatically oriented paradigm in both fundamental and applied contexts. PMID:12209002

Lynd, Lee R.; Weimer, Paul J.; van Zyl, Willem H.; Pretorius, Isak S.

2002-01-01

343

Worldwide high-volume coal ash utilization  

SciTech Connect

The utilization of coal ash in concrete is the most extensive and widespread throughout the world, as compared to other uses of ash. However, in addition to the use in 1992 of over 39 million tons of coal ash in concrete, there were over 40 billion tons used in structural, land, or embankment fill; almost 7 million tons for pavement base course or subgrade; over 40 million tons for filler for mines, quarries or pits; almost 3 million tons for soil amendment; over 1.8 million tons for lightweight aggregate; and over 7 million tons for aerated blocks. In 1992, China had the largest production of coal ash as well as the largest utilization. Russian and the US had the second and third largest production. Russia, Germany, US, and Poland were next to China in utilization. This paper summarizes recent coal ash production and utilization in the world and presents a country-by-country survey of the high-volume users.

Manz, O.E. [Manz Associates, Alvarado, MN (United States)

1996-10-01

344

PILOTING UTILITY MODELING APPLICATIONS (PUMA) UTILITY BRIEFING PAPERS  

E-print Network

.g., wholesale, has members, wholesale with retail), number of customers, description of supply sources1 PILOTING UTILITY MODELING APPLICATIONS (PUMA) UTILITY BRIEFING PAPERS Utility Page Seattle Public, and solid waste utilities, as well as engineering and customer services. SPU's Director reports to the Mayor

345

Organocatalytic photoreduction of Zn(II) to zinc metal.  

PubMed

The photoreduction of Zn(II) to Zn metal catalyzed by 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives is reported. Structure-activity relationships, ideal reaction conditions, and the reaction kinetics are described and a mechanism involving an in situ formed quinolate complex is portrayed. PMID:24445658

Brooks, Anthony C; Basore, Katherine; Bernhard, Stefan

2014-05-25

346

JOURNAL OF DISPLAY TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 2, NO. 2, JUNE 2006 143 Maximizing Alq3 OLED Internal and External  

E-print Network

JOURNAL OF DISPLAY TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 2, NO. 2, JUNE 2006 143 Maximizing Alq3 OLED Internal bright, efficient Alq3-based [tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum] organic light-emitting diode (OLED (polymer/small molecule) OLED structure contains two spin-coated polymer layers and four thermally

Heikenfeld, Jason

347

Spin pumping by parametrically excited short-wavelength spin waves H. Kurebayashi, O. Dzyapko, V. E. Demidov, D. Fang, A. J. Ferguson et al.  

E-print Network

of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)iron: Experimental and theoretical investigation Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 153306 (2011) Magnetic properties of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)iron: Experimental and theoretical investigation

Demokritov, S.O.

348

Ethics for electic utilities  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the ethical challenges of remaining honest and fair when the playing field of competition does not appear to be level. Topics discussed include measuring performance, monitoring use of services, public opinion of utility integrity and commitment to service, making ethical concerns and language a part of the management decision process, and communication of moral issues to a place where resolution can occur.

Powers, C.W.; Toffler, B.L. (Resources for Responsible Management, Boston, MA (United States))

1991-05-15

349

Improved Dragline Utilization  

E-print Network

IMPROVED DRAGLINE UTILIZATION K. J. Keller McDonnell Douglas Electronics Company Sto Charles, MO ABSTRACT I The cause of energy conservation can be served by increasing the efficiency of large draglines used i4 surface coal mining... to use energy wisely, McDonnell Douglas Electronics Company (MDEC) began studies of large walking draglines in 1972. With its aero space background, MDEC was familiar with the bene fits ,of simulation and instrumentation in reducing energy...

Keller, K. J.

1980-01-01

350

Seasat data utilization project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the three months of orbital operations, the satellite returned data from the world's oceans. Dozens of tropical storms, hurricanes and typhoons were observed, and two planned major intensive surface truth experiments were conducted. The utility of the Seasat-A microwave sensors as oceanographic tools was determined. Sensor and geophysical evaluations are discussed, including surface observations, and evaluation summaries of an altimeter, a scatterometer, a scanning multichannel microwave radiometer, a synthetic aperture radar, and a visible and infrared radiometer.

Born, G. H.; Held, D. N.; Lame, D. B.; Lipes, R. G.; Montgomery, D. R.; Rygh, P. J.; Scott, J. F.

1981-01-01

351

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

Center for By-Products Utilization USE OF FBC ASH AND PONDED COAL-ASH IN READY-MIXED CONCRETE #12;Naik, Kraus, Chun, & Botha Use of FBC ash and Ponded Coal-Ash in Ready-Mixed Concrete 1 MS# M8-60. FINAL. October 2005. Use of FBC Ash and Ponded Coal-Ash in Ready-Mixed Concrete by Tarun R. Naik

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

352

Space Resources Utilization Roundtable  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the Space Resources Utilization Roundtable, October 27-29, 1999, in Golden, Colorado. The program committee consisted of M. B. Duke (Lunar and Planetary Institute), G. Baughman (Colorado School of Mines), D. Criswell (University of Houston), C. Graham (Canadian Mining Industry Research Organization), H. H. Schmitt (Apollo Astronaut), W. Sharp (Colorado School of Mines), L. Taylor (University of Tennessee), and a space manufacturing representative. Administration and publications support for this meeting were provided by the staff of the Publications and Program Services Department at the Lunar and Planetary Institute.

1999-01-01

353

Tribal Utility Feasibility Study  

SciTech Connect

The Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) assisted the Yurok Tribe in investigating the feasibility of creating a permanent energy services program for the Tribe. The original purpose of the DOE grant that funded this project was to determine the feasibility of creating a full-blown Yurok Tribal electric utility to buy and sell electric power and own and maintain all electric power infrastructure on the Reservation. The original project consultant found this opportunity to be infeasible for the Tribe. When SERC took over as project consultant, we took a different approach. We explored opportunities for the Tribe to develop its own renewable energy resources for use on the Reservation and/or off-Reservation sales as a means of generating revenue for the Tribe. We also looked at ways the Tribe can provide energy services to its members and how to fund such efforts. We identified opportunities for the development of renewable energy resources and energy services on the Yurok Reservation that fall into five basic categories: • Demand-side management – This refers to efforts to reduce energy use through energy efficiency and conservation measures. • Off-grid, facility and household scale renewable energy systems – These systems can provide electricity to individual homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not currently have access to the electric utility grid. • Village scale, micro-grid renewable energy systems - These are larger scale systems that can provide electricity to interconnected groups of homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not have access to the conventional electric grid. This will require the development of miniature electric grids to serve these interconnected facilities. • Medium to large scale renewable energy development for sale to the grid – In areas where viable renewable energy resources exist and there is access to the conventional electric utility grid, these resources can be developed and sold to the wholesale electricity market. • Facility scale, net metered renewable energy systems – These are renewable energy systems that provide power to individual households or facilities that are connected to conventional electric utility grid.

Engel, R. A.; Zoellick, J. J.

2007-06-30

354

Light duty utility arm  

SciTech Connect

The Light-Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System is a mobile, multi-axis positioning system capable of deploying tools and sensors (end effecters) inside radioactive waste tanks for tank wall inspection, waste characterization, and waste retrieval. The LDUA robotic manipulator enters a tank through existing openings (risers) in the tank dome of the underground tanks. Using various end effecters, the LDUA System is a versatile system for high-level waste tank remediation. The LDUA System provides a means to deploy tools, while increasing the technology resources available to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Ongoing end effecter development will provide additional capabilities to remediate the waste tanks.

NONE

1998-12-01

355

Theoretical investigations of the structures and electronic spectra of 8-hydroxylquinoline derivatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectroscopic properties of 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives are theoretically investigated by means of density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) methods. The target molecules are divided into two groups: group (I): (E)-2-(2-(3,5-dimethyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)vinyl)quinolin-8-ol (A), together with corresponding potential reaction products of A with acetic acid, i.e., (E)-2-(2-(3,5-dimethyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)vinyl)quinolin-8-yl acetate (AR1), and (E)-2-(2-(3,5-dimethyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)vinyl)-8-hydroxyquinolinium (AR2); group (II): (E)-2-(2-(1-(4-chlorophenyl)-3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)vinyl)quinolin-8-ol (B), as well as potential reaction products of B with acetic acid, i.e., (E)-2-(2-(1-(4-chlorophenyl)-3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)vinyl)quinolin-8-yl acetate (BR1), and (E)-2-(2-(1-(4-chlorophenyl)-3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)vinyl)-8-hydroxyquinolinium (BR2). The geometries are optimized by B3LYP and M06 methods. The results indicate that product molecules tend to be effectively planar compared with reactants. Subsequently, UV absorption spectra are simulated through TD-DFT method with PCM model to further confirm the reasonable products of two reactions. AR2 and BR2 are identified as the target molecules through the experimental spectra for the real products. It is worth noting that the maximum absorption wavelengths of compounds AR2 and BR2 present prominent red shift compared the initial reactants A and B, respectively, which should be ascribed to the enhancive planarity of products that mentioned above and the decreased HOMO-LUMO energy gap. Geometric structures and optical properties for corresponding compounds are discussed in detail.

Ning, Pan; Ren, Tiegang; Zhang, Yanxin; Zhang, Jinglai

2013-11-01

356

Lunar construction utility vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lunar construction utility vehicle (LCUV) is an all-purpose construction vehicle which will aid in the robotic assembly of a lunar outpost. The LCUV will have the following capabilities: (1) must be self supporting including repairs; (2) must offload itself from a lunar lander; (3) must be telerobotic and semi-autonomous; (4) must be able to transport one space station common module; (5) must allow for man-rated operation; and (6) must be able to move lunar regolith for site preparation. This study recommends the use of an elastic tracked vehicle. Detailed material analyses of most of the LCUV components were accomplished. The body frame, made of pinned truss elements, was stress analyzed using NASTRAN. A track connection system was developed; however, kinematic and stress analyses are still required. This design recommends the use of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells for power. Thermal control has proven to be a problem which may be the most challenging technically. A tentative solution has been proposed which utilizes an onboard and towable radiator. Detailed study of the heat dissipation requirements is needed to finalize radiator sizing. Preliminary work on a man-rated cabin has begun; however, this is not required during the first mission phase of the LCUV. Finally, still in the conceptual phases, are the communication, navigation and mechanical arm systems.

1989-01-01

357

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

. Sustainable design and construction of structures have a small impact on the environment. Use of "green-products in concrete is necessary to produce even "greener" concrete. Use of coal ash, rice-husk ash, wood ash, natural

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

358

Construction utilization of foamed waste glass.  

PubMed

Foamed waste glass (FWG) material is newly developed for the purpose to utilize the waste glassware and other waste glass. FWG has a multi-porous structure that consists of continuous or discontinuous voids. Hence lightweight but considerable stiffness can be achieved. In the present study, the manufacture and engineering properties of FWG are introduced first. Then, the utilizations of FWG are investigated in laboratory tests and field tests. Some case studies on design and construction work are also reported here. Through these studies we know that the discontinuous void material can be utilized as a lightweight fill material, ground improvement material and lightweight aggregate for concrete. On the other hand, the continuous void material can be used as water holding material for the greening of ground slope and rooftop, and as clarification material for water. PMID:15137660

Lu, Jiang; Onitsuka, Katsutada

2004-01-01

359

CONSORTIUM FOR CLEAN COAL UTILIZATION  

E-print Network

CONSORTIUM FOR CLEAN COAL UTILIZATION Call for Proposals Date of Issue: July 29, 2013 The Consortium for Clean Coal Utilization (CCCU) at Washington University in St. Louis was established in January of Clean Coal Utilization. The format may be a conference or workshop, or a seminar given by a leading

Subramanian, Venkat

360

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

Synopsis: This research was carried out to evaluate the effects of fly ash and air content on strength proportioned with a 28-day design strength of 41 MPa. Fly ash concretes were produced with cement replacements indicated that concrete mixtures up to 50% cement replacement with fly ash are appropriate for structural

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

361

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

By T.R. Naik and S.S. Singh Synopsis: This research was carried out to evaluate strength and durability properties of concrete containing a Class C fly ash. Concrete mixtures were developed to have cement to about 60% cement replacement with fly ash are appropriate for structural applications requiring 30 MPa

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

362

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

-pressure vessels in nuclear industries, highways, bridges, and parking structures #12;3 subjected to freezing's economy in repairs and maintenance, but it also presents a threat to safety and interruption of commerce weathering action, chemical attack, abrasion, or any other process of deterioration." Durability

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

363

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

of lightweight aggregates, and use of by-product materials in the production of cast-concrete products. Tarun R OF AGGREGATES ON SHRINKAGE AND CHLORIDE-ION PENETRABILITY OF CONCRETE By Yoon-moon Chun, Rudolph N. Kraus International ACI/CANMET Conference on High-Performance Concrete Structures and Materials, Manaus, BRAZIL, June

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

364

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

;INTRODUCTION Over the years, a large number of underground storage tanks (USTs) as well as above ground storage not adequately designed, installed, and maintained to avoid leakage. Consequently, a significant number, hexane and octane. Aromatic compounds are composed of carbon molecular ring structures. These compounds

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

365

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

%) of wood ash and coal fly ash; (3) non-air- entrained structural-grade concrete (up to 60 MPa 28-day compressive strength) with wood ash or its blends with coal fly ash (up to 40 %) as partial replacement of cement; and (4) good quality bricks/blocks/paving stones with wood ash or its blends with coal fly ash

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

366

YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION  

SciTech Connect

This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover, and switchgrass--and Wyoming subbituminous coal were acquired for combustion tests in the 3-million-Btu/hr system. Blend levels were 20% biomass--80% coal on a heat basis. Hog fuel was prepared for the upcoming combustion test by air-drying and processing through a hammer mill and screen. A K-Tron biomass feeder capable of operating in both gravimetric and volumetric modes was selected as the HITAF feed system. Two oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys that would be used in the HITAF high-temperature heat exchanger were tested for slag corrosion rates. An alumina layer formed on one particular alloy, which was more corrosion-resistant than a chromia layer that formed on the other alloy. Research activities were completed in the development of an atmospheric pressure, fluidized-bed pyrolysis-type system called the controlled spontaneous reactor (CSR), which is used to process and condition biomass. Tree trimmings were physically and chemically altered by the CSR process, resulting in a fuel that was very suitable for feeding into a coal combustion or gasification system with little or no feed system modifications required. Experimental procedures were successful for producing hydrogen from biomass using the bacteria Thermotoga, a deep-ocean thermal vent organism. Analytical procedures for hydrogen were evaluated, a gas chromatography (GC) method was derived for measuring hydrogen yields, and adaptation culturing and protocols for mutagenesis were initiated to better develop strains that can use biomass cellulose. Fly ash derived from cofiring coal with waste paper, sunflower hulls, and wood waste showed a broad spectrum of chemical and physical characteristics, according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C618 procedures. Higher-than-normal levels of magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxide were observed for the biomass-coal fly ash, which may impact utilization in cement replacement in concrete under ASTM requirements. Other niche markets for biomass-derived fly ash were explored. Research was conducted to develop/optimize a catalytic partial oxidation-based concept for a simple, low-cost fuel processor (reformer). Work progressed to evaluate the effects of temperature and denaturant on ethanol catalytic partial oxidation. A catalyst was isolated that had a yield of 24 mole percent, with catalyst coking limited to less than 15% over a period of 2 hours. In biodiesel research, conversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel using an alternative alkaline catalyst was demonstrated without the need for subsequent water washing. In work related to biorefinery technologies, a continuous-flow reactor was used to react ethanol with lactic acid prepared from an ammonium lactate concentrate produced in fermentations conducted at the EERC. Good yields of ester were obtained even though the concentration of lactic acid in the feed was low with respect to the amount of water present. Esterification gave lower yields of ester, owing to the lowered lactic acid content of the feed. All lactic acid fermentation from amylose hydrolysate test trials was completed. Management activities included a decision to extend several projects to December 31, 2003, because of delays in receiving biomass feedstocks for testing and acquisition of commercial matching funds. In strategic studies, methods for producing acetate esters for high-value fibers, fuel additives, solvents, and chemical intermediates were discussed with several commercial entities. Commercial industries have an interest in efficient biomass gasification designs but are waiting for economic incentives. Utility, biorefinery, pulp and paper, or o

Christopher J. Zygarlicke

2004-11-01

367

Leak detection utilizing analog binaural (VLSI) techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detection method and system utilizing silicon models of the traveling wave structure of the human cochlea to spatially and temporally locate a specific sound source in the presence of high noise pandemonium. The detection system combines two-dimensional stereausis representations, which are output by at least three VLSI binaural hearing chips, to generate a three-dimensional stereausis representation including both binaural and spectral information which is then used to locate the sound source.

Hartley, Frank T. (inventor)

1995-01-01

368

Utility and State Industrial Efficient Motors Systems Incentives Programs: Experience and Success Factors  

E-print Network

This paper summarizes the results of a survey of utility and state demand-side management (DSM) programs that address efficient motor systems (EMS). The paper discusses the incentive structures in place at the state and utility level to encourage...

Roop, J. M.; Stucky, D. J.

369

43 CFR 3272.11 - How do I describe the proposed utilization facility?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...determine the amount of resource utilized; (c) A contour map of the entire utilization site, showing production and injection well pads, pipeline routes, facility locations, drainage structures, existing and planned access, and lateral...

2014-10-01

370

Wind power utilization guide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report presents general information covering site wind potential and characteristics, specific design, system design, and siting requirements for utilization of wind energy conversion systems (WECS) at Navy installations. The objective of this report is also to provide a method for performing economic analysis to plan and justify a WECS in a particular Navy application. The information presented here is sufficient to enable an engineer to prepare a system's design to conduct a feasibility study for a given application of WECS. Most Navy applications of wind power will involve generation of electricity using small wind turbine generators (less than 60 kW size), with or without storage, located at remote Navy sites. Larger (over 100 kW size) WECS will, generally, be integrated with a base grid located on remote overseas or CONUS bases. This report, however, deals only with guidance for applying small WECS at Navy installations. The subject matter is divided into five parts dealing respectively with wind behavior and its determination with wind-driven turbines, power conditioning requirements, siting requirements, and the economics of wind power under different conditions. Three examples are given to demonstrate use of these sections in developing the required feasibility or design information for a given application.

Pal, D.

1981-09-01

371

Debating Clinical Utility  

PubMed Central

The clinical utility of genetic tests is determined by the outcomes following test use. Like other measures of value, it is often contested. Stakeholders may have different views about benefits and risks and about the importance of social versus health outcomes. They also commonly disagree about the evidence needed to determine whether a test is effective in achieving a specific outcome. Questions may be presented as factual disagreements, when they are actually debates about what information matters or how facts should be interpreted and used in clinical decision-making. Defining the different issues at stake is therefore an important element of policy-making. Key issues include evidence standards for test use, and in particular, the circumstances under which prospective controlled data should be required, as well as evidence on feasibility, cost and equitable delivery of testing; the goals of population-based screening programs, and in particular, the role of social outcomes in evaluating test value; and the appropriate uses and funding of tests that inform non-medical actions. Addressing each of these issues requires attention to stakeholder values and methods for effective deliberation that incorporate consumer as well as health professional perspectives. PMID:20395690

Burke, W.; Laberge, A.-M.; Press, N.

2010-01-01

372

Gas utilization technologies  

SciTech Connect

One of the constant challenges facing the research community is the identification of technology needs 5 to 15 years from now. A look back into history indicates that the forces driving natural gas research have changed from decade to decade. In the 1970s research was driven by concerns for adequate supply; in the 1980s research was aimed at creating new markets for natural gas. What then are the driving forces for the 1990s? Recent reports from the natural gas industry have helped define a new direction driven primarily by market demand for natural gas. A study prepared by the Interstate Natural Gas Association of America Foundation entitled ``Survey of Natural Research, Development, and Demonstration RD&D Priorities`` indicated that in the 1990s the highest research priority should be for natural gas utilization and that technology development efforts should not only address efficiency and cost, but environmental and regulatory issues as well. This study and others, such as the report by the American Gas Association (A.G.A.) entitled ``Strategic Vision for Natural Gas Through the Year 2000,`` clearly identify the market sectors driving today`s technology development needs. The biggest driver is the power generation market followed by the industrial, transportation, appliance, and gas cooling markets. This is best illustrated by the GRI 1994 Baseline Projection on market growth in various sectors between the year 1992 and 2010. This paper highlights some of the recent technology developments in each one of these sectors.

Biljetina, R.

1994-09-01

373

Creative financing of landfill gas utilization projects  

SciTech Connect

The landfill gas utilization industry has gone through profound change in the last ten years and is in for further changes in the coming years. The first change is the probable expiration of Section 29 tax credits for newly developed projects and the second is the upcoming NSPS mandate to capture fugitive LFG emission from our nations larger landfills. In order to provide for the capital needs of LFG utilization project developers, lenders and investors must adapt to the changing nature of the industry as well. Lyon Credit Corporation has provided senior and subordinated financing as well as lease financing for the LFG utilization industry for the last three years. During this time, LCC has had to adapt its product offerings to meet the continuing needs of the borrowers in this industry. This presentation will focus on the changing nature of the industry and its effect on the economics, capital and financing requirements of newly developed LFG utilization projects. The two fundamental changes which have drastically altered the way projects are structured and financed include the changing nature of the LFG project product end-user and various regulatory and legislative measures which have significantly impacted the responsibilities of the project owner/developer and the future profitability of all LFG utilization projects. The successful LFG utilization project developers will be those who recognize that these changes are permanent departures from past practices, and those who will seek to exploit opportunities created by these changes. The lenders and investors to this industry will likewise have to adapt with these changes in order to continue to provide needed capital to this growing industry.

Peters, J.P. Jr.; Laughlin, M.F.; McGuigan, M.J.

1996-11-01

374

Xylose utilization in recombinant zymomonas  

DOEpatents

Xylose-utilizing Zymomonas strains studied were found to accumulate ribulose when grown in xylose-containing media. Engineering these strains to increase ribose-5-phosphate isomerase activity led to reduced ribulose accumulation, improved growth, improved xylose utilization, and increased ethanol production.

Caimi, Perry G; McCole, Laura; Tao, Luan; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Viitanen, Paul V

2014-03-25

375

Dental care utilization over time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1950 and 1978, per capita real dental expenfitures in the U.S. grew at an average annual rate of 3.33%. Between 1978 and 1989 there was virtually no net growth in this measure of dental care utilization. This sharp curtailment of utilization growth has prompted debate about the sources of this change. Possible explanations include, among others, a reduction in

Tryfon Beazoglou; L. Jackson Brown; Dennis Heffley

1993-01-01

376

Public Utilities Commission Consumer Programs  

E-print Network

ASSISTANCE (continued) WATER COMPANY ASSISTANCE The California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) wants you if at least one member of your household is enrolled in a public assistance program. For a list of programsCalifornia Public Utilities Commission Consumer Programs Water Programs The CPUC regulates

377

Acid rain & electric utilities II  

SciTech Connect

This document presents reports which were presented at the Acid Rain and Electric Utilities Conference. Topics include environmental issues and electric utilities; acid rain program overview; global climate change and carbon dioxide; emissions data management; compliance; emissions control; allowance and trading; nitrogen oxides; and assessment. Individual reports have been processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

NONE

1997-12-31

378

Utility strategies - affiliated power marketers  

SciTech Connect

The regulation of affiliated power marketers (APM) is discussed. Any electric utility affiliates that own or control generation must not have market power in the relevant market, which is defined as the utility`s first-tier markets. One can prove that its affiliates do not have generation dominance by: (a) showing that its entire generating capacity is committed under long term contract, (b) showing that its affiliates already are authorized to sell at market-based rates, or (c) submitting a market analysis which demonstrates that the affiliates do not possess generation market power. The electric utility affiliates must have a transmission tariff on file which provides for comparable transmission services. The APM must agree not to buy power from, or sell power to its electric utility affiliate without prior approval by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). The APM must notify FERC if it sells power to, buys power from, or obtains transmission service from a utility that has any business relationship with any affiliates. Any non-sales services provided by the utility affiliates must not be priced below market value. Procedures must ensure that market information is not shared between the utility and the APM, or shared on a comparable basis with non-affiliates. A continuing obligation exists for the APM to notify FERC of any change in these criteria occurring after approval is granted. Concerns with these provisions and suggested improvements are discussed.

Coffey, J.F. [Aquila Energy Corp., Omaha, NE (United States)

1994-12-31

379

Application potential of ATR-FT/IR molecular spectroscopy in animal nutrition: revelation of protein molecular structures of canola meal and presscake, as affected by heat-processing methods, in relationship with their protein digestive behavior and utilization for dairy cattle.  

PubMed

Protein quality relies not only on total protein but also on protein inherent structures. The most commonly occurring protein secondary structures (?-helix and ?-sheet) may influence protein quality, nutrient utilization, and digestive behavior. The objectives of this study were to reveal the protein molecular structures of canola meal (yellow and brown) and presscake as affected by the heat-processing methods and to investigate the relationship between structure changes and protein rumen degradations kinetics, estimated protein intestinal digestibility, degraded protein balance, and metabolizable protein. Heat-processing conditions resulted in a higher value for ?-helix and ?-sheet for brown canola presscake compared to brown canola meal. The multivariate molecular spectral analyses (PCA, CLA) showed that there were significant molecular structural differences in the protein amide I and II fingerprint region (ca. 1700-1480 cm(-1)) between the brown canola meal and presscake. The in situ degradation parameters, amide I and II, and ?-helix to ?-sheet ratio (R_a_?) were positively correlated with the degradable fraction and the degradation rate. Modeling results showed that ?-helix was positively correlated with the truly absorbed rumen synthesized microbial protein in the small intestine when using both the Dutch DVE/OEB system and the NRC-2001 model. Concerning the protein profiles, R_a_? was a better predictor for crude protein (79%) and for neutral detergent insoluble crude protein (68%). In conclusion, ATR-FT/IR molecular spectroscopy may be used to rapidly characterize feed structures at the molecular level and also as a potential predictor of feed functionality, digestive behavior, and nutrient utilization of canola feed. PMID:23683050

Theodoridou, Katerina; Yu, Peiqiang

2013-06-12

380

Subjective expected utility: A review of normative theories  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews theories of subjective expected utility for decision making under uncertainty. It focuses on normative interpretations and discusses the primitives, axioms and representation-uniqueness theorems for a number of theories. Similarities and differences among the various theories are highlighted. The interplay between realistic decision structures and structural axioms that facilitate mathematical derivations is also emphasized.

Peter C. Fishburn

1981-01-01

381

Managing utilization of new diagnostic tests.  

PubMed

In appropriate utilization of laboratory testing has been estimated to range from 10% to 50% of the volume encountered in hospital laboratories. Many strategies to control utilization of laboratory testing have been reported, including redesigning test requisitions, changing standing orders, the use of provider order entry, physician profiling, and educational initiatives. The major motivation to reduce utilization of unnecessary testing is financial, although other benefits also may be observed, such as reducing false-positive results stemming from testing patients in low prevalence populations, eliminating unnecessary follow-up procedures, avoiding iatrogenic anemia, and potentially lowering hospital length of stay resulting from the need to track down the significance of falsely abnormal tests. The majority of utilization control efforts have focused on reducing routine laboratory tests such as chemistry profiles and automated blood counts. In many hospitals novel diagnostic tests, especially in molecular genetics and oncology, are the major driver behind increasing laboratory costs. Traditional methods to control utilization of routine testing are usually ineffective in controlling testing of novel diagnostic methods. In most cases, test requests originate from a small group of physician specialists who typically are more knowledgeable in their area of expertise than is the clinical pathologist. For this reason, a different approach is generally required. It is particularly important to establish an institutional structure authorized to review and approve new laboratory tests. The clinical pathologist usually takes the lead in this effort because laboratory-based physicians are familiar with new tests being requested by physicians across a spectrum of medical specialties. To be successful, the laboratory physician must identify potential utilization issues, acquire and analyze data, function on interdepartmental teams, and develop strategies to satisfy the needs of clinicians while at the same time preventing introduction of inappropriate technologies into the laboratory. This article will give a perspective on approaches to laboratory test utilization and offer specific examples of initiatives we have undertaken in our institution. The examples will illustrate how the pathologist can use knowledge of medicine and the clinical laboratory in conjunction with organizational and team building skills. In the final analysis, the process is more of an art than a science. PMID:14692073

Lewandrowski, Kent

2003-01-01

382

Energy Conservation Through Effective Utilization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses various ways in which the demand for energy could be decreased, focusing not so much on discouraging demand by increasing prices, as on reducing energy consumption by improving efficiency of energy utilization in buildings and in industry. (JR)

Berg, Charles A.

1973-01-01

383

Ion-thruster propellant utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evaluation and understanding of maximum propellant utilization, with mercury used as the propellant are presented. The primary-electron region in the ion chamber of a bombardment thruster is analyzed at maximum utilization. The results of this analysis, as well as experimental data from a range of ion-chamber configurations, show a nearly constant loss rate for unionized propellant at maximum utilization over a wide range of total propellant flow rate. The discharge loss level of 1000 eV/ion was used as a definition of maximum utilization, but the exact level of this definition has no effect on the qualitative results and little effect on the quantitative results. There are obvious design applications for the results of this investigation, but the results are particularly significant whenever efficient throttled operation is required.

Kaufman, H. R.

1971-01-01

384

Cogeneration Assessment Methodology for Utilities  

E-print Network

assessment model, and a data base to track customers over time. A case study is presented describing the background, procedures, and results of a cogeneration investigation for Northeast Utilities....

Sedlik, B.

1983-01-01

385

The effect of regulation on the professionally managed utility  

SciTech Connect

Mixed empirical evidence concerning the A-J effect suggests that regulatory constraints affect utilities differently, depending upon their organizational structure. An important characteristic of firms is the concern for profits on the part of managements. This concern is related to the extent that management owns the firms' residual claims. In the case of many utilities, professional management means divorce of ownership from the firm's decision-making.

Czamanski, O.Z.

1980-12-01

386

Regulatory reform and public utilities  

SciTech Connect

This book results from two seminars regarding the subject title that were held at Rutgers the State University, New Brunswick, NJ on October 30, 1981 and March 26, 1982. The seminars received financial support from leading New Jersey utilities. The introductory chapter (by the editor) and the other nine chapters are all written within the context of the pressures facing regulated utilities and their regulators. A separate abstract was prepared for each chapter.

Crew, M.A. (ed.)

1982-01-01

387

Burnout and health care utilization.  

PubMed

This study explores the relationship between burnout and health care utilization of 238 employed adults. Burnout was measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory and health care utilization by insurance company records regarding these employees' health care costs and number of times they accessed health care services over a one year period. ANOVAs were conducted using Golembiewski and Munzenrider's approach to define the burnout phase. Significant differences in health care costs were found. PMID:10152340

Jackson, C N; Manning, M R

1995-01-01

388

Photovoltaics: New opportunities for utilities  

SciTech Connect

This publication presents information on photovoltaics. The following topics are discussed: Residential Photovoltaics: The New England Experience Builds Confidence in PV; Austin's 300-kW Photovoltaic Power Station: Evaluating the Breakeven Costs; Residential Photovoltaics: The Lessons Learned; Photovoltaics for Electric Utility Use; Least-Cost Planning: The Environmental Link; Photovoltaics in the Distribution System; Photovoltaic Systems for the Rural Consumer; The Issues of Utility-Intertied Photovoltaics; and Photovoltaics for Large-Scale Use: Costs Ready to Drop Again.

Not Available

1991-07-01

389

Utility of Remote Sensing, Robotic Precursor Data and a Focused Science Hypothesis for a Follow-On Human Exploration Lunar Analogue Mission at the Mistastin Lake (Kamestastin) Impact Structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we summarize how remote sensing, robotic precursor data and a focused science hypothesis augmented the results from a lunar analogue mission to the Mistastin impact structure in Labrador, Canada. Join me as we go on a magical tour of this crater.

Tornabene, L. L.; Osinski, G. R.; Mader, M. M.; Chanou, A.; Francis, R.; Joliff, B. L.; Marion, C.; McCullough, E.; Pickersgill, A.; Sapers, H.; Souders, K.; Sylvester, P.; Young, K.; Zanetti, M.; Krash Operations; Science Team

2012-03-01

390

Special Section: The Value and Utility of Presence-Absence Data to Wildlife Monitoring and Research MODELING PATCH OCCUPANCY BY FOREST RODENTS: INCORPORATING DETECTABILITY AND SPATIAL AUTOCORRELATION WITH HIERARCHICALLY STRUCTURED DATA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Widespread conversion of deciduous forests to agriculture in the midwestern United States has resulted in landscapes whose remaining native habitats are highly fragmented, with well-documented consequences for wildlife community structure. We analyzed trap data for 5 forest rodent species from 525 sites in 35 study land- scapes throughout the upper Wabash River basin, which is dominated by agricultural use and

JEFFREY E. MOORE; ROBERT K. SWIHART

391

MODEL FOR NON-EQUILIBRIUM BINDING AND AFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH CHARACTERIZATION OF 8-HYDROXYQUINOLINE IMMOBILIZED ON CONTROLLED PORE GLASS USING A FLOW INJECTION SYSTEM WITH A PACKED MICRO-COLUMN. (R826694C651)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

392

Complexation and coordination selectivities of the tetradentate ligand 7-[(2-hydroxy-5-sulfophenyl) azo]-8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid with Fe(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and VO(IV)  

SciTech Connect

The new title tetradentate ligand (SPAHQS), containing both phenylazo and 8-quinolinol fragments, was prepared. Proton-dissociation processes of the ligand and complexing equilibria with Fe(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), and VO(IV) were analyzed spectrophotometrically. Coordination modes of SPAHQS with these metal ions have been investigated by means of polarography and Raman spectroscopy in aqueous solution. It was established that the coordination selectivity of SPAHQS for such metal ions is mainly dependent on steric factors in the chelate ring formed, not on HSAB properties. 18 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Huang, Hu; Kai, Fumiaki; Hirohata, Masaaki; Nakamura, Masaaki; Matsuzaki, Susumu; Komori, Kenji; Tsunematsu, Yuriko [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan)

1993-12-31

393

Energy Efficiency and Electric Utilities  

SciTech Connect

The report is an overview of electric energy efficiency programs. It takes a concise look at what states are doing to encourage energy efficiency and how it impacts electric utilities. Energy efficiency programs began to be offered by utilities as a response to the energy crises of the 1970s. These regulatory-driven programs peaked in the early-1990s and then tapered off as deregulation took hold. Today, rising electricity prices, environmental concerns, and national security issues have renewed interest in increasing energy efficiency as an alternative to additional supply. In response, new methods for administering, managing, and delivering energy efficiency programs are being implemented. Topics covered in the report include: Analysis of the benefits of energy efficiency and key methods for achieving energy efficiency; evaluation of the business drivers spurring increased energy efficiency; Discussion of the major barriers to expanding energy efficiency programs; evaluation of the economic impacts of energy efficiency; discussion of the history of electric utility energy efficiency efforts; analysis of the impact of energy efficiency on utility profits and methods for protecting profitability; Discussion of non-utility management of energy efficiency programs; evaluation of major methods to spur energy efficiency - systems benefit charges, resource planning, and resource standards; and, analysis of the alternatives for encouraging customer participation in energy efficiency programs.

NONE

2007-11-15

394

Super-resolution imaging of lateral distribution for the blue-light emission of an InGaN single-quantum-well structure utilizing the stimulated emission depletion effect.  

PubMed

We have observed a remarkable decrease in photoluminescence (PL) from a blue-light emitting InGaN single-quantum-well (SQW) structure under the radiation of a green laser due to the stimulated emission depletion (STED) phenomenon. By extending the observed STED effect, super-resolution imaging of the blue-light emission lateral distribution was demonstrated for the InGaN-SQW structure through co-irradiation using a doughnut-shaped green light beam and a Gaussian-shaped violet excitation light beam. We measured point-spread functions (PSFs) to evaluate the spatial resolution of the system by imaging a small emission area. A lateral PSF size of ~150 nm was confirmed, which was approximately 40% smaller than that without the STED beam. This demonstrates that the STED technique is applicable for PL imaging of semiconductor quantum structures. The present approach may make possible a new strategy for characterizing and investigating the spatial inhomogeneity of emission properties and carrier dynamics in InGaN-based quantum wells, as well as in other semiconductor materials exhibiting quantum confinement effects. PMID:25321726

Kozawa, Yuichi; Kusama, Yuta; Sato, Shunichi; Yokoyama, Hiroyuki

2014-09-22

395

Ethanolamine utilization in Vibrio alginolyticus  

PubMed Central

Abstract Ethanolamine is used as an energy source by phylogenetically diverse bacteria including pathogens, by the concerted action of proteins from the eut-operon. Previous studies have revealed the presence of eutBC genes encoding ethanolamine-ammonia lyase, a key enzyme that breaks ethanolamine into acetaldehyde and ammonia, in about 100 bacterial genomes including members of gamma-proteobacteria. However, ethanolamine utilization has not been reported for any member of the Vibrio genus. Our comparative genomics study reveals the presence of genes that are involved in ethanolamine utilization in several Vibrio species. Using Vibrio alginolyticus as a model system we demonstrate that ethanolamine is better utilized as a nitrogen source than as a carbon source. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Dr. Lakshminarayan Iyer and Dr. Vivek Anantharaman (nominated by Dr. L Aravind). PMID:23234435

2012-01-01

396

Competition and utility financial risks  

SciTech Connect

While competition for electric utilities has grown steadily for over a decade, the inroads have been small. Utilities have lost load by being forced to buy power from cogenerators. They have foregone some of their normal growth by choosing to buy power from independent power producers instead of building generating facilities themselves. They have absorbed earnings erosion by giving discounts to large industrial customers to avoid having them move production outside their service areas. Yet although competition in these areas can be expected to intensity, the real financial risk for utilities lies on other fronts, principally direct price competition. The type of competition experienced thus far will constrain utility financial progress, but utilities will no doubt find ways to mitigate its impact, an example being investment in demand-side management (DSM) programs. Direct price competition, on the other hand, offers few if any avenues of escape, and it is only a matter of time before the barriers that prevent it are removed. One of the largest is the prohibition of retail wheeling, which is the principal source of price protection for utilities. Significantly, over the course of the last year the prohibition of retail wheeling has been transformed from an untouchable issue into the central issue in the struggle over competition. Price competition, when it develops, will be driven by the cost of producing electric power with new generating facilities and whatever excess generating capacity exists in the industry. How important price competition becomes will depend on what customers want. If low-cost power turns out to be a top priority, price competition will be a very important part of the competitive picture. The experience of industries that have been deregulated, such as the airlines, suggests that low prices will have a high priority.

Studness, C.M.

1993-07-01

397

Space platform utilities distribution study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Generic concepts for the installation of power data and thermal fluid distribution lines on large space platforms were discussed. Connections with central utility subsystem modules and pallet interfaces were also considered. Three system concept study platforms were used as basepoints for the detail development. The tradeoff of high voltage low voltage power distribution and the impact of fiber optics as a data distribution mechanism were analyzed. Thermal expansion and temperature control of utility lines and ducts were considered. Technology developments required for implementation of the generic distribution concepts were identified.

Lefever, A. E.

1980-01-01

398

Utility Roles in Preserving the Industrial Base  

E-print Network

, and Florida as examples; these observations are related to a framework of roles a utility or public utility commission can play. The conclusion is that utilities must exercise caution yet take appropriate action in preserving the industrial base....

Gilbert, J. S.

399

Moose (Alces alces) reacts to high summer temperatures by utilizing thermal shelters in boreal forests - an analysis based on airborne laser scanning of the canopy structure at moose locations.  

PubMed

The adaptation of different species to warming temperatures has been increasingly studied. Moose (Alces alces) is the largest of the ungulate species occupying the northern latitudes across the globe, and in Finland it is the most important game species. It is very well adapted to severe cold temperatures, but has a relatively low tolerance to warm temperatures. Previous studies have documented changes in habitat use by moose due to high temperatures. In many of these studies, the used areas have been classified according to how much thermal cover they were assumed to offer based on satellite/aerial imagery data. Here, we identified the vegetation structure in the areas used by moose under different thermal conditions. For this purpose, we used airborne laser scanning (ALS) data extracted from the locations of GPS-collared moose. This provided us with detailed information about the relationships between moose and the structure of forests it uses in different thermal conditions and we were therefore able to determine and differentiate between the canopy structures at locations occupied by moose during different thermal conditions. We also discovered a threshold beyond which moose behaviour began to change significantly: as day temperatures began to reach 20 °C and higher, the search for areas with higher and denser canopies during daytime became evident. The difference was clear when compared to habitat use at lower temperatures, and was so strong that it provides supporting evidence to previous studies, suggesting that moose are able to modify their behaviour to cope with high temperatures, but also that the species is likely to be affected by warming climate. PMID:24115403

Melin, Markus; Matala, Juho; Mehtätalo, Lauri; Tiilikainen, Raisa; Tikkanen, Olli-Pekka; Maltamo, Matti; Pusenius, Jyrki; Packalen, Petteri

2014-04-01

400

Kinesthetic Structures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper describes how students are engaged in hands-on activities that reinforce complex engineering principles. In addition to utilizing chalk board examples for design and analysis problems, physical modeling, not necessarily traditional laboratory testing, is implemented to link engineering theory with building behavior. Students design, build, and learn how structures behave in three dimensions.

Dong, Kevin

2009-09-15

401

78 FR 45922 - Owensboro Municipal Utilities v. Louisville Gas and Electric Company and Kentucky Utilities...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Docket No. EL13-79-000] Owensboro Municipal Utilities v. Louisville Gas and Electric Company and Kentucky Utilities Company...Utilities (Complainant) filed a formal complaint against Louisville Gas and Electric Company and Kentucky Utilities...

2013-07-30

402

Utility of an alternative bicycle commute route of lower proximity to motorised traffic in decreasing exposure to ultra-fine particles, respiratory symptoms and airway inflammation – a structured exposure experiment  

PubMed Central

Background Bicycle commuting in an urban environment of high air pollution is known to be a potential health risk, especially for susceptible individuals. While risk management strategies aimed to reduce exposure to motorised traffic emissions have been suggested, only limited studies have assessed the utility of such strategies in real-world circumstances. Objectives The potential to lower exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP; < 0.1 ?m) during bicycle commuting by reducing proximity to motorised traffic was investigated with real-time air pollution and intermittent acute inflammatory measurements in healthy individuals using their typical higher proximity, and an alternative lower proximity, bicycle commute route. Methods Thirty-five healthy adults (mean ± SD: age = 39 ± 11 yr; 29% female) completed two return trips, one each in the condition of their typical route (HIGH) and a pre-determined alternative route of lower proximity to motorised traffic (LOW); proximity being determined by the proportion of on-road cycle paths. Particle number concentration (PNC) and diameter (PD) were monitored in-commute in real-time. Acute inflammatory indices of respiratory symptoms (as a scalar of frequency from very low to very high / 1 to 5), lung function and spontaneous sputum (for inflammatory cell analyses) were collected immediately pre-commute, and immediately and three hours post-commute. Results In the condition of LOW, compared to in the condition of HIGH, there was a significant decrease in mean PNC (1.91 x e4 ± 0.93 × e4 ppcc vs. 2.95 × e4 ± 1.50 × e4 ppcc; p ? 0.001), and the mean frequency of in-commute offensive odour detection (2.1 vs. 2.8; p = 0.019), dust and soot observation (1.7 vs. 2.3; p = 0.038) and nasopharyngeal irritation (1.5 vs. 1.9; p = 0.007). There were no significant differences between LOW and HIGH in the commute distance and duration (12.8 ± 7.1 vs. 12.0 ± 6.9 km and 44 ± 17 vs. 42 ± 17 min, respectively), or other indices of acute airway inflammation. Conclusions Exposure to PNC and offensive odour, and nasopharyngeal irritation, can be significantly lowered when utilising a route of lower proximity to motorised traffic whilst bicycle commuting, without significantly affecting commute distance or duration. This may bring health benefits for both healthy and susceptible individuals. PMID:23566176

2013-01-01

403

Hybrid electric sport utility vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drive-train hybridization improves the fuel economy and emissions of vehicles. This is the concept of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Application of this concept in sport utility vehicles (SUVs), which consume more fuel as compared to passenger cars, will positively have a great impact. However, dynamic performances such as acceleration and gradeability also are of great importance in SUVs. Therefore, the

Jason M. Tyrus; Ryan M. Long; Marina Kramskaya; Yuriy Fertman; Ali Emadi

2004-01-01

404

Annual Electric Generator Report - Utility  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This recently updated database from the Energy Information Administration contains the information reported on the Annual Electric Generator Report - Utility form, or Form EIA-860A. The database holds information from 1992 to January 2000 and includes the fields capacity, energy source, and initial year of operation.

405

Utilizes the AVR RISC Architecture  

E-print Network

1 Features · Utilizes the AVR® RISC Architecture · AVR - High-performance and Low-power RISC on the AVR RISC architecture. By executing powerful instructions in a single clock cycle, the Rev. 0839E­04 designer to optimize power consump- tion versus processing speed. The AVR core combines a rich instruction

Jain, Amit

406

Electrolysis-Utility Integration Workshop  

E-print Network

Electrolysis-Utility Integration Workshop September 22-23, 2004 Broomfield, CO Shawna McQueen #12-spread deployment of electrolysis based hydrogen production in the U.S. #12;Key Drivers ! Water electrolysis will be needed in the early stages ! DOE electrolysis cost goal: $2.85/kg by 2010 ! Today's cost is $4-$6/kg H2

407

ELECTROLYSIS-UTILITY INTEGRATION WORKSHOP  

E-print Network

ELECTROLYSIS-UTILITY INTEGRATION WORKSHOP Renaissance Suites at Flatirons, Broomfield, CO SeptemberQueen, Energetics 9:00 am Electrolysis Hydrogen Generation, Steve Cohen, Teledyne Energy Systems 9:20 am Commission 1:00 pm Electrolysis Technology Development and Fueling Infrastructure Options, Matthew Kauffman

408

Module Utilization Committee. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Photovoltaic collector modules were declared surplus to the needs of the US Department of Energy. The Module Utilization Committee was formed to make appropriate disposition of the surplus modules. The final report of that committee accounts for that disposition. The membership and activities of the committee are set forth and the results of its activities are reported.

None

1984-03-01

409

Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topics addressed in Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference are: (1) space station freedom overview and research capabilities; (2) space station freedom research plans and opportunities; (3) life sciences research on space station freedom; (4) technology research on space station freedom; (5) microgravity research and biotechnology on space station freedom; and (6) closing plenary.

1992-01-01

410

Zymomonas with improved xylose utilization  

DOEpatents

Strains of Zymomonas were engineered by introducing a chimeric xylose isomerase gene that contains a mutant promoter of the Z. mobilis glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene. The promoter directs increased expression of xylose isomerase, and when the strain is in addition engineered for expression of xylulokinase, transaldolase and transketolase, improved utilization of xylose is obtained.

Viitanen, Paul V. (West Chester, PA); Tao, Luan (Havertown, PA); Zhang, Yuying (New Hope, PA); Caimi, Perry G. (Kennett Square, PA); McCutchen, Carol M. (Wilmington, DE); McCole, Laura (East Fallowfield, PA); Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Chou, Yat-Chen (Lakewood, CO); Franden, Mary Ann (Centennial, CO)

2011-08-16

411

Expected utility with lower probabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

An uncertain and not just risky situation may be modeled using so-called belief functions assigning lower probabilities to subsets of outcomes. In this article we extend the von Neumann-Morgenstern expected utility theory from probability measures to belief functions. We use this theory to characterize uncertainty neutrality and different degrees of uncertainty aversion.

Hans JØrgen Jacobsen; Birgitte Sloth; TORBEN TRANAES

1994-01-01

412

Wind energy utilization: A bibliography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bibliography cites documents published to and including 1974 with abstracts and references, and is indexed by topic, author, organization, title, and keywords. Topics include: Wind Energy Potential and Economic Feasibility, Utilization, Wind Power Plants and Generators, Wind Machines, Wind Data and Properties, Energy Storage, and related topics.

1975-01-01

413

Limits to Wind Power Utilization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses noneconomic factors limiting the total power that can be extracted from the wind. These factors are examined with a macroscopic approach. Some general conclusions are also reached regarding the sites that would have to be utilized and the usable wind energy potentials. (HM)

Gustavson, M. R.

1979-01-01

414

Utility stack opacity troubleshooting guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stack plume visibility, otherwise defined as plume opacity, has become a concern to the utility industry. This concern stems from the fact that some coal-fired stations with operating FGD systems have been cited for opacity in excess of the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) even though the particulate mass emissions are within regulated limits. Postulated causes for the unacceptable opacities

R. J. Keeth; D. A. Balfour; F. M. Meserole; T. Defries

1991-01-01

415

Vibration analysis utilizing Mossbauer effect  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measuring instrument analyzes mechanical vibrations in transducers at amplitudes in the range of a few to 100 angstroms. This instrument utilizes the Mossbauer effect, the phenomenon of the recoil-free emission and resonant absorption of nuclear gamma rays in solids.

Roughton, N. A.

1967-01-01

416

Composite isogrid structures for parabolic surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The invention relates to high stiffness parabolic structures utilizing integral reinforced grids. The parabolic structures implement the use of isogrid structures which incorporate unique and efficient orthotropic patterns for efficient stiffness and structural stability.

Silverman, Edward M. (Inventor); Boyd, Jr., William E. (Inventor); Rhodes, Marvin D. (Inventor); Dyer, Jack E. (Inventor)

2000-01-01

417

Power Sales to Electric Utilities  

SciTech Connect

The Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) of 1979 requires that electrical utilities interconnect with qualifying facilities and purchase electricity at a rate based upon their full avoided costs (i.e., costs of providing both capacity and energy). Qualifying facilities (QF) include solar or geothermal electric units, hydropower, municipal solid waste or biomass-fired power plants, and cogeneration projects that satisfy maximum size, fuel use, ownership, location, and/or efficiency criteria. In Washington State, neither standard power purchase prices based upon a proxy ''avoided plant'', standard contracts, or a standard offer process have been used. Instead, a variety of power purchase contracts have been negotiated by developers of qualifying facilities with investor-owned utilities, public utility districts, and municipally-owned and operated utilities. With a hydro-based system, benefits associated with resource acquisition are determined in large part by how compatible the resource is with a utility's existing generation mix. Power purchase rates are negotiated and vary according to firm energy production, guarantees, ability to schedule maintenance or downtime, rights of refusal, power plant purchase options, project start date and length of contract; front-loading or levelization provisions; and the ability of the project to provide ''demonstrated'' capacity. Legislation was also enacted which allows PURPA to work effectively. Initial laws established ownership rights and provided irrigation districts, PUDs, and municipalities with expanded enabling powers. Financial processes were streamlined and, in some cases, simplified. Finally, laws were passed which are designed to ensure that development proceeds in an environmentally acceptable manner. In retrospect, PURPA has worked well within Washington. In the state of Washington, 20 small-scale hydroelectric projects with a combined generating capacity of 77 MW, 3 solid waste-to-energy facilities with 55 MW of electrical output, 4 cogeneration projects with 34.5 MW of generating capability, and 4 wastewater treatment facility digester gas-to-energy projects with 5 MW of electrical production have come on-line (or are in the final stages of construction) since the passage of PURPA. These numbers represent only a small portion of Washington's untapped and underutilized cogeneration and renewable resource generating potentials. [DJE-2005

None

1989-02-01

418

Self-monitored pain intensity: Psychometric properties and clinical utility  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure for the evaluation of fluctuations in perceived pain intensity among chronic pain patients is described, and its psychometric properties and clinical and heuristic utility are examined. A heterogeneous sample of 97 chronic pain patients recorded 2 weeks of hourly self-monitored pain intensity (SMPI), completed a structured interview and several questionnaires, and established behavioral goals prior to participation in

Robert D. Kerns; Paul Finn; Jennifer Haythornthwaite

1988-01-01

419

Economies of scale and utilization in electricity generation in Kuwait  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cost structure of electricity generation in Kuwait has been examined, with specific focus on the economies of scale and utilization. This has been done by estimating a translog variable-cost function using time-series data covering the period from 1965 to 1990. The results indicate the existence of diseconomies of scale in the generation of electricity, but no economies or diseconomies of

Nadeem A. Burney

1998-01-01

420

Enrichment, Isolation and Some Properties of Methane-utilizing Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY More than IOO Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, methane-utilizing bacteria were isolated. All used only methane and methanol of the substrates tested for growth. The organisms were classified into five groups on the basis of mor- phology, fine structure, and type of resting stage formed (exospores and different types of cysts) and into subgroups on other properties. Methods of enrichment, isolation

R. Whittenbury; K. C. Phillips; J. F. Wilkinson

1970-01-01

421

Expected utility theory without the completeness axiom  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the problem of obtaining an expected utility representation for a potentially incomplete preference relation over lotteries by means of a set of von Neumann–Morgenstern utility functions. It is shown that, when the prize space is a compact metric space, a preference relation admits such a multi-utility representation provided that it satisfies the standard axioms of expected utility theory.

Juan Dubra; Fabio Maccheroni; Efe A. Ok

2004-01-01

422

"BAYES' THEOREM" FOR UTILITY Leigh Tesfatsion  

E-print Network

,. "BAYES' THEOREM" FOR UTILITY by Leigh Tesfatsion Discussion Paper No. 76-65, April 1976 Center of transitional utility (loss) assessments, in a manner analogous to Bayes' theorem for probability. Specification to utility and probability. #12;"BAYES' THEOREM" FOR UTILITY* by Leigh Tesfatsion 1. INTRODUCTION

Tesfatsion, Leigh

423

Utility vehicle safety Operator training program  

E-print Network

;Operator procedure & performance Off Road Operation: When Utility Vehicles are operated off of roadwaysUtility vehicle safety Operator training program #12;Permissible use Utility Vehicles may only Utility Vehicle operator · When equipped with the "Required Equipment" · On public roadways within

Minnesota, University of

424

Japanese plan for SSF utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) program has made significant progress. The JEM preliminary design review was completed in July 1992; construction of JEM operation facilities has begun; and the micro-G airplane, drop shaft, and micro-G experiment rocket are all operational. The national policy for JEM utilization was also established. The Space Experiment Laboratory (SEL) opened in June '92 and will function as a user support center. Eight JEM multiuser facilities are in phase B, and scientific requirements are being defined for 17 candidate multiuser facilities. The National Joint Research Program is about to start. Precursor missions and early Space Station utilization activities are being defined. This paper summarizes the program in outline and graphic form.

Mizuno, Toshio

1992-01-01

425

Purdue Solar Energy Utilization Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to establish and set-up a laboratory that will facilitate research and development of new low-cost and high-efficiency solar energy utilization technologies at Purdue University. The outcome will help spur the creation of solar energy start-up companies and eventually a solar energy industry in Indiana that can help fulfill the growing national demand for solar energy.

Agrawal, Rakesh [Purdue] [Purdue

2014-01-21

426

Alternative scenarios utilizing nonterrestrial resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A collection of alternative scenarios that are enabled or substantially enhanced by the utilization of nonterrestrial resources is provided. We take a generalized approach to scenario building so that our report will have value in the context of whatever goals are eventually chosen. Some of the topics covered include the following: lunar materials processing; asteroid mining; lunar resources; construction of a large solar power station; solar dynamic power for the space station; reduced gravity; mission characteristics and options; and tourism.

Eldred, Charles H.; Roberts, Barney B.

1992-01-01

427

Beam induced reduction of U(VI) during X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: The utility of the U4f satellite structure for identifying uranium oxidation states in mixed valence uranium oxides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reduction of U VI by the beam during X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is a commonly observed phenomenon. This can affect the determination of the U oxidation state, or states, in U oxides (or U compounds in general) and compromise the validity of peak parameters derived from U VI oxide standards. However, there is little quantitative information on the reduction kinetics and species produced. The objective of this contribution is to investigate and quantify the effects of X-ray beam reduction of U VI during XPS analysis. Successive U4f XPS spectra were taken over a 26 h period during the X-ray induced reduction of U VI oxy-hydroxide that was precipitated onto the basal plane of mica. In addition, valence band XPS spectra, including the U5f region, were recorded. Factor analysis identified three dominant and, by definition, linearly independent components. Consequently, we fit the U4f level, including the satellite structure, with three components that represented U VI, U V, and U IV. Peak parameters were remarkably stable and consistent with U VI, U V, and U IV over the entire reduction sequence despite the likely formation of a partially covalent mixed-valence U oxide. Although the satellite features for U IV and U V were modified by their bonding environment, they still served well as diagnostic tools for identifying U oxidation states. In particular, the 8 eV satellite appears to be a robust indicator of U V over a range of bonding environments. This is important because the presence of U V might not be necessarily obvious in the primary peak envelope if XPS energy resolution is low and/or U IV-U V binding energy separations are appreciably less than 1 eV. We also discuss insights obtained from modeling the kinetic data for the time evolution of U VI, U V, and U IV.

Ilton, Eugene S.; Boily, Jean-François; Bagus, Paul S.

2007-02-01

428

Utility stack opacity troubleshooting guidelines  

SciTech Connect

Stack plume visibility, otherwise defined as plume opacity, has become a concern to the utility industry. This concern stems from the fact that some coal-fired stations with operating FGD systems have been cited for opacity in excess of the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) even though the particulate mass emissions are within regulated limits. Postulated causes for the unacceptable opacities include scrubber-generated particulate matter, condensible particulate matter such as sulfuric acid mist, fine particles penetrating the particulate control device, and/or colored gases such as nitrogen dioxide in the flue gas. It is important that the underlying cause of the plume opacity be identified to determine if it is possible to reduce plume opacity. This report presents a troubleshooting methodology developed during field tests at four utilities experiencing high stack opacities. Results from these field tests are presented as case studies to demonstrate how this methodology can be applied by a utility to determine the cause of their plume opacity. 10 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

Keeth, R.J. (United Engineers and Constructors, Inc., Denver, CO (USA). Stearns-Roger Div.); Balfour, D.A.; Meserole, F.M.; Defries, T. (Radian Corp., Austin, TX (USA))

1991-03-01

429

Optimized Utility Systems and Furnace Integration  

E-print Network

OPTIMIZED UTILITY SYSTEMS AND FURNACE INTEGRATION A. S. McMullan and H. D. Spriggs, Linnhoff March, Inc., Leesburg, Va. ABSTRACT Conventional process design philosophy usually results in utility systems being designed after process design... defines the Process/Utility interface. Clearly, changing the process design can result in different utility demands and possibly in different utility system designs. This paper presents a procedure, using Pinch Technology, for the simultaneous design...

McMullan, A. S.; Spriggs, H. D.

430

An Exploration of the Utility of a Knowledge Utilization Framework to Study the Gap between Reading Disabilities Research and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pre-pilot study explored the usefulness of a knowledge utilization framework comprised of Knott and Wildavsky's (1980) seven stages of knowledge use and Stone's (2002) three routes to knowledge use to investigate the gap between reading disabilities research and teachers' self-reported use of that research. Semi-structured interviews of ten…

Davidson, Katherine; Nowicki, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

431

The development of chelate metal complexes as an organic electroluminescent material  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chelate metal complexes, such as tris(8-hydroxyquinolinate)aluminum (Alq3), have excellent electroluminescent (EL) properties. Several chelate metal complexes were developed and the experimental rule of molecular design for use in an organic EL device was found. When the chelate metal complex has the structure of an inner complex sell, the EL device is fabricated by conventional vacuum-vapor deposition. This rule was

Yuji Hamada

1997-01-01

432

Coupling of Organic Semiconductor Amplified Spontaneous Emission Into Polymeric Single-Mode Waveguides Patterned by Deep-UV Irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-mode waveguides were fabricated by deep ultraviolet radiation in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Using a masking process, the radiation modifies the refractive index of the PMMA forming core and cladding regions for waveguiding. Following the fabrication of the waveguides, the small molecule material aluminum tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) doped with the laser dye DCM is deposited directly onto the waveguide structures. By optical pumping

Martin Punke; Steffen Mozer; Marc Stroisch; Mattias P. Heinrich; Uli Lemmer; Patric Henzi; Dominik G. Rabus

2007-01-01

433

Consumer's Guide to the economics of electric-utility ratemaking  

SciTech Connect

This guide deals primarily with the economics of electric utilities, although certain legal and organizational aspects of utilities are discussed. Each of the seven chapters addresses a particular facet of public-utility ratemaking. Chapter One contains a discussion of the evolution of the public-utility concept, as well as the legal and economic justification for public utilities. The second chapter sets forth an analytical economic model which provides the basis for the next four chapters. These chapters contain a detailed examination of total operating costs, the rate base, the rate of return, and the rate structure. The final chapter discusses a number of current issues regarding electric utilities, mainly factors related to fuel-adjustment costs, advertising, taxes, construction work in progress, and lifeline rates. Some of the examples used in the Guide are from particular states, such as Illinois and California. These examples are used to illustrate specific points. Consumers in other states can generalize them to their states and not change the meaning or significance of the points. 27 references, 8 tables.

Not Available

1980-05-01

434

Solar energy research and utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of solar energy is visualized in the heating and cooling of buildings, in the production of renewable gaseous, liquid and solid fuels, and in the production of electric power over the next 45 years. Potential impacts of solar energy on various energy markets, and estimated costs of such solar energy systems are discussed. Some typical solar energy utilization processes are described in detail. It is expected that at least 20% of the U.S. total energy requirements by 2020 will be delivered from solar energy.

Cherry, W. R.

1974-01-01

435

Microcirculatory oxygen transport and utilization.  

PubMed

The cardiovascular system (macrocirculation) circulates blood throughout the body, but the microcirculation is responsible for modifying tissue perfusion and adapting it to metabolic demand. Hemodynamic assessment and monitoring of the critically ill patient is typically focused on global measures of oxygen transport and utilization, which do not evaluate the status of the microcirculation. Despite achievement and maintenance of global hemodynamic and oxygenation goals, patients may develop microcirculatory dysfunction with associated organ failure. A thorough understanding of the microcirculatory system under physiologic conditions will assist the clinician in early recognition of microcirculatory dysfunction in impending and actual disease states. PMID:25169685

Hamlin, Shannan K; Parmley, C Lee; Hanneman, Sandra K

2014-09-01

436

Thermal storage for electric utilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Applications of the thermal energy storage (TES) principle (storage of sensible heat or latent heat, or heat storage in reversible chemical reactions) in power systems are evaluated. Load leveling behind the meter, load following at conventional thermal power plants, solar thermal power generation, and waste heat utilization are the principal TES applications considered. Specific TES examples discussed include: storage heaters for electric-resistance space heating, air conditioning TES in the form of chilled water or eutectic salt baths, hot water TES, and trans-seasonal storage in heated water in confined aquifers.

Swet, C. J.; Masica, W. J.

1977-01-01

437

Orbiter electrical equipment utilization baseline  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The baseline for utilization of Orbiter electrical equipment in both electrical and Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) thermal analyses is established. It is a composite catalog of Space Shuttle equipment, as defined in the Shuttle Operational Data Book. The major functions and expected usage of each component type are described. Functional descriptions are designed to provide a fundamental understanding of the Orbiter electrical equipment, to insure correlation of equipment usage within nominal analyses, and to aid analysts in the formulation of off-nominal, contingency analyses.

1980-01-01

438

Strategies for solar greenhouses utilization  

SciTech Connect

This study identifies basic questions needing answers before the solar greenhouse can offer a truly appropriate technology or be an effective social change agent. Comparison of 18 solar greenhouses in Massachusetts was made to evaluate how well these systems are operating and what areas need improvements or modifications. The potential for effective solar greenhouse utilization is being decreased partly by problems of design but mostly by lack of long-term funding, inattention to principles of greenhouse management, and inadequate training or horticultural skills for crop production.

Locher, V.A. (Inner Spaces, Monterey, MA); Airhart, D.L.

1980-01-01

439

Other Fabric Structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Architects, engineers and building owners are turning increasingly to fabric structures because of their aesthetic appeal, relatively low initial cost, low maintenance outlays, energy efficiency and good space utilization. Several examples are shown.

1982-01-01

440

The effect of deregulation on internal control of agency conflict: Evidence from the electric utility industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I investigate how deregulation leads firms to modify their internal governance structures to help control owner-manager agency conflict. Specifically, I explore how electric utilities respond to wholesale-level deregulation during the ten years surrounding the 1992 Energy Policy Act. I apply factor analysis to observable governance variables that exhibit change among utilities relative to industrial firms, and show that a single common factor captures firms' reliance on internal governance structure to control owner-manager agency problems. I find that deregulating utilities reduce their reliance on internal governance relative to industrial firms. I also show that the negative relation between deregulation and electric utilities' relative reliance on internal governance structure is largely explained by increases in competition and takeover activity among utilities relative to industrial firms. I conclude that competition and takeover activity substitute for firms' relative reliance on internal control of agency conflict.

Rennie, Craig G.

441

78 FR 72672 - Owensboro Municipal Utilities v. Louisville Gas and Electric Company, Kentucky Utilities Company...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...EL13-79-000] Owensboro Municipal Utilities v. Louisville Gas and Electric Company, Kentucky Utilities Company; Notice of Filing Take notice that on November 22, 2013, Louisville Gas and Electric Company and Kentucky Utilities...

2013-12-03

442

Trends in Diffusion Research: Knowledge Utilization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on an evaluation study of the Pilot State Dissemination Program. The program utilized extension agents who helped teachers and school administrators obtain and interpret information, assess its applicability, and plan steps in its utilization. (HMD)

Sieber, Sam D.

1974-01-01

443

Industrial Low Temperature Waste Heat Utilization  

E-print Network

In this paper, some common and emerging techniques to better utilize energy in the chemical process industries are discussed. Temperature levels of waste heat available are pointed out. Emerging practices for further economical utilization of waste...

Altin, M.

1981-01-01

444

Spot pricing of public utility services  

E-print Network

This thesis analyzes how public utility prices should be changed over time and space. Earlier static and non spatial models of public utility pricing emerge as special cases of the theory developed here. Electricity is ...

Bohn, Roger E.

1982-01-01

445

Extending Quality Management to Utility Costs  

E-print Network

EXTENDING QUALITY MANAGEMENT TO UTILITY COSTS William A. Holmes, P.E., President, UtilrTRACK Corporation, Columbus, Indiana ABSTRACT By installing permanent instrumentation and linking it to the appropriate software, a Utility Cost Management...

Holmes, W. A.

446

Utility Energy Services Contracts: Lessons Learned  

SciTech Connect

This document describes best practices in the use of Utility Energy Services Contracts. The recommendations were generated by a group of innovative energy managers in many successful projects. The topics include project financing, competition between utility franchises, and water conservation.

Not Available

2001-08-01

447

Federal Utility Program Overview (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Fact sheet overview of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program's (FEMP) Federal Utility Program, including common contracts and services available to Federal agencies through local serving utilities.

Not Available

2009-07-01

448

Work Force Planning for Public Power Utilities  

E-print Network

Work Force Planning for Public Power Utilities: Ensuring Resources to Meet Projected ............................................ 4 The Aging Work Force Still Challenges Public Power ........................... 6 Public Power Utilities Need to Do More to Prepare for Their Future Work Force Needs

449

DEVELOPMENT OF THE ADVANCED UTILITY SIMULATION MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the development of the Advanced Utility Simulation Model (AUSM), developed for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP), to forecast air emissions of pollutants from electric utilities. USM integrates generating unit engineering detail with d...

450

Insider Models with Finite Utility in Markets with Jumps  

SciTech Connect

In this article we consider, under a Levy process model for the stock price, the utility optimization problem for an insider agent whose additional information is the final price of the stock blurred with an additional independent noise which vanishes as the final time approaches. Our main interest is establishing conditions under which the utility of the insider is finite. Mathematically, the problem entails the study of a 'progressive' enlargement of filtration with respect to random measures. We study the jump structure of the process which leads to the conclusion that in most cases the utility of the insider is finite and his optimal portfolio is bounded. This can be explained financially by the high risks involved in models with jumps.

Kohatsu-Higa, Arturo, E-mail: arturokohatsu@gmail.com [Ritsumeikan University, Department of Mathematical Sciences (Japan); Yamazato, Makoto, E-mail: yamazato@math.u-ryukyu.ac.jp [University of the Ryukyus, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science (Japan)

2011-10-15

451

A Novel Biomedical Device Utilizing Light Emitting Nano-Structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper will discuss the development of a novel biomedical detection device that will be used to detect microorganisms with the use of infrared fluorochrome polymers attached to antibodies in fluids such as water. The fluorochrome polymers emit light in the near inferred region (NIR), approximately 805 nm, when excited by an NIR laser at 778 nm. The device could remarkably change the way laboratory testing is done today. The testing process is usually performed on a time scale of days while our device will be able to detect microorganisms in minutes. This type of time efficient analysis is ideal for use aboard the International Space Station and the Space Shuttle (ISS/SS) and has many useful commercial applications, for instance at a water treatment plant and food processing plants. With more research and experimentation the testing might also one day be used to detect bacteria and viruses in complex fluids such as blood, which would revolutionize blood analysis as it is performed today. My contribution to the project has been to develop a process which will allow an antibody/fluorescent dye pair to be conjugated to a specific bacteria or virus and than to to be separated from a sample body of water for detection. The antibody being used in this experiment is anti beta galactosidase and its complement enzyme is beta galactosidase, a non harmful derivative of E. Coli. The anti beta galactosidase has been conjugated to the fluorochrome polymer, IRDye800, which emits at approximately 806 nm. The dye when excited by the NIR laser emits a signal which is detected by a spectrometer and then is read by state of the art computer software. The state-of-the-art process includes incubating the anti beta galactosidase and beta galactosidase in a phosphate buffer solution in a test tube, allowing the antibody to bind to specific sites on the enzyme. After the antibody is bound to the enzyme, it is centrifuged in specific filters that will allow free antibody to wash away and leave the antibody-enzyme complexes on top in solution for testing and analysis. This solution is pipetted into a cuvette, a special plastic test tube, which will then be excited by the laser. The signal read will tell US that an antibody is present and since it is bound to the enzyme, that the bacteria is also present.

Varaljay, Vanessa A.

2004-01-01

452

Utilization of fly ash in structural and decorative ceramic products  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this study is to promote the use of fly ash from electric power plants in Illinois in the manufacture of bricks. Fly ash that is produced during the burning of coal represents a continuing disposal problem and thus a disincentive to coal`s use. Each year, approximately 5 X 10{sup 6} metric tons of fly ash are produced from burning Illinois coals. Use of brick clays for ceramic products in the Illinois area amounted to about 0.5 X 10{sup 6} metric tons in 1994. If significant amounts of fly ash were used in the manufacture of fired-clay products such as brick, the fly ash disposal problem would be reduced, a valuable construction product would be created, and mining of brick clays would be slowed. Furthermore, the clay minerals in the green bricks are dehydroxylated during the firing process. Fly ash already has been through dehydrox1yation, therefore this energy for dehydroxylation is {open_quotes}saved{close_quotes} during brick manufacture. Six tasks were defined to meet our objectives: (1) manufacture bricks that contain 20 wt% or more of fly ash under normal plant-scale conditions; (2) measure the firing characteristics of mixtures created by using extremes in chemical composition of Illinois fly ashes and brick clays and shales; (3) from those measurements, derive equations that predict the firing characteristics of any mixture of clay and fly ash; (4) optimize mixtures of brick clays with sources of fly ash near existing ceramic plants; (5) perform tests to determine the leachability of toxic constituents, if any, from the bricks; and (6) integrate the results of tasks 1 and 2 with preliminary engineering and market assessments to evaluate the feasibility of large-scale use of fly ash in fired-clay products.

Hughes, R.E.; Dreher, G.B.; Rostam-Abadi, R. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31

453

Unpolarized nucleon structure studies utilizing polarized electromagnetic probes.  

SciTech Connect

By the mid-1980s, measurements of the nucleon form factors had reached a stage where only slow, incremental progress was possible using unpolarized electron scattering. The development of high quality polarized beams, polarized targets, and recoil polarimeters led to a renaissance in the experimental program. I provide an overview of the changes in the field in the last ten years, which were driven by the dramatically improved data made possible by a new family of tools to measure polarization observables.

Arrington, J.; Physics

2009-08-15

454

Utilization of synergetic aerosol retrieval  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A synergetic aerosol retrieval method SYNAER which exploits a combination of a radiome-ter and a spectrometer onboard ENVISAT and METOP has been developed. This method enables retrieval of aerosol optical depth and an estimation of the aerosol composition. Due to the sampling characteristics and available information content of the combined sensor data the utilization of the results has to be done with appropriate care. On the other hand the specifically new information on aerosol composition enables new applications in the fields of aerosol monitoring (differntiating components), air quality (fine particulate matter assessment and data assimilation), and climate research (aerosol-cloud interaction analysis for different aerosol components). The paper will show examples of applications in the various fields. The paper will be based on ongoing reprocessing of SYNAER for ENVISAT 2003-2009 within ESA GSE PROMOTE and on experimental selected results for METOP. Implications of the different sampling of the two sensor combinations for the differnt applications will be assessed.

Holzer-Popp, Thomas

455

San Francisco Public Utilities Commission  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (PUC) digital collection is based at the San Francisco Public Library. It includes over 300 images, spanning 1887 to 1968, of significant events and projects such as the building of the Hetch Hetchy Railroad and O'Shaughnessey Dam, the construction of the Golden Gate International Exposition on Treasure Island, and so on. These fascinating historic industrial photographs document the pipelines, tunnels, reservoirs, dams, powerhouses, and pumping stations that the PUC has built and maintained in order "to provide water, sewerage and municipal services to the City and County of San Francisco." Visitors can click on the link provided here to view the images, or perform their own detailed search across the entire collection. The views of the Calaveras Dam are quite dramatic and there are many photos documenting the Golden Gate International Exposition as well.

2012-07-13

456

Serine utilization by Klebsiella aerogenes.  

PubMed Central

Klebsiella aerogenes was found to contain a specific L-serine dehydrase that was induced by threonine, glycine or leucine, but not by its substrate. Cellular concentrations were sensitive to carbon rather than nitrogen sources in the growth medium. A nonspecific isoleucine-sensitive L-threonine dehydrase supplemented the specific L-serine dehydrase activity. K. aerogenes also contains a leucine-inducible L-threonine dehydrogenase which probably initiated a threonine-utilization pathway in which the serine-specific dehydrate participated. Strains that were altered in their ability to metabolize serine differed in either L-serine dehydrase or L-threonine dehydrase activity. Thus, K. aerogenes growing on L-serine as a sole nitrogen source relies upon two enzymes that metabolize the amino acid as subsidiary functions. PMID:6783624

Vining, L C; Magasanik, B

1981-01-01

457

Utility and energy cost containment  

SciTech Connect

One of the most lucrative areas for improving bottom line profitability is related to an organization`s costs for utilities and energy. Such things as gas, electric, water, and telephones are treasure chests of cost reduction opportunities. In the past, these items have been viewed as a fixed expense or basic mundane commodity. In recent years, these items have become a large portion of product cost and now must be examined on a continual basis. A formal income improvement program to capture and report on the savings is a requirement for remaining competitive in a global economy. This paper describes areas of potential inefficiency in terms of energy useage and resulting costs to industry.

Newhouse, R. [Tompkins Associates, Roswell, GA (United States)] [Tompkins Associates, Roswell, GA (United States)

1996-09-01

458

Synfuels for utilities. [Conference paper  

SciTech Connect

The technology is available for conversion of coal to synthetic fuels; this technology is summarized in a table comparing coal-derived synthetic fuels in the areas of boiler retrofit, transportation, combustion characteristics, state of development, special considerations, environmental consideration, and heating value. Some processes, such as indirect liquefaction as at SASOL, produce multiple products - sustitute natural gas (SNG), methanol, and motor fuel, which may have significant benefits during the early life of the industry. The solid and direct-liquefaction conversion processes are in the demonstration stage of development. The authors expect the synfuels industry to develop at a rapid rate during the 1980's, producing motor transport fuels. After a significant synthetic-fuels industry is established, the utility industry will have a dedicated supply to draw from. 12 references.

Coons, J.S.; Scott, O.F.

1980-01-01

459

Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2005)  

SciTech Connect

This report presents year-end 2005 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities to benchmark the success of their green power programs.

Bird, L.; Brown, E.

2006-10-01

460

UTILIZATION OF ALASKAN SALMON CANNERY WASTE  

E-print Network

UTILIZATION OF ALASKAN SALMON CANNERY WASTE Marine Biological Laboratory iM0V3Ul953 WOODS HOLE and Wildlife Service, John L. Farley, Director UTILIZATION OP ALASKM SALMON CANlTEaT WASH PAHTS I AHD II, September 1953 #12;#12;UTILIZATION OF AUSKAN SALMON CANNERY WASTE y PART I 1. Possibility of Development

461

Golf Carts and Utility Vehicles Effective Date  

E-print Network

: A motor vehicle that is (i) designed for off road use; (ii) powered by an engine of no more than 25/utility vehicle force a pedestrian off of a sidewalk. Golf carts/utility vehicles shall also afford the rightSUBJECT: Golf Carts and Utility Vehicles Effective Date: 8-3-10 Policy Number: 4.1.6 Supersedes: EH

Fernandez, Eduardo

462

Radiological safety aspects of utilizing coal ashes for production of lightweight concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper reports the results of experiments to develop environmentally and economically friendly structural lightweight concretes utilizing coal ashes and other waste materials. The product complies with national and international regulations setting limits on the activity concentration of natural radioisotopes in building products. The utilization of coal ashes in the building industry carries (in addition to its economic advantages)

Mark Nisnevich; Gregory Sirotin; Tuvia Schlesinger; Ya’akov Eshel

2008-01-01

463

Reuse of coal mining wastes in civil engineering. Part 2: Utilization of minestone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oldest method of minestone utilization is reclamation of spoil heaps by adapting them to the landscape by afforestation or agricultural management. The best method is, however, complete removal of the wastes. Hence, for many years research has been carried out to find new ways of minestone utilization to minimize disposal cost and harmful environmental effects. Earth structures offer the

Skarzynska

1995-01-01

464

Reuse of coal mining wastes in civil engineering—Part 2: Utilization of minestone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oldest method of minestone utilization is reclamation of spoil heaps by adapting them to the landscape by afforestation or agricultural management. The best method is, however, complete removal of the wastes. Hence, for many years research has been carried out to find new ways of minestone utilization to minimize disposal cost and harmful environmental effects. Earth structures offer the

Krystyna M. Skar?y?ska

1995-01-01

465

A global service quality index to evaluate the performance and sustainability in water supply utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water supply systems are a structural part of public utilities and as such are vital to the general well- being, public health, safe drinking water use, economic activities and environment protection. The principal objective of regulation is to protect the interests of users by fostering quality in the services provided by utilities and ensuring a fair balance in the charges

ANTÓNIO A. L. S. DUARTE; GISELA M. C. RODRIGUES; RUI A. R. RAMOS

2009-01-01

466

Utilizing Internet Technologies in Observatory Control Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 'Internet boom' of the past few years has spurred the development of a number of technologies to provide services such as secure communications, reliable messaging, information publishing and application distribution for commercial applications. Over the same period, a new generation of computer languages have also developed to provide object oriented design and development, improved reliability, and cross platform compatibility. Whilst the business models of the 'dot.com' era proved to be largely unviable, the technologies that they were based upon have survived and have matured to the point were they can now be utilized to build secure, robust and complete observatory control control systems. This paper will describe how Electro Optic Systems has utilized these technologies in the development of its third generation Robotic Observatory Control System (ROCS). ROCS provides an extremely flexible configuration capability within a control system structure to provide truly autonomous robotic observatory operation including observation scheduling. ROCS was built using Internet technologies such as Java, Java Messaging Service (JMS), Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), eXtendible Markup Language (XML), Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP) and Java WebStart. ROCS was designed to be capable of controlling all aspects of an observatory and be able to be reconfigured to handle changing equipment configurations or user requirements without the need for an expert computer programmer. ROCS consists of many small components, each designed to perform a specific task, with the configuration of the system specified using a simple meta language. The use of small components facilitates testing and makes it possible to prove that the system is correct.

Cording, Dean

2002-12-01

467

Utilization management: a European perspective.  

PubMed

Utilization management (UM) in health care, based on the collection, assessment and monitoring of data pertaining to patient services and treatment, ultimately assures efficiency and effectiveness. The central role of laboratory services in modern medicine created the need to utilize UM programs in clinical laboratories in order to reduce costs, enhance efficiency and improve on quality for patients. Some UM programs have focused on improving efficiency by reducing the cost per test. Consolidation and networking have been proposed as opportunities to increase test volumes, thus achieving economy of scale, and a better ratio between test volumes and fulltime equivalent (FTE) staff. However, little evidence is available in the literature to demonstrate the efficiency of these models, and concern has been expressed regarding the possible increase in pre-analytical errors and the loss of efficient communication between clinicians and laboratory professionals. In Europe, we have seen an increasing emphasis on the importance of demand management strategies as the key to reducing costs and improving on quality in laboratory medicine. The cost of inappropriate requesting includes not only test consumables and reagents, but also additional consultations, treatment and investigations. A number of studies in literature describe strategies and initiatives designed to change and improve test requesting, but the following two items are mandatory for real improvement: a) the active involvement of requesting physicians and other stakeholders, including patients; and b) the use of combined interventions instead of a single strategy. Therefore, the use of approaches for demand management that considers pre-, within- and post-laboratory initiatives is on the increase in clinical laboratories throughout Europe. PMID:23499570

Plebani, Mario; Zaninotto, Martina; Faggian, Diego

2014-01-01

468

Glycerophosphocholine Utilization by Candida albicans  

PubMed Central

Candida albicans contains four ORFs (GIT1,2,3,4) predicted to encode proteins involved in the transport of glycerophosphodiester metabolites. Previously, we reported that Git1, encoded by ORF 19.34, is responsible for the transport of intact glycerophosphoinositol but not glycerophosphocholine (GroPCho). Here, we report that a strain lacking both GIT3 (ORF 19.1979) and GIT4 (ORF 19.1980) is unable to transport [3H]GroPCho into the cell. In the absence of a GroPCho transporter, C. albicans can utilize GroPCho via a mechanism involving extracellular hydrolysis. Upon reintegration of either GIT3 or GIT4 into the genome, measurable uptake of [3H]GroPCho is observed. Transport assays and kinetic analyses indicate that Git3 has the greater transport velocity. We present evidence that GDE1 (ORF 19.3936) codes for an enzyme with glycerophosphodiesterase activity against GroPCho. Homozygous deletion of GDE1 results in a buildup of internal GroPCho that is restored to wild type levels by reintegration of GDE1 into the genome. The transcriptional regulator, Pho4, is shown to regulate the expression of GIT3, GIT4, and GDE1. Finally, Git3 is shown to be required for full virulence in a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis, and Git3 sequence orthologs are present in other pathogenic Candida species. In summary, we have characterized multiple aspects of GroPCho utilization by C. albicans and have demonstrated that GroPCho transport plays a key role in the growth of the organism in the host. PMID:24114876

Bishop, Andrew C.; Ganguly, Shantanu; Solis, Norma V.; Cooley, Benjamin M.; Jensen-Seaman, Michael I.; Filler, Scott G.; Mitchell, Aaron P.; Patton-Vogt, Jana

2013-01-01

469

What Marketing Strategies Make Sense for Utilities  

E-print Network

to utilities. The important attributes of servi1e that A number of pressures are being placed on the utilities should strive to achieve include: electric utility industry to develop much closer relationships ? Strong end-user ties with customers and key... that large commercial/industrial customers want the following from ' The successful utility will be the one who emp oys superior strategy, not the one who has superior resourc s. TIlE BUILDING OF UTILI1Y STRATEGY What strategy should utilities employ...

Davis, T. D.

470

Removing Barriers to Utility Interconnected Photovoltaic Inverters  

SciTech Connect

The Million Solar Roofs Initiative has motivated a renewed interest in the development of utility interconnected photovoltaic (UIPV) inverters. Government-sponsored programs (PVMaT, PVBONUS) and competition among utility interconnected inverter manufacturers have stimulated innovations and improved the performance of existing technologies. With this resurgence, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a program to assist industry initiatives to overcome barriers to UIPV inverters. In accordance with newly adopted IEEE 929-2000, the utility interconnected PV inverters are required to cease energizing the utility grid when either a significant disturbance occurs or the utility experiences an interruption in service. Compliance with IEEE 929-2000 is being widely adopted by utilities as a minimum requirement for utility interconnection. This report summarizes work done at the SNL balance-of-systems laboratory to support the development of IEEE 929-2000 and to assist manufacturers in meeting its requirements.

Gonzalez, S.; Bonn, R.H.; Ginn, J.W.

2000-10-03

471

Contract Provisions and Ratchets: Utility Security or Customer Equity?  

E-print Network

CONTRACT PROVISIONS ANO RATCHETS: UTILITY SECURITY OR CUSTOMER EQUITY? BARBARA A. PENKALA Senior Research Analyst Houston Lighting & Power Company Houston. Texas ABSTRACT The contract provisions and ratchets con tained in an electric.... INTRODUCTION The pricing structures of large commercial and industrial electric tariffs often contain various contract provisions which provide for some minimum demand to be billed to the customer over a period of time. These contract provisions include...

Penkala, B. A.

472

Advanced multi-megawatt wind turbine design for utility application  

Microsoft Academic Search

A NASA\\/DOE program to develop a utility class multimegawatt wind turbine, the MOD-5A, is described. The MOD-5A features a 400 foot diameter rotor which is teetered and positioned upwind of the tower; a 7.3 megawatt power rating with a variable speed electric generating system; and a redundant rotor support and torque transmission structure. The rotor blades were fabricated from an

W. C. Pijawka

1984-01-01

473

Identifying Chelators for Metalloprotein Inhibitors Using a Fragment-Based Approach  

PubMed Central

Fragment-based lead design (FBLD) has been used to identify new metal-binding groups for metalloenzyme inhibitors. When screened at 1 mM, a chelator fragment library (CFL-1.1) of 96 compounds produced hit rates ranging from 29–43% for five matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), 24% for anthrax lethal factor (LF), 49% for 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), and 60% for tyrosinase (TY). The ligand efficiencies (LE) of the fragment hits are excellent, in the range of 0.4–0.8 kcal/mol. The MMP enzymes all generally elicit the same chelators as hits from CFL-1.1; however, the chelator fragments that inhibit structurally unrelated metalloenzymes (LF, 5-LO, TY) vary considerably. To develop more advanced hits, one hit from CFL-1.1, 8-hydroxyquinoline, was elaborated at four different positions around the ring system to generate new fragments. 8-Hydroxyquinoline fragments substituted at either the 5- or 7-positions gave potent hits against MMP-2, with IC50 values in the low micromolar range. The 8-hydroxyquinoline represents a promising, new chelator scaffold for the development of MMP inhibitors that was discovered by use of a metalloprotein-focused chelator fragment library. PMID:21189019

Jacobsen, Jennifer A.; Fullagar, Jessica; Miller, Melissa T.; Cohen, Seth M.

2011-01-01

474

Diagnostic utility of bronchoalveolar lavage  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a diagnostic procedure by which cells and other components from bronchial and alveolar spaces are obtained for various studies. One of the main advantages of BAL is that it can be done as a day care procedure. Material obtained by BAL can give a definite diagnosis in conditions such as infections and malignancies. Aims: The aims and objective of this study were to assess the utility of BAL as a diagnostic tool to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the material obtained from BAL in various infections and neoplastic lesions to study the limitations of BAL in certain lung disorders. Materials and Methods: This study was done in a tertiary care center in Hyderabad. Bronchoscopy was done as an outpatient procedure and lavage fluid obtained analyzed. This is a prospective study done from January 2012 to Jun 2013. Ninety-one BALs were analyzed for total and differential count, microbiological examination and cytological evaluation. Cases selected included nonresolving pneumonias, diffuse lung infiltrates, infiltrates in immunosuppressed hosts and ventilator-associated pneumonias. Results: Bronchoalveolar lavage was done in 91 cases over a period of 1½ years. Definite diagnosis was not given in 7 cases. Four cases were inadequate. Tuberculosis was diagnosed in 22 cases, fungal infections in 7 cases. Thirty-eight cases of bacterial pneumonias were diagnosed, Klebsiella was the most common organism. Malignancy was diagnosed in 13 cases. Conclusion: Definite diagnosis can be made in tuberculosis, fungal infections, bacterial pneumonias and in malignancies.

Radha, Sistla; Afroz, Tameem; Prasad, Sudheer; Ravindra, Nallagonda

2014-01-01

475

Utilizing semantic networks to database and retrieve generalized stochastic colored Petri nets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous work has introduced the Planning Coordinator (PCOORD), a coordinator functioning within the hierarchy of the Intelligent Machine Mode. Within the structure of the Planning Coordinator resides the Primitive Structure Database (PSDB) functioning to provide the primitive structures utilized by the Planning Coordinator in the establishing of error recovery or on-line path