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Sample records for structures conspicuously absent

  1. Sources and Structures of Mitotic Crossovers That Arise When BLM Helicase Is Absent in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    LaFave, Matthew C.; Andersen, Sabrina L.; Stoffregen, Eric P.; Holsclaw, Julie K.; Kohl, Kathryn P.; Overton, Lewis J.; Sekelsky, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    The Bloom syndrome helicase, BLM, has numerous functions that prevent mitotic crossovers. We used unique features of Drosophila melanogaster to investigate origins and properties of mitotic crossovers that occur when BLM is absent. Induction of lesions that block replication forks increased crossover frequencies, consistent with functions for BLM in responding to fork blockage. In contrast, treatment with hydroxyurea, which stalls forks, did not elevate crossovers, even though mutants lacking BLM are sensitive to killing by this agent. To learn about sources of spontaneous recombination, we mapped mitotic crossovers in mutants lacking BLM. In the male germline, irradiation-induced crossovers were distributed randomly across the euchromatin, but spontaneous crossovers were nonrandom. We suggest that regions of the genome with a high frequency of mitotic crossovers may be analogous to common fragile sites in the human genome. Interestingly, in the male germline there is a paucity of crossovers in the interval that spans the pericentric heterochromatin, but in the female germline this interval is more prone to crossing over. Finally, our system allowed us to recover pairs of reciprocal crossover chromosomes. Sequencing of these revealed the existence of gene conversion tracts and did not provide any evidence for mutations associated with crossovers. These findings provide important new insights into sources and structures of mitotic crossovers and functions of BLM helicase. PMID:24172129

  2. Absent pulmonary valve

    MedlinePlus

    ... absent pulmonary valve syndrome associated with bronchial obstruction. Ann Thoracic Surg. 2006;82:2221-2226. PMID: 17126138 ... of airway compression in absent pulmonary valve syndrome. Ann Thorac Surg . 2006;81:1802-1807. PMID: 16631676 ...

  3. Absent pulmonary valve

    MedlinePlus

    ... can occur with absent pulmonary valve include: Abnormal tricuspid valve Atrial septal defect Double outlet right ventricle Ductus arteriosis Endocardial cushion defect Marfan syndrome Tricuspid atresia Heart problems that occur with absent pulmonary ...

  4. 14 CFR 31.83 - Conspicuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... surface of the envelope must be of a contrasting color or colors so that it will be conspicuous during... enough, and there are enough of them of contrasting color, to make the balloon conspicuous during flight....

  5. 14 CFR 31.83 - Conspicuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... surface of the envelope must be of a contrasting color or colors so that it will be conspicuous during... enough, and there are enough of them of contrasting color, to make the balloon conspicuous during flight....

  6. Tooth formation - delayed or absent

    MedlinePlus

    Delayed or absent tooth formation; Teeth - delayed or absent formation ... The age at which the tooth comes in varies. Most infants get their first tooth between 6 and 9 months, but it may be earlier or later. ...

  7. The fish eye view: are cichlids conspicuous?

    PubMed

    Dalton, Brian E; Cronin, Thomas W; Marshall, N Justin; Carleton, Karen L

    2010-07-01

    The extent of animal colouration is determined by an interplay between natural and sexual selection. Both forces probably shape colouration in the speciose, rock-dwelling cichlids of Lake Malawi. Sexual selection is thought to drive male colouration, overcoming natural selection to create conspicuous colour patterns via female mate choice and male-male competition. However, natural selection should make female cichlids cryptic because they mouthbrood their young. We hypothesize that as a result of both sexual and natural selection, males will have colours that are more conspicuous than female colours. Cichlid spectral sensitivity, especially in the ultraviolet, probably influences how colours appear to them. Here we use simple models of the trichromatic colour space of cichlid visual systems to compare the conspicuousness of male and female nuptial colours of nine species. Conspicuousness of colours was evaluated as their Euclidian distance in colour space from environmental backgrounds and from other colours on the same fish. We find in six of the nine species that breeding males have colours that are statistically more conspicuous than female colours. These colours contrast strongly with each other or with the backgrounds, and they fall within a range of spectra best transmitted in the habitat. Female colour distances were sometimes smaller, suggesting that females of some species are more cryptic than males. Therefore, selection can differentially act to generate male colours that are more conspicuous than those in females. However, in two species, females had colours that were more conspicuous than male colours, suggesting that other selective forces and possibly sexual conflicts are acting in this system. PMID:20543123

  8. Engineering the Electronic Structure of 2D WS2 Nanosheets Using Co Incorporation as Cox W(1- x ) S2 for Conspicuously Enhanced Hydrogen Generation.

    PubMed

    Shifa, Tofik Ahmed; Wang, Fengmei; Liu, Kaili; Xu, Kai; Wang, Zhenxing; Zhan, Xueying; Jiang, Chao; He, Jun

    2016-07-01

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), as one of potential electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), have been extensively studied. Such TMD-based ternary materials are believed to engender optimization of hydrogen adsorption free energy to thermoneutral value. Theoretically, cobalt is predicted to actively promote the catalytic activity of WS2 . However, experimentally it requires systematic approach to form Cox W(1- x ) S2 without any concomitant side phases that are detrimental for the intended purpose. This study reports a rational method to synthesize pure ternary Cox W(1- x ) S2 nanosheets for efficiently catalyzing HER. Benefiting from the modification in the electronic structure, the resultant material requires overpotential of 121 mV versus reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) to achieve current density of 10 mA cm(-2) and shows Tafel slope of 67 mV dec(-1) . Furthermore, negligible loss of activity is observed over continues electrolysis of up to 2 h demonstrating its fair stability. The finding provides noticeable experimental support for other computational reports and paves the way for further works in the area of HER catalysis based on ternary materials. PMID:27322598

  9. 16 CFR 500.20 - Conspicuousness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conspicuousness. 500.20 Section 500.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENT OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION AND EXEMPTIONS UNDER THE FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT REGULATIONS UNDER SECTION 4 OF THE...

  10. 16 CFR 500.20 - Conspicuousness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conspicuousness. 500.20 Section 500.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENT OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION AND EXEMPTIONS UNDER THE FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT REGULATIONS UNDER SECTION 4 OF THE...

  11. 16 CFR 500.20 - Conspicuousness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INTERPRETATION AND EXEMPTIONS UNDER THE FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT REGULATIONS UNDER SECTION 4 OF THE FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT § 500.20 Conspicuousness. The statement of net quantity of contents shall appear..., color, embossing, or molding) to other matter on the package; except that a statement of net...

  12. Conspicuous and aposematic spines in the animal kingdom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inbar, Moshe; Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2005-04-01

    Spines serve as a common physical defence mechanism in both the plant and animal kingdoms. Here we argue that as in plants, defensive animal spines are often conspicuous (shape and colour) and should be considered aposematic. Conspicuous spines may evolve as signals or serve as a cue for potential predators. Spine conspicuousness in animals has evolved independently across and within phyla occupying aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, indicating that this convergent phenomenon is highly adaptive. Still, many spines are cryptic, suggesting that conspicuity is not simply constrained by developmental factors such as differences in the chemical composition of the integument. Aposematism does not preclude the signalling role of conspicuous spines in the sexual arena.

  13. 21 CFR 369.10 - Conspicuousness of warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conspicuousness of warning statements. 369.10 Section 369.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...-COUNTER SALE Definitions and Interpretations § 369.10 Conspicuousness of warning statements....

  14. Denoised and texture enhanced MVCT to improve soft tissue conspicuity

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Ke Qi, Sharon X.; Gou, Shuiping; Wu, Jiaolong

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: MVCT images have been used in TomoTherapy treatment to align patients based on bony anatomies but its usefulness for soft tissue registration, delineation, and adaptive radiation therapy is limited due to insignificant photoelectric interaction components and the presence of noise resulting from low detector quantum efficiency of megavoltage x-rays. Algebraic reconstruction with sparsity regularizers as well as local denoising methods has not significantly improved the soft tissue conspicuity. The authors aim to utilize a nonlocal means denoising method and texture enhancement to recover the soft tissue information in MVCT (DeTECT). Methods: A block matching 3D (BM3D) algorithm was adapted to reduce the noise while keeping the texture information of the MVCT images. Following imaging denoising, a saliency map was created to further enhance visual conspicuity of low contrast structures. In this study, BM3D and saliency maps were applied to MVCT images of a CT imaging quality phantom, a head and neck, and four prostate patients. Following these steps, the contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) were quantified. Results: By applying BM3D denoising and saliency map, postprocessed MVCT images show remarkable improvements in imaging contrast without compromising resolution. For the head and neck patient, the difficult-to-see lymph nodes and vein in the carotid space in the original MVCT image became conspicuous in DeTECT. For the prostate patients, the ambiguous boundary between the bladder and the prostate in the original MVCT was clarified. The CNRs of phantom low contrast inserts were improved from 1.48 and 3.8 to 13.67 and 16.17, respectively. The CNRs of two regions-of-interest were improved from 1.5 and 3.17 to 3.14 and 15.76, respectively, for the head and neck patient. DeTECT also increased the CNR of prostate from 0.13 to 1.46 for the four prostate patients. The results are substantially better than a local denoising method using anisotropic diffusion

  15. Decoration Increases the Conspicuousness of Raptor Nests

    PubMed Central

    Canal, David; Mulero-Pázmány, Margarita; Negro, Juan José; Sergio, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Avian nests are frequently concealed or camouflaged, but a number of species builds noticeable nests or use conspicuous materials for nest decoration. In most cases, nest decoration has a role in mate choice or provides thermoregulatory or antiparasitic benefits. In territorial species however, decorations may serve additional or complementary functions, such as extended phenotypic signaling of nest-site occupancy and social status to potential intruders. The latter may benefit both signaler and receiver by minimizing the risk of aggressive interactions, especially in organisms with dangerous weaponry. Support for this hypothesis was recently found in a population of black kites (Milvus migrans), a territorial raptor that decorates its nest with white artificial materials. However, the crucial assumption that nest decorations increased nest-site visibility to conspecifics was not assessed, a key aspect given that black kite nests may be well concealed within the canopy. Here, we used an unmanned aircraft system to take pictures of black kite nests, with and without an experimentally placed decoration, from different altitudes and distances simulating the perspective of a flying and approaching, prospecting intruder. The pictures were shown to human volunteers through a standardized routine to determine whether detection rates varied according the nest decoration status and distance. Decorated nests consistently showed a higher detection frequency and a lower detection-latency, compared to undecorated versions of the same nests. Our results confirm that nest decoration in this species may act as a signaling medium that enhances nest visibility for aerial receivers, even at large distances. This finding complements previous work on this communication system, which showed that nest decoration was a threat informing trespassing conspecifics on the social dominance, territory quality and fighting capabilities of the signaler. PMID:27455066

  16. Decoration Increases the Conspicuousness of Raptor Nests.

    PubMed

    Canal, David; Mulero-Pázmány, Margarita; Negro, Juan José; Sergio, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Avian nests are frequently concealed or camouflaged, but a number of species builds noticeable nests or use conspicuous materials for nest decoration. In most cases, nest decoration has a role in mate choice or provides thermoregulatory or antiparasitic benefits. In territorial species however, decorations may serve additional or complementary functions, such as extended phenotypic signaling of nest-site occupancy and social status to potential intruders. The latter may benefit both signaler and receiver by minimizing the risk of aggressive interactions, especially in organisms with dangerous weaponry. Support for this hypothesis was recently found in a population of black kites (Milvus migrans), a territorial raptor that decorates its nest with white artificial materials. However, the crucial assumption that nest decorations increased nest-site visibility to conspecifics was not assessed, a key aspect given that black kite nests may be well concealed within the canopy. Here, we used an unmanned aircraft system to take pictures of black kite nests, with and without an experimentally placed decoration, from different altitudes and distances simulating the perspective of a flying and approaching, prospecting intruder. The pictures were shown to human volunteers through a standardized routine to determine whether detection rates varied according the nest decoration status and distance. Decorated nests consistently showed a higher detection frequency and a lower detection-latency, compared to undecorated versions of the same nests. Our results confirm that nest decoration in this species may act as a signaling medium that enhances nest visibility for aerial receivers, even at large distances. This finding complements previous work on this communication system, which showed that nest decoration was a threat informing trespassing conspecifics on the social dominance, territory quality and fighting capabilities of the signaler. PMID:27455066

  17. Conspicuous and aposematic spines in the animal kingdom.

    PubMed

    Inbar, Moshe; Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2005-04-01

    Spines serve as a common physical defence mechanism in both the plant and animal kingdoms. Here we argue that as in plants, defensive animal spines are often conspicuous (shape and colour) and should be considered aposematic. Conspicuous spines may evolve as signals or serve as a cue for potential predators. Spine conspicuousness in animals has evolved independently across and within phyla occupying aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, indicating that this convergent phenomenon is highly adaptive. Still, many spines are cryptic, suggesting that conspicuity is not simply constrained by developmental factors such as differences in the chemical composition of the integument. Aposematism does not preclude the signalling role of conspicuous spines in the sexual arena. PMID:15761732

  18. Allograft Replacement for Absent Native Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhury, Salma; Wanivenhaus, Florian; Fox, Alice J.; Warren, Russell F.; Doyle, Maureen; Rodeo, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Structural instability due to poor soft tissue quality often requires augmentation. Allografts are important biological substitutes that are used for the symptomatic patient in the reconstruction of deficient ligaments, tendons, menisci, and osteochondral defects. Interest in the clinical application of allografts has arisen from the demand to obtain stable anatomy with restoration of function and protection against additional injury, particularly for high-demand patients who participate in sports. Traditionally, allografts were employed to reinforce weakened tissue. However, they can also be employed to substitute deficient or functionally absent tissue, particularly in the sports medicine setting. Objective: This article presents a series of 6 cases that utilized allografts to restore functionally deficient anatomic architecture, rather than just simply augmenting the degenerated or damaged native tissue. Detailed discussions are presented of the use of allografts as a successful treatment strategy to replace functionally weakened tissue, often after failed primary repairs. PMID:24427387

  19. 21 CFR 740.2 - Conspicuousness of warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.2 Conspicuousness of warning... exemption pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section is established. (b) If the label of any cosmetic...

  20. 21 CFR 740.2 - Conspicuousness of warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.2 Conspicuousness of warning... exemption pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section is established. (b) If the label of any cosmetic...

  1. 21 CFR 740.2 - Conspicuousness of warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.2 Conspicuousness of warning... exemption pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section is established. (b) If the label of any cosmetic...

  2. 21 CFR 740.2 - Conspicuousness of warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.2 Conspicuousness of warning... exemption pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section is established. (b) If the label of any cosmetic...

  3. 21 CFR 740.2 - Conspicuousness of warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.2 Conspicuousness of warning... exemption pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section is established. (b) If the label of any cosmetic...

  4. Using biological motion to enhance the conspicuity of roadway workers.

    PubMed

    Wood, Joanne M; Tyrrell, Richard A; Marszalek, Ralph; Lacherez, Philippe; Chaparro, Alex; Britt, Thomas W

    2011-05-01

    This study examined whether the conspicuity of road workers at night can be enhanced by distributing retroreflective strips across the body to present a pattern of biological motion (biomotion). Twenty visually normal drivers (mean age = 40.3 years) participated in an experiment conducted at two open-road work sites (one suburban and one freeway) at night-time. At each site, four road workers walked in place wearing a standard road worker night vest either (a) alone, (b) with additional retroreflective strips on thighs, (c) with additional retroreflective strips on ankles and knees, or (d) with additional retroreflective strips on eight moveable joints (full biomotion). Participants, seated in stationary vehicles at three different distances (80 m, 160 m, 240 m), rated the relative conspicuity of the four road workers. Road worker conspicuity was maximized by the full biomotion configuration at all distances and at both sites. The addition of ankle and knee markings also provided significant benefits relative to the standard vest alone. The effects of clothing configuration were more evident at the freeway site and at shorter distances. Overall, the full biomotion configuration was ranked to be most conspicuous and the vest least conspicuous. These data provide the first evidence that biomotion effectively enhances conspicuity of road workers at open-road work sites. PMID:21376898

  5. Infants Interpret Ambiguous Requests for Absent Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saylor, Megan M.; Ganea, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    The current studies investigated 2 skills involved in 14- to 20-month-olds' ability to interpret ambiguous requests for absent objects: tracking others' experiences (Study 1) and representing links between speakers and object features across present and absent reference episodes (Study 2). In the basic task, 2 experimenters played separately with…

  6. Cryptic and conspicuous coloration in the pelagic environment.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, Sönke

    2002-02-01

    Despite the importance of cryptic and conspicuous coloration in pelagic ecosystems, few researchers have investigated the optimal reflectance spectra for either trait. In this study, the underwater radiance distribution in tropical oceanic water was modelled using measured inherent optical properties and radiative transfer calculations. The modelled light field was then used to predict the reflectance spectra that resulted in minimal or maximal object contrast as a function of depth, viewing angle, azimuth and solar elevation. The results matched commonly observed trends in the coloration of many pelagic organisms and showed that optimal coloration for either crypticity or conspicuity is a complex function of the parameters examined. The effects of viewing angle and depth were substantial and non-intuitive, showing that red coloration is most cryptic at depth. The effects of viewing azimuth were less significant and the effects of solar elevation were minor. White coloration and black coloration were equally cryptic/conspicuous when viewed from below. Although conspicuous objects viewed from below had the lowest contrast when viewed from a short distance, they had the longest sighting distances. The contrast of maximally conspicuous objects viewed from short distances was greatest at wavelengths displaced from the wavelength of maximum light penetration. PMID:11839193

  7. Surgical Management of Absent Pulmonary Valve Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Richard A

    2016-09-01

    The author's approach to the management of tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve is described, including the technique of homograft replacement of the central pulmonary arteries for the neonate who presents with profound respiratory compromise. PMID:27587495

  8. Predator mimicry, not conspicuousness, explains the efficacy of butterfly eyespots

    PubMed Central

    De Bona, Sebastiano; Valkonen, Janne K.; López-Sepulcre, Andrés; Mappes, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Large conspicuous eyespots on butterfly wings have been shown to deter predators. This has been traditionally explained by mimicry of vertebrate eyes, but recently the classic eye-mimicry hypothesis has been challenged. It is proposed that the conspicuousness of the eyespot, not mimicry, is what causes aversion due to sensory biases, neophobia or sensory overloads. We conducted an experiment to directly test whether the eye-mimicry or the conspicuousness hypothesis better explain eyespot efficacy. We used great tits (Parus major) as model predator, and tested their reaction towards animated images on a computer display. Birds were tested against images of butterflies without eyespots, with natural-looking eyespots, and manipulated spots with the same contrast but reduced resemblance to an eye, as well as images of predators (owls) with and without eyes. We found that mimetic eyespots were as effective as true eyes of owls and more efficient in eliciting an aversive response than modified, less mimetic but equally contrasting eyespots. We conclude that the eye-mimicry hypothesis explains our results better than the conspicuousness hypothesis and is thus likely to be an important mechanism behind the evolution of butterfly eyespots. PMID:25854889

  9. Predator mimicry, not conspicuousness, explains the efficacy of butterfly eyespots.

    PubMed

    De Bona, Sebastiano; Valkonen, Janne K; López-Sepulcre, Andrés; Mappes, Johanna

    2015-05-01

    Large conspicuous eyespots on butterfly wings have been shown to deter predators. This has been traditionally explained by mimicry of vertebrate eyes, but recently the classic eye-mimicry hypothesis has been challenged. It is proposed that the conspicuousness of the eyespot, not mimicry, is what causes aversion due to sensory biases, neophobia or sensory overloads. We conducted an experiment to directly test whether the eye-mimicry or the conspicuousness hypothesis better explain eyespot efficacy. We used great tits (Parus major) as model predator, and tested their reaction towards animated images on a computer display. Birds were tested against images of butterflies without eyespots, with natural-looking eyespots, and manipulated spots with the same contrast but reduced resemblance to an eye, as well as images of predators (owls) with and without eyes. We found that mimetic eyespots were as effective as true eyes of owls and more efficient in eliciting an aversive response than modified, less mimetic but equally contrasting eyespots. We conclude that the eye-mimicry hypothesis explains our results better than the conspicuousness hypothesis and is thus likely to be an important mechanism behind the evolution of butterfly eyespots. PMID:25854889

  10. Omphalocele major with absent lower limb.

    PubMed

    Kundal, Vijay Kumar; Gajdhar, Mufique; Kundal, Raksha; Ahmed, Reyaz; Agrawal, Leela Dhar

    2015-02-01

    A newborn delivered by Caesarian section presented with an absent anterior abdominal wall and visible bowel loops and liver. The defect was covered by a thin membrane. The patient had associated absent left lower limb and right foot fusion defect. The patient was haemodynamically stable; general condition was average. No genito-urinary abnormality was detected. The anal opening was present normally, and the patient passed meconium immediately after birth. A diagnosis of omphalocele major with amelia was made. The patient was initially managed by topical application of povidone-iodine for eschar formation and epithelisation of the sac. The patient was discharged after 1 week with advice for regular follow-up. PMID:25829718

  11. Conspicuity of target lights: The influence of color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connors, M. M.

    1975-01-01

    The conspicuity (or attention-getting qualities) were investigated of foveally-equated, colored lights, when seen against a star background. Subjects who were periodically engaged in a distracting cockpit task were required to search a large visual field and report the appearance of a target light as quickly as possible. Targets were red, yellow, white, green, and blue, and appeared either as steady or as flashing lights. Results indicate that red targets were missed more frequently and responded to more slowly than lights of other hues. Yellow targets were acquired more slowly than white, green, or blue targets; responses to white targets were significantly slower than responses to green or blue targets. In general, flashing lights were superior to steady lights, but this was not found for all hues. For red, the 2 Hz flash was superior to all other flash rates and to the steady light, none of which differed significantly from each other. Over all hues, conspicuity was found to peak at 2-3 Hz. Response time was found to be fastest, generally, for targets appearing at between 3 and 8 from the center of the visual field. However, this pattern was not repeated for every hue. Conspicuity response times suggest a complex relationship between hue and position in the visual field that is explained only partially by retinal sensitivity.

  12. Two notions of conspicuity and the classification of phyllotaxis.

    PubMed

    Reick, Christian H

    2002-04-01

    Invoking cylindrical Bravais lattices, Adler (1974, 1977) proposed a mathematically precise definition for the botanical classification of phyllotaxis. It is based on opposed pairs of parastichy families, that are conspicuous and visible. Jean (1988) generalized this concept to non-opposed pairs of parastichy families. In the present paper it is shown that this generalization implies a notion of conspicuity different from Adler's. This is made obvious by redefining the key terms of the two approaches. Both classifications are well defined. For Adler's, this is shown by presenting a general proof for his conjecture that conspicuous (in the sense of Adler) opposed pairs of parastichy families are visible. There are indications that in applications to models of phyllotaxis (van Iterson model, inhibitor models) their solutions are better characterized by Jean's classification. The differences between Adler's and Jean's classification show up only in very rare cases, so that the practice of pattern determination is only insignificantly touched by the present results. It turns out that the widely used contact parastichy method to determine phyllotactic patterns gives results according to Jean's classification rather than Adler's. PMID:12054835

  13. Fusion of digital breast tomosynthesis images via wavelet synthesis for improved lesion conspicuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariharan, Harishwaran; Pomponiu, Victor; Zheng, Bin; Whiting, Bruce; Gur, David

    2014-03-01

    Full-field digital mammography (FFDM) is the most common screening procedure for detecting early breast cancer. However, due to complications such as overlapping breast tissue in projection images, the efficacy of FFDM reading is reduced. Recent studies have shown that digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), in combination with FFDM, increases detection sensitivity considerably while decreasing false-positive, recall rates. There is a huge interest in creating diagnostically accurate 2-D interpretations from the DBT slices. Most of the 2-D syntheses rely on visualizing the maximum intensities (brightness) from each slice through different methods. We propose a wavelet based fusion method, where we focus on preserving holistic information from larger structures such as masses while adding high frequency information that is relevant and helpful for diagnosis. This method enables the spatial generation of a 2D image from a series of DBT images, each of which contains both smooth and coarse structures distributed in the wavelet domain. We believe that the wavelet-synthesized images, generated from their DBT image datasets, provide radiologists with improved lesion and micro-calcification conspicuity as compared with FFDM images. The potential impact of this fusion method is (1) Conception of a device-independent, data-driven modality that increases the conspicuity of lesions, thereby facilitating early detection and potentially reducing recall rates; (2) Reduction of the accompanying radiation dose to the patient.

  14. Semen searching when sperm is absent.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Pilar; Santiago, Begoña; Alcalá, Belén; Atienza, Inmaculada

    2015-03-01

    Sexual assault cases have varying factors that may mask semen findings when analysing evidence at the forensic laboratory. Semenogelin (Sg) is a potential marker for the identification of semen even at azoospermy or when few sperm cells are found. The current study examined Sg in normospermic and azoospermic donors as an internal evaluation of sensitivity, specificity and interference. The impact of a historical review of 53 judicial sexual assault cases over a five-year period was also analysed. The use of varying tests was of importance to prioritize certain samples within cases. Semen findings by Sg were then compared to prostate-specific antigen (PSA), phosphatase enzyme (AP) and Y-chromosome presence, the latter being used in an attempt to link semen fluid identification with obtaining a male DNA profile. Test findings were the highest ever registered for Sg (1:400,000), PSA (1:800,000), AP (1:25,000) and sperm cytology (SC) (1:50,000). Our results demonstrated the usefulness of using the Sg marker to avoid a false semen-negative result (6% cases), particularly in cases where sperm was absent or scarce (11% spermatozoa positive cases). Results were expressed in categories according to the set: Sg-PSA-AP. Thus, categories I (full positive, 46%), VI (full negative, 27%) and III (Sg/PSA positive; 11%) were the most frequent and Y-chromosome was obtained in 59%, 12% and 12% ratios, respectively. In conclusion, Sg was recommended for the workflow procedure of semen investigation when sperm absence is expected either from azoospermic/oligospermic or normospermic semen, especially before/after ejaculation. PMID:25753997

  15. Genetic Architecture of Conspicuous Red Ornaments in Female Threespine Stickleback

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Lengxob; Peichel, Catherine L.; McKinnon, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Explaining the presence of conspicuous female ornaments that take the form of male-typical traits has been a longstanding challenge in evolutionary biology. Such female ornaments have been proposed to evolve via both adaptive and nonadaptive evolutionary processes. Determining the genetic underpinnings of female ornaments is important for elucidating the mechanisms by which such female traits arise and persist in natural populations, but detailed information about their genetic basis is still scarce. In this study, we investigated the genetic architecture of two ornaments, the orange-red throat and pelvic spine, in the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Throat coloration is male-specific in ancestral marine populations but has evolved in females in some derived stream populations, whereas sexual dimorphism in pelvic spine coloration is variable among populations. We find that ornaments share a common genetic architecture between the sexes. At least three independent genomic regions contribute to red throat coloration, and harbor candidate genes related to pigment production and pigment cell differentiation. One of these regions is also associated with spine coloration, indicating that both ornaments might be mediated partly via pleiotropic genetic mechanisms. PMID:26715094

  16. 16 CFR 14.9 - Requirements concerning clear and conspicuous disclosures in foreign language advertising and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... conspicuous disclosures in foreign language advertising and sales materials. 14.9 Section 14.9 Commercial... and conspicuous disclosures in foreign language advertising and sales materials. The Federal Trade... language-speaking consumers. As part of this special effort, advertisements, brochures and sales...

  17. 16 CFR 14.9 - Requirements concerning clear and conspicuous disclosures in foreign language advertising and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... conspicuous disclosures in foreign language advertising and sales materials. 14.9 Section 14.9 Commercial... and conspicuous disclosures in foreign language advertising and sales materials. The Federal Trade... language-speaking consumers. As part of this special effort, advertisements, brochures and sales...

  18. 16 CFR 14.9 - Requirements concerning clear and conspicuous disclosures in foreign language advertising and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... conspicuous disclosures in foreign language advertising and sales materials. 14.9 Section 14.9 Commercial... and conspicuous disclosures in foreign language advertising and sales materials. The Federal Trade... language-speaking consumers. As part of this special effort, advertisements, brochures and sales...

  19. 16 CFR 14.9 - Requirements concerning clear and conspicuous disclosures in foreign language advertising and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... conspicuous disclosures in foreign language advertising and sales materials. 14.9 Section 14.9 Commercial... and conspicuous disclosures in foreign language advertising and sales materials. The Federal Trade... language-speaking consumers. As part of this special effort, advertisements, brochures and sales...

  20. Subjective Well-Being in Rural India: The Curse of Conspicuous Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linssen, Rik; van Kempen, Luuk; Kraaykamp, Gerbert

    2011-01-01

    Using data on 697 individuals from 375 rural low income households in India, we test expectations on the effects of relative income and conspicuous consumption on subjective well-being. The results of the multi-level regression analyses show that individuals who spent more on conspicuous consumption report lower levels of subjective well-being.…

  1. 16 CFR 14.9 - Requirements concerning clear and conspicuous disclosures in foreign language advertising and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... conspicuous disclosures in foreign language advertising and sales materials. 14.9 Section 14.9 Commercial... and conspicuous disclosures in foreign language advertising and sales materials. The Federal Trade... language-speaking consumers. As part of this special effort, advertisements, brochures and sales...

  2. Absent Aortic Valve in DiGeorge Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bertsch, Elizabeth C; Minturn, Lucy; Gotteiner, Nina L; Ernst, Linda M

    2016-01-01

    A 20-week-old fetus with the 22q11.2 deletion characteristic of DiGeorge syndrome is described with vertebral segmentation abnormalities and complex cardiovascular anomalies including an absent aortic valve. This is only the second known case of absent aortic valve in association with DiGeorge syndrome. We discuss the association of absent aortic valve with other conotruncal defects and the utility of fetal echocardiography in the diagnosis of DiGeorge syndrome. PMID:26230226

  3. The Eyes Absent proteins in development and disease.

    PubMed

    Tadjuidje, Emmanuel; Hegde, Rashmi S

    2013-06-01

    The Eyes Absent (EYA) proteins, first described in the context of fly eye development, are now implicated in processes as disparate as organ development, innate immunity, DNA damage repair, photoperiodism, angiogenesis, and cancer metastasis. These functions are associated with an unusual combination of biochemical activities: tyrosine phosphatase and threonine phosphatase activities in separate domains, and transactivation potential when associated with a DNA-binding partner. EYA mutations are linked to multiorgan developmental disorders, as well as to adult diseases ranging from dilated cardiomyopathy to late-onset sensorineural hearing loss. With the growing understanding of EYA biochemical and cellular activity, biological function, and association with disease, comes the possibility that the EYA proteins are amenable to the design of targeted therapeutics. The availability of structural information, direct links to disease states, available animal models, and the fact that they utilize unconventional reaction mechanisms that could allow specificity, suggest that EYAs are well-positioned for drug discovery efforts. This review provides a summary of EYA structure, activity, and function, as they relate to development and disease, with particular emphasis on recent findings. PMID:22971774

  4. Subjective Well-being in Rural India: The Curse of Conspicuous Consumption

    PubMed Central

    van Kempen, Luuk; Kraaykamp, Gerbert

    2010-01-01

    Using data on 697 individuals from 375 rural low income households in India, we test expectations on the effects of relative income and conspicuous consumption on subjective well-being. The results of the multi-level regression analyses show that individuals who spent more on conspicuous consumption report lower levels of subjective well-being. Surprisingly an individual’s relative income position does not affect feelings of well-being. Motivated by positional concerns, people do not passively accept their relative rank but instead consume conspicuous goods to keep up with the Joneses. Conspicuous consumption always comes at the account of the consumption of basic needs. Our analyses point at a positional treadmill effect of the consumption of status goods. PMID:21423323

  5. The role of conspicuity in preventing bicycle crashes involving a motor vehicle

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, Alistair; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bicycle use, despite its proven health and other benefits, is rarely part of everyday travel for many people due to the perceived risk of injury from collision crashes. This article investigated the role of physical vs. attention conspicuity in preventing bicycle crashes involving a motor vehicle in New Zealand. Methods: The Taupo Bicycle Study involved 2590 adult cyclists recruited in 2006 (43.1% response rate) and followed for bicycle crash outcomes through linkage to four national databases. A composite measure of physical conspicuity was created using latent class analysis based on the use of fluorescent colours, lights and reflective materials, and the main colour of top, helmet and bike frame. Attention conspicuity was assessed based on regional differences in travel patterns and the amount of riding in a bunch. Cox regression modelling for repeated events was performed with multivariate adjustments. Results: During a median follow-up period of 6.4 years, 162 participants experienced 187 bicycle–motor vehicle crashes. The crash risk was not predicted by the four latent classes identified and the amount of bunch riding but was higher in Auckland, the region with the lowest level of bicycle use relative to car use. In subgroup analyses, compared to other latent classes, the most physically conspicuous group had a higher risk in Auckland but a lower risk in other regions. Conclusion: Conspicuity aids may not be effective in preventing bicycle–motor vehicle crashes in New Zealand, particularly in Auckland, where attention conspicuity is low. PMID:25085469

  6. Using reflective clothing to enhance the conspicuity of bicyclists at night.

    PubMed

    Wood, Joanne M; Tyrrell, Richard A; Marszalek, Ralph; Lacherez, Philippe; Carberry, Trent; Chu, Byoung Sun

    2012-03-01

    Bicycling at night is more dangerous than in the daytime and poor conspicuity is likely to be a contributing factor. The use of reflective markings on a pedestrian's major joints to facilitate the perception of biological motion has been shown to greatly enhance pedestrian conspicuity at night, but few corresponding data exist for bicyclists. Twelve younger and twelve older participants drove around a closed-road circuit at night and indicated when they first recognized a bicyclist who wore black clothing either alone, or together with a reflective bicycling vest, or a vest plus ankle and knee reflectors. The bicyclist pedalled in place on a bicycle that had either a static or flashing light, or no light on the handlebars. Bicyclist clothing significantly affected conspicuity; drivers responded to bicyclists wearing the vest plus ankle and knee reflectors at significantly longer distances than when the bicyclist wore the vest alone or black clothing without a vest. Older drivers responded to bicyclists less often and at shorter distances than younger drivers. The presence of a bicycle light, whether static or flashing, did not enhance the conspicuity of the bicyclist; this may result in bicyclists who use a bicycle light being overconfident of their own conspicuity at night. The implications of our findings are that ankle and knee markings are a simple and very effective approach for enhancing bicyclist conspicuity at night. PMID:22269563

  7. Numerical solution of a conspicuous consumption model with constant control delay☆

    PubMed Central

    Huschto, Tony; Feichtinger, Gustav; Hartl, Richard F.; Kort, Peter M.; Sager, Sebastian; Seidl, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    We derive optimal pricing strategies for conspicuous consumption products in periods of recession. To that end, we formulate and investigate a two-stage economic optimal control problem that takes uncertainty of the recession period length and delay effects of the pricing strategy into account. This non-standard optimal control problem is difficult to solve analytically, and solutions depend on the variable model parameters. Therefore, we use a numerical result-driven approach. We propose a structure-exploiting direct method for optimal control to solve this challenging optimization problem. In particular, we discretize the uncertainties in the model formulation by using scenario trees and target the control delays by introduction of slack control functions. Numerical results illustrate the validity of our approach and show the impact of uncertainties and delay effects on optimal economic strategies. During the recession, delayed optimal prices are higher than the non-delayed ones. In the normal economic period, however, this effect is reversed and optimal prices with a delayed impact are smaller compared to the non-delayed case. PMID:22267871

  8. Breast mass detection using slice conspicuity in 3D reconstructed digital breast volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seong Tae; Kim, Dae Hoe; Ro, Yong Man

    2014-09-01

    In digital breast tomosynthesis, the three dimensional (3D) reconstructed volumes only provide quasi-3D structure information with limited resolution along the depth direction due to insufficient sampling in depth direction and the limited angular range. The limitation could seriously hamper the conventional 3D image analysis techniques for detecting masses because the limited number of projection views causes blurring in the out-of-focus planes. In this paper, we propose a novel mass detection approach using slice conspicuity in the 3D reconstructed digital breast volumes to overcome the above limitation. First, to overcome the limited resolution along the depth direction, we detect regions of interest (ROIs) on each reconstructed slice and separately utilize the depth directional information to combine the ROIs effectively. Furthermore, we measure the blurriness of each slice for resolving the degradation of performance caused by the blur in the out-of-focus plane. Finally, mass features are extracted from the selected in focus slices and analyzed by a support vector machine classifier to reduce the false positives. Comparative experiments have been conducted on a clinical data set. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms the conventional 3D approach by achieving a high sensitivity with a small number of false positives.

  9. Minimal absent words in four human genome assemblies.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Sara P; Pinho, Armando J

    2011-01-01

    Minimal absent words have been computed in genomes of organisms from all domains of life. Here, we aim to contribute to the catalogue of human genomic variation by investigating the variation in number and content of minimal absent words within a species, using four human genome assemblies. We compare the reference human genome GRCh37 assembly, the HuRef assembly of the genome of Craig Venter, the NA12878 assembly from cell line GM12878, and the YH assembly of the genome of a Han Chinese individual. We find the variation in number and content of minimal absent words between assemblies more significant for large and very large minimal absent words, where the biases of sequencing and assembly methodologies become more pronounced. Moreover, we find generally greater similarity between the human genome assemblies sequenced with capillary-based technologies (GRCh37 and HuRef) than between the human genome assemblies sequenced with massively parallel technologies (NA12878 and YH). Finally, as expected, we find the overall variation in number and content of minimal absent words within a species to be generally smaller than the variation between species. PMID:22220210

  10. Sibling Competition and Conspicuousness of Nestling Gapes in Altricial Birds: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Soler, Juan J.; Avilés, Jesús M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Nestlings of altricial birds capture parents' attention through conspicuous visual displays, including exposure of their gape coloration which informs parents about their level of need, competitive ability or health; information that parents use for deciding food allocation among their offspring. Thus, because nestlings compete with nest mates for parental care, nestling conspicuousness is expected to increase with level of sibling competition along bird phylogeny. Methodology/Principal Findings We test this prediction by jointly using information of brood reduction, clutch size and duration of nestling period as proxies for intensity of sibling competition, and visual models that assess detectability of nestlings by adult birds. As predicted, we found a positive association between nestling conspicuousness and intensity of brood reduction, while clutch size and duration of nestling period did not enter in the best models. Level of brood reduction was positively related with the achromatic component of nestling conspicuousness and body mass was negatively related with the chromatic component. Conclusions These associations are in agreement with the hypothesis that sibling competition for parental attention has driven the evolution of visual nestling conspicuousness in a context of parent-offspring communication in altricial birds. PMID:20463902

  11. Modelling of conspicuity-related motorcycle accidents in Seremban and Shah Alam, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Radin, U R; Mackay, M G; Hills, B L

    1996-05-01

    Preliminary analysis of the short-term impact of a running headlights intervention revealed that there has been a significant drop in conspicuity-related motorcycle accidents in the pilot areas, Seremban and Shah Alam, Malaysia. This paper attempts to look in more detail at conspicuity-related accidents involving motorcycles. The aim of the analysis was to establish a statistical model to describe the relationship between the frequency of conspicuity-related motorcycle accidents and a range of explanatory variables so that new insights can be obtained into the effects of introducing a running headlight campaign and regulation. The exogenous variables in this analysis include the influence of time trends, changes in the recording and analysis system, the effect of fasting activities during Ramadhan and the "Balik Kampong" culture, a seasonal cultural-religious holiday activity unique to Malaysia. The model developed revealed that the running headlight intervention reduced the conspicuity-related motorcycle accidents by about 29%. It is concluded that the intervention has been successful in improving conspicuity-related motorcycle accidents in Malaysia. PMID:8799436

  12. Blatant benevolence and conspicuous consumption: when romantic motives elicit strategic costly signals.

    PubMed

    Griskevicius, Vladas; Tybur, Joshua M; Sundie, Jill M; Cialdini, Robert B; Miller, Geoffrey F; Kenrick, Douglas T

    2007-07-01

    Conspicuous displays of consumption and benevolence might serve as "costly signals" of desirable mate qualities. If so, they should vary strategically with manipulations of mating-related motives. The authors examined this possibility in 4 experiments. Inducing mating goals in men increased their willingness to spend on conspicuous luxuries but not on basic necessities. In women, mating goals boosted public--but not private--helping. Although mating motivation did not generally inspire helping in men, it did induce more helpfulness in contexts in which they could display heroism or dominance. Conversely, although mating motivation did not lead women to conspicuously consume, it did lead women to spend more publicly on helpful causes. Overall, romantic motives seem to produce highly strategic and sex-specific self-presentations best understood within a costly signaling framework. PMID:17605591

  13. Inferring Predator Behavior from Attack Rates on Prey-Replicas That Differ in Conspicuousness

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral ecologists and evolutionary biologists have long studied how predators respond to prey items novel in color and pattern. Because a predatory response is influenced by both the predator’s ability to detect the prey and a post-detection behavioral response, variation among prey types in conspicuousness may confound inference about post-prey-detection predator behavior. That is, a relatively high attack rate on a given prey type may result primarily from enhanced conspicuousness and not predators’ direct preference for that prey. Few studies, however, account for such variation in conspicuousness. In a field experiment, we measured predation rates on clay replicas of two aposematic forms of the poison dart frog Dendrobates pumilio, one novel and one familiar, and two cryptic controls. To ask whether predators prefer or avoid a novel aposematic prey form independently of conspicuousness differences among replicas, we first modeled the visual system of a typical avian predator. Then, we used this model to estimate replica contrast against a leaf litter background to test whether variation in contrast alone could explain variation in predator attack rate. We found that absolute predation rates did not differ among color forms. Predation rates relative to conspicuousness did, however, deviate significantly from expectation, suggesting that predators do make post-detection decisions to avoid or attack a given prey type. The direction of this deviation from expectation, though, depended on assumptions we made about how avian predators discriminate objects from the visual background. Our results show that it is important to account for prey conspicuousness when investigating predator behavior and also that existing models of predator visual systems need to be refined. PMID:23119039

  14. Investigating Whether Contacting Absent Students Increases Course Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stucky, Thomas D.

    2008-01-01

    Studies suggest that student attendance in college classes increases course success. Yet, surprisingly few studies have examined strategies to increase student attendance. The goal of the current study is to consider whether contacting consistently absent students increases success in an undergraduate research methods course. Results of this…

  15. 42 CFR 31.6 - Personnel absent without leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personnel absent without leave. 31.6 Section 31.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS MEDICAL CARE FOR CERTAIN PERSONNEL OF THE COAST GUARD, NATIONAL OCEAN SURVEY, PUBLIC...

  16. Vampire Selfie: A Curious Case of an Absent Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Joshua M.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a puzzle for the optics section of an introductory course on reflections. A teacher could ask students to explain the phenomenon of the "vampire selfie" or the absent reflection. How could that be? What physics caused this curious phenomenon? The article explains light refraction and its effect on what we see and…

  17. The Production of Present and Absent Presences in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frelin, Anneli; Grannäs, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the distinction between absent and present presences, this article contributes to our understanding of how new managerial and performative discourses are played out in a secondary school context in Sweden. The consequences of numerous educational reforms during the last 20 years include a surge of new independent schools and increased…

  18. Australian Teacher Education 1900-1950: Conspicuous and Inconspicuous International Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vick, Malcolm

    2007-01-01

    Australian historiography has often portrayed Australian education as dependent and isolated. Starting from Foucault's notion of power as capillary, this paper traces two ways in which Australian teacher training in the first half of the twentieth century was tied into international networks. It documents some conspicuous links between key…

  19. Conspicuous male coloration impairs survival against avian predators in Aegean wall lizards, Podarcis erhardii.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Kate L A; Philpot, Kate E; Stevens, Martin

    2015-09-01

    Animal coloration is strikingly diverse in nature. Within-species color variation can arise through local adaptation for camouflage, sexual dimorphism and conspicuous sexual signals, which often have conflicting effects on survival. Here, we tested whether color variation between two island populations of Aegean wall lizards (Podarcis erhardii) is due to sexual dimorphism and differential survival of individuals varying in appearance. On both islands, we measured attack rates by wild avian predators on clay models matching the coloration of real male and female P. erhardii from each island population, modeled to avian predator vision. Avian predator attack rates differed among model treatments, although only on one island. Male-colored models, which were more conspicuous against their experimental backgrounds to avian predators, were accordingly detected and attacked more frequently by birds than less conspicuous female-colored models. This suggests that female coloration has evolved primarily under selection for camouflage, whereas sexually competing males exhibit costly conspicuous coloration. Unexpectedly, there was no difference in avian attack frequency between local and non-local model types. This may have arisen if the models did not resemble lizard coloration with sufficient precision, or if real lizards behaviorally choose backgrounds that improve camouflage. Overall, these results show that sexually dimorphic coloration can affect the risk of predator attacks, indicating that color variation within a species can be caused by interactions between natural and sexual selection. However, more work is needed to determine how these findings depend on the island environment that each population inhabits. PMID:26442582

  20. 16 CFR 1500.121 - Labeling requirements; prominence, placement, and conspicuousness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Labeling requirements; prominence, placement, and conspicuousness. 1500.121 Section 1500.121 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES AND ARTICLES; ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS § 1500.121...

  1. 49 CFR 229.133 - Interim locomotive conspicuity measures-auxiliary external lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interim locomotive conspicuity measures-auxiliary external lights. 229.133 Section 229.133 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Cabs and...

  2. Nepotism absent in insect societies - or is it?

    PubMed

    Wenseleers, Tom

    2007-08-01

    Inclusive fitness theory, put forward by English biologist William Hamilton in 1964, is considered by many as the most important addition to the theory of natural selection since Darwin. One prediction of the theory is that animals should often show a tendency to nepotistically favour close relatives. Goodisman et al. (2007) test this theory for the first time using molecular methods in a vespine wasp, the eastern yellowjacket, Vespula maculifrons. Somewhat surprisingly, nepotism was found to be absent. This begs the question why nepotism is predicted by theory, yet in a growing list of species is shown to be absent. Is inclusive fitness theory in trouble? As we show, it is not: costs and constraints explain the general absence of queen rearing nepotism, and nepotism in insect societies in fact is well supported in the context of male rearing and manipulation of colony sex ratios. PMID:17651186

  3. Apes Communicate about Absent and Displaced Objects: Methodology Matters

    PubMed Central

    Lyn, Heidi; Russell, Jamie L.; Leavens, David A.; Bard, Kim A.; Boysen, Sarah T.; Schaeffer, Jennifer A.; Hopkins, William D.

    2013-01-01

    Displaced reference is the ability to refer to an item that has been moved (displaced) in space and/or time, and has been called one of the true hallmarks of referential communication. Several studies suggest that nonhuman primates have this capability, but a recent experiment concluded that in a specific situation (absent entities) human infants display displaced reference but chimpanzees do not. Here we show that chimpanzees and bonobos of diverse rearing histories are capable of displaced reference to absent and displaced objects. It is likely that some of the conflicting findings from animal cognition studies are due to relatively minor methodological differences, but are compounded by interpretation errors. Comparative studies are of great importance in elucidating the evolution of human cognition, however, greater care must be taken with methodology and interpretation for these studies to accurately reflect species differences. PMID:23681052

  4. Thrombocytopenia with absent radius in a boy and his uncle.

    PubMed

    Schnur, R E; Eunpu, D L; Zackai, E H

    1987-09-01

    We report a boy and his maternal uncle who have Thrombocytopenia-Absent Radius (TAR) syndrome. The mother of the propositus is normal. A maternal aunt has mild radial hypoplasia, possibly representing partial expression of the syndrome. A review of the literature shows several pedigrees in which relatives other than sibs were affected with TAR. Thus, autosomal recessive inheritance may not account for all cases and alternate modes of transmission should be considered. PMID:3314504

  5. PHACE syndrome and congenitally absent thyroid gland at MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Mamlouk, Mark D; Yu, John-Paul J; Asch, Sarah; Mathes, Erin F

    2016-01-01

    PHACE syndrome is a rare neurocutaneous disorder characterized by posterior fossa malformations, hemangiomas, arterial anomalies, cardiac defects, and abnormalities of the eye. Thyroid disorders associated with PHACE syndrome have been described, although there are limited reports of this rare occurrence. We report a case of PHACE syndrome with congenital hypothyroidism in an infant, for which absent thyroid gland was diagnosed at magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:26995578

  6. Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: implications of absent mini-puberty.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Andrew A; Jayasena, Channa N; Quinton, Richard

    2016-06-01

    The phenomenon known as "mini-puberty" refers to activation of the neonatal hypothalamo-pituitary axis causing serum concentrations of gonadotrophins and testosterone (T) to approach adult male levels. This early neonatal period is a key proliferative window for testicular germ cells and immature Sertoli cells. Although failure to spontaneously initiate (adolescent) puberty is the most evident consequence of a defective gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurosecretory network, absent mini-puberty is also likely to have a major impact on the reproductive phenotype of men with congenital hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (CHH). Furthermore, the phase of male mini-puberty represents a key window-of-opportunity to identify congenital GnRH deficiency (either isolated CHH, or as part of combined pituitary hormone deficiency) in childhood. Among male neonates exhibiting "red flag" indicators for CHH (i.e. maldescended testes with or without cryptorchidism) a single serum sample (between 4-8 weeks of life) can pinpoint congenital GnRH deficiency far more rapidly and with much greater accuracy than dynamic tests performed in later childhood or adolescence. Potential consequences for missing absent mini-puberty in a male neonate include the lack of monitoring of pubertal progression/lack of progression, and the missed opportunity for early therapeutic intervention. This article will review our current understanding of the mechanisms and clinical consequences of mini-puberty. Furthermore, evidence for the optimal clinical management of patients with absent mini-puberty will be discussed. PMID:27213784

  7. Vampire Selfie: A Curious Case of an Absent Reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Joshua M.

    2014-11-01

    During a recent ride in an elevator, I was startled by an observation. Once the door closed, the features on the back wall of the elevator were evident in a reflection on the door; however, my own reflection appeared absent (see Fig. 1). How could that be? What physics caused this curious phenomenon? The elevator had wooden molding, including horizontal strips that ran all the way around the back and sides (see Fig. 2). These horizontal strips were what showed up most clearly in the reflection. The door's surface was brushed metal with the brush marks all running vertically. Therein lay the solution.

  8. Investigation of five types of switchable retroreflector films for enhanced visible and infrared conspicuity applications.

    PubMed

    Schultz, P; Cumby, B; Heikenfeld, J

    2012-06-10

    We report on the physics, design, characterization, and demonstration of five viable techniques for switchable retroreflectors, including integrated electrowetting scattering, integrated and external electrowetting light valves, external liquid crystal light valve, and external liquid crystal scattering. All techniques were evaluated for use in conspicuity applications spanning wavelengths in the visible and IR (night vision). Achieved performance includes high optical efficiencies up to nearly 30% (out of a maximum 35%), visibly fast switching speeds of <100 ms, low to moderate operating voltages ranging from 5 to 60 V, more than ±45 deg of operation angle, and implementation with pressure-sensitive, adhesive-backed films of 0.7 to 1 mm thickness for flexibility and impact resistance. Each approach has unique strengths and weaknesses, which will also be discussed for applications ranging from commercial to military conspicuity. PMID:22695651

  9. Absent without leave; a neuroenergetic theory of mind wandering.

    PubMed

    Killeen, Peter R

    2013-01-01

    Absent minded people are not under the control of task-relevant stimuli. According to the Neuroenergetics Theory of attention (NeT), this lack of control is often due to fatigue of the relevant processing units in the brain caused by insufficient resupply of the neuron's preferred fuel, lactate, from nearby astrocytes. A simple drift model of information processing accounts for response-time statistics in a paradigm often used to study inattention, the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART). It is suggested that errors and slowing in this fast-paced, response-engaging task may have little to due with inattention. Slower-paced and less response-demanding tasks give greater license for inattention-aka absent-mindedness, mind-wandering. The basic NeT is therefore extended with an ancillary model of attentional drift and recapture. This Markov model, called NEMA, assumes probability λ of lapses of attention from 1 s to the next, and probability α of drifting back to the attentional state. These parameters measure the strength of attraction back to the task (α), or away to competing mental states or action patterns (λ); their proportion determines the probability of the individual being inattentive at any point in time over the long run. Their values are affected by the fatigue of the brain units they traffic between. The deployment of the model is demonstrated with a data set involving paced responding. PMID:23847559

  10. Wall lizards display conspicuous signals to conspecifics and reduce detection by avian predators

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Visual signals are often under conflicting selection to be hidden from predators while being conspicuous to mates and rivals. Here, we investigated whether 3 different island populations of Aegean wall lizards (Podarcis erhardii) with variable coloration among diverse island habitats exhibit simultaneous camouflage and sexual signals. We examined whether signals appear better tuned to conspecific vision as opposed to that of avian predators, and whether background-matching camouflage and sexual signals are partitioned to specific body regions. This could facilitate both covert sexual signaling and camouflage according to the viewing perspectives of predators and conspecifics. We found that lizards typically appeared twice as conspicuous to conspecifics than to avian predators against the same visual background, largely due to lizards’ enhanced sensitivity to ultraviolet, suggesting that P. erhardii signals are tuned to conspecific vision to reduce detection by predators. Males were more conspicuous than females to both predators and conspecifics. In 2 populations, male backs were relatively more camouflaged to predators compared to signaling flanks, whereas in females, exposed and concealed surfaces were camouflaged to predators and generally did not differ in background matching. These findings indicate that lizard coloration evolves under the competing demands of natural and sexual selection to promote signals that are visible to conspecifics while being less perceptible to avian predators. They also elucidate how interactions between natural and sexual selection influence signal detectability and partitioning to different body regions, highlighting the importance of considering receiver vision, viewing perspectives, and signaling environments in studies of signal evolution. PMID:25419083

  11. Transvection at the Eyes Absent Gene of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Leiserson, W. M.; Bonini, N. M.; Benzer, S.

    1994-01-01

    The Drosophila eyes absent (eya) gene is required for survival and differentiation of eye progenitor cells. Loss of gene function in the eye results in reduction or absence of the adult compound eye. Certain combinations of eya alleles undergo partial complementation, with dramatic restoration of eye size. This interaction is sensitive to the relative positions of the two alleles in the genome; rearrangements predicted to disrupt pairing of chromosomal homologs in the eya region disrupt complementation. Ten X-ray-induced rearrangements that suppress the interaction obey the same general rules as those tha disrupt transvection at the bithorax complex and the decapentaplegic gene. Moreover, like transvection in those cases, the interaction at eya depends on the presence of normal zeste function. The discovery of transvection at eya suggests that transvection interactions of this type may be more prevalent than generally thought. PMID:7896099

  12. Tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve. A continuing challenge.

    PubMed

    Jekel, L; Benatar, A; Bennink, G B; Woolley, S R; van de Wal, H J

    1998-01-01

    Absent pulmonary valve syndrome (APVS); the combination of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) with agenesis of the pulmonary valve, is a relatively rare cardiac malformation. Despite the anatomic similarity with classic TOF, the pathophysiology is strikingly different. Data on 10 patients (3 male, 7 female) with APVS, treated between January 1978 and December 1995, were retrospectively reviewed. During this period a total of 2920 children underwent correction of a variety of congenital cardiac anomalies, of which 246 patients (8%) had a correction for TOF. Two patients with APVS presented within the first four months of life with severe cardiorespiratory distress and required several operative procedures. The remaining eight patients had only mild to moderate respiratory and/or cardiac symptoms and elective intracardiac repair was performed on those between the ages of 10 months and 9.5 years. Associated cardiac anomalies seen in five patients included aberrant coronary artery, absent or interrupted left pulmonary artery, partial AVSD and aberrant azygos continuation. In those electively corrected, the strategies used were ventriculotomy (7), pulmonary homograft (3) and aneurysmorrhaphy (2). There were two deaths, one in each group of patients, as a result of progressive respiratory insufficiency and cardiac tamponade, respectively. The follow-up of the eight survivors ranged from 2 to 11 years (median 6.75). All have a normal effort tolerance; only one child is on digoxin therapy, and one child continues to suffer bronchospastis episodes. Our experience with infants with this lesion is limited but underlines the different approaches required, depending on the age of presentation. PMID:9802139

  13. Bicyclists overestimate their own night-time conspicuity and underestimate the benefits of retroreflective markers on the moveable joints.

    PubMed

    Wood, Joanne M; Tyrrell, Richard A; Marszalek, Ralph; Lacherez, Philippe; Carberry, Trent

    2013-06-01

    Conspicuity limitations make bicycling at night dangerous. This experiment quantified bicyclists' estimates of the distance at which approaching drivers would first recognize them. Twenty five participants (including 13 bicyclists who rode at least once per week, and 12 who rode once per month or less) cycled in place on a closed-road circuit at night-time and indicated when they were confident that an approaching driver would first recognize that a bicyclist was present. Participants wore black clothing alone or together with a fluorescent bicycling vest, a fluorescent bicycling vest with additional retroreflective tape, or the fluorescent retroreflective vest plus ankle and knee reflectors in a modified 'biomotion' configuration. The bicycle had a light mounted on the handlebars which was either static, flashing or off. Participants judged that black clothing made them least visible, retroreflective strips on the legs in addition to a retroreflective vest made them most visible and that adding retroreflective materials to a fluorescent vest provides no conspicuity benefits. Flashing bicycle lights were associated with higher conspicuity than static lights. Additionally, occasional bicyclists judged themselves to be more visible than did frequent bicyclists. Overall, bicyclists overestimated their conspicuity compared to previously collected recognition distances and underestimated the conspicuity benefits of retroreflective markings on their ankles and knees. Participants mistakenly judged that a fluorescent vest that did not include retroreflective material would enhance their night-time conspicuity. These findings suggest that bicyclists have dangerous misconceptions concerning the magnitude of the night-time conspicuity problem and the potential value of conspicuity treatments. PMID:23542135

  14. The evolution of colour pattern complexity: selection for conspicuousness favours contrasting within-body colour combinations in lizards.

    PubMed

    Pérez I de Lanuza, G; Font, E

    2016-05-01

    Many animals display complex colour patterns that comprise several adjacent, often contrasting colour patches. Combining patches of complementary colours increases the overall conspicuousness of the complex pattern, enhancing signal detection. Therefore, selection for conspicuousness may act not only on the design of single colour patches, but also on their combination. Contrasting long- and short-wavelength colour patches are located on the ventral and lateral surfaces of many lacertid lizards. As the combination of long- and short-wavelength-based colours generates local chromatic contrast, we hypothesized that selection may favour the co-occurrence of lateral and ventral contrasting patches, resulting in complex colour patterns that maximize the overall conspicuousness of the signal. To test this hypothesis, we performed a comparative phylogenetic study using a categorical colour classification based on spectral data and descriptive information on lacertid coloration collected from the literature. Our results demonstrate that conspicuous ventral (long-wavelength-based) and lateral (short-wavelength-based) colour patches co-occur throughout the lacertid phylogeny more often than expected by chance, especially in the subfamily Lacertini. These results suggest that selection promotes the evolution of the complex pattern rather than the acquisition of a single conspicuous colour patch, possibly due to the increased conspicuousness caused by the combination of colours with contrasting spectral properties. PMID:26801820

  15. Distinct Biochemical Activities of Eyes absent During Drosophila Eye Development.

    PubMed

    Jin, Meng; Mardon, Graeme

    2016-01-01

    Eyes absent (Eya) is a highly conserved transcriptional coactivator and protein phosphatase that plays vital roles in multiple developmental processes from Drosophila to humans. Eya proteins contain a PST (Proline-Serine-Threonine)-rich transactivation domain, a threonine phosphatase motif (TPM), and a tyrosine protein phosphatase domain. Using a genomic rescue system, we find that the PST domain is essential for Eya activity and Dac expression, and the TPM is required for full Eya function. We also find that the threonine phosphatase activity plays only a minor role during Drosophila eye development and the primary function of the PST and TPM domains is transactivation that can be largely substituted by the heterologous activation domain VP16. Along with our previous results that the tyrosine phosphatase activity of Eya is dispensable for normal Eya function in eye formation, we demonstrate that a primary function of Eya during Drosophila eye development is as a transcriptional coactivator. Moreover, the PST/TPM and the threonine phosphatase activity are not required for in vitro interaction between retinal determination factors. Finally, this work is the first report of an Eya-Ey physical interaction. These findings are particularly important because they highlight the need for an in vivo approach that accurately dissects protein function. PMID:26980695

  16. Beyond re-membering: phantom sensations of congenitally absent limbs.

    PubMed

    Brugger, P; Kollias, S S; Müri, R M; Crelier, G; Hepp-Reymond, M C; Regard, M

    2000-05-23

    Phantom limbs are traditionally conceptualized as the phenomenal persistence of a body part after deafferentation. Previous clinical observations of subjects with phantoms of congenitally absent limbs are not compatible with this view, but, in the absence of experimental work, the neural basis of such "aplasic phantoms" has remained enigmatic. In this paper, we report a series of behavioral, imaging, and neurophysiological experiments with a university-educated woman born without forearms and legs, who experiences vivid phantom sensations of all four limbs. Visuokinesthetic integration of tachistoscopically presented drawings of hands and feet indicated an intact somatic representation of these body parts. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of phantom hand movements showed no activation of primary sensorimotor areas, but of premotor and parietal cortex bilaterally. Movements of the existing upper arms produced activation expanding into the hand territories deprived of afferences and efferences. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of the sensorimotor cortex consistently elicited phantom sensations in the contralateral fingers and hand. In addition, premotor and parietal stimulation evoked similar phantom sensations, albeit in the absence of motor evoked potentials in the stump. These data indicate that body parts that have never been physically developed can be represented in sensory and motor cortical areas. Both genetic and epigenetic factors, such as the habitual observation of other people moving their limbs, may contribute to the conscious experience of aplasic phantoms. PMID:10801982

  17. Distinct Biochemical Activities of Eyes absent During Drosophila Eye Development

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Meng; Mardon, Graeme

    2016-01-01

    Eyes absent (Eya) is a highly conserved transcriptional coactivator and protein phosphatase that plays vital roles in multiple developmental processes from Drosophila to humans. Eya proteins contain a PST (Proline-Serine-Threonine)-rich transactivation domain, a threonine phosphatase motif (TPM), and a tyrosine protein phosphatase domain. Using a genomic rescue system, we find that the PST domain is essential for Eya activity and Dac expression, and the TPM is required for full Eya function. We also find that the threonine phosphatase activity plays only a minor role during Drosophila eye development and the primary function of the PST and TPM domains is transactivation that can be largely substituted by the heterologous activation domain VP16. Along with our previous results that the tyrosine phosphatase activity of Eya is dispensable for normal Eya function in eye formation, we demonstrate that a primary function of Eya during Drosophila eye development is as a transcriptional coactivator. Moreover, the PST/TPM and the threonine phosphatase activity are not required for in vitro interaction between retinal determination factors. Finally, this work is the first report of an Eya-Ey physical interaction. These findings are particularly important because they highlight the need for an in vivo approach that accurately dissects protein function. PMID:26980695

  18. Is it safe to nest near conspicuous neighbours? Spatial patterns in predation risk associated with the density of American Golden-Plover nests.

    PubMed

    Giroux, Marie-Andrée; Trottier-Paquet, Myriam; Bêty, Joël; Lamarre, Vincent; Lecomte, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Predation is one of the main factors explaining nesting mortality in most bird species. Birds can avoid nest predation or reduce predation pressure by breeding at higher latitude, showing anti-predator behaviour, selecting nest sites protected from predators, and nesting in association with protective species. American Golden-Plovers (Pluvialis dominica) defend their territory by using various warning and distraction behaviours displayed at varying levels of intensity (hereafter "conspicuous behaviour"), as well as more aggressive behaviours such as aerial attacks, but only in some populations. Such antipredator behaviour has the potential to repel predators and thus benefit the neighbouring nests by decreasing their predation risk. Yet, conspicuous behaviour could also attract predators by signalling the presence of a nest. To test for the existence of a protective effect associated with the conspicuous antipredator behaviour of American Golden-Plovers, we studied the influence of proximity to plover nests on predation risk of artificial nests on Igloolik Island (Nunavut, Canada) in July 2014. We predicted that the predation risk of artificial nests would decrease with proximity to and density of plover nests. We monitored 18 plover nests and set 35 artificial nests at 30, 50, 100, 200, and 500 m from seven of those plover nests. We found that the predation risk of artificial nests increases with the density of active plover nests. We also found a significant negative effect of the distance to the nearest active protector nest on predation risk of artificial nests. Understanding how the composition and structure of shorebird communities generate spatial patterns in predation risks represents a key step to better understand the importance of these species of conservation concern in tundra food webs. PMID:27602257

  19. Is it safe to nest near conspicuous neighbours? Spatial patterns in predation risk associated with the density of American Golden-Plover nests

    PubMed Central

    Trottier-Paquet, Myriam; Bêty, Joël; Lamarre, Vincent; Lecomte, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Predation is one of the main factors explaining nesting mortality in most bird species. Birds can avoid nest predation or reduce predation pressure by breeding at higher latitude, showing anti-predator behaviour, selecting nest sites protected from predators, and nesting in association with protective species. American Golden-Plovers (Pluvialis dominica) defend their territory by using various warning and distraction behaviours displayed at varying levels of intensity (hereafter “conspicuous behaviour”), as well as more aggressive behaviours such as aerial attacks, but only in some populations. Such antipredator behaviour has the potential to repel predators and thus benefit the neighbouring nests by decreasing their predation risk. Yet, conspicuous behaviour could also attract predators by signalling the presence of a nest. To test for the existence of a protective effect associated with the conspicuous antipredator behaviour of American Golden-Plovers, we studied the influence of proximity to plover nests on predation risk of artificial nests on Igloolik Island (Nunavut, Canada) in July 2014. We predicted that the predation risk of artificial nests would decrease with proximity to and density of plover nests. We monitored 18 plover nests and set 35 artificial nests at 30, 50, 100, 200, and 500 m from seven of those plover nests. We found that the predation risk of artificial nests increases with the density of active plover nests. We also found a significant negative effect of the distance to the nearest active protector nest on predation risk of artificial nests. Understanding how the composition and structure of shorebird communities generate spatial patterns in predation risks represents a key step to better understand the importance of these species of conservation concern in tundra food webs. PMID:27602257

  20. Turbulent Sediment Suspension and Induced Ripple Dynamics Absent Mean Shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B. A.; Cowen, E.

    2014-12-01

    The uprush and backwash phases in the swash zone, the region of the beach that is alternately covered and uncovered by wave run-up, are fundamentally different events. Backwash is dominated by a growing boundary layer where the turbulence is set by the bed shear stress. In this phase traditional boundary layer turbulence models and Shields-type critical stress pickup functions work well. However, the uprush phase, while often viewed in the context of traditional boundary layer turbulence models, has little in common with the backwash phase. During uprush, the entire water column is turbulent, as it rapidly advects well-stirred highly turbulent flow generated offshore from breaking waves or collapsing bores. Turbulence levels in the uprush are several times higher than turbulent boundary layer theory would predict and hence the use of a boundary layer model to predict turbulence levels during uprush grossly under predicts the turbulence and subsequent sediment suspension in the swash zone. To study the importance of this advected turbulence to sediment suspension we conduct experiments in a water tank designed to generate horizontally homogeneous isotropic turbulence absent mean shear using randomly actuated synthetic jet arrays suspended above both a solid glass plate and a narrowly graded sediment bed. Using jet arrays with different jet spacings allows the generation of high Reynolds number turbulence with variable integral length scales, which we hypothesize control the characteristic length scales in the induced ripple field. Particle image velocimetry and acoustic Doppler velocimetry measurements are used to characterize the near-bed flow and this unique turbulent boundary layer. Metrics include the mean flow and turbulence intensities and stresses, temporal and spatial spectra, dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy, and integral length scales of the turbulence. We leverage our unique dataset to compare the flows over impermeable fixed and permeable mobile

  1. Minding the Absent: Arguments for the Full Competence Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borer, Hagit; Rohrbacher, Bernhard

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that the systematic omission of functional material by young children, contrary to current beliefs, argues for the presence of functional structure,because in the absence of such structure what is expected is not a systematic omission of functional material but rather its random use. (Author/VWL)

  2. Social power, product conspicuousness, and the demand for luxury brand counterfeit products.

    PubMed

    Bian, Xuemei; Haque, Sadia; Smith, Andrew

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: (1) to achieve a better understanding of the psychological determinants of the demand for luxury brand counterfeit products (LBCP) through exploring the effects of social power; (2) to extend power literature by identifying boundary conditions of the relationship between social power and compensatory consumption identified by Rucker and Galinsky (2008, J. Consum. Res., 35, 257-267) and Rucker and Galinsky (2009, J. Exp. Soc. Psychol., 45, 549-555). Findings from three experiments demonstrate that social power holds key insights into understanding consumers' purchase propensity for LBCP; product conspicuousness moderates the effects of social power on purchase propensity for status products; these moderation effects are only observed when the status products are LBCP but not genuine products. This article, therefore, contributes to the literature regarding the demand for counterfeits as well as the social power and compensatory consumption literature. PMID:24823942

  3. Configuring retroreflective markings to enhance the night-time conspicuity of road workers.

    PubMed

    Wood, Joanne M; Marszalek, Ralph; Lacherez, Philippe; Tyrrell, Richard A

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated whether the night-time conspicuity of road workers can be enhanced by positioning retroreflective strips on the moveable joints in patterns that convey varying degrees of biological motion. Participants were 24 visually normal adults (12 young M=26.8 years; 12 older M=72.9 years). Visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and glare sensitivity were recorded for each participant. Experimenters acting as road workers walked in place on a closed road circuit within simulated road work sites, facing either the oncoming driver or the roadway (presenting sideways to the driver) and wearing one of four clothing conditions: (i) standard road worker vest; (ii) standard vest plus thigh-mounted retroreflective strips; (iii) standard vest plus retroreflective strips on ankles and knees; (iv) standard vest plus retroreflective strips positioned on the extremities in a configuration that conveyed biological motion ("biomotion"). As they drove along the closed road participants were instructed to press a button to indicate when they first recognized that a road worker was present. The results demonstrated that regardless of the direction of walking, road workers wearing biomotion clothing were recognized at significantly (p<0.05) longer distances (3×), relative to the standard vest alone. Response distances were significantly shorter for the older drivers. Contrast sensitivity was a better predictor of the ability to recognize road workers than was visual acuity or glare sensitivity. We conclude that adding retroreflective strips in the biomotion configuration can significantly improve road worker conspicuity regardless of the road worker's orientation and the age of the driver. PMID:24816151

  4. EFFECTS OF FLUID AND COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC TECHNICAL FACTORS ON CONSPICUITY OF CANINE AND FELINE NASAL TURBINATES

    PubMed Central

    Uosyte, Raimonda; Shaw, Darren J; Gunn-Moore, Danielle A; Fraga-Manteiga, Eduardo; Schwarz, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Turbinate destruction is an important diagnostic criterion in canine and feline nasal computed tomography (CT). However decreased turbinate visibility may also be caused by technical CT settings and nasal fluid. The purpose of this experimental, crossover study was to determine whether fluid reduces conspicuity of canine and feline nasal turbinates in CT and if so, whether CT settings can maximize conspicuity. Three canine and three feline cadaver heads were used. Nasal slabs were CT-scanned before and after submerging them in a water bath; using sequential, helical, and ultrahigh resolution modes; with images in low, medium, and high frequency image reconstruction kernels; and with application of additional posterior fossa optimization and high contrast enhancing filters. Visible turbinate length was measured by a single observer using manual tracing. Nasal density heterogeneity was measured using the standard deviation (SD) of mean nasal density from a region of interest in each nasal cavity. Linear mixed-effect models using the R package ‘nlme’, multivariable models and standard post hoc Tukey pair-wise comparisons were performed to investigate the effect of several variables (nasal content, scanning mode, image reconstruction kernel, application of post reconstruction filters) on measured visible total turbinate length and SD of mean nasal density. All canine and feline water-filled nasal slabs showed significantly decreased visibility of nasal turbinates (P < 0.001). High frequency kernels provided the best turbinate visibility and highest SD of aerated nasal slabs, whereas medium frequency kernels were optimal for water-filled nasal slabs. Scanning mode and filter application had no effect on turbinate visibility. PMID:25867935

  5. EFFECTS OF FLUID AND COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC TECHNICAL FACTORS ON CONSPICUITY OF CANINE AND FELINE NASAL TURBINATES.

    PubMed

    Uosyte, Raimonda; Shaw, Darren J; Gunn-Moore, Danielle A; Fraga-Manteiga, Eduardo; Schwarz, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Turbinate destruction is an important diagnostic criterion in canine and feline nasal computed tomography (CT). However decreased turbinate visibility may also be caused by technical CT settings and nasal fluid. The purpose of this experimental, crossover study was to determine whether fluid reduces conspicuity of canine and feline nasal turbinates in CT and if so, whether CT settings can maximize conspicuity. Three canine and three feline cadaver heads were used. Nasal slabs were CT-scanned before and after submerging them in a water bath; using sequential, helical, and ultrahigh resolution modes; with images in low, medium, and high frequency image reconstruction kernels; and with application of additional posterior fossa optimization and high contrast enhancing filters. Visible turbinate length was measured by a single observer using manual tracing. Nasal density heterogeneity was measured using the standard deviation (SD) of mean nasal density from a region of interest in each nasal cavity. Linear mixed-effect models using the R package 'nlme', multivariable models and standard post hoc Tukey pair-wise comparisons were performed to investigate the effect of several variables (nasal content, scanning mode, image reconstruction kernel, application of post reconstruction filters) on measured visible total turbinate length and SD of mean nasal density. All canine and feline water-filled nasal slabs showed significantly decreased visibility of nasal turbinates (P < 0.001). High frequency kernels provided the best turbinate visibility and highest SD of aerated nasal slabs, whereas medium frequency kernels were optimal for water-filled nasal slabs. Scanning mode and filter application had no effect on turbinate visibility. PMID:25867935

  6. Conspicuity of Bone Metastases on Fast Dixon-Based Multisequence Whole Body MRI: Clinical Utility per Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Costelloe, Colleen M.; Madewell, John E.; Kundra, Vikas; Harrell, Robyn K.; Bassett, Roland L.; Ma, Jingfei

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the conspicuity of bone metastases on each of the numerous sequences produced by fast Dixon-based multisequence whole-body (WB) MRI scanning in order to determine the most clinically useful sequences overall and per anatomic region. Materials and Methods Twenty-seven breast cancer patients with bone metastases were prospectively studied with fast Dixon-based WB MRI including head/neck, chest, abdominal, pelvic, thigh, calf/feet, and either cervical, thoracic and lumbar or cervical/thoracic and thoracic/lumbar regions. Sequences included coronal T2, axial T1 without and with intravenous gadolinium (+C), sagittal T1 spine +C, each associated fat only (FO) and fat saturated (FS) sequence, axial DWI and STIR. Blinded reviewers evaluated lesion conspicuity, a surrogate of clinical utility, on a 5 point scale per anatomic region. Sequences were compared using ANOVA, differences detected with Tukey’s HSD, and the four sequences with highest mean conspicuity were compared to the remainder overall and per anatomic region. Results Overall, a significant lesion conspicuity difference was found (P<0.0001), and lesion conspicuity was significantly higher on FS T1 +C, FO T1 +C, T1 +C sagittal, FS T1 +C axial sequences (P<0.0001). Per region results were the same in head/neck. Other sequences overlapped with these and included: Chest/abdomen-FO T2, DWI; pelvis- DWI, FO T2; thigh-FS T2, FO T2, FO T1 +C; calf/feet-FS T2, DWI, FO T2, STIR. Conclusion Overall, bone lesions were most conspicuous on FS T1 +C sagittal, FO T1 +C sagittal, T1 +C sagittal and FS T1 +C axial fast Dixon WB MRI sequences. PMID:23290478

  7. The Economic Consequences of Absent Parents. JCPR Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Marianne E.; Stevens, Ann Huff

    In recent years, the belief that marriage bestows large economic gains has generated enthusiasm for policy proposals that encourage the formation and continuation of two-parent families. This study examined the effects of family structure on economic resources, controlling for unobservable family background characteristics. Data were drawn from…

  8. Structure of aldose reductase from Giardia lamblia

    PubMed Central

    Ferrell, M.; Abendroth, J.; Zhang, Y.; Sankaran, B.; Edwards, T. E.; Staker, B. L.; Van Voorhis, W. C.; Stewart, L. J.; Myler, P. J.

    2011-01-01

    Giardia lamblia is an anaerobic aerotolerant eukaryotic parasite of the intestines. It is believed to have diverged early from eukarya during evolution and is thus lacking in many of the typical eukaryotic organelles and biochemical pathways. Most conspicuously, mitochondria and the associated machinery of oxidative phosphorylation are absent; instead, energy is derived from substrate-level phosphorylation. Here, the 1.75 Å resolution crystal structure of G. lamblia aldose reductase heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli is reported. As in other oxidoreductases, G. lamblia aldose reductase adopts a TIM-barrel conformation with the NADP+-binding site located within the eight β-strands of the interior. PMID:21904059

  9. Understanding Conspicuous Gravity Low Over the Koyna-Warna Seismogenic Region (Maharashtra, India) and Earthquake Nucleation: A Paradigm Shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasanthi, A.; Satish Kumar, K.

    2016-02-01

    The continued seismicity in Koyna-Warna region of the western part of Maharastra (India) and its relationship with subsurface structures, concealed below thick volcanic sequences, are studied in detail using gravity field along with newly available deep scientific drilling results. This seismically active zone is marked by a large conspicuous negative gravity anomaly, the causes of which are yet to be fully understood. Recent findings from the boreholes drilled in the Koyna (Guc(upta) et al. in Int J Earth Sci 104:1511-1522, 2015) and Killari seismic zones, both of which penetrated the thick Deccan volcanic cover and the underlying Archean crystalline basement, have motivated us to revisit the Bouguer gravity field over this region, using a newly developed finite element method of regional-residual separation. Our study reveals the presence of two thick low-density/low-velocity crustal zones below the Koyna-Warna region, the shallower one between 5 and 13 km depth and the deeper one between 35 and 43 km depth just above the Moho. Both of these zones appear to contain mantle-metasomatised and fractionated magmatic material, respectively. Interestingly, the hypocenters of all M ≥ 5 Koyna earthquakes occur within the upper low-velocity/low-density zone. We also suggest high-order crustal exhumation below this region, which led to the removal of the entire sedimentary and granitic upper crustal column. This process has brought denser mid-crustal lithological facies close to the surface. Quaternary uplifting and movement of fault blocks along the old as well as newly created fault planes seem to be still continuing. A paleo-rift may have existed beneath this region below which Moho temperatures (~600 °C) and mantle heat flow (~31 mW/m2) are still high.

  10. Understanding Conspicuous Gravity Low Over the Koyna-Warna Seismogenic Region (Maharashtra, India) and Earthquake Nucleation: A Paradigm Shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasanthi, A.; Satish Kumar, K.

    2016-06-01

    The continued seismicity in Koyna-Warna region of the western part of Maharastra (India) and its relationship with subsurface structures, concealed below thick volcanic sequences, are studied in detail using gravity field along with newly available deep scientific drilling results. This seismically active zone is marked by a large conspicuous negative gravity anomaly, the causes of which are yet to be fully understood. Recent findings from the boreholes drilled in the Koyna (G upta et al. in Int J Earth Sci 104:1511-1522, 2015) and Killari seismic zones, both of which penetrated the thick Deccan volcanic cover and the underlying Archean crystalline basement, have motivated us to revisit the Bouguer gravity field over this region, using a newly developed finite element method of regional-residual separation. Our study reveals the presence of two thick low-density/low-velocity crustal zones below the Koyna-Warna region, the shallower one between 5 and 13 km depth and the deeper one between 35 and 43 km depth just above the Moho. Both of these zones appear to contain mantle-metasomatised and fractionated magmatic material, respectively. Interestingly, the hypocenters of all M ≥ 5 Koyna earthquakes occur within the upper low-velocity/low-density zone. We also suggest high-order crustal exhumation below this region, which led to the removal of the entire sedimentary and granitic upper crustal column. This process has brought denser mid-crustal lithological facies close to the surface. Quaternary uplifting and movement of fault blocks along the old as well as newly created fault planes seem to be still continuing. A paleo-rift may have existed beneath this region below which Moho temperatures (~600 °C) and mantle heat flow (~31 mW/m2) are still high.

  11. A conspicuous clay ovoid in Nakhla: evidence for subsurface hydrothermal alteration on Mars with implications for astrobiology.

    PubMed

    Chatzitheodoridis, Elias; Haigh, Sarah; Lyon, Ian

    2014-08-01

    Abstract A conspicuous biomorphic ovoid structure has been discovered in the Nakhla martian meteorite, made of nanocrystalline iron-rich saponitic clay and amorphous material. The ovoid is indigenous to Nakhla and occurs within a late-formed amorphous mesostasis region of rhyolitic composition that is interstitial to two clinopyroxene grains with Al-rich rims, and contains acicular apatite crystals, olivine, sulfides, Ti-rich magnetite, and a new mineral of the rhoenite group. To infer the origin of the ovoid, a large set of analytical tools was employed, including scanning electron microscopy and backscattered electron imaging, wavelength-dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray mapping, Raman spectroscopy, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis, high-resolution transmission electron microscope imaging, and atomic force microscope topographic mapping. The concentric wall of the ovoid surrounds an originally hollow volume and exhibits internal layering of contrasting nanotextures but uniform chemical composition, and likely inherited its overall shape from a preexisting vesicle in the mesostasis glass. A final fibrous layer of Fe-rich phases blankets the interior surfaces of the ovoid wall structure. There is evidence that the parent rock of Nakhla has undergone a shock event from a nearby bolide impact that melted the rims of pyroxene and the interstitial matter and initiated an igneous hydrothermal system of rapidly cooling fluids, which were progressively mixed with fluids from the melted permafrost. Sharp temperature gradients were responsible for the crystallization of Al-rich clinopyroxene rims, rhoenite, acicular apatites, and the quenching of the mesostasis glass and the vesicle. During the formation of the ovoid structure, episodic fluid infiltration events resulted in the precipitation of saponite rinds around the vesicle walls, altered pyrrhotite to marcasite, and then isolated the ovoid wall structure from the rest of the system by depositing a

  12. A Conspicuous Clay Ovoid in Nakhla: Evidence for Subsurface Hydrothermal Alteration on Mars with Implications for Astrobiology

    PubMed Central

    Haigh, Sarah; Lyon, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A conspicuous biomorphic ovoid structure has been discovered in the Nakhla martian meteorite, made of nanocrystalline iron-rich saponitic clay and amorphous material. The ovoid is indigenous to Nakhla and occurs within a late-formed amorphous mesostasis region of rhyolitic composition that is interstitial to two clinopyroxene grains with Al-rich rims, and contains acicular apatite crystals, olivine, sulfides, Ti-rich magnetite, and a new mineral of the rhoenite group. To infer the origin of the ovoid, a large set of analytical tools was employed, including scanning electron microscopy and backscattered electron imaging, wavelength-dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray mapping, Raman spectroscopy, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis, high-resolution transmission electron microscope imaging, and atomic force microscope topographic mapping. The concentric wall of the ovoid surrounds an originally hollow volume and exhibits internal layering of contrasting nanotextures but uniform chemical composition, and likely inherited its overall shape from a preexisting vesicle in the mesostasis glass. A final fibrous layer of Fe-rich phases blankets the interior surfaces of the ovoid wall structure. There is evidence that the parent rock of Nakhla has undergone a shock event from a nearby bolide impact that melted the rims of pyroxene and the interstitial matter and initiated an igneous hydrothermal system of rapidly cooling fluids, which were progressively mixed with fluids from the melted permafrost. Sharp temperature gradients were responsible for the crystallization of Al-rich clinopyroxene rims, rhoenite, acicular apatites, and the quenching of the mesostasis glass and the vesicle. During the formation of the ovoid structure, episodic fluid infiltration events resulted in the precipitation of saponite rinds around the vesicle walls, altered pyrrhotite to marcasite, and then isolated the ovoid wall structure from the rest of the system by depositing a

  13. Detectability matters: conspicuous nestling mouth colours make prey transfer easier for parents in a cavity nesting bird.

    PubMed

    Dugas, Matthew B

    2015-11-01

    An often underappreciated function of signals is to notify receivers of the presence and position of senders. The colours that ornament the mouthparts of nestling birds, for example, have been hypothesized to evolve via selective pressure generated by parents' inability to efficiently detect and feed nestlings without such visually conspicuous targets. This proposed mechanism has primarily been evaluated with comparative studies and experimental tests for parental allocation bias, leaving untested the central assumption of this detectability hypothesis, that provisioning offspring is a visually challenging task for avian parents and conspicuous mouths help. To test this assumption, I manipulated the mouths of nestling house sparrows to appear minimally and maximally conspicuous, and quantified prey transfer difficulty as the total duration of a feeding event and the number of transfer attempts required. Prey transfer to inconspicuous nestlings was, as predicted, more difficult. While this suggests that detectability constraints could shape nestling mouth colour evolution, even minimally conspicuous nestlings were not prohibitively difficult for parents to feed, indicating that a more nuanced explanation for interspecific diversity in this trait is needed. PMID:26538540

  14. An experimental and theoretical model of children’s search behavior in relation to target conspicuity and spatial distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosetti, Marcos Francisco; Pacheco-Cobos, Luis; Larralde, Hernán; Hudson, Robyn

    2010-11-01

    This work explores search trajectories of children attempting to find targets distributed on a playing field. This task, of ludic nature, was developed to test the effect of conspicuity and spatial distribution of targets on the searcher’s performance. The searcher’s path was recorded by a Global Positioning System (GPS) device attached to the child’s waist. Participants were not rewarded nor their performance rated. Variation in the conspicuity of the targets influenced search performance as expected; cryptic targets resulted in slower searches and longer, more tortuous paths. Extracting the main features of the paths showed that the children: (1) paid little attention to the spatial distribution and at least in the conspicuous condition approximately followed a nearest neighbor pattern of target collection, (2) were strongly influenced by the conspicuity of the targets. We implemented a simple statistical model for the search rules mimicking the children’s behavior at the level of individual (coarsened) steps. The model reproduced the main features of the children’s paths without the participation of memory or planning.

  15. Eavesdropping parasitoids do not cause the evolution of less conspicuous signalling behaviour in a field cricket

    PubMed Central

    Beckers, Oliver M.; Wagner, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Males of many species produce conspicuous mating signals to attract females, but these signals can also attract eavesdropping predators and parasites. Males are thus expected to evolve signalling behaviours that balance the sexual selection benefits and the natural selection costs. In the variable field cricket, Gryllus lineaticeps, males sing to attract females, but these songs also attract the lethal parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea. The flies use male crickets as hosts for their larvae, primarily search for hosts during a 2 h period following sunset and prefer the same song types as female crickets. We tested whether males from high-risk populations reduce the risk of parasitism by singing less frequently or by shifting their singing activity to a time of the night when the risk of parasitism is low. We compared male singing activity and its temporal pattern between six high-risk and six low-risk populations that were reared in a common environment. There was no effect of parasitism risk on either total male singing activity or the temporal pattern of male singing activity. Males from high-risk populations thus sang as frequently as males from low-risk populations. These results suggest that sexual selection on male singing behaviour may be substantially stronger in high-risk populations than in low-risk populations. It is possible that other traits may have evolved to reduce parasitism risk without compromising mate attraction. PMID:23888083

  16. The long search for conspicuous orbits (French Title: La longue recherche des orbites remarquables)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoynant, G.

    2004-12-01

    1-Theoretical basis : This first part of a series of papers on conspicuous orbits is an historical survey, from Kepler to Einstein, of different theories of gravitation implemented for the description of the motion of several bodies in gravitational interaction. 2-The restricted three bodies problem : The restricted 3 body problem ( 2 massive bodies and one body with a neglectable mass in 2D ), was intensively studied by algebra. Numeric computation allows to describe a very large number of systems . One dozen of these systems, selected for their typical constitution, are graphically presented. 3-The three bodies problem and some related cases : The basic systems with 3 massive bodies were discovered by Lagrange (equilateral configuration) and by Euler (colinear configuration) utilising classical algebra. Polygonal and pyramidal configurations appear as consequences of the equilateral configuration. Symmetry is the fundamental component of all systems based upon the equilateral configuration: numerical modelisation must be adjusted in order not to deteriorate the symmetry during each step of computation.

  17. Improved Liver Lesion Conspicuity With Iterative Reconstruction in Computed Tomography Imaging.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kristin; Andersen, Hilde Kjernlie; Tingberg, Anders; Reisse, Claudius; Fosse, Erik; Martinsen, Anne Catrine T

    2016-01-01

    Studies on iterative reconstruction techniques on computed tomographic (CT) scanners show reduced noise and changed image texture. The purpose of this study was to address the possibility of dose reduction and improved conspicuity of lesions in a liver phantom for different iterative reconstruction algorithms. An anthropomorphic upper abdomen phantom, specially designed for receiver operating characteristic analysis was scanned with 2 different CT models from the same vendor, GE CT750 HD and GE Lightspeed VCT. Images were obtained at 3 dose levels, 5, 10, and 15mGy, and reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP), and 2 different iterative reconstruction algorithms; adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction and Veo. Overall, 5 interpreters evaluated the images and receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed. Standard deviation and the contrast to noise ratio were measured. Veo image reconstruction resulted in larger area under curves compared with those adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction and FBP image reconstruction for given dose levels. For the CT750 HD, iterative reconstruction at the 10mGy dose level resulted in larger or similar area under curves compared with FBP at the 15mGy dose level (0.88-0.95 vs 0.90). This was not shown for the Lightspeed VCT (0.83-0.85 vs 0.92). The results in this study indicate that the possibility for radiation dose reduction using iterative reconstruction techniques depends on both reconstruction technique and the CT scanner model used. PMID:26790606

  18. Prevalence of eating disorders in three Cambridge general practices: hidden and conspicuous morbidity.

    PubMed Central

    Whitehouse, A M; Cooper, P J; Vize, C V; Hill, C; Vogel, L

    1992-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and partial syndromes in women general practice attenders to establish the relative proportions of 'conspicuous' and 'hidden' morbidity. A consecutive series of 540 women patients aged 16-35 years attending their family doctor were screened using a specially devised questionnaire, the weight and dietary practices survey. A total of 115 patients were selected for further assessment and of these 101 patients were interviewed using a standardized diagnostic interview for DSM III-R eating disorders. The prevalence of anorexia nervosa was 0.2% (one case), of bulimia nervosa 1.5% (eight cases) and of partial syndrome bulimia nervosa 5.4% (29 cases). Half of the cases of bulimia nervosa had not been identified by the general practitioner and two of these patients had been referred to specialists for treatment of secondary complications of the eating disorder. Hidden cases of bulimia nervosa or partial syndromes are relatively common in general practice. Certain key questions could be used by general practitioners in order to identify women with eating disorders. PMID:1493006

  19. 42 CFR 410.175 - Alien absent from the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alien absent from the United States. 410.175... Alien absent from the United States. (a) Medicare does not pay Part B benefits for services furnished to... during the first full calendar month the alien is back in the United States....

  20. Disneyland Dads, Disneyland Moms? How Nonresident Parents Spend Time with Absent Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Susan D.

    1999-01-01

    Examines gender differences in how nonresident parents spend time with their absent children. Results suggest that nonresident mothers and fathers exhibit a similar pattern of participation in activities with their absent children. Most nonresident parents either engage in only leisure activities with their children or have no contact. (Author/MKA)

  1. Successful Black Men from Absent-Father Homes and Their Resilient Single Mothers: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Angie D.; Henriksen, Richard C.; Bustamante, Rebecca; Irby, Beverly

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of absent fathers is a common occurrence in today's homes that appears to be escalating, especially in Black households across the United States. The purpose of this study was to describe the lived experiences of successful Black men who were raised in absent-father homes as well as the lived experiences of their resilient single…

  2. Causal Attributions as Predictors of Academic Achievement in Father-Absent Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzman, Stephanie A.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the potential impact of maternal attributions and self-attributions on the academic achievement of father-absent children in comparison to commonly identified family interaction and demographic variables. Subjects included 33 male and 34 female father-absent sixth graders (mean age of 11.6 years) and their…

  3. 42 CFR 410.175 - Alien absent from the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alien absent from the United States. 410.175... Alien absent from the United States. (a) Medicare does not pay Part B benefits for services furnished to... during the first full calendar month the alien is back in the United States....

  4. 42 CFR 410.175 - Alien absent from the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alien absent from the United States. 410.175... Alien absent from the United States. (a) Medicare does not pay Part B benefits for services furnished to... during the first full calendar month the alien is back in the United States....

  5. 42 CFR 410.175 - Alien absent from the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alien absent from the United States. 410.175... Alien absent from the United States. (a) Medicare does not pay Part B benefits for services furnished to... during the first full calendar month the alien is back in the United States....

  6. 42 CFR 410.175 - Alien absent from the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alien absent from the United States. 410.175... Alien absent from the United States. (a) Medicare does not pay Part B benefits for services furnished to... during the first full calendar month the alien is back in the United States....

  7. Combination of conspicuity improved synthetic mammograms and digital breast tomosynthesis: a promising approach for mass detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seong Tae; Kim, Dae Hoe; Ro, Yong Man

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a novel mass detection framework that utilizes the information from synthetic mammograms has been developed for detecting masses in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). In clinical study, it is demonstrated that the combination of DBT and full field digital mammography (FFDM) increases the reader performance. To reduce the radiation dose in this approach, synthetic mammogram has been developed in previous researches and it is demonstrated that synthetic mammogram can alternate the FFDM when it is used with DBT. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of the combined approach of DBT and synthetic mammogram in point of computer-aided detection (CAD). As a synthetic mammogram, two-dimensional image was generated by adopting conspicuous voxels of three-dimensional DBT volume in our study. The mass likelihood scores estimated for each mass candidates in synthetic mammogram and DBT are merged to differentiate masses and false positives (FPs) in combined approach. We compared the performance of detecting masses in the proposed combined approach and DBT alone. A clinical data set of 196 DBT volumes was used to evaluate the different detection schemes. The combined approach achieved sensitivity of 80% and 89% with 1.16 and 2.37 FPs per DBT volume. The DBT alone approach achieved same sensitivities with 1.61 and 3.46 FPs per DBT volume. Experimental results show that statistically significant improvement (p = 0.002) is achieved in combined approach compared to DBT alone. These results imply that the information fusion of synthetic mammogram and DBT is a promising approach to detect masses in DBT.

  8. Thirst - absent

    MedlinePlus

    ... fluids? Did the loss of thirst follow a head injury? Do you have other symptoms such as abdominal ... do a detailed nervous system exam if a head injury or problem with the hypothalamus is suspected. Tests ...

  9. Pretreatment Evaluation with Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography for Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation of Hepatocellular Carcinomas with Poor Conspicuity on Conventional Ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ah Yeong; Rhim, Hyunchul; Cha, Dong Ik; Choi, Dongil; Kim, Young-sun; Lim, Hyo Keun; Cho, Seong Whi

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether pretreatment evaluation with contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) is effective for percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with poor conspicuity on conventional ultrasonography (US). Materials and Methods This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board and informed consent was waived. From June 2008 to July 2011, 82 patients having HCCs (1.2 ± 0.4 cm) with poor conspicuity on planning US for RFA were evaluated with CEUS prior to percutaneous RFA. We analyzed our database, radiologic reports, and US images in order to determine whether the location of HCC candidates on planning US coincide with that on CEUS. To avoid incomplete ablation, percutaneous RFA was performed only when HCC nodules were identified on CEUS. The rate of technical success was assessed. The cumulative rate of local tumor progression was estimated with the use of the Kaplan-Meier method (mean follow-up: 24.0 ± 13.0 months). Results Among 82 patients, 73 (89%) HCCs were identified on CEUS, whereas 9 (11%) were not. Of 73 identifiable HCCs on CEUS, the location of HCC on planning US corresponded with that on CEUS in 64 (87.7%), whereas the location did not correspond in 9 (12.3%) HCCs. Technical success was achieved for all 73 identifiable HCCs on CEUS in a single (n = 72) or two (n = 1) RFA sessions. Cumulative rates of local tumor progression were estimated as 1.9% and 15.4% at 1 and 3 years, respectively. Conclusion Pretreatment evaluation with CEUS is effective for percutaneous RFA of HCCs with poor conspicuity on conventional US. PMID:24043968

  10. The hydrodynamically relevant endothelial cell glycocalyx observed in vivo is absent in vitro.

    PubMed

    Potter, Daniel R; Damiano, Edward R

    2008-04-11

    In recent years, the endothelial cell surface glycocalyx has emerged as a structure of fundamental importance to a broad range of phenomena that determine cardiovascular health and disease. This new understanding of the functional significance of the glycocalyx has been made possible through recently developed experimental techniques using intravital microscopy that are capable of directly probing the glycocalyx in vivo. Using fluorescent microparticle image velocimetry in venules and endothelialized cylindrical collagen microchannels, we show that the hydrodynamically relevant endothelial cell glycocalyx surface layer observed in microvessels in vivo (0.52+/-0.28 microm thickness), which is a fundamental determinant of the hydrodynamic and mechanical environment at the endothelial cell surface, is absent from human umbilical vein (0.03+/-0.04 microm thickness) and bovine aortic (0.02+/-0.04 microm thickness) endothelial cells grown and maintained under standard cell culture conditions in vitro. An endothelial surface-bound glycosaminoglycan layer, not necessarily indicative of but having similar hydrodynamic properties to the endothelial glycocalyx observed in vivo, was detected (0.21+/-0.27 microm thickness) only after hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfate were added to the cell culture media at hyperphysiological concentrations (0.2 mg/mL perfused for 75 minutes). The implications of this glycocalyx deficiency under standard cell culture conditions in these pervasive in vitro models broadly impact a myriad of studies involving endothelial cell monolayers in which inferences are made that may depend on endothelial cell surface chemistry. In light of these findings, conclusions drawn from such studies in the areas of microvascular permeability, inflammation, mechanotransduction, and atherosclerosis must be carefully reconsidered. PMID:18258858

  11. Supernumerary and absent limbs and digits of the lower limb: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Klaassen, Zachary; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios

    2011-07-01

    Anatomical history over centuries includes description of a wide variety of malformations involving the lower limbs. This article offers an organized review of these diverse abnormalities, including new understanding of mechanisms through recent discoveries in genetics and molecular biology. In 19th century Europe, a number of unique anomalies were reported, as well as evidence of foot amputations occurring in ancient Peruvian culture. Embryologically, the limbs develop early, with the lower limb being recognizable for the first time at stage 13 of development. By stage 23, the toes are clearly defined and by birth, although the legs appear bowed, the tibia and fibula are straight. Removal of the apical ectodermal ridge results in cessation of limb development, conversely, a second apical ectodermal ridge results in duplication of distal structures. Supernumerary limbs have been documented to occur as part of a teratoma with unique morphology and accompanying blood supply. Additionally, many examples of polydactyly occur in the foot postulating that deletion of chromosome 22q11 is involved in postaxial polydactyly. Such deletions occur near the middle of the chromosome at a location designated q11.2 (i.e., on the long arm of one of the pair of chromosomes 22) and this syndrome is also referred to as DiGeorge syndrome, which has a prevalence estimated at 1:4,000. Absence of the lower limbs has also been noted, with hypoplasia of the fibula being the most common manifestation of congenital bone absences in the lower limb. In addition to fibular aplasia, cases of tibial aplasia have been reported. This article is important for surgeons attempting correctional repair of lower limb anomalies, as well as providing analysis of the historical, anatomical and clinical aspects of supernumerary and absent limbs and digits for the lower limb. PMID:21647959

  12. Deceived by stripes: conspicuous patterning on vital anterior body parts can redirect predatory strikes to expendable posterior organs.

    PubMed

    Murali, Gopal; Kodandaramaiah, Ullasa

    2016-06-01

    Conspicuous coloration, which presumably makes prey more visible to predators, has intrigued researchers for long. Contrastingly coloured, conspicuous striped patterns are common among lizards and other animals, but their function is not well known. We propose and test a novel hypothesis, the 'redirection hypothesis', wherein longitudinal striped patterns, such as those found on the anterior body parts of most lacertilians, redirect attacks away from themselves during motion towards less vulnerable posterior parts, for example, the autotomous tail. In experiments employing human 'predators' attacking virtual prey on a touchscreen, we show that longitudinal striped patterns on the anterior half of prey decreased attacks to the anterior and increased attacks to the posterior. The position of stripes mattered-they worked best when they were at the anterior. By employing an adaptive psychophysical procedure, we show that prey with striped patterning are perceived to move slower, offering a mechanistic explanation for the redirective effect. In summary, our results suggest that the presence of stripes on the body (i.e. head and trunk) of lizards in combination with caudal autotomy can work as an effective anti-predator strategy during motion. PMID:27429765

  13. The role of nocturnal vision in mate choice: females prefer conspicuous males in the European tree frog (Hyla arborea)

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Doris; Richardson, Christina; Lengagne, Thierry; Plenet, Sandrine; Joly, Pierre; Léna, Jean-Paul; Théry, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Nocturnal frog species rely extensively on vocalization for reproduction. But recent studies provide evidence for an important, though long overlooked, role of visual communication. In many species, calling males exhibit a conspicuous pulsing vocal sac, a signal bearing visually important dynamic components. Here, we investigate female preference for male vocal sac coloration—a question hitherto unexplored—and male colour pattern in the European tree frog (Hyla arborea). Under nocturnal conditions, we conducted two-choice experiments involving video playbacks of calling males with identical calls and showing various naturally encountered colour signals, differing in their chromatic and brightness components. We adjusted video colours to match the frogs' visual perception, a crucial aspect not considered in previous experiments. Females prefer males with a colourful sac and a pronounced flank stripe. Both signals probably enhance male conspicuousness and facilitate detection and localization by females. This study provides the first experimental evidence of a preference for specific vocal sac spectral properties in a nocturnal anuran species. Vocal sac coloration is based on carotenoids and may convey information about male quality worthwhile for females to assess. The informative content of the flank stripe remains to be demonstrated. PMID:19324736

  14. Deceived by stripes: conspicuous patterning on vital anterior body parts can redirect predatory strikes to expendable posterior organs

    PubMed Central

    Kodandaramaiah, Ullasa

    2016-01-01

    Conspicuous coloration, which presumably makes prey more visible to predators, has intrigued researchers for long. Contrastingly coloured, conspicuous striped patterns are common among lizards and other animals, but their function is not well known. We propose and test a novel hypothesis, the ‘redirection hypothesis’, wherein longitudinal striped patterns, such as those found on the anterior body parts of most lacertilians, redirect attacks away from themselves during motion towards less vulnerable posterior parts, for example, the autotomous tail. In experiments employing human ‘predators’ attacking virtual prey on a touchscreen, we show that longitudinal striped patterns on the anterior half of prey decreased attacks to the anterior and increased attacks to the posterior. The position of stripes mattered—they worked best when they were at the anterior. By employing an adaptive psychophysical procedure, we show that prey with striped patterning are perceived to move slower, offering a mechanistic explanation for the redirective effect. In summary, our results suggest that the presence of stripes on the body (i.e. head and trunk) of lizards in combination with caudal autotomy can work as an effective anti-predator strategy during motion. PMID:27429765

  15. Aortic coarctation associated with an absent segment of the proximal right subclavian artery.

    PubMed

    Jasper, A; Keshava, S N

    2014-01-01

    Coarctation of the aorta is a congenital anomaly of the thoracic aorta with many known associations. We describe the case of a young man referred for management of subarachnoid hemorrhage, in whom subsequent work-up revealed the previously undescribed combination of severe postductal aortic coarctation and an absent segment of the proximal right subclavian artery. PMID:25370550

  16. Absent Does Not Equal Uninvolved: Predictors of Fathering in Teen Mother Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danziger, Sandra K.; Radin, Norma

    1990-01-01

    Examined effects of several predictors of father involvement in large sample of single-parent, teenage mother families (N=289). The results of telephone interviews indicated that work behavior of absent fathers had a significant direct effect on participation in childrearing and that minority mothers reported higher rates of paternal involvement.…

  17. Case Study: The Perception of Online Tutorials--Habitually Absent Students with Familial or Socioeconomic Circumstances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Glyniss A.

    2013-01-01

    This case study explored the perception of online tutorials by habitually absent students with familial or socioeconomic circumstances. Researched literature confirmed a link between absenteeism, and academic achievement. Research Questions were designed to determine (a) student perception of online tutorials, and (b) motivation to achieve…

  18. Aortic root replacement with absent left-main coronary artery: how to do it.

    PubMed

    Saha, Kamales Kumar; Parate, Bhupesh; Jagiasi, Bharat

    2015-02-01

    Aortic root replacement in patient with a coronary artery anomaly can be challenging. We describe aortic root replacement in a patient with annuloaortic ectasia and coarctation, who had an absent left main coronary artery. There were separate origins of the left anterior descending and left circumflex coronary arteries from the aorta. The technical modification employed in this case is discussed. PMID:24887871

  19. When Familiar Is Not Better: 12-Month-Old Infants Respond to Talk about Absent Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osina, Maria A.; Saylor, Megan M.; Ganea, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments that demonstrate a novel constraint on infants' language skills are described. Across the experiments it is shown that as babies near their 1st birthday, their ability to respond to talk about an absent object is influenced by a referent's spatiotemporal history: familiarizing infants with an object in 1 or several nontest…

  20. The Absent Father: Gender Identity Considerations for Art Therapists Working with Adolescent Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haeseler, Martha

    1996-01-01

    Recent research has shown that boys from father-absent homes exhibit greater feminine role identification, delinquency, mental disorders, poor academic performance, and poor self-esteem. This article presents case studies that demonstrate crises of masculine identification for adolescent boys whose lives lack either a present father or male…

  1. Exploring What's Missing: What Do Target Absent Trials Reveal About Autism Search Superiority?

    PubMed

    Keehn, Brandon; Joseph, Robert M

    2016-05-01

    We used eye-tracking to investigate the roles of enhanced discrimination and peripheral selection in superior visual search in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Children with ASD were faster at visual search than their typically developing peers. However, group differences in performance and eye-movements did not vary with the level of difficulty of discrimination or selection. Rather, consistent with prior ASD research, group differences were mainly the effect of faster performance on target-absent trials. Eye-tracking revealed a lack of left-visual-field search asymmetry in ASD, which may confer an additional advantage when the target is absent. Lastly, ASD symptomatology was positively associated with search superiority, the mechanisms of which may shed light on the atypical brain organization that underlies social-communicative impairment in ASD. PMID:26762114

  2. Absent upper blind Pouch in a case of tracheo-esophageal fistula.

    PubMed

    Harjai, Man Mohan; Badal, Sachendra; Khanna, Sangeeta; Singh, Ajit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    A common upper airway and digestive tract is a rare congenital anomaly that is usually fatal and its exact incidence is not known. It is a diagnostic challenge as it requires high index of suspicion. It should be considered in a neonate with respiratory distress in a non-vigorous baby requiring endotracheal intubation, which is difficult even in expert hand. We present a newborn with suspected tracheo-esophageal fistula that was diagnosed intraoperatively to have absent upper blind pouch of the esophagus and on autopsy found to have laryngeal atresia with absent vocal cords and a common aerodigestive tract continuing distally with trachea. The neonate was ventilated with endotracheal tube (ETT) placement which in retrospect we came to know that it was in the esophagus. The neonate also had associated multiple congenital anomalies of VACTERL association. The importance of teamwork between neonatologist, pediatric surgeon, anesthesiologist, and radiologist is highlighted for diagnosis and management of such rare cases. PMID:25552830

  3. Surgical treatment of tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yuki; Miyamoto, Takashi; Naito, Yuji; Yoshitake, Shuichi

    2016-06-01

    The patient was a 3-month-old girl weighting 3.6 kg, diagnosed with tetralogy of Fallot and absent pulmonary valve syndrome. We surgically repaired the tetralogy of Fallot by patch closure of the ventricular septal defect, right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction using an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene monocusp patch with a bulging sinus, and removal of the bronchial obstruction by anterior translocation of the pulmonary artery using the Lecompte maneuver. PMID:25792545

  4. PHACE(S) Syndrome With Absent Intracranial Internal Carotid Artery and Anomalous Circle of Willis.

    PubMed

    Winter, Pieta R; Itinteang, Tinte; Leadbitter, Philip; FitzJohn, Trevor; Tan, Swee T

    2015-06-01

    The authors present a case of PHACE(S) (posterior fossa malformations, hemangioma, arterial anomalies, cardiac defects, eye anomalies, and sternal cleft or supraumbilical raphe) syndrome with a right-sided segmental infantile hemangioma, and describe in detail, the associated absent ipsilateral intracranial internal carotid artery and anomalous Circle of Willis. Propranolol therapy led to accelerated, complete involution. Nadolol may reduce the theoretical risk of treating PHACE(S) patients with β-blockers. PMID:26080245

  5. The bulk and the tail of minimal absent words in genome sequences.

    PubMed

    Aurell, Erik; Innocenti, Nicolas; Zhou, Hai-Jun

    2016-04-01

    Minimal absent words (MAW) of a genomic sequence are subsequences that are absent themselves but the subwords of which are all present in the sequence. The characteristic distribution of genomic MAWs as a function of their length has been observed to be qualitatively similar for all living organisms, the bulk being rather short, and only relatively few being long. It has been an open issue whether the reason behind this phenomenon is statistical or reflects a biological mechanism, and what biological information is contained in absent words. In this work we demonstrate that the bulk can be described by a probabilistic model of sampling words from random sequences, while the tail of long MAWs is of biological origin. We introduce the concept of a core of a MAW, which are sequences present in the genome and closest to a given MAW. We show that in E. faecalis, E. coli and yeast the cores of the longest MAWs, which exist in two or more copies, are located in highly conserved regions the most prominent example being ribosomal RNAs. We also show that while the distribution of the cores of long MAWs is roughly uniform over these genomes on a coarse-grained level, on a more detailed level it is strongly enhanced in 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) and, to a lesser extent, also in 5' UTRs. This indicates that MAWs and associated MAW cores correspond to fine-tuned evolutionary relationships, and suggest that they can be more widely used as markers for genomic complexity. PMID:27043075

  6. Cardiac-locked bursts of muscle sympathetic nerve activity are absent in familial dysautonomia

    PubMed Central

    Macefield, Vaughan G; Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy; Axelrod, Felicia B; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2013-01-01

    Familial dysautonomia (Riley–Day syndrome) is an hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN type III), expressed at birth, that is associated with reduced pain and temperature sensibilities and absent baroreflexes, causing orthostatic hypotension as well as labile blood pressure that increases markedly during emotional excitement. Given the apparent absence of functional baroreceptor afferents, we tested the hypothesis that the normal cardiac-locked bursts of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) are absent in patients with familial dysautonomia. Tungsten microelectrodes were inserted percutaneously into muscle or cutaneous fascicles of the common peroneal nerve in 12 patients with familial dysautonomia. Spontaneous bursts of MSNA were absent in all patients, but in five patients we found evidence of tonically firing sympathetic neurones, with no cardiac rhythmicity, that increased their spontaneous discharge during emotional arousal but not during a manoeuvre that unloads the baroreceptors. Conversely, skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA), recorded in four patients, appeared normal. We conclude that the loss of phasic bursts of MSNA and the loss of baroreflex modulation of muscle vasoconstrictor drive contributes to the poor control of blood pressure in familial dysautonomia, and that the increase in tonic firing of muscle vasoconstrictor neurones contributes to the increase in blood pressure during emotional excitement. PMID:23165765

  7. The bulk and the tail of minimal absent words in genome sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurell, Erik; Innocenti, Nicolas; Zhou, Hai-Jun

    2016-04-01

    Minimal absent words (MAW) of a genomic sequence are subsequences that are absent themselves but the subwords of which are all present in the sequence. The characteristic distribution of genomic MAWs as a function of their length has been observed to be qualitatively similar for all living organisms, the bulk being rather short, and only relatively few being long. It has been an open issue whether the reason behind this phenomenon is statistical or reflects a biological mechanism, and what biological information is contained in absent words. In this work we demonstrate that the bulk can be described by a probabilistic model of sampling words from random sequences, while the tail of long MAWs is of biological origin. We introduce the concept of a core of a MAW, which are sequences present in the genome and closest to a given MAW. We show that in E. faecalis, E. coli and yeast the cores of the longest MAWs, which exist in two or more copies, are located in highly conserved regions the most prominent example being ribosomal RNAs. We also show that while the distribution of the cores of long MAWs is roughly uniform over these genomes on a coarse-grained level, on a more detailed level it is strongly enhanced in 3’ untranslated regions (UTRs) and, to a lesser extent, also in 5’ UTRs. This indicates that MAWs and associated MAW cores correspond to fine-tuned evolutionary relationships, and suggest that they can be more widely used as markers for genomic complexity.

  8. Gender-based violence and absent fathers: a scoping review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Nduna, Mzikazi; Khuzwayo, Nelisiwe; Mthombeni, Andile; Mashamba-Thompson, Tivani Phosa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Gender-based violence (GBV) and absent fathers are two epidemics that affect women and children in sub-Saharan Africa. However, the understanding of the complex links between GBV and absent fathers is currently inadequate. The aim of the study is to provide an overview of documented evidence that links GBV and absent fathers as well as identifies areas that require systematic review and where more primary research is needed. Methods and analysis The search strategy for this scoping review study will involve electronic databases including: Academic Search Premier, Ingenta, Kluwer Online, PsycARTICLES (EBSCO), PsycINFO (EBSCO), Social Work Abstracts and Sociological Collection. The studies will be mapped in 2 stages: stage 1 will map studies descriptively by focus and method; stage 2 will involve additional inclusion criteria, quality assessment and data extraction undertaken by two reviewers in parallel. A thematic analysis of the studies will be carried out to extract relevant outcomes using NVIVO. Discussion We anticipate finding a large number of studies on GBV diagnostic interventions in sub-Saharan Africa which, once summarised, will be useful to guide future research. The protocol for the scoping review has been registered in PROSPERO. Dissemination The study will be disseminated electronically and in print. It will also be presented to conferences related to GBV, Father Connections and Children's Health. PROSPERO registration number CRD42015022094. PMID:27297007

  9. The effect of breast compression on mass conspicuity in digital mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, Robert S. Jr; Samei, Ehsan

    2008-10-15

    This study analyzed how the inherent quality of diagnostic information in digital mammography could be affected by breast compression. A digital mammography system was modeled using a Monte Carlo algorithm based on the Penelope program, which has been successfully used to model several medical imaging systems. First, the Monte Carlo program was validated against previous measurements and simulations. Once validated, the Monte Carlo software modeled a digital mammography system by tracking photons through a voxelized software breast phantom, containing anatomical structures and breast masses, and following photons until they were absorbed by a selenium-based flat-panel detector. Simulations were performed for two compression conditions (standard compression and 12.5% reduced compression) and three photon flux conditions (constant flux, constant detector signal, and constant glandular dose). The results showed that reduced compression led to higher scatter fractions, as expected. For the constant photon flux condition, decreased compression also reduced glandular dose. For constant glandular dose, the SdNR for a 4 cm breast was 0.60{+-}0.11 and 0.62{+-}0.11 under standard and reduced compressions, respectively. For the 6 cm case with constant glandular dose, the SdNR was 0.50{+-}0.11 and 0.49{+-}0.10 under standard and reduced compressions, respectively. The results suggest that if a particular imaging system can handle an approximately 10% increase in total tube output and 10% decrease in detector signal, breast compression can be reduced by about 12% in terms of breast thickness with little impact on image quality or dose.

  10. Conspicuous involvement of desmin tail mutations in diverse cardiac and skeletal myopathies.

    PubMed

    Bär, Harald; Goudeau, Bertrand; Wälde, Sarah; Casteras-Simon, Monique; Mücke, Norbert; Shatunov, Alexey; Goldberg, Y Paul; Clarke, Charles; Holton, Janice L; Eymard, Bruno; Katus, Hugo A; Fardeau, Michel; Goldfarb, Lev; Vicart, Patrick; Herrmann, Harald

    2007-04-01

    Myofibrillar myopathy (MFM) encompasses a genetically heterogeneous group of human diseases caused by mutations in genes coding for structural proteins of muscle. Mutations in the intermediate filament (IF) protein desmin (DES), a major cytoskeletal component of myocytes, lead to severe forms of "desminopathy," which affects cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscle. Most mutations described reside in the central alpha-helical rod domain of desmin. Here we report three novel mutations--c.1325C>T (p.T442I), c.1360C>T (p.R454W), and c.1379G>T (p.S460I)--located in desmin's non-alpha-helical carboxy-terminal "tail" domain. We have investigated the impact of these and four--c.1237G>A (p.E413K), c.1346A>C (p.K449T), c.1353C>G (p.I451M), and c.1405G>A (p.V469M)--previously described "tail" mutations on in vitro filament formation and on the generation of ordered cytoskeletal arrays in transfected myoblasts. Although all but two mutants (p.E413K, p.R454W) assembled into IFs in vitro and all except p.E413K were incorporated into IF arrays in transfected C2C12 cells, filament properties differed significantly from wild-type desmin as revealed by viscometric assembly assays. Most notably, when coassembled with wild-type desmin, these mutants revealed a severe disturbance of filament-formation competence and filament-filament interactions, indicating an inherent incompatibility of mutant and wild-type protein to form mixed filaments. The various clinical phenotypes observed may reflect altered interactions of desmin's tail domain with different components of the myoblast cytoskeleton leading to diminished biomechanical properties and/or altered metabolism of the individual myocyte. Our in vitro assembly regimen proved to be a very sensible tool to detect if a particular desmin mutation is able to cause filament abnormalities. PMID:17221859

  11. Leg ulceration in chronic venous insufficiency caused by an absent inferior vena cava.

    PubMed

    Amano, Hiroo; Nagai, Yayoi; Endo, Yukie; Iwasaki, Tomoko; Ishikawa, Osamu

    2009-01-01

    We report here the case of a 55-year-old Japanese man with a one-year history of multiple ulcers on the left crural region. He had had pronounced varicose veins on both legs and the abdominal region for 35 years. Computed tomography images of the thoracic and abdominal regions showed the absence of an inferior vena cava, with pronounced dilatation of paravertebral venous plexus, cutaneous and azygous veins. Conservative topical treatments led to complete healing of the ulcers in one month. An absent inferior vena cava is an uncommon abnormality, often complicated by cardiac and other visceral malformations. It is a rare cause of chronic leg ulcers. PMID:19734977

  12. Syndrome of absent abdominal muscles: two cases with microcephaly, polymicrogyria, and cerebellar malformations

    PubMed Central

    Heffner, Reid R.

    1970-01-01

    Two unique cases of the syndrome of absent abdominal muscles with central nervous system involvement are presented. Microcephaly, polymicrogyria, and cerebellar heterotopiae were present in both. In case 1 there was also absence of the corpus callosum and agenesis of the cerebellar vermis. In case 2 a count of anterior horn cells in the spinal cord showed a reduction of approximately 50% in the lower thoracic region. The pertinent literature is briefly discussed. The findings in the nervous system suggest that the syndrome is the result of defective embryogenesis during the first trimester. Images PMID:4250700

  13. Group velocity mismatch-absent nonlinear frequency conversions for mid-infrared femtosecond pulses generation

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Haizhe; Zhang, Lifu; Li, Ying; Fan, Dianyuan

    2015-01-01

    A novel group velocity mismatch (GVM) absent scheme for nonlinear optical parametric procedure in mid-infrared was developed with type-I quasi phase matching by use of an off-digital nonlinear optical coefficient d31. This was achieved by matching of the group velocities of the pump and the signal waves, while the phase velocities were quasi phase matched. The system employs MgO-doped periodically poled LiNbO3 as the nonlinear medium. Desired group-velocity dispersion would be obtained via appropriately temperature regulation. To demonstrate its potential applications in ultrafast mid-infrared pulses generation, aiming at a typical mid-infrared wavelength of ~3.2 μm, design examples of two basic nonlinear frequency conversion procedures are studied for both the narrow-band seeding mid-IR optical parametric amplification (OPA) and the synchronously pumped femtosecond optical parametric oscillation (SPOPO). Compared with the conventional scheme of type-0 QPM, the quantum-efficiency can be more than doubled with nearly unlimited bandwidth. The proposed GVM- absent phase matching design may provide a promising route to efficient and broadband sub-100 fs mid-infrared ultrafast pulses generation without group-velocity walk-off. PMID:26099837

  14. Distractor Dwelling, Skipping, and Revisiting Determine Target Absent Performance in Difficult Visual Search.

    PubMed

    Horstmann, Gernot; Herwig, Arvid; Becker, Stefanie I

    2016-01-01

    Some targets in visual search are more difficult to find than others. In particular, a target that is similar to the distractors is more difficult to find than a target that is dissimilar to the distractors. Efficiency differences between easy and difficult searches are manifest not only in target-present trials but also in target-absent trials. In fact, even physically identical displays are searched through with different efficiency depending on the searched-for target. Here, we monitored eye movements in search for a target similar to the distractors (difficult search) versus a target dissimilar to the distractors (easy search). We aimed to examine three hypotheses concerning the causes of differential search efficiencies in target-absent trials: (a) distractor dwelling (b) distractor skipping, and (c) distractor revisiting. Reaction times increased with target similarity which is consistent with existing theories and replicates earlier results. Eye movement data indicated guidance in target trials, even though search was very slow. Dwelling, skipping, and revisiting contributed to low search efficiency in difficult search, with dwelling being the strongest factor. It is argued that differences in dwell time account for a large amount of total search time differences. PMID:27574510

  15. Distractor Dwelling, Skipping, and Revisiting Determine Target Absent Performance in Difficult Visual Search

    PubMed Central

    Horstmann, Gernot; Herwig, Arvid; Becker, Stefanie I.

    2016-01-01

    Some targets in visual search are more difficult to find than others. In particular, a target that is similar to the distractors is more difficult to find than a target that is dissimilar to the distractors. Efficiency differences between easy and difficult searches are manifest not only in target-present trials but also in target-absent trials. In fact, even physically identical displays are searched through with different efficiency depending on the searched-for target. Here, we monitored eye movements in search for a target similar to the distractors (difficult search) versus a target dissimilar to the distractors (easy search). We aimed to examine three hypotheses concerning the causes of differential search efficiencies in target-absent trials: (a) distractor dwelling (b) distractor skipping, and (c) distractor revisiting. Reaction times increased with target similarity which is consistent with existing theories and replicates earlier results. Eye movement data indicated guidance in target trials, even though search was very slow. Dwelling, skipping, and revisiting contributed to low search efficiency in difficult search, with dwelling being the strongest factor. It is argued that differences in dwell time account for a large amount of total search time differences. PMID:27574510

  16. Mourning the dead, mourning the disappeared: the enigma of the absent-presence.

    PubMed

    Taiana, Cecilia

    2014-12-01

    Freud's interest in the impact of death on the living goes back further than Mourning and Melancholia (1917e, [1915]). In Totem and Taboo (1912-13) Freud noted the ambivalence of the emotions we experience in relation to the dead. In this paper, I focus on Mourning and Melancholia as a landmark in the understanding of both the normal and psychopathological aspects of mourning and depressive processes in human beings. Mourning and Melancholia bridges Freud's first and second topographic theories of the psychic apparatus and constitutes for many authors the foundation of his theory of internal object relations. With this psychoanalytic understanding of mourning as a framework, I discuss 'special mourning processes,' such as the those confronted by psychoanalysts in Argentina when treating the relatives of thousands of people who were 'disappeared' by the military dictatorship in the 1970s; they are 'special' in the sense that the external reality [which] constitutes the starting point of the psychic mourning process, as described by Freud, is absent. I argue that the 'absent-presence' of the body as an enigmatic message initiates a special mourning process that bears certain characteristics of, and is isomorphic to, Laplanche's seduction theory. PMID:25363451

  17. Conspicuous carotenoid-based pelvic spine ornament in three-spined stickleback populations—occurrence and inheritance

    PubMed Central

    Amundsen, CR; Gjøen, HM; Larsen, B; Egeland, ES

    2015-01-01

    Reports on reddish carotenoid-based ornaments in female three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) are few, despite the large interest in the species’ behaviour, ornamentation, morphology and evolution. We sampled sticklebacks from 17 sites in north-western Europe in this first extensive study on the occurrence of carotenoid-based female pelvic spines and throat ornaments. The field results showed that females, and males, with reddish spines were found in all 17 populations. Specimens of both sexes with conspicuous red spines were found in several of the sites. The pelvic spines of males were more intensely red compared to the females’ spines, and large specimens were more red than small ones. Fish infected with the tapeworm (Schistocephalus solidus) had drabber spines than uninfected fish. Both sexes had red spines both during and after the spawning period, but the intensity of the red colour was more exaggerated during the spawning period. As opposed to pelvic spines, no sign of red colour at the throat was observed in any female from any of the 17 populations. A rearing experiment was carried out to estimate a potential genetic component of the pelvic spine ornament by artificial crossing and rearing of 15 family groups during a 12 months period. The results indicated that the genetic component of the red colour at the spines was low or close to zero. Although reddish pelvic spines seem common in populations of stickleback, the potential adaptive function of the reddish pelvic spines remains largely unexplained. PMID:25861558

  18. Sensory exploitation of prey: manipulation of the initial direction of prey escapes by a conspicuous "rare enemy".

    PubMed

    Jabłonski, P G

    2001-05-22

    The painted redstart (Myioborus pictus) represents a group of non-cryptic predators, the flush pursuers, who visually trigger prey escapes by spreading and pivoting their conspicuously patterned tails and wings. The prey are then chased in aerial pursuits. Such an exploitation of prey may be possible because the predation risk from redstarts is smaller than that from the predatory guild of insectivores and their neural pathways are adapted to helping prey avoid common predators rather than "rare enemies". I propose that the pivoting movements of flush pursuers direct insect escapes across the central field of vision of a predator, where it is easier to track and intercept the prey. Eighty per cent of chases by wild redstarts were in a direction suggesting that prey were entering the birds' area of stereoscopic vision. The redstart's fanned and raised tail creates a stronger visual stimulus than a redstart's head. Flies escaped away from the section of the fly's field of vision in which the model's tail was located and towards the area where the predator's stereoscopic vision is likely to be located, in front of a bird's forehead. The experiments suggested that redstarts may not only exploit the sensitivity of typical neural escape pathways, which are non-directionally sensitive, but that they may also exploit the sensitivity of some directionally sensitive neural pathways in prey. PMID:11375085

  19. Combined Use of Automatic Tube Voltage Selection and Current Modulation with Iterative Reconstruction for CT Evaluation of Small Hypervascular Hepatocellular Carcinomas: Effect on Lesion Conspicuity and Image Quality

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Peijie; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Rui; Jia, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the lesion conspicuity and image quality in CT evaluation of small (≤ 3 cm) hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) using automatic tube voltage selection (ATVS) and automatic tube current modulation (ATCM) with or without iterative reconstruction. Materials and Methods One hundred and five patients with 123 HCC lesions were included. Fifty-seven patients were scanned using both ATVS and ATCM and images were reconstructed using either filtered back-projection (FBP) (group A1) or sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) (group A2). Forty-eight patients were imaged using only ATCM, with a fixed tube potential of 120 kVp and FBP reconstruction (group B). Quantitative parameters (image noise in Hounsfield unit and contrast-to-noise ratio of the aorta, the liver, and the hepatic tumors) and qualitative visual parameters (image noise, overall image quality, and lesion conspicuity as graded on a 5-point scale) were compared among the groups. Results Group A2 scanned with the automatically chosen 80 kVp and 100 kVp tube voltages ranked the best in lesion conspicuity and subjective and objective image quality (p values ranging from < 0.001 to 0.004) among the three groups, except for overall image quality between group A2 and group B (p = 0.022). Group A1 showed higher image noise (p = 0.005) but similar lesion conspicuity and overall image quality as compared with group B. The radiation dose in group A was 19% lower than that in group B (p = 0.022). Conclusion CT scanning with combined use of ATVS and ATCM and image reconstruction with SAFIRE algorithm provides higher lesion conspicuity and better image quality for evaluating small hepatic HCCs with radiation dose reduction. PMID:25995682

  20. The use of conspicuity aids by cyclists and risk of crashes involving other road users: a protocol for a population based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Regular cycling has been shown to improve health and has a role in tackling the threats posed by obesity and inactivity. Cycle collisions, particularly those involving motorised vehicles, can lead to significant mortality and morbidity and are currently a barrier to wider uptake of cycling. There is evidence that the conspicuity of cyclists is a factor in many injury collisions. Low-cost, easy to use retro-reflective and fluorescent clothing and accessories ('conspicuity aids') are available. Their effectiveness in reducing cycling collisions is unknown. The study is designed to investigate the relationship between the use of conspicuity aids and risk of collision or evasion crashes for utility and commuter cyclists in the UK. Methods/Design A matched case-control study is proposed. Cases are adult commuter and utility cyclists involved in a crash resulting from a collision or attempted evasion of a collision with another road user recruited at a UK emergency department. Controls are commuter and utility cyclists matched by journey purpose, time and day of travel and geographical area recruited at public and private cycle parking sites. Data on the use of conspicuity aids, crash circumstances, demographics, cycling experience, safety equipment use, journey characteristics and route will be collected using self-completed questionnaires and maps. Conditional logistic regression will be used to calculate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of the risk of a crash when using any item of fluorescent or reflective clothing or equipment. Discussion This study will provide information on the effectiveness of conspicuity aids in reducing the risk of injury to cyclists resulting from crashes involving other road users. PMID:20105286

  1. A Conspicuous Absence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluviose, David

    2006-01-01

    Every major city in every state in the country has a public community college, as do U.S. territories such as Guam and Puerto Rico. President Bush, Federal Reserve chairman Alan Greenspan and civic and business leaders of all stripes are increasingly talking up community colleges as critical to training U.S. workers for ever-changing job needs in…

  2. Invasive sinonasal adenocarcinoma with an absent olfactory bulb: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Thomas H.; Tipper, Geoffrey A.; Hussain, Zakier

    2016-01-01

    Sinonasal adenocarcinomas are rare, locally invasive tumours. In this case the symptomatic profile was unusual and the diagnosis was missed at the primary care stage. Interestingly this would be the first documented case with an absent ipsilateral olfactory bulb. A 55-year old male presented with symptoms of behavioural change and mild headaches. He was later found to have a large Sinonasal adenocarcinoma which penetrated the skull base. This was treated by a combined craniotomy and endonasal approach. Sinonasal adenocarcinomas are unusual tumours and further research is required in order to clarify management strategies and prognosis. This interesting case was more unusual again given its presentation, extent and absence of the olfactory bulb. Importantly for primary care physicians the initial diagnosis was considered psychiatric rather than organic; despite there being specific features of the presentation which were suggestive of an intra-cranial lesion. PMID:27402540

  3. EYA4, a novel vertebrate gene related to Drosophila eyes absent.

    PubMed

    Borsani, G; DeGrandi, A; Ballabio, A; Bulfone, A; Bernard, L; Banfi, S; Gattuso, C; Mariani, M; Dixon, M; Donnai, D; Metcalfe, K; Winter, R; Robertson, M; Axton, R; Brown, A; van Heyningen, V; Hanson, I

    1999-01-01

    We have isolated a family of four vertebrate genes homologous to eyes absent (eya), a key regulator of ocular development in Drosophila. Here we present the detailed characterization of the EYA4 gene in human and mouse. EYA4 encodes a 640 amino acid protein containing a highly conserved C-terminal domain of 271 amino acids which in Drosophila eya is known to mediate developmentally important protein-protein interactions. Human EYA4 maps to 6q23 and mouse Eya4 maps to the predicted homology region near the centromere of chromosome 10. In the developing mouse embryo, Eya4 is expressed primarily in the craniofacial mesenchyme, the dermamyotome and the limb. On the basis of map position and expression pattern, EYA4 is a candidate for oculo-dento-digital (ODD) syndrome, but no EYA4 mutations were found in a panel of ODD patients. PMID:9887327

  4. Characterization of the threonine-phosphatase of mouse eyes absent 3.

    PubMed

    Sano, Teruyuki; Nagata, Shigekazu

    2011-09-01

    Eyes absent (EYA) has tyrosine- and threonine-phosphatase activities in their C-terminal and N-terminal regions, respectively. Using various mutants of mouse EYA3, we showed that the 68-amino acid domain between positions 53 and 120 was necessary and sufficient for its threonine-phosphatase activity. Point mutations were then introduced, and residues Cys-56, Tyr-77, His-79, and Tyr-90 were essential for the EYA3s threonine-phosphatase. The 68-amino acid domain is not well conserved among the four mouse EYA members, but is evolutionally highly conserved in the orthologous EYA members of different species, suggesting that the threonine-phosphatase of EYA3 has a function distinct from that of the other EYAs. PMID:21821028

  5. Invasive sinonasal adenocarcinoma with an absent olfactory bulb: a case report.

    PubMed

    Newman, Thomas H; Tipper, Geoffrey A; Hussain, Zakier

    2016-01-01

    Sinonasal adenocarcinomas are rare, locally invasive tumours. In this case the symptomatic profile was unusual and the diagnosis was missed at the primary care stage. Interestingly this would be the first documented case with an absent ipsilateral olfactory bulb. A 55-year old male presented with symptoms of behavioural change and mild headaches. He was later found to have a large Sinonasal adenocarcinoma which penetrated the skull base. This was treated by a combined craniotomy and endonasal approach. Sinonasal adenocarcinomas are unusual tumours and further research is required in order to clarify management strategies and prognosis. This interesting case was more unusual again given its presentation, extent and absence of the olfactory bulb. Importantly for primary care physicians the initial diagnosis was considered psychiatric rather than organic; despite there being specific features of the presentation which were suggestive of an intra-cranial lesion. PMID:27402540

  6. Computerized axial tomography of the chest for visualization of ''absent'' pulmonary arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Sondheimer, H.M.; Oliphant, M.; Schneider, B.; Kavey, R.E.W.; Blackman, M.S.; Parker, F.B. Jr.

    1982-05-01

    To expand the search for central pulmonary arteries in six patients with absence of cardiac-pulmonary continuity, computerized axial tomography (CAT) of the chest was performed. The CAT scans were compared with previous arteriograms and pulmonary vein wedge angiograms. Three patients with type IV truncus arteriosus were studied, and none had a central, right or left pulmonary artery on CAT scan. However, two patients with tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia and a patent ductus arteriosus to the right lung demonstrated the presence of a left pulmonary artery. In addition, one child with truncus arteriosus with ''absent'' left pulmonary artery demonstrated a left pulmonary artery on the CAT scan. The CAT scan may therefore enhance our ability to search for disconnected pulmonary arteries in children with complex cyanotic congenital heart disease.

  7. The post-syrinx syndrome: stable central myelopathy and collapsed or absent syrinx.

    PubMed

    Bogdanov, E I; Heiss, John D; Mendelevich, E G

    2006-06-01

    Among 168 cases with neurologic findings of cervicothoracic syringomyelia and MRI findings of Chiari 1 malformation and/or underdevelopment of the posterior cranial fossa, 15 patients (9.1 %) had collapsed, flat syrinxes and 14 patients (8.3 %) did not have syrinxes. Both groups of patients had clinical findings of central myelopathy that had been stable for at least 3 years. Magnetic resonance imaging detected atrophy of the cervical spinal cord in both groups and spontaneous communications between the syrinx and the subarachnoid space in 3 patients of the group with collapsed syrinxes. Analysis of these results and review of the literature suggest that patients with clinical signs of syringomyelia and Chiari 1 malformation or underdeveloped posterior fossa, but with small or absent syringomyelitic cavities, have the "postsyrinx" state as a result of spontaneous collapse of distended syrinxes. PMID:16511636

  8. Examining Clinicians' Experiences Providing Sexual Health Services for LGBTQ Youth: Considering Social and Structural Determinants of Health in Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, R. E.; Shoveller, J. A.; Carson, A. M.; Contreras-Whitney, J. G.

    2014-01-01

    Although barriers related to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBTQ) youth's experiences accessing sexual health services have been examined in detail, research into the experiences and perceptions of clinicians providing these services has been conspicuously absent. The aim of this article is to explore the perceptions and…

  9. Conspicuous variation of the lattice unit cell in the pavonite homologous series and its relation with cation/anion occupational modulations

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Mato, J.M.; Topa, Dan; Petříček, Václav; Madariaga, Gotzon

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: ► Strong non-uniform variation of unit cell parameters in the pavonite homologous series. ► Conspicuous unit cell variation due to an underlying sub-lattice with cation/anion occupation. ► A modulated model common to the whole series using the superspace formalism proposed. ► Model successfully applied to the {sup 7}P pavonite Ag{sub 3}(Bi,Pb){sub 7}S{sub 12}. ► The model can be applied in a predictive way to other members of the family. - Abstract: The pavonites is a homologous series of sulfosalts with galena-like modules of variable size. A survey of their unit cells reveals that they are severely constrained by the metrics of an underlying common average sublattice. The unit cell of any compound of the series accommodates with high precision an integer number of approximately equal subcells. This explains a peculiar non-uniform variation of the unit cell parameters within the series and evidences that the interface between the galena-like modules, despite having a very different topology, approximately maintains the subperiodicity of the modules, and must therefore be subject to strong steric restrictions. It also implies that cations and anions occupy the nodes of the observed common underlying average sublattice according to a striking alternate cation/anion occupational modulation. This is the starting point for a description of these materials as modulated structures, which can make a proficient use of the approximate atomic positional non-crystallographic correlations caused by their modular character. Under this approach only four parameters suffice to define a realistic approximate model of any member of the series. A full structural characterization of any of the compounds only requires the determination of additional small/smooth modulations. As an example, the case of the {sup 7}P pavonite Ag{sub 3}Bi{sub 6.2}Pb{sub 0.8}S{sub 12}, is analyzed.

  10. Proximal hypospadias with skin-covered shaft of penis and absent urethral plate: An unknown variant and its management

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, Kumar A.; Bhat, Nisar A.

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of proximal hypospadias with an absent urethral plate having intact ventral shaft skin with hooded dorsal prepuce and a good glans groove. Such a variant of hypospadias has not been reported in the literature. PMID:22121320

  11. Silent dropouts in health surveys: are nonrespondent absent teenagers different from those who participate in school-based health surveys?

    PubMed

    Michaud, P A; Delbos-Piot, I; Narring, F

    1998-04-01

    3324 in-school students aged 15-20 years randomly selected from high schools and professional centers in francophone Switzerland answered a self-administered questionnaire about their health problems, needs, and behavior. Their responses were compared with those of 96 absent students sampled via telephone on a shorter, but similar questionnaire. Relative to the absent students, a significantly higher percentage of in-school students reported skin problems, weight concerns, sleep problems, headaches, stomach aches, and vision or dental problems. The percentages of students reporting a need for help were also higher among present students than among those who were absent: nutrition, 21.8 vs. 9.4; stress, 44.2 vs. 31.3; depression, 28.4 vs. 18.9; sleep problems, 21.3 vs. 12.1; sports, 9.2 vs. 4.2; and love life, 31.5 vs. 14.5. The rates of hospitalization and injuries were lower among absent students, 28.2 vs. 40.1. A higher proportion of absent students were sexually active and they also had a tendency to use tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis more often than did present students. Absent students also more frequently partook of leisure and group activities. Study findings suggest that within the Swiss context, school absenteeism is probably related less to physical or chronic health problems than to hedonistic lifestyles which predispose some students skip part of the school hours. PMID:9561465

  12. [Umbilical Absent and Reverse End-Diastolic Flow Velocity Waveforms Already Present Prior to Viability do not Exclude Long-Term Foetal Surveillance: A Report of Two Cases].

    PubMed

    Müller, T; Wirbelauer, J; Frauenschuh, I; Frambach, T; Zollner, U; Dietl, J

    2015-04-01

    The finding of absent or reverse end-diastolic flow velocities (AREDV) in the umbilical artery already prior to viability corresponds to the most severe end of the clinical spectrum of placental insufficiency. However, there is little or no experience or published literature with regard to perinatal outcome. We report 2 cases in which structurally and chromosomally normal foetuses showed severe early onset retardation but were continuing to grow. These gestations could be prolonged by 62 and 64 days, respectively. Perinatal outcome was good in both following Caesarean section at 32+3 and 31+5 gestational weeks respectively. PMID:25901870

  13. Magnetic Resonance Evaluation of Multiple Myeloma at 3.0 Tesla: How Do Bone Marrow Plasma Cell Percentage and Selection of Protocols Affect Lesion Conspicuity?

    PubMed Central

    Takasu, Miyuki; Tamura, Takayuki; Kaichi, Yoko; Tanitame, Keizo; Akiyama, Yuji; Date, Shuji; Sakai, Akira; Kuroda, Yoshiaki; Awai, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare various pulse sequences in terms of percent contrast and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for detection of focal multiple myeloma lesions and to assess the dependence of lesion conspicuity on the bone marrow plasma cell percent (BMPC%). Materials and Methods Sagittal T1-weighted FSE, fat-suppressed T2-weighted FSE (FS- T2 FSE), fast STIR and iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation (IDEAL) imaging of the lumbar spine were performed (n = 45). Bone marrow (BM)-focal myeloma lesion percent contrast and CNR were calculated. Spearman rank correlation coefficients were obtained between percent contrast, CNR and BMPC%. Percent contrasts and CNRs were compared among the three imaging sequences. Results BM-focal lesion percent contrasts, CNRs and BMPC% showed significant negative correlations in the three fat-suppression techniques. Percent contrast and CNRs were significantly higher for FS- T2 FSE than for STIR (P<0.01, P<0.05, respectively), but no significant differences were found among the three fat-suppression methods in the low tumor load BM group. Conclusion The higher BMPC% was within BM, the less conspicuous the focal lesion was on fat-suppressed MRI. The most effective protocol for detecting focal lesions was FS- T2 FSE. In the high tumor load BM group, no significant differences in lesion conspicuity were identified among the three fat-suppression techniques. PMID:24489680

  14. NMR Structure of Conserved Eukaryotic Protein ZK652.3 from C. elegans: a Ubiquitin-like Fold

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, John R. ); Chiang, Yiwen; Zheng, Deyou; Kennedy, Michael A. ); Montelione, Gaetano

    2002-09-01

    Structural proteomics aims to provide one or more representative 3D structures for every structural domain family in nature. As part of an international effort in structural proteomics, the Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium has targeted clusters of strongly conserved eukaryotic protein families for structural and functional analysis. On this basis, protein ZK652.3 (nesg WR41 / YOY3{_}CAEEL / Swiss-Prot P34661 / gi|17557033) from Caenorhabditis elegans was selected for structure determination. Expression of the ZK652.3 gene has been observed in a transcriptional profile of C. elegans genes, where it was one of a cluster of 89 genes whose expression levels co-varied during development1. The biochemical function of this protein is presently unknown. Sequencing of cDNA libraries shows that homologues of ZK652.3 occur widely in vertebrates and plants (Fig. 1). However, ZK652.3 homologues are conspicuously absent from the yeast and Drosophila genomes. Here we describe the three-dimensional structure of ZK652.3 determined by NMR spectroscopy and discuss structural similarities with other proteins which provide clues to potential biochemical functions.

  15. Diatom assemblage responses to changing environment in the conspicuously eutrophic Kiuruvesi lake route, central-eastern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tammelin, Mira; Kauppila, Tommi

    2016-04-01

    Lakes and their water quality have been affected by anthropogenic actions for centuries. The most intensive changes have often occurred since the mid-19th century. Industrialization, modern agriculture, forest ditching and artificial lowering of water level are examples of these changes that have usually resulted in the deterioration of lake water quality. Many organisms, such as diatoms, are sensitive to these changes in their environmental conditions. Therefore, a marked species turnover is often seen between the pre and post human impact diatom assemblages. This turnover can be rapidly assessed simultaneously from many lakes by using multivariate methods and top-bottom sampling. Our study area consists of three adjacent lake routes in the grass cultivation and dairy production area of central-eastern Finland, where slash-and-burn cultivation and artificial water level lowering were common practice during the past centuries. The centermost Iisalmi lake route is particularly interesting because of the conspicuously eutrophic lakes in its Kiuruvesi subroute. We used the top-bottom approach to sample pre and post human impact samples from 47 lakes (50 sampling sites) located in the three lake routes. In addition, stratigraphic samples from the long cores of three lakes (one larger central basin and two small upstream lakes) in the Kiuruvesi subroute were studied in more detail. Multivariate methods were used to assess diatom assemblage change within the long cores and between the pre-disturbance and modern samples. The results indicate that most study lakes have undergone a marked shift in their diatom assemblages since the onset of human impact in the area. The lake routes are characterized by differing pre-impact diatom assemblages. However, human influence has reduced their natural variation. Similar diatom species are common in the modern samples of the heavily impacted lakes in all three lake routes. The detailed examination of the diatom assemblage turnover in

  16. Once a Batesian mimic, not always a Batesian mimic: mimic reverts back to ancestral phenotype when the model is absent

    PubMed Central

    Prudic, Kathleen L; Oliver, Jeffrey C

    2008-01-01

    Batesian mimics gain protection from predation through the evolution of physical similarities to a model species that possesses anti-predator defences. This protection should not be effective in the absence of the model since the predator does not identify the mimic as potentially dangerous and both the model and the mimic are highly conspicuous. Thus, Batesian mimics should probably encounter strong predation pressure outside the geographical range of the model species. There are several documented examples of Batesian mimics occurring in locations without their models, but the evolutionary responses remain largely unidentified. A mimetic species has four alternative evolutionary responses to the loss of model presence. If predation is weak, it could maintain its mimetic signal. If predation is intense, it is widely presumed the mimic will go extinct. However, the mimic could also evolve a new colour pattern to mimic another model species or it could revert back to its ancestral, less conspicuous phenotype. We used molecular phylogenetic approaches to reconstruct and test the evolution of mimicry in the North American admiral butterflies (Limenitis: Nymphalidae). We confirmed that the more cryptic white-banded form is the ancestral phenotype of North American admiral butterflies. However, one species, Limenitis arthemis, evolved the black pipevine swallowtail mimetic form but later reverted to the white-banded more cryptic ancestral form. This character reversion is strongly correlated with the geographical absence of the model species and its host plant, but not the host plant distribution of L. arthemis. Our results support the prediction that a Batesian mimic does not persist in locations without its model, but it does not go extinct either. The mimic can revert back to its ancestral, less conspicuous form and persist. PMID:18285285

  17. A CD45 polymorphism associated with abnormal splicing is absent in African populations.

    PubMed

    Tchilian, Elma Z; Dawes, Ritu; Ramaley, Patricia A; Whitworth, James A; Yuldasheva, Nadira; Wells, R Spencer; Watera, Christine; French, Neil; Gilks, Charles F; Kunachiwa, Warunee; Ruzibakiev, Ruslan; Leetrakool, Nipapan; Carrington, Christine V F; Ramdath, D Dan; Gotch, Frances; Stephens, Henry A; Hill, Adrian V; Beverley, Peter C L

    2002-02-01

    The CD45 antigen is essential for normal antigen receptor-mediated signalling in lymphocytes, and different patterns of splicing of CD45 are associated with distinct functions in lymphocytes. Abnormal CD45 splicing has been recognized in humans, caused by a C77G transversion in the gene encoding CD45 (PTPRC). Recently the C77G polymorphism has been associated with multiple sclerosis and increased susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. These studies suggest that the regulation of CD45 splicing may be critical for the proper function of the immune system. Because of these data we examined the frequency of the C77G allele in African and Asian populations from countries with high or low prevalence of HIV infection. Here we report that the variant CD45 C77G allele is absent in African populations. We further show that populations living in the Pamir mountains of Central Asia have a very high prevalence of the C77G variant. PMID:11862398

  18. Inhibition of Eyes Absent Homolog 4 expression induces malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor necrosis.

    PubMed

    Miller, S J; Lan, Z D; Hardiman, A; Wu, J; Kordich, J J; Patmore, D M; Hegde, R S; Cripe, T P; Cancelas, J A; Collins, M H; Ratner, N

    2010-01-21

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are aggressive sarcomas without effective therapeutics. Bioinformatics was used to identify potential therapeutic targets. Paired Box (PAX), Eyes Absent (EYA), Dachsund (DACH) and Sine Oculis (SIX) genes, which form a regulatory interactive network in Drosophila, were found to be dysregulated in human MPNST cell lines and solid tumors. We identified a decrease in DACH1 expression, and increases in the expressions of PAX6, EYA1, EYA2, EYA4, and SIX1-4 genes. Consistent with the observation that half of MPNSTs develop in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) patients, subsequent to NF1 mutation, we found that exogenous expression of the NF1-GTPase activating protein-related domain normalized DACH1 expression. EYA4 mRNA was elevated more than 100-fold as estimated by quantitative real-time PCR in most MPNST cell lines. In vitro, suppression of EYA4 expression using short hairpin RNA reduced cell adhesion and migration and caused cellular necrosis without affecting cell proliferation or apoptotic cell death. MPNST cells expressing shEYA4 either failed to form tumors in nude mice or formed very small tumors, with extensive necrosis but similar levels of proliferation and apoptosis as control cells. Our findings identify a role of EYA4 and possibly interacting SIX and DACH proteins in MPNSTs and suggest the EYA4 pathway as a rational therapeutic target. PMID:19901965

  19. Cloning and characterization of two vertebrate homologs of the Drosophila eyes absent gene.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, J E; Bui, Q T; Steingrímsson, E; Nagle, D L; Fu, W; Genin, A; Spinner, N B; Copeland, N G; Jenkins, N A; Bucan, M; Bonini, N M

    1997-02-01

    The Drosophila eyes absent (eya) gene plays an essential role in the events that lead to proper development of the fly eye and embryo. Here we report the analysis of two human and two mouse homologs of the fly eya gene. Sequence comparison reveals a large domain of approximately 270 amino acids in the carboxyl terminus of the predicted mammalian proteins that shows 53% identity between the fly sequence and all of the vertebrate homologs. This Eya-homology domain is of novel sequence, with no previously identified motifs. RNA hybridization studies indicate that the mouse genes are expressed during embryogenesis and in select tissues of the adult. Both mouse Eya genes are expressed in the eye, suggesting that these genes may function in eye development in vertebrates as eya does in the fly. The mouse Eya2 gene maps to chromosome 2 in the region syntenic with human chromosome 20q13, and the mouse Eya2 gene maps to chromosome 4 in the region syntenic with human chromosome 1p36. Our findings support the notion that several families of genes (Pax-6/eyeless, Six-3/sine oculis, and Eya) play related and critical roles in the eye for both files and vertebrates. PMID:9049631

  20. Drosophila Eyes Absent Is Required for Normal Cone and Pigment Cell Development

    PubMed Central

    Karandikar, Umesh C.; Jin, Meng; Jusiak, Barbara; Kwak, SuJin; Chen, Rui; Mardon, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    In Drosophila, development of the compound eye is orchestrated by a network of highly conserved transcriptional regulators known as the retinal determination (RD) network. The retinal determination gene eyes absent (eya) is expressed in most cells within the developing eye field, from undifferentiated retinal progenitors to photoreceptor cells whose differentiation begins at the morphogenetic furrow (MF). Loss of eya expression leads to an early block in retinal development, making it impossible to study the role of eya expression during later steps of retinal differentiation. We have identified two new regulatory regions that control eya expression during retinal development. These two enhancers are necessary to maintain eya expression anterior to the MF (eya-IAM) and in photoreceptors (eya-PSE), respectively. We find that deleting these enhancers affects developmental events anterior to the MF as well as retinal differentiation posterior to the MF. In line with previous results, we find that reducing eya expression anterior to the MF affects several early steps during early retinal differentiation, including cell cycle arrest and expression of the proneural gene ato. Consistent with previous observations that suggest a role for eya in cell proliferation during early development we find that deletion of eya-IAM leads to a marked reduction in the size of the adult retinal field. On the other hand, deletion of eya-PSE leads to defects in cone and pigment cell development. In addition we find that eya expression is necessary to activate expression of the cone cell marker Cut and to regulate levels of the Hedgehog pathway effector Ci. In summary, our study uncovers novel aspects of eya-mediated regulation of eye development. The genetic tools generated in this study will allow for a detailed study of how the RD network regulates key steps in eye formation. PMID:25057928

  1. Regulation of the innate immune response by threonine-phosphatase of Eyes absent.

    PubMed

    Okabe, Yasutaka; Sano, Teruyuki; Nagata, Shigekazu

    2009-07-23

    Innate immunity is stimulated not only by viral or bacterial components, but also by non-microbial danger signals (damage-associated molecular patterns). One of the damage-associated molecular patterns is chromosomal DNA that escapes degradation. In programmed cell death and erythropoiesis, DNA from dead cells or nuclei expelled from erythroblasts is digested by DNase II in the macrophages after they are engulfed. DNase II(-/-) (also known as Dnase2a(-/-)) mice suffer from severe anaemia or chronic arthritis due to interferon-beta (IFN-beta) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) produced from the macrophages carrying undigested DNA in a Toll-like receptor (TLR)-independent mechanism. Here we show that Eyes absent 4 (EYA4), originally identified as a co-transcription factor, stimulates the expression of IFN-beta and CXCL10 in response to the undigested DNA of apoptotic cells. EYA4 enhanced the innate immune response against viruses (Newcastle disease virus and vesicular stomatitis virus), and could associate with signalling molecules (IPS-1 (also known as MAVS), STING (TMEM173) and NLRX1). Three groups have previously shown that EYA has phosphatase activity. We found that mouse EYA family members act as a phosphatase for both phosphotyrosine and phosphothreonine. The haloacid dehalogenase domain at the carboxy terminus contained the tyrosine-phosphatase, and the amino-terminal half carried the threonine-phosphatase. Mutations of the threonine-phosphatase, but not the tyrosine-phosphatase, abolished the ability of EYA4 to enhance the innate immune response, suggesting that EYA regulates the innate immune response by modulating the phosphorylation state of signal transducers for the intracellular pathogens. PMID:19561593

  2. Frequent methylation of eyes absent 4 gene in Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zou, Hongzhi; Osborn, Neal K; Harrington, Jonathan J; Klatt, Kristie K; Molina, Julian R; Burgart, Lawrence J; Ahlquist, David A

    2005-04-01

    Most esophageal adenocarcinomas arise within Barrett's esophagus but the cause of this increasingly prevalent condition remains unknown. Early detection improves survival and discriminant screening markers for Barrett's esophagus and cancer are needed. This study was designed to explore the natural history of eyes absent 4 (EYA4) gene methylation in the neoplastic progression of Barrett's esophagus and to evaluate methylated EYA4 as a candidate marker. Aberrant promoter methylation of EYA4 was studied by methylation-specific PCR using bisulfite-treated DNA from esophageal adenocarcinomas, Barrett's esophagus, and normal epithelia, and then confirmed by sequencing. Eight cancer cell lines were treated with the demethylation agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, and EYA4 mRNA expression with and without treatment was quantified by real-time reverse-transcription PCR. EYA4 hypermethylation was detected in 83% (33 of 40) of esophageal adenocarcinomas and 77% (27 of 35) of Barrett's tissues, but only in 3% (2 of 58) of normal esophageal and gastric mucosa samples (P < 0.001). The unmethylated cancer cell lines had much higher EYA4 mRNA expression than the methylated cancer cell lines. Demethylation caused by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine increased the mRNA expression level by a median of 3.2-fold in methylated cells, but its effect on unmethylated cells was negligible. Results indicate that aberrant promoter methylation of EYA4 is very common during tumorigenesis in Barrett's esophagus, occurs in early metaplasia, seems to be an important mechanism of down-regulating EYA4 expression, and represents an intriguing candidate marker for Barrett's metaplasia and esophageal cancer. PMID:15824152

  3. Late outcomes for the surgical management of absent pulmonary valve syndrome in infants

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Renjie; Zhang, Haibo; Xu, Zhiwei; Liu, Jinfen; Su, Zhaokang; Ding, Wenxiang

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Absent pulmonary valve syndrome (APVS) is a rare cardiac malformation that is usually associated with aneurysmal dilatation of pulmonary arteries and respiratory distress. The surgical mortality of neonates and infants with APVS has decreased tremendously, from 60% in 1980s to 10–20% recently. This study retrospectively reviews surgical outcomes of our 10-year experience in patients with APVS. METHODS From 2002 to 2012, 42 patients with APVS underwent surgical correction. Thirty-seven patients had APVS as a variant of tetralogy of Fallot, 4 with double outlet right ventricle and 1 with ventricular septal defect. Respiratory distress was present in 12 infants. Four patients needed continuous positive airway pressure and 5 required intubation with mechanical ventilation before surgery. RESULTS There was no hospital death and 3 late deaths. The mean follow-up time was 62.71 ± 34.31 months. Significant differences were found in the duration of postoperative ventilation between patients with or without respiratory distress (P = 0.009) and patients with left or right aortic arch (P = 0.012). The Kaplan–Meier curve indicated that overall survival at 5 and 10 years was 92.4%. The survival rates between patients with or without respiratory distress were 72.7 and 100%, respectively (P = 0.003). Overall mortality was associated with longer cardiopulmonary bypass time (P = 0.004) and lower weight at operation (P = 0.042). There were no significant differences in survival and postoperative data such as the duration of ventilation or intensive care unit stay and New York Heart Association class among the three methods of right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) reconstruction. CONCLUSIONS Surgical treatment of APVS has got favourable outcomes in terms of mortality and reoperation rate. Different methods of RVOT reconstruction do not affect the surgical outcome. Patients required long-term follow-up for postoperative respiratory complications secondary to persistent

  4. Mismatch Negativity of Sad Syllables Is Absent in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Xiaomei; Xu, Jing; Chang, Yi; Tang, Di; Zheng, Ya; Liu, Yanhua; Sun, Yiming

    2014-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) is an important and highly prevalent mental disorder characterized by anhedonia and a lack of interest in everyday activities. Additionally, patients with MDD appear to have deficits in various cognitive abilities. Although a number of studies investigating the central auditory processing of low-level sound features in patients with MDD have demonstrated that this population exhibits impairments in automatic processing, the influence of emotional voice processing has yet to be addressed. To explore the automatic processing of emotional prosodies in patients with MDD, we analyzed the ability to detect automatic changes using event-related potentials (ERPs). Method This study included 18 patients with MDD and 22 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Subjects were instructed to watch a silent movie but to ignore the afferent acoustic emotional prosodies presented to both ears while continuous electroencephalographic activity was synchronously recorded. Prosodies included meaningless syllables, such as “dada” spoken with happy, angry, sad, or neutral tones. The mean amplitudes of the ERPs elicited by emotional stimuli and the peak latency of the emotional differential waveforms were analyzed. Results The sad MMN was absent in patients with MDD, whereas the happy and angry MMN components were similar across groups. The abnormal sad emotional MMN component was not significantly correlated with the HRSD-17 and HAMA scores, respectively. Conclusion The data indicate that patients with MDD are impaired in their ability to automatically process sad prosody, whereas their ability to process happy and angry prosodies remains normal. The dysfunctional sad emotion-related MMN in patients with MDD were not correlated with depression symptoms. The blunted MMN of sad prosodies could be considered a trait of MDD. PMID:24658084

  5. Absent Left Main Coronary Artery and Separate Ostia of Left Coronary System in a Patient with Holt-Oram Syndrome and Sinus Node Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Aung, Thein Tun; Roberto, Edward Samuel; Wase, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 41 Final Diagnosis: Sick Sinus Syndrome and absent left main coronary artery • separate ostia of left anterior descending and circumflex arteries in Holt-Oram Syndrome Symptoms: Conduction disturbance • seizure-like activity • upper extremity malformations Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Electro physiology study • coronary catheterization • pacemaker Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Congenital defects/diseases Background: Holt-Oram syndrome (HOS) is a rare but significant syndrome consisting of structural heart defects, conduction abnormalities, and upper extremity anomalies. It was first described in the British Heart Journal in 1960 by Mary Holt and Samuel Oram as a report of atrial septal defect, conduction disturbances, and hand malformations occurring in family members. Patients can present with heart blocks or symptoms of underlying congenital heart defects. Case Report: A 41-year-old man with Holt-Oram syndrome presented with seizure-like activity and was found to have an underlying conduction disturbance. Physical exam showed bilateral atrophic upper extremities with anatomic disfiguration, and weakness of the intrinsic hand muscles. Cardiovascular exam revealed a slow heart rate with irregular rhythm. EKG showed sinus arrest with junctional escape rhythm. Cardiac catheterization revealed coronary anomalies, including absent left main coronary artery and separate ostia of the left anterior ascending and left circumflex coronary artery. Coronary arteries were patent. Following electrophysiology study, sick sinus syndrome and AV block were diagnosed, and the patient received implantation of a permanent pacemaker. Conclusions: This patient presented with a seizure-like episode attributed to hypoxia during asystole from an underlying cardiac conduction defect associated with Holt-Oram syndrome. Arrhythmias and heart blocks are seen in these patients, and conduction defects are highly associated with congenital heart defects. Holt

  6. Changes in 99mTechnegas ventilation lung scan in a newborn with absent pulmonary valve syndrome.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, K; Kuwahara, T; Nagatsu, M

    2001-11-01

    A newborn infant with tetralogy of Fallot and absent pulmonary valve was successfully corrected in two stages. Absent pulmonary valve syndrome presenting in early infancy manifests severe respiratory symptoms that still make challenging both management and surgical treatment. This is ascribed to tracheobronchial compression by the extremely dilated pulmonary arteries, and to the resultant pulmonary obstructive lesions. We report herein the first findings of 99mTechnegas ventilation lung scanning in an infant with the syndrome to assess the pulmonary obstructive lesions. PMID:11813924

  7. Dopamine D2 receptor bands in normal human temporal cortex are absent in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Joyce, J N; Myers, A J; Gurevich, E

    1998-02-16

    A modular organization of bands enriched in high concentrations of D2 receptors are observed throughout the rostral to caudal aspects of the temporal cortex of the normal human at postmortem, but are most frequently observed in the inferior and superior temporal cortices [S. Goldsmith, J.N. Joyce, Dopamine D2 receptors are organized in bands in normal human temporal cortex, Neuroscience 74 (1996) 435-451]. In the tissue derived at postmortem from Alzheimer's disease cases (AD), these D2 receptor-enriched modules were found to be largely absent at rostral and mid-levels of the temporal cortex. Regions exhibiting this loss of receptor binding also showed a marked reduction in the number of pyramidal neurons stained for D2 mRNA. In addition, the AD material exhibited numerous thioflavin-positive plaques and tangle-filled extraneuronal (ghost) pyramidal neurons that were D2 mRNA-negative. Regions that are the earliest affected and most susceptible to classical AD pathology are also most sensitive to the loss of D2 receptors. These results, along with our previous data [J.N. Joyce, C. Kaeger, H. Ryoo, S. Goldsmith, Dopamine D2 receptors in the hippocampus and amygdala in Alzheimer's disease, Neurosci. Lett. 154 (1993) 171-174; H. Ryoo, J. N. Joyce, The loss of dopamine D2 receptors varies along the rostrocaudal axis of the hippocampal complex in Alzheimer's disease, J. Comp. Neurol. 348 (1994) 94-110], indicate that specific pathways enriched with D2 receptors, including that within modules of higher order association cortices of the temporal lobe and continued through segregated pathways within the parahippocampus and hippocampus, are particularly susceptible to the loss in AD. These dopamine D2 receptor-enriched modules may play an important role in the reciprocal activity of large groups of neurons in these high-order association cortical regions. Hence, the loss of the D2 receptor-enriched modules in Alzheimer's disease contributes to disturbances in information

  8. 1H–NMR Metabolomic Biomarkers of Poor Outcome after Hemorrhagic Shock are Absent in Hibernators

    PubMed Central

    Bogren, Lori K.; Murphy, Carl J.; Johnston, Erin L.; Sinha, Neeraj; Serkova, Natalie J.; Drew, Kelly L.

    2014-01-01

    rats. These same biomarkers are absent in AGS after HS with warm I/R. PMID:25211248

  9. 25 CFR 15.106 - May a probate case be initiated when an owner of an interest has been absent?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May a probate case be initiated when an owner of an interest has been absent? 15.106 Section 15.106 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROBATE PROBATE OF INDIAN ESTATES, EXCEPT FOR MEMBERS OF THE OSAGE NATION AND THE FIVE...

  10. 25 CFR 15.106 - May a probate case be initiated when an owner of an interest has been absent?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May a probate case be initiated when an owner of an interest has been absent? 15.106 Section 15.106 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROBATE PROBATE OF INDIAN ESTATES, EXCEPT FOR MEMBERS OF THE OSAGE NATION AND THE FIVE...

  11. Deficits of Semantic Control Produce Absent or Reverse Frequency Effects in Comprehension: Evidence from Neuropsychology and Dual Task Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almaghyuli, Azizah; Thompson, Hannah; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Patients with multimodal semantic impairment following stroke (referred to here as "semantic aphasia" or SA) fail to show the standard effects of frequency in comprehension tasks. Instead, they show absent or even "reverse" frequency effects: i.e., better understanding of less common words. In addition, SA is associated with poor regulatory…

  12. The Concept of the Absent Curriculum: The Case of the Muslim Contribution and the English National Curriculum for History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Matthew L. N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of the "absent curriculum" on the premise that the study of curriculum has been prone to privileging curricular presence to the exclusion of curricular absence. In order to address this imbalance and to articulate a theory of absence in the curriculum, the paper applies ideas derived from the philosophy…

  13. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic investigations on a βγ-crystallin domain of absent in melanoma 1 (AIM1), a protein from Homo sapiens

    SciTech Connect

    Aravind, Penmatsa; Rajini, Bheemreddy; Sharma, Yogendra; Sankaranarayanan, Rajan

    2006-03-01

    The crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of AIM1g1, a βγ-crystallin domain of absent in melanoma (AIM1) protein from H. sapiens, is reported. AIM1g1 is a single βγ-crystallin domain from the protein absent in melanoma 1 (AIM1), which appears to play a role in the suppression of melanomas. This domain is known to bind calcium and its structure would help in identifying calcium-coordinating sites in vertebrate crystallins, which have hitherto been believed to have lost this ability during evolution. Crystallization of this domain was performed by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Crystals diffracted to a maximum resolution of 1.86 Å and were found to belong to space group P6{sub 1} or P6{sub 5}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 54.98, c = 59.73 Å. Solvent-content analysis indicated the presence of one monomer per asymmetric unit.

  14. Antibiotics conspicuously affect community profiles and richness, but not the density of bacterial cells associated with mucosa in the large and small intestines of mice.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Nathan J; Uwiera, Richard R E; Yanke, L Jay; Selinger, L Brent; Inglis, G Douglas

    2012-02-01

    The influence of three antibiotics (bacitracin, enrofloxacin, and neomycin sulfate) on the mucosa-associated enteric microbiota and the intestines of mice was examined. Antibiotics caused conspicuous enlargement of ceca and an increase in overall length of the intestine. However, there were no pathologic changes associated with increased cecal size or length of the intestine. Conspicuous reductions in the richness of mucosa-associated bacteria and changes to community profiles within the small (duodenum, proximal jejunum, middle jejunum, distal jejunum, and ileum) and large (cecum, ascending colon, and descending colon) intestine occurred in mice administered antibiotics. Communities in antibiotic-treated mice were dominated by a limited number of Clostridium-like (i.e. clostridial cluster XIVa) and Bacteroides species. The richness of mucosa-associated communities within the small and large intestine increased during the 14-day recovery period. However, community profiles within the large intestine did not return to baseline (i.e. relative to the control). Although antibiotic administration greatly reduced bacterial richness, densities of mucosa-associated bacteria were not reduced correspondingly. These data showed that the antibiotics, bacitracin, enrofloxacin, and neomycin sulfate, administered for 21 days to mice did not sterilize the intestine, but did impart a tremendous and prolonged impact on mucosa-associated bacterial communities throughout the small and large intestine. PMID:22185696

  15. Bone metastases from prostate, breast and multiple myeloma: differences in lesion conspicuity at short-tau inversion recovery and diffusion-weighted MRI

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, T; Philip, S; Brown, J; Koh, D M; Burn, P R

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to compare the relative conspicuity of bone metastases on short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) and diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) whole-body MR sequences for breast, prostate and myeloma malignancies. Methods 44 whole-body MRI scans were reviewed retrospectively (coronal T1 weighted, STIR and DWI with b=800). On each scan, up to four of the largest bone lesions were identified on T1 weighting, and the region of interest signal intensity was measured on STIR and DWI, as well as the background signal intensity. The mean lesion signal to background ratio was calculated for each patient and then for each malignancy group. Results In prostate cancer patients, the DWI signal/background ratio was greater than that of STIR in 22 out of 24 patients (mean DWI lesion/background ratio 3.91, mean STIR lesion/background ratio 2.31; p=0.0001). In multiple myeloma, the DWI ratio was higher in 6/7 patients (DWI group mean ratio 7.59, STIR group mean ratio 3.7; p=0.0366). In 13 breast cancer patients, mean STIR and DWI signal/background were similar (DWI group mean ratio 4.13, group mean STIR ratio 4.26; p=0.8587). Conclusion Bone lesion conspicuity measured by lesion/background signal intensity was higher on DWI b=800 than on STIR in patients with prostate cancer and multiple myeloma. DWI should be used in whole-body MR oncology protocols in these conditions to maximise lesion detection. PMID:22457319

  16. Comparison of Smoking, Drinking, and Marijuana Use between Students Present or Absent on the Day of a School-Based Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bovet, Pascal; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Faeh, David; Warren, Wick

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this population-based survey was to compare the prevalence of selected risk behaviors between students present or absent on the day of a school-based survey. The study population was a representative sample of all students of secondary schools in the Seychelles (Indian Ocean). Students absent on the day of the survey were traced and…

  17. Structural Mapping of Folded Sedimentary Environments from Satellite Images: an Example from Central Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leith, W.

    1985-01-01

    In the Tadjik Depression, in Soviet Central Asia, in the absence of existing geologic or topographic maps, an enhanced LANDSAT multispectral scanner image was used in combination with field data to produce a 1:250000 geologic map of the Vakhsh fold-and-thrust belt and adjacent autochthon. Several structural conclusions are reached as a result of this mapping. Deformation of the Cretaceous and Tertiary strata of the fold-and-thrust belt is, in the central Tadjik Depression, conspicuously absent north of a buried basement fault that marks the hinge-zone of the Late Mesozoic passive margin. But, in the eastern half of the depression, thrusting has moved coherent sheets northward, over the block fault, these sheets now lie flat atop the autochthon to the north. The crustal structure inherited from the Mesozoic extensional phase has strongly influenced the Late Cenozoic pattern of deformation, producing the fold-and-thrust belt that is markedly asymmetric. The development of the thrust system has included the progressive overlapping of thrust: the later thrusts apparently formed internal to the older thrusts, and subsequently overrode them.

  18. A symptomatic neonate with tetralogy of Fallot, an absent pulmonary valve, and a single coronary artery with a major fistula.

    PubMed

    Kajihara, Noriyoshi; Asou, Toshihide; Takeda, Yuko; Kosaka, Yoshimichi; Matsuhama, Minoru; Onakatomi, Yasuko; Yanagi, Sadamitsu; Yasui, Seiyo

    2009-11-01

    We present a case with a rare combination of tetralogy of Fallot with an absent pulmonary valve, and a single coronary artery with a major fistula to the main pulmonary artery. Myocardial ischemia developed in response to increasing shunt flow through the coronary fistula, resulting in heart failure. We ligated the coronary fistula and plicated the anterior wall of the dilated pulmonary arteries during the neonatal period. Complete repair through a transatrial-transpulmonary approach was performed at the age of 17 months. The postoperative course was excellent and the patient maintained a stable hemodynamic and respiratory state with no evidence of myocardial ischemia. PMID:19853139

  19. Absent husbands, single wives: success, domesticity, and seminuclear families in the nineteenth-century Great Lakes world.

    PubMed

    Nutting, P Bradley

    2010-01-01

    The industrial and transportation revolutions of nineteenth-century America separated work from home (at least for the growing middle class) and intensified the development of masculine and feminine spheres devoted to success and domesticity, respectively. This development tended to reduce the husband's traditional patriarchal roles to that of provider only, while leaving the wife and mother with enhanced authority over household management and child rearing, a development with consequences for feminism. This article examines two extreme cases of separation of work from home: absent husbands, respected professional men, who left their wives alone for months or years and, while they provided financial support, surrendered all household authority to "single" wives. PMID:21105493

  20. Head Direction Cell Activity Is Absent in Mice without the Horizontal Semicircular Canals.

    PubMed

    Valerio, Stephane; Taube, Jeffrey S

    2016-01-20

    Head direction (HD) cells fire when an animal faces a particular direction in its environment, and they are thought to represent the neural correlate of the animal's perceived spatial orientation. Previous studies have shown that vestibular information is critical for generating the HD signal but have not delineated whether information from all three semicircular canals or just the horizontal canals, which are primarily sensitive to angular head rotation in the horizontal (yaw) plane, are critical for the signal. Here, we monitored cell activity in the anterodorsal thalamus (ADN), an area known to contain HD cells, in epstatic circler (Ecl) mice, which have a bilateral malformation of the horizontal (lateral) semicircular canals. Ecl mice and their littermates that did not express the mutation (controls) were implanted with recording electrodes in the ADN. Results confirm the important role the horizontal canals play in forming the HD signal. Although normal HD cell activity (Raleigh's r > 0.4) was recorded in control mice, no such activity was found in Ecl mice, although some cells had activity that was mildly modulated by HD (0.4 > r > 0.2). Importantly, we also observed activity in Ecl mice that was best characterized as bursty--a pattern of activity similar to an HD signal but without any preferred firing direction. These results suggest that the neural structure for the HD network remains intact in Ecl mice, but the absence of normal horizontal canals results in an inability to control the network properly and brings about an unstable HD signal. Significance statement: Cells in the anterior dorsal thalamic nucleus normally fire in relation to the animal's directional heading with respect to the environment--so-called head direction cells. To understand how these head direction cells generate their activity, we recorded single-unit activity from the anterior dorsal thalamus in transgenic mice that lack functional horizontal semicircular canals. We show that the

  1. Head Direction Cell Activity Is Absent in Mice without the Horizontal Semicircular Canals

    PubMed Central

    Valerio, Stephane

    2016-01-01

    Head direction (HD) cells fire when an animal faces a particular direction in its environment, and they are thought to represent the neural correlate of the animal's perceived spatial orientation. Previous studies have shown that vestibular information is critical for generating the HD signal but have not delineated whether information from all three semicircular canals or just the horizontal canals, which are primarily sensitive to angular head rotation in the horizontal (yaw) plane, are critical for the signal. Here, we monitored cell activity in the anterodorsal thalamus (ADN), an area known to contain HD cells, in epstatic circler (Ecl) mice, which have a bilateral malformation of the horizontal (lateral) semicircular canals. Ecl mice and their littermates that did not express the mutation (controls) were implanted with recording electrodes in the ADN. Results confirm the important role the horizontal canals play in forming the HD signal. Although normal HD cell activity (Raleigh's r > 0.4) was recorded in control mice, no such activity was found in Ecl mice, although some cells had activity that was mildly modulated by HD (0.4 > r > 0.2). Importantly, we also observed activity in Ecl mice that was best characterized as bursty—a pattern of activity similar to an HD signal but without any preferred firing direction. These results suggest that the neural structure for the HD network remains intact in Ecl mice, but the absence of normal horizontal canals results in an inability to control the network properly and brings about an unstable HD signal. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Cells in the anterior dorsal thalamic nucleus normally fire in relation to the animal's directional heading with respect to the environment—so-called head direction cells. To understand how these head direction cells generate their activity, we recorded single-unit activity from the anterior dorsal thalamus in transgenic mice that lack functional horizontal semicircular canals. We show that

  2. A highly conspicuous mineralized composite photonic architecture in the translucent shell of the blue-rayed limpet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling; Kolle, Stefan; Weaver, James C.; Ortiz, Christine; Aizenberg, Joanna; Kolle, Mathias

    2015-02-01

    Many species rely on diverse selections of entirely organic photonic structures for the manipulation of light and the display of striking colours. Here we report the discovery of a mineralized hierarchical photonic architecture embedded within the translucent shell of the blue-rayed limpet Patella pellucida. The bright colour of the limpet’s stripes originates from light interference in a periodically layered zig-zag architecture of crystallographically co-oriented calcite lamellae. Beneath the photonic multilayer, a disordered array of light-absorbing particles provides contrast for the blue colour. This unique mineralized manifestation of a synergy of two distinct optical elements at specific locations within the continuum of the limpet’s translucent protective shell ensures the vivid shine of the blue stripes, which can be perceived under water from a wide range of viewing angles. The stripes’ reflection band coincides with the spectral range of minimal light absorption in sea water, raising intriguing questions regarding their functional significance.

  3. Absent right and persistent left superior vena cava: troubleshooting during a challenging pacemaker implant: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Venous anomalies of the thorax can occur in isolation or in association with complex congenital heart disease. The incidence of an absent right superior vena cava in the setting of a persistent left superior vena cava is very rare in the general population with only a dozen cases documented in the medical literature. Such venous anomalies can make for very challenging electronic cardiac device implantation. We report our challenging dual chamber pacemaker implant in a patient with such complex anatomy and focus on our implantation technique that helped achieve adequate lead positioning. Case presentation A 73-year-old Caucasian female with degenerative complete heart block presented for dual chamber permanent pacemaker implant. Lead implantation was very challenging due to abnormal and rare vena cava anatomy; a persistent left superior vena cava drained directly into the coronary sinus and the right brachiocephalic vein drained directly into the left persistent superior vena cava as the patient had an absent right superior vena cava . Adequate right ventricular lead positioning was achieved following numerous lead-stylet manipulations and careful looping in the atria to redirect its trajectory to the ventricular apex. Conclusion Abnormal superior vena cava development is uncommon and can lead to technical challenges when venous access is required during various interventional procedures. Pre-operative imaging can help identify such challenging anatomy allowing appropriate operative planning; careful patient selection is warranted for venography given the risk of contrast nephrotoxicity. PMID:25047923

  4. The retinal determination gene eyes absent is regulated by the EGF receptor pathway throughout development in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Salzer, Claire L; Elias, Yair; Kumar, Justin P

    2010-01-01

    Members of the Eyes absent (Eya) protein family play important roles in tissue specification and patterning by serving as both transcriptional activators and protein tyrosine phosphatases. These activities are often carried out in the context of complexes containing members of the Six and/or Dach families of DNA binding proteins. eyes absent, the founding member of the Eya family is expressed dynamically within several embryonic, larval, and adult tissues of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Loss-of-function mutations are known to result in disruptions of the embryonic head and central nervous system as well as the adult brain and visual system, including the compound eyes. In an effort to understand how eya is regulated during development, we have carried out a genetic screen designed to identify genes that lie upstream of eya and govern its expression. We have identified a large number of putative regulators, including members of several signaling pathways. Of particular interest is the identification of both yan/anterior open and pointed, two members of the EGF Receptor (EGFR) signaling cascade. The EGFR pathway is known to regulate the activity of Eya through phosphorylation via MAPK. Our findings suggest that this pathway is also used to influence eya transcriptional levels. Together these mechanisms provide a route for greater precision in regulating a factor that is critical for the formation of a wide range of diverse tissues. PMID:19884307

  5. The Retinal Determination Gene eyes absent Is Regulated by the EGF Receptor Pathway Throughout Development in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Salzer, Claire L.; Elias, Yair; Kumar, Justin P.

    2010-01-01

    Members of the Eyes absent (Eya) protein family play important roles in tissue specification and patterning by serving as both transcriptional activators and protein tyrosine phosphatases. These activities are often carried out in the context of complexes containing members of the Six and/or Dach families of DNA binding proteins. eyes absent, the founding member of the Eya family is expressed dynamically within several embryonic, larval, and adult tissues of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Loss-of-function mutations are known to result in disruptions of the embryonic head and central nervous system as well as the adult brain and visual system, including the compound eyes. In an effort to understand how eya is regulated during development, we have carried out a genetic screen designed to identify genes that lie upstream of eya and govern its expression. We have identified a large number of putative regulators, including members of several signaling pathways. Of particular interest is the identification of both yan/anterior open and pointed, two members of the EGF Receptor (EGFR) signaling cascade. The EGFR pathway is known to regulate the activity of Eya through phosphorylation via MAPK. Our findings suggest that this pathway is also used to influence eya transcriptional levels. Together these mechanisms provide a route for greater precision in regulating a factor that is critical for the formation of a wide range of diverse tissues. PMID:19884307

  6. Cytochrome 572 is a conspicuous membrane protein with iron oxidation activity purified directly from a natural acidophilic microbial community

    SciTech Connect

    Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Singer, Steven; Shah, Manesh B; Thelen, Michael P.; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2008-01-01

    We have discovered and characterized a novel membrane cytochrome of an iron oxidizing microbial biofilm obtained from the surface of extremely acidic mine water. This protein was initially identified through proteogenomic analysis as one of many novel gene products of Leptospirillum group II, the dominant bacterium of this community (Ram et al, 2005, Science 308, 1915-20). Extraction of proteins directly from environmental biofilm samples followed by membrane fractionation, detergent solubilization and gel filtration chromatography resulted in the purification of an abundant yellow-red protein. Covalently bound to heme, the purified cytochrome has a unique spectral signature at 572 nm and is thus called Cyt572. It readily oxidizes Fe2+ even in the presence of Fe3+ over a pH range from 0.95 to 3.4. Independent experiments involving 2D blue-native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and chemical crosslinking establish a homotetrameric structure for Cyt572. Also, circular dichroism spectroscopy indicates that the protein is largely beta-stranded, consistent with an outer membrane location. Although no significant sequence homology to the full-length cytochrome is detected in protein databases, environmental DNA sequences from both Leptospirillum groups II and III reveal at least 17 strain variants of Cyt572. Due to its abundance, cellular location and Fe2+ oxidation activity, we propose Cyt572 is the iron oxidase of the Leptospirillum bacteria, providing a critical function for fitness within the ecological niche of this acidophilic microbial community.

  7. A highly conspicuous mineralized composite photonic architecture in the translucent shell of the blue-rayed limpet

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ling; Kolle, Stefan; Weaver, James C.; Ortiz, Christine; Aizenberg, Joanna; Kolle, Mathias

    2015-02-26

    Many species rely on diverse selections of entirely organic photonic structures for the manipulation of light and the display of striking colours. Here we report the discovery of a mineralized hierarchical photonic architecture embedded within the translucent shell of the blue-rayed limpet Patella pellucida. The bright colour of the limpet’s stripes originates from light interference in a periodically layered zig-zag architecture of crystallographically co-oriented calcite lamellae. Beneath the photonic multilayer, a disordered array of light-absorbing particles provides contrast for the blue colour. This unique mineralized manifestation of a synergy of two distinct optical elements at specific locations within the continuum of the limpet’s translucent protective shell ensures the vivid shine of the blue stripes, which can be perceived under water from a wide range of viewing angles. The stripes’ reflection band coincides with the spectral range of minimal light absorption in sea water, raising intriguing questions regarding their functional significance.

  8. A highly conspicuous mineralized composite photonic architecture in the translucent shell of the blue-rayed limpet

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Li, Ling; Kolle, Stefan; Weaver, James C.; Ortiz, Christine; Aizenberg, Joanna; Kolle, Mathias

    2015-02-26

    Many species rely on diverse selections of entirely organic photonic structures for the manipulation of light and the display of striking colours. Here we report the discovery of a mineralized hierarchical photonic architecture embedded within the translucent shell of the blue-rayed limpet Patella pellucida. The bright colour of the limpet’s stripes originates from light interference in a periodically layered zig-zag architecture of crystallographically co-oriented calcite lamellae. Beneath the photonic multilayer, a disordered array of light-absorbing particles provides contrast for the blue colour. This unique mineralized manifestation of a synergy of two distinct optical elements at specific locations within the continuummore » of the limpet’s translucent protective shell ensures the vivid shine of the blue stripes, which can be perceived under water from a wide range of viewing angles. The stripes’ reflection band coincides with the spectral range of minimal light absorption in sea water, raising intriguing questions regarding their functional significance.« less

  9. A highly conspicuous mineralized composite photonic architecture in the translucent shell of the blue-rayed limpet

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling; Kolle, Stefan; Weaver, James C.; Ortiz, Christine; Aizenberg, Joanna; Kolle, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Many species rely on diverse selections of entirely organic photonic structures for the manipulation of light and the display of striking colours. Here we report the discovery of a mineralized hierarchical photonic architecture embedded within the translucent shell of the blue-rayed limpet Patella pellucida. The bright colour of the limpet’s stripes originates from light interference in a periodically layered zig-zag architecture of crystallographically co-oriented calcite lamellae. Beneath the photonic multilayer, a disordered array of light-absorbing particles provides contrast for the blue colour. This unique mineralized manifestation of a synergy of two distinct optical elements at specific locations within the continuum of the limpet’s translucent protective shell ensures the vivid shine of the blue stripes, which can be perceived under water from a wide range of viewing angles. The stripes’ reflection band coincides with the spectral range of minimal light absorption in sea water, raising intriguing questions regarding their functional significance. PMID:25716102

  10. Vestibular responses to linear acceleration are absent in otoconia-deficient C57BL/6JEi-het mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, S. M.; Erway, L. C.; Bergstrom, R. A.; Schimenti, J. C.; Jones, T. A.

    1999-01-01

    Vestibular evoked potentials (VsEPs) were measured in normal mice and in mice homozygous for the head tilt mutation (het/het, abbr. het). The het mice lack otoconia, the inertial mass critical for natural stimulation of inner ear gravity receptors. Our findings demonstrate that vestibular neural responses to pulsed linear acceleration are absent in het mice. The results: (1) confirm that adequate sensory stimuli fail to activate gravity receptors in the het model; and (2) serve as definitive evidence that far-field vestibular responses to pulsed linear acceleration depend critically on otolith end organs. The C57BL/6JEi-het mouse may be an excellent model of gravity receptor sensory deprivation.

  11. Condition at birth of infants with previously absent or reverse umbilical artery end-diastolic flow velocities.

    PubMed

    Weiss, E; Ulrich, S; Berle, P

    1992-01-01

    In a case control study we assessed 47 fetuses with absent or reverse end-diastolic flow velocities (AREDFV) of the umbilical artery with respect to the mode of delivery, fetal acidosis, and abnormal neurological evaluations at the time of discharge from the department of pediatrics. We also studied a control group which was matched for gestational age and had normal umbilical artery flow velocity waveforms. Fetuses with AREDFV were delivered almost exclusively by cesarean section which was usually done for fetal distress. The number of fetuses with abnormal neurological signs was significantly increased compared to the control group. Fetuses with AREDFV showed an increased incidence of fetal acidosis. Forty per cent of these fetuses were delivered within one day of the first abnormal flow measurement; Sixty per cent were observed clinically for up to four weeks before delivery. PMID:1417086

  12. Examining clinicians’ experiences providing sexual health services for LGBTQ youth: considering social and structural determinants of health in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Knight, R. E.; Shoveller, J. A.; Carson, A. M.; Contreras-Whitney, J. G.

    2014-01-01

    Although barriers related to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBTQ) youth’s experiences accessing sexual health services have been examined in detail, research into the experiences and perceptions of clinicians providing these services has been conspicuously absent. The aim of this article is to explore the perceptions and experiences of clinicians providing sexual health services for LGBTQ youth. Drawing on in-depth, semi-structured interviews, this study examines 24 clinicians’ experiences providing sexual health services to LGBTQ youth in five communities in British Columbia, Canada. Our findings reveal how many clinicians provide services to LGBTQ youth with a lack of cultural competency—either implicitly (e.g. by describing heteronormative practices) or explicitly (e.g. by expressing frustration that they had not been sufficiently provided with appropriate training related to LGBTQ youth sexual health). Institutional norms and values were identified as the dominant barriers in the effective provision of LGBTQ-tailored services. Many clinicians find themselves unprepared to provide culturally competent sexual health services that have both the capacity to address individual-level issues (e.g. promoting condom use) while considering (and adapting services to) the broader socio-cultural and structural conditions that can render LGBTQ youth socially vulnerable. PMID:24412811

  13. American Art of Conspicuous Recycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Aurelia

    1999-01-01

    Characterizes the use of recycling "junk" as a means for creating art by exploring various recycling traditions that are present in the United States. Demonstrates to students that "junk" can be fashioned into beautiful works of art. Offers four works of art and provides discussion questions and project ideas for each artwork. (CMK)

  14. Sources of Variation in a Two-Step Monitoring Protocol for Species Clustered in Conspicuous Points: Dolichotis patagonum as a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Alonso Roldán, Virginia; Bossio, Luisina; Galván, David E.

    2015-01-01

    In species showing distributions attached to particular features of the landscape or conspicuous signs, counts are commonly made by making focal observations where animals concentrate. However, to obtain density estimates for a given area, independent searching for signs and occupancy rates of suitable sites is needed. In both cases, it is important to estimate detection probability and other possible sources of variation to avoid confounding effects on measurements of abundance variation. Our objective was to assess possible bias and sources of variation in a two-step protocol in which random designs were applied to search for signs while continuously recording video cameras were used to perform abundance counts where animals are concentrated, using mara (Dolichotis patagonum) as a case study. The protocol was successfully applied to maras within the Península Valdés protected area, given that the protocol was logistically suitable, allowed warrens to be found, the associated adults to be counted, and the detection probability to be estimated. Variability was documented in both components of the two-step protocol. These sources of variation should be taken into account when applying this protocol. Warren detectability was approximately 80% with little variation. Factors related to false positive detection were more important than imperfect detection. The detectability for individuals was approximately 90% using the entire day of observations. The shortest sampling period with a similar detection capacity than a day was approximately 10 hours, and during this period, the visiting dynamic did not show trends. For individual mara, the detection capacity of the camera was not significantly different from the observer during fieldwork. The presence of the camera did not affect the visiting behavior of adults to the warren. Application of this protocol will allow monitoring of the near-threatened mara providing a minimum local population size and a baseline for

  15. Sources of Variation in a Two-Step Monitoring Protocol for Species Clustered in Conspicuous Points: Dolichotis patagonum as a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Alonso Roldán, Virginia; Bossio, Luisina; Galván, David E

    2015-01-01

    In species showing distributions attached to particular features of the landscape or conspicuous signs, counts are commonly made by making focal observations where animals concentrate. However, to obtain density estimates for a given area, independent searching for signs and occupancy rates of suitable sites is needed. In both cases, it is important to estimate detection probability and other possible sources of variation to avoid confounding effects on measurements of abundance variation. Our objective was to assess possible bias and sources of variation in a two-step protocol in which random designs were applied to search for signs while continuously recording video cameras were used to perform abundance counts where animals are concentrated, using mara (Dolichotis patagonum) as a case study. The protocol was successfully applied to maras within the Península Valdés protected area, given that the protocol was logistically suitable, allowed warrens to be found, the associated adults to be counted, and the detection probability to be estimated. Variability was documented in both components of the two-step protocol. These sources of variation should be taken into account when applying this protocol. Warren detectability was approximately 80% with little variation. Factors related to false positive detection were more important than imperfect detection. The detectability for individuals was approximately 90% using the entire day of observations. The shortest sampling period with a similar detection capacity than a day was approximately 10 hours, and during this period, the visiting dynamic did not show trends. For individual mara, the detection capacity of the camera was not significantly different from the observer during fieldwork. The presence of the camera did not affect the visiting behavior of adults to the warren. Application of this protocol will allow monitoring of the near-threatened mara providing a minimum local population size and a baseline for

  16. Mandibuloacral dysplasia and LMNA A529V mutation in Turkish patients with severe skeletal changes and absent breast development.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Leyla; Unsal, Evrim; Aktuna, Suleyman; Baltaci, Volkan; Celikkol, Pelin; Akyigit, Fatma; Sen, Askin; Ayvaz, Ozge; Balci, Sevim

    2016-07-01

    Mandibuloacral dysplasia (MAD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by acroosteolysis (resorption of terminal phalanges), skin changes (hyperpigmentation), clavicular hypoplasia, craniofascial anomalies, a hook nose and prominent eyes, delayed closures of the cranial sutures, lipodystrophy, alopecia, and skeletal anomalies. MAD patients are classified according to lipodystrophy patterns: type A and type B. The vast majority of MAD cases are caused by LMNA gene mutations. MAD patients with type A lipodystrophy (MADA) have been reported to have LMNA R527H, A529V, or A529T mutations. In this report, we describe two MADA patients with progressive skeletal changes, absent breast development, and cataract in addition to the classical MAD phenotype. Both patients were found to be homozygous for the Ala529Val mutation of the LMNA gene. Our female patient is the oldest MADA patient (59 years old) who has ever been reported with the LMNA mutation and also the LMNA Ala529Val mutation. This study is the second report on MADA patients with a homozygous Ala529Val mutation. PMID:27100822

  17. Nemo phosphorylates Eyes absent and enhances output from the Eya-Sine oculis transcriptional complex during Drosophila retinal determination

    PubMed Central

    Morillo, Santiago A.; Braid, Lorena R.; Verheyen, Esther M.; Rebay, Ilaria

    2013-01-01

    The retinal determination gene network comprises a collection of transcription factors that respond to multiple signaling inputs to direct Drosophila eye development. Previous genetic studies have shown that nemo (nmo), a gene encoding a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase, can promote retinal specification through interactions with the retinal determination gene network, although the molecular point of cross-talk was not defined. Here, we report that the Nemo kinase positively and directly regulates Eyes absent (Eya). Genetic assays show that Nmo catalytic activity enhances Eya-mediated ectopic eye formation and potentiates induction of the Eya-Sine oculis (So) transcriptional targets dachshund and lozenge. Biochemical analyses demonstrate that Nmo forms a complex with and phosphorylates Eya at two consensus mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation sites. These same sites appear crucial for Nmo-mediated activation of Eya function in vivo. Thus, we propose that Nmo phosphorylation of Eya potentiates its transactivation function to enhance transcription of Eya-So target genes during eye specification and development. PMID:22394486

  18. The Accordion Maneuver: A Noninvasive Strategy for Absent or Delayed Callus Formation in Cases of Limb Lengthening

    PubMed Central

    Makhdom, Asim M.; Cartaleanu, Adrian Sever; Rendon, Juan Sebastian; Villemure, Isabelle; Hamdy, Reggie C.

    2015-01-01

    The distraction osteogenesis (DO) technique has been used worldwide to treat many orthopaedic conditions. Although successful, absent or delayed callus formation in the distraction gap can lead to significant morbidities. An alternate cycle of distraction-compression (accordion maneuver) is one approach to accelerate bone regeneration. The primary aim of our study is to report our experience with the accordion maneuver during DO and to provide a detailed description of this technique, as performed in our center. The secondary aim is to present a review of the literature regarding the use of accordion maneuver. We reviewed the database of all patients undergoing limb lengthening from the year of 1997 to 2012. Four patients (6.15%) out of 65 showed poor bone regenerate in their tibiae and therefore accordion maneuver was applied for a mean of 6.75 weeks. Of these, three patients have had successful outcome with this technique. The literature showed that this technique is successful approach to trigger bone healing. However, details of how and when to apply this combination of distraction-compression forces were lacking. In conclusion, the accordion technique is safe noninvasive approach to promote bone formation, thus avoiding more invasive surgical procedures in cases of poor callus formation in limb lengthening. PMID:26557996

  19. Absent in Melanoma 2 (AIM2) limits pro-inflammatory cytokine transcription in cardiomyocytes by inhibiting STAT1 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Furrer, Antonia; Hottiger, Michael O; Valaperti, Alan

    2016-06-01

    Interferon (IFN)-γ is highly upregulated during heart inflammation and enhances the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Absent in Melanoma 2 (AIM2) is an IFN-inducible protein implicated as a component of the inflammasome. Here we seek to determine the role of AIM2 during inflammation in cardiac cells. We found that the presence of AIM2, but not of the other inflammasome components Nod-like receptor (NLR) NLRP3 or NLRC4, specifically limited the transcription of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IP-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in HL-1 mouse cardiomyocytes stimulated with IFN-γ and lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Similarly, AIM2 reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine transcription in primary mouse neonatal cardiomyocytes (MNC), but not in primary mouse neonatal cardiac fibroblasts (MNF). Interestingly, AIM2-dependent reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines in cardiomyocytes was independent of Caspase-1. Mechanistically, AIM2 reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine transcription in cardiomyocytes by interacting with and inhibiting the phosphorylation of STAT1. In AIM2-depleted cardiomyocytes, increased STAT1 phosphorylation enhanced the NF-κB pathway by promoting NF-κB p65 phosphorylation and acetylation. These results show for the first time that AIM2 plays an important anti-inflammatory, yet inflammasome-independent function in cardiomyocytes. Our findings will help to further understand how the various heart cell types differently react to inflammatory stimuli. PMID:27148820

  20. Human hepatocytes express absent in melanoma 2 and respond to hepatitis B virus with interleukin-18 expression.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xingfei; Xu, Haixia; Zheng, Changlong; Li, Mei; Zou, Xiaofang; Cao, Hong; Xu, Qihuan

    2016-08-01

    Absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) is a recently recognized cytoplasmic receptor which could sense cytoplasmic double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). After AIM2 detects the presence of parasitic nucleic acids (dsDNA) derived from invasive bacteria or viral genomes (for example, vaccinia virus and cytomegalovirus) within infected cells, AIM2 inflammasome could be formed. The formed AIM2 inflammasome could induce innate immune response and increase expressions of IL-1β and IL-18. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a hepatotropic, non-cytopathic double-stranded DNA virus. The immune response to viral antigens or virus is thought to be responsible for both liver damage and viral clearance in patients with HBV infection. However, there are no reports about whether AIM2 inflammasome exists in hepatocytes. In the present study, we investigated the presence and activity of AIM2 inflammasome in human hepatocytes. We found that AIM2 was expressed in cytoplasm of hepatocytes, and IL-18 expression was increased after AIM2 sensed HBV in hepatocytes in vitro. These results showed that AIM2 inflammasome was active in hepatocytes. We also found that hepatic AIM2 expression of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients was higher than that of controls. Hepatic AIM2 expression levels were positively correlated to the severity of liver inflammation. IL-18 is already considered to be associated with hepatic injury during HBV infection. In conclusion, we, therefore, believe that AIM2 inflammasome in hepatocytes might play an important role in the development and maintenance of HBV-related hepatitis. PMID:27094165

  1. Intralimb Coordination Patterns in Absent, Mild, and Severe Stages of Diabetic Neuropathy: Looking Beyond Kinematic Analysis of Gait Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Liu Chiao; Sartor, Cristina D.; Souza, Francis Trombini; Sacco, Isabel C. N.

    2016-01-01

    Aim Diabetes Mellitus progressively leads to impairments in stability and joint motion and might affect coordination patterns, mainly due to neuropathy. This study aims to describe changes in intralimb joint coordination in healthy individuals and patients with absent, mild and, severe stages of neuropathy. Methods Forty-seven diabetic patients were classified into three groups of neuropathic severity by a fuzzy model: 18 without neuropathy (DIAB), 7 with mild neuropathy (MILD), and 22 with moderate to severe neuropathy (SVRE). Thirteen healthy subjects were included as controls (CTRL). Continuous relative phase (CRP) was calculated at each instant of the gait cycle for each pair of lower limb joints. Analysis of Variance compared each frame of the CRP time series and its standard deviation among groups (α = 5%). Results For the ankle-hip CRP, the SVRE group presented increased variability at the propulsion phase and a distinct pattern at the propulsion and initial swing phases compared to the DIAB and CTRL groups. For the ankle-knee CRP, the 3 diabetic groups presented more anti-phase ratios than the CTRL group at the midstance, propulsion, and terminal swing phases, with decreased variability at the early stance phase. For the knee-hip CRP, the MILD group showed more in-phase ratio at the early stance and terminal swing phases and lower variability compared to all other groups. All diabetic groups were more in-phase at early the midstance phase (with lower variability) than the control group. Conclusion The low variability and coordination differences of the MILD group showed that gait coordination might be altered not only when frank evidence of neuropathy is present, but also when neuropathy is still incipient. The ankle-knee CRP at the initial swing phase showed distinct patterns for groups from all degrees of neuropathic severity and CTRLs. The ankle-hip CRP pattern distinguished the SVRE patients from other diabetic groups, particularly in the transitional

  2. The "eyes absent" (eya) gene in the eye-bearing hydrozoan jellyfish Cladonema radiatum: conservation of the retinal determination network.

    PubMed

    Graziussi, Daria Federica; Suga, Hiroshi; Schmid, Volker; Gehring, Walter Jakob

    2012-06-01

    Eyes absent (Eya) is a member of the Retinal Determination Gene Network (RDGN), a set of genes responsible for eye specification in Drosophila. Eya is a dual function protein, working as a transcription factor in the nucleus and as a tyrosine phosphatase in the cytoplasm. It had been shown that Pax and Six family genes, main components of the RDGN, are present in the hydrozoan Cladonema radiatum and that they are expressed in the eye. However, nothing had been known about the Eya family in hydrozoan jellyfish. Here we report the presence of an Eya homologue (CrEya) in Cladonema. Real-time PCR analysis and in situ hybridization showed that CrEya is expressed in the eye. Furthermore, the comprehensive survey of eukaryote genomes revealed that the acquisition of the N-terminal transactivation domain, including the EYA Domain 2 and its adjacent sequence shared by all eumetazoans, happened early in evolution, before the separation of Cnidaria and Bilateria. Our results uncover the evolution of the two domains and show a conservation of the expression pattern of the Eya gene between Cnidaria and Bilateria, which, together with previous data, supports the hypothesis of the monophyletic origin of metazoans eyes. We additionally show that CrEya is also expressed in the oocytes, where two other members of the RDGN, CrPaxB, and Six4/5-Cr, are known to be expressed. These data suggest that several members of the RDGN have begun to be localized also into the different context of egg development early in the course of metazoan evolution. PMID:22821862

  3. Identification of novel direct targets of Drosophila Sine oculis and Eyes absent by integration of genome-wide data sets.

    PubMed

    Jin, Meng; Aibar, Sara; Ge, Zhongqi; Chen, Rui; Aerts, Stein; Mardon, Graeme

    2016-07-01

    Drosophila eye development is a complex process that involves many transcription factors (TFs) and interactions with their cofactors and targets. The TF Sine oculis (So) and its cofactor Eyes absent (Eya) are highly conserved and are both necessary and sufficient for eye development. Despite their many important roles during development, the direct targets of So are still largely unknown. Therefore the So-dependent regulatory network governing eye determination and differentiation is poorly understood. In this study, we intersected gene expression profiles of so or eya mutant eye tissue prepared from three different developmental stages and identified 1731 differentially expressed genes across the Drosophila genome. A combination of co-expression analyses and motif discovery identified a set of twelve putative direct So targets, including three known and nine novel targets. We also used our previous So ChIP-seq data to assess motif predictions for So and identified a canonical So binding motif. Finally, we performed in vivo enhancer reporter assays to test predicted enhancers from six candidate target genes and find that at least one enhancer from each gene is expressed in the developing eye disc and that their expression patterns overlap with that of So. We furthermore confirmed that the expression level of predicted direct So targets, for which antibodies are available, are reduced in so or eya post-mitotic knockout eye discs. In summary, we expand the set of putative So targets and show for the first time that the combined use of expression profiling of so with its cofactor eya is an effective method to identify novel So targets. Moreover, since So is highly conserved throughout the metazoa, our results provide the basis for future functional studies in a wide variety of organisms. PMID:27178668

  4. Neural processes mediating the preparation and release of focal motor output are suppressed or absent during imagined movement

    PubMed Central

    Eagles, Jeremy S.; Carlsen, Anthony N.

    2016-01-01

    Movements that are executed or imagined activate a similar subset of cortical regions, but the extent to which this activity represents functionally equivalent neural processes is unclear. During preparation for an executed movement, presentation of a startling acoustic stimulus (SAS) evokes a premature release of the planned movement with the spatial and temporal features of the tasks essentially intact. If imagined movement incorporates the same preparatory processes as executed movement, then a SAS should release the planned movement during preparation. This hypothesis was tested using an instructed-delay cueing paradigm during which subjects were required to rapidly release a handheld weight while maintaining the posture of the arm or to perform first-person imagery of the same task while holding the weight. In a subset of trials, a SAS was presented at 1500, 500, or 200 ms prior to the release cue. Task-appropriate preparation during executed and imagined movements was confirmed by electroencephalographic recording of a contingent negative variation waveform. During preparation for executed movement, a SAS often resulted in premature release of the weight with the probability of release progressively increasing from 24 % at −1500 ms to 80 % at −200 ms. In contrast, the SAS rarely (<2 % of trials) triggered a release of the weight during imagined movement. However, the SAS frequently evoked the planned postural response (suppression of bicep brachii muscle activity) irrespective of the task or timing of stimulation (even during periods of postural hold without preparation). These findings provide evidence that neural processes mediating the preparation and release of the focal motor task (release of the weight) are markedly attenuated or absent during imagined movement and that postural and focal components of the task are prepared independently. PMID:25744055

  5. It only takes once: The absent-exempt heuristic and reactions to comparison-based sexual risk information

    PubMed Central

    Stock, Michelle L.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Beekman, Janine B.; Gerrard, Meg

    2015-01-01

    Three studies (N = 545) investigated the effects of social comparison on a type of heuristic called “absent-exempt” (AE; feeling exempt from future risk). Study 1 examined how comparison with an infected peer (comparison target) who was similar or non-similar in terms of sexual risk (number of partners, lack of condom use), influenced willingness and intentions to engage in sex without a condom and conditional perceived vulnerability to a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Participants generally reported lower willingness and higher conditional vulnerability if they compared with a similar-risk level target. However, high-risk students who compared with a low-risk comparison target engaged in what appeared to be AE thinking, reporting the highest willingness and lowest conditional vulnerability. Intentions to have sex without a condom were not influenced. Study 2 included a direct measure of AE thinking, and compared the impact of a low-risk comparison target with a Public Service Announcement (PSA) stating that negative outcomes (e.g., STDs) can happen even to low-risk targets. Among high-risk participants, comparing with the low-risk target led to an increase in AE thinking. As expected, the effects in Studies 1 and 2 were strongest among participants high in tendencies to socially compare. Study 3 explored whether AE thinking could be decreased by encouraging more reasoned processing. Results indicated that asking participants to think about the illogicality of AE thinking reduces AE endorsement and increases STD testing intentions. Findings suggest that comparison-based information can have a stronger influence on health cognitions than analytic-based information (e.g., most PSAs). Implications for dual-processing models of decision-making and their applicability to interventions and health messages are discussed. PMID:26098587

  6. Phylogeny and in situ identification of a morphologically conspicuous bacterium, Candidatus Magnospira bakii, present at very low frequency in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Snaidr, J; Fuchs, B; Wallner, G; Wagner, M; Schleifer, K H; Amann, R

    1999-04-01

    A morphologically conspicuous bacterium that constituted a very small fraction (< 0.01%) of the total microbial community of activated sludge was enriched and analysed phylogenetically by a combination of cultivation-independent molecular and physical methods. The large, corkscrew-shaped, filamentous bacteria were first detected in municipal activated sludge by light microscopy owing to their unusual rotating gliding motility. Various attempts at microbiological enrichment and pure culture isolation with traditional techniques failed, as did attempts to retrieve the morphotype of interest by micromanipulation. In situ hybridization with the group-specific, rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probe CF319a indicated a phylogenetic affiliation to the Cytophaga-Flexibacter group of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides phylum. Based on strong morphological resemblance to members of the genus Saprospira, additional 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotides with more narrow specificity were designed and evaluated for in situ hybridization to the morphotype of interest. Flow cytometric cell sorting based on the fluorescence conferred by probe SGR1425 and forward scatter enabled a physical enrichment of the helical coiled cells. Subsequent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of 16S rDNA fragments from whole fixed sorted cells with a primer pair based on probes CF319a and SGR1425 resulted in the retrieval of 12 almost identical partial 16S rDNA fragments with sequence similarities among each other of more than 99.2%. In situ hybridizations proved that the sequences that showed the highest similarity (88.4%) to the 16S rRNA of Saprospira grandis were indeed retrieved from the corkscrew-shaped filaments. The bacterium is likely to be a member of a genus of which no species has been cultured hitherto. It was consequently tentatively named 'Magnospira bakii' and has the taxonomic rank of Candidatus Magnospira bakii, as the ultimate taxonomic placement has to await its

  7. Unusual variant of scimitar syndrome associated with an absent right pulmonary artery, stenosis of the inferior vena cava, hemi-azygous continuation and the VACTERL association.

    PubMed

    Takawira, Farirai F; Omar, Fareed

    2013-04-01

    We report on a two-month-old infant with an unusual form of scimitar syndrome, associated with an absent right pulmonary artery, obstructed inferior vena cava, hemi-azygous continuation and the VACTERL association. The infant posed a major management problem and eventually died from a lower respiratory tract infection. PMID:23728126

  8. Finding the Two-Way Street: Women from Mother-Present/Father-Absent Homes and Their Ability to Make Close Female Friendships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marote, Melissa A.

    2011-01-01

    This heuristic study involving seven coresearchers, which included the author, explores the experiences of women from mother-present/father-absent homes and their ability to form and maintain close female friendships. The heuristic research model was chosen to provide the opportunity to conduct research in a very personalized, collaborative way…

  9. Transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect in a patient with absent inferior caval vein connection: a novel technique using a steerable guide catheter.

    PubMed

    Takaya, Yoichi; Akagi, Teiji; Ito, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    An alternative approach for transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect is necessary in patients with absent inferior caval vein connection. In this report, we describe the successful transcatheter atrial septal defect closure via the transjugular approach using a steerable guide catheter. PMID:27161147

  10. The simian varicella virus genome contains an invertible 665 base pair terminal element that is absent in the varicella zoster virus genome

    PubMed Central

    Mahalingam, Ravi; Gray, Wayne L.

    2007-01-01

    Simian varicella virus (SVV) causes chickenpox in monkeys, establishes latency, and reactivates to produce zoster thus providing a model to study human varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection. Sequence analysis of a recombinant cosmid clone containing the left end of the SVV genome revealed a 665 base pair (bp) segment that is absent in VZV DNA. This segment inverts and contains 507 bp of unique sequences flanked on either side by 79 bp inverted repeats, making the SVV genome to be 124,785 bp in size. Part of the inverted repeat sequence (64 bp) is also present at the junction of the long and short segments of the SVV genome. The terminal DNA sequences are conserved among different SVV isolates and present in tissues from infected monkeys. The terminal region is transcriptionally active and is also present in the genomes of other animal varicelloviruses, but absent in the VZV genome. PMID:17555785

  11. Compression of the left main coronary artery by a pulmonary artery aneurysm in a patient with tetralogy of Fallot and an absent pulmonary valve.

    PubMed

    Khante, Vishal; Agarwal, Saket; Satyarthi, Subodh; Upretti, Lalendra; Satsangi, Deepak K

    2011-05-01

    A case of a 16-year-old female with tetralogy of Fallot and absent pulmonary valve is presented, who on coronary angiography and computerized tomography (CT) angiography had severe compression of the left main coronary artery by the dilated main pulmonary artery. The patient was successfully managed by surgical correction of the intracardiac defect, with right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction by the Contegra(®) bovine jugular vein conduit.  PMID:21447083

  12. The Arabidopsis ABHD11 Mutant Accumulates Polar Lipids in Leaves as a Consequence of Absent Acylhydrolase Activity1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, Anitha; Vijayaraj, Panneerselvam; Vijayakumar, Arun Kumar; Rajasekharan, Ram

    2016-01-01

    Alpha/beta hydrolase domain (ABHD)-containing proteins are structurally related with diverse catalytic activities. In various species, some ABHD proteins have been characterized and shown to play roles in lipid homeostasis. However, little is known about ABHD proteins in plants. Here, we characterized AT4G10030 (AtABHD11), an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) homolog of a human ABHD11 gene. In silico analyses of AtABHD11 revealed homology with other plant species with a conserved GXSXG lipid motif. Interestingly, Arabidopsis abhd11 mutant plants exhibited an enhanced growth rate compared with wild-type plants. Quantitative analyses of the total lipids showed that the mutant abhd11 has a high amount of phospholipid and galactolipid in Arabidopsis leaves. The overexpression of AtABHD11 in Escherichia coli led to a reduction in phospholipid levels. The bacterially expressed recombinant AtABHD11 hydrolyzed lyso(phospho)lipid and monoacylglycerol. Furthermore, using whole-genome microarray and real-time PCR analyses of abhd11 and wild-type plants, we noted the up-regulation of MGD1, -2, and -3 and DGD1. Together, these findings suggested that AtABHD11 is a lyso(phospho)lipase. The disruption of AtABHD11 caused the accumulation of the polar lipids in leaves, which in turn promoted a higher growth rate compared with wild-type plants. PMID:26589672

  13. Phosphoglucomutase is absent in Trypanosoma brucei and redundantly substituted by phosphomannomutase and phospho-N-acetylglucosamine mutase

    PubMed Central

    Bandini, Giulia; Mariño, Karina; Güther, M Lucia Sampaio; Wernimont, Amy K; Kuettel, Sabine; Qiu, Wei; Afzal, Shamshad; Kelner, Anna; Hui, Raymond; Ferguson, Michael A J

    2012-01-01

    The enzymes phosphomannomutase (PMM), phospho-N-acetylglucosamine mutase (PAGM) and phosphoglucomutase (PGM) reversibly catalyse the transfer of phosphate between the C6 and C1 hydroxyl groups of mannose, N-acetylglucosamine and glucose respectively. Although genes for a candidate PMM and a PAGM enzymes have been found in the Trypanosoma brucei genome, there is, surprisingly, no candidate gene for PGM. The TbPMM and TbPAGM genes were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and the TbPMM enzyme was crystallized and its structure solved at 1.85 Å resolution. Antibodies to the recombinant proteins localized endogenous TbPMM to glycosomes in the bloodstream form of the parasite, while TbPAGM localized to both the cytosol and glycosomes. Both recombinant enzymes were able to interconvert glucose-phosphates, as well as acting on their own definitive substrates. Analysis of sugar nucleotide levels in parasites with TbPMM or TbPAGM knocked down by RNA interference (RNAi) suggests that, in vivo, PGM activity is catalysed by both enzymes. This is the first example in any organism of PGM activity being completely replaced in this way and it explains why, uniquely, T. brucei has been able to lose its PGM gene. The RNAi data for TbPMM also showed that this is an essential gene for parasite growth. PMID:22676716

  14. Genomic Subtractive Hybridization and Selective Capture of Transcribed Sequences Identify a Novel Salmonella typhimurium Fimbrial Operon and Putative Transcriptional Regulator That Are Absent from the Salmonella typhi Genome

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Brian J.; Graham, James E.; Curtiss, Roy

    1999-01-01

    Salmonella typhi, the etiologic agent of typhoid fever, is adapted to the human host and unable to infect nonprimate species. The genetic basis for host specificity in S. typhi is unknown. The avirulence of S. typhi in animal hosts may result from a lack of genes present in the broad-host-range pathogen Salmonella typhimurium. Genomic subtractive hybridization was successfully employed to isolate S. typhimurium genomic sequences which are absent from the S. typhi genome. These genomic subtracted sequences mapped to 17 regions distributed throughout the S. typhimurium chromosome. A positive cDNA selection method was then used to identify subtracted sequences which were transcribed by S. typhimurium following macrophage phagocytosis. A novel putative transcriptional regulator of the LysR family was identified as transcribed by intramacrophage S. typhimurium. This putative transcriptional regulator was absent from the genomes of the human-adapted serovars S. typhi and Salmonella paratyphi A. Mutations within this gene did not alter the level of S. typhimurium survival within macrophages or virulence within mice. A subtracted genomic fragment derived from the ferrichrome operon also hybridized to the intramacrophage cDNA. Nucleotide sequence analysis of S. typhimurium and S. typhi chromosomal sequences flanking the ferrichrome operon identified a novel S. typhimurium fimbrial operon with a high level of similarity to sequences encoding Proteus mirabilis mannose-resistant fimbriae. The novel fimbrial operon was absent from the S. typhi genome. The absence of specific genes may have allowed S. typhi to evolve as a highly invasive, systemic human pathogen. PMID:10496884

  15. Impact of a Federal Healthy Start Program on feto-infant morbidity associated with absent fathers: a quasi-experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Salihu, Hamisu M.; August, Euna M.; Mbah, Alfred K.; Alio, Amina P.; Berry, Estrellita “Lo”; Aliyu, Muktar H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The absence of fathers during pregnancy increases the risk of feto-infant morbidities, including low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth (PTB), and small-for-gestational age (SGA). Previous research has shown that the Central Hillsborough Healthy Start project (CHHS) – a federally funded initiative in Tampa, Florida – has effectively improved birth outcomes. This study explores the effectiveness of the CHHS project in ameliorating the adverse effects of fathers’ absence during pregnancy. Methods This retrospective cohort study used CHHS records linked to vital statistics and hospital discharge data (1998–2007). The study population consisted of women who had a singleton birth with an absent father during pregnancy. Women were categorized based on residence in the CHHS service area. Propensity score matching was used to match cases (CHHS) to controls (rest of Florida). Conditional logistic regression was employed to generate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for matched observations. Results Women residing in the CHHS service area were more likely to be high school graduates, black, younger (<35 years), and to have adequate prenatal care compared to controls (p<0.01). These differences disappeared after propensity score matching. Mothers with absent fathers in the CHHS service area had a reduced likelihood of LBW (OR=0.76, 95% CI=0.65–0.89), PTB (OR=0.72, 95% CI=0.62–0.84), very low birth weight (OR=0.50, 95% CI= 0.35–0.72) and very preterm birth (OR=0.48, 95% CI=0.34–0.69) compared to their counterparts in the rest of the state. Conclusions This study demonstrates that a Federal Healthy Start project contributed to a significant reduction in adverse fetal birth outcomes in families with absent fathers. PMID:24549651

  16. Cochleo-saccular degeneration in one of three sisters with hereditary deafness, absent gastric motility, small bowel diverticulitis and progressive sensory neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, M; MacRae, D; O-Uchi, T; Alford, B R

    1981-01-01

    This is a report of cochleo-saccular degeneration found in temporal bones from a patient who had suffered from slowly progressive and total sensorineural deafness which had an inherited origin. At age 8, this patient began to complain of hearing loss, and by age 10 she was totally deaf. The patient was 1 of 3 female siblings who have suffered from an exactly identical progressive disease: deafness, absent gastric motility, small bowel diverticulitis and ulceration, and sensory neuropathy. The temporal bone pathology found in this case was the degenerative change in the cochlear duct and sacculus. No pathology was found in the utriculus and semicircular canals. PMID:6937848

  17. Shadows of an Absent Partner

    PubMed Central

    Corradi, Gerardo R.; de Tezanos Pinto, Felicitas; Mazzitelli, Luciana R.; Adamo, Hugo P.

    2012-01-01

    The P5-ATPases are important components of eukaryotic cells. They have been shown to influence protein biogenesis, folding, and transport. The knowledge of their biochemical properties is, however, limited, and the transported ions are still unknown. We expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae the yeast Spf1 P5A-ATPase containing the GFP fused at the N-terminal end. The GFP-Spf1 protein was localized in the yeast endoplasmic reticulum. Purified preparations of GFP-Spf1 hydrolyzed ATP at a rate of ∼0.3–1 μmol of Pi/mg/min and formed a phosphoenzyme in a simple reaction medium containing no added metal ions except Mg2+. No significant differences were found between the ATPase activity of GFP-Spf1 and recombinant Spf1. Omission of protease inhibitors from the purification buffers resulted in a high level of endogenous proteolysis at the C-terminal portion of the GFP-Spf1 molecule that abolished phosphoenzyme formation. The Mg2+ dependence of the GFP-Spf1 ATPase was similar to that of other P-ATPases where Mg2+ acts as a cofactor. The addition of Mn2+ to the reaction medium decreased the ATPase activity. The enzyme manifested optimal activity at a near neutral pH. When chased by the addition of cold ATP, 90% of the phosphoenzyme remained stable after 5 s. In contrast, the phosphoenzyme rapidly decayed to less than 20% when chased for 3 s by the addition of ADP. The greater effect of ADP accelerating the disappearance of EP suggests that GFP-Spf1 accumulated the E1∼P phosphoenzyme. This behavior may reflect a limiting countertransported substrate needed to promote turnover or a missing regulatory factor. PMID:22745129

  18. Positive Family History, Infection, Low Absolute Lymphocyte Count (ALC) and Absent Thymic Shadow: Diagnostic Clues for all Molecular Forms of Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID)

    PubMed Central

    McWilliams, Laurie M; Railey, Mary Dell; Buckley, Rebecca H

    2015-01-01

    Background Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) is a syndrome uniformly fatal during infancy unless recognized and treated successfully by bone marrow transplantation or gene therapy. Because SCID infants have no abnormal physical appearance, diagnosis is usually delayed unless newborn screening is performed. Objective In this study, we sought to evaluate the presenting features of all 172 SCID patients transplanted at this institution over the past 31 years. Methods We reviewed original charts from 172 consecutive classic SCID patients who received either T cell-depleted HLA-haploidentical (N=154) or HLA-identical (N=18) non-ablative related marrow transplants at Duke University Medical Center from 1982–2013. Results The mean age at presentation was 4.87 months. When there was a family history of early infant death or known SCID (63/172 or 37%), the mean presentation age was much earlier, 2.0 months compared to 6.6 months. Failure to thrive was common, with 84 patients (50%) having a weight less than the 5th percentile. The leading infections included oral moniliasis (43%), viral infections (61/172 35.5%) and Pneumocystis jiroveci (26%) pneumonia. The group mean ALC was 1454/cmm; 88% of the infants had an ALC less than 3000/cmm. Absent thymic shadow was seen in 92% of infants with electronic radiographic data available. An absence of T cell function was found in all patients. Conclusions SCID infants appear normal at birth but later present with failure to thrive and/or recurrent fungal, viral and bacterial infections. Low ALCs and absent thymic shadow on chest x-ray are key diagnostic clues. The absence of T cell function confirms the diagnosis. PMID:25824440

  19. fH-dependent complement evasion by disease-causing meningococcal strains with absent fHbp genes or frameshift mutations.

    PubMed

    Giuntini, Serena; Vu, David M; Granoff, Dan M

    2013-08-28

    Meningococci bind human fH to down-regulate complement, which enhances survival of the bacteria in serum. A major fH ligand is the vaccine candidate, factor H-binding protein (fHbp). Although fHbp has been considered an essential meningococcal virulence factor, rarely, invasive isolates with absent fHbp genes or frameshift mutations have been identified. In previous studies fH binding to these isolates was not detected. The aim of the present study was to investigate fH binding and complement evasion by invasive meningococcal serogroup B clinical isolates with absent fHbp genes or frameshift mutations. Four of the seven isolates tested bound human fH by flow cytometry and survived in IgG-depleted human serum. In all four, fH binding was decreased after inactivating the gene encoding NspA. Binding of fH to fHbp and NspA is specific for human fH. To investigate fH-dependent evasion of host defenses, human fH transgenic infant rats, or control littermates negative for human fH, were challenged IP with 10(3)-10(4)CFU of two of the isolates with no detectable fH binding by flow cytometry. At 6h, bacteremia caused by both strains was higher in human fH transgenic rats than in control rats (P<0.002). In conclusion, six of the seven isolates had evidence of fH binding and/or human fH-dependent complement evasion in transgenic rats. In four, NspA was as an alternative fH ligand. fHbp vaccination may select for mutants that do not require fHbp for complement evasion. Inclusion of additional target antigens in vaccines containing fHbp may delay emergence of these mutants. PMID:23791680

  20. Basement membrane of mouse bone marrow sinusoids shows distinctive structure and proteoglycan composition: a high resolution ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Inoue, S; Osmond, D G

    2001-11-01

    Venous sinusoids in bone marrow are the site of a large-scale traffic of cells between the extravascular hemopoietic compartment and the blood stream. The wall of the sinusoids consists solely of a basement membrane interposed between a layer of endothelial cells and an incomplete covering of adventitial cells. To examine its possible structural specialization, the basement membrane of bone marrow sinusoids has now been examined by high resolution electron microscopy of perfusion-fixed mouse bone marrow. The basement membrane layer was discontinuous, consisting of irregular masses of amorphous material within a uniform 60-nm-wide space between apposing endothelial cells and adventitial cell processes. At maximal magnifications, the material was resolved as a random arrangement of components lacking the "cord network" formation seen in basement membranes elsewhere. Individual components exhibited distinctive ultrastructural features whose molecular identity has previously been established. By these morphological criteria, the basement membrane contained unusually abundant chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) revealed by 3-nm-wide "double tracks," and moderate amounts of both laminin as dense irregular coils and type IV collagen as 1-1.5-nm-wide filaments, together with less conspicuous amounts of amyloid P forming pentagonal frames. In contrast, 4.5-5-nm-wide "double tracks" characteristic of heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) were absent. The findings demonstrate that, in comparison with "typical" basement membranes in other tissues, the bone marrow sinusoidal basement membrane is uniquely specialized in several respects. Its discontinuous nature, lack of network organization, and absence of HSPG, a molecule that normally helps to maintain membrane integrity, may facilitate disassembly and reassembly of basement membrane material in concert with movements of adventitial cell processes as maturing hemopoietic cells pass through the sinusoidal wall: the

  1. Structuralism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piaget, Jean

    Provided is an overview of the analytical method known as structuralism. The first chapter discusses the three key components of the concept of a structure: the view of a system as a whole instead of so many parts; the study of the transformations in the system; and the fact that these transformations never lead beyond the system but always…

  2. An Analytic Contemplation of the Conspicuous Vicissitudes in the Histomorphology of Corpuscles of Stannius of a Freshwater Catfish Mystus tengara (Hamilton, 1822) due to the Exposure of ZnS Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Nilanjana; Bhattacharjee, Baibaswata

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced surface photooxidation property associated with the ZnS nanoparticles caused the reduction of dissolved oxygen content in water in a dose dependent manner, when ZnS nanoparticles of different sizes are exposed to the water in various concentrations. This property was more prominent for ZnS nanoparticles with smaller sizes. Mystus tengara, exposed to ZnS nanoparticles, responded to hypoxia with varied behavioural, physiological, and cellular responses in order to maintain homeostasis and organ function in an oxygen-depleted environment. The histomorphology of corpuscles of Stannius of the fish showed conspicuous vicissitudes under exposure of ZnS nanoparticles. The population of the cell type with granular cytoplasm showed significant increase at the expense of the other that consisted of agranular cytoplasm with increasing nanoparticle concentration. This can be explained as the defence mechanism of the fish against ZnS nanoparticle induced hypoxia and environmental acidification. The altering histomorphology has been studied employing an analytical approach. PMID:26693386

  3. An Analytic Contemplation of the Conspicuous Vicissitudes in the Histomorphology of Corpuscles of Stannius of a Freshwater Catfish Mystus tengara (Hamilton, 1822) due to the Exposure of ZnS Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Nilanjana

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced surface photooxidation property associated with the ZnS nanoparticles caused the reduction of dissolved oxygen content in water in a dose dependent manner, when ZnS nanoparticles of different sizes are exposed to the water in various concentrations. This property was more prominent for ZnS nanoparticles with smaller sizes. Mystus tengara, exposed to ZnS nanoparticles, responded to hypoxia with varied behavioural, physiological, and cellular responses in order to maintain homeostasis and organ function in an oxygen-depleted environment. The histomorphology of corpuscles of Stannius of the fish showed conspicuous vicissitudes under exposure of ZnS nanoparticles. The population of the cell type with granular cytoplasm showed significant increase at the expense of the other that consisted of agranular cytoplasm with increasing nanoparticle concentration. This can be explained as the defence mechanism of the fish against ZnS nanoparticle induced hypoxia and environmental acidification. The altering histomorphology has been studied employing an analytical approach. PMID:26693386

  4. [Prognostic factors of perinatal short-term outcome in severe placental insufficiency using Doppler sonography to assess end-diastolic absent and reverse blood flow in umbilical arteries].

    PubMed

    Frauenschuh, I; Wirbelauer, J; Karl, S; Girschick, G; Rehn, M; Zollner, U; Frambach, T; Dietl, J; Müller, T

    2015-02-01

    Significant placental insufficiency, indicated by Doppler ultrasound findings of absent or reverse end-diastolic flow velocities (AREDV), is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Analysis of blood flow in the ductus venosus should assist in early intrauterine recognition of threatened foetuses. 58 high-risk pregnancies with umbilical AREDV were repeatedly examined (n=364). Doppler findings were correlated with neonatal signs of deterioration (ratio of normoblasts to leukocytes, pH, base excess, Apgar score), as well as short-term morbidity [need for intubation, duration of assisted respiration, evidence of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH grade III+IV)] against the analysis of the blood flow findings (normal or increased pulsitility, absence or reverse end-diastolic flow) in the umbilical arteries (AU), the middle cerebral arteries (ACM) and ductus venosus (DV) relating these to birth weight and the duration of the pregnancy. The median period of observation was 12.8 days, 48% of the foetuses showed an abnormal ductus venosus flow and 26% an absent venous or reverse end-diastolic flow. The median date of delivery was 30 weeks, with a mean birth weight of 816 g. 93% were live births with 12% dying postnatally. Although the criteria for postnatal morbidity (BPD, NEC, IVH III+IV) and mortality did not correlate with changes in arterial and venous Doppler parameters in our group, there was a significant relationship between the normoblast count, known to be a marker of chronic hypoxia. The Apgar 10 minte score, umbilical arterial pH and base excess were correlated with changes in the DV flow curves. Healthy survival started, irrespective of arterial or venous blood flow criteria, from 27+0 weeks of pregnancy. If born between 27.0 and 30+6 weeks, the infants were more likely to be healthy the less the blood flow had been compromised. A birth weight

  5. Absent otoacoustic emissions predict otitis media in young Aboriginal children: A birth cohort study in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in an arid zone of Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Deborah; Weeks, Sharon; Jacoby, Peter; Elsbury, Dimity; Finucane, Janine; Stokes, Annette; Monck, Ruth; Coates, Harvey

    2008-01-01

    Background Otitis media (OM) is the most common paediatric illness for which antibiotics are prescribed. In Australian Aboriginal children OM is frequently asymptomatic and starts at a younger age, is more common and more likely to result in hearing loss than in non-Aboriginal children. Absent transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) may predict subsequent risk of OM. Methods 100 Aboriginal and 180 non-Aboriginal children in a semi-arid zone of Western Australia were followed regularly from birth to age 2 years. Tympanometry was conducted at routine field follow-up from age 3 months. Routine clinical examination by an ENT specialist was to be done 3 times and hearing assessment by an audiologist twice. TEOAEs were measured at ages <1 and 1–2 months. Cox proportional hazards model was used to investigate the association between absent TEOAEs and subsequent risk of OM. Results At routine ENT specialist clinics, OM was detected in 55% of 184 examinations in Aboriginal children and 26% of 392 examinations in non-Aboriginal children; peak prevalence was 72% at age 5–9 months in Aboriginal children and 40% at 10–14 months in non-Aboriginal children. Moderate-severe hearing loss was present in 32% of 47 Aboriginal children and 7% of 120 non-Aboriginal children aged 12 months or more. TEOAE responses were present in 90% (46/51) of Aboriginal children and 99% (120/121) of non-Aboriginal children aged <1 month and in 62% (21/34) and 93% (108/116), respectively, in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children at age 1–2 months. Aboriginal children who failed TEOAE at age 1–2 months were 2.6 times more likely to develop OM subsequently than those who passed. Overall prevalence of type B tympanograms at field follow-up was 50% (n = 78) in Aboriginal children and 20% (n = 95) in non-Aboriginal children. Conclusion The burden of middle ear disease is high in all children, but particularly in Aboriginal children, one-third of whom suffer from moderate-severe hearing

  6. Improving motorcycle conspicuity through innovative headlight configurations.

    PubMed

    Ranchet, Maud; Cavallo, Viola; Dang, Nguyen-Thong; Vienne, Fabrice

    2016-09-01

    Most motorcycle crashes involve another vehicle that violated the motorcycle's right-of-way at an intersection. Two kinds of perceptual failures of other road users are often the cause of such accidents: motorcycle-detection failures and motion-perception errors. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of different headlight configurations on motorcycle detectability when the motorcycle is in visual competition with cars. Three innovative headlight configurations were tested: (1) standard yellow (central yellow headlight), (2) vertical white (one white light on the motorcyclist's helmet and two white lights on the fork in addition to the central white headlight), and (3) vertical yellow (same configuration as (2) with yellow lights instead of white). These three headlight configurations were evaluated in comparison to the standard configuration (central white headlight) in three environments containing visual distractors formed by car lights: (1) daytime running lights (DRLs), (2) low beams, or (3) DRLs and low beams. Video clips of computer-generated traffic situations were displayed briefly (250ms) to 57 drivers. The results revealed a beneficial effect of standard yellow configuration and the vertical yellow configuration on motorcycle detectability. However, this effect was modulated by the car-DRL environment. Findings and practical recommendations are discussed with regard to possible applications for motorcycles. PMID:27280780

  7. Aberrant promoter hypermethylation of PBRM1, BAP1, SETD2, KDM6A and other chromatin-modifying genes is absent or rare in clear cell RCC

    PubMed Central

    Ibragimova, Ilsiya; Maradeo, Marie E.; Dulaimi, Essel; Cairns, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Recent sequencing studies of clear cell (conventional) renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) have identified inactivating point mutations in the chromatin-modifying genes PBRM1, KDM6A/UTX, KDM5C/JARID1C, SETD2, MLL2 and BAP1. To investigate whether aberrant hypermethylation is a mechanism of inactivation of these tumor suppressor genes in ccRCC, we sequenced the promoter region within a bona fide CpG island of PBRM1, KDM6A, SETD2 and BAP1 in bisulfite-modified DNA of a representative series of 50 primary ccRCC, 4 normal renal parenchyma specimens and 5 RCC cell lines. We also interrogated the promoter methylation status of KDM5C and ARID1A in the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) ccRCC Infinium data set. PBRM1, KDM6A, SETD2 and BAP1 were unmethylated in all tumor and normal specimens. KDM5C and ARID1A were unmethylated in the TCGA 219 ccRCC and 119 adjacent normal specimens. Aberrant promoter hypermethylation of PBRM1, BAP1 and the other chromatin-modifying genes examined here is therefore absent or rare in ccRCC. PMID:23644518

  8. Absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) expressed in human dental pulp mediates IL-1β secretion in response to cytoplasmic DNA.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shuheng; Song, Zhi; Jiang, Lan; Chen, Lingling; Wang, Runfu; Qin, Wei; Liu, Pengcheng; Lin, Zhengmei

    2015-04-01

    The inflammasome has been determined to play an important role in inflammatory diseases in recent years. Absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2), an inflammasome that recognizes cytoplasmic DNA, has recently been identified as a critical regulator of immune responses. In this study, we explored whether AIM2 was expressed in human dental pulp and defined the role of AIM2 in regulating interleukin (IL)-1β secretion. We demonstrated that AIM2 was only detected in the odontoblast layer of healthy dental pulp, whereas strong expression was observed in inflamed dental pulp. Stimulation with interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and cytoplasmic DNA significantly activated the AIM2 inflammasome and increased IL-1β secretion in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the knockdown of AIM2 downregulated both cleaved-caspase-1 expression and IL-1β release in HDPCs. These results suggest that AIM2 expressed in human dental pulp plays an important role in the immune defense by activating the inflammasome signaling pathway. PMID:24986444

  9. Don't it make my brown eyes blue: co-witness misinformation about a target's appearance can impair target-absent line-up performance.

    PubMed

    Zajac, Rachel; Henderson, Nicola

    2009-04-01

    Misinformation from another witness has been shown to impair eyewitness reports, but little is known about how it may influence eyewitness identification. In Experiment 1, adult pairs comprising one participant and one experimental confederate viewed a video clip of a staged theft. Half of the participants were then misinformed by the confederate that the thief's accomplice had blue eyes (in fact, they were brown). Next, individual participants described the accomplice and completed a target-absent photographic line-up task comprising blue-eyed members. Misinformed participants were several times more likely than controls to describe the accomplice as having blue eyes, and twice as likely to identify someone from the line-up. In Experiment 2, when line-up members' eye colour was digitally altered from blue to brown, the line-up effect disappeared, suggesting that the increase in identifications in Experiment 1 was not a generalised increase in willingness to choose from the line-up. In Experiment 3, we discounted the possibility that discussion alone could account for the line-up misinformation effect, by subjecting all participants to co-witness discussion. PMID:19156565

  10. The C. elegans eyes absent ortholog EYA-1 is required for tissue differentiation and plays partially redundant roles with PAX-6.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Miwa; Qadota, Hiroshi; Chisholm, Andrew D; Sugimoto, Asako

    2005-10-15

    eyes absent/Eya is a conserved transcriptional coactivator involved in development of various tissues and organs in arthropods and vertebrates. In Drosophila eye development, eya functions as part of the transcriptional regulatory network along with eyeless/Pax6, sine oculis/Six and dachshund/Dach. Here, we present the first functional study of the C. elegans Eya homolog, EYA-1. Loss of EYA-1 function by RNAi and deletion mutations resulted in early larval lethality with incomplete penetrance, associated with defects of differentiation and morphogenesis of several tissues and organs. In late embryogenesis, morphological defect in the head region, pharyngeal malformation and excess cell deaths in the anterior region were observed. Consistently, EYA-1 was expressed in the nuclei of a subset of anterior cells including pharyngeal and body wall muscle cells, starting from the morphogenesis stage in embryogenesis. Interestingly, eya-1 and pax-6/Pax6 mutants showed a strong genetic interaction for larval viability and embryonic anterior morphogenesis. Thus, eya-1 appears to play a partially redundant role with pax-6 during C. elegans embryogenesis. PMID:16154558

  11. Absent smooth muscle actin immunoreactivity of the small bowel muscularis propria circular layer in association with chromosome 15q11 deletion in megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Szigeti, Reka; Chumpitazi, Bruno P; Finegold, Milton J; Ranganathan, Sarangarajan; Craigen, William J; Carter, Beth A; Tatevian, Nina

    2010-01-01

    Megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS; OMIM%249210) is a rare and severe form of congenital intestinal and urinary dysfunction and malformation. Histologic studies suggest that the predominant intestinal manifestation is smooth muscle myopathy. Molecular observations have linked the disease to the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (ηAChR), namely the absence of a functional α3 subunit of the ηAChR in patients with MMIHS. We describe a case of MMIHS in association with a de novo deletion of the proximal long arm of chromosome 15 (15q11.2). Histologic evaluation revealed an appropriate light microscopic appearance of both the circular and longitudinal layers of the small bowel muscularis propria. Immunohistochemical staining for smooth muscle actin, however, was selectively absent in the circular layer, demonstrating isolated absence in a unique and previously undescribed pattern. These observations raise the possibility that the proximal long arm of chromosome 15 (15q11) may be of clinical significance in MMIHS. PMID:20028211

  12. Rendered invisible? The absent presence of egg providers in U.K. debates on the acceptability of research and therapy for mitochondrial disease.

    PubMed

    Haimes, Erica; Taylor, Ken

    2015-12-01

    Techniques for resolving some types of inherited mitochondrial diseases have recently been the subject of scientific research, ethical scrutiny, media coverage and regulatory initiatives in the UK. Building on research using eggs from a variety of providers, scientists hope to eradicate maternally transmitted mutations in mitochondrial DNA by transferring the nuclear DNA of a fertilised egg, created by an intending mother at risk of transmitting mitochondrial disease, and her male partner, into an enucleated egg provided by another woman. In this article we examine how egg providers for mitochondrial research and therapy have been represented in stakeholder debates. A systematic review of key documents and parliamentary debates shows that the balance of consideration tilts heavily towards therapeutic egg providers; research egg providers have been ignored and rendered invisible. However, mapping the various designations of therapeutic egg providers shows that their role is so heavily camouflaged that they have only an absent presence in discussions. We explore this puzzling ambivalence towards egg providers whose contributions are necessary to the success of current mitochondrial research and proposed therapies. We suggest that labels that diminish the contributions of egg providers serve certain governance objectives in managing possible future claims about, and by, therapeutic egg providers. We demonstrate that the social positioning of research egg providers is entangled within that of therapeutic egg providers which means that the former can also never receive their due recognition. This article contributes to the wider literature on the governance of new technological interventions. PMID:26712608

  13. De novo analysis of the transcriptome of Pratylenchus zeae to identify transcripts for proteins required for structural integrity, sensation, locomotion and parasitism.

    PubMed

    Fosu-Nyarko, John; Tan, Jo-Anne C H; Gill, Reetinder; Agrez, Vaughan G; Rao, Uma; Jones, Michael G K

    2016-05-01

    The root lesion nematode Pratylenchus zeae, a migratory endoparasite, is an economically important pest of major crop plants (e.g. cereals, sugarcane). It enters host roots, migrates through root tissues and feeds from cortical cells, and defends itself against biotic and abiotic stresses in the soil and in host tissues. We report de novo sequencing of the P. zeae transcriptome using 454 FLX, and the identification of putative transcripts encoding proteins required for movement, response to stimuli, feeding and parasitism. Sequencing generated 347 443 good quality reads which were assembled into 10 163 contigs and 139 104 singletons: 65% of contigs and 28% of singletons matched sequences of free-living and parasitic nematodes. Three-quarters of the annotated transcripts were common to reference nematodes, mainly representing genes encoding proteins for structural integrity and fundamental biochemical processes. Over 15 000 transcripts were similar to Caenorhabditis elegans genes encoding proteins with roles in mechanical and neural control of movement, responses to chemicals, mechanical and thermal stresses. Notably, 766 transcripts matched parasitism genes employed by both migratory and sedentary endoparasites in host interactions, three of which hybridized to the gland cell region, suggesting that they might be secreted. Conversely, transcripts for effectors reported to be involved in feeding site formation by sedentary endoparasites were conspicuously absent. Transcripts similar to those encoding some secretory-excretory products at the host interface of Brugia malayi, the secretome of Meloidogyne incognita and products of gland cells of Heterodera glycines were also identified. This P. zeae transcriptome provides new information for genome annotation and functional analysis of possible targets for control of pratylenchid nematodes. PMID:26292651

  14. A 3.4-kb Copy-Number Deletion near EPAS1 Is Significantly Enriched in High-Altitude Tibetans but Absent from the Denisovan Sequence.

    PubMed

    Lou, Haiyi; Lu, Yan; Lu, Dongsheng; Fu, Ruiqing; Wang, Xiaoji; Feng, Qidi; Wu, Sijie; Yang, Yajun; Li, Shilin; Kang, Longli; Guan, Yaqun; Hoh, Boon-Peng; Chung, Yeun-Jun; Jin, Li; Su, Bing; Xu, Shuhua

    2015-07-01

    Tibetan high-altitude adaptation (HAA) has been studied extensively, and many candidate genes have been reported. Subsequent efforts targeting HAA functional variants, however, have not been that successful (e.g., no functional variant has been suggested for the top candidate HAA gene, EPAS1). With WinXPCNVer, a method developed in this study, we detected in microarray data a Tibetan-enriched deletion (TED) carried by 90% of Tibetans; 50% were homozygous for the deletion, whereas only 3% carried the TED and 0% carried the homozygous deletion in 2,792 worldwide samples (p < 10(-15)). We employed long PCR and Sanger sequencing technologies to determine the exact copy number and breakpoints of the TED in 70 additional Tibetan and 182 diverse samples. The TED had identical boundaries (chr2: 46,694,276-46,697,683; hg19) and was 80 kb downstream of EPAS1. Notably, the TED was in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD; r(2) = 0.8) with EPAS1 variants associated with reduced blood concentrations of hemoglobin. It was also in complete LD with the 5-SNP motif, which was suspected to be introgressed from Denisovans, but the deletion itself was absent from the Denisovan sequence. Correspondingly, we detected that footprints of positive selection for the TED occurred 12,803 (95% confidence interval = 12,075-14,725) years ago. We further whole-genome deep sequenced (>60×) seven Tibetans and verified the TED but failed to identify any other copy-number variations with comparable patterns, giving this TED top priority for further study. We speculate that the specific patterns of the TED resulted from its own functionality in HAA of Tibetans or LD with a functional variant of EPAS1. PMID:26073780

  15. A 3.4-kb Copy-Number Deletion near EPAS1 Is Significantly Enriched in High-Altitude Tibetans but Absent from the Denisovan Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Haiyi; Lu, Yan; Lu, Dongsheng; Fu, Ruiqing; Wang, Xiaoji; Feng, Qidi; Wu, Sijie; Yang, Yajun; Li, Shilin; Kang, Longli; Guan, Yaqun; Hoh, Boon-Peng; Chung, Yeun-Jun; Jin, Li; Su, Bing; Xu, Shuhua

    2015-01-01

    Tibetan high-altitude adaptation (HAA) has been studied extensively, and many candidate genes have been reported. Subsequent efforts targeting HAA functional variants, however, have not been that successful (e.g., no functional variant has been suggested for the top candidate HAA gene, EPAS1). With WinXPCNVer, a method developed in this study, we detected in microarray data a Tibetan-enriched deletion (TED) carried by 90% of Tibetans; 50% were homozygous for the deletion, whereas only 3% carried the TED and 0% carried the homozygous deletion in 2,792 worldwide samples (p < 10−15). We employed long PCR and Sanger sequencing technologies to determine the exact copy number and breakpoints of the TED in 70 additional Tibetan and 182 diverse samples. The TED had identical boundaries (chr2: 46,694,276–46,697,683; hg19) and was 80 kb downstream of EPAS1. Notably, the TED was in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD; r2 = 0.8) with EPAS1 variants associated with reduced blood concentrations of hemoglobin. It was also in complete LD with the 5-SNP motif, which was suspected to be introgressed from Denisovans, but the deletion itself was absent from the Denisovan sequence. Correspondingly, we detected that footprints of positive selection for the TED occurred 12,803 (95% confidence interval = 12,075–14,725) years ago. We further whole-genome deep sequenced (>60×) seven Tibetans and verified the TED but failed to identify any other copy-number variations with comparable patterns, giving this TED top priority for further study. We speculate that the specific patterns of the TED resulted from its own functionality in HAA of Tibetans or LD with a functional variant of EPAS1. PMID:26073780

  16. Mutations in SDCCAG8/NPHP10 Cause Bardet-Biedl Syndrome and Are Associated with Penetrant Renal Disease and Absent Polydactyly

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, E.; Zaloszyc, A.; Lauer, J.; Durand, M.; Stutzmann, F.; Perdomo-Trujillo, Y.; Redin, C.; Bennouna Greene, V.; Toutain, A.; Perrin, L.; Gérard, M.; Caillard, S.; Bei, X.; Lewis, R.A.; Christmann, D.; Letsch, J.; Kribs, M.; Mutter, C.; Muller, J.; Stoetzel, C.; Fischbach, M.; Marion, V.; Katsanis, N.; Dollfus, H.

    2011-01-01

    The ciliopathies are an expanding group of disorders caused by mutations in genes implicated in the biogenesis and function of primary cilia. Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a model ciliopathy characterized by progressive retinal degeneration, obesity, polydactyly, cognitive impairment, kidney anomalies and hypogonadism. Mutations in SDCCAG8(NPHP10) were described recently in patients with nephronophthisis and retinal degeneration (Senior-Loken syndrome; SLS). Given the phenotypic and genetic overlap between known ciliopathy genes, we hypothesized that mutations in SDCCAG8 might also contribute alleles to more severe, multisystemic ciliopathies. We performed genetic and phenotypic analyses of 2 independent BBS cohorts. Subsequent to mutation screening, we made a detailed phenotypic analysis of 5 families mutated for SDCCAG8 (3 homozygous and 2 compound heterozygous mutations) and conducted statistical analyses across both cohorts to examine possible phenotype-genotype correlations with mutations at this locus. All patients with mutations in SDCCAG8 fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for BBS (retinal degeneration, obesity, cognitive defects, renal failure, hypogonadism). Interestingly, none of the patients with primary SDCCAG8 mutations had polydactyly, a frequent but not obligatory BBS feature. In contrast, the same patients displayed early-onset renal failure, obesity, as well as recurrent pulmonary and ENT infections. Comparison of the phenotypes of these families with our entire BBS cohort indicated that renal impairment and absent polydactyly correlated significantly with causal SDCCAG8 mutations. Thus, SDCCAG8 mutations are sufficient to cause BBS in 1–2% of our combined cohorts, and define this gene as the sixteenth BBS locus (BBS16). The absence of polydactyly and the concomitant, apparently fully penetrant association with early kidney failure represents the first significant genotype-phenotype correlation in BBS that potentially represents an indicator for

  17. Mutations in SDCCAG8/NPHP10 Cause Bardet-Biedl Syndrome and Are Associated with Penetrant Renal Disease and Absent Polydactyly.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, E; Zaloszyc, A; Lauer, J; Durand, M; Stutzmann, F; Perdomo-Trujillo, Y; Redin, C; Bennouna Greene, V; Toutain, A; Perrin, L; Gérard, M; Caillard, S; Bei, X; Lewis, R A; Christmann, D; Letsch, J; Kribs, M; Mutter, C; Muller, J; Stoetzel, C; Fischbach, M; Marion, V; Katsanis, N; Dollfus, H

    2011-09-01

    The ciliopathies are an expanding group of disorders caused by mutations in genes implicated in the biogenesis and function of primary cilia. Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a model ciliopathy characterized by progressive retinal degeneration, obesity, polydactyly, cognitive impairment, kidney anomalies and hypogonadism. Mutations in SDCCAG8(NPHP10) were described recently in patients with nephronophthisis and retinal degeneration (Senior-Loken syndrome; SLS). Given the phenotypic and genetic overlap between known ciliopathy genes, we hypothesized that mutations in SDCCAG8 might also contribute alleles to more severe, multisystemic ciliopathies. We performed genetic and phenotypic analyses of 2 independent BBS cohorts. Subsequent to mutation screening, we made a detailed phenotypic analysis of 5 families mutated for SDCCAG8 (3 homozygous and 2 compound heterozygous mutations) and conducted statistical analyses across both cohorts to examine possible phenotype-genotype correlations with mutations at this locus. All patients with mutations in SDCCAG8 fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for BBS (retinal degeneration, obesity, cognitive defects, renal failure, hypogonadism). Interestingly, none of the patients with primary SDCCAG8 mutations had polydactyly, a frequent but not obligatory BBS feature. In contrast, the same patients displayed early-onset renal failure, obesity, as well as recurrent pulmonary and ENT infections. Comparison of the phenotypes of these families with our entire BBS cohort indicated that renal impairment and absent polydactyly correlated significantly with causal SDCCAG8 mutations. Thus, SDCCAG8 mutations are sufficient to cause BBS in 1-2% of our combined cohorts, and define this gene as the sixteenth BBS locus (BBS16). The absence of polydactyly and the concomitant, apparently fully penetrant association with early kidney failure represents the first significant genotype-phenotype correlation in BBS that potentially represents an indicator for

  18. Epigenetic Silencing of Eyes Absent 4 Gene by Acute Myeloid Leukemia 1-Eight-twenty-one Oncoprotein Contributes to Leukemogenesis in t(8;21) Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Sai; Jiang, Meng-Meng; Chen, Guo-Feng; Qian, Kun; Gao, Hong-Hao; Guan, Wei; Shi, Jin-Long; Liu, An-Qi; Liu, Jing; Wang, Bian-Hong; Li, Yong-Hui; Yu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Background: The acute myeloid leukemia 1 (AML1)-eight-twenty-one (ETO) fusion protein generated by the t(8;21)(q22;q22) translocation is considered to display a crucial role in leukemogenesis in AML. By focusing on the anti-leukemia effects of eyes absent 4 (EYA4) gene on AML cells, we investigated the biologic and molecular mechanism associated with AML1-ETO expressed in t(8;21) AML. Methods: Qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), and Western blotting analysis were used to observe the mRNA and protein expression levels of EYA4 in cell lines. Different plasmids (including mutant plasmids) of dual luciferase reporter vector were built to study the binding status of AML1-ETO to the promoter region of EYA4. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was used to study the epigenetic silencing mechanism of EYA4. Bisulfite sequencing was applied to detect the methylation status in EYA4 promoter region. The influence of EYA4 gene in the cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell clone-forming ability was detected by the technique of Cell Counting Kit-8, flow cytometry, and clonogenic assay. Results: EYA4 gene was hypermethylated in AML1-ETO+ patients and its expression was down-regulated by 6-fold in Kasumi-1 and SKNO-1 cells, compared to HL-60 and SKNO-1-siA/E cells, respectively. We demonstrated that AML1-ETO triggered the epigenetic silencing of EYA4 gene by binding at AML1-binding sites and recruiting histone deacetylase 1 and DNA methyltransferases. Enhanced EYA4 expression levels inhibited cellular proliferation and suppressed cell colony formation in AML1-ETO+ cell lines. We also found EYA4 transfection increased apoptosis of Kasumi-1 and SKNO-1 cells by 1.6-fold and 1.4-fold compared to negative control, respectively. Conclusions: Our study identified EYA4 gene as targets for AML1-ETO and indicated it as a novel tumor suppressor gene. In addition, we provided evidence that EYA4 gene might be a novel therapeutic target

  19. Skin vasoreactivity to insulin iontophoresis is reduced in elderly subjects and is absent in treated non-insulin-dependent diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Marco; Cupisti, Adamasco; Ricco, Roberto; Santoro, Gino; Pentimone, Ferdinando; Carpi, Angelo

    2004-12-01

    subjects and show that this effect is reduced by aging and is absent in treated NIDDM patients. The local skin vasodilatatory effect induced by insulin seems to involve mechanisms different from those underlying the skin postischemic hyperemia. PMID:15589063

  20. Rod-Like Microglia Are Restricted to Eyes with Laser-Induced Ocular Hypertension but Absent from the Microglial Changes in the Contralateral Untreated Eye

    PubMed Central

    de Hoz, Rosa; Gallego, Beatriz I.; Ramírez, Ana I.; Rojas, Blanca; Salazar, Juan J.; Valiente-Soriano, Francisco J.; Avilés-Trigueros, Marcelino; Villegas-Perez, Maria P.; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel; Triviño, Alberto; Ramírez, José M.

    2013-01-01

    In the mouse model of unilateral laser-induced ocular hypertension (OHT) the microglia in both the treated and the normotensive untreated contralateral eye have morphological signs of activation and up-regulation of MHC-II expression in comparison with naïve. In the brain, rod-like microglia align to less-injured neurons in an effort to limit damage. We investigate whether: i) microglial activation is secondary to laser injury or to a higher IOP and; ii) the presence of rod-like microglia is related to OHT. Three groups of mice were used: age-matched control (naïve, n=15); and two lasered: limbal (OHT, n=15); and non-draining portion of the sclera (scleral, n=3). In the lasered animals, treated eyes as well as contralateral eyes were analysed. Retinal whole-mounts were immunostained with antibodies against, Iba-1, NF-200, MHC-II, CD86, CD68 and Ym1. In the scleral group (normal ocular pressure) no microglial signs of activation were found. Similarly to naïve eyes, OHT-eyes and their contralateral eyes had ramified microglia in the nerve-fibre layer related to the blood vessel. However, only eyes with OHT had rod-like microglia that aligned end-to-end, coupling to form trains of multiple cells running parallel to axons in the retinal surface. Rod-like microglia were CD68+ and were related to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) showing signs of degeneration (NF-200+RGCs). Although MHC-II expression was up-regulated in the microglia of the NFL both in OHT-eyes and their contralateral eyes, no expression of CD86 and Ym1 was detected in ramified or in rod-like microglia. After 15 days of unilateral lasering of the limbal and the non-draining portion of the sclera, activated microglia was restricted to OHT-eyes and their contralateral eyes. However, rod-like microglia were restricted to eyes with OHT and degenerated NF-200+RGCs and were absent from their contralateral eyes. Thus, rod-like microglia seem be related to the neurodegeneration associated with HTO. PMID:24367610

  1. Rod-like microglia are restricted to eyes with laser-induced ocular hypertension but absent from the microglial changes in the contralateral untreated eye.

    PubMed

    de Hoz, Rosa; Gallego, Beatriz I; Ramírez, Ana I; Rojas, Blanca; Salazar, Juan J; Valiente-Soriano, Francisco J; Avilés-Trigueros, Marcelino; Villegas-Perez, Maria P; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel; Triviño, Alberto; Ramírez, José M

    2013-01-01

    In the mouse model of unilateral laser-induced ocular hypertension (OHT) the microglia in both the treated and the normotensive untreated contralateral eye have morphological signs of activation and up-regulation of MHC-II expression in comparison with naïve. In the brain, rod-like microglia align to less-injured neurons in an effort to limit damage. We investigate whether: i) microglial activation is secondary to laser injury or to a higher IOP and; ii) the presence of rod-like microglia is related to OHT. Three groups of mice were used: age-matched control (naïve, n=15); and two lasered: limbal (OHT, n=15); and non-draining portion of the sclera (scleral, n=3). In the lasered animals, treated eyes as well as contralateral eyes were analysed. Retinal whole-mounts were immunostained with antibodies against, Iba-1, NF-200, MHC-II, CD86, CD68 and Ym1. In the scleral group (normal ocular pressure) no microglial signs of activation were found. Similarly to naïve eyes, OHT-eyes and their contralateral eyes had ramified microglia in the nerve-fibre layer related to the blood vessel. However, only eyes with OHT had rod-like microglia that aligned end-to-end, coupling to form trains of multiple cells running parallel to axons in the retinal surface. Rod-like microglia were CD68+ and were related to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) showing signs of degeneration (NF-200+RGCs). Although MHC-II expression was up-regulated in the microglia of the NFL both in OHT-eyes and their contralateral eyes, no expression of CD86 and Ym1 was detected in ramified or in rod-like microglia. After 15 days of unilateral lasering of the limbal and the non-draining portion of the sclera, activated microglia was restricted to OHT-eyes and their contralateral eyes. However, rod-like microglia were restricted to eyes with OHT and degenerated NF-200+RGCs and were absent from their contralateral eyes. Thus, rod-like microglia seem be related to the neurodegeneration associated with HTO. PMID:24367610

  2. Absent in Melanoma 2 (AIM2) is an important mediator of interferon-dependent and -independent HLA-DRA and HLA-DRB gene expression in colorectal cancers.

    PubMed

    Lee, J; Li, L; Gretz, N; Gebert, J; Dihlmann, S

    2012-03-01

    Absent in Melanoma 2 (AIM2) is a member of the HIN-200 family of hematopoietic, IFN-inducible, nuclear proteins, associated with both, infection defense and tumor pathology. Recently, AIM2 was found to act as a DNA sensor in innate immunity. In addition, we and others have previously demonstrated a high frequency of AIM2-alterations in microsatellite unstable (MSI-H) tumors. To further elucidate AIM2 function in colorectal tumors, we here addressed AIM2-responsive target genes by microarray based gene expression profiling of 22 244 human genes. A total of 111 transcripts were significantly upregulated, whereas 80 transcripts turned out to be significantly downregulated in HCT116 cells, constitutively expressing AIM2, compared with AIM2-negative cells. Among the upregulated genes that were validated by quantitative PCR and western blotting we recognized several interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs: IFIT1, IFIT2, IFIT3, IFI6, IRF7, ISG15, HLA-DRA, HLA-DRB, TLR3 and CIITA), as well as genes involved in intercellular adhesion and matrix remodeling. Expression of ISGs correlated with expression of AIM2 in 10 different IFN-γ treated colorectal cancer cell lines. Moreover, small interfering RNA-mediated knock-down of AIM2 resulted in reduced expression of HLA-DRA, HLA-DRB and CIITA in IFN-γ-treated cells. IFN-γ independent induction of HLA-DR genes and their encoded proteins was also demonstrated upon doxycyclin-regulated transient induction of AIM2. Luciferase reporter assays revealed induction of the HLA-DR promoter upon AIM2 transfection in different cell lines. STAT-signaling was not involved in IFN-γ independent induction of ISGs, arguing against participation of cytokines released in an autostimulating manner. Our data indicate that AIM2 mediates both IFN-γ dependent and independent induction of several ISGs, including genes encoding the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens HLA-DR-α and -β. This suggests a novel role of the IFN/AIM2/ISG

  3. A Report to the President of the United States [from the] Intergovernmental Advisory Council on Education, National Networking Conference [on] The Absent Parent (Washington, D.C. May 9-10, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intergovernmental Advisory Council on Education (ED), Washington, DC.

    This report on child care and the Federal government's role in child care is based on the National Networking Conference on the Absent Parent which was held May 9-10, 1988 under the sponsorship of the President's Intergovernmental Advisory Council on Education (IACE). The report begins with 12 recommendations concerning day care and latchkey…

  4. [Spatial heterogeneity of community structure of Picea crassifolia forest in Qilian Mountains, China].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei-jun; Liu, Xian-de; Jing, Wen-mao; Xu, Li-heng; Niu, Yun; Qi, Peng; Zhao, Yong-hong

    2015-09-01

    We selected the grid of 5 m x 5 m in a dynamic monitoring plot (340 m x 300 m) as the sampling unites and chose 5 structural characteristics (density, average crown breadth, coverage, conspicuousness and average height) to study the spatial heterogeneity of community structure of Picea crassifolia forest in Dayekou Basin of Qilian Mountains by the fractal geometry and geostatistics methods. The results showed that the order of spatial variation in these characteristics was: density > average crown breadth > conspicuousness > coverage > average height, with the variation coefficient ranging from 43.7% to 79.6%. Moran's I index indicated that the structural variables had different degrees of spatial autocorrelation, and the order of autocorrelation was density > average height> coverage > average crown breadth > conspicuousness, with the range of -0.047-0.382. The exponential semivariation model well fitted the spatial variability in different structural features, and the range was 24.6-68.1 m. The variables displayed moderate spatial autocorrelation except for coverage, while the other variables had strong spatial autocorrelation, and the fractal dimension of the variables was close to 2, indicating a low spatial dependence among variables. The variables presented a superposing characteristic of zonal and patchy structures except for density and coverage, while the other variables presented strong patchiness property. Density and coverage had a certain spatial dependence on average crown breadth, conspicuousness and average height. Density and coverage for the spatial heterogeneity of community structural of P. crassifolia forests were 10 m and 0.5 hm2, respectively. PMID:26785538

  5. From symbolizing to non-symbolizing within the scope of a link: from dreams to shouts of terror caused by an absent presence.

    PubMed

    Levy, Ruggero

    2012-08-01

    This article examines pathologies in the creation of symbols and those pathologies' ensuing consequences. It relies mainly on the vertices provided by Bion and Meltzer. It studies the different forms in which these lapses occur in symbolic processes, where they may create vacuums in symbolic networks or give rise to 'lies', and even destroy or de-symbolize established symbols. Based on Bion's concept of the minus-contained (-contained), I propose that when a symbol is attacked, a particular mental structure with its own peculiar characteristics comes about. This structure not only creates a vacuum in that mental zone, it ends up damaging the entire symbolization process. This contribution aims to describe that structure from the metapsychological point of view - contained. I end by synthesizing the possible widening of what could be a Bionian negative grid. PMID:22900552

  6. Human sterile alpha motif domain 9, a novel gene identified as down-regulated in aggressive fibromatosis, is absent in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Li, Catherine F; MacDonald, Jeffrey R; Wei, Robert Y; Ray, Jocelyn; Lau, Kimberly; Kandel, Christopher; Koffman, Rachel; Bell, Sherilyn; Scherer, Stephen W; Alman, Benjamin A

    2007-01-01

    Background Neoplasia can be driven by mutations resulting in dysregulation of transcription. In the mesenchymal neoplasm, aggressive fibromatosis, subtractive hybridization identified sterile alpha motif domain 9 (SAMD9) as a substantially down regulated gene in neoplasia. SAMD9 was recently found to be mutated in normophosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis. In this study, we studied the gene structure and function of SAMD9, and its paralogous gene, SAMD9L, and examined these in a variety of species. Results SAMD9 is located on human chromosome 7q21.2 with a paralogous gene sterile alpha motif domain 9 like (SAMD9L) in the head-to-tail orientation. Although both genes are present in a variety of species, the orthologue for SAMD9 is lost in the mouse lineage due to a unique genomic rearrangement. Both SAMD9 and SAMD9L are ubiquitously expressed in human tissues. SAMD9 is expressed at a lower level in a variety of neoplasms associated with β-catenin stabilization, such as aggressive fibromatosis, breast, and colon cancers. SAMD9 and SAMD9L contain an amino-terminal SAM domain, but the remainder of the predicted protein structure does not exhibit substantial homology to other known protein motifs. The putative protein product of SAMD9 localizes to the cytoplasm. In vitro data shows that SAMD9 negatively regulates cell proliferation. Over expression of SAMD9 in the colon cancer cell line, SW480, reduces the volume of tumors formed when transplanted into immune-deficient mice. Conclusion SAMD9 and SAMD9L are a novel family of genes, which play a role regulating cell proliferation and suppressing the neoplastic phenotype. This is the first report as far as we know about a human gene that exists in rat, but is lost in mouse, due to a mouse specific rearrangement, resulting in the loss of the SAMD9 gene. PMID:17407603

  7. Synthesis and molecular structure of gold triarylcorroles.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kolle E; Alemayehu, Abraham B; Conradie, Jeanet; Beavers, Christine; Ghosh, Abhik

    2011-12-19

    A number of third-row transition-metal corroles have remained elusive as synthetic targets until now, notably osmium, platinum, and gold corroles. Against this backdrop, we present a simple and general synthesis of β-unsubstituted gold(III) triarylcorroles and the first X-ray crystal structure of such a complex. Comparison with analogous copper and silver corrole structures, supplemented by extensive scalar-relativistic, dispersion-corrected density functional theory calculations, suggests that "inherent saddling" may occur for of all coinage metal corroles. The degree of saddling, however, varies considerably among the three metals, decreasing conspicuously along the series Cu > Ag > Au. The structural differences reflect significant differences in metal-corrole bonding, which are also reflected in the electrochemistry and electronic absorption spectra of the complexes. From Cu to Au, the electronic structure changes from noninnocent metal(II)-corrole(•2-) to relatively innocent metal(III)-corrole(3-). PMID:22111600

  8. Physics of structural colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, S.; Yoshioka, S.; Miyazaki, J.

    2008-07-01

    In recent years, structural colors have attracted great attention in a wide variety of research fields. This is because they are originated from complex interaction between light and sophisticated nanostructures generated in the natural world. In addition, their inherent regular structures are one of the most conspicuous examples of non-equilibrium order formation. Structural colors are deeply connected with recent rapidly growing fields of photonics and have been extensively studied to clarify their peculiar optical phenomena. Their mechanisms are, in principle, of a purely physical origin, which differs considerably from the ordinary coloration mechanisms such as in pigments, dyes and metals, where the colors are produced by virtue of the energy consumption of light. It is generally recognized that structural colors are mainly based on several elementary optical processes including thin-layer interference, diffraction grating, light scattering, photonic crystals and so on. However, in nature, these processes are somehow mixed together to produce complex optical phenomena. In many cases, they are combined with the irregularity of the structure to produce the diffusive nature of the reflected light, while in some cases they are accompanied by large-scale structures to generate the macroscopic effect on the coloration. Further, it is well known that structural colors cooperate with pigmentary colors to enhance or to reduce the brilliancy and to produce special effects. Thus, structure-based optical phenomena in nature appear to be quite multi-functional, the variety of which is far beyond our understanding. In this article, we overview these phenomena appearing particularly in the diversity of the animal world, to shed light on this rapidly developing research field.

  9. An Absent Body in a Present Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcussen, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The wilderness expedition experience will always be a confluence of emotional, cognitive and bodily processes. The author wants to show that the body is an important but often forgotten part of the wilderness expedition experience. In society, the focus on the body is often polarised. Sometimes, there is an extreme focus on the thin and fit body…

  10. Fluid-absent metamorphism in the Adirondacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valley, J. W.

    Results on late Proterozoic metamorphism of granulite in the Adirondacks are presented. There more than 20,000 sq km of rock are at granulite facies. Low water fugacites are implied by orthopyroxene bearing assemblages and by stability of k'spar-plag-quartz assemblages. After mentioning the popular concept of infiltration of carbon dioxide into Precambrian rocks and attendent generation of granulite facies assemblages, several features of Adirondack rocks pertinent to carbon dioxide and water during their metamorphism are summarized: wollastonite occurs in the western lowlands; contact metamorphism by anorthosite preceeding granulite metamorphism is indicated by oxygen isotopes. Oxygen fugacity lies below that of the QFM buffer; total P sub water + P sub carbon dioxide determined from monticellite bearing assemblages are much less than P sub total (7 to 7.6 kb). These and other features indicate close spatial association of high- and low-P sub carbon dioxide assemblages and that a vapor phase was not present during metamorphism. Thus Adirondack rocks were not infiltrated by carbon dioxide vapor. Their metamorphism, at 625 to 775 C, occurred either when the protoliths were relatively dry or after dessication occurred by removal of a partial melt phase.