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Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Frames of reference and students' conceptual understanding of seasons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis focused on students' misconceptions in the topic of seasons. Its three investigations explored the central question of: How do frames of reference influence students' conceptual understanding of seasons? The results from these investigations found that some single frames of reference can limit students' understanding of seasons or confuse students, while additional frames of reference can enhance students' understanding.

Nalini Michelle Chandra

2006-01-01

2

Community College Students' Conceptual Understanding of Statistical Measures of Spread  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the conceptual understanding of measures of spread among community college students in an introductory statistics course. The course is centered around deemphasizing computational skills and focused, rather, on development of conceptual understanding. Open-ended questions were developed to explore and assess students'…

Turegun, Mikhail; Reeder, Stacy

2011-01-01

3

Facilitating Conceptual Change in Students' Understanding of Boiling Concept  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to construct a teaching strategy for facilitating students' conceptual understanding of the boiling concept. The study is based on 52 freshman students in the primary science education department. Students' ideas were elicited by a test consisting of nine questions. Conceptual change strategy was designed based on…

Costu, Bayram; Ayas, Alipasa; Niaz, Mansoor; Unal, Suat; Calik, Muammer

2007-01-01

4

Assessing Undergraduate Students' Conceptual Understanding and Confidence of Electromagnetics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study examines how students' conceptual understanding changes from high confidence with incorrect conceptions to high confidence with correct conceptions when reasoning about electromagnetics. The Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism test is weighted with students' self-rated confidence on each item in order to infer how strongly…

Leppavirta, Johanna

2012-01-01

5

The Conceptual Understanding of Sound by Students with Visual Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introduction: The purpose of the study presented here was to understand and describe the misconceptions of students with visual impairments about sound and instructional techniques that may help them to develop a scientific understanding. Methods: Semistructured interview-centered pre-and posttests were used to identify the students' conceptual

Wild, Tiffany A.; Hilson, Margilee P.; Hobson, Sally M.

2013-01-01

6

Measuring Conceptual Change in College StudentsUnderstanding of Lunar Phases  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the overall effectiveness of instruction at producing a scientifically correct understanding, researchers need to be able to assess conceptual change. This paper details how using Model Analysis Theory (MAT) in conjunction with the Lunar Phases Concept Inventory (LPCI), provides researchers a more detailed picture of college students conceptual change with regards to lunar phases than traditional methods alone.

Rebecca S. Lindell

2005-01-01

7

Measuring Conceptual Change in College Students' Understanding of Lunar Phases  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the overall effectiveness of instruction at producing a scientifically correct understanding, researchers need to be able to assess conceptual change. This paper details how using Model Analysis Theory (MAT) in conjunction with the Lunar Phases Concept Inventory (LPCI), provides researchers a more detailed picture of college students conceptual change with regards to lunar phases than traditional methods alone.

Rebecca S. Lindell

2005-01-01

8

Measuring Conceptual Change in College Students' Understanding of Lunar Phases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To determine the overall effectiveness of instruction at producing a scientifically correct understanding, researchers need to be able to assess conceptual change. This paper details how using Model Analysis Theory (MAT) in conjunction with the Lunar Phases Concept Inventory (LPCI), provides researchers a more detailed picture of college students conceptual change with regards to lunar phases than traditional methods alone. A review of MAT is provided along with a detailed example of its application before and after instruction to determine conceptual change.

Lindell, Rebecca S.

2010-01-18

9

Promoting Conceptual Change in First Year Students' Understanding of Evaporation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We constructed the PDEODE (Predict-Discuss-Explain-Observe-Discuss-Explain) teaching strategy, a variant of the classical POE (Predict-Observe-Explain) activity, to promote conceptual change, and investigated its effectiveness on student understanding of the evaporation concept. The sample consisted of 52 first year students in a primary science…

Costu, Bayram; Ayas, Alipasa; Niaz, Mansoor

2010-01-01

10

Facilitating Conceptual Change in Students' Understanding of Boiling Concept  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study was to construct a teaching strategy for facilitating students' conceptual understanding of the boiling concept. The study is based on 52 freshman students in the primary science education department. Students' ideas were elicited by a test consisting of nine questions. Conceptual change strategy was designed based on students' alternative conceptions. Conceptual change in students' understanding of boiling was evaluated by administering a pre-, post- and delayed post-test. The test scores were analysed both by qualitative and quantitative methods. Statistical analysis using one-way ANOVA of student test scores pointed to statistically significant differences in the tests and total scores ( p < 0.05). Quantitative analysis of students' responses on each test revealed different schema about changing their knowledge system. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses suggest that the teaching activities facilitated students' conceptual understanding. No statistically significant differences were found between post-test and delayed post-test scores, suggesting that the teaching strategy enabled students to retain their new conceptions in the long-term memory.

Co?tu, Bayram; Ayas, Alipa?a; Niaz, Mansoor; Ünal, Suat; Çalik, Muammer

2007-12-01

11

Assessing Students' Conceptual Understanding after a First Course in Statistics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the development of the CAOS test, designed to measure students' conceptual understanding of important statistical ideas, across three years of revision and testing, content validation, and reliability analysis. Results are reported from a large scale class testing and item responses are compared from pretest to posttest in…

delMas, Robert; Garfield, Joan; Ooms, Ann; Chance, Beth

2007-01-01

12

Assessing Students' Conceptual Understanding after a First Course in Statistics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes the development of the CAOS test, designed to measure students' conceptual understanding of important statistical ideas, across three years of revision and testing, content validation, and reliability analysis. Results are reported from a large scale class testing and item responses are compared from pretest to posttest in…

delMas, Robert; Garfield, Joan; Ooms, Ann; Chance, Beth

2007-01-01

13

Comparing Student Conceptual Understanding of Thermodynamics in Physics and Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Thermodynamics is a core part of curricula in physics and many engineering fields. Despite the apparent similarity in coverage, individual courses in each discipline have distinct emphases and applications. Physics education researchers have identified student difficulties with concepts such as heat, temperature, and entropy as well as with larger grain-sized ideas such as state variables, path-dependent processes, etc. Engineering education research has corroborated some of these findings and has identified additional difficulties unique to engineering contexts such as confusion between steady-state and equilibrium processes. We are beginning a project that provides an opportunity to expand the interdisciplinary research on conceptual understanding in thermodynamics. This project has two goals: first, determine the overlapping content and concepts across the disciplines; second, compare conceptual understanding between these groups using existing conceptual questions from PER and EER. We present a review of PER and EER literature in thermodynamics and highlight some concepts that we will investigate.

Clark, Jessica W.; Thompson, John R.; Mountcastle, Donald B.

2013-05-28

14

Introductory college chemistry students' understanding of stoichiometry: Connections between conceptual and computational understandings and instruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous research has shown a gap between chemistry students' conceptual and computational understandings of chemistry topics such as gas laws, equilibrium, and reactions. This qualitative study examined the conceptual and computational understandings of stoichiometry of college students enrolled in a large lecture Introductory Chemistry course. Factors that might influence students' understandings were examined to determine their influence. Possible influential factors examined included students' prior coursework, and their current chemistry instruction. Instruction on stoichiometry was examined through classroom observations, an instructor interview, and review of the course resources. Course exams and out-of-class assignments were also examined for their influence on students. Student volunteers (n = 6) were interviewed to gauge their understanding of stoichiometry. Students' understanding was assessed through tasks that included a card sort, solving conceptual and computational problems, drawing representations of reactions, and answering questions concerning their philosophy of learning chemistry. Results indicated that students had an acceptable understanding of the particulate nature of matter but did not apply this knowledge to problem solving. The students were most comfortable solving computational problems where they could apply algorithms learned from their instructor. The students also applied algorithms in answering conceptual problems. There appeared to be a connection between the students' conceptual structures of stoichiometry and their ability to solve computational problems. The lack of conceptual questions in assessment appeared to be a major contributing factor in the students' lack of conceptual understanding because the students discounted the importance of learning aspects of stoichiometry that were not included on exams. Other contributing factors included the computational focus of instruction on limiting reactant problems, textbook presentation, and student exercises.

Wolfer, Adam Joseph

15

Introductory College Chemistry Students' Understanding of Stoichiometry: Connections between Conceptual and Computational Understandings and Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many studies of college chemistry students have found a gap between students' success in solving computational chemistry problems and their success in solving conceptual chemistry problems. This paper examines college students' understanding of the concept of stoichiometry, the particulate nature of matter, and chemistry problem solving. This…

Wolfer, Adam J.; Lederman, Norman G.

16

Longitudinal study of student conceptual understanding in electricity and magnetism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We have investigated the long-term effect of student-centered instruction at the freshman level on juniorsâ performance on a conceptual survey of Electricity and Magnetism (E&M). We measured student performance on a research-based conceptual instrumentâthe Brief Electricity & Magnetism Assessment (BEMA)âover a period of 8 semesters (2004â2007). Concurrently, we introduced the University of Washington's Tutorials in Introductory Physics as part of our standard freshman curriculum. Freshmen took the BEMA before and after this Tutorial-based introductory course, and juniors took it after completion of their traditional junior-level E&M I and E&M II courses. We find that, on average, individual BEMA scores do not change significantly after completion of the introductory courseâneither from the freshman to the junior year, nor from upper-division E&M I to E&M II. However, we find that juniors who had completed a non-Tutorial freshman course scored significantly lower on the (post-upper-division) BEMA than those who had completed the reformed freshman courseâindicating a long-term positive impact of freshman Tutorials on conceptual understanding.

Pollock, Steven J.

2010-03-11

17

The Role of Student-Generated Analogies in Promoting Conceptual Understanding for Undergraduate Chemistry Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on the value of using student-generated analogies with undergraduate science students as a strategy for promoting conceptual understanding. A quantitative study was undertaken involving students in four sections of an introductory chemistry course for prospective science majors attending a four year college in British…

Spier-Dance, Lesley; Mayer-Smith, Jolie; Dance, Nigel; Khan, Samia

2005-01-01

18

Investigation of students’ intermediate conceptual understanding levels: the case of direct current electricity concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conceptual understanding is one of the main topics in science and physics education research. In the majority of conceptual understanding studies, studentsunderstanding levels were categorized dichotomously, either as alternative or scientific understanding. Although they are invaluable in many ways, namely developing new instructional materials and assessment instruments, students’ alternative understandings alone are not sufficient to describe studentsconceptual understanding in detail. This paper introduces an example of a study in which a method was developed to assess and describe studentsconceptual understanding beyond alternative and scientific understanding levels. In this study, six undergraduate studentsconceptual understanding levels of direct current electricity concepts were assessed and described in detail by using their answers to qualitative problems. In order to do this, conceptual understanding indicators are described based on science and mathematics education literature. The studentsunderstanding levels were analysed by assertion analysis based on the conceptual understanding indicators. The results indicated that the participants demonstrated three intermediate understanding levels in addition to alternative and scientific understanding. This paper presents the method and its application to direct current electricity concepts.

Cobanoglu Aktan, D.

2013-01-01

19

Enhancing Students' Understanding of Photosynthesis and Respiration in Plant through Conceptual Change Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the effectiveness of combining conceptual change text and discussion web strategies on students' understanding of photosynthesis and respiration in plants. Students' conceptual understanding of photosynthesis and respiration in plants was measured using the two-tier diagnostic test developed by Haslam and Treagust (1987,…

Yenilmez, Ayse; Tekkaya, Ceren

2006-01-01

20

The Effect of Distributed Practice on Students' Conceptual Understanding of Statistics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study the effect of the reduced distribution of study activities on students' conceptual understanding of statistics is investigated in a quasi-experiment. Conceptual understanding depends on coherent and error free knowledge structures. Students need time to construct such knowledge structures. A curriculum reform at our university…

Bude, Luc; Imbos, Tjaart; van de Wiel, Margaretha W.; Berger, Martijn P.

2011-01-01

21

Primary Student-Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect: A mixed method study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The greenhouse effect is a reasonably complex scientific phenomenon which can be used as a model to examine students' conceptual understanding in science. Primary student-teachers' understanding of global environmental problems, such as climate change and ozone depletion, indicates that they have many misconceptions. The present mixed method study examines Finnish primary student-teachers' understanding of the greenhouse effect based on the

Ilkka Johannes Ratinen

2011-01-01

22

Probing students' understanding of some conceptual themes in general relativity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This work is an attempt to see how physics undergraduates view the basic ideas of general relativity when they are exposed to the topic in a standard introductory course. Since the subject is conceptually and technically difficult, we adopted a âcase studiesâ approach, focusing in depth on about six students who had just finished a one semester course on special relativity. The methodology of investigation involved a combination of text comprehension questionnaire and detailed clinical interviews. The aim was not to investigate the technical proficiency of the students, but to probe in detail the nuances of their conceptions of several basic points of the subject. Analysis of their responses reveals a large number of âalternative conceptionsâ of students in the domain. The study should be useful to physics education researchers as well as to teachers of introductory general relativity at about the senior undergraduate level.

Bandyopadhyay, Atanu; Kumar, Arvind

2011-03-13

23

The Effect of a Conceptual Change Approach on Understanding of Students' Chemical Equilibrium Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a conceptual change approach over traditional instruction on tenth-grade students' conceptual achievement in understanding chemical equilibrium. The study was conducted in two classes of the same teacher with participation of a total of 44 tenth-grade students. In this study, a…

Atasoy, Basri; Akkus, Huseyin; Kadayifci, Hakki

2009-01-01

24

Testing the Development of Student Conceptual and Visualization Understanding in Quantum Mechanics through the Undergraduate Career.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an assessment instrument designed to test conceptual and visual understanding of quantum theory, probe various aspects of student understanding of some core ideas of quantum mechanics, and investigate how students develop over the undergraduate curriculum. (Contains 52 references.) (Author/YDS)|

Cataloglu, E.; Robinett, R. W.

2002-01-01

25

Multiple intelligences and alternative teaching strategies: The effects on student academic achievement, conceptual understanding, and attitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the interactions between multiple intelligence strengths and alternative teaching methods on student academic achievement, conceptual understanding and attitudes. The design was a quasi-experimental study, in which students enrolled in Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, a developmental biology course, received lecture only, problem-based learning with lecture, or peer teaching with lecture. These students

Michelle Baragona

2009-01-01

26

Analogy-Integrated e-Learning Module: Facilitating Students' Conceptual Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study deals with the development of an analogy-integrated e-learning module on Cellular Respiration, which is intended to facilitate conceptual understanding of students with different brain hemisphere dominance and learning styles. The module includes eight analogies originally conceptualized following the specific steps used to prepare…

Florida, Jennifer

2012-01-01

27

Use of Chemistry Demonstrations to Foster Conceptual Understanding and Cooperative Learning among students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of chemistry demonstrations in fos- tering conceptual understanding and cooperative learning among upper secondary school students. The topic of electrochemistry was selected for this study. Two principal evaluation instruments were used: a survey instrument and a content- based conceptual test. Preliminary results indicate that demonstrations in Chem- istry are effective in stretching the

Erlis Bte Abdul Manaf; R. Subramaniam

2004-01-01

28

Analogy-Integrated e-Learning Module: Facilitating Students' Conceptual Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study deals with the development of an analogy-integrated e-learning module on Cellular Respiration, which is intended to facilitate conceptual understanding of students with different brain hemisphere dominance and learning styles. The module includes eight analogies originally conceptualized following the specific steps used to prepare…

Florida, Jennifer

2012-01-01

29

Analogy-Integrated e-Learning Module: Facilitating Students' Conceptual Understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study deals with the development of an analogy-integrated e-learning module on Cellular Respiration, which is intended to facilitate conceptual understanding of students with different brain hemisphere dominance and learning styles. The module includes eight analogies originally conceptualized following the specific steps used to prepare instructional analogies by Baker and Lawson and the TWA model by Glynn. Results reveal that

2012-01-01

30

Promoting high school students' conceptual understandings of the particulate nature of matter through multiple representations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study mainly explored the efficacy of the two instructional interventions, namely Reform-Based Teaching with Multiple Representations (RBTw/MR) and Reform-Based Teaching (RBT) on stimulating change in students' conceptual understandings of the particulate nature of matter (PNM) and maintaining those scientific understandings constructed during the instruction over a three-month period. In this context, this study also examined the RBTw/MR and RBT students' types of conceptual understandings of the PNM before, immediately after and three-months after the interventions. This study was conducted in two introductory level chemistry classes of a suburban high school. The participants of the study included a total of 42 students who were enrolled in one of the two classes of the chemistry teacher who taught both of the classes. Both the RBTw/MR and the RBT group students were engaged in the same activities with the same sequence of experiences. However, the RBTw/MR instruction differed from the RBT instruction in terms of the frequency of using the multiple representations in relationship to the macroscopic phenomenon and the likely actions that occur at the submicroscopic level. A quasi-experimental control group research design with a pretest, posttest, and delayed posttest was employed by incorporating qualitative data collection and analysis methods. In order to assess students' conceptual understanding of the PNM, the open-ended questionnaire, namely Nature of Matter Diagnostic Questions, was administered to both groups just before, immediately after and three months after the instructional interventions. Fifteen of the 42 students were also interviewed following the posttest. The results of the study revealed the positive short- and long-term learning impacts on the RBTw/MR students' conceptual understandings of the PNM. Before the instruction, a majority of students in both groups (82.6%, RBTw/MR; 73.7%, RBT) held nonscientific types of conceptual understandings of the PNM. Immediately following the instruction, 52.1% of the RBTw/MR students held the types of conceptual understandings of either scientific or scientific fragments. Three months after the instruction, 34.8% of the RBTw/MR students held onto their scientific conceptual understandings of the PNM, only 15.8% of the RBT students' conceptual understandings of the PNM differed from their initial type of conceptual understandings.

Adadan, Emine

31

Promoting Conceptual Understanding of Matrices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a lesson to teach matrices that emphasizes conceptual understanding and allows students to extend their investigations into important and relevant situations by using graphing calculators after important conceptual understanding has been developed. (KHR)|

Worrall, Laura J.; Quinn, Robert

2001-01-01

32

A window into thinking: Using student writing to understand conceptual change in science learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study, conducted in an inner-city middle school, followed the conceptual changes shown in 25 students' writing over a 12-week science unit. Conceptual changes for 6 target students are reported. Student understanding was assessed regarding the nature of matter and physical change by paper-and-pencil pretest and posttest. The 6 target students were interviewed about the goal concepts before and after instruction. Students' writing during lesson activities provided qualitative data about their understandings of the goal concepts across the science unit. The researcher constructed concept maps from students' written statements and compared the maps across time to assess changes in the schema of core concepts, complexity, and organization as a result of instruction. Target students' changes were studied in detail to determine patterns of conceptual change. After patterns were located in target students' maps, the remaining 19 students' maps were analyzed for similar patterns. The ideas that students identified in their writing showed changes in central concepts, complexity, and organization as the lessons progressed. When instructional events were analyzed in relation to students' demonstrated ideas, understanding of the goal conceptions appeared in students' writing more often when students had opportunities to explain their new ideas orally and in writing.

Fellows, Nancy J.

33

Effectiveness of Conceptual Change Text Oriented Instruction on Students' Understanding of Cellular Respiration Concepts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study is to compare the effectiveness of conceptual change text oriented instruction and traditional instruction on students' understanding of cellular respiration concepts and their attitudes toward biology as a school subject. The sample of this study consisted of 84 eleventh-grade students from the 4 classes of a high school.…

Cakir, Ozlem S.; Yuruk, Nejla; Geban, Omer

34

Effectiveness of Conceptual Change Text-Oriented Instruction on Students' Understanding of Cellular Respiration Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effect of conceptual change text-oriented instruction over traditional instruction on students' understanding of cellular respiration concepts and their attitudes toward biology as a school subject. The sample of this study consisted of 84 eleventh-grade students from four classes of a high school. Two of the classes…

Cakirt, Ozlem S.; Geban, Omer; Yuruk, Nejla

2002-01-01

35

Thai Grade 10 and 11 Students' Conceptual Understanding and Ability to Solve Stoichiometry Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Stoichiometry and related concepts are an important part of student learning in chemistry. In this interpretive-based inquiry, we investigated Thai Grade 10 and 11 students' conceptual understanding and ability to solve numerical problems for stoichiometry-related concepts. Ninety-seven participants completed a purpose-designed survey instrument…

Dahsah, Chanyah; Coll, Richard K.

2007-01-01

36

Effectiveness of Conceptual Change Text-Oriented Instruction on Students' Understanding of Cellular Respiration Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the effect of conceptual change text-oriented instruction over traditional instruction on students' understanding of cellular respiration concepts and their attitudes toward biology as a school subject. The sample of this study consisted of 84 eleventh-grade students from four classes of a high school. Two of the classes…

Cakirt, Ozlem S.; Geban, Omer; Yuruk, Nejla

2002-01-01

37

Effectiveness of Conceptual Change Text Oriented Instruction on Students' Understanding of Cellular Respiration Concepts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of the study is to compare the effectiveness of conceptual change text oriented instruction and traditional instruction on students' understanding of cellular respiration concepts and their attitudes toward biology as a school subject. The sample of this study consisted of 84 eleventh-grade students from the 4 classes of a high…

Cakir, Ozlem S.; Yuruk, Nejla; Geban, Omer

38

Using Portfolios To Assess Students' Conceptual Understanding of Flotation and Buoyancy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research described in this paper investigates the use of portfolio assessment techniques in middle school science classrooms. It explores how alternative assessment frameworks, such as portfolios, can be used by the classroom teacher and the students as an indicator of students' conceptual understanding and to facilitate changes in science…

Erduran, Sibel; Duschl, Richard A.

39

Argumentation and Students' Conceptual Understanding of Properties and Behaviors of Gases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of argumentation-based pedagogy on college students' conceptual understanding of properties and behaviors of gases. The sample consists of 108 students (52 in the control group and 56 in the intervention group) drawn from 2 general chemistry college courses taught by the same instructor. Data…

Aydeniz, Mehmet; Pabuccu, Aybuke; Cetin, Pinar Seda; Kaya, Ebru

2012-01-01

40

Improving Students' Conceptual Understanding of Conductors and Insulators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We examine the difficulties that introductory physics students, undergraduate physics majors, and physics graduate students have with concepts related to conductors and insulators covered in introductory physics by giving written tests and interviewing a subset of students. We find that even graduate students have serious difficulties with these concepts. We develop tutorials related to these topics and evaluate their effectiveness by comparing the performance on written pre-/post-tests and interviews of students who received traditional instruction vs. those who learned using tutorials.

Bilak, Joshua; Singh, Chandralekha

2009-07-08

41

Changing Scientific Reasoning and Conceptual Understanding in College Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Data from several years and several different classes have shown that Lawson test scores do not change much over the course of a single semester and are strongly correlated with FCI gains. So what does change Lawson scores? We have new data that we think shows that more interaction with materials that demand reasoning (and not just clicker questions and end of chapter Homework problems) improves reasoning ability and subsequently conceptual development.

Pyper, Brian A.

2012-05-15

42

Changing scientific reasoning and conceptual understanding in college students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data from several years and several different classes have shown that Lawson test scores do not change much over the course of a single semester and are strongly correlated with FCI gains. So what does change Lawson scores? We have new data that we think shows that more interaction with materials that demand reasoning (and not just clicker questions and end of chapter Homework problems) improves reasoning ability and subsequently conceptual development.

Pyper, Brian A.

2012-02-01

43

Enhancing Students' Understanding of Photosynthesis and Respiration in Plant Through Conceptual Change Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the effectiveness of combining conceptual change text and discussion web strategies on students' understanding of photosynthesis and respiration in plants. Students' conceptual understanding of photosynthesis and respiration in plants was measured using the two-tier diagnostic test developed by Haslam and Treagust (1987, Journal of Biological Education 21: 203--211). The test was administered as pretest and posttest to a total of 233 eighth-grade students in six intact classes of the same school located in an urban area. The test of logical thinking was used to determine the reasoning ability of students. The experimental group was a class of 116 students received discussion web and conceptual change text instruction. A class of 117 students comprised the control group received a traditional instruction. After instruction, data were analyzed with two-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) using the Test of Logical Thinking and pretest scores as covariate. The conceptual change instruction, which explicitly dealt with students' misconceptions, produced significantly greater achievement in understanding of photosynthesis and respiration in plant concepts. Analysis also revealed a significant difference between performance of females and that of males in the favor of females, but the interaction of treatment with gender difference was not significant for learning the concepts.

Yenilmez, Ayse; Tekkaya, Ceren

2006-03-01

44

Improving Students' Conceptual Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect Using Theory-Based Learning Materials that Promote Deep Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students' everyday ideas of the greenhouse effect are difficult to change. Environmental education faces the challenge of developing instructional settings that foster students' conceptual understanding concept of the greenhouse effect in order to understand global warming. To facilitate students' conceptual development with regard to the…

Reinfried, Sibylle; Aeschbacher, Urs; Rottermann, Benno

2012-01-01

45

The Positive and Negative Effects of Science Concept Tests on Student Conceptual Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the phenomenon of testing effect during science concept assessments, including the mechanism behind it and its impact upon a learner's conceptual understanding. The participants consisted of 208 high school students, in either the 11th or 12th grade. Three types of tests (traditional multiple-choice test, correct concept test,…

Chang, Chun-Yen; Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Barufaldi, James P.

2010-01-01

46

Effect of Instruction Based on Conceptual Change Activities on Students' Understanding of Static Electricity Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of learning activities based on conceptual change conditions and traditionally designed physics instruction on tenth-grade students' understanding of static electricity concepts and their attitudes toward physics as a school subject. Misconceptions related to static electricity concepts…

Baser, Mustafa; Geban, Omer

2007-01-01

47

Effect of Conceptual Change Oriented Instruction on Students' Understanding of Heat and Temperature Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the effectiveness of conceptual change oriented instruction and standard science instruction and contribution of logical thinking ability on seventh grade students' understanding of heat and temperature concepts. Misconceptions related to heat and temperature concepts were determined by related literature on this subject.…

Baser, Mustafa

2006-01-01

48

Effect of a Problem Based Simulation on the Conceptual Understanding of Undergraduate Science Education Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the effect of science teaching with a multimedia simulation on water quality, the "River of Life," on the science conceptual understanding of students (N = 83) in an undergraduate science education (K-9) course is reported. Teaching reality-based meaningful science is strongly recommended by the National Science Education Standards…

Kumar, David Devraj; Sherwood, Robert D.

2007-01-01

49

Effect of Instruction Based on Conceptual Change Activities on Students' Understanding of Static Electricity Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of learning activities based on conceptual change conditions and traditionally designed physics instruction on tenth-grade students' understanding of static electricity concepts and their attitudes toward physics as a school subject. Misconceptions related to static electricity concepts…

Baser, Mustafa; Geban, Omer

2007-01-01

50

Effects of Experimenting with Physical and Virtual Manipulatives on Students' Conceptual Understanding in Heat and Temperature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to investigate the comparative value of experimenting with physical manipulatives (PM) in a sequential combination with virtual manipulatives (VM), with the use of PM preceding the use of VM, and of experimenting with PM alone, with respect to changes in students' conceptual understanding in the domain of heat and temperature. A…

Zacharia, Zacharias C.; Olympiou, Georgios; Papaevripidou, Marios

2008-01-01

51

Effect of a Problem Based Simulation on the Conceptual Understanding of Undergraduate Science Education Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study of the effect of science teaching with a multimedia simulation on water quality, the "River of Life," on the science conceptual understanding of students (N = 83) in an undergraduate science education (K-9) course is reported. Teaching reality-based meaningful science is strongly recommended by the National Science Education Standards…

Kumar, David Devraj; Sherwood, Robert D.

2007-01-01

52

The Positive and Negative Effects of Science Concept Tests on Student Conceptual Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explored the phenomenon of testing effect during science concept assessments, including the mechanism behind it and its impact upon a learner's conceptual understanding. The participants consisted of 208 high school students, in either the 11th or 12th grade. Three types of tests (traditional multiple-choice test, correct concept test,…

Chang, Chun-Yen; Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Barufaldi, James P.

2010-01-01

53

Effects of Experimenting with Physical and Virtual Manipulatives on Students' Conceptual Understanding in Heat and Temperature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study aimed to investigate the comparative value of experimenting with physical manipulatives (PM) in a sequential combination with virtual manipulatives (VM), with the use of PM preceding the use of VM, and of experimenting with PM alone, with respect to changes in students' conceptual understanding in the domain of heat and temperature. A…

Zacharia, Zacharias C.; Olympiou, Georgios; Papaevripidou, Marios

2008-01-01

54

Study of TA's ability to implement the Tutorials in Introductory Physics and student conceptual understanding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many students are not prepared for college physics and therefore perform poorly. This becomes a problem when students must pass physics as part of course requirements for their major. At the University of Cincinnati this problem is being addressed through the implementation of Tutorials in Introductory Physics in the recitation sections of our calculus-based physics course. In recent years we have evidence that the Tutorials increase both students' conceptual understanding of physics as well as their success rate in the course. To make further improvements we have shifted our research focus to the training of the recitation TAs. This presentation will describe the training the TAs receive as well as the methodology and instruments used in the study to determine the effectiveness of each TA. Preliminary findings indicate that there is a relationship between the TA's ability to implement the Tutorials and student conceptual understanding.

Koenig, Kathleen M.; Endorf, Robert J.

2004-09-01

55

Exploring Student Understanding of Energy through the Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We present a study of student understanding of energy in quantum mechanical tunneling and barrier penetration. This paper will focus on student responses to two questions that were part of a test given in class to two modern physics classes and in individual interviews with 17 students. The test, which we refer to as the Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Survey (QMCS), is being developed to measure student understanding of basic concepts in quantum mechanics. In this paper we explore and clarify the previously reported misconception that reflection from a barrier is due to particles having a range of energies rather than wave properties. We also confirm previous studies reporting the student misconception that energy is lost in tunneling, and report a misconception not previously reported, that potential energy diagrams shown in tunneling problems do not represent the potential energy of the particle itself. The present work is part of a much larger study of student understanding of quantum mechanics.

Mckagan, Sam B.; Wieman, Carl E.

2009-07-13

56

Conceptualizing teachers' understanding of students' mathematical learning by using assessment tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was designed to support teachers on conceptualizing their understanding of students' learning by the use of assessment\\u000a tasks. A school-based assessment team consisting of the researcher and four third-grade teachers teaching in the same school\\u000a was set up as a learning context of supporting teachers in developing assessment tasks integral to instruction. The assessment\\u000a tasks along with students'

Pi-Jen Lin

2006-01-01

57

Conceptual Underpinnings of Students' Ability to Understand Reflections from a Plane Mirror  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this paper we explore students' pre-instruction knowledge of several conceptual and procedural pieces of knowledge that we believe are prerequisite to one's ability to generate correct light ray diagrams and understand image formation by a plane mirror. The research population is an algebra-based, introductory physics class of about 50 students at a medium-sized, urban, public university. Both individual interviews and written free response questions were used to gather data.

Cummings, Karen; Grillo, Edward

2009-11-30

58

Promoting high school students' conceptual understandings of the particulate nature of matter through multiple representations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study mainly explored the efficacy of the two instructional interventions, namely Reform-Based Teaching with Multiple Representations (RBTw\\/MR) and Reform-Based Teaching (RBT) on stimulating change in students' conceptual understandings of the particulate nature of matter (PNM) and maintaining those scientific understandings constructed during the instruction over a three-month period. In this context, this study also examined the RBTw\\/MR and RBT

Emine Adadan

2006-01-01

59

The effects of the laboratory on college students' understanding of evolution: Implications for conceptual change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated eighty junior and senior college students' understanding of evolutionary biology concepts in lecture-only and lecture-laboratory settings. The evolution lab stressed the processes of evolution, and involved simulations, experiments, discussions, report writing, and reading. Test scores do not reveal everything about the actual process of learning in the laboratory. This study examined conceptual change patterns over a period of one semester using in-depth interviews with eight participants. The study revealed that the lecture-laboratory group performed better than the lecture-only group on certain shared items on the objective examination. The interview participants showed various patterns of conceptual change; that is, holistic (wholesale and cascade), fragmented, and dual constructions. Dual constructions and wholesale conceptual changes were the most common types of conceptual change patterns observed. Laboratory work in evolution allowed students to grapple with their alternative conceptions for abstract evolutionary concepts. They made use of the opportunities for cognitive conflict provided by the lab sessions. Some students adhered to their initial alternative conceptions which constrained the provision of scientific explanations for the biological problems. Examples of alternative conceptions are a young earth, rejection of macroevolution, and Lamarckian conceptions. The belief system of one student strongly influenced her retention of alternative conceptions, although she had done the laboratory course. However, two other students (one a lecture-lab participant) who held similar religious beliefs were able to develop a better understanding of evolution. Strong religious beliefs do not always preclude a good understanding of evolution. This study revealed a direct, positive relationship between students' understanding of evolutionary concepts and their understanding of the nature of science. The observation was true for both lecture-only and lecture-lab groups.

Holtman, Lorna Benita

60

Student Use of Scaffolding Software: Relationships with Motivation and Conceptual Understanding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was designed to theoretically articulate and empirically assess the role of computer scaffolds. In this project, several examples of educational software were developed to scaffold the learning of students performing high level cognitive activities. The software used in this study, Artemis, focused on scaffolding the learning of students as they performed information seeking activities. As 5th grade students traveled through a project-based science unit on photosynthesis, researchers used a pre-post design to test for both student motivation and student conceptual understanding of photosynthesis. To measure both variables, a motivation survey and three methods of concept map analysis were used. The student use of the scaffolding features was determined using a database that tracked students' movement between scaffolding tools. The gain scores of each dependent variable was then correlated to the students' feature use (time and hits) embedded in the Artemis Interface. This provided the researchers with significant relationships between the scaffolding features represented in the software and student motivation and conceptual understanding of photosynthesis. There were a total of three significant correlations in comparing the scaffolding use by hits (clicked on) with the dependent variables and only one significant correlation when comparing the scaffold use in time. The first significant correlation ( r = .499, p < .05) was between the saving/viewing features hits and the students' task value. This correlation supports the assumption that there is a positive relationship between the student use of the saving/viewing features and the students' perception of how interesting, how important, and how useful the task is. The second significant correlation ( r = 0.553, p < 0.01) was between the searching features hits and the students' self-efficacy for learning and performance. This correlation supports the assumption that there is a positive relationship between the student use of the searching features and the students' perception of their ability to accomplish a task as well as their confidence in their skills to perform that task. The third significant correlation ( r = 0.519, p < 0.05) was between the collaborative features hits and the students' essay performance scores. This correlation supports the assumption that there is a positive relationship between the student use of the collaborative features and the students' ability to perform high cognitive tasks. Finally, the last significant correlation ( r = 0.576, p < 0.01) was between the maintenance features time and the qualitative analysis of the concept maps. This correlation supports the assumption that there is a positive relationship between the student use of the maintenance features and student conceptual understanding of photosynthesis.

Butler, Kyle A.; Lumpe, Andrew

2008-10-01

61

Scaffolding software: How does it influence student conceptual understanding and motivation?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of scaffolding software on student conceptual understanding and motivation. This study also provides insight on how students use the scaffolding features found in Artemis and the extent to which features show a relationship to student conceptual understanding and motivation. A Randomized Solomon Four Group Design was used in this study. As students worked through a project based unit over photosynthesis, the students performed information seeking activities that were based on their own inquiry. For this purpose, the students in the experimental group used an example of scaffolding software called Artemis, while the students in the control group used a search engine of their choice. To measure conceptual understanding, the researcher analyzed student generated concept maps on photosynthesis using three different methods (quantitative, qualitative, hierarchical). To measure motivation, the researcher used a survey that measured motivation on five different indicators: intrinsic goal orientation, extrinsic goal orientation, task value, control of learning beliefs, self-efficacy for learning and performance. Finally, the researcher looked at the relationship and influence of the scaffolding features on two student performance scores at the end of the unit. This created a total of ten dependent variables in relationship to the treatment. Overall, the students used the collaborative features 25% of the time, the maintenance features 0.84% of the time, the organizational features 16% of the time, the saving/viewing features 7% of the time and the searching features 51% of the time. There were significant correlations between the saving/viewing features hits and the students' task value (r = .499, p < .05), the searching features hits and the students' self-efficacy for learning and performance (r = .553, p < .01), the collaborative features hits and the students' essay performance scores (r = .519, p < .05) and the maintenance features time and the qualitative analysis of the concept maps (r = .576, p < .01). Finally, the results indicated that the scaffolding features in Artemis did not influence student conceptual understanding and motivation.

Butler, Kyle A.

62

Avoiding Reflex Responses: Strategies for Revealing Students' Conceptual Understanding in Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There is widespread concern about the level of scientific literacy in the U. S. An important, although often overlooked, point, is that student learning is generally only a good as the assessments used to measure it. Unfortunately, most assessments measure recall and recognition rather than conceptual understanding, and as a result over-estimate levels of scientific literacy. We have encountered this fact during the construction of the Biology Concept Inventory (BCI). Using the concept of diffusion, which is taught in a wide range of introductory biology, chemistry, and physics courses, as an exemplar, we describe lessons learned and strategies we use to create questions that better probe student understanding.

Klymkowsky, Michael; Gheen, Rachel; Garvin-Doxas, Kathy

2013-05-08

63

Leveraging Conceptual Frameworks to Improve Students' Mental Organization of Astronomy Understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many different types of schematic diagrams are useful in helping students organize and internalize their developing understanding in introductory astronomy courses. These include Venn Diagrams, Flowcharts, Concept Maps, among others, which illustrate the relationships between astronomical objects and dynamic concepts. These conceptual framework diagrams have been incorporated into the NSF-funded ClassAction project. ClassAction is a collection of electronic materials designed

Timothy F. Slater; K. M. Lee

2006-01-01

64

Effect of a Problem Based Simulation on the Conceptual Understanding of Undergraduate Science Education Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the effect of science teaching with a multimedia simulation on water quality, the “River of Life,” on the science\\u000a conceptual understanding of students (N = 83) in an undergraduate science education (K-9) course is reported. Teaching reality-based meaningful science is strongly\\u000a recommended by the National Science Education Standards (National Research Council, 1996). Water quality provides an information-rich context for

David Devraj Kumar; Robert D. Sherwood

2007-01-01

65

Testing the development of student conceptual and visualization understanding in quantum mechanics through the undergraduate career  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In order to probe various aspects of student understanding of some of the core ideas of quantum mechanics, and especially how they develop over the undergraduate curriculum, we have developed an assessment instrument designed to test conceptual and visualization understanding in quantum theory. We report data obtained from students ranging from sophomore-level modern physics courses, through juniorâsenior level quantum theory classes, to first year graduate quantum mechanics courses in what may be the first such study of the development of student understanding in this important core subject of physics through the undergraduate career. We discuss the results and their possible relevance to the standard curriculum as well as to the development of new curricular materials.

Robinett, Richard; Cataloglu, E.

2005-10-11

66

Using the Microcomputer-Based Laboratory to Improve Student Conceptual Understanding in Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Research has shown that most of us who use traditional methods to teach physics in schools and universities are unable to change substantially our students' conceptual understanding. In an effort to address this problem, microcomputer-based laboratory (MBL) tools have been developed which interface to Apple II and Macintosh computers. Students use these tools to collect physical data which are graphed in real-time and then can be manipulated and analyzed. The MBL tools have made possible discovery-based laboratory curricula which embody results from educational research. In this paper, we describe a few of the tools (hardware and software)--the motion detector, the force probe, and the temperature probes--and introduce two curricula--kinematics and head and temperature. Students thrive in the MBL learning environment which is more like the working environment of practicing scientists than the traditional school environment. The curricula and tools allow students to take an active role in their learning and encourage them to construct knowledge from observation of the physical world. The ease of data collection and presentation encourage even badly prepared students to answer their own questions. The curricula take advantage of the fact that MBL tools present data in an immediately understandable graphical form to promote collaborative learning by encouraging peer discussions. We have used pre- and post-testing and observation to measure the conceptual understanding of secondary and university students in order to compare the MBL curricula to traditional methods. Students who use MBL materials show substantial and lasting understanding of basic physical concepts not learned by a majority of students in standard physical courses.

Thornton, Ronald K.

2006-12-07

67

Effects of concept maps and dialogue journals on bilingual students' conceptual understanding in science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of using concept maps or dialogue journals on bilingual students' conceptual understanding in science. Three fourth grade classes, which included 60 students, using the Science and Technology for Children, Plant Growth and Development unit participated in the study. The vocabulary knowledge and conceptual understanding of bilingual and native English students in three treatment groups were compared. The study was conducted over a three month period. The three treatment groups consisted of (1) a control group using only the Science and Technology for Children, Plant Growth and Development unit, (2) the concept map treatment group, and (3) the dialogue journal treatment group. Student achievement was measured using a pretest and a posttest. Significant differences in the pretest and posttest scores were found for all three treatment groups. The concept map treatment group scored significantly higher than the dialogue journal and control groups on the posttest. The use of concept maps was found to be highly effective for both native English and bilingual students.

McFall, Rebecca E.

1999-11-01

68

A Lakatosian Conceptual Change Teaching Strategy Based on Student Ability To Build Models with Varying Degrees of Conceptual Understanding of Chemical Equilibrium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports on a study that constructs a Lakatosian teaching strategy that can facilitate conceptual change in students' understanding of chemical equilibrium. Results indicate that the experimental group performed better on tests. Contains 81 references. (DDR)|

Niaz, Mansoor

1998-01-01

69

Identifying Students' Mental Models of Sound Propagation: The Role of Conceptual Blending in Understanding Conceptual Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated introductory physics students' mental models of sound propagation. We used a phenomenographic method to analyze the data in the study. In addition to the scientifically accepted Wave model, students used the "Entity" model to describe the propagation of sound. In this latter model sound is a self-standing entity, different from the…

Hrepic, Zdeslav; Zollman, Dean A.; Rebello, N. Sanjay

2010-01-01

70

Identifying Students' Mental Models of Sound Propagation: The Role of Conceptual Blending in Understanding Conceptual Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We investigated introductory physics students' mental models of sound propagation. We used a phenomenographic method to analyze the data in the study. In addition to the scientifically accepted Wave model, students used the "Entity" model to describe the propagation of sound. In this latter model sound is a self-standing entity, different from…

Hrepic, Zdeslav; Zollman, Dean A.; Rebello, N. Sanjay

2010-01-01

71

Using Memes and Memetic Processes to Explain Social and Conceptual Influences on Student Understanding about Complex Socio-Scientific Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated seventh grade learners' decision making about genetic engineering concepts and applications. A social network analyses supported by technology tracked changes in student understanding with a focus on social and conceptual influences. Results indicated that several social and conceptual mechanisms potentially affected how…

Yoon, Susan

2008-01-01

72

The Effect of Cooperative Learning Approach Based on Conceptual Change Condition on Students' Understanding of Chemical Equilibrium Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the cooperative learning approach based on conceptual change conditions over traditional instruction on 10th grade students' conceptual understanding and achievement of computational problems related to chemical equilibrium concepts. The subjects of this study consisted of 87 tenth grade…

Bilgin, Ibrahim; Geban, Omer

2006-01-01

73

The Effect of Cooperative Learning Approach Based on Conceptual Change Condition on Students' Understanding of Chemical Equilibrium Concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the cooperative learning approach based on conceptual change conditions\\u000a over traditional instruction on 10th grade students' conceptual understanding and achievement of computational problems related\\u000a to chemical equilibrium concepts. The subjects of this study consisted of 87 tenth grade students from two intact classes\\u000a of a Chemistry Course instructed by

Ibrahim Bilgin; Ömer Geban

2006-01-01

74

An exploratory study into students' conceptual understanding of acid\\/base principles associated with chemical buffer systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall objective of this research project was to provide an insight into students' conceptual understanding of acid\\/base principles as it relates to the comprehension and correct application of scientific concepts during a problem-solving activity. The difficulties experienced learning science and in developing appropriate problem-solving strategies most likely are predetermined by students' existing conceptual and procedural knowledge constructs; with the

Catherine Elizabeth MacGowan

1997-01-01

75

Effects of teaching high school chemistry with dynamic particle models on student achievement and conceptual understanding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the assistance of seven high school chemistry teachers, data related to the effects of teaching chemistry with dynamic particle models was collected in fourteen high school chemistry classes. Complete sets of pretest and achievement scores were obtained from 284 students. Achievement test data for the topics of gas laws and stoichiometry were supplemented with 44 videotaped interviews. The pretest and achievement test data were statistically analyzed using SPSS software. Comparisons for each teacher's classes, as well as comparisons based on the total sample showed no significant differences in average achievement test scores between students instructed with static particle models only and those instructed with both static and dynamic models. Analysis of the interview videos does not show evidence of significant differences, in conceptual understanding between the two groups. These results do not support the original research hypothesis. Two alternative hypotheses were formed. One is that teachers were not able to exploit differences between static and dynamic graphics. The second is that students learn as much from static models as they do from dynamic ones. Follow up interviews conducted with all participating teachers failed to confirm the first alternative hypothesis. Follow up interviews conducted with 8 participating students and a follow up survey administered to more than 200 students who were not in any of the 14 sample classes provided support for the second alternative hypothesis.

Clark, Daniel Robert

76

Analogical Reasoning for Understanding Solution Rates: Students' Conceptual Change and Chemical Explanations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study aims to demonstrate evidence of (a) students' conceptual change on solution rates; (b) students' sub-microscopic explanations of dissolution; and (c) retention of the concepts of solution rates. The sample consists of 44 Grade 9 students (18 boys and 26 girls) drawn purposively from two different classes (22 each) in the city of Trabzon,…

Calik, Muammer; Ayas, Alipasa; Ebenezer, Jazlin V.

2009-01-01

77

Analogical Reasoning for Understanding Solution Rates: Students' Conceptual Change and Chemical Explanations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study aims to demonstrate evidence of (a) students' conceptual change on solution rates; (b) students' sub-microscopic explanations of dissolution; and (c) retention of the concepts of solution rates. The sample consists of 44 Grade 9 students (18 boys and 26 girls) drawn purposively from two different classes (22 each) in the city of…

Calik, Muammer; Ayas, Alipasa; Ebenezer, Jazlin V.

2009-01-01

78

The effect of computer simulations and the learning cycle on students' conceptual understanding of Newton's three laws of motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine how three different methods of instruction would affect a student's conceptual understanding of Sir Isaac Newton's three laws of motion. The three methods were the expository, learning cycle, and computer simulations. Three sections of students enrolled in a suburban mid-western high school's introductory physics course were the subjects of this study. The

Paul Mason Rutherford Jr.

1999-01-01

79

Impacts of Multi-Representational Instruction on High School Students' Conceptual Understandings of the Particulate Nature of Matter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This quasi-experimental study examined 42 high school introductory chemistry students' conceptual understandings of the particulate nature of matter (PNM) before and immediately after instruction. Two groups of students, who were taught by the same teacher, received one of two possible instructional interventions: Reform-Based Teaching (RBT) or…

Adadan, Emine; Irving, Karen E.; Trundle, Kathy C.

2009-01-01

80

The Effectiveness of Peer Teaching on Student Achievement, Conceptual Understanding and Response in a Basic Mechanics Course (A Case Study)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate two different methods of teaching among a small group of students to explore their knowledge, conceptual understanding and response. This is achieved by teaching a Statics course by lectures and tutorials and Dynamics by peer teaching. Three categories of students are identified: females, young males (aged 20 years or less) and mature

Maggie Pollock

81

Comparing and Combining Real and Virtual Experimentation: An Effort to Enhance Students' Conceptual Understanding of Electric Circuits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to investigate value of combining Real Experimentation (RE) with Virtual Experimentation (VE) with respect to changes in students' conceptual understanding of electric circuits. To achieve this, a pre-post comparison study design was used that involved 88 undergraduate students. The participants were randomly…

Zacharia, Z. C.

2007-01-01

82

The Effects of an Interactive Computer-Based Simulation Prior to Performing a Laboratory Inquiry-Based Experiment on Students' Conceptual Understanding of Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigates the effects of interactive computer-based simulations presented prior to inquiry-based laboratory experiments on students' conceptual understanding of mechanics, waves/optics, and thermal physics. Uses conceptual tests to assess conceptual understandings of each topic. Indicates that the use of the simulations improved students'…

Zacharia, Zacharias; Anderson, O. Roger

2003-01-01

83

The Contribution of Conceptual Change Texts Accompanied by Concept Mapping to Eleventh-Grade Students Understanding of Cellular Respiration Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study conducted to investigate the contribution of conceptual change texts, accompanied by concept mapping instruction to eleventh-grade students' understanding of cellular respiration concepts, and their retention of this understanding. Cellular respiration concepts test was developed as a result of examination of related literature…

Al khawaldeh, Salem A.; Al Olaimat, Ali M.

2010-01-01

84

Leveraging Conceptual Frameworks to Improve Students' Mental Organization of Astronomy Understanding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many different types of schematic diagrams are useful in helping students organize and internalize their developing understanding in introductory astronomy courses. These include Venn Diagrams, Flowcharts, Concept Maps, among others, which illustrate the relationships between astronomical objects and dynamic concepts. These conceptual framework diagrams have been incorporated into the NSF-funded ClassAction project. ClassAction is a collection of electronic materials designed to enhance the metacognitive skills of college and university introductory astronomy survey students by promoting interactive engagement and providing rapid feedback in a highly visual setting. The main effort is targeted at creating dynamic think-pair-share questions supported by simulations, animations, and visualizations to be projected in the lecture classroom. The infrastructure allows instructors to recast these questions into alternative forms based on their own pedagogical preferences and feedback from the class. The recourses can be easily selected from a FLASH computer database and are accompanied by outlines, graphics, and numerous simulations which the instructor can use to provide student feedback and, when necessary, remediation. ClassAction materials are publicly available online at URL: http://astro.unl.edu and is funded by NSF Grant #0404988.

Slater, Timothy F.; Lee, K. M.

2006-06-01

85

Understanding Students' Explanations of Biological Phenomena: Conceptual Frameworks or P-Prims?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores two differing perspectives of the nature of students' biological knowledge structures, conceptual frameworks, and phenomenological primitives (p-prims). Indicates that although a more prevalent description of student conceptions could not be discounted, p-prim of need as rationale for change was found to offer useful description of…

Southerland, Sherry A.; Abrams, Eleanor; Cummins, Catherine L.; Anzelmo, Julie

2001-01-01

86

Student Understanding Difficulties Research-based on Conceptual and Numerical Labs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of students come to introductory physics courses with a wrong idea about the way the world works. A set of research-based labs designed to confront these wrong student ideas in a conceptual context would help to asses their performance in the numerical session of the second part of the same physcs lab Results will be shown to measure the efficiency of the this learning technique through the comparison the the result of tye first part of the lab (based on a conceptual perspective) to the result of the second part of the same lab (based on a numerical perspective).

Flores, Sergio

2006-12-01

87

The Impact of Problem-Based Learning on Engineering Students' Beliefs about Physics and Conceptual Understanding of Energy and Momentum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of problem-based learning (PBL) on freshmen engineering students' beliefs about physics and physics learning (referred to as epistemological beliefs) and conceptual understanding of physics. The multiple-choice test of energy and momentum concepts and the Colorado learning attitudes about…

Sahin, Mehmet

2010-01-01

88

The Impact of a Classroom Intervention on Grade 10 Students' Argumentation Skills, Informal Reasoning, and Conceptual Understanding of Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The literature provides confounding information with regard to questions about whether students in high school can engage in meaningful argumentation about socio-scientific issues and whether this process improves their conceptual understanding of science. The purpose of this research was to explore the impact of classroom-based argumentation on…

Venville, Grady J.; Dawson, Vaille M.

2010-01-01

89

The impact of problem-based learning on engineering students’ beliefs about physics and conceptual understanding of energy and momentum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of problem-based learning (PBL) on freshmen engineering students’ beliefs about physics and physics learning (referred to as epistemological beliefs) and conceptual understanding of physics. The multiple-choice test of energy and momentum concepts and the Colorado learning attitudes about science survey were used to collect the data. The sample consisted of

Mehmet Sahin

2010-01-01

90

Effectiveness of Conceptual Change Text-Oriented Instruction on Students' Understanding of Energy in Chemical Reactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of conceptual change text instruction (CCT) in the context of energy in chemical reactions. The subjects of the study were 60, 10th grade students at a high school, who were in two different classes and taught by the same teacher. One of the classes was randomly selected as the experimental…

Tastan, Ozgecan; Yalcinkaya, Eylem; Boz, Yezdan

2008-01-01

91

Effectiveness of Conceptual Change Text-Oriented Instruction on Students' Understanding of Energy in Chemical Reactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of conceptual change text instruction (CCT) in the context of energy in chemical reactions. The subjects of the study were 60, 10th grade students at a high school, who were in two different classes and taught by the same teacher. One of the classes was randomly selected as the experimental…

Tastan, Ozgecan; Yalcinkaya, Eylem; Boz, Yezdan

2008-01-01

92

Impacts of Multi-representational Instruction on High School Students' Conceptual Understandings of the Particulate Nature of Matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This quasi?experimental study examined 42 high school introductory chemistry studentsconceptual understandings of the particulate nature of matter (PNM) before and immediately after instruction. Two groups of students, who were taught by the same teacher, received one of two possible instructional interventions: Reform?Based Teaching (RBT) or Reform?Based Teaching with Multiple Representations (RBTw\\/MR). The RBTw\\/MR instruction differed from the RBT instruction

Emine Adadan; Karen E. Irving; Kathy C. Trundle

2009-01-01

93

First-Year Medical Students' Conceptual Understanding of and Resistance to Conceptual Change Concerning the Central Cardiovascular System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Medical students often have initial understanding concerning medical domains, such as the central cardiovascular system (CCVS), when they enter the study programme. These notions may to some extent be in conflict with scientific understanding, which can be seen as a challenge for medical teaching. Hence, the purpose of this study was to analyse…

Mikkila-Erdmann, Mirjamaija; Sodervik, Ilona; Vilppu, Henna; Kaapa, Pekka; Olkinuora, Erkki

2012-01-01

94

Students' conceptual understanding of quantum physics in college level classroom environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purposes of the current study were to study the potential solutions of the common learning difficulties, insufficient teaching techniques and other significant instructional or conceptual problems encountered while teaching and learning an important branch of physical science, quantum physics (QP), at the senior or junior college year. Both quantitative and qualitative methodologies were utilized in this study. The participants included five physics faculty members with different levels of teaching experience who were teaching one of the quantum physics courses (e.g. Modern Physics, Quantum Physics, and Quantum Mechanics) and 43 senior or junior undergraduate students enrolled in their courses during fall and spring terms of 2006. The findings of this study revealed that students struggle in QP classes mainly because of (1) complex mathematical tools in QP, (2) abstract concepts and non-parallel construction of QP, (3) QP has a bad reputation that negatively affects students prior to taking it, and (4) the pace in curriculum of quantum physics courses is too fast for the students. In order to increase students' conceptualization of QP concepts, the faculty members who participated in this study suggested that: (1) more time on solving more abstract conceptual questions should be spent, (2) recitation hours for solving more numerical problems need to be dedicated, and (3) revision of curriculum is necessary.

Akarsu, Bayram

95

FROM PRACTICE TO RESEARCH: USING PROFESSIONAL EXPERTISE TO INFORM RESEARCH ABOUT ENGINEERING STUDENTS' CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDING  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes how practitioner input was used to inform three research projects that investigate students' understanding of important and difficult engineering concepts. Practitioner input was initially used to formulate lists of engineering concepts in thermal and transport sciences, electric circuits, and engineering mechanics that are important but difficult for undergraduate engineering students to understand. Content experts then used this

Mary A. Nelson; Monica R. Geist; Ruth A. Streveler; Ronald L. Miller; Barbara M. Olds; Candace S. Ammerman; Ravel F. Ammerman

96

Effects of Problem-Based Learning on University Students' Epistemological Beliefs about Physics and Physics Learning and Conceptual Understanding of Newtonian Mechanics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the effects of problem-based learning on students' beliefs about physics and physics learning and conceptual understanding of Newtonian mechanics. The study further examines the relationship between students' beliefs about physics and their conceptual understanding of mechanics concepts. Participants were 124 Turkish…

Sahin, Mehmet

2010-01-01

97

Effects of Problem-Based Learning on University Students' Epistemological Beliefs about Physics and Physics Learning and Conceptual Understanding of Newtonian Mechanics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of problem-based learning on students' beliefs about physics and physics learning and conceptual understanding of Newtonian mechanics. The study further examines the relationship between students' beliefs about physics and their conceptual understanding of mechanics concepts. Participants were 124 Turkish…

Sahin, Mehmet

2010-01-01

98

Effects of Student-Generated Diagrams versus Student-Generated Summaries on Conceptual Understanding of Causal and Dynamic Knowledge in Plate Tectonics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grade five students' (n=58) conceptual understanding of plate tectonics was measured by analysis of student-generated summaries and diagrams, and by posttest assessment of both the spatial/static and causal/dynamic aspects of the domain. The diagram group outperformed the summary and text-only groups on the posttest measures. Discusses the effects…

Gobert, Janice D.; Clement, John J.

1999-01-01

99

Effects of Problem-Based Learning on University Students’ Epistemological Beliefs About Physics and Physics Learning and Conceptual Understanding of Newtonian Mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of problem-based learning on students’ beliefs about physics and physics learning and\\u000a conceptual understanding of Newtonian mechanics. The study further examines the relationship between students’ beliefs about\\u000a physics and their conceptual understanding of mechanics concepts. Participants were 124 Turkish university students (PBL = 55,\\u000a traditional = 69) enrolled in a calculus-based introductory physics class. Students’ beliefs about physics and

Mehmet Sahin

2010-01-01

100

Developing a magnetism conceptual survey and assessing gender differences in student understanding of magnetism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the development of a research-based conceptual multiple-choice survey of magnetism. We also discuss the use of the survey to investigate gender differences in students' difficulties with concepts related to magnetism. We find that while there was no gender difference on the pre-test. However, female students performed significantly worse than male students when the survey was given as a post-test in traditionally taught calculus-based introductory physics courses with similar results in both the regular and honors versions of the course. In the algebra-based courses, the performance of female and male students has no statistical difference on the pre-test or the post-test.

Li, Jing; Singh, Chandralekha

2012-02-01

101

The effect of computer simulations and the learning cycle on students' conceptual understanding of Newton's three laws of motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to determine how three different methods of instruction would affect a student's conceptual understanding of Sir Isaac Newton's three laws of motion. The three methods were the expository, learning cycle, and computer simulations. Three sections of students enrolled in a suburban mid-western high school's introductory physics course were the subjects of this study. The students' conceptual understanding of Newton's three laws of motion were assessed prior to and after instructional treatment with concept mapping. All concept maps were scored by the teacher and a colleague well-practiced in the use of concept maps. The inter-rater reliability coefficients ranged from 0.23 to 0.61. After instruction, a 2-tier multiple-choice instrument was used to determine if any gains had been achieved in students' conceptual understanding as well as to identify any remaining misconceptions. All gain scores in concept mapping assessment categories were analyzed using one-way ANOVAs. ANOVAs were also run on all 12 individual items on the 2-tier test as well as overall student total scores, No significant differences were found between any of the groups. The split-half reliability of the two-tier instrument was 0.59. Difficulty indices ranged from 0.12 to 0.56, and discrimination indices ranged from 0.11 to 0.61. Each item was analyzed to determine student understanding of, and identifying misconceptions about the nature of forces as they pertain to Newton's laws of motion. Analysis of concept mapping results and 2-tier items, clearly indicated that most of the students in all groups still adhere to the common misconception that motion implies that a force must be present in order to maintain an object's state of motion or conversely that no motion implies that there are no forces acting on the object.

Rutherford, Paul Mason, Jr.

102

The effect of using a structured reading framework on middle school students' conceptual understanding within the Science Writing Heuristic approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was designed to investigate the impact of using a Structured Reading Framework within the Science Writing Heuristic approach on a summary writing task, and how this framework is related to the development of students' conceptual understanding in the summary writing task. A quasi-experimental design with sixth and seventh grade students taught by two teachers in the middle school was used. Each teacher had four classes with two classes using the Structured Reading Framework (treatment) and the other two classes used the original reading framework (control). A total of 170 students participated in the study, with 83 in the control group (four classes) and 87 in the treatment group (four classes). All students used the SWH student templates to guide their written work and completed these templates during the SWH investigations of each unit. After completing the SWH investigations, both groups of students were asked to complete the summary writing task at the end of each unit. This process was replicated for each of the two units. All student writing samples collected were scored using an analytical framework and scoring matrices developed for the study. A total of 588 writing samples were included in the statistical analysis. Results indicated that the treatment group who used the Structured Reading Framework performed significantly better on the Summary Writing task than the control group. The results suggest that the using of the Structured Reading Framework in prompting and guiding the reading activities within the SWH approach have an impact on the development of conceptual understanding. In addition, it appears that the Structured Reading Framework impacted the development of conceptual understanding in the Summary Writing task by providing a scaffold to assist students' knowledge construction.

Jang, Jeong Yoon

103

Urban High School Students' Critical Science Agency: Conceptual Understandings and Environmental Actions around Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigates how the enactment of a climate change curriculum supports students' development of critical science agency, which includes students developing deep understandings of science concepts and the ability to take action at the individual and community levels. We examined the impact of a four to six week urban ecology curriculum…

McNeill, Katherine L.; Vaughn, Meredith Houle

2012-01-01

104

Promoting Conceptual Understanding of Chemical Representations: Students' Use of a Visualization Tool in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated how students develop their understanding of chemical representations with the aid of a visualizing tool, eChem, that allows them to build molecular models and simultaneously view multiple representations. Multiple sources of data were collected with the participation of high school students (n=71) over a six-week period.…

Wu, Hsin-kai; Krajcik, Joseph S.; Soloway, Elliot

105

Arguments, Contradictions, Resistances, and Conceptual Change in Students' Understanding of Atomic Structure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports on a study aimed at facilitating freshman general chemistry students' understanding of atomic structure based on the work of Thomson, Rutherford, and Bohr. Hypothesizes that classroom discussions based on arguments/counterarguments of the heuristic principles on which these scientists based their atomic models can facilitate students'…

Niaz, Mansoor; Aguilera, Damarys; Maza, Arelys; Liendo, Gustavo

2002-01-01

106

Conceptual Understandings of Seasonal Change by Middle School Students with Visual Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to understand and describe the misconceptions of students with visual impairments about seasonal change. Students who participated in traditional instruction exhibited alternative conceptions before and after instruction, whereas those who participated in inquiry-based instruction had alternative conceptions before…

Wild, Tiffany A.; Trundle, Kathy Cabe

2010-01-01

107

Comparison of the Effects of Conceptual Change Texts Implemented after and before Instruction on Secondary School Students' Understanding of Acid-Base Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined whether the application of conceptual change texts are effective before or after the instruction on 10th grade students' conceptual understanding and alternative conceptions about acids and bases. The study was conducted with 76 10th grade students from three classes of a chemistry course taught by the same teacher. One of the…

Demircioglu, Gokhan

2009-01-01

108

A cross-age study of students' conceptual understanding of interdependency in seed dispersal, pollination, and food chains using a constructivist theoretical framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to investigate students' understanding of interdependency across grade levels. Interdependency concepts selected for this study included food chains, pollination, and seed dispersal. Children's everyday concepts and scientific concepts across grade levels represented the focus of conceptual understanding. The researcher interviewed a total of 24 students across grade levels, six students each from grades 3,

Shirley Mccraw Smith

2003-01-01

109

Blending Physical and Virtual Manipulatives: An Effort to Improve Students' Conceptual Understanding through Science Laboratory Experimentation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study aimed to investigate the effect of experimenting with physical manipulatives (PM), virtual manipulatives (VM), and a blended combination of PM and VM on undergraduate students' understanding of concepts in the domain of "Light and Color." A pre-post comparison study design was used for the purposes of this study that involved 70…

Olympiou, Georgios; Zacharia, Zacharias C.

2012-01-01

110

Arguments, contradictions, resistances, and conceptual change in students' understanding of atomic structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most general chemistry courses and textbooks emphasize experimental details and lack a history and philosophy of science perspective. The objective of this study is to facilitate freshman general chemistry students' understanding of atomic structure based on the work of Thomson, Rutherford, and Bohr. It is hypothesized that classroom discussions based on arguments\\/counterarguments of the heuristic principles, on which these scientists

Mansoor Niaz; Damarys Aguilera; Arelys Maza; Gustavo Liendo

2002-01-01

111

Can an egg-dropping race enhance students' conceptual understanding of air resistance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children are familiar with situations in which air resistance plays an important role, such as parachuting. However, it is not known whether they have any understanding about the concept of air resistance, how air resistance affects falling objects, and the differential effect it has on different objects. The literature reveals that there are misconceptions even among undergraduate physics students about

Yeung Chung Lee; Ping Wai Kwok

2009-01-01

112

Can an egg-dropping race enhance studentsconceptual understanding of air resistance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children are familiar with situations in which air resistance plays an important role, such as parachuting. However, it is not known whether they have any understanding about the concept of air resistance, how air resistance affects falling objects, and the differential effect it has on different objects. The literature reveals that there are misconceptions even among undergraduate physics students about

Yeung Chung Lee; Ping Wai Kwok

2009-01-01

113

Studentsconceptual understanding of a function and its derivative in an experimental calculus course  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calculus has been witnessing fundamental changes in its curriculum, with an increased emphasis on visualization. This mode for representing mathematical concepts is gaining more strength due to the advances in computer technology and the development of dynamical mathematical software. This paper focuses on the understanding of the function and its derivative as viewed by students of a reformed Calculus 1

Samer Habre; May Abboud

2006-01-01

114

Representational Classroom Practices that Contribute to Students' Conceptual and Representational Understanding of Chemical Bonding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Understanding bonding is fundamental to success in chemistry. A number of alternative conceptions related to chemical bonding have been reported in the literature. Research suggests that many alternative conceptions held by chemistry students result from previous teaching; if teachers are explicit in the use of representations and explain their…

Hilton, Annette; Nichols, Kim

2011-01-01

115

Representational Classroom Practices that Contribute to Students' Conceptual and Representational Understanding of Chemical Bonding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding bonding is fundamental to success in chemistry. A number of alternative conceptions related to chemical bonding have been reported in the literature. Research suggests that many alternative conceptions held by chemistry students result from previous teaching; if teachers are explicit in the use of representations and explain their content?specific forms and functions, this might be avoided. The development of

Annette Hilton; Kim Nichols

2011-01-01

116

Effects of Problem-Based Learning on University Students' Epistemological Beliefs About Physics and Physics Learning and Conceptual Understanding of Newtonian Mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the effects of problem-based learning on students' beliefs about physics and physics learning and conceptual understanding of Newtonian mechanics. The study further examines the relationship between students' beliefs about physics and their conceptual understanding of mechanics concepts. Participants were 124 Turkish university students (PBL = 55, traditional = 69) enrolled in a calculus-based introductory physics class. Students' beliefs about physics and physics learning and their physics conceptual understanding were measured with the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) and the Force Concept Inventory (FCI), respectively. Repeated measures analysis of variance of how PBL influence beliefs and conceptual understanding were performed. The PBL group showed significantly higher conceptual learning gains in FCI than the traditional group. PBL approach showed no influence on students' beliefs about physics; both groups displayed similar beliefs. A significant positive correlation was found between beliefs and conceptual understanding. Students with more expert-like beliefs at the beginning of the semester were more likely to obtain higher conceptual understanding scores at the end of the semester. Suggestions are presented regarding the implementation of the PBL approach.

Sahin, Mehmet

2010-06-01

117

Evolution in action in the classroom: Engaging students in scientific practices to develop a conceptual understanding of natural selection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Public understanding and acceptance of the theory of evolution in the United States is not commensurate with its acceptance in the scientific community and its role as the central organizing principle of the biological sciences. There are a multitude of factors that affect student understanding of the theory of evolution documented in the literature including the proposition that understanding of evolution is intimately linked to understanding the nature of science. This study describes the development, implementation, and assessment of learning activities that address the process of natural selection and the scientific methodology that illuminates these mechanisms. While pre and post-test scores were higher for students in an Advanced Placement Biology course than students in a general biology course, similar learning gains were observed in both groups. Learning gains were documented in understanding the random nature of mutations and their importance to the process of natural selection, explaining selection as a competitive advantage of one variation over another type and specifically linking this to reproductive success, and in connecting inheritance, variation, and selection to explain the process of natural selection. Acceptance of the scientific validity of the theory of evolution as measured by the Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE) Instrument also increased significantly in both groups over the course of the school year. These findings suggest that the sequence of activities implemented in this study promote conceptual change about the nature of science and the process of evolution by natural selection in students.

Johnson, Wendy Renae

118

An analysis of the nature of students' metaconceptual processes and the effectiveness of metaconceptual teaching practices on students' conceptual understanding of force and motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study had three aims: (1) to investigate the effectiveness of facilitating students' metaconceptual processes, (2) to examine the durability of the impact of metaconceptual teaching on students' conceptual understanding of force and motion, and (3) to gain insight into the nature of metaconceptual processes as the students participated in the metaconceptual teaching activities. In examining the nature of students' metaconceptual processes, the purpose was to tease apart and categorize the types of metaconceptual processes, portray the trends within each type of metaconceptual process and describe the characteristics and the content of the metaconceptual processes related to students' ideas that changed throughout the metaconceptual teaching interventions. A multi-method research design that incorporated experimental and case study designs was employed. While the experimental group was exposed to metaconceptual teaching interventions, in the control group the same science content was taught by tradition instruction. The research was conducted in the two classrooms of a physics teacher. Participants of this study who were enrolled in one of the two physics classes involved 45 grade eleven and grade twelve high school students. In order to study the nature of students' metaconceptual processes, three students from the experimental group were selected based on their background in physics and their pre-instructional conceptual understanding of force and motion. While data of three students were used to describe the characteristics and trends within each type of metaconceptual process, data of two students were used for an in-depth analysis of their metaconceptual processes about their ideas of force and one-dimensional motion. Data from a variety of sources were collected to assess students' conceptual understanding of force and motion and their metaconceptual processes. In order to assess students' conceptual understanding of force and motion, Force Concept Inventory (FCI) was administered to both groups prior to, following, and nine weeks after the instructional interventions. Force and motion ideas of students who were the focus of the intensive case studies were identified by conducting one-to-one semi-structured interviews prior to and following the instructional interventions. The data regarding students' metaconceptual processes were derived from students' journals, audio-recordings of group-based activities, video-recordings of classroom discussions, and interviews conducted following the instructional interventions. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Yuruk, Nejla

119

Conceptual Understanding of Causal Reasoning in Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|College students often experience difficulties in solving physics problems. These difficulties largely result from a lack of conceptual understanding of the topic. The processes of conceptual learning reflect the nature of the causal reasoning process. Two major causal reasoning methods are the covariational and the mechanism-based approaches.…

Hung, Woei; Jonassen, David H.

2006-01-01

120

Conceptual Understanding of Causal Reasoning in Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College students often experience difficulties in solving physics problems. These difficulties largely result from a lack of conceptual understanding of the topic. The processes of conceptual learning reflect the nature of the causal reasoning process. Two major causal reasoning methods are the covariational and the mechanism-based approaches.…

Hung, Woei; Jonassen, David H.

2006-01-01

121

An exploratory study into students' conceptual understanding of acid/base principles associated with chemical buffer systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall objective of this research project was to provide an insight into students' conceptual understanding of acid/base principles as it relates to the comprehension and correct application of scientific concepts during a problem-solving activity. The difficulties experienced learning science and in developing appropriate problem-solving strategies most likely are predetermined by students' existing conceptual and procedural knowledge constructs; with the assimilation of newly acquired knowledge hindering or aiding the learning process. Learning chemistry requires a restructuring of content knowledge which will allow the individual to assemble and to integrate his/her own perception of science with instructional knowledge. The epistemology of constructivism, the theoretical grounding for this research project, recognizes the student's role as an active participant in the learning process. The study's design was exploratory in nature and descriptive in design. The problem-solving activity, the preparation of a chemical buffer solution at pH of 9, was selected and modified to reflect and meet the study's objective. Qualitative research methods (i.e., think aloud protocols, retrospective interviews, survey questionnaires such as the Scale of Intellectual Development (SID), and archival data sources) were used in the collection and assessment of data. Given its constructivist grounding, simplicity, and interpretative view of knowledge acquisition and learning of collegiate aged individuals, the Perry Intellectual and Ethical Development Model (1970) was chosen as the applied model for evaluation student cognition. The study's participants were twelve traditional college age students from a small, private liberal arts college. All participants volunteered for the project and had completed or were completing a general college chemistry course at the time of the project. Upon analysis of the data the following observations and results were noted: (1) students' overall comprehension level of key acid/base principles was at the misconception/miscued level of understanding; (2) the level of a student's conceptual knowledge effected their problem-solving performance and influenced their use of problem-solving tactics; (3) students casual use of the terms "acid" and/or "base" played a significant role in the misuse and misunderstanding of the principles of acid/base chemistry; (4) as assessed from their think aloud protocols and described by the Perry Scheme positions of intellect the study's participants' overall level of cognition were ranked as dualistic/relativistic thinkers; and (5) the SID questionnaire survey rankings did not seem to assess or reflect the participants' cognitive ability to learn or correctly use acid/base concepts as they preformed the study's problem-solving activity--the preparation of buffer solution having a pH of 9.

MacGowan, Catherine Elizabeth

122

Students' Communicative Resources in Relation to Their Conceptual Understanding--The Role of Non-Conventionalized Expressions in Making Sense of Visualizations of Protein Function  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines how students explain their conceptual understanding of protein function using visualizations. Thirteen upper secondary students, four tertiary students (studying chemical biology), and two experts were interviewed in semi-structured interviews. The interviews were structured around 2D illustrations of proteins and an animated…

Rundgren, Carl-Johan; Hirsch, Richard; Chang Rundgren, Shu-Nu; Tibell, Lena A. E.

2012-01-01

123

Analysis of Physical Science Textbooks for Conceptual Frameworks on Acids, Bases and Neutralization: Implications for Students' Conceptual Understanding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eight physical science textbooks were analyzed for coverage on acids, bases, and neutralization. At the level of the text, clarity and coherence of statements were investigated. The conceptual framework for this topic was represented in a concept map which was used as a coding tool for tracing concepts and links present in textbooks. Cognitive…

Erduran, Sibel

124

A Study of General Education Astronomy Students' Understandings of Cosmology. Part I. Development and Validation of Four Conceptual Cosmology Surveys  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is the first in a series of five articles describing a national study of general education astronomy students' conceptual and reasoning difficulties with cosmology. In this paper, we describe the process by which we designed four new surveys to assess general education astronomy students' conceptual cosmology knowledge. These surveys focused…

Wallace, Colin S.; Prather, Edward E.; Duncan, Douglas K.

2011-01-01

125

The effects of a conceptual change coupled-inquiry cycle investigation on student understanding of the independence of mass in rolling motion on an incline plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Conceptual Change Coupled-Inquiry Cycle is designed to incorporate learning cycle, inquiry, and conceptual change instructional models. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the Conceptual Change Coupled-Inquiry Cycle on first-year, high school students' misconceptions of Newton's Laws and incline motion. This study was a mixed-method, quasi-experimental study with both quantitative and qualitative data analyses. Student notebook and test data were collected and analyzed in this study. Quantitative and qualitative analytical methods were utilized in the analysis of these data. A Stuart-Maxwell chi-square was used to assess the quantitative significance of changes in student conceptual understanding of incline motion at each phase of the Conceptual Change Coupled-Inquiry Cycle. Qualitative analysis of the notebooks provided important support of the quantitative findings. Results indicate that students report a better understanding of incline motion and Newton's Laws as a result of completing a Conceptual Change Coupled-Inquiry Cycle investigation. Furthermore, quantitative analysis of the notebooks, using the Stuart-Maxwell chi-square test, indicate significant increases in student understanding of Newton's Laws and incline motion, at the alpha = 0.05 level. Analysis of student test data was largely inconclusive. This study indicates the Conceptual Change Coupled-Inquiry Cycle helps students better understand incline motion and Newton's Laws. Significant decreases in the number of students reporting misconceptions about incline motion were evident. Evidence suggests the Conceptual Change Coupled-Inquiry Cycle is an effective learning cycle and that it can improve student understanding of science concepts.

Rowley, Eric Noel

126

Longer term impacts of transformed courses on student conceptual understanding of E&M  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We have measured upper-division physics majors' performance using two research-based conceptual instruments in E&M, the BEMA and the CUE (Colorado Upper Division Electrostatics assessment.) The BEMA has been given pre/post in freshman E&M (Physics II) courses, and the BEMA and CUE have been given pre/post in several upper-division E&M courses. Some of these data extend over 10 semesters. We used PER-based techniques to transform the introductory and upper-division courses starting in Fall 2004 and 2007, respectively. Our longitudinal data allow us to measure "fade" on BEMA performance between freshman and junior year. We investigate the effects of curricula on students by comparing juniors who were enrolled in traditional vs. transformed physics as freshmen, as well as those who were enrolled in traditional or transformed upper-division E&M I, using both BEMA and CUE measures. We find that while freshman reforms significantly impact BEMA scores, junior-level reforms affect CUE but not BEMA outcomes.

Pollock, Steven J.; Chasteen, Stephanie V.

2010-01-19

127

Development of a research-based learning progression for middle school through undergraduate students' conceptual understanding of size and scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Size and scale are crosscutting ideas integral to scientific understanding. However, research shows that students have little understanding of the size of objects, particularly objects too small to see with the unaided eye. Using a cross-sectional study with 101 middle-school through undergraduate students, a teaching experiment with 24 middle school students, and a theoretical task analysis, I built a learning progression for one-dimensional size and scale that focused on four aspects: ordering by size, grouping by size, relative scale (how many times bigger one object is than another), and absolute size. Over 90% of students develop their conceptual understanding of size and scale by connecting the aspects of size and scale in a specific order. Learners first connect the two qualitative aspects: ordering and grouping. They next connect ordering and relative scale, and then connect ordering and absolute size. Learners connect the two quantitative aspects, relative scale and absolute size, last. A major assumption underlying the learning progression theory is that they can be used to design learning materials that will advance student understanding. To provide empirical support for this idea, a teaching experiment was conducted to determine if students could advance in the manner suggested by the learning progression. The teaching experiment resulted in statistically and educationally significant learning gains. It showed that students increase the accuracy of their factual knowledge in tandem with their increased connectedness of knowledge, by establishing landmark objects that help them construct a mental measurement line. Measurement units including micrometers and nanometers were shown to be powerful tools for student learning about the unseen world. The task analyses revealed a variety of strategies that learners can use in addressing size and scale tasks. Types of strategies include using recall, using a single aspect, and employing the connection across aspects. Required logical and mathematical skills that precede proportional reasoning were also identified. This dissertation provides a model of how to develop a learning progression for a core idea, and showed that a learning progression can inform the design of curriculum materials that can move students to more advanced levels on the learning progression.

Delgado, Cesar

128

Enhancing Students' Conceptual Understanding by Engaging Science Text with Reflective Writing as a Hermeneutical Circle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students can have great difficulty reading scientific texts and trying to cope with the professor in the classroom. Part of the reason for students' difficulties is that for a student taking a science gateway course the language, ontology and epistemology of science are akin to a foreign culture. There is thus an analogy between such a student and an anthropologist

Calvin S. Kalman

2011-01-01

129

Enhancing Students' Conceptual Understanding by Engaging Science Text with Reflective Writing as a Hermeneutical Circle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students can have great difficulty reading scientific texts and trying to cope with the professor in the classroom. Part of the reason for students' difficulties is that for a student taking a science gateway course the language, ontology and epistemology of science are akin to a foreign culture. There is thus an analogy between such a student

Kalman, Calvin S.

2011-01-01

130

The Impact of Peer Instruction on College Students' Beliefs about Physics and Conceptual Understanding of Electricity and Magnetism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to assess students' conceptual learning of electricity and magnetism and examine how these conceptions, beliefs about physics, and quantitative problem-solving skills would change after peer instruction (PI). The Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism (CSEM), Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey…

Gok, Tolga

2012-01-01

131

The Impact of Peer Instruction on College Students' Beliefs about Physics and Conceptual Understanding of Electricity and Magnetism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study is to assess students' conceptual learning of electricity and magnetism and examine how these conceptions, beliefs about physics, and quantitative problem-solving skills would change after peer instruction (PI). The Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism (CSEM), Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey…

Gok, Tolga

2012-01-01

132

Students' Communicative Resources in Relation to Their Conceptual Understanding—The Role of Non-Conventionalized Expressions in Making Sense of Visualizations of Protein Function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines how students explain their conceptual understanding of protein function using visualizations. Thirteen upper secondary students, four tertiary students (studying chemical biology), and two experts were interviewed in semi-structured interviews. The interviews were structured around 2D illustrations of proteins and an animated representation of water transport through a channel in the cell membrane. In the analysis of the transcripts, a score, based on the SOLO-taxonomy, was given to each student to indicate the conceptual depth achieved in their explanations. The use of scientific terms and non-conventionalized expressions in the students' explanations were investigated based upon a semiotic approach. The results indicated that there was a positive relationship between use of scientific terms and level of education. However, there was no correlation between students' use of scientific terms and conceptual depth. In the interviews, we found that non-conventionalized expressions were used by several participants to express conceptual understanding and played a role in making sense of the visualizations of protein function. Interestingly, also the experts made use of non-conventionalized expressions. The results of our study imply that more attention should be drawn to students' use of scientific and non-conventionalized terms in relation to their conceptual understanding.

Rundgren, Carl-Johan; Hirsch, Richard; Chang Rundgren, Shu-Nu; Tibell, Lena A. E.

2012-10-01

133

Comparing the influence of physical and virtual manipulatives in the context of the Physics by Inquiry curriculum: The case of undergraduate students' conceptual understanding of heat and temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare the effect of experimenting with physical or virtual manipulatives on undergraduate students' conceptual understanding of heat and temperature. A pre-post comparison study design was used to replicate all aspects of a guided inquiry classroom except the mode in which students performed their experiments. This study is the first on physical and virtual manipulative experimentation in physics in which

Zacharias C. Zacharia; Constantinos P. Constantinou

2008-01-01

134

Enhancing StudentsConceptual Understanding by Engaging Science Text with Reflective Writing as a Hermeneutical Circle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students can have great difficulty reading scientific texts and trying to cope with the professor in the classroom. Part of\\u000a the reason for students’ difficulties is that for a student taking a science gateway course the language, ontology and epistemology\\u000a of science are akin to a foreign culture. There is thus an analogy between such a student and an anthropologist

Calvin S. Kalman

2011-01-01

135

Explaining Newton's Laws of Motion: Using Student Reasoning through Representations to Develop Conceptual Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of students' reasoning and argumentation skills in school science is currently attracting strong research interest. In this paper we report on a study where we aimed to investigate student learning on the topic of motion when students, guided by their teacher, responded to a sequence of representational challenges in which their…

Waldrip, Bruce; Prain, Vaughan; Sellings, Peter

2013-01-01

136

Explaining Newton's Laws of Motion: Using Student Reasoning through Representations to Develop Conceptual Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The development of students' reasoning and argumentation skills in school science is currently attracting strong research interest. In this paper we report on a study where we aimed to investigate student learning on the topic of motion when students, guided by their teacher, responded to a sequence of representational challenges in which their…

Waldrip, Bruce; Prain, Vaughan; Sellings, Peter

2013-01-01

137

An Empirical Framework for Understanding How Teachers Conceptualize and Cultivate Historical Empathy in Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reports the results of a case study of four teachers' beliefs about the nature of historical empathy and their means of cultivating such empathy in secondary school classrooms. The results of multiple interviews and lesson observations of history teachers in England suggest that teachers conceptualize empathy in bounded but not…

Cunningham, Deborah L.

2009-01-01

138

Upper Secondary Students' Understanding of the Use of Multiple Models in Biology Textbooks—The Importance of Conceptual Variation and Incommensurability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we investigate students' ability to discern conceptual variation and the use of multiple models in genetics when reading content-specific excerpts from biology textbooks. Using the history and philosophy of science as our reference, we were able to develop a research instrument allowing students themselves to investigate the occurrence of multiple models and conceptual variation in Swedish upper secondary textbooks. Two excerpts using different models of gene function were selected from authentic textbooks. Students were given the same questionnaire-instrument after reading the two texts, and the results were compared. In this way the students themselves made a classification of the texts which could then be compared with the researchers' classification of the texts. Forty-one upper secondary students aged 18-19 participated in the study. Nine of the students also participated in semi-structured interviews. Students recognized the existence of multiple models in a general way, but had difficulty discerning the different models and the conceptual variation that occurs between them in the texts. Further they did not recognize the occurrence of incommensurability between multiple models. Students had difficulty in transforming their general knowledge of multiple models into an understanding of content specific models of gene function in the textbooks. These findings may have implications for students' understanding of conceptual knowledge because research has established textbooks as one of the most influential aspects in the planning and execution of biology lessons, and teachers commonly assign reading passages to their students without further explanation.

Gericke, Niklas; Hagberg, Mariana; Jorde, Doris

2013-04-01

139

The Impact of the History of Physics on Student Attitude and Conceptual Understanding of Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to investigate student learning of Newtonian Mechanics through the study of its history and the development of the relevant ideas since the time of ancient Greece. The hypothesis is that not only will students learn the basic concepts of mechanics, but also will develop a more positive attitude and appreciation for physics. To assess

Sarah Garcia; April Hankins; Homeyra Sadaghiani

2010-01-01

140

Conceptual Understanding of Shape and Space by Braille-Reading Norwegian Students in Elementary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: The study presented here investigated the ways in which students who read braille were able to complete geometric tasks and how they constructed mental representations of the shapes of objects. Methods: Data were collected in an educational experiment conducted as a geometry course for students who read braille. A case study approach…

Klingenberg, Oliv G.

2012-01-01

141

Exploring the influence of the mass media on primary studentsconceptual understanding of genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new Australian Curriculum ignites debate about science content appropriate for primary school children. Abstract genetics concepts such as genes and DNA are still being avoided in primary school, yet research has shown that, by age 10, many students have heard of DNA and\\/or genes. Scientific concepts appear in the mass media, but primary students’ exposure to the media and

Jenny Donovan; Grady Venville

2012-01-01

142

Using a Computer Animation To Improve Students' Conceptual Understanding of a Can-Crushing Demonstration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents several student responses to viewing a can-crushing demonstration in which a soda can containing a small amount of water was heated on a hot-plate to boil the water, removed from the heat, and sealed by inverting over a container of cold water. Students were given a quiz, made predictions, and explained what happened on a molecular…

Sanger, Michael J.; Phelps, Amy J.; Fienhold, Jason

2000-01-01

143

Editor's Note: Conceptual Understanding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weather. Doesn't that sound like an easy topic to teach and learn? Children experience it without effort and without even thinking about it. But, that's part of the problem. We need to take every opportunity to create circumstances for students to recogni

Froschauer, Linda

2010-04-01

144

Examining the Relationship between Students' Understanding of the Nature of Models and Conceptual Learning in Biology, Physics, and Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This research addresses high school students' understandings of the nature of models, and their interaction with model-based software in three science domains, namely, biology, physics, and chemistry. Data from 736 high school students' understandings of models were collected using the Students' Understanding of Models in Science (SUMS) survey as…

Gobert, Janice D.; O'Dwyer, Laura; Horwitz, Paul; Buckley, Barbara C.; Levy, Sharona Tal; Wilensky, Uri

2011-01-01

145

Understanding Conservation of Laws in Mechanics: Students' Conceptual Change in Learning about Collisions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews research on student learning about collisions in physics instruction. Focus is placed on the main differences between the spontaneous perspective in describing/interpreting collisions and the disciplinary perspective based upon the energy and linear momentum conservation laws. (PR)|

Grimellini-Tomasini, N.; And Others

1993-01-01

146

Students’ Communicative Resources in Relation to Their Conceptual Understanding—The Role of Non-Conventionalized Expressions in Making Sense of Visualizations of Protein Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines how students explain their conceptual understanding of protein function using visualizations. Thirteen\\u000a upper secondary students, four tertiary students (studying chemical biology), and two experts were interviewed in semi-structured\\u000a interviews. The interviews were structured around 2D illustrations of proteins and an animated representation of water transport\\u000a through a channel in the cell membrane. In the analysis of the

Carl-Johan Rundgren; Richard Hirsch; Shu-Nu Chang Rundgren; Lena A. E. Tibell

147

Fundamental Computer Science Conceptual Understandings for High School Students Using Original Computer Game Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2009, the North Carolina Virtual Public Schools worked with researchers at the William and Ida Friday Institute to produce and evaluate the use of game creation by secondary students as a means for learning content related to career awareness in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines, with particular emphasis in…

Ernst, Jeremy V.; Clark, Aaron C.

2012-01-01

148

Effectiveness of a Conceptual Change-Oriented Teaching Strategy to Improve Students' Understanding of Galvanic Cells  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results of previous educational research raise some questions about the efficacy of conventional teaching strategies and point to a need for using teaching strategies that explicitly take into account misconceptions students bring to the classes or acquire during the teaching-learning process. Accordingly, this article presents efforts to…

Ozkaya, Ali Riza; Uce, Musa; Saricayir, Hakan; Sahin, Musa

2006-01-01

149

Student Use of Scaffolding Software: Relationships with Motivation and Conceptual Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study was designed to theoretically articulate and empirically assess the role of computer scaffolds. In this project, several examples of educational software were developed to scaffold the learning of students performing high level cognitive activities. The software used in this study, Artemis, focused on scaffolding the learning of…

Butler, Kyle A.; Lumpe, Andrew

2008-01-01

150

Growing Pebbles and Conceptual Prisms - Understanding the Source of Student Misconceptions about Rock Formation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Analyzes narrative essays--stories of rock formation--written by pre-service elementary school teachers. Reports startling misconceptions among preservice teachers on pebbles that grow, human involvement in rock formation, and sedimentary rocks forming as puddles as dry up, even though these students had completed a college level course on Earth…

Kusnick, Judi

2002-01-01

151

Using Students' Representations Constructed during Problem Solving to Infer Conceptual Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The differences in the types of representations constructed during successful and unsuccessful problem-solving episodes were investigated within the context of graduate students working on problems that involve concepts from 2D-NMR. Success at problem solving was established by having the participants solve five problems relating to material just…

Domin, Daniel; Bodner, George

2012-01-01

152

Promoting Students' Conceptual Understanding of Plant Defense Responses Using the Fighting Plant Learning Unit (FPLU)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Most students think animals are more interesting than plants as a study topic believing that plants are inferior to animals because they are passive and unable to respond to external challenges, particularly biological invaders such as microorganisms and insect herbivores. The purpose of this study was to develop an inquiry-based learning unit,…

Nantawanit, Nantawan; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Ruenwongsa, Pintip

2012-01-01

153

Exploring the Influence of the Mass Media on Primary Students' Conceptual Understanding of Genetics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The new Australian Curriculum ignites debate about science content appropriate for primary school children. Abstract genetics concepts such as genes and DNA are still being avoided in primary school, yet research has shown that, by age 10, many students have heard of DNA and/or genes. Scientific concepts appear in the mass media, but primary…

Donovan, Jenny; Venville, Grady

2012-01-01

154

Facilitating students' conceptual understanding of boiling using a four-step constructivist teaching method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the work presented here was to devise an activity associated with factors affecting boiling points. The intervention used a four?step constructivist?based teaching strategy, which was subsequently evaluated by a cohort of students. Data collection consisted of application of a purpose designed questionnaire consisting of four open?ended questions administered to 48 pre?service science teachers enrolled in the science

Muammer Çalik

2008-01-01

155

Teaching Mathematical Trade Topics for Conceptual Understanding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is intended to assist trade and industrial education teachers in teaching mathematical trade topics in a way that will increase students' conceptual understanding of them. The first chapter provides an overview of the book's contents and suggests ways of using it. The next five chapters address the following aspects of using principles…

Larkin, Alan; Phillips, Keith

156

Can an Egg-Dropping Race Enhance Students' Conceptual Understanding of Air Resistance?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children are familiar with situations in which air resistance plays an important role, such as parachuting. However, it is not known whether they have any understanding about the concept of air resistance, how air resistance affects falling objects, and the differential effect it has on different objects. The literature reveals that there are…

Lee, Yeung Chung; Kwok, Ping Wai

2009-01-01

157

Exploring Middle School Students' Understanding of Three Conceptual Models in Genetics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Genetics is the cornerstone of modern biology and a critical aspect of scientific literacy. Research has shown, however, that many high school graduates lack fundamental understandings in genetics necessary to make informed decisions about issues and emerging technologies in this domain, such as genetic screening, genetically modified foods, etc.…

Freidenreich, Hava Bresler; Duncan, Ravit Golan; Shea, Nicole

2011-01-01

158

Investigation of Conceptual Understanding in Optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we are going to present a detailed study of conceptual understanding in optics amongst university graduate students. This study was made during a workshop on ``Active learning in optics and photonics'' organized at physics department, Karachi University. Our tool of investigation was the questions based on the ALOP manual's light and optics conceptual evaluation. The detailed analysis of answers reveals that our students lack in applying simple concepts of reflection and refraction to real situation. Also, they posses some wrong ideas impinged in their minds due to poor teaching/learning methods in schools.

Hasnain, Aziz Fatima; Islam, Jabeen

2010-07-01

159

Effect of Animation Enhanced Conceptual Change Texts on 6th Grade Students' Understanding of the Particulate Nature of Matter and Transformation During Phase Changes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, the effect of animation enhanced conceptual change texts (CCT-CA) on grade 6 students' understanding of the particulate nature of matter (PNM) and transformation during the phase changes was investigated. A quasi-experimental design and one control group (CG, N = 25) and one experimental group (EG, N = 26) were used. While the…

Ozmen, Haluk

2011-01-01

160

Examining the Relationship Between Students' Understanding of the Nature of Models and Conceptual Learning in Biology, Physics, and Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research addresses high school studentsunderstandings of the nature of models, and their interaction with model?based software in three science domains, namely, biology, physics, and chemistry. Data from 736 high school studentsunderstandings of models were collected using the StudentsUnderstanding of Models in Science (SUMS) survey as part of a large?scale, longitudinal study in the context of technology?based

Janice D. Gobert; Laura O’Dwyer; Paul Horwitz; Barbara C. Buckley; Sharona Tal Levy; Uri Wilensky

2011-01-01

161

Using the science writing heuristic approach as a tool for assessing and promoting students' conceptual understanding and perceptions in the general chemistry laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis reports on a study that examined the impact of implementing SWH (inquiry-based approach) in a general chemistry lab on non-science-major students' understanding of chemistry concepts and students' perceptions toward writing in science and implementing SWH. This study was conducted in a large university in the Midwest of the United States in a college freshman chemistry laboratory for non-science-major students. The research framework is presented including the following: the qualitative research design with the observation as data collection method for this design and the criteria for teacher level of implementation and the ranking mechanism; and the quantitative research design with data collection and analysis methods including pre- and post-conceptual exams, lecture question, open-ended surveys. This research was based on a quasi-experimental mixed-method design a focus on student performance on higher order conceptual questions, and open-ended survey at the end of semester about their perception toward writing to learn ad implementing SWH. Results from the qualitative and quantitative component indicated that implementing SWH approach has notably enhanced both male and female conceptual understanding and perception toward chemistry and implementing SWH. It is known that there is gender gap in science, where female have lower perception and self confident toward science. Interestingly, my findings have showed that implementing SWH helped closing the gap between male and female who started the semester with a statistically significant lower level of conceptual understanding of chemistry concepts among females than males.

Mohammad, Elham Ghazi

162

Teachers' beliefs about the role of interaction in teaching Newtonian mechanics and its influence on students' conceptual understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from several studies indicate that students have a wide variety of conceptions about force which are incompatible with Newtonian mechanics. One of the most notable obstacle is students' difficulty in understanding Newton's third law, which Halloun et al. (1985) refer as dominance principle. That is, students consider a situation with two objects asymmetrically. Historically, the concept of interaction was

Johanna Jauhiainen; Ismo T Koponen; Jari Lavonen

163

Effects of Conceptual Change Texts and Laboratory Experiments on Fourth Grade Students' Understanding of Matter and Change Concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether conceptual change texts and laboratory experiments are effective in overcoming misconceptions and whether the concepts were acquired permanently when these methods were utilized. In this study, we addressed some topics from the "Matter and Change" unit in science and technology class of elementary 4th grade. Students from three classes of an elementary school participated in the study ( N = 104). Students' misconceptions were determined by administering the "Matter Concept Test" before, immediately after and 13 weeks after the instructional period. The results of the study showed that both conceptual change texts and experiment method were more successful than traditional instruction in overcoming the misconceptions and acquiring permanent knowledge. However, there was not a significant difference between these two alternative approaches in terms of reducing the misconceptions.

Durmu?, Jale; Bayraktar, ?ule

2010-10-01

164

A cross-age study of students' conceptual understanding of interdependency in seed dispersal, pollination, and food chains using a constructivist theoretical framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this research was to investigate students' understanding of interdependency across grade levels. Interdependency concepts selected for this study included food chains, pollination, and seed dispersal. Children's everyday concepts and scientific concepts across grade levels represented the focus of conceptual understanding. The researcher interviewed a total of 24 students across grade levels, six students each from grades 3, 7, and 10, and 6 college students. Data were collected by means of interviews and card sorts. A constructivist theoretical framework formed the groundwork for presenting the focus of this study and for interpreting the results of the interview data. Results were analyzed on the basis of identifying student responses to interview questions as either everyday concepts or as scientific concepts, along with transition through the zone of proximal development (ZPD) by mediation, as developed by Vygotsky. Results revealed that children across grade levels vary in their everyday and scientific understanding of the three interdependency concepts. Results for seed dispersal showed little evidence of understanding for grade 3, that is, seed dispersal was not within the zone of proximal development (ZPD) for grade 3 students. Students in grades 7 and 10 showed a developing transition within the zone of proximal development from everyday to scientific understanding, and college students demonstrated scientific understanding of seed dispersal. For pollination and food chains, results showed that grades 3, 7, and 10 were in transition from everyday to scientific understanding, and all college students demonstrated scientific understanding. The seed dispersal concept proved more complex than pollination and food chains. The findings of this study have implications for classroom teachers. By understanding the dynamic nature of the ZPD continuum for students, teachers can plan instruction to meet the needs of each student.

Smith, Shirley Mccraw

2003-06-01

165

The effects of an interactive computer-based simulation prior to performing a laboratory inquiry-based experiment on students' conceptual understanding of physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the effects of interactive computer-based simulations which are presented prior to inquiry-based laboratory experiments on students' conceptual understanding of mechanics, waves\\/optics, and thermal physics. In principle, the simulations should serve as a cognitive framework for enhancing the subsequent more open-ended inquiry learning in the subject matter domain of the experiments. To test this prediction, the simulations and experiments

Zacharias Zacharia; O. Roger Anderson

2003-01-01

166

Effect of animation enhanced conceptual change texts on 6th grade students' understanding of the particulate nature of matter and transformation during phase changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effect of animation enhanced conceptual change texts (CCT–CA) on grade 6 studentsunderstanding of the particulate nature of matter (PNM) and transformation during the phase changes was investigated. A quasi-experimental design and one control group (CG, N = 25) and one experimental group (EG, N = 26) were used. While the control group taught traditional instruction, the experimental group received

Haluk Özmen

2011-01-01

167

Conceptual understandings resulting from interactive science exhibits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is an investigation of relationships among students’ free exploration of interactive science museum exhibits, conceptual\\u000a understandings, and cognitive developmental levels. Forty-five subjects, ages 5 to 13, were classified as preoperational,\\u000a concrete operational (empirical-inductive), or formal operational (hypothetical-deductive). Subjects interacted with science\\u000a exhibits requiring empirical-deductive (EI) or hypothetical-deductive (HD) reasoning to understand the inherent science concepts.\\u000a Ninety-five percent of

Edmund A. Marek; Robert D. Boram; Tim Laubach; Brain L. Gerber

2002-01-01

168

Understanding conceptual change: connecting and questioning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We engage in a metalogue based on eight papers in this issue of Cultural Studies of Science Education that review the state of conceptual change research and its possible affect on the teaching and learning of science. Our discussion addresses three aspects of conceptual change research: theoretical, methodological, and practical, as we discuss conceptual change research in light of our experiences as science educators. Finally, we examine the implications of conceptual change research for the teachers and students with whom we work.

Milne, Catherine; Kirch, Susan; Basu, Sreyashi Jhumki; Leou, Mary; Fraser-Abder, Pamela

2008-07-01

169

Even honors students have conceptual difficulties with physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Honors students in an introductory physics course are shown to exhibit some of the same kinds of misconceptions as do students in the usual standard introductory courses. Examples are given of exercises and written exam questions that probe for conceptual understanding, and student responses to these questions are used to identify conceptual difficulties common to many students. Because these misconceptions

P. C. Peters

1982-01-01

170

A Study of General Education Astronomy Students' Understandings of Cosmology. Part II. Evaluating Four Conceptual Cosmology Surveys: A Classical Test Theory Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is the second of five papers detailing our national study of general education astronomy students' conceptual and reasoning difficulties with cosmology. This article begins our quantitative investigation of the data. We describe how we scored students' responses to four conceptual cosmology surveys, and we present evidence for the…

Wallace, Colin S.; Prather, Edward E.; Duncan, Douglas K.

2011-01-01

171

Understanding Quality in Conceptual Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing focus on early development as a major factor in determining overall quality, many researchers are trying to define what makes a good conceptual model. However, existing frameworks often do little more than list desirable properties. The authors examine attempts to define quality as it relates to conceptual models and propose their own framework, which includes a systematic

Odd Ivar Lindland; Guttorm Sindre; Arne Sřlvberg

1994-01-01

172

Students' Understanding of Tides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports the findings of research into students' understanding of tides. Students from secondary school and pre-service primary school teacher trainees were chosen as subjects and their understanding was assessed by questionnaire. (Author/CCM)

Viiri, Jouni

2000-01-01

173

Testing for Conceptual Understanding in General Chemistry 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conceptual understanding involves being able to represent and translate chemical problems using three forms of representation—macroscopic, particulate, and symbolic. In addition to research on chemical problem solving, a great deal of work on student misconceptions involving chemical phenomena has been conducted. Both the representational formats, and the work on student misconceptions, served as framework for a team of chemical educators

CRAIG W. BOWEN; DIANE M. BUNCE

1997-01-01

174

Students' belief about conceptual knowledge in introductory physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper describes a distinction between two ways in which students may see the role of conceptual knowledge in introductory physics. Is a belief that conceptual knowledge constitutes the core of physics understanding? Is a belief that the associations between conceptual knowledge and physics are apparent but not essential? Excerpts from interviews of two subjects illustrate this distinction in a range of interviewing activities and show its relevance for understanding students' work in an introductory physics course.

Hammer, David

2006-06-19

175

Epistemic Beliefs and Conceptual Understanding in Biotechnology: A Case Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this investigation was to explore students' epistemic beliefs and conceptual understanding of biotechnology. Epistemic beliefs can influence reasoning, how individuals evaluate information, and informed decision making abilities. These skills are important for an informed citizenry that will participate in debates regarding areas in science such as biotechnology. We report on an in-depth case study analysis of three undergraduate, non-science majors in a biotechnology course designed for non-biochemistry majors. We selected participants who performed above average and below average on the first in-class exam. Data from multiple sources—interviews, exams, and a concept instrument—were used to construct (a) individual profiles and (b) a cross-case analysis of our participants' conceptual development and epistemic beliefs from two different theoretical perspectives—Women's Ways of Knowing and the Reflective Judgment Model. Two independent trained researchers coded all case records independently for both theoretical perspectives, with resultant initial Cohen's kappa values above .715 (substantial agreement), and then reached consensus on the codes. Results indicate that a student with more sophisticated epistemology demonstrated greater conceptual understandings at the end of the course than a student with less sophisticated epistemology, even though the latter performed higher initially. Also a student with a less sophisticated epistemology and low initial conceptual performance does not demonstrate gains in their overall conceptual understanding. Results suggest the need for instructional interventions fostering epistemological development of learners in order to facilitate their conceptual growth.

Rebello, Carina M.; Siegel, Marcelle A.; Witzig, Stephen B.; Freyermuth, Sharyn K.; McClure, Bruce A.

2012-04-01

176

Assessing Student Understanding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science education has moved from the traditional lecture-and-demonstration model toward a student inquiry model. Although science teachers know that inquiry teaching is desirable, they are frequently at a loss when it comes time to assess students. Two strategies, written lab reports and student whiteboard presentations, can help teachers assess student understanding of inquiry-related activities.

Erekson, Tom

2004-03-01

177

Addressing Barriers to Conceptual Understanding in IE Physics Classes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We report on the Thinking in Physics project, which helps students who demonstrate weak scientific reasoning skills, as measured by low pre-instruction scores on the Lawson Test of Scientific Reasoning Ability. Without special help, such students are unlikely to achieve a good conceptual understanding of introductory mechanics. Student participants have demonstrated post-instruction improvement on the Lawson test and significantly higher normalized FCI gains than would have been predicted on the basis of pre-instruction Lawson scores.

Coletta, Vincent P.; Phillips, Jeffery

2010-01-19

178

Upper Secondary Students' Understanding of the Use of Multiple Models in Biology Textbooks--The Importance of Conceptual Variation and Incommensurability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study we investigate students' ability to discern conceptual variation and the use of multiple models in genetics when reading content-specific excerpts from biology textbooks. Using the history and philosophy of science as our reference, we were able to develop a research instrument allowing students themselves to investigate the…

Gericke, Niklas; Hagberg, Mariana; Jorde, Doris

2013-01-01

179

Even honors physics students have conceptual difficulties with physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Honors students in an introductory physics course are shown to exhibit some of the same kinds of misconceptions as do students in the usual standard introductory courses. Examples are given of exercises and written exam questions that probe for conceptual understanding, and student responses to these questions are used to identify conceptual difficulties common to many students. Because these misconceptions were found in a very select group of students, the implication may be drawn that conceptual difficulties of the same kind are present in students in all levels of introductory physics.

Peters, P. C.

2005-10-27

180

Conceptual and Procedural Performance of Undergraduate Students in Integration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigate the conceptual and procedural knowledge in integration of a group of students who has successfully completed a one-year calculus course. The participants are asked five questions and their responses are analysed in detail. We observed that the students do not have satisfactory conceptual understanding of integration. Moreover, it is…

Mahir, Nevin

2009-01-01

181

Building Dynamic Conceptual Physics Understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models are essential to the learning1 and doing of science, and systems thinking is key to appreciating many environmental issues. The National Science Education Standards2 include models and systems in their unifying concepts and processes standard, while the AAAS Benchmarks3 include them in their common themes chapter. Hyerle4 and Marzano5,6 argue for the importance of graphic organizers to student learning.

Charlotte Trout; Scott A. Sinex; Susan Ragan

2011-01-01

182

Using a schoolyard garden to increase language acquisition and conceptual understanding of science in elementary ELL students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This action research study examined a small cross-section of a Texas public school population. Participants were kindergarten through third grade students enrolled in the English as a Second Language (ESL) Program who were pulled out of their general classroom to receive English support within the content area of science. This study looked at how effective a hands-on learning experience using a schoolyard garden enhanced the academic language and science content of the participants. The study began in mid-March and concluded at the end of April with each group receiving 40 minutes of instruction five days a week. Each group consisted of a Beginner, Intermediate, and Advanced/Advanced High student for a total of 12 participants. Four forms of data were used in this study: archival, pre-test, post-test, and journal. Rubrics were used to analyze individual students' level of academic language before and after the study. The results illustrate that the younger students (kindergarten and first grade) descriptions were very basic and concrete while the older students had more accurate and descriptive responses. Upon completion of this research, it was determined that the usage of a schoolyard garden compliments both the acquisition of academic language and the increase in science content knowledge.

Stewart, Morgan

183

Teaching to Promote Deep Understanding and Instigate Conceptual Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses on how to promote deep understanding by making the students to question their inherent conceptual knowledge of how the world works, and on how to correct these views should they be different form the scientifically proven views. This paper reviews the conceptual change model and suggests additional steps. First, the student has to consciously notice and understand what the problem is; second, s/he has to assimilate more information and try to fit it into already existing neural networks; third, s/he has to critically think through all the argumentation in his/her own words and reorganize this thoughts s/he has to accommodate the knowledge and evaluate against his or her prior beliefs; forth s/he has to own the concept and has to consider it her/his personal construct; and finally, s/he has to work towards obtaining fluency in the newly acquired and understood concept so that this concept itself has then becomes a mere building block for future, more advanced concepts. The claim is that during the process of conceptual change what happens in the student’s mind is a reorganization of his or her thoughts, the creation of new neural networks, and the rewiring of old ones. This process is difficult to provoke and requires the student to work hard. Instructors can challenge the student to undergo the process of conceptual change but cannot do it for the student.

Zirbel, Esther

2006-12-01

184

College Students' Understanding of Atmospheric Ozone Formation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research has shown that high school and college students have a lack of conceptual understanding of global warming, ozone, and the greenhouse effect. Most research in this area used survey methodologies and did not include concepts of atmospheric chemistry and ozone formation. This study investigates college students' understandings of…

Howard, Kristen E.; Brown, Shane A.; Chung, Serena H.; Jobson, B. Thomas; VanReken, Timothy M.

2013-01-01

185

Students' Understanding of Photosynthesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reported are the differences in the understanding of concepts involved in photosynthesis and its role in ecology between students who had studied advanced biology and those who had not. Reports that the less experienced students had a poorer understanding of autotrophic respiration and energy aspects of photosynthesis. (CW)|

Eisen, Yehudit; Stavy, Ruth

1988-01-01

186

The Role of Self-Regulated Learning in Fostering Students' Conceptual Understanding of Complex Systems with Hypermedia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines the role of self-regulated learning (SRL) in facilitating students' shifts to more sophisticated mental models of the circulatory system as indicated by both performance and process data. We began with Winne and colleagues' information processing model of SRL (Winne, 2001; Winne & Hadwin, 1998) and used it to examine how…

Azevedo, Roger; Guthrie, John T.; Seibert, Diane

2004-01-01

187

Argument-Driven Inquiry in Undergraduate Chemistry Labs: The Impact on Students' Conceptual Understanding, Argument Skills, and Attitudes toward Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes a new instructional model called Argument-Driven Inquiry (ADI). This model is designed to promote student engagement in processes of investigation design and scientific argumentation. In this study, the ADI instructional model is compared with a more traditional approach to instruction across 16 laboratory sections of…

Walker, Joi Phelps; Sampson, Victor; Grooms, Jonathon; Anderson, Brittany; Zimmerman, Carol O.

2012-01-01

188

A Comparison of Students' Conceptual Understanding of Electric Circuits in Simulation Only and Simulation-Laboratory Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of this experimental study was to compare learning outcomes of students using a simulation alone (simulation environment) with outcomes of those using a simulation in parallel with real circuits (combination environment) in the domain of electricity, and to explore how learning outcomes in these environments are mediated by implicit (only…

Jaakkola, Tomi; Nurmi, Sami; Veermans, Koen

2011-01-01

189

How students understand physics equations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What does it mean to understand a physics equation? The use of formal expressions in physics is not just a matter of the rigorous and routinized application of principles, followed by the formal manipulation of expressions to obtain an answer. Rather, successful students learn to understand what equations say in a fundamental sense; they have a feel for expressions, and this guides their work. More specifically, students learn to understand physics equations in terms of a vocabulary of elements that I call symbolic forms. Each symbolic form associates a simple conceptual schema with a pattern of symbols in an equation. This hypothesis has implications for how we should understand what must be taught and learned in physics classrooms. From the point of view of improving instruction, it is absolutely critical to acknowledge that physics expertise involves this more flexible and generative understanding of equations, and our instruction should be geared toward helping students to acquire this understanding. The work described here is based on an analysis of a corpus of videotapes in which university students solve physics problems.

Sherin, Bruce L.

2005-11-23

190

Effects of Problem-Based Learning with Web-Anchored Instruction in Nanotechnology on the Science Conceptual Understanding, the Attitude towards Science, and the Perception of Science in Society of Elementary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explored the effects of Problem-Based Leaning (PBL) with web-anchored instruction in nanotechnology on the science conceptual understanding, the attitude towards science, and the perception of science in society of elementary students. A mixed-methods approach was used. Subjects (N=46) participated in the study for approximately two…

Yurick, Karla Anne

2011-01-01

191

Understanding Cellular Respiration: An Analysis of Conceptual Change in College Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explores and documents the frequencies of conceptual difficulties confronted by college students (n=200) seeking to understand the basic processes of cellular respiration. Findings suggest that novices harbor a wide range of conceptual difficulties that constrain their understanding of cellular respiration and many of these conceptual problems…

Songer, Catherine J.; Mintzes, Joel J.

1994-01-01

192

Exploring the Development of Conceptual Understanding through Structured Problem-Solving in Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study on the effect of a structured problem-solving strategy on problem-solving skills and conceptual understanding of physics was undertaken with 189 students in 16 disadvantaged South African schools. This paper focuses on the development of conceptual understanding. New instruments, namely a solutions map and a conceptual index, are…

Gaigher, E.; Rogan, J. M.; Braun, M. W. H.

2007-01-01

193

Understanding Cellular Respiration: An Analysis of Conceptual Change in College Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores and documents the frequencies of conceptual difficulties confronted by college students (n=200) seeking to understand the basic processes of cellular respiration. Findings suggest that novices harbor a wide range of conceptual difficulties that constrain their understanding of cellular respiration and many of these conceptual problems…

Songer, Catherine J.; Mintzes, Joel J.

1994-01-01

194

The effectiveness of Brain-Based Teaching Approach in dealing with the problems of studentsconceptual understanding and learning motivation towards physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teachers of science-based education in Malaysian secondary schools, especially those in the field of physics, often find their students facing huge difficulties in dealing with conceptual ideas in physics, resulting thus in a lack of interest towards the subject. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the Brain-Based Teaching Approach (henceforth BBTA) in dealing with the

Salmiza Saleh

2012-01-01

195

The Effectiveness of Brain-Based Teaching Approach in Dealing with the Problems of Students' Conceptual Understanding and Learning Motivation towards Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Teachers of science-based education in Malaysian secondary schools, especially those in the field of physics, often find their students facing huge difficulties in dealing with conceptual ideas in physics, resulting thus in a lack of interest towards the subject. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the Brain-Based Teaching…

Saleh, Salmiza

2012-01-01

196

Modelling Photosynthesis to Increase Conceptual Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Biology students in their first year at university have difficulty understanding the abstract concepts of photosynthesis. The traditional didactic lecture followed by practical exercises that show various macroscopic aspects of photosynthesis often do not help the students visualise or understand the submicroscopic (molecular-level) reactions…

Ross, Pauline; Tronson, Deidre; Ritchie, Raymond J.

2006-01-01

197

Understanding obsolescence: a conceptual model for buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is obsolescence? Numerous older buildings have been demolished due to being labelled as obsolete. There is a general understanding that buildings, similar to machinery and durable consumer goods, should be demolished and replaced when they become obsolete. The truth of this assertion is examined and found to be problematic, as obsolescence is not clearly understood in conceptual or practical

André Thomsen; Kees van der Flier

2011-01-01

198

Understanding GLOBE Student Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) Database houses millions of student observations from schools worldwide. The purpose of these activities is first, to help guide the teacher through these millions of data, and second, to inspire teachers and students to both collect GLOBE data as well as to use these data in their own research. The activities have been designed to help students and teachers discover that data exploration can be exciting and interesting. Each activity contains step-by-step procedures as well as notes on what students should see in and understand about the data.

2005-01-01

199

Enhancing College Students' Understanding of Lunar Phases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Astronomy education researchers now know that college students do not enter the introductory astronomy classroom as blank slates, but rather with a pre-existing understanding of many introductory astronomy concepts, including lunar phases. Sometimes this understanding is scientifically correct, but often students' understanding is incomplete, inadequate or simply incorrect and cannot explain observed phenomenon. Unfortunately, students' pre-existing understandings are often deeply rooted, and many students leave the classroom without a scientifically correct understanding of lunar phases. The purpose of this research study was to design instruction that enhances college students' understanding of lunar phases. This multi-phase study utilized qualitative and quantitative research methods to fulfill this purpose by identifying students' prior understanding of lunar phases, developing the Lunar Phases Concept Inventory (LPCI) to measure conceptual change, designing and evaluating an in-class group activity designed to teach the concept of lunar phases. Using a qualitative phenomenology, fourteen college students' conceptual understanding of lunar phases was uncovered and organized into a conceptual framework with eight dimensions of student understanding, each with alternative facets. Based upon this conceptual framework, the LPCI was developed. This instrument consists of fourteen multiple-choice items designed to assess student understanding of lunar phases. Based on a modified Karplus Learning Cycle, an in-class group activity was developed to teach the concept of lunar phases. During the fall of 1999, this activity was implemented at a midwestern university as part of a restructured astronomy course during two fifty-minute class periods. Administered prior to and after instruction, the LPCI shows the instruction was effective. A statistical analysis of the results shows that the instruction produced an effect size of 2.99 and a normalized gain of 0.63.

Lindell, Rebecca S.

2013-05-28

200

Can You Explain This? - Conceptual Exercises for Physics Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This workbook of conceptual exercises covers the material from introductory physics. It is written to help students understand important physics concepts and principles and to help them develop the problem-solving skills needed to solve conceptual exercises consistently and correctly. Each chapter examines a different topic and has three different types of conceptual exercises, âConflicting Contentionsâ tasks, âQualitative Reasoningâ tasks, and âCan You Explain This?â tasks.

Wozny, Christopher

2004-12-18

201

A Study of General Education Astronomy Students' Understandings of Cosmology. Part V. The Effects of a New Suite of Cosmology "Lecture-Tutorials" on Students' Conceptual Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is the final paper in a five-paper series describing our national study of the teaching and learning of cosmology in general education astronomy college-level courses. A significant portion of this work was dedicated to the development of five new "Lecture-Tutorials" that focus on addressing the conceptual and reasoning difficulties that our…

Wallace, Colin S.; Prather, Edward E.; Duncan, Douglas K.

2012-01-01

202

Enhancing college students' understanding of lunar phases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy education researchers now know that college students do not enter the introductory astronomy classroom as blank slates, but rather these students enter the classroom with a pre-existing understanding of many introductory astronomy concepts, including lunar phases. Sometimes this understanding is scientifically correct, but often students' understanding is incomplete, inadequate or simply incorrect and cannot explain observed phenomenon. Unfortunately, students' pre- existing understandings are often deeply rooted, and many students leave the classroom without a scientifically correct understanding of lunar phases. The question now arises, how do instructors develop successful instruction so that students leave the classroom with a scientifically correct understanding of lunar phases? The purpose of this research study was therefore to design instruction that enhances college students' understanding of lunar phases. This multi-phase study utilized both qualitative and quantitative research methods to fulfill this purpose by identifying students' prior understanding of lunar phases, developing the Lunar Phases Concept Inventory (LPCI) to measure conceptual change, designing and evaluating an in-class group activity designed to teach the concept of lunar phases. Using a qualitative phenomenology, fourteen college students' conceptual understanding of lunar phases was uncovered. This conceptual understanding was organized into a conceptual framework with eight separate dimensions of student understanding, each with alternative facets of student understanding. Based upon this conceptual framework, the LPCI was developed. This instrument consists of fourteen multiple-choice items designed to assess student understanding of lunar phases. Based on a modified Karplus Learning Cycle, an in-class group activity was developed to teach the concept of lunar phases. During the fall semester of 1999, this activity was implemented at a midwestern university as part of a restructured astronomy course. This activity took only two fifty-minute class periods. Administered prior to and after instruction, the LPCI shows that the instruction was indeed effective. A statistical analysis of the results shows that the instruction produced an effect size of 2.99 and a normalized gain of 0.63.

Lindell, Rebecca Susan

203

Helping Students Understand Risk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the central role of risk assessment in analyzing and making decisions about many environmental issues, most people are poorly equipped to understand key concepts about risk or apply them successfully. I present three class activities in which students develop a better appreciation for the magnitude of a one in a million increased risk of…

Weihe, Paul

2006-01-01

204

Helping Students Understand Risk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite the central role of risk assessment in analyzing and making decisions about many environmental issues, most people are poorly equipped to understand key concepts about risk or apply them successfully. I present three class activities in which students develop a better appreciation for the magnitude of a one in a million increased risk of…

Weihe, Paul

2006-01-01

205

Showing Automatically Generated Students' Conceptual Models to Students and Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A student conceptual model can be defined as a set of interconnected concepts associated with an estimation value that indicates how well these concepts are used by the students. It can model just one student or a group of students, and can be represented as a concept map, conceptual diagram or one of several other knowledge representation…

Perez-Marin, Diana; Pascual-Nieto, Ismael

2010-01-01

206

Modeling studentsâ conceptual understanding of force, velocity, and acceleration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We have developed a multiple choice test designed to probe studentsâ conceptual understanding of the relationships among the directions of force, velocity, and acceleration. The test was administered to more than 800 students enrolled in standard or honors introductory physics courses or a second-year physics majors course. The test was found to be reasonably statistically reliable, and correlations of test score with grade, course level, and the Force Concept Inventory were moderate to strong. Further analysis revealed that in addition to the common incorrect response that velocity must be in the direction of the acceleration or net force, up to 30% of students gave âpartially correctâ responses, for example that velocity can be either opposite to or in the direction of the acceleration or net force but not zero. The data also suggests that for some students their evolution of understanding may progress through this kind of partially incorrect understanding.

Rosenblatt, Rebecca; Sayre, Eleanor C.; Heckler, Andrew F.

2010-01-19

207

Mathematical vs. Conceptual Understanding: Where Do We Draw The Line?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This research involved high school physics students and how they learn to understand Newtonâs laws as they relate to falling bodies and projectile motion. Students in introductory, algebra-based, high school physics classes were evaluated based on their prior knowledge through a pretest, designed to assess their initial comprehension of the motion of falling bodies and projectiles. Groups were divided and taught separately with an emphasis on either mathematical derivation of equations, followed by brief conceptual discussions, or on thorough conceptual analysis, followed by a brief mathematical verification. After a post-test was given, an evaluation of the responses and explanations of each group of students was used to determine which method of instruction was more effective. Results indicate that after the conceptual group and math groups achieved similar scores on the pretest, the conceptual group obtained a slightly higher normalized gain of 25% on the post-test, compared to the mathematical groupâs normalized gain of 16% (unpaired two-tailed t-test P value for post-test results was 0.1037) and, while within standard deviations, also achieved higher overall scores on all post-test questions and higher normalized gains on all but one post-test question. Further, most students, even those in the mathematically-instructed group, were more inclined to give conceptually-based responses on post-test questions than mathematically-based ones. In the context of this topic, the dominating difficulty for both groups was in analyzing two-dimensional projectile motion and, more specifically, the behavior of each one-dimensional component of such motion.

Sadaghiani, Homeyra R.; Aguilera, Nicholas

2013-07-17

208

High School Intervention for Influenza Biology and Epidemics/Pandemics: Impact on Conceptual Understanding among Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Understanding real-life issues such as influenza epidemiology may be of particular interest to the development of scientific knowledge and initiation of conceptual changes about viruses and their life cycles for high school students. The goal of this research project was to foster the development of adolescents' conceptual understanding of…

Dumais, Nancy; Hasni, Abdelkrim

2009-01-01

209

High School Intervention for Influenza Biology and Epidemics\\/Pandemics: Impact on Conceptual Understanding among Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding real-life issues such as influenza epidemiology may be of particular interest to the development of scientific knowledge and initiation of conceptual changes about viruses and their life cycles for high school students. The goal of this research project was to foster the develop- ment of adolescents' conceptual understanding of viruses and influenza biology. Thus, the project included two components:

Nancy Dumais; Abdelkrim Hasni

2009-01-01

210

Analysis of Student Understanding of Statics Principles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An analysis of introductory physics studentsâ understanding of statics principles was conducted. The prior development and use of Tutorials in Introductory Physics has addressed student difficulties concerning introductory physics concepts, including fundamental statics principles; yet, conceptual difficulties persist, particularly when the complexity of an assessment question increases. To assess the extent to which the introductory physics curriculum prepared students for an engineering statics course, students completed multiple-choice questions taken from the âStatics Concept Inventoryâ. Responses illuminated remaining areas of difficulty for students, as well as trends in student understanding. Interestingly, students commonly made the same errors as those reported in the analysis of the âStatics Concept Inventory,â especially with regard to applying a limit on the friction force in order to maintain static equilibrium. Further exploration of student difficulties with statics concepts is needed so curricula can be adapted for extensive instruction.

Johnson, Brittany

2012-03-29

211

How Active Learning Affects Student Understanding of Concepts in Electromagnetism  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the effects of the learning environment of the MIT TEAL project on student cognitive and affective outcomes in introductory electromagnetism. Our assessment included examining student conceptual understanding before and after studying electromagnetism in a media-rich environment. We developed pre-and posttests consisting of conceptual questions from standardized tests, as well as questions designed to assess the effect of visualizations

John Belcher; Judy Dori; Lori Breslow

2009-01-01

212

Secondary School Students' Levels of Understanding in Computing Exponents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of this study is to describe and analyze students' levels of understanding of exponents within the context of procedural and conceptual learning via the conceptual change and prototypes' theory. The study was conducted with 202 secondary school students with the use of a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. The results suggest…

Pitta-Pantazi, Demetra; Christou, Constantinos; Zachariades, Theodossios

2007-01-01

213

Young elementary students' conceptual understandings of lunar phases before and after an inquiry-based and technology-enhanced instructional intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This mixed methods study explored young children's understandings of targeted lunar concepts, including when the moon can be observed, observable lunar phase shapes, predictable lunar patterns, and the cause of moon phases. Twenty-one children (ages seven to nine years) from a multi-aged classroom participated in this study. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews, student drawings, and card sorting before and

Sally Merryman Hobson

2008-01-01

214

Young elementary students' conceptual understandings of lunar phases before and after an inquiry-based and technology-enhanced instructional intervention  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This mixed methods study explored young children's understandings of targeted lunar concepts, including when the moon can be observed, observable lunar phase shapes, predictable lunar patterns, and the cause of moon phases. Twenty-one children (ages seven to nine years) from a multi-aged classroom participated in this study. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews, student drawings, and card sorting before and after an inquiry-based, technology-enhanced instructional intervention. Students' lunar calendars, written responses, field notes, and videotaped class sessions also provided data throughout the study. Data were analyzed using codes from prior lunar studies, constant comparative analysis, and nonparametric analysis. The instructional intervention included lunar data gathering, recording, and sharing, through the use of Starry Night planetarium software and an inquiry-based instruction on moon phases (McDermott, 1996). In a guided inquiry context children worked in groups to gather and analyze nine weeks of lunar data. Findings indicated a positive change in students' understanding of all targeted concepts. After the intervention more children understood that the moon could be observed sometimes during the day, more children drew scientific moon phase shapes, and more children drew scientific representations of the moon phase sequences. Also, more children understood the cause of moon phases.

Hobson, Sally Merryman

215

Understanding the Working College Student  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Working is now a fundamental responsibility for many undergraduates. But understanding how employment affects students' educational experiences is complicated by why students work. Many students must work to pay the costs of attending college. Some traditional-age students may use employment as a way to explore career options or earn spending…

Perna, Laura W.

2010-01-01

216

Understanding the Working College Student  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Working is now a fundamental responsibility for many undergraduates. But understanding how employment affects students' educational experiences is complicated by why students work. Many students must work to pay the costs of attending college. Some traditional-age students may use employment as a way to explore career options or earn spending…

Perna, Laura W.

2010-01-01

217

Understanding Conceptual Change: Connecting and Questioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We engage in a metalogue based on eight papers in this issue of "Cultural Studies of Science Education" that review the state of conceptual change research and its possible affect on the teaching and learning of science. Our discussion addresses three aspects of conceptual change research: theoretical, methodological, and practical, as we discuss…

Milne, Catherine; Kirch, Susan; Basu, Sreyashi Jhumki; Leou, Mary; Fraser-Abder, Pamela

2008-01-01

218

Students do not overcome conceptual difficulties after solving 1000 traditional problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The relation between traditional physics textbook problem solving and conceptual understanding was investigated. The number of problems a student solved, as estimated by students themselves, ranged from 300 to 2900 with an average of about 1500. The students did not have much difficulty in using physics formulas and mathematics. However, we found that they still had many of the well-known conceptual difficulties with basic mechanics, and there was little correlation between the number of problems solved and conceptual understanding. This result suggests that traditional problem solving has a limited effect on conceptual understanding.

Kim, Eun-Sook; Pak, Sung-Jae

2005-11-23

219

Understanding Student GPA  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a student of Stephen F. Austin State University have you ever wondered about the efficacy of you weekly habits as it relates towards your cumulative college GPA? Have you ever been curious of students with a higher GPA (grade point average) spent their free time than those with a lower GPAs? We decided to test various weekly habits of

Justin Rodrigues; Malcolm Recinos; Carla Torres

2012-01-01

220

Identifying studentsâ mental models of sound propagation: The role of conceptual blending in understanding conceptual change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We investigated introductory physics studentsâ mental models of sound propagation. We used a phenomenographic method to analyze the data in the study. In addition to the scientifically accepted Wave model, students used the âEntityâ model to describe the propagation of sound. In this latter model sound is a self-standing entity, different from the medium through which it propagates. All other observed alternative models contain elements of both Entity and Wave models, but at the same time are distinct from each of the constituent models. We called these models âhybridâ or âblendâ models. We discuss how students use these models in various contexts before and after instruction and how our findings contribute to the understanding of conceptual change. Implications of our findings for teaching are summarized.

Hrepic, Zdeslav; Zollman, Dean A.; Rebello, N. S.

2012-01-20

221

A study of change in students' conceptual frameworks in astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

School students' conceptual frameworks in astronomy and students' levels of knowledge and conceptualization were examined for 130 students in grades 2 through 12. Knowledge and conceptualization increased with school age. A test administered to 892 students in 7 schools demonstrated that schools contributed little to education in astronomy.

Finegold, Menahem; Pundak, David

2006-05-16

222

Mapping Student Understanding in Chemistry: The Perspectives of Chemists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Preliminary pilot studies and a field study show how a generalizable conceptual framework calibrated with item response modeling can be used to describe the development of student conceptual understanding in chemistry. ChemQuery is an assessment system that uses a framework of the key ideas in the discipline, called the Perspectives of Chemists,…

Claesgens, Jennifer; Scalise, Kathleen; Wilson, Mark; Stacy, Angelica

2009-01-01

223

Evaluation of Students' Understanding of Thermal Concepts in Everyday Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aims of this study were to determine the underlying conceptual structure of the thermal concept evaluation (TCE) questionnaire, a pencil-and-paper instrument about everyday contexts of heat, temperature, and heat transfer, to investigate students' conceptual understanding of thermal concepts in everyday contexts across several school years…

Chu, Hye-Eun; Treagust, David F.; Yeo, Shelley; Zadnik, Marjan

2012-01-01

224

The ability to understand and use conceptual change pedagogy as a function of prior content learning experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined the relationship between content instruction and the development of elementary teacher candidates' understanding of conceptual change pedagogy. Undergraduate students (n = 27) enrolled in two sections of a science methods course received content instruction through either traditional or conceptual change methods, followed by instruction about conceptual change pedagogy. Candidates were interviewed pre- and postinstruction about their content

René T. Stofflett; Trish Stoddart

1994-01-01

225

Effectiveness of Conceptual Change Instruction on Understanding of Heat and Temperature Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the differential effects of two modes of instructional program (conceptual change oriented and traditionally designed) and gender difference on students' understanding of heat and temperature concepts, and their attitudes toward science as a school subject. The subjects of this study consisted of 72 seventh grade students

Baser, Mustafa; Geban, Omer

2007-01-01

226

It's Rather like Learning a Language: Development of Talk and Conceptual Understanding in Mechanics Lessons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although a broad literature exists concerning the development of conceptual understanding of force and other topics within mechanics, little is known about the role and development of students' talk about the subject. The paper presents an in-depth investigation of students' talk whilst being introduced to the concept of force. The main research…

Rincke, Karsten

2011-01-01

227

Three Phase Ranking Framework for Assessing Conceptual Understanding in Algebra Using Multiple Representations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Algebra students may often demonstrate a certain degree of proficiency when manipulating algebraic expressions and verbalizing their behaviors. Do these abilities imply conceptual understanding? What is a reliable indicator that would provide educators with a relatively trustworthy and consistent measure to identify whether students learn…

Panasuk, Regina M.

2010-01-01

228

Conceptual Challenges in Learning Ozone Formation for Collegiate Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric chemistry in general, and tropospheric ozone formation in particular, are complex processes that to be understood require students to learn several interrelated concepts. These systems are particularly difficult to grasp because they are inherently nonlinear and because they are abstract- students do not have an obvious tangible model for how gases behave in an unbounded atmosphere. To address perceived shortfalls in our studentsconceptualizations of atmospheric chemical processes, we have endeavored to develop, implement, and assess curricular materials that can be used from the freshmen to graduate level. Our goal was to both improve student understanding of the fundamental concepts of atmospheric chemistry while simultaneously reinforcing the scientific method and what it means to do science. Our approach for achieving this was to build student-friendly interfaces to adapt existing research models for use in the classroom and thereby provide students with a means of exploring the evolution of pollutants in the atmosphere. A major focus of the project was student understanding of ozone formation. In this presentation we provide insight regarding collegiate students’ conceptions of ozone formation and discuss possible explanations for student misconceptions in this and related environmental topics of concern. In order to extract student understanding and conceptions of ozone formation, qualitative interview and analysis methodologies were implemented. These qualitative procedures allowed us to gain a rich and detailed understanding of the specific nature of students’ mental models of these concepts. Forty-five participants were included in the study, all of which were collegiate students enrolled in a junior-level Introduction to Environmental Engineering course at Washington State University. Our results show that the students seemed to comprehend many individual concepts within ozone production cycle to some extent. However, there were very few students who were able to link together overlapping ideas, especially when it came to piecing together a process model for ozone formation. This caused them to have a weak conceptual understanding of the overall material. Our results further suggest that a reason for these weak conceptions may be due to underlying incorrect understandings of fundamental concepts in chemistry and physics. Interestingly, students frequently verbalized synthetic models of understanding that included correct and incorrect concepts from class and information they had learned from the media. These models conflated the process being studied- tropospheric ozone formation- with two other atmospheric processes that receive extensive public attention: stratospheric ozone destruction and greenhouse gas-induced global warming. Results have implications for teaching and the challenges in guiding students in the integration of knowledge obtained outside of class and classroom concepts to develop expert understandings.

Howard, K. E.; Chung, S. H.; Jobson, B. T.; Vanreken, T. M.; Brown, S. A.

2010-12-01

229

Understanding Student Motivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Contemporary theories of academic motivation seek to explain students' behaviours in academic settings. While each theory seems to possess its own constructs and unique explanations, these theories are actually closely tied together. In this theoretical study of motivation, several theories of motivation were described and an underlying theme of…

Seifert, Timothy

2004-01-01

230

Understanding How Students Learn  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of educational research forms the basis for the University of Maryland's "A New Model Course in Applied Quantum Mechanics." The scope of these research articles ranges from broad ("Teaching physics: Figuring out what works") to the very specific ("Student Misunderstanding of the Quantum Wavefunction").

Redish, Edward F.; Steinberg, Richard N.; Wittmann, Michael C.

2005-08-07

231

Investigating Student Understanding of the Universe: Structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chicago State University (CSU) offers an introductory astronomy course that services students from a variety of majors including pre-service teachers. At CSU, we have been investigating methods and tools that will improve student conceptual understanding in astronomy for this diverse group of students. We have analyzed pre-course surveys, pre-course essays, exams, and interviews in an effort to better understand the ideas and difficulties in understanding that students have in regards to the structure of the universe. Analysis of written essays has revealed that our students do have some knowledge of the objects in the universe, but interviews inform us that their understanding of the structure of the universe is superficial. This project is a part of a larger study; also see our posters on student ideas about dark matter, the age and expansion of the universe, and perceptions of astronomical sizes and distances. This work was supported by NASA ROSES E/PO Grant #NNXlOAC89G, as well as by the Illinois Space Grant Consortium and National Science Foundation CCLI Grant #0632563 at Chicago State University and the Fermi E/PO program at Sonoma State University.

Hayes, Virginia; Coble, K.; Nickerson, M.; Cochran, G.; Camarillo, C. T.; Bailey, J. M.; McLin, K. M.; Cominsky, L. R.

2011-05-01

232

Using Peer Groups to Enhance Conceptual Understanding in Introductory Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the past nine years, we have explored student conceptual understanding of physics in a wide variety of settings including universities, colleges, community colleges, and secondary schools and in courses for future physicists, engineers, and nonscience majors. We have produced activity-based materials and tools that have been used in all these settings to teach fundamental physics concepts. An important element in the success of these materials has been the use of peer learning groups. This talk will explore group work using Microcomputer-Based Laboratory (MBL) tools and curricula in the laboratory and peer group discussion as part of MBL Interactive Lecture Demonstrations. Videotaped examples will be shown and discussed. Examples of group female-male learning interactions and of different group learning styles will be shown. The effect of the nature of the task and of the group structure in the success of group work will be discussed.

Thornton, Ronald K.

2006-12-07

233

At-Risk and Bilingual Fifth-Grade Students' On-Task Behavior and Conceptual Understanding in Earth Science-Related Topics during Inquiry-, Technology-, and Game-Based Activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Graduate K-12 (GK12) program has been developed by NSF to support the national effort to advance scientific knowledge through educational partnerships. This paper highlights research conducted during the 2006-2007 school year with the Texas A&M University GK12 project. Two elementary schools with very high numbers of at risk students - those who are poor, speak English as their second language, and have a history of failing state-mandated tests were identified to be the field site for the GK12 project. In these two, high-minority (97% and 40% African American and Hispanic) schools, 80% and 56% of the children have been identified by the state as at risk; 94% and 52% are classified as economically disadvantaged; and 46% and 2% are limited English proficient, respectively. In the past year, 30% and 73% of fifth grade students in these schools passed the science portion of the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) test. Data collected during a three- week period where GK12 fellows taught the fifth graders Earth science-related topics is presented. During the implementation, students were engaged in technology-, inquiry-, and game-based activities. Students were divided into low-, medium-, and high-abilities in one school, and regular and bilingual groups in the other. Pre- post open-ended multiple choice tests indicated that all but the low performing students' conceptual understanding (CU) significantly (p < 0.05) improved during the IT activity. The low and high student groups' CU significantly improved during the inquiry activity, and the high and bilingual students' CU significantly improved for the game activities. Classroom observation assessments showed that there was a significant (p < 0.10) positive (0.347) correlation between on-task behavior and CU. Significant differences between student groups' CU and on-task behavior indicated that technology-based activities showed greatest differences between the low- ability learners and the other students, whereas, inquiry-based activities tended not to show such extremes. In the case of the bilingual and regular students however, technology-based instruction tended to increase their scores and decrease gaps with other groups. Using different pedagogical approaches (e.g., technology-, inquiry- and game-based methods) to teach Earth science is important to reach all elementary students. Earth science educators should not forget that there does not exist any one teaching and learning method that will be a 'quick fix' for the masses. However, educational partnerships between universities and K-12 schools strengthen the efforts to increase scientific literacy among all students, including diverse and at risk populations.

McNeal, K.; Vasquez, Y.; Avandano, C.; Moreno, K.; Besinaiz, J.

2007-12-01

234

Surveying Students' Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Acid-Base Behavior of Substances  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|By the end of their high school studies, students should be able to understand macroscopic and sub-microscopic conceptualization of acid-base behavior and the relationship between these conceptual models. The aim of this article is to ascertain whether grade-12 students have sufficient background knowledge to explain the properties of acids,…

Furio-Mas, Carles; Calatayud, Maria-Luisa; Barcenas, Sergio L.

2007-01-01

235

Understanding cellular respiration: An analysis of conceptual change in college biology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study explored and documented the frequencies of conceptual difficulties confronted by college students seeking to understand the basic processes of cellular respiration. Using concept maps, clinical interviews and an open-ended instrument, viewpoints were elicited from 100 (novice) introductory biology students before and after relevant instruction in cellular respiration and from 100 (experienced) students enrolled in advanced biology courses. Chi-square analyses revealed significant differences among groups in the frequencies of scientifically acceptable and alternative conceptions. The findings suggest that novices harbor a wide range of conceptual difficulties that constrain their understanding of cellular respiration. Furthermore, many of these difficulties persist after instruction and new ones arise. Often these conceptual problems remain intact among experienced students despite well-planned, repeated instruction at advanced levels.Received: 25 June 1993; Revised: 29 November 1993;

Songer, Catherine J.; Mintzes, Joel J.

236

Assessing Student Understanding with Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most science teachers are amazed when grading tests and quizzes, often wondering how and why students have reached a conclusion, particularly when students fail to provide a detailed account of their logic. Ideally, a variety of assessments should be used to identify alternate student conceptions or gaps in understanding, particularly when preparing students for state-mandated exams. With this in mind, a free internet-based software package, IMMEX (interactive multimedia exercises) was designed to use authentic scenarios to gauge students' problem-solving skills and science knowledge.

Jr., Charles T.; Jordan, Joni; Cooper, Melanie M.; Stevens, Ron

2006-06-01

237

Empirical Investigations of Student Understanding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Why study student understanding of physics? For some of us, "because it's there" is a large part of the reason. However, many of us are also strongly committed to using our findings to improve teaching at the classroom level. One type of investigation that has proven fruitful as a guide for improving student learning is discussed in the article. The underlying goals and assumptions are discussed in general terms. A specific example provides a context for discussing the interpretation of student thinking.

Heron, Paula R.

2005-11-02

238

Conceptual Continuity and the Science of Baseball: Using Informal Science Literacy to Promote Students' Science Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This project explores "conceptual continuity" as a framework for understanding students' native ways of understanding and describing. Conceptual continuity suggests that the relationship between the use of words in one genre and the scientific genre can exist at varying levels of association. This perspective can reveal the varied relationships…

Brown, Bryan A.; Kloser, Matt

2009-01-01

239

Cross-Grade Comparison of StudentsUnderstanding of Energy Concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this cross-grade study were (1) to determine the level of understanding of energy concepts of students at different\\u000a academic grades and the differences in understanding between these grades and (2) to analyse the conceptual development of\\u000a these students. Two hundred and forty-three students at 3 different levels (high school, undergraduate, and postgraduate)\\u000a participated in this study. The

Aysegul Saglam-Arslan

2010-01-01

240

High-School Students' Conceptual Difficulties and Attempts at Conceptual Change: The Case of Basic Quantum Chemical Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study tested for deep understanding and critical thinking about basic quantum chemical concepts taught at 12th grade (age 17-18). Our aim was to achieve conceptual change in students. A quantitative study was conducted first (n = 125), and following this 23 selected students took part in semi-structured interviews either individually or in…

Tsaparlis, Georgios; Papaphotis, Georgios

2009-01-01

241

Dialogic Framing of Scientific Content for Conceptual and Epistemic Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article draws on M. M. Bakhtin's (1981) notion of dialogism to articulate what it means to understand a scientific idea. In science, understanding an idea is both conceptual and epistemic and is exhibited by an ability to use it in explanation and argumentation. Some distillation of these activities implies that dialogic understanding of a…

Ford, Michael J.; Wargo, Brian M.

2012-01-01

242

How Active Learning Affects Student Understanding of Concepts in Electromagnetism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the effects of the learning environment of the MIT TEAL project on student cognitive and affective outcomes in introductory electromagnetism. Our assessment included examining student conceptual understanding before and after studying electromagnetism in a media-rich environment. We developed pre-and posttests consisting of conceptual questions from standardized tests, as well as questions designed to assess the effect of visualizations and experiments. The research population consisted of 811 undergraduate students, consisting of small-and a large-scale experimental group and control group. The active learning students improved their conceptual understanding of the subject matter to a significantly higher extent than their control group peers. A subsequent longitudinal study indicates that the long-term effect of the TEAL course on student retention of concepts was significantly stronger than that of the traditional course.

Belcher, John; Dori, Judy; Breslow, Lori

2009-05-01

243

Understanding information related fields: A conceptual framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many scientific fields share common interests for re- search and education. Yet, very often, these fields do not communicate to each other and are unaware of the work in other fields. Understanding the commonalities and differences among related fields can broaden our understanding of the interested phenomena from vari- ous perspectives, better utilize resources, enhance col- laboration, and eventually move

Ping Zhang; Robert I. Benjamin

2007-01-01

244

High school students' conceptual coherence of qualitative knowledge in the case of the force concept  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The notion of studentsâ conceptual coherence is introduced in this thesis to clarify what is meant by conceptual understanding. Studentsâ conceptual coherence is divided into three aspects: contextual, representational, and conceptual framework coherence. The abilities required by the conceptual coherence are discussed as well as ways of evaluating it in the case of the force concept. A new research-based instructional approach to foster studentsâ conceptual coherence of the force concept and related kinematics is introduced and validated: it brings together interactive-engagement teaching methods and the research on students' difficulties with the target domain.

Savinainen, Antti

2009-06-05

245

Student Understanding of the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presentation from the 2006 PTEC Conference presents education research on topics in thermodynamics. Student responses to conceptual thermodynamics questions, and the conceptions they reveal, are presented. Tutorial materials developed to help students gain a better understanding of the topic are also presented.

Heron, Paula R.

2006-09-30

246

High school students' understanding of projectile motion concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of conceptual change-based instruction and traditionally designed physics instruction on students' understanding of projectile motion concepts. Misconceptions related to projectile motion concepts were determined by related literature on this subject. Accordingly, the Projectile Motion Concepts Test was developed. The data were obtained through 43 students in an experimental group taught

Refik Dilber; Ibrahim Karaman; Bahattin Duzgun

2009-01-01

247

Building Conceptual Understanding in Young Scientists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the use of a new pedagogic approach to geology used to create a sequence of investigative activities enabling students to speculate, hypothesize, observe, test, reason, and infer about the characteristics of rocks. The approach is framed by two questions: (1) What are the key characteristics of different rock groups?; and (2) How did…

Hawley, Duncan

2002-01-01

248

Making Sense of Conceptual Tools in Student-Generated Cases: Student Teachers' Problem-Solving Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines the way student teachers make sense of conceptual tools when writing cases. In order to understand the problem-solving process, an analysis of the interactions is conducted. The findings show that transforming practical experiences into theoretical reflection is not a straightforward matter. To be able to elaborate on the…

Jahreie, Cecilie Flo

2010-01-01

249

Understanding the Student-Faculty Mentoring Process: Its Effects on At-Risk University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this investigation was to understand the student-faculty mentoring process and how mentoring relationships facilitate at-risk students' adjustment to college. The sample consisted of 65 college students who were involved in a Faculty Mentoring Program (FMP) at a four-year institution. A conceptual model was tested relating ethnic…

Santos, Silvia J.; Reigadas, Elena T.

2004-01-01

250

Understanding the Role of Academic Language on Conceptual Understanding in an Introductory Materials Science and Engineering Course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students may use the technical engineering terms without knowing what these words mean. This creates a language barrier in engineering that influences student learning. Previous research has been conducted to characterize the difference between colloquial and scientific language. Since this research had not yet been applied explicitly to engineering, conclusions from the area of science education were used instead. Various researchers outlined strategies for helping students acquire scientific language. However, few examined and quantified the relationship it had on student learning. A systemic functional linguistics framework was adopted for this dissertation which is a framework that has not previously been used in engineering education research. This study investigated how engineering language proficiency influenced conceptual understanding of introductory materials science and engineering concepts. To answer the research questions about engineering language proficiency, a convenience sample of forty-one undergraduate students in an introductory materials science and engineering course was used. All data collected was integrated with the course. Measures included the Materials Concept Inventory, a written engineering design task, and group observations. Both systemic functional linguistics and mental models frameworks were utilized to interpret data and guide analysis. A series of regression analyses were conducted to determine if engineering language proficiency predicts group engineering term use, if conceptual understanding predicts group engineering term use, and if conceptual understanding predicts engineering language proficiency. Engineering academic language proficiency was found to be strongly linked to conceptual understanding in the context of introductory materials engineering courses. As the semester progressed, this relationship became even stronger. The more engineering concepts students are expected to learn, the more important it is that they are proficient in engineering language. However, exposure to engineering terms did not influence engineering language proficiency. These results stress the importance of engineering language proficiency for learning, but warn that simply exposing students to engineering terms does not promote engineering language proficiency.

Kelly, Jacquelyn

251

Understanding Flexibility in Supply Chains: A Conceptual Framework and Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a conceptual study and literature review aimed at understanding flexibility in the context o f supply chains. The study indicated that several types of feasible in supply chains. Identification and exploitation of flexibilities of these flexibility types is important for enhancing the competitive performance of supply chains. Practicing managers would benefit from understanding the

K. S. Rao

2002-01-01

252

Student Misconceptions: A Qualitative Study of Conceptual Barriers in Plate Tectonics and in the Solar System among Upper Elementary Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Constructivist theory points to the importance of recognizing student conceptions and the need to address them if students are going to move from their first conceptions to scientifically accepted understandings. Research into students’ conceptions has therefore been conducted in the disciplines of physics, biology and chemistry, but so far has been limited in the earth sciences. In addition to this gap in the literature, there is a growing interest in making such research more accessible and useful to practitioners. Helpful to both of these needs are recent efforts to describe a particular class of students’ geoscience misconceptions termed “conceptual barriers”. Conceptual barriers are foundational or fundamental misconceptions in the sense that they bare relationships with many other concepts in a domain and stand to seriously impede studentsconceptual understanding. Rather than investigating discrete misconceptions, studies of conceptual barriers investigate the ramifications of such fundamental misconceptions for studentsunderstanding and reasoning throughout a topic. Where examples of students’ ill- or misconceived patterns of reasoning can be generated, they stand to aid practitioners in not only diagnosing students misconceptions but also in responding to them. We have conducted interviews with over twenty upper elementary and middle school students in order to investigate and describe conceptual barriers to student understanding in the earth sciences - specifically plate tectonics and gravity in the solar system. Student interviews were analyzed using a constant comparative method. Through this work we have been able to identify several possible conceptual barriers in studentsunderstandings and to describe the ways these barriers impact studentsunderstanding of related phenomena.

Brodsky, L. M.; Corrigan, S.

2010-12-01

253

A Confirmatory Structural Equation Model of Achievement Estimated by Dichotomous Attitudes, Interest, and Conceptual Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many models in science education have tried to clarify the causal relationships of affective variables on student performance, by presenting theoretical models, exploratory SEM (structural equation models), and confirmatory SEM. Based on the literature, the recent AS-TI-CU model scrutinised the most robust stimuli of conceptual understanding

Kim, Minkee; Song, Jinwoong

2010-01-01

254

Children's Understanding of Scientific Inquiry: Their Conceptualization of Uncertainty in Investigations of Their Own Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study examined children's understanding of scientific inquiry, through the lens of their conceptualization of uncertainty in investigations they had designed and implemented with a partner. These largely student-regulated investigations followed a unit about animal behavior that emphasized the scaffolding of independent inquiry. Participants…

Metz, Kathleen E.

2004-01-01

255

College physics students' epistemological self-reflection and its relationship to conceptual learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students should develop self-reflection skills and appropriate views about knowledge and learning, both for their own sake and because these skills and views may be related to improvements in conceptual understanding. We explored the latter issue in the context of an introductory physics course for first-year engineering honors students. As part of the course, students submitted weekly reports, in which they reflected on how they learned specific physics content. The reports by 12 students were analyzed for the quality of reflection and some of the epistemological beliefs they exhibited. Students' conceptual learning gains were measured with standard survey instruments. We found that students with high conceptual gains tend to show reflection on learning that is more articulate and epistemologically sophisticated than students with lower conceptual gains. Some implications for instruction are suggested.

May, David; Etkina, Eugenia

2005-11-02

256

Is Conceptual Understanding Compromised By A Problem- Solving Emphasis In An Introductory Physics Course?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developing competency in problem solving and enhancing conceptual understanding are primary objectives in introductory physics, and many techniques and tools are available to help instructors achieve them. Pedagogically, we use an easy-to-implement intervention, the ACCESS protocol, to develop and assess problem-solving skills in our SCALE-UP classroom environment for algebra-based physics. Based on our research and teaching experience, an important question has emerged: while primarily targeting improvements in problem-solving and cognitive development, is it necessary that conceptual understanding be compromised? To address this question, we gathered and analyzed information about student abilities, backgrounds, and instructional preferences. We report on our progress and give insights into matching the instructional tools to student profiles in order to achieve optimal learning in group-based active learning. The ultimate goal of our work is to integrate individual student learning needs into a pedagogy that moves students closer to expert-like status in problem solving.

Ridenour, Joshua; Feldman, Gerald; Teodorescu, Raluca E.; Medsker, Larry; Benmouna, Nawal

2013-07-18

257

Is conceptual understanding compromised by a problem-solving emphasis in an introductory physics course?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developing competency in problem solving and enhancing conceptual understanding are primary objectives in introductory physics, and many techniques and tools are available to help instructors achieve them. Pedagogically, we use an easy-to-implement intervention, the ACCESS protocol, to develop and assess problem-solving skills in our SCALE-UP classroom environment for algebra-based physics. Based on our research and teaching experience, an important question has emerged: while primarily targeting improvements in problem-solving and cognitive development, is it necessary that conceptual understanding be compromised? To address this question, we gathered and analyzed information about student abilities, backgrounds, and instructional preferences. We report on our progress and give insights into matching the instructional tools to student profiles in order to achieve optimal learning in group-based active learning. The ultimate goal of our work is to integrate individual student learning needs into a pedagogy that moves students closer to expert-like status in problem solving.

Ridenour, J.; Feldman, G.; Teodorescu, R.; Medsker, L.; Benmouna, N.

2013-01-01

258

Students' Perceptions of Statistics: An Exploration of Attitudes, Conceptualizations, and Content Knowledge of Statistics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although statistics education research has focused on students' learning and conceptual understanding of statistics, researchers have only recently begun investigating students' perceptions of statistics. The term perception describes the overlap between cognitive and non-cognitive factors. In this mixed-methods study, undergraduate students

Bond, Marjorie E.; Perkins, Susan N.; Ramirez, Caroline

2012-01-01

259

Students' Conceptual Knowledge of Energy and Momentum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this article, the authors describe their investigation of student understanding of energy and momentum concepts at the level of introductory physics by designing and administering a 25-item multiple choice test and conducting individual interviews. They find that most students have difficulty in qualitatively interpreting basic principles related to energy and momentum and in applying them in physical situations. The test development process and a summary of results are presented.

Singh, Chandralekha; Rosengrant, David

2006-12-06

260

Conceptual and mathematical barriers to students learning quantum mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum mechanics has revolutionized the way we view the physical world. This theory has required a dramatic revision in the structure of the laws of mechanics governing the behavior of the particles and led to the discovery of macroscopic quantum effects ranging from lasers and superconductivity to neutron stars and radiation from black holes. Though its validity is well confirmed by the experimental evidence available, quantum mechanics remains somewhat of a mystery. The purpose of this study is to identify students' conceptual and mathematical difficulties in learning the core concepts of introductory quantum mechanics, with the eventual goal of developing instructional material to help students with these difficulties. We have investigated student understanding of several core topics in the introductory courses, including quantum measurement, probability, Uncertainty Principle, wave functions, energy eigenstates, recognizing symmetry in physical systems, and mathematical formalism. Student specific difficulties with these topics are discussed throughout this dissertation. In addition, we have studied student difficulties in learning, applying, and making sense out of complex mathematical processes in the physics classroom. We found students' achievement in quantum courses is not independent of their math backgrounds (correlation coefficient 0.547 for P631 and 0.347 for P263). In addition, there is a large jump in the level of mathematics at which one needs to succeed in physics courses after the sophomore level in The Ohio State University's physics curriculum. Many students do not have a functional understanding of probability and its related terminologies. For example, many students confuse the "expectation value" with "probability density" in measurement and some students confuse "probability density" with "probability amplitude" or describe the probability amplitude as a "place" or "area." Our data also suggested that students tend to use classical models when interpreting quantum systems; for example, some students associate a higher energy to a larger amplitude in a wave function. Others, have difficulty differentiating wave functions from energy eigenstates. Furthermore, some students do not use the relationship between the wave function and the wavenumber as a primary resource in for qualitative analysis of wave functions in regions of different potential. Many students have difficulty recognizing mathematical symbols for a given graph and lack the ability to associate the correct functions with their respective graphs. I addition, students do not distinguish an oscillatory function such as e-ix from an exponential decay function such as e-x. The results reported suggest recommendations for further study of student understanding of quantum mechanics and for the development of materials to aid understanding. These recommendations have potentially important implications for the teaching of introductory quantum mechanics and for the development of teaching aids, texts, and technology resources.

Sadaghiani, Homeyra R.

261

Learning science in small groups: The relationship of conversation to conceptual understanding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between conversation and conceptual understanding of erosion. The objective of this study was to investigate how fifth grade students' conceptions of erosion changed while they used stream tables and worked in groups of four within an inquiry-based curriculum. This study used symbolic interactionism and sociocognitive frameworks to interpret science learning in the elementary classroom. The research focused on the conceptual understanding of the focal group students, their use of classroom discourse to talk about their understandings of erosion, and the expertise that emerged while using stream tables. This study took place over a one-semester long study on erosion. Key informants were eight fifth graders. The data sources consisted of children's journals; transcripts of audiotaped interviews with the key informants before, during, and after the erosion unit; transcripts of videotapes of the students using the stream tables; and field notes recording children's discourse and activity. Individual and group cases were constructed during the study. The knowledge of the eight focal group children was placed on a hierarchy of conceptual understanding that contained 8 components of the erosion process. All four of the students whose ideas were examined in depth gained in their conceptual understanding of erosion. Students' individual expertise enhanced their own conceptual understanding. The contribution of classroom discourse and expertise to conceptual understanding differed between the two focal groups. Group 1 used essential expertise to sustain generative conversations, maximizing their learning opportunities. Students in Group 1 got along with one another, rotated assigned roles and jobs, and were able to start their own generative conversations. Members of Group 1 asked generative questions, connected stream table events to real life situations, and involved everyone in the group. Group 2 engaged in a predominance of procedural discourse and had fewer learning opportunities. Group 2 had two dominant personalities who developed a conflict over roles and jobs, keeping their peers out of the conversation. Students in Group 2 had generative conversations, but these were not sustained due to the lack of acknowledgment of peer expertise and the starting their own generative conversations.

McDonald, James Tarleton

262

An analysis of science conceptual knowledge in journals of students with disabilities and normally achieving students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science education reforms of the last two decades have focused on raising the bar for ALL students which includes students with mild to moderate disabilities. Formative assessment can be used to assess the progress of these students to inquire, understand scientific concepts, reason scientifically, make decisions, and communicate effectively in science. The purpose of this study is to examine the use of science journals as a formative assessment in a guided inquiry unit of study for students with learning disabilities. Two normally achieving students (NA) and five students with learning disabilities (SLD) participated in a study of mammals that utilized journals to record the development of student knowledge through the course of study. Students were interviewed after the lessons were complete using the same prompts required in the journals. Themes were developed from the student writings and their verbal discourse using Grounded Theory. Journals and verbal discourse were rated following the themes of Knowledge Telling (KT) and Knowledge Transformation (KTR). Concept maps were developed for the Pre and Post test lessons (written and verbal discourses) by the raters in an attempt to further explain the knowledge that the students conveyed. The results of this study suggest that SLD are able to demonstrate knowledge about mammals better through verbal discourse than written discourse. While the NA students wrote more and used more technical discourse than did their SLD peers, the conceptual understanding of the topic by the SLD was no less inclusive than their NA peers when accessed verbally. The journals demonstrated limited conceptual growth for the SLD. Further, while lexical density is important to the development of knowledge in science, this study suggests the "conceptual density" may be another important indicator to examine.

Grigg, Gail S.

263

Studentsunderstanding of trigonometric functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article studentsunderstanding of trigonometric functions in the context of two college trigonometry courses is investigated.\\u000a The first course was taught by a professor unaffiliated with the study in a lecture-based course, while the second was taught\\u000a using an experimental instruction paradigm based on Gray and Tall’s (1994) notion of procept and current process-object theories\\u000a of learning. Via

Keith Weber

2005-01-01

264

University Physics Students' Conceptualizations of Factors Affecting the Speed of Sound Propagation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report discusses university physics students' conceptualizations of the factors affecting the speed of sound propagation. The data source consists of a set of detailed explanations which Canadian and South African physics graduates provided during the course of clinical-like interviews dealing with their understanding of sound. The analysis of the students' explanations was set in the phenomenographic tradition: their categorization led to the characterization of three qualitatively different conceptualizations. The conceptualizations are illustrated with dialogue excerpts taken from the student interviews. Implications for physics teaching are discussed.

Linder, Cedric J.

2006-06-22

265

Facilitating Chemistry Teachers' Understanding of Alternative Interpretations of Conceptual Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Historians and philosophers of science have recognized the importance of controversies in the progress of science. The objective of this study was to facilitate in-service chemistry teachers' understanding of conceptual change based on alternative philosophical interpretations (controversies). Selected controversies formed part of the chemistry…

Niaz, Mansoor

2006-01-01

266

Impact of Animation on Assessment of Conceptual Understanding in Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigates the effect of computer animation on assessment and the conditions under which animation may improve or hinder assessment of conceptual understanding in physics. An instrument was developed by replacing static pictures and descriptions of motion with computer animations on the Force Concept Inventory, a commonly used pencil…

Dancy, Melissa H.; Beichner, Robert

2006-01-01

267

Impact of animation on assessment of conceptual understanding in physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the effect of computer animation on assessment and the conditions under which animation may improve or hinder assessment of conceptual understanding in physics. An instrument was developed by replacing static pictures and descriptions of motion with computer animations on the Force Concept Inventory, a commonly used pencil and paper test. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected.

Melissa H. Dancy; Robert Beichner

2006-01-01

268

Impact of Animation on Assessment of Conceptual Understanding in Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the effect of computer animation on assessment and the conditions under which animation may improve or hinder assessment of conceptual understanding in physics. An instrument was developed by replacing static pictures and descriptions of motion with computer animations on the Force Concept Inventory, a commonly used pencil…

Dancy, Melissa H.; Beichner, Robert

2006-01-01

269

Perspectival Understanding of Conceptions and Conceptual Growth in Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We propose a bridge between cognitive and sociocultural approaches that is anchored on the sociocultural side by distributed cognition and participation, and on the cognitive side by information structures. We interpret information structures as the contents of distributed knowing and interaction in activity systems. Conceptual understanding is…

Greeno, James G.; van de Sande, Carla

2007-01-01

270

High School Intervention for Influenza Biology and Epidemics/Pandemics: Impact on Conceptual Understanding among Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Understanding real-life issues such as influenza epidemiology may be of particular interest to the development of scientific knowledge and initiation of conceptual changes about viruses and their life cycles for high school students. The goal of this research project was to foster the development of adolescents' conceptual understanding of viruses and influenza biology. Thus, the project included two components: 1) pre- and posttests to determine students' conceptions about influenza biology, epidemics/pandemics, and vaccination; and 2) design an intervention that supports conceptual change to promote improvements in influenza knowledge based on these primary conceptions. Thirty-five female students from a high school biology class participated in a series of instructional activities and pre- and posttest assessments. Results from the pretest indicated that high school students exhibit a limited understanding of concepts related to viruses. Six weeks after an intervention that promoted active learning, results from a posttest showed that conceptions about influenza are more accurately related to the provided scientific knowledge. Although adolescents have nonscientific models to explain influenza biology, we showed that a carefully designed intervention can affect students' knowledge as well as influence the implementation of health education programs in secondary schools.

Hasni, Abdelkrim

2009-01-01

271

Surveying Students' Conceptual Knowledge of Electricity and Magnetism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism (CSEM) which was developed to assess students' knowledge of topics in electricity and magnetism. Reports on the number of student difficulties in electricity and magnetism. (Contains 23 references.) (Author/YDS)

Maloney, David P.; O'Kuma, Thomas L.; Hieggelke, Curtis J.; Van Heuvelen, Alan

2001-01-01

272

Surveying Students' Conceptual Knowledge of Electricity and Magnetism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introduces the Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism (CSEM) which was developed to assess students' knowledge of topics in electricity and magnetism. Reports on the number of student difficulties in electricity and magnetism. (Contains 23 references.) (Author/YDS)|

Maloney, David P.; O'Kuma, Thomas L.; Hieggelke, Curtis J.; Van Heuvelen, Alan

2001-01-01

273

Assess students' understanding of key ecological concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological concepts are fundamental concepts that were commonly introduced in the upper-primary and secondary grades. However, Ecological concepts are difficult topic for K-12 students to learn. Thus there is a need for assess students' understanding in key ecological concepts. Research identifies K-12 students understandings of Ecological concepts. Methods used to determine students' understanding of concepts include concept mapping, flow maps,

Shu-Mey Yu

274

Attitudes of eighth-grade honors students toward the conceptual change methods of teaching science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study researched the attitude of eighth grade honors science students toward the steps of the conceptual change teaching method. The attitudes of 25 students in an honors 8th grade science class in the Greater Phoenix metropolitan area were assessed using a multi-method approach. A quantitative method (student survey) and a qualitative method (focus group) were triangulated for convergence. Since conceptual change is a relatively new reform teaching modality, the study assessed students' attitudes utilizing this method. Conceptual change teaching is characterized by connections between concepts and facts which are organized around key ideas. Knowledge connected through concepts is constantly revised and edited by students as they continue to learn and add new concepts. The results of this study produced evidence that the conceptual change method of teaching science and its six process steps have qualities that foster positive student attitude. The study demonstrated that students' attitudes toward science is positively influenced through the conceptual change teaching method by enabling students to: (1) choose problems and find solutions to those problems (student directed); (2) work together in large and small groups; (3) learn through student oral presentations; (4) perform hands-on laboratory experiences; (5) learn through conceptual understanding not memorization; (6) implement higher order learning skills to make connections from the lab to the real world. Teachers can use the information in the study to become aware of the positive and negative attitudes of students taught with the conceptual change method. Even if the conceptual change teaching strategy is not the modality utilized by an educator, the factors identified by this study that affect student attitude could be used to help a teacher design lesson plans that help foster positive student attitudes.

Heide, Clifford Lee

275

High School Students' Understanding of Projectile Motion Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of conceptual change-based instruction and traditionally designed physics instruction on students' understanding of projectile motion concepts. Misconceptions related to projectile motion concepts were determined by related literature on this subject. Accordingly, the Projectile Motion…

Dilber, Refik; Karaman, Ibrahim; Duzgun, Bahattin

2009-01-01

276

Student Understanding of Liquid-Vapor Phase Equilibrium  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Student understanding of the equilibrium coexistence of a liquid and its vapor was the subject of an extended investigation. Written assessment questions were administered to undergraduates enrolled in introductory physics and chemistry courses. Responses have been analyzed to document conceptual and reasoning difficulties in sufficient detail to…

Boudreaux, Andrew; Campbell, Craig

2012-01-01

277

University Students' Understanding of Thermal Physics in Everyday Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thermal physics is in the realm of everyday experience, underlies current environmental concerns, and underpins studies in sciences, health and engineering. In the state of NSW in Australia, the coverage of thermal topics in high school is minimal, and, hence, so is the conceptual understanding of students. This study takes a new approach at…

Georgiou, Helen; Sharma, Manjula Devi

2012-01-01

278

University Students' Understanding of Thermal Physics in Everyday Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Thermal physics is in the realm of everyday experience, underlies current environmental concerns, and underpins studies in sciences, health and engineering. In the state of NSW in Australia, the coverage of thermal topics in high school is minimal, and, hence, so is the conceptual understanding of students. This study takes a new approach at…

Georgiou, Helen; Sharma, Manjula Devi

2012-01-01

279

Student Understanding of Liquid-Vapor Phase Equilibrium  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student understanding of the equilibrium coexistence of a liquid and its vapor was the subject of an extended investigation. Written assessment questions were administered to undergraduates enrolled in introductory physics and chemistry courses. Responses have been analyzed to document conceptual and reasoning difficulties in sufficient detail to…

Boudreaux, Andrew; Campbell, Craig

2012-01-01

280

The quality of student life: Toward a coherent conceptualization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under various guises, the concept of the quality of student life (QSL) has received much attention in the higher education literature. Unfortunately, its various uses have in common that they all lack conceptual coherence. In an effort to remedy this situation, and render QSL useful for researchers, administrators and student services personnel, this paper does three things. First, a conceptual

Michael Benjamin

1994-01-01

281

Teaching fluids: Intended knowledge and students' actual conceptual evolution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the present paper, we describe and discuss an approach to the teaching of the conceptually demanding topic of fluids which focuses on promoting student teachers' conceptual evolution towards a suggested scientific model. We discuss a comprehensive conceptual model about fluids to be taught to primary education student teachers based on the interrelation of content analysis and students' domain specific conceptions and reasoning. We also present features of a relevant instructional strategy, involving conflict and enhancement procedures, as well as of the experimental field linked to the conceptual model to be taught. This teaching sequence was applied to a small sample of student teachers aiming at the in-depth description of their conceptual development. Comparison of the intended sequence with student teachers' actual constructions in the course of teaching revealed unexpected intermediate steps in their evolution towards differentiation of the intensive variable pressure and the extensive variable force.

Psillos, D.; Kariotoglou, P.

2005-11-23

282

The Effect of Supplementing Instruction with Conceptual Change Texts on Students' Conceptions of Electrochemical Cells  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of instruction supplemented by conceptual change texts (CCTs) over traditional instruction on students' understanding of electrochemical (galvanic and electrolytic) cell concepts. The participants of the study consisted of 64 students from the two classes of a high school located in…

Yuruk, Nejla

2007-01-01

283

Remediating High School Students' Misconceptions Concerning Diffusion and Osmosis through Concept Mapping and Conceptual Change Text.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigates the effectiveness of combining conceptual change text and concept mapping strategies on students' understanding of diffusion and osmosis. Results indicate that while the average percentage of students in the experimental group holding a scientifically correct view rose, the percentage of correct responses in the control group…

Tekkaya, Ceren

2003-01-01

284

Using Analogy and Model to Enhance Conceptual Change in Thai Middle School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined conceptual change of Thai middle school students after learning photosynthesis with analogy and model. The analogy mapped key features from the analog (cooking food) to the target concept (photosynthesis). Modeling photosynthesis activity provided the opportunity for students to understand how plants use sugar to synthesize…

Wichaidit, Sittichai; Wongyounoi, Somson; Dechsri, Precharn; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin

2011-01-01

285

The Effect of Supplementing Instruction with Conceptual Change Texts on Students' Conceptions of Electrochemical Cells  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of instruction supplemented by conceptual change texts (CCTs) over traditional instruction on students' understanding of electrochemical (galvanic and electrolytic) cell concepts. The participants of the study consisted of 64 students from the two classes of a high school located in…

Yuruk, Nejla

2007-01-01

286

Conceptual Change in Mathematics: Understanding the Real Numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter some special features of mathematical knowledge are considered in order to better understand the nature of\\u000a conceptual change in this domain. In learning mathematics, every extension to the number concept demands, not only accepting\\u000a new concepts, but new logic as well. This new logic more or less contradicts the prior fundamental logic of natural numbers.\\u000a Therefore, misconceptions

Kaarina Merenluoto; Erno Lehtinen

287

Facilitating Chemistry Teachers’ Understanding of Alternative Interpretations of Conceptual Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historians and philosophers of science have recognized the importance of controversies in the progress of science. The objective\\u000a of this study was to facilitate in-service chemistry teachers’ understanding of conceptual change based on alternative philosophical\\u000a interpretations (controversies). Selected controversies formed part of the chemistry curriculum both at secondary and university\\u000a freshman level. The study is based on 17 in-service teachers

Mansoor Niaz

2006-01-01

288

Effects of Conceptual Change and Traditional Confirmatory Simulations on Pre-Service Teachers' Understanding of Direct Current Circuits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The objective of this research is to investigate the effects of simulations based on conceptual change conditions (CCS) and traditional confirmatory simulations (TCS) on pre-service elementary school teachers' understanding of direct current electric circuits. The data was collected from a sample consisting of 89 students; 48 students in the…

Baser, Mustafa

2006-01-01

289

Effects of Conceptual Change and Traditional Confirmatory Simulations on Pre-Service Teachers’ Understanding of Direct Current Circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research is to investigate the effects of simulations based on conceptual change conditions (CCS) and traditional confirmatory simulations (TCS) on pre-service elementary school teachers’ understanding of direct current electric circuits. The data was collected from a sample consisting of 89 students; 48 students in the experimental group who were taught simulations based on CCS, and 41

Mustafa Baser

2006-01-01

290

Students' Cognitive Conflict and Conceptual Change in a Physics by Inquiry Class  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With proper context settings, instructors need to guide students to recognize explicitly cognitive conflicts among students' existing understandings and new observations. To study this issue, we have developed an easy-to-use instrument, the in-class Conflict and Anxiety Recognition Evaluation (iCARE), for monitoring the status of students' cognitive conflicts and anxiety in the context of Physics by Inquiry (PBI) classes. Using iCARE, we investigate what types of cognitive conflict is constructive or destructive in conceptual change when college students are confronted with anomalous situations in a PBI class. In this research, we will present our results about the relationship between students' prior knowledge and their conceptual change and the relationship between students' types of cognitive conflicts and their conceptual change.

Kim, Yeounsoo; Bao, Lei; Acar, Omer

2006-02-01

291

Students' Cognitive Conflict and Conceptual Change in a Physics by Inquiry Class  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With proper context settings, instructors need to guide students to recognize explicitly cognitive conflicts among students' existing understandings and new observations. To study this issue, we have developed an easy-to-use instrument, the in-class Conflict and Anxiety Recognition Evaluation (iCARE), for monitoring the status of students' cognitive conflicts and anxiety in the context of Physics by Inquiry (PBI) classes. Using iCARE, we investigate what types of cognitive conflict is constructive or destructive in conceptual change when college students are confronted with anomalous situations in a PBI class. In this research, we will present our results about the relationship between students' prior knowledge and their conceptual change and the relationship between students' types of cognitive conflicts and their conceptual change.

Kim, Yeounsoo; Bao, Lei; Acar, Omer

2009-07-13

292

Students' ways of understanding aromaticity and electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies in organic chemistry education focus mainly on increasing students' performance. Studies from general chemistry education reveal that students' performance is not a good indicator of conceptual understanding. In support, Bhattacharyya and Bodner (2005) reveal that chemistry graduate students can produce correct answers to reaction mechanisms tasks in organic chemistry without understanding the underlying concepts behind the tasks. This dissertation uses the constructs of Harel's DNR-based instruction (1998, 2001, in press [a]) to categorize students' ways of understanding aromaticity and electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions. DNR refers to three instructional principles: Duality Principle, Necessity Principle and Repeated Reasoning Principle. Primarily, this study applies the following constructs integral to the Duality Principle: ways of understanding and ways of thinking. The purpose of this study is three-fold. The first purpose is to identify students' ways of understanding aromaticity and electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions and subsequently the ways of thinking that are inferred by these ways of understanding. The second purpose of this study is to provide quantitative evidence of students' beliefs (one category of ways of thinking) about learning organic chemistry. The third purpose is to show how we can help students develop more desirable ways of understanding aromaticity. First, several ways of understanding were identified from semi-structured interviews conducted with 12 undergraduate-level students. Three ways of thinking were inferred from these ways of understanding: (1) non-referential symbolic reasoning, (2) non-referential use of terminology, and (3) beliefs about learning organic chemistry. Second, the results of a 46-Item Likert-scale survey provided empirical evidence to support the claim that the students have a tendency towards memorization when learning organic chemistry. Third, this study demonstrated the potential for students' developing more scientific ways of understanding aromaticity through teaching interview sessions where problem tasks were designed to perturb students existing ways of understanding.

Duffy, Anne Merete

293

A Generational Approach to Understanding Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This chapter establishes the conceptual framework for understanding the Millennial generation by presenting a theoretical model of generational succession that demonstrates the value of studying how the values of one generation interact with and are influenced by others.|

Coomes, Michael D.; DeBard, Robert

2004-01-01

294

The Effects of Inquiry Based Computer Simulation with Cooperative Learning on Scientific Thinking and Conceptual Understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of inquiry-based computer simulation with heterogeneous-ability cooperative learning (HACL) and inquiry-based computer simulation with friendship cooperative learning (FCL) on (a) scientific reasoning (SR) and (b) conceptual understanding (CU) among Form Four students in Malaysian Smart Schools. The study further investigated the effects of the HACL and FCL methods on performance

Sopiah Abdullah; Merza Abbas

295

Reconsidering Conceptual Change from a Socio-Cultural Perspective: Analyzing Students' Meaning Making in Genetics in Collaborative Learning Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the learning sciences, students' understanding of scientific concepts has often been approached in terms of "conceptual change". These studies are grounded in a cognitive or a socio-cognitive approach to students' understanding and imply a focus on the individuals' mental representations of scientific concepts and ideas. We approach students'…

Furberg, Anniken; Arnseth, Hans Christian

2009-01-01

296

Conceptual Ecology of Evolution Acceptance among Greek Education Students: The Contribution of Knowledge Increase  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, we explored the factors related to acceptance of evolutionary theory among students/preservice preschool education teachers using conceptual ecology for biological evolution as a theoretical frame. We aimed to examine the acceptance and understanding of evolutionary theory and also the relationship of acceptance and understanding

Athanasiou, Kyriacos; Katakos, Efstratios; Papadopoulou, Penelope

2012-01-01

297

Conceptual Understanding and Stability, and Knowledge Shields for Fending Off Conceptual Change.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper reports on the learning of difficult and complex concepts, the characteristics of these concepts that make them difficult for students to learn and understand well, the kind of misconceptions they acquire, and the difficulty of changing these mi...

P. J. Feltovich R. J. Spire R. L. Coulson J. F. Adami

1994-01-01

298

Conceptual continuity and the science of baseball: using informal science literacy to promote students' science learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This project explores conceptual continuity as a framework for understanding students' native ways of understanding and describing. Conceptual continuity suggests that the relationship between the use of words in one genre and the scientific genre can exist at varying levels of association. This perspective can reveal the varied relationships between ideas explained in everyday or vernacular genres and their association to scientific explanations. We conducted a 2-year study involving 15 high school baseball players' understanding of the physics involved in baseball. First, we conducted a quantitative assessment of their science understanding by administering a test prior to season one (2006) and season two (2007). Second, we examined the types of linguistic resources students used to explain their understanding. Third, we revisited our data by using conceptual continuity to identify similarities between students' conceptual understanding in the informal contexts and their similarities to canonical scientific ideas. The results indicated students' performance on the multiple-choice questions suggested no significant improvement. The qualitative analyses revealed that students were able to accurately explain different components of the idea by using a diversity of scientific and non-scientific genres. These results call attention to the need to reconstruct our vision of science learning to include a more language sensitive approach to teaching and learning.

Brown, Bryan A.; Kloser, Matt

2009-12-01

299

The discourse of engagement: An approach to analyzing conceptual understanding in an inquiry-based learning environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engineering educators are increasingly being encouraged to adopt instructional methods that engage students in authentic activities to foster inquiry and deeper conceptual understanding. However, a significant challenge facing professors who would like to incorporate such methods into their teaching is a lack of understanding of its basic principles, mechanisms, and features. This paper reports results of an innovative means of

Kerrie Kephart

2008-01-01

300

Surveying students' understanding of quantum mechanics in one spatial dimension  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We explore the difficulties that advanced undergraduate and graduate students have with non-relativistic quantum mechanics of a single particle in one spatial dimension. To investigate these difficulties we developed a conceptual survey and administered it to more than 200 students at 10 institutions. The issues targeted in the survey include the set of possible wavefunctions, bound and scattering states, quantum measurement, expectation values, the role of the Hamiltonian, and the time-dependence of the wavefunction and expectation values. We find that undergraduate and graduate students have many common difficulties with these concepts and that research-based tutorials and peer-instruction tools can significantly reduce these difficulties. The findings also suggest that graduate quantum mechanics courses may not be effective at helping students to develop a better conceptual understanding of these topics, partly because such courses mainly focus on quantitative assessments.

Zhu, Guangtian; Singh, Chandralekha

2012-04-30

301

Trajectories of collaborative scientific conceptual change: Middle school students learning about ecosystems in a CSCL environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dissertation aims to achieve two goals. First, it attempts to establish a new theoretical framework---the collaborative scientific conceptual change model, which explicitly attends to social factor and epistemic practices of science, to understand conceptual change. Second, it report the findings of a classroom study to investigate how to apply this theoretical framework to examine the trajectories of collaborative scientific conceptual change in a CSCL environment and provide pedagogical implications. Two simulations were designed to help students make connections between the macroscopic substances and the aperceptual microscopic entities and underlying processes. The reported study was focused on analyzing the aggregated data from all participants and the video and audio data from twenty focal groups' collaborative activities and the process of their conceptual development in two classroom settings. Mixed quantitative and qualitative analyses were applied to analyze the video/audio data. The results found that, overall participants showed significant improvements from pretest to posttest on system understanding. Group and teacher effect as well as group variability were detected in both students' posttest performance and their collaborative activities, and variability emerged in group interaction. Multiple data analyses found that attributes of collaborative discourse and epistemic practices made a difference in student learning. Generating warranted claims in discourse as well as the predicting, coordinating theory-evidence, and modifying knowledge in epistemic practices had an impact on student's conceptual understanding. However, modifying knowledge was found negatively related to students' learning effect. The case studies show how groups differed in using the computer tools as a medium to conduct collaborative discourse and epistemic practices. Only with certain combination of discourse features and epistemic practices can the group interaction lead to successful convergent understanding. The results of the study imply that the collaborative scientific conceptual change model is an effective framework to study conceptual change and the simulation environment may mediate the development of successful collaborative interactions (including collaborative discourse and epistemic practices) that lead to collaborative scientific conceptual change.

Liu, Lei

302

Conceptual change among middle school students studying elementary thermodynamics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Studies the conceptual changes and factors affecting eighth- grade physical science students (n=180) investigating elementary thermodynamics. Classifies three types of students regarding their learning methods: converging, progressing, and oscillating. Reports that original intuitive conceptions are difficult to change and that students engaged in activities requiring sustained reflection make greater cognitive gains.

Lewis, Eileen

2006-05-31

303

Nontraditional Students and Institutions of Higher Education: A Conceptual Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a conceptual base for pedagogy that embraces and incorporates the assets of nontraditional students in higher education and advocates for practice that honors and builds on students' cultural and social capital. It describes the challenges and opportunities faced by nontraditional students within institutions of higher education, focusing specifically on early childhood teacher preparation programs. The article proposes

Sara Exposito; Susan Bernheimer

2012-01-01

304

Students Conceptualizing Transcription and Translation from a Cellular Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It is difficult for students to conceptualize biochemical processes that are portrayed as two-dimensional figures in a textbook. Instead of relying on overheads, PowerPoint, or textbook figures, the authors have students imagine themselves actually being inside a cell. Students have a specific role in the cell: helping with the transcription and…

Concannon, James; Buzzetta, Maegan

2010-01-01

305

The Nature of Elementary Students' Science Discourse and Conceptual Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This qualitative study examined the nature of 5th-grade students' oral and written discourse in relation to their conceptual learning during six science inquiry-based lessons. Qualitative data were collected using small group observations, transcriptions of small group discourse, students' science notebooks, and student interviews. These data…

Parks, Melissa Y.

2011-01-01

306

Effects of conceptual assignments and conceptual change discussions on students' misconceptions and achievement regarding force and motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Investigates the effects of conceptual assignments and conceptual change discussions on high school students' achievement and misconceptions about force and motion. Analyzes pretest and posttest data from the Force Misconception and Force Achievement Tests (FMFAT). Discusses the effects on the conceptual change discussion on reducing misconceptions students held as well as improving students' achievement in force and motion.

Eryilmaz, Ali

2005-10-21

307

Students' Conceptual Difficulties in Quantum Mechanics: Potential Well Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, students' conceptual difficulties about some basic concepts in quantum mechanics like one-dimensional potential well problems and probability density of tunneling particles were identified. For this aim, a multiple choice instrument named Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Test has been developed by one of the researchers of this study…

Ozcan, Ozgur; Didis, Nilufer; Tasar, Mehmet Fatih

2009-01-01

308

The effects of a visualization-centered curriculum on conceptual understanding and representational competence in high school biology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a visualization-centered curriculum, Hemoglobin: A Case of Double Identity, on conceptual understanding and representational competence in high school biology. Sixty-nine students enrolled in three sections of freshman biology taught by the same teacher participated in this study. Online Chemscape Chime computer-based molecular visualizations were incorporated into the 10-week curriculum to introduce students to fundamental structure and function relationships. Measures used in this study included a Hemoglobin Structure and Function Test, Mental Imagery Questionnaire, Exam Difficulty Survey, the Student Assessment of Learning Gains, the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking, the Attitude Toward Science in School Assessment, audiotapes of student interviews, students' artifacts, weekly unit activity surveys, informal researcher observations and a teacher's weekly questionnaire. The Hemoglobin Structure and Function Test, consisting of Parts A and B, was administered as a pre and posttest. Part A used exclusively verbal test items to measure conceptual understanding, while Part B used visual-verbal test items to measure conceptual understanding and representational competence. Results of the Hemoglobin Structure and Function pre and posttest revealed statistically significant gains in conceptual understanding and representational competence, suggesting the visualization-centered curriculum implemented in this study was effective in supporting positive learning outcomes. The large positive correlation between posttest results on Part A, comprised of all-verbal test items, and Part B, using visual-verbal test items, suggests this curriculum supported students' mutual development of conceptual understanding and representational competence. Evidence based on student interviews, Student Assessment of Learning Gains ratings and weekly activity surveys indicated positive attitudes toward the use of Chemscape Chime software and the computer-based molecular visualization activities as learning tools. Evidence from these same sources also indicated that students felt computer-based molecular visualization activities in conjunction with other classroom activities supported their learning. Implications for instructional design are discussed.

Wilder, Anna

309

Stellar Ideas: Exploring Students' Understanding of Stars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, high school and first-year undergraduate students were asked about their understanding of stars. The hypothesis guiding this research posits that high school students who have taken a semester-long astronomy course will have an understanding of stars most related to scientific knowledge, compared with high school students enrolled…

Agan, Lori

2004-01-01

310

Western Australian school students' understanding of biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Are science educators providing secondary school students with the background to understand the science behind recent controversies such as the recently introduced compulsory labelling of genetically modified foods? Research from the UK suggests that many secondary school students do not understand the processes or implications of modern biotechnology. The situation in Australia is unclear. In this study, 1116 15-year-old students

Vaille Dawson; Renato Schibeci

2003-01-01

311

Understanding systematic conceptual structures in polysemous medical terms.  

PubMed Central

Polysemy is a bottleneck for the demanding needs of semantic data management. We suggest the importance of a well-founded conceptual analysis for understanding some systematic structures underlying polysemy in the medical lexicon. We present some cases studies, which exploit the methods (ontological integration and general theories) and tools (description logics and ontology libraries) of the ONIONS methodology defined elsewhere by the authors. This paper addresses an aspect (systematic metomymies) of the project we are involved in, which investigates the feasibility of building a large-scale ontology library of medicine that integrates the most important medical terminology banks.

Gangemi, A.; Pisanelli, D. M.; Steve, G.

2000-01-01

312

Comet Inquiry in Action: Developing Conceptual Understanding of Comets through Stardust and Deep Impact Mission EPO Activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA Discovery Program missions to comets - Deep Impact and Stardust, and their extended missions - are the rich source that their respective Education and Public Outreach teams mine to convey investigative concepts to K-12 students. Specially designed curricular activities strive to be engaging and represent science authentically. Even more, they unpack complex science content so students' conceptual understanding can develop. Multimedia elements - interactives, interviews, and games - enhance an educator's toolbox of materials used to reach diverse audiences and deepen understanding.

Feaga, L.; Warner, E.; Ristvey, J.; Cobb, W.; Meyer, A.

2012-08-01

313

Introductory thermal concept evaluation: assessing students' understanding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a pen and paper instrument designed to provide a measure of a range of student beliefs about thermal phenomena. The trial version, administered to 478 high school and university students aged 15-18 years, was able to distinguish belief changes in two populations, year 11 and first-year university physics students. We have used the revised instrument as a pre-test and post-test for evaluating students' conceptual change following instruction. The instrument, called the Thermal Concept Evaluation, is appended.

Yeo, Shelley; Zadnik, Marjan

2001-11-01

314

Students' Conceptions of Underlying Principles in Medical Physiology: An Interview Study of Medical Students' Understanding in a PBL Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Medical physiology is known to be a complex area where students develop significant errors in conceptual understanding. Students' knowledge is often bound to situational descriptions rather than underlying principles. This study explores how medical students discern and process underlying principles in physiology. Indepth interviews, where…

Fyrenius, Anna; Silen, Charlotte; Wirell, Staffan

2007-01-01

315

Using Multiple Representations to Promote Grade 11 Students' Scientific Understanding of the Particle Theory of Matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study explored two groups of Grade 11 (age 16-17) students' conceptual understandings about aspects of particle theory before, immediately after, and 3 months after instruction with multiple representations (IMR) and instruction with verbal representations (IVR). Data sources included open-ended questionnaires, interviews, and student artifacts. The data were analyzed using statistical and descriptive methods to compare the extent of change and persistence in the IMR and IVR students' conceptual understandings of particle theory. The results indicated that the students held similar, but poor understandings of particle theory prior to any instruction. After instruction, the IMR students outperformed the IVR students in terms of developing scientific understandings about each aspect of particle theory and maintaining such understandings over a period of time. The results demonstrated that carefully designed instruction using multiple representations can be very efficacious in promoting and maintaining students' scientific understanding.

Adadan, Emine

2013-06-01

316

Commonsense Chemistry: A Model for Understanding Students' Alternative Conceptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students' alternative conceptions play a central role in how they learn science. However, the large number and diversity of these alternative conceptions makes it difficult for teachers to identify any patterns in their students' thinking. A thorough analysis of alternative conceptions in chemistry, as described in the research literature in science and chemistry education, has led to the development of an explanatory framework that encompasses many of the ideas held by chemistry students about chemical substances and phenomena. Research results provided here indicate that many students' conceptual difficulties result from commonsense reasoning. This commonsense approach is based upon a set of assumptions about the natural world and the application of reasoning heuristics that students instinctively follow and apply without hesitating or considering other alternatives. The identification of this explanatory framework may provide a useful model that teachers can use to better understand and even predict many of their students' learning difficulties.

Talanquer, Vicente

2006-05-01

317

Student Centeredness: Conceptualizing and Operationalizing It.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper explores the concept of student-centered instruction at the higher education level and proposes use of the STUCEN scale to evaluate student centeredness as an institution-wide strategy and to link it to performance criteria such as student recruitment, retention, and graduation. The philosophy of student centeredness is discussed in…

Bangura, Abdul Karim

318

Student understanding of quantum mechanics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We investigate the difficulties of advanced undergraduate students toward the end of a full year upper-level quantum mechanics course with concepts related to quantum measurements and time development. Our analysis is based upon a test administered to 89 students from six universities and interviews with 9 students. Strikingly, most students shared the same difficulties despite variations in background, teaching styles, and textbooks. Concepts related to stationary states, eigenstates, and time dependence of expectation values were found to be particularly difficult. An analysis of written tests and interviews suggests that widespread misconceptions originate from an inability to discriminate between related concepts and a tendency to overgeneralize.

Singh, Chandralekha

2005-11-23

319

Conceptualizing the Roles of Mentor Teachers during Student Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The field-based mentoring of student teachers is often an idiosyncratic and nuanced practice in which mentors' conceptualizations of their interactions with student teachers are generated through personal experiences with teacher education. If teacher educators and programs are to strengthen the tie between campus and field-based teacher…

Butler, Brandon M.; Cuenca, Alexander

2012-01-01

320

Student Perceptions of a Conceptual Physical Education Activity Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Conceptual physical education (CPE) courses are typically included in university course work to provide students knowledge and skills to engage in physical activity for life. The purpose of this study was to identify CPE course characteristics that contributed to positive and negative student perceptions. Participants included 157 undergraduates…

Jenkins, Jayne M.; Jenkins, Patience; Collums, Ashley; Werhonig, Gary

2006-01-01

321

Student Perceptions of a Conceptual Physical Education Activity Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conceptual physical education (CPE) courses are typically included in university course work to provide students knowledge and skills to engage in physical activity for life. The purpose of this study was to identify CPE course characteristics that contributed to positive and negative student perceptions. Participants included 157 undergraduates…

Jenkins, Jayne M.; Jenkins, Patience; Collums, Ashley; Werhonig, Gary

2006-01-01

322

Conceptualizations of Nature from Science Students in Northeastern Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to explore rural and provincial students' conceptualizations of nature in Colombia alongside the science education offered in their school communities. Students' perceptions of nature were produced from interviews that revolved around a focusing event and two eliciting devices to document their views about home,…

Medina-Jerez, William

2007-01-01

323

Improving high school physical science students' understanding of the electromagnetic spectrum: A modified diagram approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this study was to identify major conceptual difficulties that selected public high school physical science students encounter in understanding a standard electromagnetic spectrum diagram. A research-driven, modified version of that standard diagram was used in this study to determine the value added to student understanding of electromagnetic waves. A content analysis was performed on electromagnetic spectrum diagrams

James Edward Quebedeaux

2007-01-01

324

Promoting Pre-Service Elementary Students' Understanding of Chemical Equilibrium through Discussions in Small Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of small group discussion on students' conceptual understanding of chemical equilibrium. Students' understanding of chemical equilibrium concepts was measured using the Misconception Identification Test. The test consisted of 30 items and administered as pre-posttests to a total of 81…

Bilgin, Ibrahim

2006-01-01

325

College students' use of science content during socioscientific issues negotiation: Impact of evolution understanding and acceptance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to explore the evolution science content used during college students' negotiation of biology-based socioscientific issues (SSI) and examine how it related to students' conceptual understanding and acceptance of biological evolution. Specific research questions were, (1a) what specific evolutionary science content do college students evoke during SSI negotiation, (1b) what is the depth of the

Samantha R. Fowler

2009-01-01

326

Investigating the Effectiveness of a POE-Based Teaching Activity on Students' Understanding of Condensation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on the development of a Predict-Observe-Explain, POE-based teaching strategy to facilitate conceptual change and its effectiveness on student understanding of condensation. The sample consisted of 52 first-year students in primary science education department. Students' ideas were elicited using a test consisting of five probe…

Costu, Bayram; Ayas, Alipasa; Niaz, Mansoor

2012-01-01

327

Textbook treatments and students' understanding of acceleration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The ways in which the concept of acceleration is treated in physics textbooks is compared with understandings of the concept demonstrated by final-year secondary (n=30) and first-year university students (n=60). Some students' understandings are shown to be incomplete in ways that parallel misleading or inaccurate textbook treatment of the concept.

Dall'Alba, Gloria

2006-05-23

328

Sensing: Supporting Student Understanding of Decimal Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Informed by theory and research in inquiry-based classrooms, this paper examines how classroom practices support students' understanding of decimals. Data from a six-month teaching experiment, based on the work of Moss and Case's (1999) use of percentages and metric measure as visible representations for students' emerging understanding of…

Hunter, Roberta; Anthony, Glenda

2003-01-01

329

Elementary School Students' Understandings of Technology Concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elementary school teachers and teacher educators have expressed concerns about what students learn as they engage in design and technology activities. This study was designed to identify students' understandings of selected technology concepts, and changes in those understandings across a range of age levels corresponding to grades 2, 4 and 6 at elementary school. Following an extensive interview program and

Robert S. Davis; Ian S. Ginns; Campbell J. McRobbie

330

Children's understanding of illness: Students' assessments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of graduate students in the fields of nursing, social work, child life, and counseling education regarding children's understanding of illness concepts. Students were assessed as to their knowledge of children's perceptions of illness as described from a Piagetian developmental viewpoint. Eighty-five graduate students from a southern university in the fields

Heidi Wilson Vacik; M. Christine Nagy; Peggy O. Jessee

2001-01-01

331

High School Students' Physical Education Conceptual Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The value of conceptual physical education knowledge has long been acknowledged (American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, 1969; Kneer, 1981; NASPE, 1995) yet has not been formally measured or assessed. Seven multiple choice tests with established validity and reliability (Ayers, 2001b) were used to assess the concepts…

Ayers, Suzan F.

2004-01-01

332

Conceptual Understanding of Climate Change with a Simple Climate Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The future climate change projections are essentially based on coupled general circulation model (CGCM) simulations, which give a distinct global warming pattern with arctic winter amplification, an equilibrium land-sea warming contrast and an inter-hemispheric warming gradient. While these simulations are the most important tool of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predictions, the conceptual understanding of these predicted structures of climate change and the causes of their uncertainties is very difficult to reach if only based on these highly complex CGCM simulations. In the study presented here we will introduce a very simple, globally resolved energy balance (GREB) model, which is capable of simulating the main characteristics of global warming. The model shall give a bridge between the strongly simplified energy balance models and the fully coupled 4-dimensional complex CGCMs. It provides a fast tool for the conceptual understanding and development of hypotheses for climate change studies and teaching. It is based on the surface energy balance by very simple representations of solar and thermal radiation, the atmospheric hydrological cycle, sensible turbulent heat flux, the transport by the mean atmospheric circulation and heat exchange with the deeper ocean. It can be run on any PC computer and compute 200yrs climate scenarios within minutes. The simple model's climate sensitivity and the spatial structure of the warming pattern are within the uncertainties of the IPCC models simulations. It is capable of simulating the arctic winter amplification, the equilibrium land-sea warming contrast and the inter-hemispheric warming gradient with good agreement to the IPCC models in amplitude and structure.

Dommenget, Dietmar; Floeter, Janine

2010-05-01

333

The Effects of Inquiry-Based Computer Simulation with Cooperative Learning on Scientific Thinking and Conceptual Understanding of Gas Laws  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of inquiry-based computer simulation with heterogeneous-ability cooperative learning (HACL) and inquiry-based computer simulation with friendship cooperative learning (FCL) on (a) scientific reasoning (SR) and (b) conceptual understanding (CU) among Form Four students in Malaysian Smart…

Abdullah, Sopiah; Shariff, Adilah

2008-01-01

334

The Effectiveness of Peer Instruction and Structured Inquiry on Conceptual Understanding of Force and Motion: A Case Study from Thailand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study proposed to investigate the effectiveness of learning activities based on a conceptual change theoretical framework by embedding a peer instruction method with structured inquiry (PISI) on tenth grade students' understanding of force and motion concepts. This teaching method was compared to the existing traditional instruction (TI).…

Suppapittayaporn, Decha; Emarat, Narumon; Arayathanitkul, Kwan

2010-01-01

335

Understanding the nature of science through the historical development of conceptual models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the nature of science has been a common goal in science education for years and continues to hold a distinct place in the recently developed Pan-Canadian science framework. Although the nature of science is often prominent in the front end of such reform documents, the implementation of these goals is presumed to be taught implicitly with the delivery of knowledge outcomes. Research strongly indicates that most students have naive conceptions about the nature of science. Surprisingly, research also clearly shows that science teachers do not fare much better, and that when they do possess adequate understanding of the nature of science it does not significantly influence their behaviour in the classroom. Norm Lederman (1998), one of the leading scholars in this field, describes two approaches advocated by curriculum reform documents to address the nature of science outcomes. The first approach suggests that students can achieve nature of science outcomes by "doing science", the second suggests that history of science can enhance students' understanding of the nature of science. While Lederman advocates the use of the history of science, he argues that these approaches are not effective when used implicitly. He recommends that an explicit approach be used (planned for, taught, assessed), but so far there have been no studies which employ this technique beyond short lessons or limited case histories. This thesis advocates an explicit approach to teaching the nature of science using the historical development of conceptual models. The research study of this thesis integrated the historical development of conceptual models with the traditional content found in a typical grade ten chemistry curriculum. Participants in the research were 74 senior 2 (grade 10) science students from four different classes in three different schools in the province of Manitoba. Prior to, and after instruction, students wrote Lederman's VNOS nature of science test. The tests were reviewed by the researcher and a nature of science profile was compiled for each student. From this profile and the student responses, 24 students (8 from each group) were selected to be interviewed. The research indicates that the HDCM unit was a successful means to improve students' understanding of models, theories, evidence, and the tentativeness of science. The manner in which students employed their examples in the post-test suggests that the historical content of the unit accounts for this change. On the relationship between laws and theories the research indicates that the view that theories advance to laws is an extremely tenacious misconception although students did seem to improve their understanding of laws and theories independently. The HDCM unit did not yield significant results in advancing students understandings of the creative and imaginative aspects of the nature of science. However, there were individual cases where progress was made which might indicate that more opportunity and a longer development time could enhance student understanding in this area. Students also indicated positive attitudes towards the inclusion of the history of science in their curriculum. The HDCM unit presented a more humanistic view of science to the students which was reflected in their interest, motivation, and responses to the curriculum. We should view this results as positive for future curriculum development in this area. Finally, the HDCM unit was shown to significantly influence one practising teacher's understanding of the nature of science.

Metz, Donald J.

336

Influence of student-designed experiments with fast plants on their understanding of plants and of scientific inquiry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation investigates the influence of student designed experiments with Fast Plants in an undergraduate agroecology course on the students' conceptual understanding of plant life cycles and on their procedural understanding of scientific experimentation. It also considers students' perspectives on the value of these experiences. Data sources included semi-structured interviews with students and the instructor, a written task, course evaluations,

Ann Kosek Akey

2000-01-01

337

Student-Student Online Coaching: Conceptualizing an Emerging Learning Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of this paper is to describe student-student online coaching, defined as "an online service where a student gets support on a specific subject matter from a more experienced student". Student-student online coaching emphasizes learning a subject matter by giving a student the opportunity to get coached by a coach, i.e. a more experienced…

Hrastinski, Stefan; Stenbom, Stefan

2013-01-01

338

Students' understanding of combustion and its instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined a cross-age population of 1,237 students from grades 6 through 12 and also 76 university students. Also, 75 8th grade students in two instructional groups were involved in a session of 16-hour science courses. A questionnaire with six knowledge and twelve cognitive ability questions was used to evaluate students' understanding of combustion. Furthermore, one pre-test and two

Chih-Che Tai

2009-01-01

339

Year 7 students' understanding of area measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a study of Year 7 students' understanding of area measurentent. 43 students completed a written test just before and immediately afrer study'ing areas oJ rectangles and triangles. Twelve of these students, representing the range of ability in the sample, were interviewed as they solved three erea tasks. Results indicate that many students confuse area and perin'teter,

Michael Cavanagh

340

Probing adults' conceptual understanding and transfer of learning via problem posing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper reports on two experiments in which high performing university students having finished an introductory physics course were asked to pose mechanics questions. In Experiment 1, subjects were given problem situations (i.e. a story line accompanied with a diagram from which problems could be constructed) and asked to generate "textbook-like" problems that could be solved with specific concepts (e.g. conservation of mechanical energy, Newton's Second Law). In Experiment 2, subjects were given Concept Scenarios (i.e. a description of the physics principles and concepts that apply to a problem and the order in which they apply) and asked to generate problems that matched the scenarios. Interviews conducted immediately following the experiment asked the subjects to explain how the problems posed matched either the specified concepts, or the Concept Scenarios. Findings indicate that, when followed by an interview, problem solving is a powerful assessment tool for probing students' understanding of physics concepts, as well as their ability to transfer their knowledge to novel contexts. In many instances, students posed appropriate solvable problems, yet displayed major flaws in conceptual understanding. This suggests that even good novices are lacking in the way their conceptual knowledge is organized in memory and linked to problem contexts and procedures. Suggestions for using problem posing as a pedagogical tool are presented.

Mestre, Jose P.

2006-06-09

341

Computer-based physics and students' physics conceptual growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was designed to explore the process of students' conceptual change and investigate the effectiveness of computer simulations in fostering students' conceptual change. Since the 1980s students' preconceptions have been an interesting topic in science education, and many scholars have been trying to formulate effective approaches to address students' preconceptions. In Chapter 2 and Chapter 3, I examine the two dimensions of constructivism, radical and social, reflected on the most popular model of conceptual change, Posner's model, and propose an argument format of science instruction that includes six steps. According to this approach, teaching should start from where students are. Students are given enough opportunities to express their ideas and defend and examine their positions through argument with others. Instead of forcing students to buy scientific concepts, the instructor moves to the position of persuading students to appreciate science. In Chapters 4, 5, 6, and 7, I investigate the effectiveness of computer-based simulations in addressing students' preconceptions through qualitative and quantitative methods. This investigation lasted four terms, with 10 classes and a total of approximately 800 students involved. Interactive computer simulations, as demonstration and phenomena that require students to explain or make a prediction, were proved to be a helpful device in fostering conceptual change. Students' attitudes toward physics were somewhat independent of the use of simulations, although most of the students studied showed a preference for the use of simulations in physics classes. My theoretical study on teaching for conceptual change suggests that the events that are applied to foster conceptual change, including simulations, would be better used in the construction or invention stage of a new concept rather than in the application stage. My findings from the evaluation of the use of computer applets supported this prediction. I discovered that computer-based simulations worked more effectively when they were used in the exploratory stage of a new concept. Technology was not functional by itself for teaching and learning. Only when it was designed and used properly could technology help in education.

Zhou, Guoqiang

342

Comparing Student Learning with Multiple Research-Based Conceptual Surveys: CSEM and BEMA  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We present results demonstrating similar distributions of student scores, and statistically indistinguishable gains on two popular research-based assessment tools: the Brief Electricity and Magnetism Assessment (BEMA) and the Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism(CSEM). To deepen our understanding of student learning in our course environment and of these assessment tools as measures of student learning, we identify systematic trends and differences in results from these two instruments. We investigate correlations of both pre- and post- conceptual scores with other measures including traditional exam scores and course grades, student background (earlier grades), gender, a pretest of scientific reasoning, and tests of attitudes and beliefs about science and learning science. Overall, for practical purposes, we find the BEMA and CSEM are roughly equivalently useful instruments for measuring student learning in our course.

Pollock, Steven J.

2009-01-24

343

Western Australian school students' understanding of biotechnology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Are science educators providing secondary school students with the background to understand the science behind recent controversies such as the recently introduced compulsory labelling of genetically modified foods? Research from the UK suggests that many secondary school students do not understand the processes or implications of modern biotechnology. The situation in Australia is unclear. In this study, 1116 15-year-old students from eleven Western Australian schools were surveyed to determine their understanding of, and attitude towards, recent advances in modern biotechnology. The results indicate that approximately one third of students have little or no understanding of biotechnology. Many students over-estimate the use of biotechnology in our society by confusing current uses with possible future applications. The results provide a rationale for the inclusion of biotechnology, a cutting edge science, in the school science curriculum

Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

2003-01-01

344

A Study of Tertiary Physics Students' Conceptualization of Sound  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report discusses university physics students' conceptualizations of sound. The data for this study comes from ten Canadian physics graduates enrolled in a teacher education programme. They participated in clinical interviews that consisted of a variety of demonstrations and experiments based upon situations representing both 'everyday' as well as 'school-related' examples of sound phenomena. The data analysis was framed in a phenomenographic tradition and the conceptualizations are illustrated with dialogue excerpts taken from the student interviews. Implications for teacher education are discussed

Linder, Cedric J.; Erickson, Gaalen

2006-06-22

345

Effects of Conceptual Change and Traditional Confirmatory Simulations on Pre-Service Teachersâ Understanding of Direct Current Circuits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The objective of this research is to investigate the effects of simulations based on conceptual change conditions (CCS) and traditional confirmatory simulations (TCS) on pre-service elementary school teachersâ understanding of direct current electric circuits. The data was collected from a sample consisting of 89 students; 48 students in the experimental group who were taught simulations based on CCS, and 41 students in control group who followed the TCS. Subjects in both groups used open source software (Qucs) to simulate electric circuits. All students were administered Electric Circuits Concepts Test (DIRECT), Science Process Skills Test, Physics Attitude Scale, and Computer Attitude Scale before the treatment. Pre-test analyses revealed that there is no significant difference between experimental and control groups in terms of understanding of direct current electricity. After completing 3 weeks treatment, all students received the DIRECT again as a post-test. Analysis of covariance was used. Science process skills and attitudes toward computers were taken as covariates. The results showed that the conceptual change based simulations caused significantly better acquisition of conceptual change of direct current electricity concepts than the confirmatory simulation. While science process skills and attitudes towards computer made significant contributions to the variations in achievement, gender differences and interactions between gender and treatment did not. Eleven weeks later, the DIRECT was reapplied to the students in both groups. Eleven weeks delayed post-test results showed that the experimental group outperformed the control group in understanding of direct current electric concepts.

Baser, Mustafa

2010-03-11

346

Long-Term Outcomes of Early Childhood Science Education: Insights from a Cross-National Comparative Case Study on Conceptual Understanding of Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this research was to explore the long-term outcomes of either participating or not participating in early childhood science education on grade 6 students' conceptual understanding of science. The research is situated in a conceptual framework that evokes Piagetian developmental levels as both potential curriculum constraints and…

Tao, Ying; Oliver, Mary; Venville, Grady

2012-01-01

347

Conceptualizing Moon Phases: Helping Students Learn How to Learn  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Helping students understand how to learn is an important goal for all subjects and levels of education. While this goal is highly regarded, promoting it is extremely difficult. Many times, we as teachers are consumed with how to better help our students understand the content and forget to draw their attention to how they came to understand a…

Kruse, Jerrid; Wilcox, Jesse

2009-01-01

348

Conceptualizing Moon Phases: Helping Students Learn How to Learn  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Helping students understand how to learn is an important goal for all subjects and levels of education. While this goal is highly regarded, promoting it is extremely difficult. Many times, we as teachers are consumed with how to better help our students understand the content and forget to draw their attention to how they came to understand a…

Kruse, Jerrid; Wilcox, Jesse

2009-01-01

349

Consistency of students' conceptions of wave propagation: Findings from a conceptual survey in mechanical waves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We administered a multiple-choice conceptual survey in mechanical waves to 902 students ranging from high school to second year university. Analysis identified several conceptual models the students seemed to be using when answering survey questions. In this paper we investigate the strength with which students were committed to these conceptual models, as evidenced by the consistency with which they answered the questions. For this purpose we focus on the patterns of student responses to questions in a subtopic, wave propagation. This study has three main purposes: (1) to investigate the consistency of student conceptions, (2) to explore the relative usefulness of different analysis techniques, and (3) to determine what extra information a study of consistency can give about student understanding of basic concepts. We used two techniques: (1) categorizing and counting, and (2) model analysis, recently introduced into PER. Categorizing and counting is used in very diverse ways while model analysis has been employed only in prescriptive ways. Research studies have reported that students often use their conceptual models inconsistently when solving a series of questions that test the same idea. Our results support their conclusions. Moreover, our findings suggest that students with more experience in physics learning use the scientifically accepted models more consistently. Further, our findings show that model analysis can be used in more diverse ways, provides flexibility in analyzing multiple-choice questions, and provides more information about consistency of student conceptions. An unexpected finding is that studying waves in other contexts (for example, quantum mechanics or electromagnetism) leads to more consistent answers about mechanical waves. This suggests studying more abstract topics may solidify studentsâ understanding of more concrete waves. While perhaps intuitive, we have not actually found direct empirical studies supporting this conjecture.

Tongchai, Apisit; Sharma, Manjula D.; Johnston, Ian D.; Arayathanitkul, Kwan; Soankwan, Chernchok

2012-05-09

350

Instructional Tools to Probe Students' Prior Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article provides support to college science instructors who wish to implement new strategies to probe student understanding, not to prescribe a single best way to conduct a college science course.|

Wright, Ann W.; Bilica, Kim

2007-01-01

351

Investigating the students' understanding of surface phenomena  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated students' understanding of surface phenomena. The main purpose for conducting this research endeavor was to understand how students think about a complex topic about which they have little direct or formal instruction. The motivation for focusing on surface phenomena stemmed from an interest in integrating research and education. Despite the importance of surfaces and interfaces in research laboratories, in technological applications, and in everyday experiences, no previous systematic effort was done on pedagogy related to surface phenomena. The design of this research project was qualitative, exploratory, based on a Piagetian semi-structured clinical piloted interview, focused on obtaining a longitudinal view of the intended sample. The sampling was purposeful and the sample consisted of forty-four undergraduate students at Kansas State University. The student participants were enrolled in physics classes that spanned a wide academic spectrum. The data were analyzed qualitatively. The main themes that emerged from the analysis were: (a) students used analogies when confronted with novel situations, (b) students mixed descriptions and explanations, (c) students used the same explanation for several phenomena, (d) students manifested difficulties transferring the meaning of vocabulary across discipline boundaries, (e) in addition to the introductory chemistry classes, students used everyday experiences and job-related experiences as sources of knowledge, and (f) students' inquisitiveness and eagerness to investigate and discuss novel phenomena seemed to peak about the time students were enrolled in second year physics classes.

Hamed, Kastro Mohamad

1999-11-01

352

Understanding and Preventing College Student Suicide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Suicide is currently the second leading cause of death among college students in the United States. This complex issue on college campuses is often overlooked, and this book combines the efforts from several leaders in the field of suicidology in an attempt to grasp a better understanding of college student suicide. The book is divided into four…

Lamis, Dorian A.; Lester, David

2011-01-01

353

Understanding the Integral: Students' Symbolic Forms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers are currently investigating how calculus students understand the basic concepts of first-year calculus, including the integral. However, much is still unknown regarding the "cognitive resources" (i.e., stable cognitive units that can be accessed by an individual) that students hold and draw on when thinking about the integral. This…

Jones, Steven R.

2013-01-01

354

Understanding and Counseling Asian American Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Asian American students who encounter personal problems may hesitate to utilize counseling and mental health facilities on campuses, being fearful that family, friends and/or relatives may consider them emotionally unstable. Counselors and mental health workers may lack understanding of language and cultural background of Asian-American students,…

Chandras, Kananur V.

355

Improving Students' Understanding of Quantum Measurement  

SciTech Connect

We describe the difficulties advanced undergraduate and graduate students have with quantum measurement. To reduce these difficulties, we have developed research-based learning tools such as the Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorial (QuILT) and peer instruction tools. A preliminary evaluation shows that these learning tools are effective in improving students' understanding of concepts related to quantum measurement.

Zhu Guangtian; Singh, Chandralekha [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, 15260 (United States)

2010-10-24

356

Investigating Students' Understanding of the Dissolving Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a previous study, the authors identified several student misconceptions regarding the process of dissolving ionic compounds in water. The present study used multiple-choice questions whose distractors were derived from these misconceptions to assess students' understanding of the dissolving process at the symbolic and particulate levels. The…

Naah, Basil M.; Sanger, Michael J.

2013-01-01

357

Investigating Students' Understanding of the Dissolving Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In a previous study, the authors identified several student misconceptions regarding the process of dissolving ionic compounds in water. The present study used multiple-choice questions whose distractors were derived from these misconceptions to assess students' understanding of the dissolving process at the symbolic and particulate levels. The…

Naah, Basil M.; Sanger, Michael J.

2013-01-01

358

Understanding Students' Cognitive Processes in Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to understand low- achievement students' cognitive processes in solving algebraic problems. In terms of cognitive development, it is an interesting exploration to go through some processes of algebraic expressions and analyze the abstract levels. The paper highlights the concrete and abstract cognition in processing algebraic expressions. Forty-four students in my first-year Junior College Mathematics

Fenqjen Luo

359

Western Australian School Students' Understanding of Biotechnology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Surveys (n=1116) 15-year-old students from 11 Western Australian schools to determine their understanding of and attitude towards recent advances in modern biotechnology. Discusses reasons for students' over-estimation of the use of biotechnology in society. Provides a rationale for the inclusion of biotechnology, a cutting edge science, in the…

Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

2003-01-01

360

Exploring the Development of Students' Conceptual Profiles of Chemical Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Carries out a naturalistic small-scale study involving a class from a senior high school in Spain over two years. Analyzes students' essays on chemical change using text analysis techniques. Reports the development of four conceptual profiles and the implications of research for the process of teaching the concept of chemical change. (Author/KHR)|

Solsona, Nuria; Izquierdo, Merce; de Jong, Onno

2003-01-01

361

Conceptual Change in Students' Molecular Biology Education: Tilting at Windmills?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A hands-on instructional approach with medium-achieving 10th-grade students (N = 294) successfully demonstrated the achievement of a conceptual change. Two teaching variations were applied (I-1, I-2), both dealing with a hands-on gene technology lesson in an out-of-school laboratory. I-2 additionally confronted the participants with alternative…

Franke, Gaitano; Bogner, Franz X.

2011-01-01

362

Understanding Nursing Home Worker Conceptualizations about Good Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explored how direct care workers in nursing homes conceptualize good care and how their conceptualizations are influenced by external factors surrounding their work environment and the relational dynamics between them and residents. Study participants were drawn from a local service employees' union, and in-depth interviews were…

Chung, Gawon

2013-01-01

363

Characterizing Grade 8 Students' Microdevelopmental Changes in Understanding of Conservation of Matter, in the Context of a Discussion-Based Instructional Unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study used a skill theory framework (Fischer & Bidell, 2006) and a microdevelopmental lens to characterize how six grade 8 students' conceptual understanding of conservation of matter changed in the context of a short discussion-based instructional unit. On average, students' conceptual understanding increased significantly, suggesting that a discussion-based approach might be effective in supporting students' learning. The general characteristics

Marina Doucerain

2009-01-01

364

Promoting Pre-service Elementary Students' Understanding of Chemical Equilibrium through Discussions in Small Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of small group discussion on students' conceptual understanding\\u000a of chemical equilibrium. Students' understanding of chemical equilibrium concepts was measured using the Misconception Identification\\u000a Test. The test consisted of 30 items and administered as pre-posttests to a total of 81 pre-service elementary students in\\u000a two intact classes of the same university.

Ibrahim Bilgin

2006-01-01

365

Helping Students Construct Robust Conceptual Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Modeling Instruction has been practiced in science and mathematics classrooms across the United States and around the world\\u000a for over 25 years. Force Concept Inventory (FCI) scores from over 30,000 students confirm that this approach is one of the\\u000a most successful science education reforms in the last 50 years. Modeling Instruction arranges the subject area under study\\u000a into a handful

Colleen Megowan-Romanowicz

366

Investigating Student Understanding of Control of Variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of control of variables is fundamental to science. A practical understanding is especially important for science teachers, who must help students design experiments and learn to interpret the results. Findings from an extended study of student and teacher facility with the reasoning underlying control of variables will be reported. This research has involved precollege science teachers, liberal arts physics students, calculus-based introductory physics students, and college science faculty. The results suggest that while most participants are familiar with the idea of controlled experiments, many lack functional skill with the underlying reasoning. Results from interviews and written questions will be used to illustrate specific difficulties.

Boudreaux, Andrew; Heron, P. R.; Shaffer, P. S.

2006-12-01

367

Spatial abilities, Earth science conceptual understanding, and psychological gender of university non-science majors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research has shown the presence of many Earth science misconceptions and conceptual difficulties that may impede concept understanding, and has also identified a number of categories of spatial ability. Although spatial ability has been linked to high performance in science, some researchers believe it has been overlooked in traditional education. Evidence exists that spatial ability can be improved. This correlational study investigated the relationship among Earth science conceptual understanding, three types of spatial ability, and psychological gender, a self-classification that reflects socially-accepted personality and gender traits. A test of Earth science concept understanding, the Earth Science Concepts (ESC) test, was developed and field tested from 2001 to 2003 in 15 sections of university classes. Criterion validity was .60, significant at the .01 level. Spearman/Brown reliability was .74 and Kuder/Richardson reliability was .63. The Purdue Visualization of Rotations (PVOR) (mental rotation), the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) (spatial perception), the Differential Aptitude Test: Space Relations (DAT) (spatial visualization), and the Bem Inventory (BI) (psychological gender) were administered to 97 non-major university students enrolled in undergraduate science classes. Spearman correlations revealed moderately significant correlations at the .01 level between ESC scores and each of the three spatial ability test scores. Stepwise regression analysis indicated that PVOR scores were the best predictor of ESC scores, and showed that spatial ability scores accounted for 27% of the total variation in ESC scores. Spatial test scores were moderately or weakly correlated with each other. No significant correlations were found among BI scores and other test scores. Scantron difficulty analysis of ESC items produced difficulty ratings ranging from 33.04 to 96.43, indicating the percentage of students who answered incorrectly. Mean score on the ESC was 34%, indicating that the non-majors tested exhibited many Earth science misconceptions and conceptual difficulties. A number of significant results were found when independent t-tests and correlations were conducted among test scores and demographic variables. The number of previous university Earth science courses was significantly related to ESC scores. Preservice elementary/middle majors differed significantly in several ways from other non-majors, and several earlier results were not supported. Results of this study indicate that an important opportunity may exist to improve Earth science conceptual understanding by focusing on spatial ability, a cognitive ability that has heretofore not been directly addressed in schools.

Black, Alice A. (Jill)

368

Surveying students' conceptual knowledge of electricity and magnetism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism (CSEM) was developed to assess students' knowledge about topics in electricity and magnetism. The survey is a 32-question, multiple-choice test that can be used as both a pretest and posttest. During four years of testing and refinement, the survey has been given in one form or another to more than 5000 introductory physics students at 30 different institutions. Typical pretest results are that students in calculus-based courses get 31% of the questions correct and student's in algebra/trigonometry-based courses average 25% correct. Posttest correct results only rise to 47% and 44%, respectively. From analysis of student responses, a number of student difficulties in electricity and magnetism are indicated.

Maloney, David; O'Kuma, Thomas L.; Hieggelke, Curtis J.; Van Heuvelen, Alan

2006-06-22

369

A conceptual physics class where students found meaning in calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prior to taking a translated version of the Maryland Open Source Tutorials (OSTs) as a stand-alone course, most students at Tokyo Gakugei University in Japan had experienced physics as memorizing laws and equations to use as computational tools. We might expect this reformed physics class, which emphasizes common sense and conceptual reasoning and rarely invokes equations, to produce students who see a disconnect between equation use and intuitive/conceptual reasoning. Many students at Gakugei, however, somehow learned to integrate mathematics into their ``constructivist'' epistemologies of physics, even though OSTs do not emphasize this integration. Tadao, for example, came to see that although a common-sense solution to a problem is preferable for explaining to someone who doesn't know physics, solving the problem with a quantitative calculation (that connects to physical meaning) can bring clarity and concreteness to communication between experts. How this integration occurred remains an open question for future research.

Hull, Michael M.; Elby, Andrew

2013-01-01

370

Conceptualizations of Spirituality, Religion, and Faith: Comparing Biblical Notions with the Perspectives of Protestant Christian Students at a Lutheran College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As part of a larger investigation into the spiritual climate at one Lutheran college, we interviewed Protestant Christian students in order to compare their conceptualizations of spirituality, religion, and faith with biblical notions of those concepts. We found that the students' understandings of those concepts only loosely reflected general…

Craft, Christy Moran; Rockenbach, Alyssa Bryant

2011-01-01

371

College Students' Use of Science Content during Socioscientific Issues Negotiation: Impact of Evolution Understanding and Acceptance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to explore the evolution science content used during college students' negotiation of biology-based socioscientific issues (SSI) and examine how it related to students' conceptual understanding and acceptance of biological evolution. Specific research questions were, (1a) what specific evolutionary science content do…

Fowler, Samantha R.

2009-01-01

372

The Mismatch among Students' Views about Nature of Science, Acceptance of Evolution, and Evolutionary Science Understandings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explored interrelationships among high school students' views about nature of science (NOS), acceptance of evolution, and conceptual understanding of evolution, and the extent to which these may have shifted from pre- to post-instruction on evolutionary theory. Eighty-one students enrolled in ninth-grade Biology responded to…

Cavallo, Ann M. L.; White, Kevin J.; McCall, David

2011-01-01

373

Coming to Understand the Formal Definition of Limit: Insights Gained from Engaging Students in Reinvention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this article is to elaborate Cottrill et al.'s (1996) conceptual framework of limit, an explanatory model of how students might come to understand the limit concept. Drawing on a retrospective analysis of 2 teaching experiments, we propose 2 theoretical constructs to account for the students' success in formulating and…

Swinyard, Craig; Larsen, Sean

2012-01-01

374

Using Multiple Representations to Promote Grade 11 Students' Scientific Understanding of the Particle Theory of Matter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explored two groups of Grade 11 (age 16-17) students' conceptual understandings about aspects of particle theory before, immediately after, and 3 months after instruction with multiple representations (IMR) and instruction with verbal representations (IVR). Data sources included open-ended questionnaires, interviews, and student

Adadan, Emine

2013-01-01

375

A Cross-Age Study of Student Understanding of the Concept of Homeostasis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The conceptual views of homeostasis held by students (n=300) in seventh grade life science, tenth grade biology, and college zoology were examined. A biographical questionnaire, the results from two Piagetian-like developmental tasks, and a concept evaluation statement of homeostasis were collected from each student. Understanding of the concept…

Westbrook, Susan L.; Marek, Edmund A.

1992-01-01

376

The Mismatch among Students' Views about Nature of Science, Acceptance of Evolution, and Evolutionary Science Understandings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored interrelationships among high school students' views about nature of science (NOS), acceptance of evolution, and conceptual understanding of evolution, and the extent to which these may have shifted from pre- to post-instruction on evolutionary theory. Eighty-one students enrolled in ninth-grade Biology responded to…

Cavallo, Ann M. L.; White, Kevin J.; McCall, David

2011-01-01

377

College Students' Use of Science Content during Socioscientific Issues Negotiation: Impact of Evolution Understanding and Acceptance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the evolution science content used during college students' negotiation of biology-based socioscientific issues (SSI) and examine how it related to students' conceptual understanding and acceptance of biological evolution. Specific research questions were, (1a) what specific evolutionary science content do…

Fowler, Samantha R.

2009-01-01

378

Using Virtual Reality Computer Models to Support Student Understanding of Astronomical Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to examine how 3-dimensional (3-D) models of the Solar System supported student development of conceptual understandings of various astronomical phenomena that required a change in frame of reference. In the course described in this study, students worked in teams to design and construct 3-D virtual reality computer…

Barnett, Michael; Yamagata-Lynch, Lisa; Keating, Tom; Barab, Sasha A.; Hay, Kenneth E.

2005-01-01

379

Using Virtual Reality Computer Models to Support Student Understanding of Astronomical Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine how 3-dimensional (3-D) models of the Solar System supported student development of conceptual understandings of various astronomical phenomena that required a change in frame of reference. In the course described in this study, students worked in teams to design and construct 3-D virtual reality computer…

Barnett, Michael; Yamagata-Lynch, Lisa; Keating, Tom; Barab, Sasha A.; Hay, Kenneth E.

2005-01-01

380

A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of Curriculum on Conceptual Understanding in E&M  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We have collected extensive data on upper-division Electricity and Magnetism (E&M) student performance at CU Boulder since we introduced the University of Washington's Tutorials in Introductory Physics in 2004 as part of our freshman curriculum. In the earliest semesters, all upper-division students had themselves taken a non-Tutorial introductory Physics, providing a baseline at this upper-division level surprisingly close to post-scores in our reformed introductory course. More recently, the population in the upper-division is mixed with respect to freshman experience, with over half having been taught with Tutorials as freshmen. We track those students and find that on average, their individual BEMA scores do not change significantly over time. However, we do find a significantly stronger performance at the upper division level for students who went through Tutorials compared to those who had other introductory experiences, and stronger scores still for students who taught in the introductory sequence as Learning Assistants, indicating a long-term positive impact of Tutorials on conceptual understanding.

Pollock, Steven J.

2009-06-24

381

Assessing student learning of Newton's laws: The Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation and the Evaluation of Active Learning Laboratory and Lecture Curricula  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation, a research-based, multiple-choice assessment of student conceptual understanding of Newton's Laws of Motion. We discuss a subset of the questions in detail, and give evidence for their validity. As examples of the application of this test, we first present data which examine student learning of dynamics concepts in traditional

Ronald K. Thornton; David R. Sokoloff

1998-01-01

382

Social interaction and conceptual understanding in computer-based physics instruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This investigation of conceptual understanding in computer-based physics instruction found that preconceptions are powerful predictors of performance; pair composition is related to paired, but not individualized performance; and efficient partner resolution strategies lead to improved performance. Seventy-six high school physics students were pretested individually and paired on the basis of similarity or difference in their initial level of conceptions. Pairs performed a series of computer-based exercises, after which students were individually posttested. Students' self-reports and researcher observations measured the nature and frequency of social interaction in which their pair engaged. Students who began with a more sophisticated understanding of force and motion performed significantly better than those with low Pretest scores. Those with initially lower scores improved more after instruction, but their Posttest scores rarely surpassed the scores of those who started out higher. Lower scoring students were dominated by higher scoring partners during paired learning. Pairs' performance measures therefore reflected the conceptions of the higher level student. Conversely, individual performance measures following paired instruction were unrelated to a partner's ability level. Pairing students by ability level did not affect performance except in the context of the pair. Results imply that educators need not pair students by ability level when their goal is to improve the individual's performance. Students with the most efficient resolution strategies performed significantly better than those whose resolution strategies were less sophisticated. Conflicts were constructive or destructive depending on how they were resolved. The ability to effectively negotiate solutions was associated with higher achievement, implying that educators consider training students to hone their resolution skills prior to collaborative instruction. Computer-based instruction is a reality with which teachers must now contend. The increasing presence of computers in classrooms, and the tendency for students to work together during computerized instruction, suggests the need for further research on the effects of collaborative, computer-based instruction. The results of this study imply that students can improve their performance in this type of environment not through pairing composition, but by improving their ability to cooperatively resolve differences with their peers.

Hoffman, Beth A.

1997-08-01

383

Coupling Conceptual and Quantitative Problems to Develop Expertise in Introductory Physics Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We discuss the effect of administering conceptual and quantitative isomorphic problem pairs (CQIPP) back to back vs. asking students to solve only one of the problems in the CQIPP in introductory physics courses. Students who answered both questions in a CQIPP often performed better on the conceptual questions than those who answered the corresponding conceptual questions only. Although students often took advantage of the quantitative counterpart to answer a conceptual question of a CQIPP correctly, when only given the conceptual question, students seldom tried to convert it into a quantitative question, solve it and then reason about the solution conceptually. Even in individual interviews, when students who were only given conceptual questions had difficulty and the interviewer explicitly encouraged them to convert the conceptual question into the corresponding quantitative problem by choosing appropriate variables, a majority of students were reluctant and preferred to guess the answer to the conceptual question based upon their gut feeling.

Singh, Chandralekha

2009-01-24

384

Computer-Intensive Algebra and Students' Conceptual Knowledge of Functions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a research project that examined the effects of the Computer-Intensive Algebra (CIA) and traditional algebra curricula on students' (N=802) understanding of the function concept. Results indicate that CIA students achieved a better understanding of functions and were better at the components of modeling, interpreting, and translating.…

O'Callaghan, Brian R.

1998-01-01

385

Research and Teaching: Student Understanding of Ionizing Radiation and Radioactivity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Results from research into the teaching and learning of physics have shown that many college students have significant conceptual and reasoning difficulties relating to topics of radioactivity. Interviewing students from three different science background

Prather, Edward E.; Harrington, Randal R.

2001-10-01

386

Using Large-Scale Classroom Research to Study Student Conceptual Learning in Mechanics and to Develop New Approaches to Learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Microcomputer-based laboratory (MBL) tools and guided discovery curricula have been developed as an aid to all students, including the underprepared and underserved, in learning physical concepts. To guide this development, extensive work has been done to find useful measures of students' conceptual understanding that can be used in widely varying contexts. This paper focuses primarily on the evaluation of student conceptual understanding of mechanics (kinematics and dynamics) with an emphasis on Newton's 1st and 2nd laws in introductory courses in the university. Student understanding of mechanics is looked at before and after traditional instruction. It is examined before and after MBL curricula that are consciously designed to promote active and collaborative learning by students. The results show that the majority of students have difficulty learning essential physical concepts in the best of our traditional courses where students read textbooks, solve textbook problems, listen to well-prepared lectures, and do traditional laboratory activities. Students can, however, learn these fundamental concepts using MBL curricula and Interactive Lecture Demonstrations which have been based on extensive classroom research. Substantial evidence is given that student answers to the short answer questions in the Tools for Scientific Thinking Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation provide a useful statistical means of evaluating students' beliefs and understandings about mechanics. Evidence for the hierarchical learning of velocity, acceleration, and force concepts is presented.

Thornton, Ronald K.

2006-12-07

387

Identifying Stumbling Blocks in the Development of Student Understanding of Moments of Forces  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Reports on a small-scale investigation of student understanding of moments of forces to provide some indication as to the nature of intuitive ideas in this area. Results of the investigation suggest three stumbling blocks in the conceptual understanding of moment of forces.

Rowlands, Stuart; Graham, Ted; Berry, John

2006-12-07

388

Identifying Stumbling Blocks in the Development of Student Understanding of Moments of Forces.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a small-scale investigation of student understanding of moments of forces to provide some indication as to the nature of intuitive ideas in this area. Results of the investigation suggest three stumbling blocks in the conceptual understanding of moment of forces. (Author/ASK)

Rowlands, Stuart; Graham, Ted; Berry, John

1998-01-01

389

Understanding of Acid-Base Concept by Using Conceptual Change Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explores changes of the tenth-grade students' conceptions about acids and bases by using conceptual change text oriented instruction accompanied with analogies. Since conceptual change is viewed not only as a process of replacement of old concepts but also a process of learning to relate ideas to appropriate contexts, the instruction…

Cetingul, Puren Ipek; Geban, Omer

2005-01-01

390

Evaluating conceptual change in high school honors chemistry students studying quantum concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High school honors chemistry students have difficulty applying abstract nanooscopic concepts to predict chemical properties. This dissertation aims at evaluating misconceptions and conceptual change in quantum concepts among honors chemistry students from a suburban high school near Boston. For that purpose a new graphical organizer known as a linkage matrix was developed. The researcher investigated the relative extent to which students shifted to a paradigm of using quantum concepts when explaining macroscopic properties such as solubility or color. The researcher compared the qualitative effects of traditional methods of instruction, i.e. lecture/lab in three classes of seventeen students with the additional effects of discovery via computer simulation on student understanding from two of those classes. Students produced concept maps both prior and subsequent to their study of quantum chemistry. The researcher applied the student-cohort's propositional phrases in a linkage matrix based on eight concepts to analyze student understanding of quantum concepts. Four students from each of the experimental classes were interviewed regarding their c-maps linking phrases to identify patterns and assess the scoring validity. The linkage matrix was used to determine the twelve linking phrases exhibiting a thirty percent improvement in student understanding. All students exhibited a decrease in the number of misconceptions. However, the experimental group showed a greater capacity to link more concepts at a deeper level after the intervention. Previously documented misconception such as overgeneralization, and the particulate nature of matter are exacerbated by the difficulty students have with energy and, sign. The research suggests that the activities designed should allow students practice manipulating the variables. The correlational reasoning ability of the students was evaluated using the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking as a potential cause of students' difficulty attributing the relationships among concepts.

Hurwitz, Charles Leonard

391

Preconceptions of Japanese Students Surveyed Using the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We assess the preconceptions of Japanese students about force and motion. The Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation is a research-based, multiple-choice assessment of students' conceptual understanding of Newton's laws of motion and energy conservation. It is administered to determine the effectiveness of introductory mechanics curricula. In this study, the test was given to engineering students at the beginning of the first lecture of an introductory mechanics course for several years. Some students had minimal high school physics education, whereas the others had completed high school physics programs. To probe the students' preconceptions, we studied their test answers for each of the following categories: velocity, acceleration, Newton's first and second laws, Newton's third law, and energy conservation. We find that preconceptions, such as F ~ mv, are prevalent among the students, regardless of their level of high school physics education. In the case of a collision between two objects, two preconceptions-a mass-dependent model and an action-dependent model-are prevalent. Typically, students combine the two models, with action dependency outweighing mass dependency. In the case of a sled sliding down a hill without friction at two heights and inclinations, a quarter of students used the height-dependent model to answer questions regarding speed and kinetic energy.

Ishimoto, Michi

2010-07-01

392

Experiment to Help Students Understand Pulmonary Compliance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compliance is a difficult concept for students to grasp, and in partic-ular, pulmonary compliance is quite difficult because it involves an understanding of both lung and chest compliance. To help students understand pulmonary compliance characteristics, relaxation curves for the chest cage (Fig. 1A), lung (Fig. 1B), and combined lung-chest cage (Fig. 1C) are often presented to medical students. To facilitate an understanding of the relaxation curves, we demonstrate how the curves are generated by substituting a balloon for the lungs and a tennis ball for the chest cage. Students are told that when the lung is removed from the chest cage, it closely resembles a collapsed balloon. Subsequently, a collapsed balloon is connected to a pressure transducer that is coupled to a data acquisition system. The students observe that, when pressure inside the balloon equals outside pressure, or transmural pressure is zero, balloon volume is close to zero. Starting from essentially zero balloon volume, a measured volume of air is put into the balloon, and the recoil or relaxation pres-sure associated with the addition of that air volume is recorded. Additional measured volumes of air are added to the balloon, and the corresponding recoil or relaxation pressure is recorded. Compliance of the balloon is obtained by plotting balloon recoil or relaxation pressure on the x-axis and balloon volume on the y-axis. The slope of this plot is balloon compliance.

PhD Stephen M. DiCarlo (Wayne State Univ Sch Med Dept of Physiology); PhD Heidi L. Collins (Wayne State Univ. School of Medicine Dept. of Physiology); Mr. David W. Rodenbaugh (Wayne State University Department of Physiology)

2002-06-01

393

Effect of the 5E Model on Prospective Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of Diffusion and Osmosis: A Mixed Method Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to explore a group of prospective primary teachers' conceptual understanding of diffusion and osmosis as they implemented a 5E constructivist model and related materials in a science methods course. Fifty prospective primary teachers' ideas were elicited using a pre- and post-test and delayed post-test survey consisting of ten two-tier questions of which an explanatory part was integral. Individual interviews were conducted with six prospective teachers at the end of the implementation of the unit using four questions. Test scores were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. Post-instructional interviews were analyzed qualitatively. Statistical analysis using one-way ANOVA of student test scores pointed to statistically significant differences between pre- and post- and delayed post-test ( p < 0.05). A qualitative analysis of the prospective teachers' explanations in the two-tier questions revealed changes in their ideas overtime. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses suggest that the teaching activities promoted students' conceptual understanding. No statistically significant differences were found between post-test and delayed post-test scores, suggesting that the teaching activities based on 5E model enabled students to retain their new conceptual understanding.

Artun, Hüseyin; Co?tu, Bayram

2013-02-01

394

Measuring student understanding of geological time  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been few discoveries in geology more important than deep time - the understanding that the universe has existed for countless millennia, such that man's existence is confined to the last milliseconds of the metaphorical geological clock. The influence of deep time is felt in a variety of sciences including geology, cosmology, and evolutionary biology. Thus, any student that

Jeff Dodick; Nir Orion

2003-01-01

395

Students' Different Understandings of Class Diagrams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The software industry needs well-trained software designers and one important aspect of software design is the ability to model software designs visually and understand what visual models represent. However, previous research indicates that software design is a difficult task to many students. This article reports empirical findings from a…

Boustedt, Jonas

2012-01-01

396

Gauging Students' Understanding Through Interactive Lectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Personal Response System (PRS) enables audience re- sponses to multiple choice questions to be collected quickly, and for a summary of all the answers to be displayed to the whole group immedi- ately, making it a useful tool for promoting classroom discussion. This paper describes its use as a means for assessing students' understanding of previously learned material, in

Helen C. Purchase; Christopher Mitchell; Iadh Ounis

2004-01-01

397

The religion-in-the-science-classroom issue: Seeking graduate student conceptual change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines the extent to which science education graduate students enjoy a well-articulated position on the compatibility of science and religion and, as a result, are comfortable with their espoused views and plans for the role of religion in science classroom discussions. We were particularly interested in examining changes in student mental states as a legitimate form of conceptual change after a course intervention. This might be evidenced by the depth of understanding, level of reasoning, and degree of comfort with classroom application. The intervention first asked students to write a talk back to the author paper shortly after reading a provocative essay on the topic. This was followed by reading and discussing a variety of alternative views after which they wrote a more formal position paper on the science-religion topic. We first conducted a content analysis of both papers, developing separate concept maps of the overall class response in the first and second papers, noting changes in emphases. Adapting a current multidimensional model of conceptual change, we then developed an individual evaluation form based on categories that emerged in the class analysis, which were strikingly similar to the categories in the multidimensional model. These included ontological, epistemological, and social/affective dimensions of conceptual change. Both papers were scored in these three areas. The conceptual change for each student from talk-back to position paper was subsequently reported using individual graphs and citing text examples. Results showed conceptual change or improved mental state in all three categories for most students.

Loving, Cathleen C.; Foster, Andrea

2000-07-01

398

Comparing students' performance on research-based conceptual assessments and traditional classroom assessments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of concept inventories to investigate students' learning gains is common in physics education research. However, comparatively little research has compared students' learning gains on concept inventories with other more traditional assessments in the classroom. We present a study comparing second semester calculus-based physics students' performance on traditional classroom assessments including exams and homework with learning gains on SEMCO (Survey of Electricity, Magnetism, Circuits and Optics), which was previously created by combining questions on other conceptual surveys such as CSEM and DIRECT. We report on students' performance on specific items on SEMCO and corresponding traditional classroom assessments that are based on the same topic. Our results indicate that while the overall performance on SEMCO might correlate with aggregate performance on class exams, the performance on clusters of SEMCO items that assess conceptual understanding in various topical areas does not correlate as strongly with performance on corresponding traditional exams. These results raise some potentially interesting issues on the validity and usefulness of traditional classroom assessments and conceptual assessments that are often used to measure student learning in introductory physics.

Rebello, N. Sanjay

2012-02-01

399

A cross-cultural, multilevel study of inquiry-based instruction effects on conceptual understanding and motivation in physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Student achievement and motivation to learn physics is highly valued in many industrialized countries including the United States and Japan. Science education curricula in these countries emphasize the importance and encourage classroom teachers to use an inquiry approach. This dissertation investigated high school students' motivational orientations and their understanding of physics concepts in a context of inquiry-based instruction. The goals were to explore the patterns of instructional effects on motivation and learning in each country and to examine cultural differences and similarities. Participants consisted of 108 students (55 females, 53 males) and 9 physics teachers in the United States and 616 students (203 females and 413 males) and 11 physics teachers in Japan. Students were administered (a) Force Concept Inventory measuring physics conceptual understanding and (b) Attitudes about Science Questionnaire measuring student motivational orientations. Teachers were given a survey regarding their use of inquiry teaching practices and background information. Additionally, three teachers in each country were interviewed and observed in their classrooms. For the data analysis, two-level hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) methods were used to examine individual student differences (i.e., learning, motivation, and gender) within each classroom (i.e., inquiry-based teaching, teaching experience, and class size) in the U.S. and Japan, separately. Descriptive statistical analyses were also conducted. The results indicated that there was a cultural similarity in that current teaching practices had minimal influence on conceptual understanding as well as motivation of high school students between the U.S. and Japan. In contrast, cultural differences were observed in classroom structures and instructional approaches. Furthermore, this study revealed gender inequity in Japanese students' conceptual understanding and self-efficacy. Limitations of the study, as well as implications for high school physics teachers are discussed. Future research in this line could explore students' use of cognitive strategies to overcome misconceptions in Western and Eastern cultures. Also, exploring the best practices in changing student misconceptions and promoting motivation across cultures would enrich our understanding and current teaching practices.

Negishi, Meiko

400

5-Minute Demonstrations to Enhance the Conceptual Understanding of Engineering Lectures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Introductory engineering classes are often taught in large lecture halls, but due to a lack of laboratory apparatus, professors use chalk or erasers to demonstrate physical principles. "Imagine this chalk is a Gaussian sphere" is a phrase underclassmen hear and are expected to learn by. Clearly, easily accessible, illustrative instructional aids could facilitate learning complex engineering concepts. This paper describes a set of 5-minute demonstrations that are simple to execute, require very little equipment, and can be used to increase students' conceptual understanding. Each activity demonstrates a basic engineering principle taken from courses, such as Differential Equations, Physics, Circuits, and Thermodynamics - topics that are required classes for all disciplines. Emphasis is placed on convenience and ease of use by the professor, with most equipment small enough to carry in a pocket or briefcase. These demonstrations introduce a laboratory element into the lecture without the necessity of having a laboratory onsite.

Perrin, Michele

2011-10-14

401

College Students' Understanding of the Particulate Nature of Matter Across Reaction Types  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research in chemical education has shown that while students (K-20) can perform well on tasks that require use of algorithmic and symbolic skills, they struggle with tasks that require conceptual understanding of chemistry. One area where such a trend has been observed is the Particulate Nature of Matter (PNM). A number of factors have been attributed to this struggle in developing conceptual understanding, for example, the abstract nature of the subject and concepts, the fact that most teaching and assessments focus on algorithmic understanding of content, and a missing connections to students' everyday lives. This semester-long grounded theory study examined college level general chemistry students' conceptual understanding of the particulate nature of matter across three different types of reactions. Students were asked to balance the chemical equations, and then draw particulate representations of the reactions. A sample of 10 participants was interviewed to probe for their understanding of underlying chemistry concepts represented by the equations and their particulate drawings. The study sought to compare students' understanding at the symbolic and particulate levels, look at trends across the different reactions, how the trends changed over the semester, and to reveal struggles with fundamental chemistry concepts. Analysis of the results shows that there is a gap between students' understanding at the particulate and symbolic levels, inconsistency in students' understanding across the three chemical reactions over the course of the semester, and struggles with fundamental chemistry concepts. This study reinforces the need to teach and assess for conceptual understanding, not just in chemistry, but in other subject areas as well. Suggestions for teaching and research are also made.

Nyachwaya, James Mochoge

402

Improving high school physical science students' understanding of the electromagnetic spectrum: A modified diagram approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focus of this study was to identify major conceptual difficulties that selected public high school physical science students encounter in understanding a standard electromagnetic spectrum diagram. A research-driven, modified version of that standard diagram was used in this study to determine the value added to student understanding of electromagnetic waves. A content analysis was performed on electromagnetic spectrum diagrams found in US textbooks from the 1950s through the present. A class of public high school physical science students participated in a study consisting of four activities conducted during a three-week unit. Students were given a pre- and post-achievement test and a pre- and post-survey on the regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. At the conclusion of each activity, selected students were interviewed and each co-constructed a concept map with the researcher. The Electromagnetic Spectrum Literacy Rubric (ESLR) was designed and used to assess students' conceptual understanding periodically as they proceeded through the unit study. A mixed methods analysis was performed, employing both qualitative and quantitative data. A paired t-test determined that there was a statistically significant difference (p = 0.014) between the pre- and post-achievement test scores for the class of students participating in the unit study. Effect sizes also determined that students have difficulties with mathematical calculations and wave properties. These topics present conceptual challenges which must be overcome to understand and use an electromagnetic spectrum diagram effectively.

Quebedeaux, James Edward

403

College students' conceptualizations of deficits involved in mild intellectual disability.  

PubMed

Precedential rulings in recent capital murder trials may, in some cases, leave it up to a jury to determine whether or not an individual meets criteria for an intellectual disability (ID) and should be spared from the death penalty. Despite the potential for misconceptions about ID to bias decisions, few empirical studies have examined the public's conceptualizations of individuals with ID. This study sought to examine 890 college students' conceptualizations of the deficits involved in mild ID. Students were asked to respond to two online surveys about the cognitive and adaptive behavior deficits that people with mild ID may experience. While most students were correct about basic facts, such as ID is not contagious and not curable, there was no clear consensus regarding beliefs about individuals with ID getting married, having children, or engaging in other mainstream activities of adult living. Students' responses are examined in light of results of studies that identify and examine bona fide deficits and areas of successful mainstreaming among persons with ID. Implications of misconceptions are discussed. PMID:22093668

Musso, Mandi W; Barker, Alyse A; Proto, Daniel A; Gouvier, Wm Drew

2011-10-11

404

Designing for Enhanced Conceptual Understanding in an Online Physics Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The calculus-based, introductory physics course is the port of entry for any student interested in pursuing a college degree in the sciences, mathematics, or engineering. There is increasing demand for online delivery options that make the course more widely available, especially those that use best practices in student engagement. However,…

Dunlap, Joanna C.; Furtak, Thomas E.; Tucker, Susan A.

2009-01-01

405

Enhancing science teachers' understanding of ecosystem interactions with qualitative conceptual models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project described in this article explores how a series of conceptual ecological models can be used to portray the improvement in ecological understanding over the span of a short course. The course involved high school teachers working collaboratively on ecological research projects. Teachers were asked to construct qualitative conceptual models (a diagram of important ecosystem components and the linkages

Marion Dresner; Monica Elser

2009-01-01

406

Perspective of a Chemist: A Framework to Promote Conceptual Understanding of Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Living by Chemistry (LBC) is a high school curriculum project that proposes framing the big ideas of chemistry to provide developmental cohesion across the curriculum and promote conceptual understanding. The proposed framework, called perspectives of Chemists," is intended to allow measurement of individual conceptual change in chemistry over…

Claesgens, Jennifer; Scalise, Kathleen; Draney, Karen; Wilson, Mark; Stacy, Angelica

407

An investigation of student understanding of Galilean relativity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation reports on an investigation of student understanding of kinematics and dynamics in the context of Galilean relativity. Through the administration of written questions and interviews with individual students we have assessed student ability to determine and relate quantities such as displacement, velocity, and momentum in multiple frames of reference. We have found that many students have difficulty applying systematic measurement procedures for such quantities in a frame of reference moving relative to the laboratory. A variety of specific conceptual and reasoning difficulties have been identified. Difficulties with more complicated concepts, such as relative velocity or acceleration, can be traced to difficulties with basic, underlying ideas, such as displacement. In addition, difficulties with relative motion can in some cases be traced to difficulties with concepts and reasoning associated with laboratory frame kinematics. Many of the difficulties that have been identified are prevalent both before and after traditional instruction, and are encountered by physics students at the introductory through the graduate level. Results of the investigation have been used to guide the design of curriculum in the introductory physics course and in special physics courses for prospective and practicing precollege teachers.

Boudreaux, Andrew

408

Teaching for conceptual change: An intervention to promote deeper understanding of diffusion and osmosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emergent processes are distinguished from non-emergent processes on the basis of the qualitative relationships among the agents' interactions and the causal relationships between the agents' interactions and the pattern. Research suggests students often have robust misconceptions about emergent processes (such as diffusion) because they do not have the mental model to interpret these processes This study investigates the extent to which a domain-general understanding of emergent processes can help provide students with an enhanced understanding of diffusion and osmosis This is a quasi-experimental study using non-equivalent groups design to compare the treatment and control groups. Sixty-six community college students enrolled in an introductory biology course comprised the participants. Students' prior knowledge about emergent processes, diffusion, and osmosis were assessed by pre-tests. The treatment group received the intervention -- an instructional module about the differences between scientific processes that are emergent versus processes that are non-emergent. The control group did not receive the intervention but received the process assessment to determine incoming knowledge about scientific processes and any gains in knowledge about scientific processes. Both groups received the same specific content instruction about diffusion and osmosis, which was derived from the regular and established curriculum for the course. Both groups were given post-tests to assess whether they learned the concepts, and whether they were able to achieve a deep understanding that resulted in a comprehension of the transport of substances across cell membranes and how that might be applied in particular health-related situations. Data were analyzed using t-tests and analysis of variance. No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups based on the learning measures Limitations include sample restrictions and not taking into account individual ability levels of the participants. In addition, the short length of this intervention may not provide adequate time for students to successfully acquire the schema to understand conceptually difficult science concepts such as diffusion and osmosis. Future directions of research include expanding the sample size and length of exposure to the intervention, in addition to examining the individual ability levels of the participants.

Berg, Cheryl

409

Revelations from Counting: A Window to Conceptual Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A design research study was conducted over two years with 20 second grade students who are part of the Measure Up (MU) research and development project underway at the University of Hawai'i. Students were asked to count in multiple bases. After doing so, they were asked how they knew when to go to a new place value and why it was necessary. All…

Slovin, Hannah

2011-01-01

410

Using Electronic Interviews to Explore Student Understanding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on methods used to probe student understandings of optical fibers and total internal reflection (TIR). The study was conducted as part of the expansion and improvement of web-based materials for an innovative introductory physics course. Initially, we conducted face-to-face Piaget-style interviews with a convenience sample. Our next step was to interview students taking the course at Rensselaer. Physical limitations necessitated that this be done from a distance, so we conducted ``e-interviews'' using a Chat Room. In this paper we focus on the e-interview experience, discussing similarities to and differences from the traditional face-to-face approach. In the process, we address how each method informs us about students' activation of prior experiences in making sense of unfamiliar phenomena (e.g., ``transfer of learning'').

Wagner, D. J.; Rivera, J. J.; Mateycik, Fran; Jennings, Sybillyn

2005-09-01

411

Socioscientific Issues: A Path Towards Advanced Scientific Literacy and Improved Conceptual Understanding of Socially Controversial Scientific Theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis investigates the use of socioscientific issues (SSI) in the high school science classroom as an introduction to argumentation and socioscientific reasoning, with the goal of improving students' scientific literacy (SL). Current research is reviewed that supports the likelihood of students developing a greater conceptual understanding of scientific theories as well as a deeper understanding of the nature of science (NOS), through participation in informal and formal forms of argumentation in the context of SSI. Significant gains in such understanding may improve a student's ability to recognize the rigor, legitimacy, and veracity of scientific claims and better discern science from pseudoscience. Furthermore, students that participate in significant SSI instruction by negotiating a range of science-related social issues can make significant gains in content knowledge and develop the life-long skills of argumentation and evidence-based reasoning, goals not possible in traditional lecture-based science instruction. SSI-based instruction may therefore help students become responsible citizens. This synthesis also suggests that that the improvements in science literacy and NOS understanding that develop from sustained engagement in SSI-based instruction will better prepare students to examine and scrutinize socially controversial scientific theories (i.e., evolution, global warming, and the Big Bang).

Pinzino, Dean William

412

Secondary Students' Understanding of Gravity and the Motion of Planets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined are tenth-grade Western Australian students' conceptual knowledge of gravity and the motion of the planets. Students were interviewed with seven cards, and a four-item diagnostic test based on the interview data on the first four cards was developed. A total of 113 students' responses to the test are summarized. (YP)

Treagust, David F.; Smith, Clifton L.

1989-01-01

413

A Multi-Institution Study on the Effectiveness of ClassAction to Promote Student Understanding in Astro 101  

Microsoft Academic Search

ClassAction is a computer database of materials designed to enhance the conceptual understanding and reasoning abilities of Astro 101 students by promoting interactive engagement and providing rapid feedback. The main focus is dynamic conceptual questions largely based upon graphics that can be projected in the classroom. Instructors have the capability to select, order, and recast these questions into alternate permutations

Kevin M. Lee; R. S. French; D. R. Hands; D. R. Loranz; D. Martino; A. L. Rudolph; J. Wysong; T. S. Young; E. E. Prather

2010-01-01

414

Teaching Physics for Conceptual Understanding Exemplified for Einstein's Special Relativity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most liberal arts colleges the prerequisites for College Physics, Introductory or Calculus based, are strictly related to Mathematics. As a state of fact, the majorities of the students perceive Physics as a conglomerate of mathematical equations, a collection of facts to be memorized and they regard Physics as one of the most difficult subjects. A change of this attitude

Lucian M. Undreiu

2006-01-01

415

Effectiveness of Ninth-Grade Physics in Maine: Conceptual Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Physics First movement--teaching a true physics course to ninth-grade students--is gaining popularity in high schools. There are several different rhetorical arguments for and against this movement, and it is quite controversial in physics education. However, there is no actual evidence to assess the success, or failure, of this substantial…

O'Brien, Michael J.; Thompson, John R.

2009-01-01

416

Probing physics students' conceptual knowledge structures through term association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Traditional tests are not effective tools for diagnosing the content and structure of students' knowledge of physics. As a possible alternative, a set of term-association tasks (the ConMap tasks) was developed to probe the interconnections within students' store of conceptual knowledge. The tasks have students respond spontaneously to a term or problem or topic area with a sequence of associated terms; the response terms and time-of-entry data are captured. The tasks were tried on introductory physics students, and preliminary investigations show that the tasks are capable of eliciting information about the structure of their knowledge. Specifically, data gathered through the tasks is similar to that produced by a hand-drawn concept map task, has measures that correlate with in-class exam performance, and is sensitive to learning produced by topic coverage in class. Although the results are preliminary and only suggestive, the tasks warrant further study as student-knowledge assessment instruments and sources of experimental data for cognitive modeling efforts.

Beatty, Ian D.; Gerace, William J.

2005-10-11

417

A Conceptual Framework for Assessing Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning in College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual framework for assessing student motivation and self-regulated learning in the college classroom is presented. The framework is based on a self-regulatory (SRL) perspective on student motivation and learning in contrast to a student approaches to learning (SAL) perspective. The differences between SRL and SAL approaches are discussed, as are the implications of the SRL conceptual framework for developing

Paul R. Pintrich

2004-01-01

418

The Effects of Conceptual Change Texts Accompanied with Animations on Overcoming 11th Grade Students' Alternative Conceptions of Chemical Bonding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper aims to determine the effect of conceptual change texts accompanied with computer animations on 11th grade students' understanding and alternative conceptions related to chemical bonding. One experimental group (EG; N = 28) and one comparison group (CG; N = 30) were used in the study. While the comparison group taught traditional…

Ozmen, Haluk; Demircioglu, Hulya; Demircioglu, Gokhan

2009-01-01

419

Enhancing college students' understanding of lunar phases, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using qualitative methods, conceptions about lunar phases of 14 college students were investigated. The conceptions were organized into a conceptual framework with 8 different dimensions of understanding. From the framework, the Lunar Phases Concept Inventory (LPCI) was developed, including reliability and validity studies.The LPCI was also used to investigate the instructional effectiveness of an activity on lunar phases.

R. S. Lindell

2001-01-01

420

The Development of Four Fifth Grade Students' Understanding and Skill Representing Fractions as Quotients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This dissertation investigated the conceptual schemes children constructed as they related division number sentences to various types of fractions: Proper fractions, improper fractions, and mixed numbers in both contextual and abstract symbolic forms. It was hypothesized that student's understanding depends heavily on the role played by factors…

Kim, Ahyoung

2009-01-01

421

The Effect of Guided Inquiry-Based Instruction on Middle School Students' Understanding of Lunar Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effect of non-traditional guided inquiry instruction on middle school students' conceptual understandings of lunar concepts. Multiple data sources were used to describe participants' conceptions of lunar phases and their cause, including drawings, interviews, and a lunar shapes card sort. The data were analyzed via a…

Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Atwood, Ronald K.; Christopher, John E.; Sackes, Mesut

2010-01-01

422

The Effect of Guided Inquiry-Based Instruction on Middle School Students' Understanding of Lunar Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the effect of non-traditional guided inquiry instruction on middle school students' conceptual understandings of lunar concepts. Multiple data sources were used to describe participants' conceptions of lunar phases and their cause, including drawings, interviews, and a lunar shapes card sort. The data were analyzed via a…

Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Atwood, Ronald K.; Christopher, John E.; Sackes, Mesut

2010-01-01

423

Identifying Students Difficulties in Understanding Concepts Pertaining to Cell Water Relations: An Exploratory Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study identified students' conceptual difficulties in understanding concepts and processes associated with cell water relationships (osmosis), determined possible reasons for these difficulties, and pilot-tested instruments and research strategies for a large scale comprehensive study. Research strategies used included content analysis of…

Friedler, Y.; And Others

424

Targeting Students' Physical Science Misconceptions Using the Conceptual Change Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This handbook is dedicated to giving teachers clear information on how to correct physical science misconceptions in the classroom. It aims to help teachers help students develop appropriate understanding based on hands-on, inquiry-based experiences that challenge preconceptions. The book is organized into units ranging from matter to heat and waves. Each unit includes a list of common misconceptions and activities that help students develop an accurate understanding of each concept. Background information and lessons are provided. The National Science Education Standards for content and instructional strategies in the physical sciences are also addressed.

Stepans, Joseph

2007-11-01

425

Toward a comprehensive picture of student understanding of force, velocity, and acceleration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students' difficulties with conceptual questions about force, velocity, and acceleration have been well documented. However, there has been no single systematic study of student understanding of all paired relations among the concepts of force, velocity, and acceleration. For example, a student who believes an object with a net force on it must be moving might not believe an accelerating object must be moving. In this paper, we describe the development of a test to build a more comprehensive picture of student understanding. We describe modifications to increase the validity of the test by reducing false positives and unwanted inconsistencies. We also report preliminary data suggesting that there are definite patterns in student understanding of the various relations between force, velocity, and acceleration. For example, there are a higher number of students reporting that force and velocity are directionally related then that acceleration and velocity are directionally related.

Rosenblatt, Rebecca; Sayre, Eleanor C.; Heckler, Andrew F.

2008-10-01

426

A conceptual framework for understanding outcomes of oral implant therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of implants has expanded so rapidly that its effectiveness for many clinical situations has not been firmly established. Dentists are responsible for making appropriate therapeutic recommendations for the management of partial and complete edentulism. These decisions require an understanding of the consequences or outcomes of treatment approaches. Outcome measures to evaluate the benefits of alternative therapies include longevity

Albert D Guckes; Mark S Scurria; Daniel A Shugars

1996-01-01

427

Enhancing Conceptual Understanding in Calculus Using Class Pad 300  

Microsoft Academic Search

World over, Computer Algebra Systems (CAS) have greatly influenced mathematics teaching and learning. The last two decades have witnessed extensive research in this area and Mathematics educators have been investigating various ways of integrating CAS with classroom teaching to develop a balanced curriculum, which lays less emphasis on paper- pencil techniques and focuses more on understanding concepts. Computer Algebra Systems

Jonaki B Ghosh

428

The Development of Self: Theoretical Understandings and Conceptual Underpinnings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the theoretical orientations that frame current understanding about the development of self and the social processes that may shape it. Components of the self are discussed, and current thinking about their development in infancy and toddlerhood is described. The role of temperament is also addressed. (Author/CR)|

Houck, Gail M.; Spegman, Adele M.

1999-01-01

429

An Information Processing Analysis of the Function of Conceptual Understanding in the Learning of Arithmetic Procedures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children learn arithmetic procedures by rote, rather than by constructing them with an understanding of numbers. Rote learning produces lack of flexibility, nonsensical errors, and other difficulties. Proposed is a theory of conceptual understanding and its role in learning and executing arithmetic procedures. The basic hypothesis is that…

Ohlsson, Stellan; Rees, Ernest

430

Elementary preservice teachers' conceptual understandings of the cause of moon phases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe and understand alternative conceptions and instructional strategies that held promise to promote the learning of scientific concepts. This study focused on the conceptual understandings held by 58 elementary preservice teachers about phases of the moon. Data were obtained for Group 1 participants before and after the completion of an inquiry-based physics

Kathy Cabe Trundle

1999-01-01

431

Facilitating Changes in Ninth Grade Students' Understanding of Dissolution and Diffusion through DSLM Instruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines the nature and process of ninth grade students conceptual change regarding their mental model of dissolution and diffusion as a result of instructions using the Dual Situated Learning Model (DSLM). The dual situated learning events of this model are designed according to the students ontological viewpoint of the science concepts as well as the nature of these concepts. Moreover, these events serve two functions by creating dissonance with the pre-existing knowledge and providing new schema for constructing a more scientific view of the concept. The concepts of dissolution and diffusion were chosen to examine students conceptual change process because they involve the understanding of both invisible and process attributes. Results indicate that about 76%-90% of the students successfully underwent a change in their understanding of the concepts of dissolution and diffusion after instruction using dual situated learning events. Moreover, about 75% of the students successfully applied their previous mental sets into the challenging situated learning event. This current study demonstrates that DSLM indeed facilitates the processes of conceptual change and knowledge acquisition involving concepts of dissolution and diffusion, clarifying the nature of conceptual change involving science concepts of both an invisible and a process nature.

She, Hsiao-Ching

2004-08-01

432

Using Pictures to Enhance Students' Understanding of Bayes' Theorem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students often have difficulty understanding algebraic proofs of statistics theorems. However, it sometimes is possible to prove statistical theorems with pictures in which case students can gain understanding more easily. I provide examples for two versions of Bayes' theorem.|

Trafimow, David

2011-01-01

433

Student understanding of time in special relativity: Simultaneity and reference frames  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article reports on an investigation of student understanding of the concept of time in special relativity. A series of research tasks are discussed that illustrate, step-by-step, how student reasoning of fundamental concepts of relativity was probed. The results indicate that after standard instruction students at all academic levels have serious difficulties with the relativity of simultaneity and with the role of observers in inertial reference frames. Evidence is presented that suggests many students construct a conceptual framework in which the ideas of absolute simultaneity and the relativity of simultaneity harmoniously co-exist.

Scherr, Rachel E.; Shaffer, Peter S.; Vokos, Stamatis

2005-11-23

434

Career and Technical Education (CTE) Student Success in Community Colleges: A Conceptual Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Career and technical education (CTE) students pursuing occupational associate's degrees or certificates differ from students seeking academic majors at 2-year institutions in several ways. This article examines several theoretical models of student persistence and offers a conceptual model of student success focused on CTE students in community…

Hirschy, Amy S.; Bremer, Christine D.; Castellano, Marisa

2011-01-01

435

An Attempt to Understand Students' Understanding of Basic Algebra.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the results obtained with a group of 24 14-year-old students when presented with a set of algebra tasks by the Leeds Modelling System (LMS). These same students were given a comparable paper-and-pencil test and detailed interviews some 4 months later. The latter studies uncovered several kinds of student misunderstanding that…

Sleeman, D.

436

Using a conceptual flow, inquiry based learning, and language development to yield enduring understanding in science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This project was designed to incorporate three curriculum development strategies that have been created to increase student achievement in various content areas. Conceptual flow design, the 5E Instructional Model, and English language development strategies were used to create a seventh grade Genetics Unit. The unit was evaluated by three external experts and carried out in two seventh grade classrooms in an effort to assess its effectiveness. Based on the evaluators' feedback, the initial conceptual flow and lessons were found to be inconsistent and confusing. Overall, the organization of this unit seemed to support student achievement. The conceptual flow and the lesson layout of the unit were revised based on the evaluation data. All revisions and the established protocols will serve as models for further science curriculum development in the Norwalk-La Mirada Unified School District.

Gunderson, Angelica E.

437

HOW TO HELP STUDENTS UNDERSTAND PHYSIOLOGY? EMPHASIZE GENERAL MODELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

tudents generally approach topics in physiology as a series of unrelated phenom- ena that share few underlying principles. In many students' view, the Fick equation for cardiac output is fundamentally different from a renal clearance equation. If, however, students recognize that these apparently different situations can be viewed as examples of the same general conceptual model (e.g., conservation of mass),

Harold I. Modell

438

Mining Students' Inquiry Actions for Understanding of Complex Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study lies at an intersection between advancing educational data mining methods for detecting students' knowledge-in-action and the broader question of how conceptual and mathematical forms of knowing interact in exploring complex chemical systems. More specifically, it investigates students' inquiry actions in three computer-based models of…

Levy, Sharona T.; Wilensky, Uri

2011-01-01

439

Towards an understanding of parietal mnemonic processes: some conceptual guideposts  

PubMed Central

The posterior parietal lobes have been implicated in a range of episodic memory retrieval tasks, but the nature of parietal contributions to remembering remains unclear. In an attempt to identify fruitful avenues of further research, several heuristic questions about parietal mnemonic activations are considered in light of recent empirical findings: Do such parietal activations reflect memory processes, or their contents? Do they precede, follow, or co-occur with retrieval? What can we learn from their pattern of lateralization? Do they index access to episodic representations, or the feeling of remembering? Are parietal activations graded by memory strength, quantity of retrieved information, or the type of retrieval? How do memory-related activations map onto functional parcellation of parietal lobes suggested by other cognitive phenomena? Consideration of these questions can promote understanding of the relationship between parietal mnemonic effects and perceptual, attentional, and action-oriented cognitive processes.

Levy, Daniel A.

2012-01-01

440

High School Precalculus Students' Understanding of Slope as Measure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Interviews 22 high school precalculus students to examine their understanding of slope as measure. Indicates that students demonstrated a better understanding of slope in functional situations, but many students had trouble interpreting slope as measure of rate of change. Suggests that instruction should focus on helping students form connections…

Stump, Sheryl L.

2001-01-01

441

Student performance on conceptual questions: Does instruction matter?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of the tutorial component of introductory calculus-based physics at the University of Washington, students take weekly pretests that consist of conceptual questions. Pretests are so named because they precede each tutorial, but they are frequently administered after lecture instruction. Many variables associated with class composition and prior instruction (if any) could, in principle, affect student performance on these questions. Nonetheless, the results are often found to be "essentially the same" in all classes. With data available from a large number of classes, it is possible to characterize the typical variation quantitatively. In this paper three questions for which we have accumulated thousands of responses, from dozens of classes representing different conditions with respect to the textbook in use, the amount of prior instruction, etc., serve as examples. For each question, we examine the variation in student performance across all classes. We also compare subsets categorized according to the amount of relevant prior instruction each class had received. A preliminary analysis suggests that the variation in performance is essentially random. No statistically significant difference is observed between results obtained before relevant instruction begins and after it has been completed. The results provide evidence that exposure to concepts in lecture and textbook is not sufficient to ensure an improvement in performance on questions that require qualitative reasoning.

Heron, Paula R.

2013-08-31

442

Enhancing Pre-Service Elementary Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of Solution Chemistry with Conceptual Change Text  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reports on the use of a constructivist-based pedagogy to enhance understanding of some features of solution chemistry. Pre-service science teacher trainees' prior knowledge about the dissolution of salts and sugar in water were elicited by the use of a simple diagnostic tool. The test revealed widespread alternative conceptions. These…

Calik, Muammer; Ayas, Alipasa; Coll, Richard Kevin

2007-01-01

443

Reconsidering conceptual change from a socio-cultural perspective: analyzing students' meaning making in genetics in collaborative learning activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the learning sciences, students' understanding of scientific concepts has often been approached in terms of conceptual change. These studies are grounded in a cognitive or a socio-cognitive approach to students' understanding and imply a focus on the individuals' mental representations of scientific concepts and ideas. We approach students' conceptual change from a socio-cultural perspective as they make new meaning in genetics. Adhering to a socio-cultural perspective, we emphasize the discursive and interactional aspects of human learning and understanding. This perspective implies that the focus is on students' meaning making processes in collaborative learning activities. In the study, we conduct an analysis of a group of students' who interact while working to solve problems in genetics. In our analyses we emphasize four analytical aspects of the students' meaning making: (a) the students' use of resources in problematizing, (b) teacher interventions, (c) changes in interactional accomplishments, and (d) the institutional aspect of meaning making. Our findings suggest that students' meaning making surrounding genetics concepts relates not only to an epistemic concern but also to an interactional and an institutional concern.

Furberg, Anniken; Arnseth, Hans Christian

2009-03-01

444

The Use of Personal Responder Devices to Assess Student Understanding, and Student Beliefs About Their Effectiveness, in Astro 101  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team at the University of Arizona has been conducting an investigation into the use of wireless, personal responder devices in the large enrollment, non-science majors, introductory astronomy course (Astro 101). We describe how these responders are being used to assess student understanding of concepts in astronomy after traditional lecture and after they engage in learner-centered activities. In addition, we present preliminary data suggesting that students find the use of these responders beneficial to their understanding of course concepts, contributes to their exam grades, and contributes to their interest in course topics.

Brissenden, G.; Doktor, E. F. C.; Prather, E. E.; Antonellis, J. C.; Richwine, P.

2004-05-01

445

Exploring Conceptual Integration in Student Thinking: Evidence from a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two reasons are suggested for studying the degree of conceptual integration in student thinking. The linking of new material to existing knowledge is an important aspect of meaningful learning. It is also argued that conceptual coherence is a characteristic of scientific knowledge and a criterion used in evaluating new theories. Appreciating this ‘scientific value’ should be one objective when students

Keith S. Taber

2008-01-01

446

Automatic Generation of Students? Conceptual Models Underpinned by Free-Text Adaptive Computer Assisted Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present an automatic procedure to generate students' knowledge conceptual models from their answers to an automatic free-text scoring system. The conceptual model is defined as a simplified representation of the concepts and relationships among them that each student keeps in his or her mind about an area of knowledge. It is considered that each area of

Diana Pérez-Marín; Enrique Alfonseca; Manuel Freire; Pilar Rodríguez; José María Guirao; Antonio Moreno-Sandoval

2006-01-01

447

Systematic Study of Student Understanding of the Relationships between the Directions of Force, Velocity, and Acceleration in One Dimension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We developed an instrument to systematically investigate student conceptual understanding of the relationships between the directions of net force, velocity, and acceleration in one dimension and report on data collected on the final version of the instrument from over 650 students. Unlike previous work, we simultaneously studied all six possible…

Rosenblatt, Rebecca; Heckler, Andrew F.

2011-01-01

448

Using Targeted Active-Learning Exercises and Diagnostic Question Clusters to Improve Students' Understanding of Carbon Cycling in Ecosystems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, we used targeted active-learning activities to help students improve their ways of reasoning about carbon flow in ecosystems. The results of a validated ecology conceptual inventory (diagnostic question clusters [DQCs]) provided us with information about students' understanding of and reasoning about transformation of inorganic and…

Maskiewicz, April Cordero; Griscom, Heather Peckham; Welch, Nicole Turrill

2012-01-01

449

Verbal understanding: Integrating the conceptual analyses of Skinner, Ryle, and Wittgenstein  

PubMed Central

Gilbert Ryle's (1949) and Ludwig Wittgenstein's (1953; 1958; 1974/78) conceptual analyses of verbal understanding are presented. For Ryle, the term understanding signifies simultaneously an acquired disposition and a behavioral episode. For Wittgenstein, it signifies simultaneously a skill and a criterial behavior. Both argued that episodes of understanding comprise heterogenious classes of behaviors, and that each member of such a class is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition of understanding. Next, an approach integrating the analyses of Ryle and Wittgenstein with that of Skinner is presented. Lastly, it is argued that this integrated analysis adequately counters Parrott's (1984) argument that understanding, for Skinner, is potential behavior and not an event.

Schoneberger, Ted

1991-01-01

450

Understanding integrated care: a comprehensive conceptual framework based on the integrative functions of primary care  

PubMed Central

Introduction Primary care has a central role in integrating care within a health system. However, conceptual ambiguity regarding integrated care hampers a systematic understanding. This paper proposes a conceptual framework that combines the concepts of primary care and integrated care, in order to understand the complexity of integrated care. Methods The search method involved a combination of electronic database searches, hand searches of reference lists (snowball method) and contacting researchers in the field. The process of synthesizing the literature was iterative, to relate the concepts of primary care and integrated care. First, we identified the general principles of primary care and integrated care. Second, we connected the dimensions of integrated care and the principles of primary care. Finally, to improve content validity we held several meetings with researchers in the field to develop and refine our conceptual framework. Results The conceptual framework combines the functions of primary care with the dimensions of integrated care. Person-focused and population-based care serve as guiding principles for achieving integration across the care continuum. Integration plays complementary roles on the micro (clinical integration), meso (professional and organisational integration) and macro (system integration) level. Functional and normative integration ensure connectivity between the levels. Discussion The presented conceptual framework is a first step to achieve a better understanding of the inter-relationships among the dimensions of integrated care from a primary care perspective.

Valentijn, Pim P.; Schepman, Sanneke M.; Opheij, Wilfrid; Bruijnzeels, Marc A.

2013-01-01

451

Student Understanding of Ionizing Radiation and Radioactivity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes how researchers identified specific difficulties students had with ionizing radiation and radioactivity using interviews. They also explore students' pre-instruction thoughts on these topics.

Prather, Edward E.; Harrington, Randal R.

2006-06-19

452

Student Solutions Manual to accompany Understanding Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Work more effectively and check solutions as you go along with the text! This Student Solutions Manual is designed for use with Cummings' Understanding Physics. Its primary purpose is to show readers by example how to solve various types of problems given at the end of each chapter in the text. Most of the solutions start from definitions or fundamental relationships and the final equation is derived. This technique highlights the fundamentals and at the same time gives readers the opportunity to review the mathematical steps required to obtain a solution. The mere plugging of numbers into equations derived in the text is avoided for the most part. Readers will learn to examine any assumptions that are made in setting up and solving each problem. Using an interactive strategy, Understanding Physics provides a hands-on introduction to the fundamentals of physics. Built on the foundations of Halliday, Resnick, and Walker's Fundamentals of Physics, 6th Edition, this text represents the latest methods in physics instruction. Incorporating new approaches based on Physics Education Research (PER), this text is designed for courses that use computer-based laboratory tools, and promote Activity Based Physics in lectures, labs, and recitations.

Cummings, Karen; Laws, Priscilla W.; Redish, Edward F.; Cooney, Patrick J.; Christman, J. Richard

2004-05-01

453

Students' conceptual ecologies and the process of conceptual change in evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using conceptual change as a theoretical lens, the purpose of this study is to describe the structure of a learner's conceptual ecology within a specific content area (biological evolution) and to illustrate how this ecology influences the process of conceptual change. Data were gathered using participant observations in a high school Biology II classroom as well as a series of

Sherry S. Demastes; Ronald G. Good; Patsye Peebles

1995-01-01

454

Student Performance on Conceptual Questions: Does Instruction Matter?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the tutorial component of introductory calculus-based physics at the University of Washington, students take weekly pretests that consist of conceptual questions. Pretests are so named because they precede each tutorial, but they are frequently administered after lecture instruction. Many variables associated with class composition and prior instruction could, in principle, affect student performance. Nonetheless, the results are often found to be ``essentially the same'' in all classes. Selected questions for which we have accumulated thousands of responses, from dozens of classes representing different conditions with respect to the textbook in use, the amount of prior instruction, etc., serve as examples. A preliminary analysis suggests that the variation in performance across all classes is essentially random. No statistically significant difference is observed between results obtained before relevant instruction begins and after it has been completed. The results provide evidence that exposure to concepts in lecture and textbook is not sufficient to ensure an improvement in performance on questions that require qualitative reasoning.

Heron, Paula

2012-10-01

455

Teachers' Understanding of Their Students' Motivation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the nature and validity of teacher judgments about student motivation as part of a project related to the teaching of mathematics. The study examined: (1) the degree of correlation between teachers' and students' assessments of students' motivation regarding mathematical topics; (2) the stability of teachers' and students'…

Givvin, Karen B.; And Others

456

Understanding and Retaining Underprepared College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of the literature suggested that African-American and minority students bring a diverse culture to "traditional" college life. As a result, many institutions of higher learning designed their student services, student support programs, curricular and extracurricular to meet the special nature and needs of its minority student population.…

Littleton, Roosevelt

457

Interaction of Learner Control and Prior Conceptual Understanding in Computer-Assisted Video Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine how learners with different levels of prior understanding of a topic interact and learn from computer-assisted video instruction systems when they have control of content, sequence, pace, and mode of instruction. Based on pretest scores, 80 subjects were randomly selected, half with low prior conceptual

Gay, Geraldine

458

Chinese and Australian Year 3 Children's Conceptual Understanding of Science: A Multiple Comparative Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children have formal science instruction from kindergarten in Australia and from Year 3 in China. The purpose of this research was to explore the impact that different approaches to primary science curricula in China and Australia have on children's conceptual understanding of science. Participants were Year 3 children from three schools of high,…

Tao, Ying; Oliver, Mary Colette; Venville, Grady Jane

2012-01-01

459

Understanding the structure of the set of rational numbers: a conceptual change approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present article, we argue that the conceptual change approach to learning can apply in the case of mathematics, taking into consideration the particular nature of mathematical knowledge and the neurobiological bases of mathematical cognition. In the empirical study that is reported in this article, we investigated ninth graders’ understanding of algebraic and structural properties of rational numbers, from

Xenia Vamvakoussi; Stella Vosniadou

2004-01-01

460

Chinese and Australian Children's Understandings of the Earth: A Cross Cultural Study of Conceptual Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to explore Chinese and Australian primary children's conceptual understandings of the Earth. The research was conducted in the interpretive paradigm and was designed to be descriptive with comparative and cross sectional elements. Participants were Year 3 and Year 6 children from three schools in Hunan Province,…

Tao, Ying; Oliver, Mary; Venville, Grady

2013-01-01

461

'Implicit' and 'Explicit' CSR: A conceptual framework for understanding CSR in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a conceptual framework of corporate social responsibility (CSR) prompted by the need to understand its changing status in Europe. It is informed by questions concerning (i) the extended period in which European corporations did not appear to match their American counterparts and (ii) the more recent and relatively rapid rise in CSR in Europe. It illustrates the

Dirk Matten; Jeremy Moon

462

Chinese and Australian Year 3 Children's Conceptual Understanding of Science: A multiple comparative case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children have formal science instruction from kindergarten in Australia and from Year 3 in China. The purpose of this research was to explore the impact that different approaches to primary science curricula in China and Australia have on children's conceptual understanding of science. Participants were Year 3 children from three schools of high, medium and low socio-economic status in Hunan

Ying Tao; Mary Colette Oliver; Grady Jane Venville

2012-01-01

463

Chinese and Australian Year 3 Children's Conceptual Understanding of Science: A multiple comparative case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children have formal science instruction from kindergarten in Australia and from Year 3 in China. The purpose of this research was to explore the impact that different approaches to primary science curricula in China and Australia have on children's conceptual understanding of science. Participants were Year 3 children from three schools of high, medium and low socio-economic status in Hunan

Ying Tao; Mary Colette Oliver; Grady Jane Venville

2011-01-01

464

Students' Understanding of Advanced Properties of Java Exceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines how Information Systems Engineering School students on the verge of their graduation understand the mechanism of exception handling. The main contributions of this paper are as follows: we construct a questionnaire aimed at examining students' level of understanding concerning exceptions; we classify and analyse the students'…

Rashkovits, Rami; Lavy, Ilana

2012-01-01

465

Students' Understandings of Human Organs and Organ Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses students' understandings of their own internal structure. Analysis shows the extent to which student understanding increases with age and the degree to which students know more about some organs and organ systems than others. Gender differences in the drawings were generally not large and there were some intriguing differences in the…

Reiss, Michael J.; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

2001-01-01

466

Improving students' understanding of carbohydrate metabolism in first-year biochemistry at tertiary level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many introductory biochemistry students have problems understanding metabolism and acquiring the skills necessary to study metabolic pathways. In this paper we suggest that this may be largely due to the use of a traditional teaching approach which emphasises memorisation rather than understanding. We present an alternative approach to teaching carbohydrate metabolism which is designed to promote understanding of pathways. The approach also enables regular monitoring of, and reflection on, student progress and the identification of student reasoning and conceptual difficulties through the use of specially designed problems. Preliminary results are presented giving examples of specific student d