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1

Assessing Students' Conceptual Understanding of Solubility Equilibrium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a problem on solubility equilibrium which involves macroscopic, microscopic, and symbolic levels of representation as a resource for the evaluation of students, and allows for assessment as to whether students have acquired an adequate conceptual understanding of the phenomenon. Also diagnoses difficulties with regard to previous…

Raviolo, Andres

2001-01-01

2

Community College Students' Conceptual Understanding of Statistical Measures of Spread  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the conceptual understanding of measures of spread among community college students in an introductory statistics course. The course is centered around deemphasizing computational skills and focused, rather, on development of conceptual understanding. Open-ended questions were developed to explore and assess students' conceptual understanding of measures of spread. A detailed analysis of the students' responses is presented to

Mikhail Turegun; Stacy Reeder

2011-01-01

3

Facilitating Conceptual Change in Students' Understanding of Boiling Concept  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to construct a teaching strategy for facilitating students' conceptual understanding of the boiling concept. The study is based on 52 freshman students in the primary science education department. Students' ideas were elicited by a test consisting of nine questions. Conceptual change strategy was designed based on…

Costu, Bayram; Ayas, Alipasa; Niaz, Mansoor; Unal, Suat; Calik, Muammer

2007-01-01

4

Evaluation of Students' Conceptual Understanding of Malaria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, a two-tier diagnostic test for understanding malaria was developed and administered to 314 Bruneian students in Year 12 and in a nursing diploma course. The validity, reliability, difficulty level, discriminant indices, and reading ability of the test were examined and found to be acceptable in terms of measuring students'…

Cheong, Irene Poh-Ai; Treagust, David; Kyeleve, Iorhemen J.; Oh, Peck-Yoke

2010-01-01

5

The Conceptual Understanding of Sound by Students with Visual Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: The purpose of the study presented here was to understand and describe the misconceptions of students with visual impairments about sound and instructional techniques that may help them to develop a scientific understanding. Methods: Semistructured interview-centered pre-and posttests were used to identify the students' conceptual

Wild, Tiffany A.; Hilson, Margilee P.; Hobson, Sally M.

2013-01-01

6

Measuring Conceptual Change in College Students' Understanding of Lunar Phases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To determine the overall effectiveness of instruction at producing a scientifically correct understanding, researchers need to be able to assess conceptual change. This paper details how using Model Analysis Theory (MAT) in conjunction with the Lunar Phases Concept Inventory (LPCI), provides researchers a more detailed picture of college students conceptual change with regards to lunar phases than traditional methods alone. A review of MAT is provided along with a detailed example of its application before and after instruction to determine conceptual change.

Lindell, Rebecca S.

2010-01-18

7

Facilitating Conceptual Change in Students' Understanding of Ecological Concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effect of conceptual-change-texts-oriented instruction to seventh-grade students' understanding of ecological concepts was investigated. Using information collected through interviews and related literature, the Ecology Concept Test was developed and administered to 58 elementary students in two classes of an elementary school before and after the treatment. The experimental group received conceptual-change-texts-oriented instruction and the control group received

Özlem Özkan; Ceren Tekkaya; Ömer Geban

2004-01-01

8

Students' Attitudes toward and Conceptual Understanding of Chemical Instrumentation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' attitudes toward and conceptual understanding of chemical instrumentation is surveyed. The study shows that, in general, the students' attitudes toward using instrumentation in the lab is quite positive and they felt that using instrumentation in the lab allowed them not only to connect "chemistry" and the "real world", but also to…

Miller, Larry S.; Nakhleh, Mary B.; Nash, John J.; Meyer, Jeanne A.

2004-01-01

9

Facilitating Conceptual Change in Students' Understanding of Ecological Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the effect of conceptual-change-texts-oriented instruction to seventh-grade students' understanding of ecological concepts was investigated. Using information collected through interviews and related literature, the Ecology Concept Test was developed and administered to 58 elementary students in two classes of an elementary school…

Ozkan, Ozlem; Tekkaya, Ceren; Geban, Omer

2004-01-01

10

Facilitating Conceptual Change in Students' Understanding of Electrochemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Constructs a teaching strategy to facilitate conceptual change in freshman students' understanding of electrochemistry. Provides students with the correct response along with alternative responses (teaching experiments), producing a conflicting situation that is conducive to an equilibration of their cognitive structures. Concludes that the…

Niaz, Mansoor

2002-01-01

11

Promoting Conceptual Change in First Year Students' Understanding of Evaporation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We constructed the PDEODE (Predict-Discuss-Explain-Observe-Discuss-Explain) teaching strategy, a variant of the classical POE (Predict-Observe-Explain) activity, to promote conceptual change, and investigated its effectiveness on student understanding of the evaporation concept. The sample consisted of 52 first year students in a primary science…

Costu, Bayram; Ayas, Alipasa; Niaz, Mansoor

2010-01-01

12

Introductory college chemistry students' understanding of stoichiometry: Connections between conceptual and computational understandings and instruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous research has shown a gap between chemistry students' conceptual and computational understandings of chemistry topics such as gas laws, equilibrium, and reactions. This qualitative study examined the conceptual and computational understandings of stoichiometry of college students enrolled in a large lecture Introductory Chemistry course. Factors that might influence students' understandings were examined to determine their influence. Possible influential factors examined included students' prior coursework, and their current chemistry instruction. Instruction on stoichiometry was examined through classroom observations, an instructor interview, and review of the course resources. Course exams and out-of-class assignments were also examined for their influence on students. Student volunteers (n = 6) were interviewed to gauge their understanding of stoichiometry. Students' understanding was assessed through tasks that included a card sort, solving conceptual and computational problems, drawing representations of reactions, and answering questions concerning their philosophy of learning chemistry. Results indicated that students had an acceptable understanding of the particulate nature of matter but did not apply this knowledge to problem solving. The students were most comfortable solving computational problems where they could apply algorithms learned from their instructor. The students also applied algorithms in answering conceptual problems. There appeared to be a connection between the students' conceptual structures of stoichiometry and their ability to solve computational problems. The lack of conceptual questions in assessment appeared to be a major contributing factor in the students' lack of conceptual understanding because the students discounted the importance of learning aspects of stoichiometry that were not included on exams. Other contributing factors included the computational focus of instruction on limiting reactant problems, textbook presentation, and student exercises.

Wolfer, Adam Joseph

13

Introductory College Chemistry Students' Understanding of Stoichiometry: Connections between Conceptual and Computational Understandings and Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many studies of college chemistry students have found a gap between students' success in solving computational chemistry problems and their success in solving conceptual chemistry problems. This paper examines college students' understanding of the concept of stoichiometry, the particulate nature of matter, and chemistry problem solving. This…

Wolfer, Adam J.; Lederman, Norman G.

14

Longitudinal study of student conceptual understanding in electricity and magnetism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the long-term effect of student-centered instruction at the freshman level on juniors’ performance on a conceptual survey of Electricity and Magnetism (E&M). We measured student performance on a research-based conceptual instrument—the Brief Electricity & Magnetism Assessment (BEMA)-over a period of 8 semesters (2004-2007). Concurrently, we introduced the University of Washington's Tutorials in Introductory Physics as part of our standard freshman curriculum. Freshmen took the BEMA before and after this Tutorial-based introductory course, and juniors took it after completion of their traditional junior-level E&M I and E&M II courses. We find that, on average, individual BEMA scores do not change significantly after completion of the introductory course—neither from the freshman to the junior year, nor from upper-division E&M I to E&M II. However, we find that juniors who had completed a non-Tutorial freshman course scored significantly lower on the (post-upper-division) BEMA than those who had completed the reformed freshman course—indicating a long-term positive impact of freshman Tutorials on conceptual understanding.

Pollock, S. J.

2009-12-01

15

Longitudinal study of student conceptual understanding in electricity and magnetism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We have investigated the long-term effect of student-centered instruction at the freshman level on juniorsâ performance on a conceptual survey of Electricity and Magnetism (E&M). We measured student performance on a research-based conceptual instrumentâthe Brief Electricity & Magnetism Assessment (BEMA)âover a period of 8 semesters (2004â2007). Concurrently, we introduced the University of Washington's Tutorials in Introductory Physics as part of our standard freshman curriculum. Freshmen took the BEMA before and after this Tutorial-based introductory course, and juniors took it after completion of their traditional junior-level E&M I and E&M II courses. We find that, on average, individual BEMA scores do not change significantly after completion of the introductory courseâneither from the freshman to the junior year, nor from upper-division E&M I to E&M II. However, we find that juniors who had completed a non-Tutorial freshman course scored significantly lower on the (post-upper-division) BEMA than those who had completed the reformed freshman courseâindicating a long-term positive impact of freshman Tutorials on conceptual understanding.

Pollock, Steven J.

2010-03-11

16

Teaching for Conceptual Understanding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A series of lessons were taught in a second-grade classroom to assist students' conceptual understanding of celestial motion. After assessing student misconceptions about space and the movement of planets and the Sun, the teacher engaged the students in role-playing, group work, and computer simulations. These teaching strategies were effective for enhancing students' conceptual understanding.

Howren, Carrie; Kang, Nam-Hwa

2004-09-01

17

Understanding Genetics: Analysis of Secondary Students' Conceptual Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the conceptual change of students in Grades 10 and 12 in three Australian senior high schools when the teachers included computer multimedia to a greater or lesser extent in their teaching of a genetics course. The study, underpinned by a multidimensional conceptual-change framework, used an interpretive approach and a…

Tsui, Chi-Yan; Treagust, David F.

2007-01-01

18

Exploring Student Understanding of Energy through the Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Survey  

E-print Network

Exploring Student Understanding of Energy through the Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Survey S. B. Mc Abstract. We present a study of student understanding of energy in quantum mechanical tunneling and barrier refer to as the Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Survey (QMCS), is being developed to measure student

Colorado at Boulder, University of

19

Enhancing Students' Understanding of Photosynthesis and Respiration in Plant through Conceptual Change Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effectiveness of combining conceptual change text and discussion web strategies on students' understanding of photosynthesis and respiration in plants. Students' conceptual understanding of photosynthesis and respiration in plants was measured using the two-tier diagnostic test developed by Haslam and Treagust (1987,…

Yenilmez, Ayse; Tekkaya, Ceren

2006-01-01

20

Primary Student-Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect: A mixed method study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The greenhouse effect is a reasonably complex scientific phenomenon which can be used as a model to examine students' conceptual understanding in science. Primary student-teachers' understanding of global environmental problems, such as climate change and ozone depletion, indicates that they have many misconceptions. The present mixed method study examines Finnish primary student-teachers' understanding of the greenhouse effect based on the

Ilkka Johannes Ratinen

2011-01-01

21

Probing students' understanding of some conceptual themes in general relativity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This work is an attempt to see how physics undergraduates view the basic ideas of general relativity when they are exposed to the topic in a standard introductory course. Since the subject is conceptually and technically difficult, we adopted a âcase studiesâ approach, focusing in depth on about six students who had just finished a one semester course on special relativity. The methodology of investigation involved a combination of text comprehension questionnaire and detailed clinical interviews. The aim was not to investigate the technical proficiency of the students, but to probe in detail the nuances of their conceptions of several basic points of the subject. Analysis of their responses reveals a large number of âalternative conceptionsâ of students in the domain. The study should be useful to physics education researchers as well as to teachers of introductory general relativity at about the senior undergraduate level.

Bandyopadhyay, Atanu; Kumar, Arvind

2011-03-13

22

The Effect of a Conceptual Change Approach on Understanding of Students' Chemical Equilibrium Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a conceptual change approach over traditional instruction on tenth-grade students' conceptual achievement in understanding chemical equilibrium. The study was conducted in two classes of the same teacher with participation of a total of 44 tenth-grade students. In this study, a…

Atasoy, Basri; Akkus, Huseyin; Kadayifci, Hakki

2009-01-01

23

Longitudinal Conceptual Change in Students' Understanding of Thermal Equilibrium: An Examination of the Process of Conceptual Restructuring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research analyzes students' conceptual change across a semester in an 8th-grade thermodynamics curriculum. Fifty students were interviewed 5 times during their 8th-grade semester and then again preceding their 10th- and 12th-grade years to follow their subsequent progress. The interview questions probed students' understanding of…

Clark, Douglas B.

2006-01-01

24

A Conceptual Change Teaching Strategy To Facilitate High School Students' Understanding of Electrochemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study that used a teaching strategy based on two teaching experiments which could facilitate students' conceptual understanding of electrochemistry. Involves two sections (n=29 and n=28) of 10th grade high school students in Venezuela. Concludes that the teaching experiments facilitated student understanding of electrochemistry.…

Niaz, Mansoor; Chacon, Eleazar

2003-01-01

25

Testing the Development of Student Conceptual and Visualization Understanding in Quantum Mechanics through the Undergraduate Career.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an assessment instrument designed to test conceptual and visual understanding of quantum theory, probe various aspects of student understanding of some core ideas of quantum mechanics, and investigate how students develop over the undergraduate curriculum. (Contains 52 references.) (Author/YDS)

Cataloglu, E.; Robinett, R. W.

2002-01-01

26

Analogy-Integrated e-Learning Module: Facilitating Students' Conceptual Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study deals with the development of an analogy-integrated e-learning module on Cellular Respiration, which is intended to facilitate conceptual understanding of students with different brain hemisphere dominance and learning styles. The module includes eight analogies originally conceptualized following the specific steps used to prepare…

Florida, Jennifer

2012-01-01

27

Urban High School Students' Critical Science Agency: Conceptual Understandings and Environmental Actions Around Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates how the enactment of a climate change curriculum supports students' development of critical science agency, which includes students developing deep understandings of science concepts and the ability to take action at the individual and community levels. We examined the impact of a four to six week urban ecology curriculum on students from three different urban high schools in the USA. Data collection included pre and posttest written assessments from all students ( n = 75) and pre and post interviews from focal students ( n = 22) to examine how students' conceptual understandings, beliefs and environmental actions changed. Our analyses showed that at the beginning of the curriculum, the majority of students believed that climate change was occurring; yet, they had limited conceptual understandings about climate change and were engaged in limited environmental actions. By the end of the curriculum, students had a significant increase in their understanding of climate change and the majority of students reported they were now engaged in actions to limit their personal impact on climate change. These findings suggest that believing a scientific theory (e.g. climate change) is not sufficient for critical science agency; rather, conceptual understandings and understandings of personal actions impact students' choices. We recommend that future climate change curriculum focus on supporting students' development of critical science agency by addressing common student misconceptions and by focusing on how students' actions can have significant impacts on the environment.

McNeill, Katherine L.; Vaughn, Meredith Houle

2012-04-01

28

Effect of Conceptual Change Approach on Students' Understanding of Reaction Rate Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of conceptual change text oriented instruction compared to traditional instruction on 10th grade students' understanding of reaction rate concepts. 45 students from two classes of the same teacher in a public high school participated in this study. Students in the experimental group…

Kingir, Sevgi; Geban, Omer

2012-01-01

29

Multiple intelligences and alternative teaching strategies: The effects on student academic achievement, conceptual understanding, and attitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the interactions between multiple intelligence strengths and alternative teaching methods on student academic achievement, conceptual understanding and attitudes. The design was a quasi-experimental study, in which students enrolled in Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, a developmental biology course, received lecture only, problem-based learning with lecture, or peer teaching with lecture. These students

Michelle Baragona

2009-01-01

30

Effectiveness of Conceptual Change Text Oriented Instruction on Students' Understanding of Cellular Respiration Concepts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study is to compare the effectiveness of conceptual change text oriented instruction and traditional instruction on students' understanding of cellular respiration concepts and their attitudes toward biology as a school subject. The sample of this study consisted of 84 eleventh-grade students from the 4 classes of a high school.…

Cakir, Ozlem S.; Yuruk, Nejla; Geban, Omer

31

Effectiveness of Conceptual Change Text-Oriented Instruction on Students' Understanding of Cellular Respiration Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effect of conceptual change text-oriented instruction over traditional instruction on students' understanding of cellular respiration concepts and their attitudes toward biology as a school subject. The sample of this study consisted of 84 eleventh-grade students from four classes of a high school. Two of the classes…

Cakirt, Ozlem S.; Geban, Omer; Yuruk, Nejla

2002-01-01

32

Thai Grade 10 and 11 Students' Conceptual Understanding and Ability to Solve Stoichiometry Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stoichiometry and related concepts are an important part of student learning in chemistry. In this interpretive-based inquiry, we investigated Thai Grade 10 and 11 students' conceptual understanding and ability to solve numerical problems for stoichiometry-related concepts. Ninety-seven participants completed a purpose-designed survey instrument…

Dahsah, Chanyah; Coll, Richard K.

2007-01-01

33

Contribution of Conceptual Change Texts and Concept Mapping to Students' Understanding of Acids and Bases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to compare effects of concept mapping and conceptual change texts instruction over traditional instruction on 10th grade students' understanding of acid and base concepts. 110 students from 6 classes of a chemistry course taught by the same teacher were enrolled in the study. There were four experimental group classes and…

Cakir, Ozlem Sila; Uzuntiryaki, Esen; Geban, Omer

34

Using Portfolios To Assess Students' Conceptual Understanding of Flotation and Buoyancy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research described in this paper investigates the use of portfolio assessment techniques in middle school science classrooms. It explores how alternative assessment frameworks, such as portfolios, can be used by the classroom teacher and the students as an indicator of students' conceptual understanding and to facilitate changes in science…

Erduran, Sibel; Duschl, Richard A.

35

Changing Scientific Reasoning and Conceptual Understanding in College Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Data from several years and several different classes have shown that Lawson test scores do not change much over the course of a single semester and are strongly correlated with FCI gains. So what does change Lawson scores? We have new data that we think shows that more interaction with materials that demand reasoning (and not just clicker questions and end of chapter Homework problems) improves reasoning ability and subsequently conceptual development.

Pyper, Brian A.

2012-05-15

36

Changing scientific reasoning and conceptual understanding in college students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data from several years and several different classes have shown that Lawson test scores do not change much over the course of a single semester and are strongly correlated with FCI gains. So what does change Lawson scores? We have new data that we think shows that more interaction with materials that demand reasoning (and not just clicker questions and end of chapter Homework problems) improves reasoning ability and subsequently conceptual development.

Pyper, Brian A.

2012-02-01

37

Learning in friendship groups: developing students' conceptual understanding through social interaction  

PubMed Central

The role that student friendship groups play in learning was investigated here. Employing a critical realist design, two focus groups on undergraduates were conducted to explore their experience of studying. Data from the “case-by-case” analysis suggested student-to-student friendships produced social contexts which facilitated conceptual understanding through discussion, explanation, and application to “real life” contemporary issues. However, the students did not conceive this as a learning experience or suggest the function of their friendships involved learning. These data therefore challenge the perspective that student groups in higher education are formed and regulated for the primary function of learning. Given these findings, further research is needed to assess the role student friendships play in developing disciplinary conceptual understanding. PMID:25309488

Senior, Carl; Howard, Chris

2014-01-01

38

Orchestrating student discourse opportunities and listening for conceptual understandings in high school science classrooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific communities have established social mechanisms for proposing explanations, questioning evidence, and validating claims. Opportunities like these are often not a given in science classrooms (Vellom, Anderson, & Palincsar, 1993) even though the National Science Education Standards (NSES, 1996) state that a scientifically literate person should be able to "engage intelligently in public discourse and debate about important issues in science and technology" (National Research Council [NRC], 1996). Research further documents that students' science conceptions undergo little modification with the traditional teaching experienced in many high school science classrooms (Duit, 2003, Dykstra, 2005). This case study is an examination of the discourse that occurred as four high school physics students collaborated on solutions to three physics lab problems during which the students made predictions and experimentally generated data to support their predictions. The discourse patterns were initially examined for instances of concept negotiations. Selected instances were further examined using Toulmin's (2003) pattern for characterizing argumentation in order to understand the students' scientific reasoning strategies and to document the role of collaboration in facilitating conceptual modifications and changes. Audio recordings of the students' conversations during the labs, written problems turned in to the teacher, interviews of the students, and observations and field notes taken during student collaboration were used to document and describe the students' challenges and successes encountered during their collaborative work. The findings of the study indicate that collaboration engaged the students and generated two types of productive science discourse: concept negotiations and procedure negotiations. Further analysis of the conceptual and procedure negotiations revealed that the students viewed science as sensible and plausible but not as a tool they could employ to answer their questions. The students' conceptual growth was inhibited by their allegiance to the authority of the science laws as learned in their school classroom. Thus, collaboration did not insure conceptual change. Describing student discourse in situ contributes to science education research about teaching practices that facilitate conceptual understandings in the science classroom.

Kinard, Melissa Grass

39

Can an egg-dropping race enhance students' conceptual understanding of air resistance?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Children are familiar with situations in which air resistance plays an important role, such as parachuting. However, it is not known whether they have any understanding about the concept of air resistance, how air resistance affects falling objects, and the differential effect it has on different objects. The literature reveals that there are misconceptions even among undergraduate physics students about how air resistance is affected by the mass and size of falling objects. A study was carried out in Hong Kong to explore Grade 6 students' (aged 11-12) conceptions of air resistance with respect to falling objects of different size and mass, and whether the subjects showed any change in their conceptual understanding after participating in an egg-dropping race. The findings show that students had a wide range of conceptions, which could be characterized into different levels. Their conceptions seem rather robust, and more structured interventions are required to bring about changes in students' conceptual understanding of air resistance.

Lee, Yeung Chung; Kwok, Ping Wai

2009-03-01

40

The Contribution of Conceptual Change Texts Accompanied by Concept Mapping to Students' Understanding of the Human Circulatory System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the contribution of conceptual change texts accompanied by concept mapping instruction to 10th-grade students' understanding of the human circulatory system. Indicates that the conceptual change texts accompanied by concept mapping instruction produced a positive effect on students' understanding of concepts. Concludes that students

Sungur, Semra; Tekkaya, Ceren; Geban, Omer

2001-01-01

41

Improving Students' Conceptual Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect Using Theory-Based Learning Materials that Promote Deep Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' everyday ideas of the greenhouse effect are difficult to change. Environmental education faces the challenge of developing instructional settings that foster students' conceptual understanding concept of the greenhouse effect in order to understand global warming. To facilitate students' conceptual development with regard to the…

Reinfried, Sibylle; Aeschbacher, Urs; Rottermann, Benno

2012-01-01

42

Effect of a Problem Based Simulation on the Conceptual Understanding of Undergraduate Science Education Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the effect of science teaching with a multimedia simulation on water quality, the "River of Life," on the science conceptual understanding of students (N = 83) in an undergraduate science education (K-9) course is reported. Teaching reality-based meaningful science is strongly recommended by the National Science Education Standards…

Kumar, David Devraj; Sherwood, Robert D.

2007-01-01

43

The Positive and Negative Effects of Science Concept Tests on Student Conceptual Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the phenomenon of testing effect during science concept assessments, including the mechanism behind it and its impact upon a learner's conceptual understanding. The participants consisted of 208 high school students, in either the 11th or 12th grade. Three types of tests (traditional multiple-choice test, correct concept test,…

Chang, Chun-Yen; Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Barufaldi, James P.

2010-01-01

44

The effects of the laboratory on college students' understanding of evolution: Implications for conceptual change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated eighty junior and senior college students' understanding of evolutionary biology concepts in lecture-only and lecture-laboratory settings. The evolution lab stressed the processes of evolution, and involved simulations, experiments, discussions, report writing, and reading. Test scores do not reveal everything about the actual process of learning in the laboratory. This study examined conceptual change patterns over a period

Lorna Benita Holtman

2000-01-01

45

Effect of Conceptual Change Oriented Instruction on Students' Understanding of Heat and Temperature Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the effectiveness of conceptual change oriented instruction and standard science instruction and contribution of logical thinking ability on seventh grade students' understanding of heat and temperature concepts. Misconceptions related to heat and temperature concepts were determined by related literature on this subject.…

Baser, Mustafa

2006-01-01

46

Effects of Experimenting with Physical and Virtual Manipulatives on Students' Conceptual Understanding in Heat and Temperature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to investigate the comparative value of experimenting with physical manipulatives (PM) in a sequential combination with virtual manipulatives (VM), with the use of PM preceding the use of VM, and of experimenting with PM alone, with respect to changes in students' conceptual understanding in the domain of heat and temperature. A…

Zacharia, Zacharias C.; Olympiou, Georgios; Papaevripidou, Marios

2008-01-01

47

The Effect of Conceptual Change Texts Oriented Instruction on Students' Understanding of the Solubility Equilibrium Concept  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study aimed to investigate the effect of conceptual change texts oriented instruction on 10th grade students' understanding of solubility equilibrium concept. The misconceptions related to solubility equilibrium concept were obtained through interviews with high school chemistry teachers and related literature. The data were obtained…

Onder, Ismail; Geban, Omer

2006-01-01

48

Study of TA's ability to implement the Tutorials in Introductory Physics and student conceptual understanding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many students are not prepared for college physics and therefore perform poorly. This becomes a problem when students must pass physics as part of course requirements for their major. At the University of Cincinnati this problem is being addressed through the implementation of Tutorials in Introductory Physics in the recitation sections of our calculus-based physics course. In recent years we have evidence that the Tutorials in Introductory Physics increase both students' conceptual understanding of physics as well as their success rate in the course. To make further improvements we have shifted our research focus to the training of the recitation TAs. This presentation will describe the training the TAs receive as well as the methodology and instruments used in the study to determine the effectiveness of each TA. Preliminary findings indicate that there is a relationship between the TA's ability to implement the Tutorials in Introductory Physics and student conceptual understanding.

Koenig, Kathleen M.; Endorf, Robert J.

2005-10-27

49

Exploring Student Understanding of Energy through the Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We present a study of student understanding of energy in quantum mechanical tunneling and barrier penetration. This paper will focus on student responses to two questions that were part of a test given in class to two modern physics classes and in individual interviews with 17 students. The test, which we refer to as the Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Survey (QMCS), is being developed to measure student understanding of basic concepts in quantum mechanics. In this paper we explore and clarify the previously reported misconception that reflection from a barrier is due to particles having a range of energies rather than wave properties. We also confirm previous studies reporting the student misconception that energy is lost in tunneling, and report a misconception not previously reported, that potential energy diagrams shown in tunneling problems do not represent the potential energy of the particle itself. The present work is part of a much larger study of student understanding of quantum mechanics.

Mckagan, Sam B.; Wieman, Carl E.

2009-07-13

50

Conceptual Underpinnings of Students' Ability to Understand Reflections from a Plane Mirror  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this paper we explore students' pre-instruction knowledge of several conceptual and procedural pieces of knowledge that we believe are prerequisite to one's ability to generate correct light ray diagrams and understand image formation by a plane mirror. The research population is an algebra-based, introductory physics class of about 50 students at a medium-sized, urban, public university. Both individual interviews and written free response questions were used to gather data.

Cummings, Karen; Grillo, Edward

2009-11-30

51

The effects of the laboratory on college students' understanding of evolution: Implications for conceptual change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated eighty junior and senior college students' understanding of evolutionary biology concepts in lecture-only and lecture-laboratory settings. The evolution lab stressed the processes of evolution, and involved simulations, experiments, discussions, report writing, and reading. Test scores do not reveal everything about the actual process of learning in the laboratory. This study examined conceptual change patterns over a period of one semester using in-depth interviews with eight participants. The study revealed that the lecture-laboratory group performed better than the lecture-only group on certain shared items on the objective examination. The interview participants showed various patterns of conceptual change; that is, holistic (wholesale and cascade), fragmented, and dual constructions. Dual constructions and wholesale conceptual changes were the most common types of conceptual change patterns observed. Laboratory work in evolution allowed students to grapple with their alternative conceptions for abstract evolutionary concepts. They made use of the opportunities for cognitive conflict provided by the lab sessions. Some students adhered to their initial alternative conceptions which constrained the provision of scientific explanations for the biological problems. Examples of alternative conceptions are a young earth, rejection of macroevolution, and Lamarckian conceptions. The belief system of one student strongly influenced her retention of alternative conceptions, although she had done the laboratory course. However, two other students (one a lecture-lab participant) who held similar religious beliefs were able to develop a better understanding of evolution. Strong religious beliefs do not always preclude a good understanding of evolution. This study revealed a direct, positive relationship between students' understanding of evolutionary concepts and their understanding of the nature of science. The observation was true for both lecture-only and lecture-lab groups.

Holtman, Lorna Benita

52

Avoiding Reflex Responses: Strategies for Revealing Students' Conceptual Understanding in Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There is widespread concern about the level of scientific literacy in the U. S. An important, although often overlooked, point, is that student learning is generally only a good as the assessments used to measure it. Unfortunately, most assessments measure recall and recognition rather than conceptual understanding, and as a result over-estimate levels of scientific literacy. We have encountered this fact during the construction of the Biology Concept Inventory (BCI). Using the concept of diffusion, which is taught in a wide range of introductory biology, chemistry, and physics courses, as an exemplar, we describe lessons learned and strategies we use to create questions that better probe student understanding.

Klymkowsky, Michael; Gheen, Rachel; Garvin-Doxas, Kathy

2013-05-08

53

Multiple intelligences and alternative teaching strategies: The effects on student academic achievement, conceptual understanding, and attitude  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the interactions between multiple intelligence strengths and alternative teaching methods on student academic achievement, conceptual understanding and attitudes. The design was a quasi-experimental study, in which students enrolled in Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, a developmental biology course, received lecture only, problem-based learning with lecture, or peer teaching with lecture. These students completed the Multiple Intelligence Inventory to determine their intelligence strengths, the Students' Motivation Toward Science Learning questionnaire to determine student attitudes towards learning in science, multiple choice tests to determine academic achievement, and open-ended questions to determine conceptual understanding. Effects of intelligence types and teaching methods on academic achievement and conceptual understanding were determined statistically by repeated measures ANOVAs. No significance occurred in academic achievement scores due to lab group or due to teaching method used; however, significant interactions between group and teaching method did occur in students with strengths in logical-mathematical, interpersonal, kinesthetic, and intrapersonal intelligences. Post-hoc analysis using Tukey HSD tests revealed students with strengths in logical-mathematical intelligence and enrolled in Group Three scored significantly higher when taught by problem-based learning (PBL) as compared to peer teaching (PT). No significance occurred in conceptual understanding scores due to lab group or due to teaching method used; however, significant interactions between group and teaching method did occur in students with strengths in musical, kinesthetic, intrapersonal, and spatial intelligences. Post-hoc analysis using Tukey HSD tests revealed students with strengths in logical-mathematical intelligence and enrolled in Group Three scored significantly higher when taught by lecture as compared to PBL. Students with strengths in intrapersonal intelligence and enrolled in Group One scored significantly lower when taught by lecture as compared to PBL. Results of a repeated measures ANOVA for student attitudes showed significant increases in positive student attitudes toward science learning for all three types of teaching method between pretest and posttest; but there were no significant differences in posttest attitude scores by type of teaching method.

Baragona, Michelle

54

Testing the development of student conceptual and visualization understanding in quantum mechanics through the undergraduate career  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In order to probe various aspects of student understanding of some of the core ideas of quantum mechanics, and especially how they develop over the undergraduate curriculum, we have developed an assessment instrument designed to test conceptual and visualization understanding in quantum theory. We report data obtained from students ranging from sophomore-level modern physics courses, through juniorâsenior level quantum theory classes, to first year graduate quantum mechanics courses in what may be the first such study of the development of student understanding in this important core subject of physics through the undergraduate career. We discuss the results and their possible relevance to the standard curriculum as well as to the development of new curricular materials.

Robinett, Richard; Cataloglu, E.

2005-10-11

55

Using the Microcomputer-Based Laboratory to Improve Student Conceptual Understanding in Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Research has shown that most of us who use traditional methods to teach physics in schools and universities are unable to change substantially our students' conceptual understanding. In an effort to address this problem, microcomputer-based laboratory (MBL) tools have been developed which interface to Apple II and Macintosh computers. Students use these tools to collect physical data which are graphed in real-time and then can be manipulated and analyzed. The MBL tools have made possible discovery-based laboratory curricula which embody results from educational research. In this paper, we describe a few of the tools (hardware and software)--the motion detector, the force probe, and the temperature probes--and introduce two curricula--kinematics and head and temperature. Students thrive in the MBL learning environment which is more like the working environment of practicing scientists than the traditional school environment. The curricula and tools allow students to take an active role in their learning and encourage them to construct knowledge from observation of the physical world. The ease of data collection and presentation encourage even badly prepared students to answer their own questions. The curricula take advantage of the fact that MBL tools present data in an immediately understandable graphical form to promote collaborative learning by encouraging peer discussions. We have used pre- and post-testing and observation to measure the conceptual understanding of secondary and university students in order to compare the MBL curricula to traditional methods. Students who use MBL materials show substantial and lasting understanding of basic physical concepts not learned by a majority of students in standard physical courses.

Thornton, Ronald K.

2006-12-07

56

Arguments, contradictions, resistances, and conceptual change in students' understanding of atomic structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most general chemistry courses and textbooks emphasize experimental details and lack a history and philosophy of science perspective. The objective of this study is to facilitate freshman general chemistry students' understanding of atomic structure based on the work of Thomson, Rutherford, and Bohr. It is hypothesized that classroom discussions based on arguments/counterarguments of the heuristic principles, on which these scientists based their atomic models, can facilitate students' conceptual understanding. This study is based on 160 freshman students enrolled in six sections of General Chemistry I (three sections formed part of the experimental group). All three models (Thomson, Rutherford, and Bohr) were presented to the experimental and control group students in the traditional manner, as found in most textbooks. After this, the three sections of the experimental group participated in the discussion of six items with alternative responses. Students were first asked to select a response and then participate in classroom discussions leading to arguments in favor or against the selected response and finally select a new response. Three weeks after having discussed the six items, both the experimental and control groups presented a monthly exam (based on the three models) and after another 3 weeks a semester exam. Results obtained show that given the opportunity to argue and discuss, students' understanding can go beyond the simple regurgitation of experimental details. Performance of the experimental group showed contradictions, resistances, and progressive conceptual change with considerable and consistent improvement in the last item. It is concluded that if we want our students to understand scientific progress and practice, then it is important that we include the experimental details not as a rhetoric of conclusions (Schwab, 1962, The teaching of science as enquiry, Cambridge, MA, Harward University Press; Schwab, 1974, Conflicting conceptions of curriculum, Berkeley, CA, McCutchan) but as heuristic principles (Lakatos, 1970, Criticism and the growth of knowledge, Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press, pp. 91-195), which were based on arguments, controversies, and interpretations of the scientists.

Niaz, Mansoor; Aguilera, Damarys; Maza, Arelys; Liendo, Gustavo

2002-07-01

57

The Impact of Science Notebook Writing on ELL and Low-SES Students' Science Language Development and Conceptual Understanding  

E-print Network

and mixed between-within subjects analysis of variance (ANOVA). Scores for conceptual understanding (or, for brevity, concept) were used to compare students across categories (ELL, former ELL, non-ELL, and gender) in three domains using descriptive...

Huerta, Margarita

2013-04-05

58

Constraints on Conceptual Change: How Elementary Teachers' Attitudes and Understanding of Conceptual Change Relate to Changes in Students' Conceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Like their students, teachers may hold a variety of naďve conceptions that have been hypothesized to limit their ability to support students' learning. This study examines whether changes in elementary students' conceptions are related to their teachers' content knowledge, attitudes, and understanding of conceptual change. The study…

Fulmer, Gavin W.

2013-01-01

59

Assessment in Support of Conceptual Understanding and Student Motivation to Learn Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Classroom-based assessment strategies may influence the development of conceptual understanding and motivational beliefs among elementary learners in science. A contextual analysis of how young children (65 second graders) responded to classroom-based assessment--and the impact that assessment may have had on science learning--suggests that these young children enjoyed learning about science. Their positive attitudes may have developed because of the opportunities for active exploration they were given and the intellectual stimulation that resulted from new and unexpected discoveries in science. Successful assessment experiences may also have contributed to the enthusiasm that these students expressed for science.

King, Melissa D.

2006-01-01

60

The Contribution of Conceptual Change Texts Accompanied by Concept Mapping to Eleventh-Grade Students Understanding of Cellular Respiration Concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study conducted to investigate the contribution of conceptual change texts, accompanied by concept mapping instruction to eleventh-grade students' understanding of cellular respiration concepts, and their retention of this understanding. Cellular respiration concepts test was developed as a result of examination of related literature and interviews with teachers regarding their observations of students' difficulties. The test was administrated as

Salem A. Al Khawaldeh; Ali M. Al Olaimat

2010-01-01

61

Using Memes and Memetic Processes to Explain Social and Conceptual Influences on Student Understanding about Complex Socio-Scientific Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated seventh grade learners' decision making about genetic engineering concepts and applications. A social network analyses supported by technology tracked changes in student understanding with a focus on social and conceptual influences. Results indicated that several social and conceptual mechanisms potentially affected how…

Yoon, Susan

2008-01-01

62

The Effect of Cooperative Learning Approach Based on Conceptual Change Condition on Students' Understanding of Chemical Equilibrium Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the cooperative learning approach based on conceptual change conditions over traditional instruction on 10th grade students' conceptual understanding and achievement of computational problems related to chemical equilibrium concepts. The subjects of this study consisted of 87 tenth grade…

Bilgin, Ibrahim; Geban, Omer

2006-01-01

63

Effects of Directed Learning Groups upon Students' Ability to Understand Conceptual Ideas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mathematical modeling and directed learning groups were employed in a terminal mathematics course to encourage university students to conceptualize real-world mathematics problems. Multiple assessments were utilized to determine whether students' conceptual development is enhanced by participating in directed learning groups conducted in a…

Johnson, Karen Gabrielle; Galluzzo, Benjamin Jason

2014-01-01

64

Development of a student-centered instrument to assess middle school students' conceptual understanding of sound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes the development and field test of the Sound Concept Inventory Instrument (SCII), designed to measure middle school students' concepts of sound. The instrument was designed based on known students' difficulties in understanding sound and the history of science related to sound and focuses on two main aspects of sound: sound has material properties, and sound has process properties. The final SCII consists of 71 statements that respondents rate as either true or false and also indicate their confidence on a five-point scale. Administration to 355 middle school students resulted in a Cronbach alpha of 0.906, suggesting a high reliability. In addition, the average percentage of students' answers to statements that associate sound with material properties is significantly higher than the average percentage of statements associating sound with process properties (p <0.001). The SCII is a valid and reliable tool that can be used to determine students' conceptions of sound.

Eshach, Haim

2014-06-01

65

Gender Differences in Conceptual Understanding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Building off of the work of Heller and Lin, Jennifer Blue's thesis analyzes student responses to free-response conceptual tests with respect to the three research questions: 1. Before instruction, are there any differences between men and women in their conceptual understanding of acceleration, as measured by a written, free-response question? Are there any differences after instruction? 2. Before instruction, are there any differences between men and women in their conceptual understanding of the nature of forces, as measured by a written, free-response question? Are there any differences after instruction? 3. Before instruction, are there any differences between men and women in their conceptual understanding of Newton's Second Law, as measured by a written, free-response question? Are there any differences after instruction?

Blue, Jennifer

2013-07-16

66

Analogical Reasoning for Understanding Solution Rates: Students' Conceptual Change and Chemical Explanations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study aims to demonstrate evidence of (a) students' conceptual change on solution rates; (b) students' sub-microscopic explanations of dissolution; and (c) retention of the concepts of solution rates. The sample consists of 44 Grade 9 students (18 boys and 26 girls) drawn purposively from two different classes (22 each) in the city of Trabzon,…

Calik, Muammer; Ayas, Alipasa; Ebenezer, Jazlin V.

2009-01-01

67

The effect of the use of concept maps on community college students' conceptual understanding of biology course content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Purpose of the study. The major purpose of this study was to measure the change, if any, in students' conceptual understanding of biology course content using concept maps (experimental) or a standard lecture format (control). In addition, the effectiveness of the use of concept maps as advance organizers was measured according to the various subgroups of cognitive development level, age, ethnicity, gender, class time, and educational background. A final concern was the relationships between conceptual understanding of biology course content and the students' cognitive development level. Procedure. A quasi-experimental design was used to conduct the study during a sixteen-week semester. The study was conducted during the fall, 1997, semester at a community college using 190 students enrolled in General Biology 1406. Major data were collected using a pretest, posttest, and the Test of Logical Thinking. Data were treated through the application of analysis of covariance, Pearson product-moment correlation, and the Fisher Z-transformation technique. Findings. The findings of this investigation were as follows: (1) Concept maps used as advance organizers had a significant effect on student conceptual understanding of biology course content. (2) The use of concept maps as advance organizers had a significant effect on student conceptual understanding of biology when students are classified according to their cognitive developmental level, age, gender, major, course time, and educational background. (3) A significant relationship between cognitive developmental level and conceptual understanding was also found. Conclusions. The use of concept maps, as advance Organizers, is an effective method for improving student learning in general biology classes. A positive relationship exists between students' cognitive developmental level and conceptual understanding.

Wells, Franklin Brian

68

Prediction/Discussion-Based Learning Cycle versus Conceptual Change Text: Comparative Effects on Students' Understanding of Genetics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background and Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the comparative effects of a prediction/discussion-based learning cycle (HPD-LC), conceptual change text (CCT) and traditional instruction on 10th grade students' understanding of genetics concepts. Sample: Participants were 112 10th basic grade male students in three…

Al khawaldeh, Salem A.

2013-01-01

69

Making the Invisible Visible: Enhancing Students' Conceptual Understanding by Introducing Representations of Abstract Objects in a Simulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to identify if complementing representations of concrete objects with representations of abstract objects improves students' conceptual understanding as they use a simulation to experiment in the domain of "Light and Color". Moreover, we investigated whether students' prior knowledge is a factor that must be considered in deciding…

Olympiou, Georgios; Zacharias, Zacharia; deJong, Ton

2013-01-01

70

The effect of computer simulations and the learning cycle on students' conceptual understanding of Newton's three laws of motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine how three different methods of instruction would affect a student's conceptual understanding of Sir Isaac Newton's three laws of motion. The three methods were the expository, learning cycle, and computer simulations. Three sections of students enrolled in a suburban mid-western high school's introductory physics course were the subjects of this study. The

Paul Mason Rutherford Jr.

1999-01-01

71

The Effects of Representations, Constructivist Approaches, and Engagement on Middle School Students' Algebraic Procedure and Conceptual Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of types of representations, constructivist teaching approaches, and student engagement on middle school algebra students' procedural knowledge and conceptual understanding. Data gathered from 16 video lessons and algebra pretest/posttests were used to run three multilevel structural equation models. Symbolic…

Ross, Amanda; Willson, Victor

2012-01-01

72

The Contribution of Conceptual Change Texts Accompanied by Concept Mapping to Eleventh-Grade Students Understanding of Cellular Respiration Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study conducted to investigate the contribution of conceptual change texts, accompanied by concept mapping instruction to eleventh-grade students' understanding of cellular respiration concepts, and their retention of this understanding. Cellular respiration concepts test was developed as a result of examination of related literature…

Al khawaldeh, Salem A.; Al Olaimat, Ali M.

2010-01-01

73

The Contribution of Conceptual Change Texts Accompanied by Concept Mapping to Eleventh-Grade Students Understanding of Cellular Respiration Concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study conducted to investigate the contribution of conceptual change texts, accompanied by concept mapping instruction\\u000a to eleventh-grade studentsunderstanding of cellular respiration concepts, and their retention of this understanding. Cellular\\u000a respiration concepts test was developed as a result of examination of related literature and interviews with teachers regarding\\u000a their observations of students’ difficulties. The test was administrated as

Salem A. Al khawaldeh; Ali M. Al Olaimat

2010-01-01

74

The Contribution of Conceptual Change Texts Accompanied by Concept Mapping to Eleventh-Grade Students Understanding of Cellular Respiration Concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study conducted to investigate the contribution of conceptual change texts, accompanied by concept mapping instruction to eleventh-grade students' understanding of cellular respiration concepts, and their retention of this understanding. Cellular respiration concepts test was developed as a result of examination of related literature and interviews with teachers regarding their observations of students' difficulties. The test was administrated as pre-test, post-test, and delayed post-test to a total of 70 eleventh-grade students in two classes of the same high school in an urban area, taught by the same teacher. The experimental group was a class of 34 students who received conceptual change texts accompanied by concept mapping instruction. A class of 36 students comprised the control group who received traditional instruction. Besides treatment, previous understanding and logical thinking ability were other independent variables involved in this study. The results showed that logical thinking, treatment, previous understanding of cellular respiration concepts each made a statistically significant contribution to the variation in students' understanding of cellular respiration concepts. The result also showed that conceptual change texts accompanied by concept mapping instruction was significantly better than traditional instruction in retention of this understanding.

Al Khawaldeh, Salem A.; Al Olaimat, Ali M.

2010-04-01

75

Growing Pebbles and Conceptual Prisms: Understanding the Source of Student Misconceptions About Rock Formation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study investigates misconceptions held by students about how rocks form. It involved analyzing narrative essays on rock formation written by pre-service elementary school teachers, most of whom had completed a college-level course in earth science. These misconceptions arise from deeply held but largely unexamined beliefs (conceptual prisms) that result from the interaction of the student's world view and personal experiences. The study addressed three basic research questions: how do students describe the process of rock formation in narrative essays?, are there common patterns in students' naive conceptions about geology?, and can these patterns be explained by a few underlying beliefs that shape student ideas?

Kusnick, Judi

76

The Impact of a Classroom Intervention on Grade 10 Students' Argumentation Skills, Informal Reasoning, and Conceptual Understanding of Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The literature provides confounding information with regard to questions about whether students in high school can engage in meaningful argumentation about socio-scientific issues and whether this process improves their conceptual understanding of science. The purpose of this research was to explore the impact of classroom-based argumentation on…

Venville, Grady J.; Dawson, Vaille M.

2010-01-01

77

An Investigation of Effectiveness of Conceptual Change Text-Oriented Instruction on Students' Understanding of Solution Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effect of conceptual change text-oriented instruction over traditional instruction on students' understanding of solution concepts (e.g., dissolving, solubility, factors affecting solubility, concentrations of solutions, types of solutions, physical properties of solutions) and their attitudes towards chemistry. The…

Pinarbasi, Tacettin; Canpolat, Nurtac; Bayrakceken, Samih; Geban, Omer

2006-01-01

78

CHAPTER 9: Conceptual Understanding I. OVERVIEW  

E-print Network

students have little improvement in their understanding of physics concepts after traditional lecture understanding of physics. One of the main goals of this dissertation is to see if students taught with the three), and Workshop Physics (WP), show significant improvement in students' conceptual understanding of physics

Maryland at College Park, University of

79

Writing for Different Audiences: Effects on High-School Students' Conceptual Understanding of Biology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Writing-to-learn activities in science classrooms can have an impact on student learning. This study sought to examine if the audience for which students write explanations of biology concepts affects their understanding of these concepts. One hundred eighteen Year 9/10 biology students from four classes participated in the study. There were four…

Gunel, Murat; Hand, Brian; McDermott, Mark Andrew

2009-01-01

80

Urban High School Students' Critical Science Agency: Conceptual Understandings and Environmental Actions Around Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates how the enactment of a climate change curriculum supports students' development of critical science agency, which includes students developing deep understandings of science concepts and the ability to take action at the individual and community levels. We examined the impact of a four to six week urban ecology curriculum on students from three different urban high schools

Katherine L. McNeill; Meredith Houle Vaughn

2010-01-01

81

Effects of Problem-Based Learning on University Students' Epistemological Beliefs about Physics and Physics Learning and Conceptual Understanding of Newtonian Mechanics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of problem-based learning on students' beliefs about physics and physics learning and conceptual understanding of Newtonian mechanics. The study further examines the relationship between students' beliefs about physics and their conceptual understanding of mechanics concepts. Participants were 124 Turkish…

Sahin, Mehmet

2010-01-01

82

Effects of Problem-Based Learning on University Students’ Epistemological Beliefs About Physics and Physics Learning and Conceptual Understanding of Newtonian Mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of problem-based learning on students’ beliefs about physics and physics learning and\\u000a conceptual understanding of Newtonian mechanics. The study further examines the relationship between students’ beliefs about\\u000a physics and their conceptual understanding of mechanics concepts. Participants were 124 Turkish university students (PBL = 55,\\u000a traditional = 69) enrolled in a calculus-based introductory physics class. Students’ beliefs about physics and

Mehmet Sahin

2010-01-01

83

Arguments, Contradictions, Resistances, and Conceptual Change in Students' Understanding of Atomic Structure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a study aimed at facilitating freshman general chemistry students' understanding of atomic structure based on the work of Thomson, Rutherford, and Bohr. Hypothesizes that classroom discussions based on arguments/counterarguments of the heuristic principles on which these scientists based their atomic models can facilitate students'…

Niaz, Mansoor; Aguilera, Damarys; Maza, Arelys; Liendo, Gustavo

2002-01-01

84

Urban High School Students' Critical Science Agency: Conceptual Understandings and Environmental Actions around Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates how the enactment of a climate change curriculum supports students' development of critical science agency, which includes students developing deep understandings of science concepts and the ability to take action at the individual and community levels. We examined the impact of a four to six week urban ecology curriculum…

McNeill, Katherine L.; Vaughn, Meredith Houle

2012-01-01

85

Urban High School Students’ Critical Science Agency: Conceptual Understandings and Environmental Actions Around Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates how the enactment of a climate change curriculum supports students’ development of critical science\\u000a agency, which includes students developing deep understandings of science concepts and the ability to take action at the individual\\u000a and community levels. We examined the impact of a four to six week urban ecology curriculum on students from three different\\u000a urban high schools

Katherine L. McNeill; Meredith Houle Vaughn

86

Understanding complex Earth systems: volatile metabolites as microbial ecosystem proxies and student conceptual model development of coastal eutrophication  

E-print Network

. The efficacy of multiple representations and inquiry was tested as the pedagogical strategy in upper and lower level undergraduate courses to support studentsconceptual model development of complex Earth systems. Comparisons in student performance were based...

McNeal, Karen Sue

2009-05-15

87

Longer term impacts of transformed courses on student conceptual understanding of E&M  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We have measured upper-division physics majors' performance using two research-based conceptual instruments in E&M, the BEMA and the CUE (Colorado Upper Division Electrostatics assessment.) The BEMA has been given pre/post in freshman E&M (Physics II) courses, and the BEMA and CUE have been given pre/post in several upper-division E&M courses. Some of these data extend over 10 semesters. We used PER-based techniques to transform the introductory and upper-division courses starting in Fall 2004 and 2007, respectively. Our longitudinal data allow us to measure "fade" on BEMA performance between freshman and junior year. We investigate the effects of curricula on students by comparing juniors who were enrolled in traditional vs. transformed physics as freshmen, as well as those who were enrolled in traditional or transformed upper-division E&M I, using both BEMA and CUE measures. We find that while freshman reforms significantly impact BEMA scores, junior-level reforms affect CUE but not BEMA outcomes.

Pollock, Steven J.; Chasteen, Stephanie V.

2010-01-19

88

Development of a Student-Centered Instrument to Assess Middle School Students' Conceptual Understanding of Sound  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the development and field test of the Sound Concept Inventory Instrument (SCII), designed to measure middle school students' concepts of sound. The instrument was designed based on known students' difficulties in understanding sound and the history of science related to sound and focuses on two main aspects of…

Eshach, Haim

2014-01-01

89

A Study of General Education Astronomy Students' Understandings of Cosmology. Part I. Development and Validation of Four Conceptual Cosmology Surveys  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the first in a series of five articles describing a national study of general education astronomy students' conceptual and reasoning difficulties with cosmology. In this paper, we describe the process by which we designed four new surveys to assess general education astronomy students' conceptual cosmology knowledge. These surveys focused…

Wallace, Colin S.; Prather, Edward E.; Duncan, Douglas K.

2011-01-01

90

The effects of a conceptual change coupled-inquiry cycle investigation on student understanding of the independence of mass in rolling motion on an incline plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Conceptual Change Coupled-Inquiry Cycle is designed to incorporate learning cycle, inquiry, and conceptual change instructional models. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the Conceptual Change Coupled-Inquiry Cycle on first-year, high school students' misconceptions of Newton's Laws and incline motion. This study was a mixed-method, quasi-experimental study with both quantitative and qualitative data analyses. Student notebook and test data were collected and analyzed in this study. Quantitative and qualitative analytical methods were utilized in the analysis of these data. A Stuart-Maxwell chi-square was used to assess the quantitative significance of changes in student conceptual understanding of incline motion at each phase of the Conceptual Change Coupled-Inquiry Cycle. Qualitative analysis of the notebooks provided important support of the quantitative findings. Results indicate that students report a better understanding of incline motion and Newton's Laws as a result of completing a Conceptual Change Coupled-Inquiry Cycle investigation. Furthermore, quantitative analysis of the notebooks, using the Stuart-Maxwell chi-square test, indicate significant increases in student understanding of Newton's Laws and incline motion, at the alpha = 0.05 level. Analysis of student test data was largely inconclusive. This study indicates the Conceptual Change Coupled-Inquiry Cycle helps students better understand incline motion and Newton's Laws. Significant decreases in the number of students reporting misconceptions about incline motion were evident. Evidence suggests the Conceptual Change Coupled-Inquiry Cycle is an effective learning cycle and that it can improve student understanding of science concepts.

Rowley, Eric Noel

91

Students' Communicative Resources in Relation to Their Conceptual Understanding—The Role of Non-Conventionalized Expressions in Making Sense of Visualizations of Protein Function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines how students explain their conceptual understanding of protein function using visualizations. Thirteen upper secondary students, four tertiary students (studying chemical biology), and two experts were interviewed in semi-structured interviews. The interviews were structured around 2D illustrations of proteins and an animated representation of water transport through a channel in the cell membrane. In the analysis of the transcripts, a score, based on the SOLO-taxonomy, was given to each student to indicate the conceptual depth achieved in their explanations. The use of scientific terms and non-conventionalized expressions in the students' explanations were investigated based upon a semiotic approach. The results indicated that there was a positive relationship between use of scientific terms and level of education. However, there was no correlation between students' use of scientific terms and conceptual depth. In the interviews, we found that non-conventionalized expressions were used by several participants to express conceptual understanding and played a role in making sense of the visualizations of protein function. Interestingly, also the experts made use of non-conventionalized expressions. The results of our study imply that more attention should be drawn to students' use of scientific and non-conventionalized terms in relation to their conceptual understanding.

Rundgren, Carl-Johan; Hirsch, Richard; Chang Rundgren, Shu-Nu; Tibell, Lena A. E.

2012-10-01

92

Assessing the Development of Chemistry Students' Conceptual and Visual Understanding of Dimensional Analysis via Supplemental Use of Web-Based Software  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to evaluate the effects of a proprietary software program on students' conceptual and visual understanding of dimensional analysis. The participants in the study were high school general chemistry students enrolled in two public schools with different demographics (School A and School B) in the Chattanooga, Tennessee,…

Ellis, Jennifer T.

2013-01-01

93

Explaining Newton's Laws of Motion: Using Student Reasoning through Representations to Develop Conceptual Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of students' reasoning and argumentation skills in school science is currently attracting strong research interest. In this paper we report on a study where we aimed to investigate student learning on the topic of motion when students, guided by their teacher, responded to a sequence of representational challenges in which their…

Waldrip, Bruce; Prain, Vaughan; Sellings, Peter

2013-01-01

94

Using Reflective Peer Assessment to Promote Students' Conceptual Understanding through Asynchronous Discussions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the impact of using assessment items with competing theories to encourage students to practice evaluative reflection and collaborative argumentation in asynchronous discussions. Thirty undergraduate students from various departments worked in small groups and took turns collaboratively discussing the given item's answer,…

Lin, Huann-shyang; Hong, Zuway-R; Wang, Hsin-Hui; Lee, Sung-Tao

2011-01-01

95

Teaching Mathematical Trade Topics for Conceptual Understanding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is intended to assist trade and industrial education teachers in teaching mathematical trade topics in a way that will increase students' conceptual understanding of them. The first chapter provides an overview of the book's contents and suggests ways of using it. The next five chapters address the following aspects of using principles…

Larkin, Alan; Phillips, Keith

96

Student Use of Scaffolding Software: Relationships with Motivation and Conceptual Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to theoretically articulate and empirically assess the role of computer scaffolds. In this project, several examples of educational software were developed to scaffold the learning of students performing high level cognitive activities. The software used in this study, Artemis, focused on scaffolding the learning of…

Butler, Kyle A.; Lumpe, Andrew

2008-01-01

97

Mathematics Teaching Practices with Technology that Support Conceptual Understanding for Latino/a Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We analyze how three seventh grade mathematics teachers from a majority Latino/a, linguistically diverse region of Texas taught the same lesson on interpreting graphs of motion as part of the Scaling Up SimCalc study (Roschelle et al., 2010). The students of two of the teachers made strong learning gains as measured by a curriculum-aligned…

Zahner, William; Velazquez, Griselda; Moschkovich, Judit; Vahey, Phil; Lara-Meloy, Teresa

2012-01-01

98

Using Students' Representations Constructed during Problem Solving to Infer Conceptual Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The differences in the types of representations constructed during successful and unsuccessful problem-solving episodes were investigated within the context of graduate students working on problems that involve concepts from 2D-NMR. Success at problem solving was established by having the participants solve five problems relating to material just…

Domin, Daniel; Bodner, George

2012-01-01

99

Promoting Students' Conceptual Understanding of Plant Defense Responses Using the Fighting Plant Learning Unit (FPLU)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most students think animals are more interesting than plants as a study topic believing that plants are inferior to animals because they are passive and unable to respond to external challenges, particularly biological invaders such as microorganisms and insect herbivores. The purpose of this study was to develop an inquiry-based learning unit,…

Nantawanit, Nantawan; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Ruenwongsa, Pintip

2012-01-01

100

Exploring the Influence of the Mass Media on Primary Students' Conceptual Understanding of Genetics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The new Australian Curriculum ignites debate about science content appropriate for primary school children. Abstract genetics concepts such as genes and DNA are still being avoided in primary school, yet research has shown that, by age 10, many students have heard of DNA and/or genes. Scientific concepts appear in the mass media, but primary…

Donovan, Jenny; Venville, Grady

2012-01-01

101

Effectiveness of a Conceptual Change-Oriented Teaching Strategy to Improve Students' Understanding of Galvanic Cells  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results of previous educational research raise some questions about the efficacy of conventional teaching strategies and point to a need for using teaching strategies that explicitly take into account misconceptions students bring to the classes or acquire during the teaching-learning process. Accordingly, this article presents efforts to…

Ozkaya, Ali Riza; Uce, Musa; Saricayir, Hakan; Sahin, Musa

2006-01-01

102

Fundamental Computer Science Conceptual Understandings for High School Students Using Original Computer Game Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2009, the North Carolina Virtual Public Schools worked with researchers at the William and Ida Friday Institute to produce and evaluate the use of game creation by secondary students as a means for learning content related to career awareness in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines, with particular emphasis in…

Ernst, Jeremy V.; Clark, Aaron C.

2012-01-01

103

PROMOTING STUDENTSCONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDING OF PLANT DEFENSE RESPONSES USING THE FIGHTING PLANT LEARNING UNIT (FPLU)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most students think animals are more interesting than plants as a study topic believing that plants are inferior to animals\\u000a because they are passive and unable to respond to external challenges, particularly biological invaders such as microorganisms\\u000a and insect herbivores. The purpose of this study was to develop an inquiry-based learning unit, the Fighting Plant Learning\\u000a Unit (FPLU), which focuses

Nantawan Nantawanit; Bhinyo Panijpan; Pintip Ruenwongsa

104

Exploring Middle School Students' Understanding of Three Conceptual Models in Genetics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Genetics is the cornerstone of modern biology and a critical aspect of scientific literacy. Research has shown, however, that many high school graduates lack fundamental understandings in genetics necessary to make informed decisions about issues and emerging technologies in this domain, such as genetic screening, genetically modified foods, etc.…

Freidenreich, Hava Bresler; Duncan, Ravit Golan; Shea, Nicole

2011-01-01

105

The Comparative Effects of Prediction/Discussion-Based Learning Cycle, Conceptual Change Text, and Traditional Instructions on Student Understanding of Genetics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the comparative effects of a prediction/discussion-based learning cycle, conceptual change text (CCT), and traditional instructions on students' understanding of genetics concepts. A quasi-experimental research design of the pre-test-post-test non-equivalent control group was adopted. The three intact classes, taught by…

Yilmaz, Diba; Tekkaya, Ceren; Sungur, Semra

2011-01-01

106

The Influence of Computer-Assisted Instruction on Students' Conceptual Understanding of Chemical Bonding and Attitude toward Chemistry: A Case for Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the effect of computer-assisted instruction on conceptual understanding of chemical bonding and attitude toward chemistry was investigated. The study employed a quasi-experimental design involving 11 grade students; 25 in an experimental and 25 in a control group. The Chemical Bonding Achievement Test (CBAT) consisting of 15…

Ozmen, Haluk

2008-01-01

107

Effect of Animation Enhanced Conceptual Change Texts on 6th Grade Students' Understanding of the Particulate Nature of Matter and Transformation During Phase Changes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the effect of animation enhanced conceptual change texts (CCT-CA) on grade 6 students' understanding of the particulate nature of matter (PNM) and transformation during the phase changes was investigated. A quasi-experimental design and one control group (CG, N = 25) and one experimental group (EG, N = 26) were used. While the…

Ozmen, Haluk

2011-01-01

108

Using the science writing heuristic approach as a tool for assessing and promoting students' conceptual understanding and perceptions in the general chemistry laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis reports on a study that examined the impact of implementing SWH (inquiry-based approach) in a general chemistry lab on non-science-major students' understanding of chemistry concepts and students' perceptions toward writing in science and implementing SWH. This study was conducted in a large university in the Midwest of the United States in a college freshman chemistry laboratory for non-science-major students. The research framework is presented including the following: the qualitative research design with the observation as data collection method for this design and the criteria for teacher level of implementation and the ranking mechanism; and the quantitative research design with data collection and analysis methods including pre- and post-conceptual exams, lecture question, open-ended surveys. This research was based on a quasi-experimental mixed-method design a focus on student performance on higher order conceptual questions, and open-ended survey at the end of semester about their perception toward writing to learn ad implementing SWH. Results from the qualitative and quantitative component indicated that implementing SWH approach has notably enhanced both male and female conceptual understanding and perception toward chemistry and implementing SWH. It is known that there is gender gap in science, where female have lower perception and self confident toward science. Interestingly, my findings have showed that implementing SWH helped closing the gap between male and female who started the semester with a statistically significant lower level of conceptual understanding of chemistry concepts among females than males.

Mohammad, Elham Ghazi

109

The effectiveness of interactive computer simulations on college engineering student conceptual understanding and problem-solving ability related to circular motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past thirty years, the effectiveness of computer assisted learning was found varied by individual studies. Today, with drastic technical improvement, computers have been widely spread in schools and used in a variety of ways. In this study, a design model involving educational technology, pedagogy, and content domain is proposed for effective use of computers in learning. Computer simulation, constructivist and Vygotskian perspectives, and circular motion are the three elements of the specific Chain Model for instructional design. The goal of the physics course is to help students remove the ideas which are not consistent with the physics community and rebuild new knowledge. To achieve the learning goal, the strategies of using conceptual conflicts and using language to internalize specific tasks into mental functions were included. Computer simulations and accompanying worksheets were used to help students explore their own ideas and to generate questions for discussions. Using animated images to describe the dynamic processes involved in the circular motion may reduce the complexity and possible miscommunications resulting from verbal explanations. The effectiveness of the instructional material on student learning is evaluated. The results of problem solving activities show that students using computer simulations had significantly higher scores than students not using computer simulations. For conceptual understanding, on the pretest students in the non-simulation group had significantly higher score than students in the simulation group. There was no significant difference observed between the two groups in the posttest. The relations of gender, prior physics experience, and frequency of computer uses outside the course to student achievement were also studied. There were fewer female students than male students and fewer students using computer simulations than students not using computer simulations. These characteristics affect the statistical power for detecting differences. For the future research, more intervention of simulations may be introduced to explore the potential of computer simulation in helping students learning. A test for conceptual understanding with more problems and appropriate difficulty level may be needed.

Chien, Cheng-Chih

110

Enhancing Grade 10 Thai Students' Stoichiometry Understanding and Ability to Solve Numerical Problems via a Conceptual Change Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The international literature suggests students frequently resort to the use of formulae when solving stoichiometry problems without understanding the concepts. In prior work we identified Thai student alternative conceptions and ability to solve numerical problem for stoichiometry. The results indicate that many Thai students also hold alternative…

Dahsah, Chanyah; Coll, Richard K.; Sung-ong, Sunan; Yutakom, Naruemon; Sanguanruang, Sudjit

2008-01-01

111

A cross-age study of students' conceptual understanding of interdependency in seed dispersal, pollination, and food chains using a constructivist theoretical framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this research was to investigate students' understanding of interdependency across grade levels. Interdependency concepts selected for this study included food chains, pollination, and seed dispersal. Children's everyday concepts and scientific concepts across grade levels represented the focus of conceptual understanding. The researcher interviewed a total of 24 students across grade levels, six students each from grades 3, 7, and 10, and 6 college students. Data were collected by means of interviews and card sorts. A constructivist theoretical framework formed the groundwork for presenting the focus of this study and for interpreting the results of the interview data. Results were analyzed on the basis of identifying student responses to interview questions as either everyday concepts or as scientific concepts, along with transition through the zone of proximal development (ZPD) by mediation, as developed by Vygotsky. Results revealed that children across grade levels vary in their everyday and scientific understanding of the three interdependency concepts. Results for seed dispersal showed little evidence of understanding for grade 3, that is, seed dispersal was not within the zone of proximal development (ZPD) for grade 3 students. Students in grades 7 and 10 showed a developing transition within the zone of proximal development from everyday to scientific understanding, and college students demonstrated scientific understanding of seed dispersal. For pollination and food chains, results showed that grades 3, 7, and 10 were in transition from everyday to scientific understanding, and all college students demonstrated scientific understanding. The seed dispersal concept proved more complex than pollination and food chains. The findings of this study have implications for classroom teachers. By understanding the dynamic nature of the ZPD continuum for students, teachers can plan instruction to meet the needs of each student.

Smith, Shirley Mccraw

2003-06-01

112

The effects of an interactive computer-based simulation prior to performing a laboratory inquiry-based experiment on students' conceptual understanding of physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We investigate the effects of interactive computer-based simulations which are presented prior to inquiry-based laboratory experiments on students' conceptual understanding of mechanics, waves/optics, and thermal physics. In principle, the simulations should serve as a cognitive framework for enhancing the subsequent more open-ended inquiry learning in the subject matter domain of the experiments. To test this prediction, the simulations and experiments were integrated into a one semester class for prospective physics teachers who served as students in the study. Semi-structured interviews were used to assess their ability to make correct predictions about the phenomenon in the experiments before using the latter and give correct explanations of the discrepancies between their predictions and their following observations. Conceptual tests were presented to assess conceptual understandings of each topic. Our results indicate that the use of the simulations improved the students' ability to make acceptable predictions and explanations of the phenomena in the experiments. The use of simulations also fostered a significant conceptual change in the physics content areas that were studied.

Zacharia, Zacharias; Anderson, O. R.

2005-10-12

113

Fostering High School Students' Conceptual Understandings about Seasons: The Design of a Technology-Enhanced Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to understand in what ways a technology-enhanced learning (TEL) environment supports learning about the causes of the seasons. The environment was designed to engage students in five cognitive phases: Contextualisation, Sense making, Exploration, Modeling, and Application. Seventy-five high school students participated…

Hsu, Ying-Shao; Wu, Hsin-Kai; Hwang, Fu-Kwun

2008-01-01

114

The effects of an interactive computer-based simulation prior to performing a laboratory inquiry-based experiment on students' conceptual understanding of physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the effects of interactive computer-based simulations which are presented prior to inquiry-based laboratory experiments on students' conceptual understanding of mechanics, waves\\/optics, and thermal physics. In principle, the simulations should serve as a cognitive framework for enhancing the subsequent more open-ended inquiry learning in the subject matter domain of the experiments. To test this prediction, the simulations and experiments

Zacharias Zacharia; O. Roger Anderson

2003-01-01

115

A Student-centred Approach: Assessing the Changes in Prospective Science Teachers' Conceptual Understanding by Concept Mapping in a General Chemistry Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although researchers in higher education propose alternatives to traditional approaches to assessment, traditional methods are commonly used in college or university science courses. The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility and validity of Prospective Science Teachers’ (PSTs) concept maps as authentic assessment tools in a student-centred approach to describe the changes in the conceptual understanding of the PSTs in general chemistry laboratory investigations. After the PSTs ( n = 47) decided on important issues, such as who would assess their concept maps and what scoring strategy and criteria would be used, they practiced assessing their own and peers’ concept maps during the first five laboratory investigations. They subsequently constructed and assessed pre- and post-laboratory concept maps in a student-centred approach consisting of self, peer, and instructor assessments for the five remaining laboratory investigations. The results of the study showed using pre- and post-laboratory concept maps as authentic assessment tools in a student-centred approach was valid and reliable for describing the conceptual understanding of the PSTs in a university general chemistry laboratory course. The results of individual interviews indicated most PSTs had positive views of their assessment practices in the laboratory course. This study also provides pedagogical implications for the training of science teachers.

Kaya, Osman Nafiz

2008-01-01

116

A Study of General Education Astronomy Students' Understandings of Cosmology. Part II. Evaluating Four Conceptual Cosmology Surveys: A Classical Test Theory Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the second of five papers detailing our national study of general education astronomy students' conceptual and reasoning difficulties with cosmology. This article begins our quantitative investigation of the data. We describe how we scored students' responses to four conceptual cosmology surveys, and we present evidence for the inter-rater…

Wallace, Colin S.; Prather, Edward E.; Duncan, Douglas K.

2011-01-01

117

Conceptual Change among Students in Science. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This ERIC Digest concerns the constructed knowledge (also called nave knowledge or prior conceptions) held by students and the changes required to alter students' framework to understand and believe the true science concepts involved. This process is called conceptual change. Theoretical framework of conceptual change, what exactly is conceptual

Suping, Shanah M.

118

Addressing Barriers to Conceptual Understanding in IE Physics Classes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We report on the Thinking in Physics project, which helps students who demonstrate weak scientific reasoning skills, as measured by low pre-instruction scores on the Lawson Test of Scientific Reasoning Ability. Without special help, such students are unlikely to achieve a good conceptual understanding of introductory mechanics. Student participants have demonstrated post-instruction improvement on the Lawson test and significantly higher normalized FCI gains than would have been predicted on the basis of pre-instruction Lawson scores.

Coletta, Vincent P.; Phillips, Jeffery A.

2010-01-19

119

Conceptualizing student motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because classrooms are work settings in which students are engaged in compulsory activities and because the work involved is largely intellectual rather than physical, concepts and measures developed for studying motivation in free choice play situations have limited application to the study of student motivation for engaging in academic activities. More attention is needed to the cognitive aspects of motivation

Jere Brophy

1983-01-01

120

Modelling Photosynthesis to Increase Conceptual Understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biology students in their first year at university have difficulty understanding the abstract concepts of photosynthesis. The traditional didactic lecture followed by practical exercises that show various macroscopic aspects of photosynthesis often do not help the students visualise or understand the submicroscopic (molecular-level) reactions that are occurring within the chloroplast membranes. If students can construct their own complex concepts in

P. auline Ross; Deidre Tronson; R. aymond J. Ritchie

2006-01-01

121

Upper Secondary Students' Understanding of the Use of Multiple Models in Biology Textbooks--The Importance of Conceptual Variation and Incommensurability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study we investigate students' ability to discern conceptual variation and the use of multiple models in genetics when reading content-specific excerpts from biology textbooks. Using the history and philosophy of science as our reference, we were able to develop a research instrument allowing students themselves to investigate the…

Gericke, Niklas; Hagberg, Mariana; Jorde, Doris

2013-01-01

122

Explicit Argumentation Instruction to Facilitate Conceptual Understanding and Argumentation Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Argumentation is accepted by many science educators as a major component of science education. Many studies have investigated students' conceptual understanding and their engagement in argumentative activities. However, studies conducted in the subject of chemistry are very rare. Purpose: The present study aimed to investigate the…

Cetin, Pinar Seda

2014-01-01

123

Using a schoolyard garden to increase language acquisition and conceptual understanding of science in elementary ELL students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This action research study examined a small cross-section of a Texas public school population. Participants were kindergarten through third grade students enrolled in the English as a Second Language (ESL) Program who were pulled out of their general classroom to receive English support within the content area of science. This study looked at how effective a hands-on learning experience using a schoolyard garden enhanced the academic language and science content of the participants. The study began in mid-March and concluded at the end of April with each group receiving 40 minutes of instruction five days a week. Each group consisted of a Beginner, Intermediate, and Advanced/Advanced High student for a total of 12 participants. Four forms of data were used in this study: archival, pre-test, post-test, and journal. Rubrics were used to analyze individual students' level of academic language before and after the study. The results illustrate that the younger students (kindergarten and first grade) descriptions were very basic and concrete while the older students had more accurate and descriptive responses. Upon completion of this research, it was determined that the usage of a schoolyard garden compliments both the acquisition of academic language and the increase in science content knowledge.

Stewart, Morgan

124

Argument-Driven Inquiry in Undergraduate Chemistry Labs: The Impact on Students' Conceptual Understanding, Argument Skills, and Attitudes toward Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a new instructional model called Argument-Driven Inquiry (ADI). This model is designed to promote student engagement in processes of investigation design and scientific argumentation. In this study, the ADI instructional model is compared with a more traditional approach to instruction across 16 laboratory sections of…

Walker, Joi Phelps; Sampson, Victor; Grooms, Jonathon; Anderson, Brittany; Zimmerman, Carol O.

2012-01-01

125

A Comparison of Students' Conceptual Understanding of Electric Circuits in Simulation Only and Simulation-Laboratory Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this experimental study was to compare learning outcomes of students using a simulation alone (simulation environment) with outcomes of those using a simulation in parallel with real circuits (combination environment) in the domain of electricity, and to explore how learning outcomes in these environments are mediated by implicit (only…

Jaakkola, Tomi; Nurmi, Sami; Veermans, Koen

2011-01-01

126

Conceptual and Procedural Performance of Undergraduate Students in Integration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigate the conceptual and procedural knowledge in integration of a group of students who has successfully completed a one-year calculus course. The participants are asked five questions and their responses are analysed in detail. We observed that the students do not have satisfactory conceptual understanding of integration. Moreover, it is…

Mahir, Nevin

2009-01-01

127

Understanding Cellular Respiration: An Analysis of Conceptual Change in College Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores and documents the frequencies of conceptual difficulties confronted by college students (n=200) seeking to understand the basic processes of cellular respiration. Findings suggest that novices harbor a wide range of conceptual difficulties that constrain their understanding of cellular respiration and many of these conceptual problems…

Songer, Catherine J.; Mintzes, Joel J.

1994-01-01

128

Modelling Photosynthesis to Increase Conceptual Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Biology students in their first year at university have difficulty understanding the abstract concepts of photosynthesis. The traditional didactic lecture followed by practical exercises that show various macroscopic aspects of photosynthesis often do not help the students visualise or understand the submicroscopic (molecular-level) reactions that…

Ross, Pauline; Tronson, Deidre; Ritchie, Raymond J.

2006-01-01

129

Mathematical vs. conceptual understanding: Where do we draw the line?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research involved high school physics students and how they learn to understand Newton's laws as they relate to falling bodies and projectile motion. Students in introductory, algebra-based, high school physics classes were evaluated based on their prior knowledge through a pretest, designed to assess their initial comprehension of the motion of falling bodies and projectiles. Groups were divided and taught separately with an emphasis on either mathematical derivation of equations, followed by brief conceptual discussions, or on thorough conceptual analysis, followed by a brief mathematical verification. After a posttest was given, an evaluation of the responses and explanations of each group of students was used to determine which method of instruction was more effective. Results indicate that after the conceptual group and math groups achieved similar scores on the pretest, the conceptual group obtained a slightly higher normalized gain of 25% on the posttest, compared to the mathematical group's normalized gain of 16% (unpaired two-tailed t-test P value for posttest results was 0.1037) and, while within standard deviations, also achieved higher overall scores on all posttest questions and higher normalized gains on all but one posttest question. Further, most students, even thoes in the mathematically-instructed group, were more inclined to give conceptually-based responses on postest questions than mathematically-based ones. In the context of this topic, the dominating difficulty for both groups was in analyzing two-dimensional projectile motion and, more specifically, the behavior of each onedimensional component of such motion.

Sadaghiani, Homeyra; Aguilera, Nicholas

2013-01-01

130

Effects of Problem-Based Learning with Web-Anchored Instruction in Nanotechnology on the Science Conceptual Understanding, the Attitude towards Science, and the Perception of Science in Society of Elementary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the effects of Problem-Based Leaning (PBL) with web-anchored instruction in nanotechnology on the science conceptual understanding, the attitude towards science, and the perception of science in society of elementary students. A mixed-methods approach was used. Subjects (N=46) participated in the study for approximately two…

Yurick, Karla Anne

2011-01-01

131

Does active engagement curricula give long-lived conceptual understanding?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Both constructivist and sociocultural views of learning and instruction stresses the crucial role of active engagement. It has been demonstrated in large-scale studies that curricula that use âactive engagementâ instructional strategies achieve good results in conceptual tests. However most testing have been done at the end or immediately after a course. The important question is thus if strategies that purport to achieve high gains in conceptual tests produce a permanent change in studentâs world view from "Aristotelian" to "Newtonian" or if the effects reported are only temporary? Our data and data from Montana State University show that, after active engagement physics courses, student display a good conceptual understanding several years after instruction. It is thus concluded that some instructional strategies do achieve fundamental shifts in studentsâ conceptual framework.

Bernhard, Jonte

2012-07-13

132

The Effectiveness of Brain-Based Teaching Approach in Dealing with the Problems of Students' Conceptual Understanding and Learning Motivation towards Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers of science-based education in Malaysian secondary schools, especially those in the field of physics, often find their students facing huge difficulties in dealing with conceptual ideas in physics, resulting thus in a lack of interest towards the subject. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the Brain-Based Teaching…

Saleh, Salmiza

2012-01-01

133

The Effect of a Computer Instructional Model in Bringing about a Conceptual Change in Students' Understanding of Particulate Concepts of Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores students' misconceptions with the particulate concept of matter in gaseous state. Then, based on promoting students' learning and understanding from a constructivist per- spective, the effectiveness of instructional activities by presenting a demonstration with computer simulation was investigated. Students were expected to benefit from computer monitored instruc- tion in a number of ways: by becoming more interested

Bao-tyan Hwang; Shang-feng Chiu

2004-01-01

134

Conceptual and Epistemic Aspects of Students' Scientific Explanations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores how students' epistemological ideas about the nature of science in- teract with their conceptual understanding of a particular domain, as reflected in written explanations for an event of natural selection constructed by groups of high school stu- dents through a technology-supported curriculum about evolution. Analyses intended to disentangle conceptual and epistemic aspects of explanation reveal that groups

William A. Sandoval

2003-01-01

135

A Study of General Education Astronomy Students' Understandings of Cosmology. Part V. The Effects of a New Suite of Cosmology "Lecture-Tutorials" on Students' Conceptual Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the final paper in a five-paper series describing our national study of the teaching and learning of cosmology in general education astronomy college-level courses. A significant portion of this work was dedicated to the development of five new "Lecture-Tutorials" that focus on addressing the conceptual and reasoning difficulties that our…

Wallace, Colin S.; Prather, Edward E.; Duncan, Douglas K.

2012-01-01

136

Modeling studentsâ conceptual understanding of force, velocity, and acceleration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We have developed a multiple choice test designed to probe studentsâ conceptual understanding of the relationships among the directions of force, velocity, and acceleration. The test was administered to more than 800 students enrolled in standard or honors introductory physics courses or a second-year physics majors course. The test was found to be reasonably statistically reliable, and correlations of test score with grade, course level, and the Force Concept Inventory were moderate to strong. Further analysis revealed that in addition to the common incorrect response that velocity must be in the direction of the acceleration or net force, up to 30% of students gave âpartially correctâ responses, for example that velocity can be either opposite to or in the direction of the acceleration or net force but not zero. The data also suggests that for some students their evolution of understanding may progress through this kind of partially incorrect understanding.

Rosenblatt, Rebecca; Sayre, Eleanor C.; Heckler, Andrew F.

2010-01-19

137

Can You Explain This? - Conceptual Exercises for Physics Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This workbook of conceptual exercises covers the material from introductory physics. It is written to help students understand important physics concepts and principles and to help them develop the problem-solving skills needed to solve conceptual exercises consistently and correctly. Each chapter examines a different topic and has three different types of conceptual exercises, âConflicting Contentionsâ tasks, âQualitative Reasoningâ tasks, and âCan You Explain This?â tasks.

Wozny, Christopher

2004-12-18

138

Enhancing College Students' Understanding of Lunar Phases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Astronomy education researchers now know that college students do not enter the introductory astronomy classroom as blank slates, but rather with a pre-existing understanding of many introductory astronomy concepts, including lunar phases. Sometimes this understanding is scientifically correct, but often students' understanding is incomplete, inadequate or simply incorrect and cannot explain observed phenomenon. Unfortunately, students' pre-existing understandings are often deeply rooted, and many students leave the classroom without a scientifically correct understanding of lunar phases. The purpose of this research study was to design instruction that enhances college students' understanding of lunar phases. This multi-phase study utilized qualitative and quantitative research methods to fulfill this purpose by identifying students' prior understanding of lunar phases, developing the Lunar Phases Concept Inventory (LPCI) to measure conceptual change, designing and evaluating an in-class group activity designed to teach the concept of lunar phases. Using a qualitative phenomenology, fourteen college students' conceptual understanding of lunar phases was uncovered and organized into a conceptual framework with eight dimensions of student understanding, each with alternative facets. Based upon this conceptual framework, the LPCI was developed. This instrument consists of fourteen multiple-choice items designed to assess student understanding of lunar phases. Based on a modified Karplus Learning Cycle, an in-class group activity was developed to teach the concept of lunar phases. During the fall of 1999, this activity was implemented at a midwestern university as part of a restructured astronomy course during two fifty-minute class periods. Administered prior to and after instruction, the LPCI shows the instruction was effective. A statistical analysis of the results shows that the instruction produced an effect size of 2.99 and a normalized gain of 0.63.

Lindell, Rebecca S.

2013-05-28

139

Mathematical vs. Conceptual Understanding: Where Do We Draw The Line?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This research involved high school physics students and how they learn to understand Newtonâs laws as they relate to falling bodies and projectile motion. Students in introductory, algebra-based, high school physics classes were evaluated based on their prior knowledge through a pretest, designed to assess their initial comprehension of the motion of falling bodies and projectiles. Groups were divided and taught separately with an emphasis on either mathematical derivation of equations, followed by brief conceptual discussions, or on thorough conceptual analysis, followed by a brief mathematical verification. After a post-test was given, an evaluation of the responses and explanations of each group of students was used to determine which method of instruction was more effective. Results indicate that after the conceptual group and math groups achieved similar scores on the pretest, the conceptual group obtained a slightly higher normalized gain of 25% on the post-test, compared to the mathematical groupâs normalized gain of 16% (unpaired two-tailed t-test P value for post-test results was 0.1037) and, while within standard deviations, also achieved higher overall scores on all post-test questions and higher normalized gains on all but one post-test question. Further, most students, even those in the mathematically-instructed group, were more inclined to give conceptually-based responses on post-test questions than mathematically-based ones. In the context of this topic, the dominating difficulty for both groups was in analyzing two-dimensional projectile motion and, more specifically, the behavior of each one-dimensional component of such motion.

Sadaghiani, Homeyra R.; Aguilera, Nicholas

2013-07-17

140

Helping Students Understand Risk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the central role of risk assessment in analyzing and making decisions about many environmental issues, most people are poorly equipped to understand key concepts about risk or apply them successfully. I present three class activities in which students develop a better appreciation for the magnitude of a one in a million increased risk of…

Weihe, Paul

2006-01-01

141

Effects of problem-based learning with Web-anchored instruction in nanotechnology on the science conceptual understanding, the attitude towards science, and the perception of science in society of elementary students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study explored the effects of Problem-Based Leaning (PBL) with web-anchored instruction in nanotechnology on the science conceptual understanding, the attitude towards science, and the perception of science in society of elementary students. A mixed-methods approach was used. Subjects (N=46) participated in the study for approximately two and a half weeks. A pretest was administered for science conceptual understanding and for attitude towards science. An intervention, web-based nanotechnology anchor, Catching the Rays, followed. Catching the Rays navigated subjects through a nano quest on sunscreen. After the intervention, a posttest was administered for each science conceptual understanding and attitude towards science. Following, a purposeful selection of interviewees (N=6) participated in a Nano Post-Interview. Pretest/posttest data were analyzed using a paired t test. Results of the paired t test for science conceptual understanding (post- being larger than pre-, p <. 01) and attitude towards science (post- being larger than pre-, p < .01) were significant at the p < .05 alpha level. Nano Post-Interview data were coded and analyzed independently by two raters for emerging themes. Two themes of "Risks and Benefits" and "Solves Problems" emerged from subjects' (N=6) responses to perception of science in society questions. The theme of "Risks and Benefits" strongly suggests that subjects have a positive perception that nanotechnology comes with risks and benefits to society. The theme of "Solves Problems" strongly suggests subjects have a positive perception that nanotechnology is governed by society's needs and is used to help solve society's problems. Findings from this study suggest that PBL with web-anchored instruction in nanotechnology had a positive effect on subjects' science conceptual understanding, attitude towards science, and perception of science in society.

Yurick, Karla Anne

142

Conceptual and Epistemic Aspects of Students' Scientific Explanations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores how students' epistemological ideas about the nature of science interact with their conceptual understanding of a particular domain as reflected in written explanations for an event of natural selection constructed by groups of high school students through a technology-supported curriculum on evolution. Highlights the need for an…

Sandoval, William A.

2003-01-01

143

Understanding Conceptual Change: Connecting and Questioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We engage in a metalogue based on eight papers in this issue of "Cultural Studies of Science Education" that review the state of conceptual change research and its possible affect on the teaching and learning of science. Our discussion addresses three aspects of conceptual change research: theoretical, methodological, and practical, as we discuss…

Milne, Catherine; Kirch, Susan; Basu, Sreyashi Jhumki; Leou, Mary; Fraser-Abder, Pamela

2008-01-01

144

Understanding cellular respiration: An analysis of conceptual change in college biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored and documented the frequencies of conceptual difficulties confronted by college students seeking to understand the basic processes of cellular respiration. Using concept maps, clinical interviews and an open-ended instrument, viewpoints were elicited from 100 (novice) introductory biology students before and after relevant instruction in cellular respiration and from 100 (experienced) students enrolled in advanced biology courses. Chi-square

Catherine J. Songer; Joel J. Mintzes

1994-01-01

145

Young elementary students' conceptual understandings of lunar phases before and after an inquiry-based and technology-enhanced instructional intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This mixed methods study explored young children's understandings of targeted lunar concepts, including when the moon can be observed, observable lunar phase shapes, predictable lunar patterns, and the cause of moon phases. Twenty-one children (ages seven to nine years) from a multi-aged classroom participated in this study. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews, student drawings, and card sorting before and

Sally Merryman Hobson

2008-01-01

146

Analysis of Student Understanding of Statics Principles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An analysis of introductory physics studentsâ understanding of statics principles was conducted. The prior development and use of Tutorials in Introductory Physics has addressed student difficulties concerning introductory physics concepts, including fundamental statics principles; yet, conceptual difficulties persist, particularly when the complexity of an assessment question increases. To assess the extent to which the introductory physics curriculum prepared students for an engineering statics course, students completed multiple-choice questions taken from the âStatics Concept Inventoryâ. Responses illuminated remaining areas of difficulty for students, as well as trends in student understanding. Interestingly, students commonly made the same errors as those reported in the analysis of the âStatics Concept Inventory,â especially with regard to applying a limit on the friction force in order to maintain static equilibrium. Further exploration of student difficulties with statics concepts is needed so curricula can be adapted for extensive instruction.

Johnson, Brittany

2012-03-29

147

Student Understanding and Enjoyment in Introductory Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent research in physics education has shown that a student's perception of enjoyment may have a large influence on what they understand. When they have a favorable attitude to what and how they can learn new concepts they generally also have strong reasoning ability and conceptual understanding. Our research was conducted through the administration of three diagnostic tests (EBAPS, Lawson, CSEM/FCI) at BYUI over the last several semesters and shows what we think are some interesting correlations.

Shaffer, Allison; Pyper, Brian

2009-05-01

148

Developing students' understanding of scientific modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Teaching students to create and use scientific models as well as to understand their nature has become an increasingly important goal in science education. This thesis reports on the evaluation of the Model-Enhanced ThinkerTools curriculum, a ten and a half week physics curriculum designed to develop students' understanding of scientific modeling. In the curricular trials, eight classes of seventh grade students participated in model-oriented activities such as creating non-Newtonian computer microworlds to embody their conceptual models of force and motion, evaluating the accuracy and plausibility of their models, and reflecting on the nature of models. Analysis of pre- and post-curricular assessments as well as student research books, project reports, and in-depth interviews indicate that students had a significantly better understanding of the nature and utility of models after completing the Model-Enhanced ThinkerTools curriculum. Students also gained an understanding of a number of processes for developing and evaluating models. While interacting with the software and engaging in reflective discussions about the nature of models, students learned that models can include abstract representations and that models are useful for predicting events and testing ideas. Students also demonstrated sophisticated understanding of models in their interviews several months after the curriculum, particularly about the nature and. utility of models. Further, the curriculum developed students' conceptual models of force and motion as well as their inquiry skills and epistemological beliefs about the nature of scientific knowledge and learning. Correlations among the four pre/post curricular assessments suggest that modeling knowledge may play a role in the acquisition of the other types of knowledge. These results indicate that, while modeling knowledge may be difficult to develop, progress can be made by engaging students in generating and reflecting on the nature of models. Further refining model-oriented software, curricula, and assessments will prove invaluable in developing students' understanding of this essential component of the scientific process.

Schwarz, Christine Virginia

149

Impact of animation on assessment of conceptual understanding in physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study investigates the effect of computer animation on assessment and the conditions under which animation may improve or hinder assessment of conceptual understanding in physics. An instrument was developed by replacing static pictures and descriptions of motion with computer animations on the Force Concept Inventory, a commonly used pencil and paper test. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected. The animated and static versions of the test were given to students and the results were statistically analyzed. Think-aloud interviews were also conducted to provide additional insight into the statistical findings. We found that good verbal skills tended to increase performance on the static version but not on the animated version of the test. In general, students had a better understanding of the intent of the question when viewing an animation and gave an answer that was more indicative of their actual understanding, as reflected in separate interviews. In some situations this led students to the correct answer and in others it did not. Overall, we found that animation can improve assessment under some conditions by increasing the validity of the instrument.

Dancy, Melissa H.; Beichner, Robert J.

2007-11-19

150

Young elementary students' conceptual understandings of lunar phases before and after an inquiry-based and technology-enhanced instructional intervention  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This mixed methods study explored young children's understandings of targeted lunar concepts, including when the moon can be observed, observable lunar phase shapes, predictable lunar patterns, and the cause of moon phases. Twenty-one children (ages seven to nine years) from a multi-aged classroom participated in this study. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews, student drawings, and card sorting before and after an inquiry-based, technology-enhanced instructional intervention. Students' lunar calendars, written responses, field notes, and videotaped class sessions also provided data throughout the study. Data were analyzed using codes from prior lunar studies, constant comparative analysis, and nonparametric analysis. The instructional intervention included lunar data gathering, recording, and sharing, through the use of Starry Night planetarium software and an inquiry-based instruction on moon phases (McDermott, 1996). In a guided inquiry context children worked in groups to gather and analyze nine weeks of lunar data. Findings indicated a positive change in students' understanding of all targeted concepts. After the intervention more children understood that the moon could be observed sometimes during the day, more children drew scientific moon phase shapes, and more children drew scientific representations of the moon phase sequences. Also, more children understood the cause of moon phases.

Hobson, Sally Merryman

151

Identifying studentsâ mental models of sound propagation: The role of conceptual blending in understanding conceptual change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We investigated introductory physics studentsâ mental models of sound propagation. We used a phenomenographic method to analyze the data in the study. In addition to the scientifically accepted Wave model, students used the âEntityâ model to describe the propagation of sound. In this latter model sound is a self-standing entity, different from the medium through which it propagates. All other observed alternative models contain elements of both Entity and Wave models, but at the same time are distinct from each of the constituent models. We called these models âhybridâ or âblendâ models. We discuss how students use these models in various contexts before and after instruction and how our findings contribute to the understanding of conceptual change. Implications of our findings for teaching are summarized.

Hrepic, Zdeslav; Zollman, Dean A.; Rebello, N. S.

2012-01-20

152

Children's conceptual understanding of forces and equilibrium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Children in years three, four, and five of physics study were tested to determine their intuitive preconceptions about forces and equilibrium in the static case, as well as any changes in their conceptual framework that might have taken place as a result of maturity and instruction.

Jones, George; Hurford, Will; Terry, Colin

2005-11-28

153

Teaching Physics for Conceptual Understanding Exemplified for Einstein's Special Relativity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most liberal arts colleges the prerequisites for College Physics, Introductory or Calculus based, are strictly related to Mathematics. As a state of fact, the majorities of the students perceive Physics as a conglomerate of mathematical equations, a collection of facts to be memorized and they regard Physics as one of the most difficult subjects. A change of this attitude towards Physics, and Science in general, is intrinsically connected with the promotion of conceptual understanding and stimulation of critical thinking. In such an environment, the educators are facilitators, rather than the source of knowledge. One good way of doing this is to challenge the students to think about what they see around them and to connect physics with the real world. Motivation occurs when students realize that what was learned is interesting and relevant. Visual teaching aids such as educational videos or computer simulations, as well as computer-assisted experiments, can greatly enhance the effectiveness of a science lecture or laboratory. Difficult topics can be discussed through animated analogies. Special Relativity is recognized as a challenging topic and is probably one of the most misunderstood theories of Physics. While understanding Special Relativity requires a detachment from ordinary perception and every day life notions, animated analogies can prove to be very successful in making difficult topics accessible.

Undreiu, Lucian M.

2006-12-01

154

The ability to understand and use conceptual change pedagogy as a function of prior content learning experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined the relationship between content instruction and the development of elementary teacher candidates' understanding of conceptual change pedagogy. Undergraduate students (n = 27) enrolled in two sections of a science methods course received content instruction through either traditional or conceptual change methods, followed by instruction about conceptual change pedagogy. Candidates were interviewed pre- and postinstruction about their content

René T. Stofflett; Trish Stoddart

1994-01-01

155

Studentâs understanding of light and its properties: teaching to engender conceptual change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This research assessed Australian high school students' understanding of light, developed materials to conceptual change with respect to the concept, and evaluated the effectiveness of teaching strategies utilizing the materials. After instruction, students were able to construct significantly more scientifically acceptable answers. An appendix includes a sample instructional module.

Fetherstonhaugh, T.; Treagust, David

2006-05-17

156

It's Rather like Learning a Language: Development of Talk and Conceptual Understanding in Mechanics Lessons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although a broad literature exists concerning the development of conceptual understanding of force and other topics within mechanics, little is known about the role and development of students' talk about the subject. The paper presents an in-depth investigation of students' talk whilst being introduced to the concept of force. The main research…

Rincke, Karsten

2011-01-01

157

Using Peer Groups to Enhance Conceptual Understanding in Introductory Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the past nine years, we have explored student conceptual understanding of physics in a wide variety of settings including universities, colleges, community colleges, and secondary schools and in courses for future physicists, engineers, and nonscience majors. We have produced activity-based materials and tools that have been used in all these settings to teach fundamental physics concepts. An important element in the success of these materials has been the use of peer learning groups. This talk will explore group work using Microcomputer-Based Laboratory (MBL) tools and curricula in the laboratory and peer group discussion as part of MBL Interactive Lecture Demonstrations. Videotaped examples will be shown and discussed. Examples of group female-male learning interactions and of different group learning styles will be shown. The effect of the nature of the task and of the group structure in the success of group work will be discussed.

Thornton, Ronald K.

2006-12-07

158

Concept Formation, Remembering, and Understanding: Dynamic Conceptual Semantics and  

E-print Network

Conceptual Semantic: A Logic-Philosophical Investigation into Concept Formation and Understanding of the experiences of individuals during the evolution of the human race. The establishment of these structures

Amsterdam, University of

159

Using Student Reasoning to Inform the Development of Conceptual Learning Goals: The Case of Quadratic Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the proliferation of mathematics standards internationally and despite general agreement on the importance of teaching for conceptual understanding, conceptual learning goals for many K-12 mathematics topics have not been well-articulated. This article presents a coherent set of five conceptual learning goals for a complex mathematical domain, generated via a method of systematic empirical analysis of students' reasoning. Specifically, we

Joanne Lobato; Charles Hohensee; Bohdan Rhodehamel; Jaime Diamond

2012-01-01

160

The effect of individual and group concept mapping on students' conceptual understanding of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in three different academic levels of biology classes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Student learning about photosynthesis and cellular respiration was measured after instruction involving individual, group or no concept mapping. This study involved 304 high school Biology students from three different Biology courses in a Mid-west high school. Students were classified as low, medium or high level of academic achievement. The control group consisted of 117 students who did not construct concept

David Scott Brown

2000-01-01

161

Biology Student Teachers' Conceptual Frameworks regarding Biodiversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, biodiversity has received a great deal of attention worldwide, especially in environmental education. The reasons for this attention are the increase of human activities on biodiversity and environmental problems. The purpose of this study is to investigate biology student teachers' conceptual frameworks regarding biodiversity.…

Dikmenli, Musa

2010-01-01

162

Evaluation of Students' Understanding of Thermal Concepts in Everyday Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aims of this study were to determine the underlying conceptual structure of the thermal concept evaluation (TCE) questionnaire, a pencil-and-paper instrument about everyday contexts of heat, temperature, and heat transfer, to investigate students' conceptual understanding of thermal concepts in everyday contexts across several school years and…

Chu, Hye-Eun; Treagust, David F.; Yeo, Shelley; Zadnik, Marjan

2012-01-01

163

Bridging the educational research-teaching practice gap: Conceptual understanding, part 1: The multifaceted nature of expert knowledge.  

PubMed

The term "conceptual understanding" has been used rather loosely over the years in educational practice, with a tendency to focus on a few aspects of an extremely complex phenomenon. In this first article of a two-part miniseries on conceptual understanding, we describe the nature of expert (versus novice) knowledge and show how the conceptual understanding of experts is multifaceted in nature requiring competence in a wide range of cognitive skills. We then discuss five such facets of conceptual understanding that require competence in the cognitive skills of memorization, integration, transfer, analogical reasoning, and system thinking. We also argue for the importance of explicitly teaching and assessing such facets of understanding as part of all molecular life science curricula so as to better prepare our students to become experts in the field. Examples of the assessment tasks that can be used to promote the development of multifaceted conceptual understanding in students are presented in Part 2 of this series. PMID:21591212

Anderson, Trevor R; Schönborn, Konrad J

2008-07-01

164

Conceptualization and image understanding by neural networks  

E-print Network

. Traditional roles of artificial neural networks have been restricted to pattern recognition (feature extraction, segmentation and classification) as opposed to pattern understanding (interpretation of the identified patterns to per- form a specific task.... Comparison Between Gravity Algorithm and Spread- ing Activation 3. Segmentation . 4. Pattern Classification Stage . 5. Invariances by the Fourier-Mellin Transform B. Knowledge Base . 16 19 19 21 22 23 23 25 26 27 29 30 32 32 32 35 37 48...

Gudipalley, Chandu

2012-06-07

165

Understanding How Students Learn  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of educational research forms the basis for the University of Maryland's "A New Model Course in Applied Quantum Mechanics." The scope of these research articles ranges from broad ("Teaching physics: Figuring out what works") to the very specific ("Student Misunderstanding of the Quantum Wavefunction").

Redish, Edward F.; Steinberg, Richard N.; Wittmann, Michael C.

2005-08-07

166

Understanding student motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary theories of academic motivation seek to explain students’ behaviours in academic settings. While each theory seems to possess its own constructs and unique explanations, these theories are actually closely tied together. In this theoretical study of motivation, several theories of motivation were described and an underlying theme of the influence of emotions was used to unify the theories. In

Timothy Seifert

2004-01-01

167

High-School Students' Conceptual Difficulties and Attempts at Conceptual Change: The Case of Basic Quantum Chemical Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested for deep understanding and critical thinking about basic quantum chemical concepts taught at 12th grade (age 17-18). Our aim was to achieve conceptual change in students. A quantitative study was conducted first (n = 125), and following this 23 selected students took part in semi-structured interviews either individually or in…

Tsaparlis, Georgios; Papaphotis, Georgios

2009-01-01

168

Understanding the Role of Academic Language on Conceptual Understanding in an Introductory Materials Science and Engineering Course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students may use the technical engineering terms without knowing what these words mean. This creates a language barrier in engineering that influences student learning. Previous research has been conducted to characterize the difference between colloquial and scientific language. Since this research had not yet been applied explicitly to engineering, conclusions from the area of science education were used instead. Various researchers outlined strategies for helping students acquire scientific language. However, few examined and quantified the relationship it had on student learning. A systemic functional linguistics framework was adopted for this dissertation which is a framework that has not previously been used in engineering education research. This study investigated how engineering language proficiency influenced conceptual understanding of introductory materials science and engineering concepts. To answer the research questions about engineering language proficiency, a convenience sample of forty-one undergraduate students in an introductory materials science and engineering course was used. All data collected was integrated with the course. Measures included the Materials Concept Inventory, a written engineering design task, and group observations. Both systemic functional linguistics and mental models frameworks were utilized to interpret data and guide analysis. A series of regression analyses were conducted to determine if engineering language proficiency predicts group engineering term use, if conceptual understanding predicts group engineering term use, and if conceptual understanding predicts engineering language proficiency. Engineering academic language proficiency was found to be strongly linked to conceptual understanding in the context of introductory materials engineering courses. As the semester progressed, this relationship became even stronger. The more engineering concepts students are expected to learn, the more important it is that they are proficient in engineering language. However, exposure to engineering terms did not influence engineering language proficiency. These results stress the importance of engineering language proficiency for learning, but warn that simply exposing students to engineering terms does not promote engineering language proficiency.

Kelly, Jacquelyn

169

High school students' conceptual coherence of qualitative knowledge in the case of the force concept  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The notion of studentsâ conceptual coherence is introduced in this thesis to clarify what is meant by conceptual understanding. Studentsâ conceptual coherence is divided into three aspects: contextual, representational, and conceptual framework coherence. The abilities required by the conceptual coherence are discussed as well as ways of evaluating it in the case of the force concept. A new research-based instructional approach to foster studentsâ conceptual coherence of the force concept and related kinematics is introduced and validated: it brings together interactive-engagement teaching methods and the research on students' difficulties with the target domain.

Savinainen, Antti

2009-06-05

170

Effect of conceptual change approach accompanied with concept mapping on understanding of solution concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of conceptual change texts accompanied with concept mapping instruction, compared to traditional instruction (TI), on 8th grade studentsunderstanding of solution concepts and their attitudes toward science as a school subject. Solution Concept Test was developed as a result of examination of related literature and interviews with teachers regarding their

Esen Uzuntiryaki; Ömer Geban

2005-01-01

171

Children's Understanding of Scientific Inquiry: Their Conceptualization of Uncertainty in Investigations of Their Own Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined children's understanding of scientific inquiry, through the lens of their conceptualization of uncertainty in investigations they had designed and implemented with a partner. These largely student-regulated investigations followed a unit about animal behavior that emphasized the scaffolding of independent inquiry. Participants…

Metz, Kathleen E.

2004-01-01

172

Using the Biodatamation(TM) strategy to learn introductory college biology: Value-added effects on selected students' conceptual understanding and conceptual integration of the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this exploratory research was to study how students learn photosynthesis and cellular respiration and to determine the value added to the student's learning by each of the three technology-scaffolded learning strategy components (animated concept presentations and WebQuest-style activities, data collection, and student-constructed animations) of the BioDatamation(TM) (BDM) Program. BDM learning strategies utilized the Theory of Interacting Visual

Jewel Jurovich Reuter

2005-01-01

173

Is Conceptual Understanding Compromised By A Problem- Solving Emphasis In An Introductory Physics Course?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developing competency in problem solving and enhancing conceptual understanding are primary objectives in introductory physics, and many techniques and tools are available to help instructors achieve them. Pedagogically, we use an easy-to-implement intervention, the ACCESS protocol, to develop and assess problem-solving skills in our SCALE-UP classroom environment for algebra-based physics. Based on our research and teaching experience, an important question has emerged: while primarily targeting improvements in problem-solving and cognitive development, is it necessary that conceptual understanding be compromised? To address this question, we gathered and analyzed information about student abilities, backgrounds, and instructional preferences. We report on our progress and give insights into matching the instructional tools to student profiles in order to achieve optimal learning in group-based active learning. The ultimate goal of our work is to integrate individual student learning needs into a pedagogy that moves students closer to expert-like status in problem solving.

Ridenour, Joshua; Feldman, Gerald; Teodorescu, Raluca E.; Medsker, Larry; Benmouna, Nawal

2013-07-18

174

Understanding Early Elementary Children's Conceptual Knowledge of Plant Structure and Function through Drawings  

PubMed Central

This study examined children's drawings to explain children's conceptual understanding of plant structure and function. The study explored whether the children's drawings accurately reflect their conceptual understanding about plants in a manner that can be interpreted by others. Drawing, survey, interview, and observational data were collected from 182 students in grades K and 1 in rural southeastern United States. Results demonstrated the children held a wide range of conceptions concerning plant structure and function. These young children held very simple ideas about plants with respect to both their structure and function. Consistent with the drawings, the interviews presented similar findings. PMID:25185222

Ellis, Jane P.; Jones, Alan M.

2014-01-01

175

Understanding early elementary children's conceptual knowledge of plant structure and function through drawings.  

PubMed

This study examined children's drawings to explain children's conceptual understanding of plant structure and function. The study explored whether the children's drawings accurately reflect their conceptual understanding about plants in a manner that can be interpreted by others. Drawing, survey, interview, and observational data were collected from 182 students in grades K and 1 in rural southeastern United States. Results demonstrated the children held a wide range of conceptions concerning plant structure and function. These young children held very simple ideas about plants with respect to both their structure and function. Consistent with the drawings, the interviews presented similar findings. PMID:25185222

Anderson, Janice L; Ellis, Jane P; Jones, Alan M

2014-01-01

176

Graduate Employability: A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Employers' Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study provides a conceptual framework for understanding what employers think about the value of graduates with similar educational credentials in the workplace (their employability), using insights from the new institutionalism. In this framework, the development of employers' beliefs about graduates' employability is broken into a number of…

Cai, Yuzhuo

2013-01-01

177

A CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDING OF LEAKAGE DURING SOIL-GAS SAMPLING  

EPA Science Inventory

A heuristic model is developed to develop a conceptual understanding of leakage during soil-gas sampling. Leakage is shown to be simply a function of the permeability contrast between the formation and borehole and geometric factors. As the ratio of formation to borehole permea...

178

Impact of animation on assessment of conceptual understanding in physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the effect of computer animation on assessment and the conditions under which animation may improve or hinder assessment of conceptual understanding in physics. An instrument was developed by replacing static pictures and descriptions of motion with computer animations on the Force Concept Inventory, a commonly used pencil and paper test. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected.

Melissa H. Dancy; Robert Beichner

2006-01-01

179

Writing to Promote and Assess Conceptual Understanding in College Algebra  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concept-focused quiz questions required College Algebra students to write about their understanding. The questions can be viewed in three broad categories: a focus on sense-making, a focus on describing a mathematical object such as a graph or an equation, and a focus on understanding vocabulary. Student responses from 10 classes were analyzed.…

Gay, A. Susan; Peterson, Ingrid

2014-01-01

180

Effective Assessment: Probing Students' Understanding of Natural Selection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evolution by natural selection provides the conceptual framework upon which much of modern biology is based: therefore understanding core ideas about biological evolution is an essential part of scientific literacy. Nonetheless, research repeatedly shows that high school and college students have difficulties understanding the notion of natural…

Stern, Luli

2004-01-01

181

Learning science in small groups: The relationship of conversation to conceptual understanding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between conversation and conceptual understanding of erosion. The objective of this study was to investigate how fifth grade students' conceptions of erosion changed while they used stream tables and worked in groups of four within an inquiry-based curriculum. This study used symbolic interactionism and sociocognitive frameworks to interpret science learning in the elementary classroom. The research focused on the conceptual understanding of the focal group students, their use of classroom discourse to talk about their understandings of erosion, and the expertise that emerged while using stream tables. This study took place over a one-semester long study on erosion. Key informants were eight fifth graders. The data sources consisted of children's journals; transcripts of audiotaped interviews with the key informants before, during, and after the erosion unit; transcripts of videotapes of the students using the stream tables; and field notes recording children's discourse and activity. Individual and group cases were constructed during the study. The knowledge of the eight focal group children was placed on a hierarchy of conceptual understanding that contained 8 components of the erosion process. All four of the students whose ideas were examined in depth gained in their conceptual understanding of erosion. Students' individual expertise enhanced their own conceptual understanding. The contribution of classroom discourse and expertise to conceptual understanding differed between the two focal groups. Group 1 used essential expertise to sustain generative conversations, maximizing their learning opportunities. Students in Group 1 got along with one another, rotated assigned roles and jobs, and were able to start their own generative conversations. Members of Group 1 asked generative questions, connected stream table events to real life situations, and involved everyone in the group. Group 2 engaged in a predominance of procedural discourse and had fewer learning opportunities. Group 2 had two dominant personalities who developed a conflict over roles and jobs, keeping their peers out of the conversation. Students in Group 2 had generative conversations, but these were not sustained due to the lack of acknowledgment of peer expertise and the starting their own generative conversations.

McDonald, James Tarleton

182

Conceptual and Mathematical Barriers to Students Learning Quantum Mechanics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this study is to identify students' conceptual and mathematical difficulties in learning the core concepts of introductory quantum mechanics, with the eventual goal of developing instructional material to help students with these difficulties. We have investigated student understanding of several core topics in the introductory courses, including quantum measurement, probability, Uncertainty Principle, wave functions, energy eigenstates, recognizing symmetry in physical systems, and mathematical formalism. Student specific difficulties with these topics are discussed throughout this dissertation. In addition, we have studied student difficulties in learning, applying, and making sense out of complex mathematical processes in the physics classroom. We found students' achievement in quantum courses is not independent of their math backgrounds. In addition, there is a large jump in the level of mathematics at which one needs to succeed in physics courses after the sophomore level in The Ohio State University's physics curriculum. The results reported suggest recommendations for further study of student understanding of quantum mechanics and for the development of materials to aid understanding. These recommendations have potentially important implications for the teaching of introductory quantum mechanics and for the development of teaching aids, texts, and technology resources.

Sadaghiani, Homeyra R.

2014-06-08

183

College physics students' epistemological self-reflection and its relationship to conceptual learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students should develop self-reflection skills and appropriate views about knowledge and learning, both for their own sake and because these skills and views may be related to improvements in conceptual understanding. We explored the latter issue in the context of an introductory physics course for first-year engineering honors students. As part of the course, students submitted weekly reports, in which they reflected on how they learned specific physics content. The reports by 12 students were analyzed for the quality of reflection and some of the epistemological beliefs they exhibited. Students' conceptual learning gains were measured with standard survey instruments. We found that students with high conceptual gains tend to show reflection on learning that is more articulate and epistemologically sophisticated than students with lower conceptual gains. Some implications for instruction are suggested.

May, David; Etkina, Eugenia

2005-11-02

184

High School Intervention for Influenza Biology and Epidemics/Pandemics: Impact on Conceptual Understanding among Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Understanding real-life issues such as influenza epidemiology may be of particular interest to the development of scientific knowledge and initiation of conceptual changes about viruses and their life cycles for high school students. The goal of this research project was to foster the development of adolescents' conceptual understanding of viruses and influenza biology. Thus, the project included two components: 1) pre- and posttests to determine students' conceptions about influenza biology, epidemics/pandemics, and vaccination; and 2) design an intervention that supports conceptual change to promote improvements in influenza knowledge based on these primary conceptions. Thirty-five female students from a high school biology class participated in a series of instructional activities and pre- and posttest assessments. Results from the pretest indicated that high school students exhibit a limited understanding of concepts related to viruses. Six weeks after an intervention that promoted active learning, results from a posttest showed that conceptions about influenza are more accurately related to the provided scientific knowledge. Although adolescents have nonscientific models to explain influenza biology, we showed that a carefully designed intervention can affect students' knowledge as well as influence the implementation of health education programs in secondary schools. PMID:19255137

Hasni, Abdelkrim

2009-01-01

185

Using the Biodatamation(TM) strategy to learn introductory college biology: Value-added effects on selected students' conceptual understanding and conceptual integration of the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this exploratory research was to study how students learn photosynthesis and cellular respiration and to determine the value added to the student's learning by each of the three technology-scaffolded learning strategy components (animated concept presentations and WebQuest-style activities, data collection, and student-constructed animations) of the BioDatamation(TM) (BDM) Program. BDM learning strategies utilized the Theory of Interacting Visual Fields(TM) (TIVF) (Reuter & Wandersee, 2002a, 2002b; 2003a, 2003b) which holds that meaningful knowledge is hierarchically constructed using the past, present, and future visual fields, with visual metacognitive components that are derived from the principles of Visual Behavior (Jones, 1995), Human Constructivist Theory (Mintzes & Wandersee, 1998a), and Visual Information Design Theory (Tufte, 1990, 1997, 2001). Student alternative conceptions of photosynthesis and cellular respiration were determined by the item analysis of 263,267 Biology Advanced Placement Examinations and were used to develop the BDM instructional strategy and interview questions. The subjects were 24 undergraduate students of high and low biology prior knowledge enrolled in an introductory-level General Biology course at a major research university in the Deep South. Fifteen participants received BDM instruction which included original and innovative learning materials and laboratories in 6 phases; 8 of the 15 participants were the subject of in depth, extended individual analysis. The other 9 participants received traditional, non-BDM instruction. Interviews which included participants' creation of concept maps and visual field diagrams were conducted after each phase. Various content analyses, including Chi's Verbal Analysis and quantitizing/qualitizing were used for data analysis. The total value added to integrative knowledge during BDM instruction with the three visual fields was an average increase of 56% for cellular respiration and 62% increase for photosynthesis knowledge, improved long-term memory of concepts, and enhanced biological literacy to the multidimensional level, as determined by the BSCS literacy model. WebQuest-style activities and data collection provided for animated prior knowledge in the past visual field, and detailed content knowledge construction in the present visual field. During student construction of animated presentations, layering required participants to think by rearranging words and images for improved hierarchical organization of knowledge with real-life applications.

Reuter, Jewel Jurovich

186

The Effect of Conceptually Oriented Instruction on Students' Computational Competencies. Research Series No. 214.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Does conceptually oriented instruction jeopardize students' computational competence? If it does, then why are so many reform efforts continuing to emphasize the importance of teaching for conceptual understanding? If it does not, then why are the majority of teachers at all grade levels continuing to teach for computational competence without…

Madsen, Anne L.; Lanier, Perry E.

187

College physics students' epistemological self-reflection and its relationship to conceptual learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students should develop self-reflection skills and appropriate views about knowledge and learning, both for their own sake and because these skills and views may be related to improvements in conceptual understanding. We explored the latter issue in the context of an introductory physics course for first-year engineering honors students. As part of the course, students submitted weekly reports, in which

David B. May; Eugenia Etkina

2002-01-01

188

Improving Students' Understanding of Quantum Mechanics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning physics is challenging at all levels. Studentsâ difficulties in the introductory level physics courses have been widely studied and many instructional strategies have been developed to help students learn introductory physics. However, research shows that there is a large diversity in studentsâ preparation and skills in the upper-level physics courses and it is necessary to provide scaffolding support to help students learn advanced physics. This thesis explores issues related to studentsâ common difficulties in learning upper-level undergraduate quantum mechanics and how these difficulties can be reduced by research-based learning tutorials and peer instruction tools. We investigated studentsâ difficulties in learning quantum mechanics by administering written tests and surveys to many classes and conducting individual interviews with a subset of students. Based on these investigations, we developed Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorials (QuILTs) and peer instruction tools to help students build a hierarchical knowledge structure of quantum mechanics through a guided approach. Preliminary assessments indicate that studentsâ understanding of quantum mechanics is improved after using the research-based learning tools in the junior-senior level quantum mechanics courses. We also designed a standardized conceptual survey that can help instructors better probe studentsâ understanding of quantum mechanics concepts in one spatial dimension. The validity and reliability of this quantum mechanics survey is discussed.

Zhu, Guangtian

2011-07-31

189

From Words to Concepts: Focusing on Word Knowledge When Teaching for Conceptual Understanding Within an Inquiry-Based Science Setting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This qualitative video study explores how two elementary school teachers taught for conceptual understanding throughout different phases of science inquiry. The teachers implemented teaching materials with a focus on learning science key concepts through the development of word knowledge. A framework for word knowledge was applied to examine the students' level of word knowledge manifested in their talk. In this framework, highly developed knowledge of a word is conceptual knowledge. This includes understanding how the word is situated within a network of other words and ideas. The results suggest that students' level of word knowledge develops toward conceptual knowledge when the students are required to apply the key concepts in their talk throughout all phases of inquiry. When the students become familiar with the key concepts through the initial inquiry activities, the students use the concepts as tools for furthering their conceptual understanding when they discuss their ideas and findings. However, conceptual understanding is not promoted when teachers do the talking for the students, rephrasing their responses into the correct answer or neglecting to address the students' everyday perceptions of scientific phenomena.

Haug, Berit S.; Řdegaard, Marianne

2014-03-01

190

From Words to Concepts: Focusing on Word Knowledge When Teaching for Conceptual Understanding Within an Inquiry-Based Science Setting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This qualitative video study explores how two elementary school teachers taught for conceptual understanding throughout different phases of science inquiry. The teachers implemented teaching materials with a focus on learning science key concepts through the development of word knowledge. A framework for word knowledge was applied to examine the students' level of word knowledge manifested in their talk. In this framework, highly developed knowledge of a word is conceptual knowledge. This includes understanding how the word is situated within a network of other words and ideas. The results suggest that students' level of word knowledge develops toward conceptual knowledge when the students are required to apply the key concepts in their talk throughout all phases of inquiry. When the students become familiar with the key concepts through the initial inquiry activities, the students use the concepts as tools for furthering their conceptual understanding when they discuss their ideas and findings. However, conceptual understanding is not promoted when teachers do the talking for the students, rephrasing their responses into the correct answer or neglecting to address the students' everyday perceptions of scientific phenomena.

Haug, Berit S.; Řdegaard, Marianne

2014-10-01

191

University Physics Students' Conceptualizations of Factors Affecting the Speed of Sound Propagation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report discusses university physics students' conceptualizations of the factors affecting the speed of sound propagation. The data source consists of a set of detailed explanations which Canadian and South African physics graduates provided during the course of clinical-like interviews dealing with their understanding of sound. The analysis of the students' explanations was set in the phenomenographic tradition: their categorization led to the characterization of three qualitatively different conceptualizations. The conceptualizations are illustrated with dialogue excerpts taken from the student interviews. Implications for physics teaching are discussed.

Linder, Cedric J.

2006-06-22

192

Conceptual Understanding in Social Education. ACER Research Monograph No. 45.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the results of a 1992 survey of students' economic, geographical, cultural, historical, and political understandings in the state of Victoria (Australia). The conception of some 2,900 students in Years 5 and 9 in government, Catholic and independent schools are investigated and described. The survey is one of a series of…

Doig, Brian; And Others

193

Scaffolding students' understanding of force in pulley systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent research results have found that students using virtual manipulatives perform as well or better on measures of conceptual understanding than their peers who used physical equipment. We report on a study with students in a conceptual physics laboratory using either physical or virtual manipulatives to investigate forces in pulley systems. Written materials guided students through a sequence of activities designed to scaffold their understanding of force in pulley systems. The activity sequences facilitated students' sense making by requiring them to make and test predictions about various pulley systems by building and comparing different systems. We investigate the ways in which students discuss force while navigating the scaffolding activities and how these discussions compare between the physical and virtual treatments.

Rouinfar, Amy; Madsen, Adrian M.; Hoang, Tram Do Ngoc; Puntambekar, Sadhana; Rebello, N. Sanjay

2013-01-01

194

An analysis of science conceptual knowledge in journals of students with disabilities and normally achieving students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science education reforms of the last two decades have focused on raising the bar for ALL students which includes students with mild to moderate disabilities. Formative assessment can be used to assess the progress of these students to inquire, understand scientific concepts, reason scientifically, make decisions, and communicate effectively in science. The purpose of this study is to examine the use of science journals as a formative assessment in a guided inquiry unit of study for students with learning disabilities. Two normally achieving students (NA) and five students with learning disabilities (SLD) participated in a study of mammals that utilized journals to record the development of student knowledge through the course of study. Students were interviewed after the lessons were complete using the same prompts required in the journals. Themes were developed from the student writings and their verbal discourse using Grounded Theory. Journals and verbal discourse were rated following the themes of Knowledge Telling (KT) and Knowledge Transformation (KTR). Concept maps were developed for the Pre and Post test lessons (written and verbal discourses) by the raters in an attempt to further explain the knowledge that the students conveyed. The results of this study suggest that SLD are able to demonstrate knowledge about mammals better through verbal discourse than written discourse. While the NA students wrote more and used more technical discourse than did their SLD peers, the conceptual understanding of the topic by the SLD was no less inclusive than their NA peers when accessed verbally. The journals demonstrated limited conceptual growth for the SLD. Further, while lexical density is important to the development of knowledge in science, this study suggests the "conceptual density" may be another important indicator to examine.

Grigg, Gail S.

195

Assessing the impact of a computer simulation in conjunction with Tutorials in Introductory Physics on conceptual understanding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper compares the effect on student understanding from using either real-world circuits or an interactive circuit simulation. Three groups of students who worked through a tutorial on multiple-loop circuits from Tutorials in Introductory Physics, one with real circuits and two with a simulation, were compared in terms of their conceptual understanding after instruction. Students who used the simulation completed the tutorial faster and had more time for discussion with the TAs, and generally scored higher on conceptual questions than did those who used real circuits.

Hazelton, Ryan L.; Shaffer, Peter S.; Heron, Paula R.

2014-01-31

196

Research in physical chemistry and chemical education: Part A: Water Mediated Chemistry of Oxidized Atmospheric Compounds Part B: The Development of Surveying Tools to Determine How Effective Laboratory Experiments Contribute to Student Conceptual Understanding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation is a combination of two research areas, experimental physical chemistry, Chapters I to V, and chemical education, Chapters VI to VII. Chapters I to V describe research on the water-mediated chemistry of oxidized atmospheric molecules and the impact that water has on the spectra of these environmental systems. The role of water in the Earth's atmosphere has been of considerable interest due to its ability to impact chemistry and climate. Oxidized atmospheric molecules in the presence of water have the ability to form hydrogen bonded water complexes. The spectroscopic investigation of nitric acid-water complexes, outlined in Chapter III, was undertaken to characterize intermolecular hydrogen bonds in a water-restricted environment at ambient temperatures. Additionally, this characterization of nitric acid-water complexes allowed for the comparison of calculated overtone OH-stretching vibrational band frequencies, intensities, and anharmonicities of intermolecular hydrogen-bonded water complexes with experimental observations. Oxidized organic molecules, such as aldehydes and ketones, in addition to forming hydrogen-bonded water complexes can undergo a hydration reaction of the carbonyl group and form germinal diols in the presence of water. This chemistry has been studied extensively in bulk aqueous media, however little is known about this process in the gas-phase at low water concentrations. The focus of the studies outlined in Chapters IV and V is motivated by the ability of pyruvic acid and formaldehyde to form germinal diols and water complexes in water-restricted environment. This water-mediated chemistry changes the physical and chemical properties of these organic molecules, therefore, impacting the partitioning between gas and particle phase, as well as the chemistry and photochemistry of oxidized organic molecules in the Earth's atmosphere. The results presented in this dissertation may help resolve the significant discrepancy between atmospherically measured oxidized organic molecules and predictions of atmospheric models at different relative humidities. The chemical education portion of this manuscript presented in Chapters VI and VII includes the development of a survey to determine how effective a laboratory experiment is in contributing to students' understanding of fundamental chemistry. The specific example used is an electrochemical cell. Our initial results showed that while most of our students could answer quantitative questions about the operation of the cell, their conceptual understanding of the microscopic processes that occur within the cell was inconsistent with the material presented in class. In particular, we noticed that while many students were able to correctly describe the events that take place at the surface of the anode and cathode, their understanding of the events that take place at the salt bridge was lacking. In this investigation, we were able to confirm the misconceptions reported in previous studies. Our results suggest that a relatively modest, incremental revision of the experiment reduces these misconceptions and helped the students to develop a molecular-scale picture of the processes that occur within an electrochemical cell.

Maron, Marta Katarzyna

197

Chapter 7: Understanding Student Thinking through Interviews I. OVERVIEW  

E-print Network

their conceptual understanding are due to just a few common misconceptions. Interviews can also tell us why certain in studies of students' common sense beliefs and misconceptions. Problem solving interviews are used to see misconceptions occur, the difficulties they signify, and help researchers learn how to address them. The use

Maryland at College Park, University of

198

Student Understanding of Liquid-Vapor Phase Equilibrium  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student understanding of the equilibrium coexistence of a liquid and its vapor was the subject of an extended investigation. Written assessment questions were administered to undergraduates enrolled in introductory physics and chemistry courses. Responses have been analyzed to document conceptual and reasoning difficulties in sufficient detail to…

Boudreaux, Andrew; Campbell, Craig

2012-01-01

199

Teaching fluids: Intended knowledge and students' actual conceptual evolution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the present paper, we describe and discuss an approach to the teaching of the conceptually demanding topic of fluids which focuses on promoting student teachers' conceptual evolution towards a suggested scientific model. We discuss a comprehensive conceptual model about fluids to be taught to primary education student teachers based on the interrelation of content analysis and students' domain specific conceptions and reasoning. We also present features of a relevant instructional strategy, involving conflict and enhancement procedures, as well as of the experimental field linked to the conceptual model to be taught. This teaching sequence was applied to a small sample of student teachers aiming at the in-depth description of their conceptual development. Comparison of the intended sequence with student teachers' actual constructions in the course of teaching revealed unexpected intermediate steps in their evolution towards differentiation of the intensive variable pressure and the extensive variable force.

Psillos, D.; Kariotoglou, P.

2005-11-23

200

Assess students' understanding of key ecological concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological concepts are fundamental concepts that were commonly introduced in the upper-primary and secondary grades. However, Ecological concepts are difficult topic for K-12 students to learn. Thus there is a need for assess students' understanding in key ecological concepts. Research identifies K-12 students understandings of Ecological concepts. Methods used to determine students' understanding of concepts include concept mapping, flow maps,

Shu-Mey Yu

201

Understanding systematic conceptual structures in polysemous medical terms.  

PubMed Central

Polysemy is a bottleneck for the demanding needs of semantic data management. We suggest the importance of a well-founded conceptual analysis for understanding some systematic structures underlying polysemy in the medical lexicon. We present some cases studies, which exploit the methods (ontological integration and general theories) and tools (description logics and ontology libraries) of the ONIONS methodology defined elsewhere by the authors. This paper addresses an aspect (systematic metomymies) of the project we are involved in, which investigates the feasibility of building a large-scale ontology library of medicine that integrates the most important medical terminology banks. PMID:11079890

Gangemi, A.; Pisanelli, D. M.; Steve, G.

2000-01-01

202

Using Analogy and Model to Enhance Conceptual Change in Thai Middle School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined conceptual change of Thai middle school students after learning photosynthesis with analogy and model. The analogy mapped key features from the analog (cooking food) to the target concept (photosynthesis). Modeling photosynthesis activity provided the opportunity for students to understand how plants use sugar to synthesize…

Wichaidit, Sittichai; Wongyounoi, Somson; Dechsri, Precharn; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin

2011-01-01

203

Gender differences in conceptual understanding of Newtonian mechanics: a UK cross-institution comparison  

E-print Network

We present results of a combined study from three UK universities where we investigate the existence and persistence of a performance gender gap in conceptual understanding of Newtonian mechanics. Using the Force Concept Inventory, we find that students at all three universities exhibit a statistically significant gender gap, with males outperforming females. This gap is narrowed but not eliminated after instruction, using a variety of instructional approaches. Furthermore, we find that before instruction the quartile with the lowest performance on the diagnostic instrument comprises a disproportionately high fraction (~50%) of the total female cohort. The majority of these students remain in the lowest-performing quartile post-instruction. Analysis of responses to individual items shows that male students outperform female students on practically all items on the instrument. Comparing the performance of the same group of students on end-of-course examinations, we find no statistically significant gender gaps...

Bates, Simon; MacPhee, Cait; Sands, David; Birch, Marion; Walet, Niels R

2012-01-01

204

Gender differences in conceptual understanding of Newtonian mechanics: a UK cross-institution comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of a combined study from three UK universities where we investigate the existence and persistence of a performance gender gap in conceptual understanding of Newtonian mechanics. Using the Force Concept Inventory, we find that students at all three universities exhibit a statistically significant gender gap, with males outperforming females. This gap is narrowed but not eliminated after instruction, using a variety of instructional approaches. Furthermore, we find that before instruction the quartile with the lowest performance on the diagnostic instrument comprises a disproportionately high fraction (?50%) of the total female cohort. The majority of these students remain in the lowest-performing quartile post-instruction. Analysis of responses to individual items shows that male students outperform female students on practically all items on the instrument. Comparing the performance of the same group of students on end-of-course examinations, we find no statistically significant gender gaps.

Bates, Simon; Donnelly, Robyn; MacPhee, Cait; Sands, David; Birch, Marion; Walet, Niels R.

2013-03-01

205

Effectiveness of conceptual change instruction on understanding of heat and temperature concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the differential effects of two modes of instructional program (conceptual change oriented and traditionally designed) and gender difference on students' understanding of heat and temperature concepts, and their attitudes toward science as a school subject. The subjects of this study consisted of 72 seventh grade students from two General Science Classes taking the course from the same teacher. Each teaching method was randomly assigned to one class. The experimental group received reinforcement via the conceptual change texts while the control group utilized traditionally designed science texts over a period of four weeks. Analysis of covariance was used. Logical thinking ability was taken as a covariate. The results showed that the conceptual change oriented instruction produced significantly greater achievement in understanding of heat and temperature concepts. The result for science attitudes as a school subject showed no significant difference between the experimental and control groups. Also, no significant difference was found between the performance of females and that of males in terms of learning heat and temperature concepts and attitudes toward science, but the interaction of treatment regarding to gender was significant for learning the concepts. In addition, it was found that students' logical thinking ability accounted for a significant portion of variation in heat and temperature concepts achievement.

Baser, Mustafa; Geban, Ömer

2007-04-01

206

Running head: STUDENTS' UNDERSTANDING OF MATHEMATICAL INTEGRATION 1 Students' Understanding of Mathematical Integration in Physics Problems  

E-print Network

Running head: STUDENTS' UNDERSTANDING OF MATHEMATICAL INTEGRATION 1 Students' Understanding of Mathematical Integration in Physics Problems Using Graphical and Algebraic Representations Dong-Hai Nguyen and N. Sanjay Rebello Kansas State University #12;STUDENTS' UNDERSTANDING OF MATHEMATICAL INTEGRATION 2

Zollman, Dean

207

Comet Inquiry in Action: Developing Conceptual Understanding of Comets through Stardust and Deep Impact Mission EPO Activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA Discovery Program missions to comets - Deep Impact and Stardust, and their extended missions - are the rich source that their respective Education and Public Outreach teams mine to convey investigative concepts to K-12 students. Specially designed curricular activities strive to be engaging and represent science authentically. Even more, they unpack complex science content so students' conceptual understanding can develop. Multimedia elements - interactives, interviews, and games - enhance an educator's toolbox of materials used to reach diverse audiences and deepen understanding.

Feaga, L.; Warner, E.; Ristvey, J.; Cobb, W.; Meyer, A.

2012-08-01

208

Supporting Scientific Reasoning and Conceptual Understanding Through the use of Inscriptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While there is a vast body of research on visual representations, the results do not paint a clear picture of how to use inscriptions to support learning. Part of the difficulty stems from the need for research that investigates the use of inscriptions in classroom learning contexts. Toward this end, there is a small body of work that investigates the role of inscriptions in supporting students' engagement in scientific reasoning practices. Through the development of a case study of expert practice, this dissertation contributes to that literature by examining the potential power of inscriptions as resources for science teaching and learning in the context of a teacher professional development course that aims to support 4th grade teachers' content knowledge around the topic of electric circuits. This study examined the curriculum and video record from one enactment of this course to analyze the affordances of particular representations for supporting conceptual understanding and scientific reasoning practices; examine the facilitator's inscriptional practices that supported collaborative learning; and analyze the interactions among the learners, facilitator, and inscriptions that supported conceptual understanding. This exemplary facilitator successfully used inscriptions to engage learners in scientific reasoning practices that supported their conceptual understanding. She used inscriptions to structure and support discussions that were based on learner-generated ideas, yet led to curriculum-directed conceptual and pedagogical goals. The curriculum provided a series of inscriptional resources that were well suited for the conceptual and scientific reasoning activities that they proposed to support. By using curricular inscriptions to shape the content and form of the discussions, the facilitator created opportunities to learn that were 1) contingent on learner contributions and understanding, and 2) congruent with curricular goals. This work identifies several pedagogical content knowledge demands of supporting scientific reasoning through the use of inscriptions. Beyond knowledge of the conceptual terrain, the facilitator needed to (a) understand the match between particular inscriptions (or types of inscriptions) and the conceptual or scientific reasoning work they can support; (b) understand and interpret learner ideas in relation to the curricular goals; and (c) use inscriptions to make learner ideas available for examination, analysis, revision and discussion in service of the curricular goals.

Wong, Nicole

209

High school student's motivation to engage in conceptual change-learning in science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated motivational factors that are related to engaging in conceptual change learning. While previous studies have recognized the resistance of students' scientific conception to change, few have investigated the role that non-cognitive factors might play when students are exposed to conceptual change instruction. Three research questions were examined: (a) What instructional strategies did the teacher use to both promote students' learning for conceptual change and increase their motivation in learning science? (b) What are the patterns of students' motivation to engage in conceptual change learning? And (c) what individual profiles can be constructed from the four motivational factors (i.e., goals, values, self-efficacy, and control beliefs) and how are these profiles linked to engagement (i.e., behavioral and cognitive engagement) in conceptual change learning of science? Eleven twelfth grade students (senior students) and the teacher in which conceptual change approach to teaching was used in daily activities were selected. Data collection for this study included student's self-reported responses to the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ), classroom observation of students and the teacher, and structured interviews. Analysis of these data resulted in a motivational factor profile for each student and cross case analysis for entire group. Results from this study indicate that each student has different motivation factors that are mostly influenced individual student to learn science. Among these motivation factors, task value and control beliefs were most important for students. The implication of these findings are that teachers need to encourage students to find learning for conceptual change a valuable task, and that students need to find applications for their new conceptions within their everyday lives. In addition, teachers need to encourage students to develop learning strategies for conceptual understanding. Furthermore, students' motivation to learn was also influenced by other factors that are not directly related to the four motivational factors assessed by the MSLQ such as the teacher's unique personality had a positive influenced on student learning. The overall conclusions drawn from this study are that conceptual change instruction requires the teacher to be aware of the importance of affective aspects and motivational factors of students learning.

Barlia, Lily

1999-11-01

210

Effects of conceptual assignments and conceptual change discussions on students' misconceptions and achievement regarding force and motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Investigates the effects of conceptual assignments and conceptual change discussions on high school students' achievement and misconceptions about force and motion. Analyzes pretest and posttest data from the Force Misconception and Force Achievement Tests (FMFAT). Discusses the effects on the conceptual change discussion on reducing misconceptions students held as well as improving students' achievement in force and motion.

Eryilmaz, Ali

2005-10-21

211

Students' Conceptual Difficulties in Quantum Mechanics: Potential Well Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, students' conceptual difficulties about some basic concepts in quantum mechanics like one-dimensional potential well problems and probability density of tunneling particles were identified. For this aim, a multiple choice instrument named Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Test has been developed by one of the researchers of this study…

Ozcan, Ozgur; Didis, Nilufer; Tasar, Mehmet Fatih

2009-01-01

212

Nontraditional Students and Institutions of Higher Education: A Conceptual Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a conceptual base for pedagogy that embraces and incorporates the assets of nontraditional students in higher education and advocates for practice that honors and builds on students' cultural and social capital. It describes the challenges and opportunities faced by nontraditional students within institutions of higher education, focusing specifically on early childhood teacher preparation programs. The article proposes

Sara Exposito; Susan Bernheimer

2012-01-01

213

Nontraditional Students and Institutions of Higher Education: A Conceptual Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a conceptual base for pedagogy that embraces and incorporates the assets of nontraditional students in higher education and advocates for practice that honors and builds on students' cultural and social capital. It describes the challenges and opportunities faced by nontraditional students within institutions of higher…

Exposito, Sara; Bernheimer, Susan

2012-01-01

214

The Nature of Elementary Students' Science Discourse and Conceptual Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study examined the nature of 5th-grade students' oral and written discourse in relation to their conceptual learning during six science inquiry-based lessons. Qualitative data were collected using small group observations, transcriptions of small group discourse, students' science notebooks, and student interviews. These data were…

Parks, Melissa Y.

2011-01-01

215

Students Conceptualizing Transcription and Translation from a Cellular Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is difficult for students to conceptualize biochemical processes that are portrayed as two-dimensional figures in a textbook. Instead of relying on overheads, PowerPoint, or textbook figures, the authors have students imagine themselves actually being inside a cell. Students have a specific role in the cell: helping with the transcription and…

Concannon, James; Buzzetta, Maegan

2010-01-01

216

Student Retention in Higher Education: Some Conceptual and Programmatic Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a review of conceptual perspectives on the salient issues affecting student retention in higher education generally, and minority student retention in particular, over the past few decades. Also summarizes programmatic strategies implemented at institutions as examples of student retention initiatives that have had significant impacts.…

Lang, Marvel

2002-01-01

217

Surveying students' understanding of quantum mechanics in one spatial dimension  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We explore the difficulties that advanced undergraduate and graduate students have with non-relativistic quantum mechanics of a single particle in one spatial dimension. To investigate these difficulties we developed a conceptual survey and administered it to more than 200 students at 10 institutions. The issues targeted in the survey include the set of possible wavefunctions, bound and scattering states, quantum measurement, expectation values, the role of the Hamiltonian, and the time-dependence of the wavefunction and expectation values. We find that undergraduate and graduate students have many common difficulties with these concepts and that research-based tutorials and peer-instruction tools can significantly reduce these difficulties. The findings also suggest that graduate quantum mechanics courses may not be effective at helping students to develop a better conceptual understanding of these topics, partly because such courses mainly focus on quantitative assessments.

Zhu, Guangtian; Singh, Chandralekha

2012-04-30

218

Teaching Fluids: Intended Knowledge and Students' Actual Conceptual Evolution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an approach to teaching the conceptually demanding topic of fluids which focuses on promoting student teachers' continual evolution toward a suggested scientific model. Discusses the approach in detail. Contains 45 references. (DDR)

Psillos, D.; Kariotoglou, P.

1999-01-01

219

The nature of elementary students' science discourse and conceptual learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This qualitative study examined the nature of 5th-grade students' oral and written discourse in relation to their conceptual learning during six science inquiry-based lessons. Qualitative data were collected using small group observations, transcriptions of small group discourse, students' science notebooks, and student interviews. These data were used to create an in-depth illustration of 5th-grade students' discourse and the impact of that discourse on their science conceptual learning. Findings indicated students spoke in three main discourse classifications during small group inquiries and two of these discourses were also present in the science notebook entries. Findings further indicated gender did not impact the nature of students' oral or written discourse regarding their conceptual learning. Implications for classroom practice and suggestions for further research in elementary science education are offered.

Parks, Melissa Y.

220

Understanding student use of differentials in physics integration problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on students’ use of the mathematical concept of differentials in physics problem solving. For instance, in electrostatics, students need to set up an integral to find the electric field due to a charged bar, an activity that involves the application of mathematical differentials (e.g., dr, dq). In this paper we aim to explore students’ reasoning about the differential concept in physics problems. We conducted group teaching or learning interviews with 13 engineering students enrolled in a second-semester calculus-based physics course. We amalgamated two frameworks—the resources framework and the conceptual metaphor framework—to analyze students’ reasoning about differential concept. Categorizing the mathematical resources involved in students’ mathematical thinking in physics provides us deeper insights into how students use mathematics in physics. Identifying the conceptual metaphors in students’ discourse illustrates the role of concrete experiential notions in students’ construction of mathematical reasoning. These two frameworks serve different purposes, and we illustrate how they can be pieced together to provide a better understanding of students’ mathematical thinking in physics.

Hu, Dehui; Rebello, N. Sanjay

2013-12-01

221

Stellar Ideas: Exploring Students' Understanding of Stars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, high school and first-year undergraduate students were asked about their understanding of stars. The hypothesis guiding this research posits that high school students who have taken a semester-long astronomy course will have an understanding of stars most related to scientific knowledge, compared with high school students enrolled…

Agan, Lori

2004-01-01

222

The Effectiveness of Peer Instruction and Structured Inquiry on Conceptual Understanding of Force and Motion: A Case Study from Thailand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study proposed to investigate the effectiveness of learning activities based on a conceptual change theoretical framework by embedding a peer instruction method with structured inquiry (PISI) on tenth grade students' understanding of force and motion concepts. This teaching method was compared to the existing traditional instruction (TI).…

Suppapittayaporn, Decha; Emarat, Narumon; Arayathanitkul, Kwan

2010-01-01

223

Understanding the nature of science through the historical development of conceptual models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the nature of science has been a common goal in science education for years and continues to hold a distinct place in the recently developed Pan-Canadian science framework. Although the nature of science is often prominent in the front end of such reform documents, the implementation of these goals is presumed to be taught implicitly with the delivery of knowledge outcomes. Research strongly indicates that most students have naive conceptions about the nature of science. Surprisingly, research also clearly shows that science teachers do not fare much better, and that when they do possess adequate understanding of the nature of science it does not significantly influence their behaviour in the classroom. Norm Lederman (1998), one of the leading scholars in this field, describes two approaches advocated by curriculum reform documents to address the nature of science outcomes. The first approach suggests that students can achieve nature of science outcomes by "doing science", the second suggests that history of science can enhance students' understanding of the nature of science. While Lederman advocates the use of the history of science, he argues that these approaches are not effective when used implicitly. He recommends that an explicit approach be used (planned for, taught, assessed), but so far there have been no studies which employ this technique beyond short lessons or limited case histories. This thesis advocates an explicit approach to teaching the nature of science using the historical development of conceptual models. The research study of this thesis integrated the historical development of conceptual models with the traditional content found in a typical grade ten chemistry curriculum. Participants in the research were 74 senior 2 (grade 10) science students from four different classes in three different schools in the province of Manitoba. Prior to, and after instruction, students wrote Lederman's VNOS nature of science test. The tests were reviewed by the researcher and a nature of science profile was compiled for each student. From this profile and the student responses, 24 students (8 from each group) were selected to be interviewed. The research indicates that the HDCM unit was a successful means to improve students' understanding of models, theories, evidence, and the tentativeness of science. The manner in which students employed their examples in the post-test suggests that the historical content of the unit accounts for this change. On the relationship between laws and theories the research indicates that the view that theories advance to laws is an extremely tenacious misconception although students did seem to improve their understanding of laws and theories independently. The HDCM unit did not yield significant results in advancing students understandings of the creative and imaginative aspects of the nature of science. However, there were individual cases where progress was made which might indicate that more opportunity and a longer development time could enhance student understanding in this area. Students also indicated positive attitudes towards the inclusion of the history of science in their curriculum. The HDCM unit presented a more humanistic view of science to the students which was reflected in their interest, motivation, and responses to the curriculum. We should view this results as positive for future curriculum development in this area. Finally, the HDCM unit was shown to significantly influence one practising teacher's understanding of the nature of science.

Metz, Donald J.

224

Probing adults' conceptual understanding and transfer of learning via problem posing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper reports on two experiments in which high performing university students having finished an introductory physics course were asked to pose mechanics questions. In Experiment 1, subjects were given problem situations (i.e. a story line accompanied with a diagram from which problems could be constructed) and asked to generate "textbook-like" problems that could be solved with specific concepts (e.g. conservation of mechanical energy, Newton's Second Law). In Experiment 2, subjects were given Concept Scenarios (i.e. a description of the physics principles and concepts that apply to a problem and the order in which they apply) and asked to generate problems that matched the scenarios. Interviews conducted immediately following the experiment asked the subjects to explain how the problems posed matched either the specified concepts, or the Concept Scenarios. Findings indicate that, when followed by an interview, problem solving is a powerful assessment tool for probing students' understanding of physics concepts, as well as their ability to transfer their knowledge to novel contexts. In many instances, students posed appropriate solvable problems, yet displayed major flaws in conceptual understanding. This suggests that even good novices are lacking in the way their conceptual knowledge is organized in memory and linked to problem contexts and procedures. Suggestions for using problem posing as a pedagogical tool are presented.

Mestre, Jose P.

2006-06-09

225

StudentsUnderstanding of Their Student Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Open Learner Models (OLM) are believed to facilitate students’ metacognitive activities in learning. Inspectable student models\\u000a are a simple but very common form of OLM that grant students opportunities to get feedback on their knowledge and reflect\\u000a on it. This paper uses individualized surveys and interviews with high school students who have at least three years experience\\u000a learning with the

Yanjin Long; Vincent Aleven

226

Understanding Diversity in Millennial Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Millennial generation of college students has demographics and attitudes toward diversity issues different from their predecessors; this chapter explores those differences and their implications for student affairs work.

Broido, Ellen M.

2004-01-01

227

Conceptual Dynamics: Following Changing Student Views of Force and Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper develops the phenomenological framework and methodology of "conceptual dynamics" in order to identify student views of the physical world and to explore the dynamic process by which these views are transformed during instruction. Conceptual dynamics aids the determination of the multiple student views, even for large numbers of students in instructional settings, and provides a method for the ordering of student views into learning hierarchies. The methods of conceptual dynamics are then applied to student views in a specific area of physicsâforce and motion, the behavior of objects moving as a result of forces acting on them. Common student views of force and motion for the different cases that students distinguish are articulated and learning hierarchies are established that allow a statistical prediction of student progression through the various views. Newton's First and Second Laws, for example, become the Four Student Laws of Force and Motion where different force and motion relationships apply to objects standing still, slowing down, moving at a constant velocity, and speeding up. Students adopt a physicist view of the four cases of motion in the order listed. Student descriptions of each view, in their own words, are given. Data is presented to support a model for the transition from one view to another that postulates that many students move through a transitional state when changing views.

Thornton, Ronald K.

2006-12-07

228

Utilizing Instructional Games to Improve Students' Conceptualization of Science Concepts: Comparing K Students Results with Grade 1 Students, Are There Differences?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education researchers and teachers have long been interested in improving students' conceptual understanding and motivational levels to do academic work. Over the past decade and a half, there has been an increase in the number of studies investigating the effects of instructional games on students' academic performance and motivational levels.…

Pinder, Patrice Juliet

2008-01-01

229

Student success in an introductory psychology course: A conceptual model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to identify factors that predict student success in an undergraduate introductory psychology course. The study focuses on key behaviors relevant to success in the classroom for nontraditional students (class participation and homework completion), although it is extendible to other settings as well. A framework is proposed to conceptualize the important dimensions of academic ability,

Sherri Lynn Rings

2000-01-01

230

Conceptualizing the Roles of Mentor Teachers during Student Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The field-based mentoring of student teachers is often an idiosyncratic and nuanced practice in which mentors' conceptualizations of their interactions with student teachers are generated through personal experiences with teacher education. If teacher educators and programs are to strengthen the tie between campus and field-based teacher…

Butler, Brandon M.; Cuenca, Alexander

2012-01-01

231

High-Maintenance Students: A Conceptual Exploration and Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores high-maintenance students in the university setting: those students who complain and whine, beyond reasonable limits, thereby exhausting their instructor's energy. By drawing heavily on the personality literature, I advance a conceptual foundation, research propositions, and suggestions for future research regarding…

Burke, Lisa A.

2004-01-01

232

Conceptualizations of Nature from Science Students in Northeastern Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore rural and provincial students' conceptualizations of nature in Colombia alongside the science education offered in their school communities. Students' perceptions of nature were produced from interviews that revolved around a focusing event and two eliciting devices to document their views about home,…

Medina-Jerez, William

2007-01-01

233

Students' Conceptions of Underlying Principles in Medical Physiology: An Interview Study of Medical Students' Understanding in a PBL Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Medical physiology is known to be a complex area where students develop significant errors in conceptual understanding. Students' knowledge is often bound to situational descriptions rather than underlying principles. This study explores how medical students discern and process underlying principles in physiology. Indepth interviews, where…

Fyrenius, Anna; Silen, Charlotte; Wirell, Staffan

2007-01-01

234

High School Students' Physical Education Conceptual Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The value of conceptual physical education knowledge has long been acknowledged (American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, 1969; Kneer, 1981; NASPE, 1995) yet has not been formally measured or assessed. Seven multiple choice tests with established validity and reliability (Ayers, 2001b) were used to assess the concepts…

Ayers, Suzan F.

2004-01-01

235

Tactical Underlife: Understanding Students' Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes one urban classroom and the language and literacy practices jointly constructed by a veteran urban teacher, Lynn Gatto, and her 3rd grade students. Drawing from two ethnographic studies of Gattos 2nd-4th grade looped classroom, we argue that Gatto and her students use the interplay between strategies and tactics (De Certeau,…

Larson, Joanne; Gatto, Lynn Astarita

2004-01-01

236

Improving high school physical science students' understanding of the electromagnetic spectrum: A modified diagram approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this study was to identify major conceptual difficulties that selected public high school physical science students encounter in understanding a standard electromagnetic spectrum diagram. A research-driven, modified version of that standard diagram was used in this study to determine the value added to student understanding of electromagnetic waves. A content analysis was performed on electromagnetic spectrum diagrams

James Edward Quebedeaux

2007-01-01

237

Promoting Pre-Service Elementary Students' Understanding of Chemical Equilibrium through Discussions in Small Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of small group discussion on students' conceptual understanding of chemical equilibrium. Students' understanding of chemical equilibrium concepts was measured using the Misconception Identification Test. The test consisted of 30 items and administered as pre-posttests to a total of 81…

Bilgin, Ibrahim

2006-01-01

238

Student Understanding of Light as an Electromagnetic Wave: Relating the Formalism to Physical Phenomena.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some serious difficulties that students have in understanding physical optics may be due in part to a lack of understanding of light as an electromagnetic wave. Describes the development and use of tutorials designed to address students' conceptual difficulties. (Contains over 15 references.) (Author/WRM)

Ambrose, Bradley S.; Heron, Paula R. L.; Vokos, Stamatis; McDermott, Lillian C.

1999-01-01

239

Assessing Student Understanding of Physical Hydrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our objective is to characterize and assess upper division and graduate student thinking by developing and testing an assessment tool for a physical hydrology class. The class' learning goals are: (1) Quantitative process-based understanding of hydrologic processes, (2) Experience with different methods in hydrology, (3) Learning, problem solving, communication skills. These goals were translated into two measurable tasks asked of students in a questionnaire: (1) Describe the significant processes in the hydrological cycle and (2) Describe laws governing these processes. A third question below assessed the students' ability to apply their knowledge: You have been hired as a consultant by __ to (1) assess how urbanization and the current drought have affected a local spring and (2) predict what the effects will be in the future if the drought continues. What information would you need to gather? What measurements would you make? What analyses would you perform? Student and expert responses to the questions were then used to develop a rubric to score responses. Using the rubric, 3 researchers independently blind-coded the full set of pre and post artifacts, resulting in 89% inter-rater agreement on the pre-tests and 83% agreement on the post-tests. We present student scores to illustrate the use of the rubric and to characterize student thinking prior to and following a traditional course. Most students interpreted Q1 in terms of physical processes affecting the water cycle, the primary organizing framework for hydrology, as intended. On the pre-test, one student scored 0, indicating no response, on this question. Twenty students scored 1, indicating rudimentary understanding, 2 students scored a 2, indicating a basic understanding, and no student scored a 3. Student scores on this question improved on the post-test. On the 22 post-tests that were blind scored, 11 students demonstrated some recognition of concepts, 9 students showed a basic understanding, and 2 students had a full understanding of the processes linked to hydrology. Half the students had provided evidence of the desired understanding; however, half still demonstrated only a rudimentary understanding. Results on Q2 were similar. On the pre-test, 2 students scored 0, 21 students scored 1, indicating rudimentary understanding, 2 students scored a 2, and no student scored a 3. On the post-test, again approximately half the students achieved the desired understanding: 9 students showed some recognition of concepts, 12 students demonstrated a basic understanding; only one student exhibited full understanding. On Q3, no student scored 0, 9 scored 1, 15 scored 2 and 1 student scored 3. On the post-test, one student scored 1, 16 students scored 2, and 5 students scored 3. Students were significantly better at responding to Q3 (the application) as opposed to Q1 and Q2, which were more abstract. Research has shown that students are often better able to solve contextualized problems when they are unable to deal with more abstract tasks. This result has limitations including the small number of participants, all from one institution, and the fact that the rubric was still under development. Nevertheless, the high inter-rater agreement by a group of experts is significant; the rubric we developed is a potentially useful tool for assessment of learning and understanding physical hydrology. Supported by NSF CAREER grant (EAR-0955750).

Castillo, A. J.; Marshall, J.; Cardenas, M. B.

2012-12-01

240

Investigating the Effectiveness of a POE-Based Teaching Activity on Students' Understanding of Condensation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on the development of a Predict-Observe-Explain, POE-based teaching strategy to facilitate conceptual change and its effectiveness on student understanding of condensation. The sample consisted of 52 first-year students in primary science education department. Students' ideas were elicited using a test consisting of five probe…

Costu, Bayram; Ayas, Alipasa; Niaz, Mansoor

2012-01-01

241

STUDENTS' UNDERSTANDING OF LOGARITHMIC FUNCTION ...  

E-print Network

the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. ... The purpose of this study is to investigate how college students interpret logarithmic .... was voluntary, and no points were offered toward the class grade for participation.

Rachael Kenney

2013-03-27

242

Textbook treatments and students' understanding of acceleration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The ways in which the concept of acceleration is treated in physics textbooks is compared with understandings of the concept demonstrated by final-year secondary (n=30) and first-year university students (n=60). Some students' understandings are shown to be incomplete in ways that parallel misleading or inaccurate textbook treatment of the concept.

Dall'Alba, Gloria

2006-05-23

243

Investigating the impact of visuohaptic simulations for conceptual understanding in electricity and magnetism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study examined the efficacy of a haptic simulation used as a pedagogical tool to teach freshmen engineering students about electromagnetism. A quasi-experimental design-based research was executed in two iterations to compare the possible benefits the haptic device provided to the cognitive learning of students. In the first iteration of the experiment performance of learners who used visual-only simulations was compared to the performance of those who used visuohaptic. In the second iteration of the experiment modifications were made to learning materials and experiment procedures to enhance research design. Research hypothesis states that multimodal presentation of information may lead to better conceptual understanding of electromagnetism compared to visual presentation alone.

Sanchez Martinez, Karla L.

244

Comparing Student Learning with Multiple Research-Based Conceptual Surveys: CSEM and BEMA  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We present results demonstrating similar distributions of student scores, and statistically indistinguishable gains on two popular research-based assessment tools: the Brief Electricity and Magnetism Assessment (BEMA) and the Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism(CSEM). To deepen our understanding of student learning in our course environment and of these assessment tools as measures of student learning, we identify systematic trends and differences in results from these two instruments. We investigate correlations of both pre- and post- conceptual scores with other measures including traditional exam scores and course grades, student background (earlier grades), gender, a pretest of scientific reasoning, and tests of attitudes and beliefs about science and learning science. Overall, for practical purposes, we find the BEMA and CSEM are roughly equivalently useful instruments for measuring student learning in our course.

Pollock, Steven J.

2009-01-24

245

Learning about Seasons in a Technologically Enhanced Environment: The Impact of Teacher-Guided and Student-Centered Instructional Approaches on the Process of Students' Conceptual Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To explore the ways in which teacher-guided and student-centered instructional approaches influence students' conceptual understanding of seasonal change, we designed a technology-enhanced learning (TEL) course to compare, by means of concept maps, the learning outcome of students in two groups: a teacher-guided (TG) class (with whole-class…

Hsu, Ying-Shao

2008-01-01

246

Spatial abilities, Earth science conceptual understanding, and psychological gender of university non-science majors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research has shown the presence of many Earth science misconceptions and conceptual difficulties that may impede concept understanding, and has also identified a number of categories of spatial ability. Although spatial ability has been linked to high performance in science, some researchers believe it has been overlooked in traditional education. Evidence exists that spatial ability can be improved. This correlational study investigated the relationship among Earth science conceptual understanding, three types of spatial ability, and psychological gender, a self-classification that reflects socially-accepted personality and gender traits. A test of Earth science concept understanding, the Earth Science Concepts (ESC) test, was developed and field tested from 2001 to 2003 in 15 sections of university classes. Criterion validity was .60, significant at the .01 level. Spearman/Brown reliability was .74 and Kuder/Richardson reliability was .63. The Purdue Visualization of Rotations (PVOR) (mental rotation), the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) (spatial perception), the Differential Aptitude Test: Space Relations (DAT) (spatial visualization), and the Bem Inventory (BI) (psychological gender) were administered to 97 non-major university students enrolled in undergraduate science classes. Spearman correlations revealed moderately significant correlations at the .01 level between ESC scores and each of the three spatial ability test scores. Stepwise regression analysis indicated that PVOR scores were the best predictor of ESC scores, and showed that spatial ability scores accounted for 27% of the total variation in ESC scores. Spatial test scores were moderately or weakly correlated with each other. No significant correlations were found among BI scores and other test scores. Scantron difficulty analysis of ESC items produced difficulty ratings ranging from 33.04 to 96.43, indicating the percentage of students who answered incorrectly. Mean score on the ESC was 34%, indicating that the non-majors tested exhibited many Earth science misconceptions and conceptual difficulties. A number of significant results were found when independent t-tests and correlations were conducted among test scores and demographic variables. The number of previous university Earth science courses was significantly related to ESC scores. Preservice elementary/middle majors differed significantly in several ways from other non-majors, and several earlier results were not supported. Results of this study indicate that an important opportunity may exist to improve Earth science conceptual understanding by focusing on spatial ability, a cognitive ability that has heretofore not been directly addressed in schools.

Black, Alice A. (Jill)

247

Understanding Early Elementary Children's Conceptual Knowledge of Plant Structure and Function through Drawings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined children's drawings to explain children's conceptual understanding of plant structure and function. The study explored whether the children's drawings accurately reflect their conceptual understanding about plants in a manner that can be interpreted by others. Drawing, survey, interview, and observational data…

Anderson, Janice L.; Ellis, Jane P.; Jones, Alan M.

2014-01-01

248

Understanding Student Veterans in Transition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this research report the author details a phenomenological study documenting identity development in student veterans making the transition from active military service to higher education. This study took place at a doctoral granting proprietary university with a significant veteran population and consisted of in-depth interviews. This…

Jones, Kevin C.

2013-01-01

249

An Investigation into Student Understanding of Magnetic Induction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This research studies students' functional understanding of magnetic induction, the process by which changing magnetic flux induces electrical current in a circuit. Functional understanding includes the ability to reason both qualitatively and quantitatively about a concept, as well as to translate among multiple representations of the concept. Since this phenomenon has many applications, such as in power generators, microphones, seismometers, and automobile alternators, it is important that students gain some understanding of it from their physics courses. However, this research shows that over half of the students in an introductory physics course for engineers cannot correctly answer conceptual problems about induction on their final exam. There are a number of theoretical reasons why the topic of magnetic induction might be difficult for students to learn. It is comprised of multiple inter-related abstract quantities that are inherently three-dimensional and that are changing in time. In order to improve instruction on these difficult topics, it is necessary to study student learning in detail. Instructional materials have been developed and studied along with initial- and final-states of student understanding.

Allen, Leith D.

2006-06-16

250

Western Australian school students' understanding of biotechnology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Are science educators providing secondary school students with the background to understand the science behind recent controversies such as the recently introduced compulsory labelling of genetically modified foods? Research from the UK suggests that many secondary school students do not understand the processes or implications of modern biotechnology. The situation in Australia is unclear. In this study, 1116 15-year-old students from eleven Western Australian schools were surveyed to determine their understanding of, and attitude towards, recent advances in modern biotechnology. The results indicate that approximately one third of students have little or no understanding of biotechnology. Many students over-estimate the use of biotechnology in our society by confusing current uses with possible future applications. The results provide a rationale for the inclusion of biotechnology, a cutting edge science, in the school science curriculum

Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

2003-01-01

251

A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of Curriculum on Conceptual Understanding in E&M  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We have collected extensive data on upper-division Electricity and Magnetism (E&M) student performance at CU Boulder since we introduced the University of Washington's Tutorials in Introductory Physics in 2004 as part of our freshman curriculum. In the earliest semesters, all upper-division students had themselves taken a non-Tutorial introductory Physics, providing a baseline at this upper-division level surprisingly close to post-scores in our reformed introductory course. More recently, the population in the upper-division is mixed with respect to freshman experience, with over half having been taught with Tutorials as freshmen. We track those students and find that on average, their individual BEMA scores do not change significantly over time. However, we do find a significantly stronger performance at the upper division level for students who went through Tutorials compared to those who had other introductory experiences, and stronger scores still for students who taught in the introductory sequence as Learning Assistants, indicating a long-term positive impact of Tutorials on conceptual understanding.

Pollock, Steven J.

2009-06-24

252

A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of Curriculum on Conceptual Understanding in E&M  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have collected extensive data on upper-division Electricity and Magnetism (E&M) student performance at CU Boulder since we introduced the University of Washington's Tutorials in Introductory Physics in 2004 as part of our freshman curriculum. In the earliest semesters, all upper-division students had themselves taken a non-Tutorial introductory Physics, providing a baseline at this upper-division level surprisingly close to post-scores in our reformed introductory course. More recently, the population in the upper-division is mixed with respect to freshman experience, with over half having been taught with Tutorials as freshmen. We track those students and find that on average, their individual BEMA scores do not change significantly over time. However, we do find a significantly stronger performance at the upper division level for students who went through Tutorials compared to those who had other introductory experiences, and stronger scores still for students who taught in the introductory sequence as Learning Assistants, indicating a long-term positive impact of Tutorials on conceptual understanding.

Pollock, S. J.

2007-11-01

253

Effects of Conceptual Assignments and Conceptual Change Discussions on Students' Misconceptions and Achievement Regarding Force and Motion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the effects of conceptual assignments and conceptual change discussions on high school students' achievement and misconceptions about force and motion. Analyzes pretest and posttest data from the Force Misconception and Force Achievement Tests (FMFAT). Discusses the effects on the conceptual change discussion on reducing…

Eryilmaz, Ali

2002-01-01

254

Conceptualizing the Use of Online Technologies for Gifted Secondary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an era where technology is advancing at a rapid pace, and where information is readily accessible on the World Wide Web, educators should be capitalizing on these resources for gifted students. This paper proposes a conceptual framework to support individualized and independent learning within a network of peers that will provide challenging…

Ng, Wan; Nicholas, Howard

2007-01-01

255

Conceptual Change in Students' Molecular Biology Education: Tilting at Windmills?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A hands-on instructional approach with medium-achieving 10th-grade students (N = 294) successfully demonstrated the achievement of a conceptual change. Two teaching variations were applied (I-1, I-2), both dealing with a hands-on gene technology lesson in an out-of-school laboratory. I-2 additionally confronted the participants with alternative…

Franke, Gaitano; Bogner, Franz X.

2011-01-01

256

Exploring the Development of Students' Conceptual Profiles of Chemical Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Carries out a naturalistic small-scale study involving a class from a senior high school in Spain over two years. Analyzes students' essays on chemical change using text analysis techniques. Reports the development of four conceptual profiles and the implications of research for the process of teaching the concept of chemical change. (Author/KHR)

Solsona, Nuria; Izquierdo, Merce; de Jong, Onno

2003-01-01

257

Understanding product migration to the electronic marketplace: A conceptual framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a conceptual framework that organizes current thinking regarding increased interactivity in the electronic marketplace and its implications for product migration. Product migration refers to the extent of reliance by buyers and sellers on the electronic marketplace for activities pertaining to information search, purchase, acquisition, use, and disposal of a product. We posit that value outcomes derived by buyers

Manjit S. Yadav; P. Rajan Varadarajan

2005-01-01

258

The Effect of Concept Mapping on Student Understanding and Correlation with Student Learning Styles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the use of concept mapping as a pedagogical strategy to promote change in the learning styles of pre-nursing students. Students' individual learning styles revealed two subsets of students; those who demonstrated a learning style that favors abstract conceptualization and those who demonstrated a learning style that favors concrete experience. Students in the experimental groups performed concept mapping activities designed to facilitate an integrative understanding of interactions between various organ systems of the body while the control group received a traditional didactic instruction without performing concept mapping activities. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected in order to measure differences in student achievement. Analysis of the quantitative data revealed no significant change in the learning styles of students in either the control or experimental groups. Learning style groups were analyzed qualitatively for recurring or emergent themes that students identified as facilitating their learning. An analysis of qualitative data revealed that most students in the pre-nursing program were able to identify concepts within the class based upon visual cues, and a majority of these students exhibited the learning style of abstract conceptualization. As the laboratory experience for the course involves an examination of the anatomical structures of the human body, a visual identification of these structures seemed to be the most logical method to measure students' ability to identify anatomical structures.

Mosley, William G.

259

The Effect of Guided Inquiry-Based Instruction on Middle School StudentsUnderstanding of Lunar Concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effect of non-traditional guided inquiry instruction on middle school studentsconceptual understandings\\u000a of lunar concepts. Multiple data sources were used to describe participants’ conceptions of lunar phases and their cause,\\u000a including drawings, interviews, and a lunar shapes card sort. The data were analyzed via a constant comparative method to\\u000a produce profiles of each participant’s conceptual understandings

Kathy Cabe Trundle; Ronald K. Atwood; John E. Christopher; Mesut Sackes

2010-01-01

260

Understanding and Preventing College Student Suicide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suicide is currently the second leading cause of death among college students in the United States. This complex issue on college campuses is often overlooked, and this book combines the efforts from several leaders in the field of suicidology in an attempt to grasp a better understanding of college student suicide. The book is divided into four…

Lamis, Dorian A.; Lester, David

2011-01-01

261

International Understanding Via Student Teaching Abroad.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Student Teaching Abroad (STA) program at Moorhead College is a coordinated effort to place qualified teacher education candidates in private international schools abroad. An assumption of STA is that international understanding will be increased through an exposure to other cultures; therefore student teachers are encouraged to live with local…

Freeberg, Howard

262

Students' Understandings and Misconceptions of Algebraic Inequalities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics [NCTM] requires students in grades nine through 12 to be able to explain inequalities using mathematical relational symbols and be able to understand the meaning of inequalities and their solutions (NCTM, 2000). Studies have shown that not only middle and high school students have difficulties with…

Rowntree, Rebecca V.

2009-01-01

263

Can Tutors Monitor Students' Understanding Accurately?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students learn more and gain greater understanding from one-to-one tutoring. The preferred explanation has been that the tutors' pedagogical skills are responsible for the learning gains. Pedagogical skills involve skillful execution of tactics, such as giving explanations and feedback, or selecting the appropriate problems or questions to ask the students. Skillful execution of these pedagogical skills requires that they are

Michelene T. H. Chi; Stephanie A. Siler; Heisawn Jeong

2004-01-01

264

Understanding Student Identity from a Socialization Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter describes the contribution of current research using the Weidman model of undergraduate socialization to understanding student identity development in college. It illustrates ways in which the framework can be used flexibly and adapted for studying impacts of multiple aspects of the college experience on diverse groups of students.

Weidman, John C.; DeAngelo, Linda; Bethea, Kathryn A.

2014-01-01

265

Improving Students' Understanding of Quantum Measurement  

SciTech Connect

We describe the difficulties advanced undergraduate and graduate students have with quantum measurement. To reduce these difficulties, we have developed research-based learning tools such as the Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorial (QuILT) and peer instruction tools. A preliminary evaluation shows that these learning tools are effective in improving students' understanding of concepts related to quantum measurement.

Zhu Guangtian; Singh, Chandralekha [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, 15260 (United States)

2010-10-24

266

Assessing and improving student understanding of quantum mechanics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We developed a survey to probe student understanding of quantum mechanics concepts at the beginning of graduate instruction. The survey was administered to 202 graduate students in physics enrolled in first-year quantum mechanics courses from seven different universities at the beginning of the first semester. We also conducted one-on-one interviews with fifteen graduate students or advanced undergraduate students who had just finished a course in which all the content on the survey was covered. We find that students share universal difficulties about fundamental quantum mechanics concepts. The difficulties are often due to over-generalization of concepts learned in one context to other contexts where they are not directly applicable and difficulty in making sense of the abstract quantitative formalism of quantum mechanics. Instructional strategies that focus on improving student understanding of these concepts should take into account these difficulties. The results from this study can sensitize instructors of first-year graduate quantum physics to the conceptual difficulties students are likely to face.

Singh, Chandralekha

2009-07-13

267

Assessing and improving student understanding of quantum mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a survey to probe student understanding of quantum mechanics concepts at the beginning of graduate instruction. The survey was administered to 202 graduate students in physics enrolled in first-year quantum mechanics courses from seven different universities at the beginning of the first semester. We also conducted one-on-one interviews with fifteen graduate students or advanced undergraduate students who had just finished a course in which all the content on the survey was covered. We find that students share universal difficulties about fundamental quantum mechanics concepts. The difficulties are often due to over-generalization of concepts learned in one context to other contexts where they are not directly applicable and difficulty in making sense of the abstract quantitative formalism of quantum mechanics. Instructional strategies that focus on improving student understanding of these concepts should take into account these difficulties. The results from this study can sensitize instructors of first-year graduate quantum physics to the conceptual difficulties students are likely to face.

Singh, Chandralekha

2006-02-01

268

A conceptual physics class where students found meaning in calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prior to taking a translated version of the Maryland Open Source Tutorials (OSTs) as a stand-alone course, most students at Tokyo Gakugei University in Japan had experienced physics as memorizing laws and equations to use as computational tools. We might expect this reformed physics class, which emphasizes common sense and conceptual reasoning and rarely invokes equations, to produce students who see a disconnect between equation use and intuitive/conceptual reasoning. Many students at Gakugei, however, somehow learned to integrate mathematics into their "constructivist" epistemologies of physics, even though OSTs do not emphasize this integration. Tadao, for example, came to see that although a common-sense solution to a problem is preferable for explaining to someone who doesn't know physics, solving the problem with a quantitative calculation (that connects to physical meaning) can bring clarity and concreteness to communication between experts. How this integration occurred remains an open question for future research.

Hull, Michael M.; Elby, Andrew

2013-01-01

269

Surveying students' conceptual knowledge of electricity and magnetism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism (CSEM) was developed to assess students' knowledge about topics in electricity and magnetism. The survey is a 32-question, multiple-choice test that can be used as both a pretest and posttest. During four years of testing and refinement, the survey has been given in one form or another to more than 5000 introductory physics students at 30 different institutions. Typical pretest results are that students in calculus-based courses get 31% of the questions correct and student's in algebra/trigonometry-based courses average 25% correct. Posttest correct results only rise to 47% and 44%, respectively. From analysis of student responses, a number of student difficulties in electricity and magnetism are indicated.

Maloney, David; O'Kuma, Thomas L.; Hieggelke, Curtis J.; Van Heuvelen, Alan

2006-06-22

270

Conceptualizations of Spirituality, Religion, and Faith: Comparing Biblical Notions with the Perspectives of Protestant Christian Students at a Lutheran College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a larger investigation into the spiritual climate at one Lutheran college, we interviewed Protestant Christian students in order to compare their conceptualizations of spirituality, religion, and faith with biblical notions of those concepts. We found that the students' understandings of those concepts only loosely reflected general…

Craft, Christy Moran; Rockenbach, Alyssa Bryant

2011-01-01

271

Assessing student learning of Newton's laws: The Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation and the Evaluation of Active Learning Laboratory and Lecture Curricula  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation, a research-based, multiple-choice assessment of student conceptual understanding of Newton's Laws of Motion. We discuss a subset of the questions in detail, and give evidence for their validity. As examples of the application of this test, we first present data which examine student learning of dynamics concepts in traditional

Ronald K. Thornton; David R. Sokoloff

1998-01-01

272

Coupling Conceptual and Quantitative Problems to Develop Expertise in Introductory Physics Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We discuss the effect of administering conceptual and quantitative isomorphic problem pairs (CQIPP) back to back vs. asking students to solve only one of the problems in the CQIPP in introductory physics courses. Students who answered both questions in a CQIPP often performed better on the conceptual questions than those who answered the corresponding conceptual questions only. Although students often took advantage of the quantitative counterpart to answer a conceptual question of a CQIPP correctly, when only given the conceptual question, students seldom tried to convert it into a quantitative question, solve it and then reason about the solution conceptually. Even in individual interviews, when students who were only given conceptual questions had difficulty and the interviewer explicitly encouraged them to convert the conceptual question into the corresponding quantitative problem by choosing appropriate variables, a majority of students were reluctant and preferred to guess the answer to the conceptual question based upon their gut feeling.

Singh, Chandralekha

2009-01-24

273

Metacognition and the facilitation of conceptual and status change in students' concepts of ecology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over a decade ago the Conceptual Change Model (CCM) was introduced as an explanation of the science learning process. Central to this model is the assertion that knowledge is constructed when students restructure or replace existing conceptions. The model predicts that conceptual change will not occur without corresponding changes in the status of new and existing conceptions. While the CCM is extensively cited in the literature, little work has been done on clarifying whether a teaching strategy which requires students to reveal and reflect upon the status of their conceptions significantly impacts the nature and process of science learning. In response, this study explored the relationship between metacognitive teaching strategies, status, and conceptual change during a three month unit on ecology. Working collaboratively, the researcher and a seventh grade classroom teacher developed an ecology unit designed to facilitate conceptual change and reveal status-related interactions. Case studies of two classrooms were developed. Both classrooms received instruction based on the conceptual change model, but only one classroom's instructional format included a metacognitive element in which the student was encouraged to reveal and reflect upon the status of his or her conceptions--how they know what they know. Three significant findings were revealed in the results. One, the quality of classroom discourse in the metacognitive class was altered. By developing in students the ability to explicitly consider and talk about the condition of their own conceptions, students began to understand the value of critically investigating ideas before incorporating them into their knowledge structures. Two, while there was no statistically significant difference observed in the level of conceptual understanding across treatment groups, there was a significant difference observed on the scores of the delayed ecology post-assessment. While the students in the metacognitive class did not achieve higher levels of understanding of ecology, it is suggested that they more successfully accommodated the ideas of ecological processes into their long-term memory because of the formal metacognitive instruction. The third significant finding was that the practice of introducing energy flow after food chains and foods webs should be reconsidered as it was found to hinder student understanding.

Blank, Lisa M.

274

Mechanisms influencing student understanding on an outdoor guided field trip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field trips are a basic and important, yet often overlooked part of the student experience. They provide the opportunity to integrate real world knowledge with classroom learning and student previous personal experiences. Outdoor guided field trips leave students with an increased understanding, awareness and interest and in science. However, the benefits of this experience are ambiguous at best (Falk and Balling, 1982; Falk and Dierking, 1992; Kisiel, 2006.) Students on an outdoor guided field trip to a local nature park experienced a significant increase in their understanding of the rock cycle. The changes in the pre-field trip test and the post-field trip test as well as their answers in interviews showed a profound change in the students' understanding and in their interest in the subject matter. The use of the "student's voice" (Bamberger and Tal, 2008) was the motivation for data analysis. By using the students' voice, I was able to determine the mechanisms that might influence their understanding of a subject. The central concepts emerging from the data were: the outdoor setting; the students' interest; the social interaction. From these central concepts, a conceptual model was developed. The outdoor setting allows for the freedom to explore, touch, smell and movement. This, in turn, leads to an increased interest in subject matter. As the students are exploring, they are enjoying themselves and become more open to learning. Interest leads to a desire to learn (Dewey, 1975). In addition to allowing the freedom to explore and move, the outdoor setting creates the condition for social interaction. The students talk to each other as they walk; they have in-depth discourse regarding the subject matter---with the teachers, each other and with the guides. The guides have an extremely important role in the students' learning. The more successful guides not only act as experts, but also adjust to the students' needs and act or speak accordingly. The interconnections of these three concepts---the outdoor setting, the students' interest, the social interaction---worked to provide the mechanisms by which the students increased their understanding of the rock cycle.

Caskey, Nourah Al-Rashid

275

Upper High School Students' Understanding of Electromagnetism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although electromagnetism is an important component of upper secondary school physics syllabuses in many countries, there has been relatively little research on students' understanding of the topic. A written test consisting of 16 diagnostic questions was developed and used to survey the understanding of electromagnetism of upper secondary school…

Saglam, Murat; Millar, Robin

2006-01-01

276

Effect of the 5E Model on Prospective Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of Diffusion and Osmosis: A Mixed Method Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to explore a group of prospective primary teachers' conceptual understanding of diffusion and osmosis as they implemented a 5E constructivist model and related materials in a science methods course. Fifty prospective primary teachers' ideas were elicited using a pre- and post-test and delayed post-test survey consisting of ten two-tier questions of which an explanatory part was integral. Individual interviews were conducted with six prospective teachers at the end of the implementation of the unit using four questions. Test scores were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. Post-instructional interviews were analyzed qualitatively. Statistical analysis using one-way ANOVA of student test scores pointed to statistically significant differences between pre- and post- and delayed post-test ( p < 0.05). A qualitative analysis of the prospective teachers' explanations in the two-tier questions revealed changes in their ideas overtime. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses suggest that the teaching activities promoted students' conceptual understanding. No statistically significant differences were found between post-test and delayed post-test scores, suggesting that the teaching activities based on 5E model enabled students to retain their new conceptual understanding.

Artun, Hüseyin; Co?tu, Bayram

2013-02-01

277

Students' understanding of density: A cognitive linguistics perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Density is an important, multifaceted concept that occurs at many levels of physics education. Previous research has shown that a primary instantiation of the concept, mass density, is not well understood by high school or university students. This study seeks to determine how students understand the broad concept of density, and whether particular aspects of their understanding are helpful in structuring the concept of charge density. Qualitative data were gathered in the form of questionnaires distributed to 172 freshmen comprising three different academic groups. Broad, open ended questions prompted for responses involving free writing and drawn diagrams. The data were analysed by an approach suggested by Grounded Theory. Using the theoretical lens of Conceptual Metaphor Theory, six underlying (foothold) concepts were identified in terms of which density was conceptualised: `filled container'; `packing'; `weight/heaviness'; `intensive property'; `floating/sinking'; `impenetrability/solidity'. The foothold concept of `packing' proved to be the most productive for conceptualising `charge density'.

Southey, Philip; Allie, Saalih; Demaree, Dedra

2013-01-01

278

Designing for Enhanced Conceptual Understanding in an Online Physics Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The calculus-based, introductory physics course is the port of entry for any student interested in pursuing a college degree in the sciences, mathematics, or engineering. There is increasing demand for online delivery options that make the course more widely available, especially those that use best practices in student engagement. However,…

Dunlap, Joanna C.; Furtak, Thomas E.; Tucker, Susan A.

2009-01-01

279

What happens between pre- and post-tests: Multiple measurements of student understanding during an introductory physics course  

Microsoft Academic Search

To characterize the evolution of student understanding better than what is possible by pre-and post-testing, we posed simple conceptual questions several times per week to separate, randomly selected groups of introductory physics students. This design avoids issues of retesting and allows for tracking of student understanding of a given topic during the course with a resolution on the order of

Andrew F. Heckler; Eleanor C. Sayre

2010-01-01

280

Stellar Ideas: Exploring Students' Understanding of Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, high school and first-year undergraduate students were asked about their understanding of stars. The hypothesis guiding this research posits that high school students who have taken a semester-long astronomy course will have an understanding of stars most related to scientific knowledge, compared with high school students enrolled in an earth science course and undergraduate students who have not received formal astronomy instruction. This study uses semistructured interviews to investigate students' ideas about the relationship between the Sun and stars, the nature of stars (What is a star?), and the distances between stars. The results indicate that astronomy instruction at the high school level can be effective at developing students' knowledge about stars in a short period of time. Specifically, students' knowledge about stars is enhanced through their understanding of nuclear fusion as the process of energy production in stars. Students who are not enrolled in astronomy at the high school level tend to focus on secondary characteristics of stars, such as size and color.

Agan, Lori

281

Assessing Degrees of Student Understanding of Acceleration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a study in which find out why students provide different answers to two problems that differ only in the representation of motion used. Two problems using strobe diagrams to present information about motion were selected from the Force Concepts Inventory [D. Hestenes, M. Wells, and G. Swackhamer, Force Concept Inventory, Phys. Teach. 30, 141-158 (March, 1992)]. The problems were rewritten using graphs to present motion information. and were given to students in a calculus-based physics course as part of a recitation quiz. Student performance on the different versions of each problem was compared. This data will be used to compare student understanding of both strobe diagrams and motion graph representations with student understanding of acceleration and velocity expressed orally.

Lea, Suzanne; Khoury, Bernard

2006-05-24

282

Making Connections: Using Skill Theory to Recognize How Students Build and Rebuild Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the importance accorded to helping students make conceptual connections and arrive at a more sophisticated understanding of how ideas, concepts, theories, and explanations interact with and inform one another, educators have few maps to help them describe the process by which students learn to make these connections. Through skill theory,…

King, Patricia M.; VanHecke, JoNes R.

2006-01-01

283

Using Multiple Representations to Promote Grade 11 Students' Scientific Understanding of the Particle Theory of Matter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored two groups of Grade 11 (age 16-17) students' conceptual understandings about aspects of particle theory before, immediately after, and 3 months after instruction with multiple representations (IMR) and instruction with verbal representations (IVR). Data sources included open-ended questionnaires, interviews, and student

Adadan, Emine

2013-01-01

284

High School Students' Understanding of Chromosome/Gene Behavior during Meiosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates high school students' understanding of the physical relationship of chromosomes and genes as expressed in their conceptual models and in their ability to manipulate the models to explain solutions to dihybrid cross problems. Describes three typical models and three students' reasoning processes. Discusses four implications. (YP)

Stewart, Jim; Dale, Michael

1989-01-01

285

Using Virtual Reality Computer Models to Support Student Understanding of Astronomical Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine how 3-dimensional (3-D) models of the Solar System supported student development of conceptual understandings of various astronomical phenomena that required a change in frame of reference. In the course described in this study, students worked in teams to design and construct 3-D virtual reality computer…

Barnett, Michael; Yamagata-Lynch, Lisa; Keating, Tom; Barab, Sasha A.; Hay, Kenneth E.

2005-01-01

286

Effectiveness of Collaborative Ranking Tasks on Student Understanding of Key Astronomy Concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research concerns the development and assessment of a program of introductory astronomy conceptual exercises called ranking tasks. These exercises were designed based on results from science education research, learning theory, and classroom pilot studies. The investigation involved a single-group repeated measures experiment across eight key introductory astronomy topics with 253 students at the University of Arizona. Student understanding of

David W. Hudgins; Edward E. Prather; Diane J. Grayson; Derck P. Smits

2006-01-01

287

Student Understanding of the Wave Nature of Matter: Diffraction and Interference of Particles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a study of student understanding of the wave nature of matter in the context of the pattern produced by the diffraction and interference of particles. Errors made by students after standard instruction indicates the presence of similar conceptual and reasoning difficulties at three different educational levels. (Contains over 20…

Vokos, Stamatis; Shaffer, Peter S.; Ambrose, Bradley S.; McDermott, Lillian C.

2000-01-01

288

A cross-cultural, multilevel study of inquiry-based instruction effects on conceptual understanding and motivation in physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Student achievement and motivation to learn physics is highly valued in many industrialized countries including the United States and Japan. Science education curricula in these countries emphasize the importance and encourage classroom teachers to use an inquiry approach. This dissertation investigated high school students' motivational orientations and their understanding of physics concepts in a context of inquiry-based instruction. The goals were to explore the patterns of instructional effects on motivation and learning in each country and to examine cultural differences and similarities. Participants consisted of 108 students (55 females, 53 males) and 9 physics teachers in the United States and 616 students (203 females and 413 males) and 11 physics teachers in Japan. Students were administered (a) Force Concept Inventory measuring physics conceptual understanding and (b) Attitudes about Science Questionnaire measuring student motivational orientations. Teachers were given a survey regarding their use of inquiry teaching practices and background information. Additionally, three teachers in each country were interviewed and observed in their classrooms. For the data analysis, two-level hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) methods were used to examine individual student differences (i.e., learning, motivation, and gender) within each classroom (i.e., inquiry-based teaching, teaching experience, and class size) in the U.S. and Japan, separately. Descriptive statistical analyses were also conducted. The results indicated that there was a cultural similarity in that current teaching practices had minimal influence on conceptual understanding as well as motivation of high school students between the U.S. and Japan. In contrast, cultural differences were observed in classroom structures and instructional approaches. Furthermore, this study revealed gender inequity in Japanese students' conceptual understanding and self-efficacy. Limitations of the study, as well as implications for high school physics teachers are discussed. Future research in this line could explore students' use of cognitive strategies to overcome misconceptions in Western and Eastern cultures. Also, exploring the best practices in changing student misconceptions and promoting motivation across cultures would enrich our understanding and current teaching practices.

Negishi, Meiko

289

Using Large-Scale Classroom Research to Study Student Conceptual Learning in Mechanics and to Develop New Approaches to Learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Microcomputer-based laboratory (MBL) tools and guided discovery curricula have been developed as an aid to all students, including the underprepared and underserved, in learning physical concepts. To guide this development, extensive work has been done to find useful measures of students' conceptual understanding that can be used in widely varying contexts. This paper focuses primarily on the evaluation of student conceptual understanding of mechanics (kinematics and dynamics) with an emphasis on Newton's 1st and 2nd laws in introductory courses in the university. Student understanding of mechanics is looked at before and after traditional instruction. It is examined before and after MBL curricula that are consciously designed to promote active and collaborative learning by students. The results show that the majority of students have difficulty learning essential physical concepts in the best of our traditional courses where students read textbooks, solve textbook problems, listen to well-prepared lectures, and do traditional laboratory activities. Students can, however, learn these fundamental concepts using MBL curricula and Interactive Lecture Demonstrations which have been based on extensive classroom research. Substantial evidence is given that student answers to the short answer questions in the Tools for Scientific Thinking Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation provide a useful statistical means of evaluating students' beliefs and understandings about mechanics. Evidence for the hierarchical learning of velocity, acceleration, and force concepts is presented.

Thornton, Ronald K.

2006-12-07

290

Demand for hospital emergency departments: a conceptual understanding  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Emergency departments (EDs) are critical to the management of acute illness and injury, and the provision of health system access. However, EDs have become increasingly congested due to increased demand, increased complexity of care and blocked access to ongoing care (access block). Congestion has clinical and organisational implications. This paper aims to describe the factors that appear to influence demand for ED services, and their interrelationships as the basis for further research into the role of private hospital EDs. DATA SOURCES: Multiple databases (PubMed, ProQuest, Academic Search Elite and Science Direct) and relevant journals were searched using terms related to EDs and emergency health needs. Literature pertaining to emergency department utilisation worldwide was identified, and articles selected for further examination on the basis of their relevance and significance to ED demand. RESULTS: Factors influencing ED demand can be categorized into those describing the health needs of the patients, those predisposing a patient to seeking help, and those relating to policy factors such as provision of services and insurance status. This paper describes the factors influencing ED presentations, and proposes a novel conceptual map of their interrelationship. CONCLUSION: This review has explored the factors contributing to the growing demand for ED care, the influence these factors have on ED demand, and their interrelationships depicted in the conceptual model.

He, Jun; Hou, Xiang-yu; Toloo, Sam; Patrick, Jennifer R; Fitz Gerald, Gerry

2011-01-01

291

Revelations from Counting: A Window to Conceptual Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A design research study was conducted over two years with 20 second grade students who are part of the Measure Up (MU) research and development project underway at the University of Hawai'i. Students were asked to count in multiple bases. After doing so, they were asked how they knew when to go to a new place value and why it was necessary. All 20…

Slovin, Hannah

2011-01-01

292

Toward a Conceptual Framework for Understanding Cosmopolitanism on the Ground  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, a continuum of resistance and receptivity constitutes a framework for understanding a cosmopolitan orientation "on the ground." Such a continuum is based on an understanding of the effects of globalization, when it comes to individual people, as both containing a potential for an active interest in other ways of life,…

Wahlström, Ninni

2014-01-01

293

Emerging Conceptual Understanding of Complex Astronomical Phenomena by Using a Virtual Solar System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes high school students' conceptual development of the basic astronomical phenomena during real-time interactions with a Virtual Solar System (VSS). The VSS is a non-immersive virtual environment which has a dynamic frame of reference that can be altered by the user. Ten 10th grade students were given tasks containing a set of…

Gazit, Elhanan; Yair, Yoav; Chen, David

2005-01-01

294

Consistency of students' conceptions of wave propagation: Findings from a conceptual survey in mechanical waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We recently developed a multiple-choice conceptual survey in mechanical waves. The development, evaluation, and demonstration of the use of the survey were reported elsewhere [A. Tongchai , Developing, evaluating and demonstrating the use of a conceptual survey in mechanical waves, Int. J. Sci. Educ. 31, 2437 (2009)ISEDEB0950-069310.1080/09500690802389605]. We administered the survey to 902 students from seven different groups ranging from high school to second year university. As an outcome of that analysis we were able to identify several conceptual models which the students seemed to be using when answering the questions in the survey. In this paper we attempt to investigate the strength with which the students were committed to these conceptual models, as evidenced by the consistency with which they answered the questions. For this purpose we focus on the patterns of student responses to questions in one particular subtopic, wave propagation. This study has three main purposes: (1) to investigate the consistency of student conceptions, (2) to explore the relative usefulness of different analysis techniques, and (3) to determine what extra information a study of consistency can give about student understanding of basic concepts. We used two techniques: first, categorizing and counting, which is widely used in the science education community, and second, model analysis, recently introduced into physics education research. The manner in which categorizing and counting is used is very diverse while model analysis has been employed only in prescriptive ways. Research studies have reported that students often use their conceptual models inconsistently when solving a series of questions that test the same idea. Our results support their conclusions. Moreover, our findings suggest that students who have had more experiences in physics learning seem to use the scientifically accepted models more consistently. Further, the two analysis techniques have different advantages and disadvantages. Our findings show that model analysis can be used in more diverse ways, provides flexibility in analyzing multiple-choice questions, and provides more information about consistency and inconsistency of student conceptions. An unexpected finding is that studying waves in other contexts (for example, quantum mechanics or electromagnetism) leads to more consistent answers about mechanical waves. The suggestion is that studying more abstract topics may solidify studentsunderstanding of more concrete waves. While this might be considered to be intuitive, we have not actually found direct empirical studies supporting this conjecture.

Tongchai, Apisit; Sharma, Manjula Devi; Johnston, Ian D.; Arayathanitkul, Kwan; Soankwan, Chernchok

2011-12-01

295

Teaching for conceptual change: An intervention to promote deeper understanding of diffusion and osmosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emergent processes are distinguished from non-emergent processes on the basis of the qualitative relationships among the agents' interactions and the causal relationships between the agents' interactions and the pattern. Research suggests students often have robust misconceptions about emergent processes (such as diffusion) because they do not have the mental model to interpret these processes This study investigates the extent to which a domain-general understanding of emergent processes can help provide students with an enhanced understanding of diffusion and osmosis This is a quasi-experimental study using non-equivalent groups design to compare the treatment and control groups. Sixty-six community college students enrolled in an introductory biology course comprised the participants. Students' prior knowledge about emergent processes, diffusion, and osmosis were assessed by pre-tests. The treatment group received the intervention -- an instructional module about the differences between scientific processes that are emergent versus processes that are non-emergent. The control group did not receive the intervention but received the process assessment to determine incoming knowledge about scientific processes and any gains in knowledge about scientific processes. Both groups received the same specific content instruction about diffusion and osmosis, which was derived from the regular and established curriculum for the course. Both groups were given post-tests to assess whether they learned the concepts, and whether they were able to achieve a deep understanding that resulted in a comprehension of the transport of substances across cell membranes and how that might be applied in particular health-related situations. Data were analyzed using t-tests and analysis of variance. No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups based on the learning measures Limitations include sample restrictions and not taking into account individual ability levels of the participants. In addition, the short length of this intervention may not provide adequate time for students to successfully acquire the schema to understand conceptually difficult science concepts such as diffusion and osmosis. Future directions of research include expanding the sample size and length of exposure to the intervention, in addition to examining the individual ability levels of the participants.

Berg, Cheryl

296

Student understanding of symmetry and Gauss's law of electricity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We investigate the difficulties that students in calculus-based introductory physics courses have with the concepts of symmetry, electric field, and electric flux which are important for applying Gauss's law. The determination of the electric field using Gauss's law requires determining the symmetry of a particular charge distribution and predicting the direction of the electric field everywhere if a high symmetry exists. Effective application of Gauss's law implicitly requires understanding the principle of superposition for electric fields. Helping students learn when Gauss's law can be readily applied to determine the strength of the electric field, and then helping them learn to determine the appropriate shape of Gaussian surfaces if sufficient symmetry exists, can help develop their reasoning and problem-solving skills. We administered free-response and multiple-choice questions and conducted interviews with individual students using a think-aloud protocol to elucidate the difficulties that students have with the concepts of symmetry, electric field, and electric flux. We also developed a multiple-choice test that targets these conceptual issues to obtain quantitative information about their difficulties and administered it to 541 students in the introductory calculus-based physics courses and to upper-level undergraduates in an electricity and magnetism course and to graduate students enrolled in a teaching assistant seminar course. We find that undergraduate students have many common difficulties with these concepts.

Singh, Chandralekha

2010-06-30

297

High school students' understanding and problem solving in population genetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is an investigation of student understanding of population genetics and how students developed, used and revised conceptual models to solve problems. The students in this study participated in three rounds of problem solving. The first round involved the use of a population genetics model to predict the number of carriers in a population. The second round required them to revise their model of simple dominance population genetics to make inferences about populations containing three phenotype variations. The third round of problem solving required the students to revise their model of population genetics to explain anomalous data where the proportions of males and females with a trait varied significantly. As the students solved problems, they were involved in basic scientific processes as they observed population phenomena, constructed explanatory models to explain the data they observed, and attempted to persuade their peers as to the adequacy of their models. In this study, the students produced new knowledge about the genetics of a trait in a population through the revision and use of explanatory population genetics models using reasoning that was similar to what scientists do. The students learned, used and revised a model of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium to generate and test hypotheses about the genetics of phenotypes given only population data. Students were also interviewed prior to and following instruction. This study suggests that a commonly held intuitive belief about the predominance of a dominant variation in populations is resistant to change, despite instruction and interferes with a student's ability to understand Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and microevolution.

Soderberg, Patti D.

298

Measuring Conceptual Gains and Benefits of Student Problem Designs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Writing assignments can be an effective way of getting students to practice higher-order learning skills in physics. One example of such an assignment is that of problem design. One version of the problem design assignment asks the student to evaluate the material from a chapter, after all instruction and other activities are complete. The student is to decide what concepts and ideas are most central, or critical in the chapter, and construct a problem that he or she feels best encompasses the major themes. Here, we use two concept surveys (FCI and EMCS) to measure conceptual gains for students completing the problem design assignment and present the preliminary results, comparing across several categories including gender, age, degree program, and class standing.

Mandell, Eric; Snyder, Rachel; Oswald, Wayne

2011-10-01

299

Comparing students' performance on research-based conceptual assessments and traditional classroom assessments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of concept inventories to investigate students' learning gains is common in physics education research. However, comparatively little research has compared students' learning gains on concept inventories with other more traditional assessments in the classroom. We present a study comparing second semester calculus-based physics students' performance on traditional classroom assessments including exams and homework with learning gains on SEMCO (Survey of Electricity, Magnetism, Circuits and Optics), which was previously created by combining questions on other conceptual surveys such as CSEM and DIRECT. We report on students' performance on specific items on SEMCO and corresponding traditional classroom assessments that are based on the same topic. Our results indicate that while the overall performance on SEMCO might correlate with aggregate performance on class exams, the performance on clusters of SEMCO items that assess conceptual understanding in various topical areas does not correlate as strongly with performance on corresponding traditional exams. These results raise some potentially interesting issues on the validity and usefulness of traditional classroom assessments and conceptual assessments that are often used to measure student learning in introductory physics.

Rebello, N. Sanjay

2012-02-01

300

Socioscientific Issues: A Path Towards Advanced Scientific Literacy and Improved Conceptual Understanding of Socially Controversial Scientific Theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis investigates the use of socioscientific issues (SSI) in the high school science classroom as an introduction to argumentation and socioscientific reasoning, with the goal of improving students' scientific literacy (SL). Current research is reviewed that supports the likelihood of students developing a greater conceptual understanding of scientific theories as well as a deeper understanding of the nature of science (NOS), through participation in informal and formal forms of argumentation in the context of SSI. Significant gains in such understanding may improve a student's ability to recognize the rigor, legitimacy, and veracity of scientific claims and better discern science from pseudoscience. Furthermore, students that participate in significant SSI instruction by negotiating a range of science-related social issues can make significant gains in content knowledge and develop the life-long skills of argumentation and evidence-based reasoning, goals not possible in traditional lecture-based science instruction. SSI-based instruction may therefore help students become responsible citizens. This synthesis also suggests that that the improvements in science literacy and NOS understanding that develop from sustained engagement in SSI-based instruction will better prepare students to examine and scrutinize socially controversial scientific theories (i.e., evolution, global warming, and the Big Bang).

Pinzino, Dean William

301

A Conceptual Understanding of Employability: The Employers' View in Rwanda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many governments believe that investing in human capital should increase citizens' employability, which is why it is often presented as a solution to the problems of knowledge-based economies and societies, rising unemployment rates and economic competiveness. The aim of this study is to understand employers' views regarding the employability of…

Bamwesiga, Penelope Mbabazi

2013-01-01

302

Improving student understanding of health literacy through experiential learning.  

PubMed

Low health literacy is a pervasive yet under-appreciated issue in contemporary healthcare. It has a significant impact on cost and quality indicators, and affects patients and professionals along the entire care continuum. Educators must sensitize healthcare administration students to the complexity of low health literacy, and teach strategies to address it. This project combined conceptual and experiential approaches to increase students' sensitivity to low health literacy by combining: (1) classroom discussion of health literacy; (2) healthcare environmental assessment; (3) interviews with healthcare administrators; (4) analysis of healthcare documents that patients use; and (5) reflections on the students' experiences, both individually and as a group. Students learned that awareness of and appreciation for issues around health literacy have the potential to improve the quality of patient care and patient outcomes. Experiential learning is the key to teaching students about health literacy. This pedagogical approach increases students' understanding of the patient experience and the challenges that low health literacy poses for all participants in the healthcare system. PMID:19655629

Riley, Joan; Cloonan, Patricia; Rogan, Erika

2008-01-01

303

Student Solutions Manual to accompany Understanding Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Work more effectively and check solutions as you go along with the text! This Student Solutions Manual is designed for use with Cummings' Understanding Physics. Its primary purpose is to show readers by example how to solve various types of problems given at the end of each chapter in the text. Most of the solutions start from definitions or fundamental

Karen Cummings; Priscilla W. Laws; Edward F. Redish; Patrick J. Cooney; J. Richard Christman

2004-01-01

304

Calculus Students' and Instructors' Conceptualizations of Slope: A Comparison across Academic Levels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study considers tertiary calculus students' and instructors' conceptualizations of slope. Qualitative techniques were employed to classify responses to 5 items using conceptualizations of slope identified across various research settings. Students' responses suggest that they rely on procedurally based conceptualizations of…

Nagle, Courtney; Moore-Russo, Deborah; Viglietti, Janine; Martin, Kristi

2013-01-01

305

An Information Processing Analysis of the Function of Conceptual Understanding in the Learning of Arithmetic Procedures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children learn arithmetic procedures by rote, rather than by constructing them with an understanding of numbers. Rote learning produces lack of flexibility, nonsensical errors, and other difficulties. Proposed is a theory of conceptual understanding and its role in learning and executing arithmetic procedures. The basic hypothesis is that…

Ohlsson, Stellan; Rees, Ernest

306

Upper High School Students' Understanding of Electromagnetism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although electromagnetism is an important component of upper secondary school physics syllabuses in many countries, there has been relatively little research on studentsunderstanding of the topic. A written test consisting of 16 diagnostic questions was developed and used to survey the understanding of electromagnetism of upper secondary school students in Turkey (n = 120) and England (n = 152). A separate test consisting of 10 questions on the visualization of spatial rotation was used to investigate the hypothesis that students’ ability to visualize three-dimensional situations from two-dimensional representations might influence learning of electromagnetism. Many students’ responses showed misunderstandings and inconsistencies that suggested they did not have a coherent framework of ideas about electromagnetism. Common errors included confusing electric and magnetic field effects, seeing field lines as indicating a “flow”, using cause effect reasoning in situations where it does not apply, and dealing with effects associated with the rate of change of a variable. Performance on the spatial rotation test was, however, only weakly correlated with performance on the electromagnetism questions. The findings suggest the need to develop teaching strategies that help students to visualize magnetic field patterns and effects, and assist them in integrating ideas into a more coherent framework.

Sa?lam, Murat; Millar, Robin

2006-04-01

307

A Framework for Understanding Physics Students' Computational Modeling Practices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the growing push to include computational modeling in the physics classroom, we are faced with the need to better understand students' computational modeling practices. While existing research on programming comprehension explores how novices and experts generate programming algorithms, little of this discusses how domain content knowledge, and physics knowledge in particular, can influence students' programming practices. In an effort to better understand this issue, I have developed a framework for modeling these practices based on a resource stance towards student knowledge. A resource framework models knowledge as the activation of vast networks of elements called "resources." Much like neurons in the brain, resources that become active can trigger cascading events of activation throughout the broader network. This model emphasizes the connectivity between knowledge elements and provides a description of students' knowledge base. Together with resources resources, the concepts of "epistemic games" and "frames" provide a means for addressing the interaction between content knowledge and practices. Although this framework has generally been limited to describing conceptual and mathematical understanding, it also provides a means for addressing students' programming practices. In this dissertation, I will demonstrate this facet of a resource framework as well as fill in an important missing piece: a set of epistemic games that can describe students' computational modeling strategies. The development of this theoretical framework emerged from the analysis of video data of students generating computational models during the laboratory component of a Matter & Interactions: Modern Mechanics course. Student participants across two semesters were recorded as they worked in groups to fix pre-written computational models that were initially missing key lines of code. Analysis of this video data showed that the students' programming practices were highly influenced by their existing physics content knowledge, particularly their knowledge of analytic procedures. While this existing knowledge was often applied in inappropriate circumstances, the students were still able to display a considerable amount of understanding of the physics content and of analytic solution procedures. These observations could not be adequately accommodated by the existing literature of programming comprehension. In extending the resource framework to the task of computational modeling, I model students' practices in terms of three important elements. First, a knowledge base includes re- sources for understanding physics, math, and programming structures. Second, a mechanism for monitoring and control describes students' expectations as being directed towards numerical, analytic, qualitative or rote solution approaches and which can be influenced by the problem representation. Third, a set of solution approaches---many of which were identified in this study---describe what aspects of the knowledge base students use and how they use that knowledge to enact their expectations. This framework allows us as researchers to track student discussions and pinpoint the source of difficulties. This work opens up many avenues of potential research. First, this framework gives researchers a vocabulary for extending Resource Theory to other domains of instruction, such as modeling how physics students use graphs. Second, this framework can be used as the basis for modeling expert physicists' programming practices. Important instructional implications also follow from this research. Namely, as we broaden the use of computational modeling in the physics classroom, our instructional practices should focus on helping students understand the step-by-step nature of programming in contrast to the already salient analytic procedures.

Lunk, Brandon Robert

308

Enhancing Pre-Service Elementary Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of Solution Chemistry with Conceptual Change Text  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on the use of a constructivist-based pedagogy to enhance understanding of some features of solution chemistry. Pre-service science teacher trainees' prior knowledge about the dissolution of salts and sugar in water were elicited by the use of a simple diagnostic tool. The test revealed widespread alternative conceptions. These…

Calik, Muammer; Ayas, Alipasa; Coll, Richard Kevin

2007-01-01

309

Improving Students' Understanding of Quantum Mechanics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Richard Feynman once famously stated that nobody understands quantum mechanics. He was, of course, referring to the many strange, unintuitive foundational aspects of quantum theory such as its inherent indeterminism and state reduction during measurement according to the Copenhagen interpretation. But despite its underlying fundamental mysteries, the theory has remained a cornerstone of modern physics. Most physicists, as students, are introduced to quantum mechanics in a modern-physics course, take quantum mechanics as advanced undergraduates, and then take it again in their first year of graduate school. One might think that after all this instruction, students would have become certified quantum mechanics, able to solve the Schrödinger equation, manipulate Dirac bras and kets, calculate expectation values, and, most importantly, interpret their results in terms of real or thought experiments. That sort of functional understanding of quantum mechanics is quite distinct from the foundational issues alluded to by Feynman.

Singh, Chandralekha; Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang

2008-06-23

310

Middle school students' conceptual change in global climate change: Using argumentation to foster knowledge construction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research examined middle school student conceptions about global climate change (GCC) and the change these conceptions undergo during an argument driven instructional unit. The theoretical framework invoked for this study is the framework theory of conceptual change (Vosniadou, 2007a). This theory posits that students do not simply correct incorrect ideas with correct ones, but instead weigh incoming ideas against already existing explanatory frameworks, which have likely served the learner well to this point. The research questions were as follows: (1) What are the patterns of students' conceptual change in GCC? (a) What conceptions are invoked in student learning in this arena? (b) What conceptions are most influential? (c) What are the extra-rational factors influencing conceptual change in GCC? This research took place in an urban public school in a medium sized city in the southeastern United States. A sixth grade science teacher at Central Middle school, Ms. Octane, taught a course titled "Research Methods I., which was an elective science course that students took as part of a science magnet program. A unit was designed for 6th grade instruction that incorporated an Argument-Driven Inquiry (ADI) approach, centered on the subject matter of Global Climate change and Global Warming. Students were immersed in three separate lessons within the unit, each of which featured an emphasis upon creating scientific explanations based upon evidence. Additionally, each of the lessons placed a premium on students working towards the development of such explanations as a part of a group, with an emphasis on peer review of the robustness of the explanations proposed. The students were involved in approximately a two week unit emphasizing global climate change. This unit was based on an argumentation model that provided data to students and asked them to develop explanations that accounted for the data. The students then underwent a peer-review process to determine if their explanations could be modified to better account for the data as pointed out by peers. As the students experienced the three lessons comprising the unit, data were taken of various modes, including pre-unit, mid-unit, post-unit, and delayed-post unit interviews, observer notes from the classroom, and artifacts created by the students as individuals and as members of a group. At the end of the unit, a written post-assessment was administered, and post-interviews were conducted with the selected students. These varied data sources were analyzed in order to develop themes corresponding to their frameworks of climate change. Negative cases were sought in order to test developing themes. Themes that emerged from the data were triangulated across the various data sources in order to ensure quality and rigor. These themes were then used to construct understandings of various students' frameworks of the content. Several findings emerged from this research. The first finding is that each student underwent some conceptual change regarding GCC, although of varying natures. The students' synthetic frameworks of GCC were more complex than their initial, or naive frameworks. Some characteristics of the naive frameworks included that the students tended to conflate climate change with a broader, generic category of environmental things. Examples of this conflation include the idea that climate change entails general pollution, litter, and needless killing of dolphins while fishing for tuna. This research suggests that students might benefit from explicit attention to this concept in terms of an ontological category, with the ideal synthetic view realizing that GCC is itself an example of an emergent process. Another characteristic of their naive frameworks includes some surprisingly accurate notions of GCC, including a general sense that temperatures and sea levels are rising. At the same time, none of the students were able to adequately invoke data to support their understandings of GCC. Instead, when data were invoked, students tended to include anecdotal informat

Golden, Barry W.

311

The Use of Conceptual versus Physical Models in Teaching Action Research to Culturally Diverse Student Populations: A Preliminary Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Graduate business administration students (n=55) were asked which model they used for action research projects: conceptual or a physical model visually depicting action research. The physical model was favored by 69%; most agreed that it helped them understand the process of action research, was easy to use, and flexibly applied to various…

McMurray, Adela J.

2002-01-01

312

The Effects of Conceptual Change Texts Accompanied with Animations on Overcoming 11th Grade Students' Alternative Conceptions of Chemical Bonding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper aims to determine the effect of conceptual change texts accompanied with computer animations on 11th grade students' understanding and alternative conceptions related to chemical bonding. One experimental group (EG; N = 28) and one comparison group (CG; N = 30) were used in the study. While the comparison group taught traditional…

Ozmen, Haluk; Demircioglu, Hulya; Demircioglu, Gokhan

2009-01-01

313

Probing physics students' conceptual knowledge structures through term association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Traditional tests are not effective tools for diagnosing the content and structure of students' knowledge of physics. As a possible alternative, a set of term-association tasks (the ConMap tasks) was developed to probe the interconnections within students' store of conceptual knowledge. The tasks have students respond spontaneously to a term or problem or topic area with a sequence of associated terms; the response terms and time-of-entry data are captured. The tasks were tried on introductory physics students, and preliminary investigations show that the tasks are capable of eliciting information about the structure of their knowledge. Specifically, data gathered through the tasks is similar to that produced by a hand-drawn concept map task, has measures that correlate with in-class exam performance, and is sensitive to learning produced by topic coverage in class. Although the results are preliminary and only suggestive, the tasks warrant further study as student-knowledge assessment instruments and sources of experimental data for cognitive modeling efforts.

Beatty, Ian D.; Gerace, William J.

2005-10-11

314

Teaching for Understanding in Science: Constructivist/Conceptual Change Teaching Approaches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews research on student learning of science conceptions and presents major findings. Traces changes in science teaching and learning over the last two decades and looks at a variety of teaching schemes that aim to support meaningful learning in science, some based on conceptual change. (Contains 13 references.) (Author/YDS)

Tytler, Russell

2002-01-01

315

Conceptualizing, Understanding, and Predicting Responsible Decisions and Quality Input  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In areas such as climate change, where uncertainty is high, it is arguably less difficult to tell when efforts have resulted in changes in knowledge, than when those efforts have resulted in responsible decisions. What is a responsible decision? More broadly, when it comes to citizen input, what is "high quality" input? And most importantly, how are responsible decisions and quality input enhanced? The aim of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of the different dimensions of "responsible" or "quality" public input and citizen decisions by comparing and contrasting the different predictors of those different dimensions. We first present different possibilities for defining, operationalizing and assessing responsible or high quality decisions. For example, responsible decisions or quality input might be defined as using specific content (e.g., using climate change information in decisions appropriately), as using specific processes (e.g., investing time and effort in learning about and discussing the issues prior to making decisions), or on the basis of some judgment of the decision or input itself (e.g., judgments of the rationale provided for the decisions, or number of issues considered when giving input). Second, we present results from our work engaging people with science policy topics, and the different ways that we have tried to define these two constructs. In the area of climate change specifically, we describe the development of a short survey that assesses exposure to climate information, knowledge of and attitudes toward climate change, and use of climate information in one's decisions. Specifically, the short survey was developed based on a review of common surveys of climate change related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors, and extensive piloting and cognitive interviews. Next, we analyze more than 200 responses to that survey (data collection is currently ongoing and will be complete after the AGU deadline), and report the predictors of reported use of climate information in one's personal and work-related decisions, as well as significant predictors of one's willingness to commit to attend a four-hour public meeting and discussion with city leaders and energy experts for the purposes of thinking about and discussing local energy-related decisions. Finally, in order to consider future directions for assessing "responsible" or "quality" input in the area of climate change, we report data and results from experimental studies conducted in a different area of science: nanotechnology. Specifically, we discuss our methods for assessing quality of written input on the future development and regulation of nanotechnology under different experimental conditions (e.g., written alone or after discussion with a group), and the compare and contrast the best predictors of those operational definitions to those that we have explored in the area of climate change outreach contexts. Discussion will focus on the pros and cons of different ways of assessing the quality of public input.

Wall, N.; PytlikZillig, L. M.

2012-12-01

316

A Conceptual Framework for Assessing Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning in College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual framework for assessing student motivation and self-regulated learning in the college classroom is presented. The framework is based on a self-regulatory (SRL) perspective on student motivation and learning in contrast to a student approaches to learning (SAL) perspective. The differences between SRL and SAL approaches are discussed, as are the implications of the SRL conceptual framework for developing

Paul R. Pintrich

2004-01-01

317

Promoting the Understanding of Photosynthesis Among Elementary School Student Teachers Through Text Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate elementary school pre-service teachers' understanding of photosynthesis and to examine if a refutational text can support understanding of photosynthesis better than a non-refutational text. A total of 91 elementary school pre-service teachers read either a refutational or a non-refutational text concerning photosynthesis and then answered open-ended questions. Our results indicate that there are critical problems associated with student teachers learning about the process of photosynthesis, even after it has been systematically taught in teacher education. However, the results positively indicate that refutational science texts seem to foster effective conceptual change among student teachers. The results interestingly showed that students who read a refutational text improved their systemic and factual understanding of photosynthesis more than did those who read a non-refutational text. Especially students who had naďve prior understanding regarding photosynthesis benefitted more from a refutational text. Thus, a refutational text may act as an effective facilitator of conceptual change. These results have implications for teacher education, where conceptual mastery of the most important science phenomena, such as photosynthesis, should be achieved. A refutational text is an easy and effective way to support conceptual change in higher education. Thus, this study highlights the importance of domain-specific science education in teacher programmes.

Södervik, Ilona; Mikkilä-Erdmann, Mirjamaija; Vilppu, Henna

2014-08-01

318

College Students' Understanding of the Particulate Nature of Matter across Reaction Types  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research in chemical education has shown that while students (K-20) can perform well on tasks that require use of algorithmic and symbolic skills, they struggle with tasks that require conceptual understanding of chemistry. One area where such a trend has been observed is the Particulate Nature of Matter (PNM). A number of factors have been…

Nyachwaya, James Mochoge

2012-01-01

319

Enhancing college students' understanding of lunar phases, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using qualitative methods, conceptions about lunar phases of 14 college students were investigated. The conceptions were organized into a conceptual framework with 8 different dimensions of understanding. From the framework, the Lunar Phases Concept Inventory (LPCI) was developed, including reliability and validity studies.The LPCI was also used to investigate the instructional effectiveness of an activity on lunar phases.

Lindell, R. S.

320

The Effect of Guided Inquiry-Based Instruction on Middle School Students' Understanding of Lunar Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effect of non-traditional guided inquiry instruction on middle school students' conceptual understandings of lunar concepts. Multiple data sources were used to describe participants' conceptions of lunar phases and their cause, including drawings, interviews, and a lunar shapes card sort. The data were analyzed via a…

Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Atwood, Ronald K.; Christopher, John E.; Sackes, Mesut

2010-01-01

321

Development of Student Understanding of Outcomes Involving Two or More Dice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from 154 interviews with students in grades 3 to 13 were analyzed to suggest a developmental progression of conceptual understanding associated with the sample space for two ordinary six-sided dice tossed simultaneously. The model was then considered in the light of responses to an extension task involving three six-sided dice with four sides…

Watson, Jane M.; Kelly, Ben A.

2009-01-01

322

Embedding Evolution: Exploring Changes in Students' Conceptual Development, Beliefs, and Motivations in a Population Ecology Unit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to explore student changes in conceptual development, epistemology, and motivations when evolution concepts are embedded and explicit reflective discourse is used in a unit for population ecology. The two research problems were: (1) What changes are observed in student's conceptual development, epistemology, and motivations when there is explicit reflective discourse within a population ecology unit with embedded evolution?, and (2) In what ways does explicit reflection influence students' mental models within a population ecology unit with embedded evolution? This mixed-method, quasi-experimental study assessed two regular high school biology classes in a small, urban, Midwestern high school. Students in this study had not studied evolution within any formal chapters, but had been immersed in a curriculum with embedded evolution. The study was conducted over a four-week period in a population ecology unit near the beginning of second semester. Instruction emphasized basic conceptions in population ecology. Five key intervention activities included evolutionary concepts as part of an embedded curriculum. The independent variable was explicit reflective discourse with one or two intervention questions after completion of these activities. Data included pre- and posttest surveys measuring (a) evolutionary understanding of natural selection, (b) science beliefs, and (c) science motivations. Written artifacts included (a) explanations to scenarios, (b) pre- and post-argument reflections revealing student's science beliefs and science motivations resultant from two argumentations, and (c) three, pre-, post-, and 6-week final concept maps constructed from 12 concepts. All data sources provided descriptive data. Conceptual change was interpreted from an ontological, epistemological, and motivational perspective. The experimental class receiving explicit reflective discourse showed greater overall increases in conceptual development. Students in both classes constructed teleological and proximate explanations. Overall, the experimental class gave greater numbers of evolutionary explanations. Scored propositions from concept maps showed a mixture of synthetic and scientific conceptions in both classes, however the experimental group showed greater scientific quality. Students in both classes exhibited direct-process ontology. Both classes had high degrees of epistemological and motivational commitments demonstrated by their engagement and subsequent improvements in conceptual development in both evolutionary and ecological conceptions.

Rose, Nancy L.

323

Targeting Students' Physical Science Misconceptions Using the Conceptual Change Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This handbook is dedicated to giving teachers clear information on how to correct physical science misconceptions in the classroom. It aims to help teachers help students develop appropriate understanding based on hands-on, inquiry-based experiences that challenge preconceptions. The book is organized into units ranging from matter to heat and waves. Each unit includes a list of common misconceptions and activities that help students develop an accurate understanding of each concept. Background information and lessons are provided. The National Science Education Standards for content and instructional strategies in the physical sciences are also addressed.

Stepans, Joseph

2007-11-01

324

Framework for Conceptual Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students often enter introductory courses lacking a consistent conceptual framework about natural sciences, and after traditional instruction, many experience little change in conceptual understanding. This article analyzes the nature and origin of misconceptions and discusses how they are formed and where they come from. It explains why it is so difficult to change students' concepts. This article also reviews Posner et al.'s (1982) conceptual change model and elaborates how and under what conditions it can be employed to modify students' preexisting concepts. Various challenges of that conceptual change model are discussed. How to teach to provoke conceptual change is discussed in a further paper.

Zirbel, Esther L.

325

Studentsâ Conceptual Understanding of Quantum Physics in College Level Classroom Environments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purposes of the current study were to study the potential solutions of the common learning difficulties, insufficient teaching techniques and other significant instructional or conceptual problems encountered while teaching and learning an important branch of physical science, quantum physics (QP), at the senior or junior college year. Both quantitative and qualitative methodologies were utilized in this study. The participants included five physics faculty members with different levels of teaching experience who were teaching one of the quantum physics courses (e.g. Modern Physics, Quantum Physics, and Quantum Mechanics) and 43 senior or junior undergraduate students enrolled in their courses during fall and spring terms of 2006. The findings of this study revealed that students struggle in QP classes mainly because of (1) complex mathematical tools in QP, (2) abstract concepts and non-parallel construction of QP, (3) QP has a bad reputation that negatively affects students prior to taking it, and (4) the pace in curriculum of quantum physics courses is too fast for the students. In order to increase students' conceptualization of QP concepts, the faculty members who participated in this study suggested that: (1) more time on solving more abstract conceptual questions should be spent, (2) recitation hours for solving more numerical problems need to be dedicated, and (3) revision of curriculum is necessary.

Akarsu, Bayram

2010-01-18

326

Conceptual problems in laypersons' understanding of individualized cancer risk: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore laypersons’ understanding of individualized cancer risk estimates, and to identify conceptual problems that may limit this understanding. Background Risk prediction models are increasingly used to provide people with information about their individual risk of cancer and other diseases. However, laypersons may have difficulty understanding individualized risk information, because of conceptual as well as computational problems. Design A qualitative study was conducted using focus groups. Semi-structured interviews explored participants’ understandings of the concept of risk, and their interpretations of a hypothetical individualized colorectal cancer risk estimate. Setting and participants Eight focus groups were conducted with 48 adults aged 50–74 years residing in two major US metropolitan areas. Participants had high school or greater education, some familiarity with information technology, and no personal or family history of cancer. Results Several important conceptual problems were identified. Most participants thought of risk not as a neutral statistical concept, but as signifying danger and emotional threat, and viewed cancer risk in terms of concrete risk factors rather than mathematical probabilities. Participants had difficulty acknowledging uncertainty implicit to the concept of risk, and judging the numerical significance of individualized risk estimates. The most challenging conceptual problems related to conflict between subjective and objective understandings of risk, and difficulties translating aggregate-level objective risk estimates to the individual level. Conclusions Several conceptual problems limit laypersons’ understanding of individualized cancer risk information. These problems have implications for future research on health numeracy, and for the application of risk prediction models in clinical and public health settings. PMID:19250148

Han, Paul K. J.; Lehman, Thomas C.; Massett, Holly; Lee, Simon J. C.; Klein, William M. P.; Freedman, Andrew N.

2014-01-01

327

Understanding English Homework from High School Students’ Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current research on homework is missing the student perspective. This study aims to understand high school students’ perceptions of English homework and how we as teachers can promote studentsunderstanding and completion of homework. We surveyed fifty students, from two Midwestern high schools, to determine students’ feelings about homework, their motivation for completing assignments, and their preferences in homework design

Laura Allen; Nicole Pilotte; Robin Leavitt

2009-01-01

328

Interaction of Learner Control and Prior Conceptual Understanding in Computer-Assisted Video Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine how learners with different levels of prior understanding of a topic interact and learn from computer-assisted video instruction systems when they have control of content, sequence, pace, and mode of instruction. Based on pretest scores, 80 subjects were randomly selected, half with low prior conceptual

Gay, Geraldine

329

Effect of Current Electricity Simulation Supported Learning on the Conceptual Understanding of Elementary and Secondary Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the impact of computer simulation and supported science learning on a teacher's understanding and conceptual knowledge of current electricity. Pre/Post tests were used to measure the teachers' concept attainment. Overall, there was a significant and large knowledge difference effect from Pre to Post test. Two interesting…

Kumar, David Devraj; Thomas, P. V.; Morris, John D.; Tobias, Karen M.; Baker, Mary; Jermanovich, Trudy

2011-01-01

330

Chinese and Australian Year 3 Children's Conceptual Understanding of Science: A Multiple Comparative Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children have formal science instruction from kindergarten in Australia and from Year 3 in China. The purpose of this research was to explore the impact that different approaches to primary science curricula in China and Australia have on children's conceptual understanding of science. Participants were Year 3 children from three schools of high,…

Tao, Ying; Oliver, Mary Colette; Venville, Grady Jane

2012-01-01

331

Professional Development Aligned with AP Chemistry Curriculum: Promoting Science Practices and Facilitating Enduring Conceptual Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recent revisions to the advanced placement (AP) chemistry curriculum promote deep conceptual understanding of chemistry content over more rote memorization of facts and algorithmic problem solving. For many teachers, this will mean moving away from traditional worksheets and verification lab activities that they have used to address the vast…

Herrington, Deborah G.; Yezierski, Ellen J.

2014-01-01

332

Relationship between students' conceptual knowledge and study strategies-part I: student learning in physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Studies of the relationship between students' propositional knowledge (as measured by concept mapping tasks) and their study strategies (as measured by self-report questionnaires) for electricity in first-year university courses are described. The effect of propositional knowledge and prior knowledge on both conceptual knowledge and study strategies is discussed.

Hegarty-Hazel, Elizabeth; Prosser, Michael

2006-06-19

333

CHARACTERIZATION AND MEASUREMENT OF INTRODCUTORY COLLEGE ASTRONOMY AND PHYSICS STUDENT UNDERSTANDING OF NEWTONIAN GRAVITY  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The topic of Newtonian gravity offers a unique perspective from which to investigate and encourage conceptual change because it is something with which everyone has daily experience, and because it is taught in two courses that reach a variety of students - introductory college astronomy (‘Astro 101’) and physics (‘Phys 101’). Informed by the constructivist theory of learning, this study characterizes and measures Astro 101 and Phys 101 studentsunderstanding of Newtonian gravity within four conceptual domains - Directionality, Force Law, Independence of Other Forces, and Threshold. A phenomenographic analysis of student-supplied responses to open-ended questions about gravity resulted in characterization of students’ alternative models and misapplications of the scientific model. These student difficulties informed the development of a multiple-choice assessment instrument, the Newtonian Gravity Concept Inventory (NGCI). Classical Test Theory (CTT), student interviews, and expert review show that the NGCI is a reliable and valid tool for assessing both Astro 101 and Phys 101 studentsunderstanding of gravity. Furthermore, the NGCI can provide extensive and robust information about differences between Astro 101 and Phys 101 students and curricula. Comparing and contrasting CTT values and response patterns shows qualitative differences in each of the four conceptual domains. Additionally, performing an Item Response Theory (IRT) analysis calibrates item parameters for all Astro 101 and Phys 101 courses and provides Newtonian gravity ability estimates for each student. Physics students show significantly higher pre- and post-instruction IRT abilities than astronomy students, but they show approximately equal gains. Linear regression models that control for student characteristics and classroom dynamics show that: (1) differences in post-instruction abilities are most influenced by students’ pre-instruction abilities and the level of interactivity in the classroom, and (2) there is no differential effect of the astronomy curriculum compared to the physics curriculum on student’s overall post-instruction Newtonian gravity abilities.

Williamson, Kathryn

2014-01-01

334

How Do Early Childhood Students Conceptualize Play-Based Curriculum?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study's purpose was to discover student understanding of play-based curriculum. Traditionally, play has been misunderstood in pedagogical terms, and was widely interpreted in our study. The Early Years Learning Framework suggests educator guidance in sustaining play is essential for learning and development. As teacher educators, we wanted to…

Ridgway, Avis; Quinones, Gloria

2012-01-01

335

Conceptualizing Students' Academic Hardiness Dimensions: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Academic hardiness is a personality characteristic that may differentiate students who avoid challenging academic course work from others who are willing to pursue these types of challenges. Research findings have demonstrated the need to understand and examine the construct in different life stages and cultural settings, and there are additional…

Kamtsios, Spiridon; Karagiannopoulou, Evangelia

2013-01-01

336

Introductory biology students' conceptual models and explanations of the origin of variation.  

PubMed

Mutation is the key molecular mechanism generating phenotypic variation, which is the basis for evolution. In an introductory biology course, we used a model-based pedagogy that enabled students to integrate their understanding of genetics and evolution within multiple case studies. We used student-generated conceptual models to assess understanding of the origin of variation. By midterm, only a small percentage of students articulated complete and accurate representations of the origin of variation in their models. Targeted feedback was offered through activities requiring students to critically evaluate peers' models. At semester's end, a substantial proportion of students significantly improved their representation of how variation arises (though one-third still did not include mutation in their models). Students' written explanations of the origin of variation were mostly consistent with their models, although less effective than models in conveying mechanistic reasoning. This study contributes evidence that articulating the genetic origin of variation is particularly challenging for learners and may require multiple cycles of instruction, assessment, and feedback. To support meaningful learning of the origin of variation, we advocate instruction that explicitly integrates multiple scales of biological organization, assessment that promotes and reveals mechanistic and causal reasoning, and practice with explanatory models with formative feedback. PMID:25185235

Speth, Elena Bray; Shaw, Neil; Momsen, Jennifer; Reinagel, Adam; Le, Paul; Taqieddin, Ranya; Long, Tammy

2014-01-01

337

Student performance on conceptual questions: Does instruction matter?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the tutorial component of introductory calculus-based physics at the University of Washington, students take weekly pretests that consist of conceptual questions. Pretests are so named because they precede each tutorial, but they are frequently administered after lecture instruction. Many variables associated with class composition and prior instruction (if any) could, in principle, affect student performance on these questions. Nonetheless, the results are often found to be "essentially the same" in all classes. With data available from a large number of classes, it is possible to characterize the typical variation quantitatively. In this paper three questions for which we have accumulated thousands of responses, from dozens of classes representing different conditions with respect to the textbook in use, the amount of prior instruction, etc., serve as examples. For each question, we examine the variation in student performance across all classes. We also compare subsets categorized according to the amount of relevant prior instruction each class had received. A preliminary analysis suggests that the variation in performance is essentially random. No statistically significant difference is observed between results obtained before relevant instruction begins and after it has been completed. The results provide evidence that exposure to concepts in lecture and textbook is not sufficient to ensure an improvement in performance on questions that require qualitative reasoning.

Heron, Paula R. L.

2013-01-01

338

Students' Conceptual Ecologies and the Process of Conceptual Change in Evolution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using conceptual change as theoretical lens, describes the structure of (n=4) learners' conceptual ecology within biological evolution and illustrates how this ecology influences the process of conceptual change. Prior conceptions relate to evolutionary theory, scientific and religious orientations, view of biological world, and acceptance of…

Demastes, Sherry S.; And Others

1995-01-01

339

Change in student conceptual and technological knowledge as a result of the general chemistry laboratory experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of technology is continually changing within the field of chemistry and is increasingly being incorporated into teaching laboratories under the supposition that technology makes concepts more understandable. General chemistry students at South Dakota State University use computer-based laboratory technology weekly during data collection, analysis, and final submission of their laboratory reports. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of technology on student learning. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to analyze this impact. Surveys, observations, and interviews were used to collect data as students completed experiments during the general chemistry laboratory. Chi-square analysis determined that changes between pre- and post-survey data were statistically significant. A qualitative index (q) was used to assess which laboratory experiments had smaller or larger changes in student knowledge. Evidence of positive and negative changes in student conceptual and technological knowledge will be coupled to the various laboratory technology used by general chemistry laboratory students, including the Chem 2000, thermocouples, and the pH electrode. Data show that students initially were focused on learning the technology and that students re-directed their focus to learning laboratory concepts as the academic year progressed. Data show that the level of engagement students were at and their use of the visuals provided by the laboratory technology affected their learning. Data show that students emphasized collecting accurate and precise data in the laboratory and associated the technology with providing them with accurate and precise data. Data also shows the relationship between the lecture and laboratory portions of the general chemistry courses has no impact on student learning. Evidence of these impacts on student learning will be presented.

Williams, Marla F.

340

Using Pictures to Enhance Students' Understanding of Bayes' Theorem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students often have difficulty understanding algebraic proofs of statistics theorems. However, it sometimes is possible to prove statistical theorems with pictures in which case students can gain understanding more easily. I provide examples for two versions of Bayes' theorem.

Trafimow, David

2011-01-01

341

High school student's motivation to engage in conceptual change-learning in science  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated motivational factors that are related to engaging in conceptual change learning. While previous studies have recognized the resistance of students' scientific conception to change, few have investigated the role that non-cognitive factors might play when students are exposed to conceptual change instruction. Three research questions were examined: (a) What instructional strategies did the teacher use to both

Lily Barlia

1999-01-01

342

Exploring Conceptual Integration in Student Thinking: Evidence from a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two reasons are suggested for studying the degree of conceptual integration in student thinking. The linking of new material to existing knowledge is an important aspect of meaningful learning. It is also argued that conceptual coherence is a characteristic of scientific knowledge and a criterion used in evaluating new theories. Appreciating this ‘scientific value’ should be one objective when students

Keith S. Taber

2008-01-01

343

Facilitating Students' Conceptual Change and Scientific Reasoning Involving the Unit of Combustion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports research from a 3 year digital learning project to unite conceptual change and scientific reasoning in the learning unit of combustion. One group of students had completed the course combining conceptual change and scientific reasoning. The other group of students received conventional instruction. In addition to the…

Lee, Chin-Quen; She, Hsiao-Ching

2010-01-01

344

Conceptualization and Initial Validation of the College Student Mentoring Scale (CSMS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of conceptually valid mentoring relationships in higher education is currently unknown due to a lack of a valid conceptualization within the literature. This article examines the construct validity of College Student Mentoring Scale (CSMS) with an eye toward identifying developmental support functions that should be provided to students. Participants were selected from a stratified random sample of courses

Gloria Crisp

2009-01-01

345

The Relationship between Comprehension and Conceptual Mathematics of Third Grade Students at a Selected Elementary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between reading comprehension scores and conceptual mathematics scores of third grade students at a selected elementary school. The sample consisted of 27 students of which 15 were females and 12 were males. Data were collected using a teacher made conceptual math exam and the scores from…

Kariuki, Patrick N.; Morris, Dustin A.

2013-01-01

346

Medical students' conceptualizations of quality of life associated with children who have Inflammatory Bowel Disease  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES To investigate second year medical studentsunderstanding of quality of life associated with childhood inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS Cross-sectional study in a major teaching institution in San Francisco. A questionnaire was administered following an hour long gastroenterology lecture which featured two young patients with pediatric-onset IBD who addressed everyday life with the disease. Analyses of numerate responses to the questionnaire were paired with a content and thematic analysis of audiotape recordings of the patients’ commentaries. RESULTS Medical student responses to the patient interviews were very positive. Medical students gained a new awareness of the psychosocial complexities associated with living with a pediatric chronic illness and a new way of thinking about the meaning of “healthy.” Despite listening to two healthy young patients, however, the medical students still conceptualized pediatric IBD in mostly, although not exclusively, negative terms. CONCLUSIONS Medical students’ perceptions of pediatric IBD improved as a result of listening to the patient interviews. While this teaching modality effectively introduced students to a complex condition, it did not overcome their unfavorable impression of IBD’s impact on children’s lives. The symptoms associated with IBD have stigma attached to them, and these stereotypes influence how medical students perceive those living with this chronic illness. More research and training in this area is necessary. PMID:23752075

Salazar, Guadalupe; Barker, Judith C.; Heyman, Melvin B.

2013-01-01

347

Using cluster analysis to identify patterns in students' responses to contextually different conceptual problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the evolution of student responses to seven contextually different versions of two Force Concept Inventory questions in an introductory physics course at the University of Arkansas. The consistency in answering the closely related questions evolved little over the seven-question exam. A model for the state of student knowledge involving the probability of selecting one of the multiple-choice answers was developed. Criteria for using clustering algorithms to extract model parameters were explored and it was found that the overlap between the probability distributions of the model vectors was an important parameter in characterizing the cluster models. The course data were then clustered and the extracted model showed that students largely fit into two groups both pre- and postinstruction: one that answered all questions correctly with high probability and one that selected the distracter representing the same misconception with high probability. For the course studied, 14% of the students were left with persistent misconceptions post instruction on a static force problem and 30% on a dynamic Newton’s third law problem. These students selected the answer representing the predominant misconception slightly more consistently postinstruction, indicating that the course studied had been ineffective at moving this subgroup of students nearer a Newtonian force concept and had instead moved them slightly farther away from a correct conceptual understanding of these two problems. The consistency in answering pairs of problems with varied physical contexts is shown to be an important supplementary statistic to the score on the problems and suggests that the inclusion of such problem pairs in future conceptual inventories would be efficacious. Multiple, contextually varied questions further probe the structure of students’ knowledge. To allow working instructors to make use of the additional insight gained from cluster analysis, it is our hope that the physics education research community will make these methods available though their Web sites.

Stewart, John; Miller, Mayo; Audo, Christine; Stewart, Gay

2012-12-01

348

THE EXAMINED LIFE: UNDERSTANDING STUDENT PERSPECTIVES ON TESTING  

E-print Network

The goal of this thesis is to understand students' perceptions of examinations and how they affect their lives. Based on the lack of research regarding student perceptions of testing events, it is assumed that the student's voice has been perceived...

Kleine, Sarah Elizabeth

2011-08-31

349

Assessing Junior High Students' Understanding of Density and Solubility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three density questions were administered to 290 ninth-grade students to assess their understanding of this concept. Found two-thirds of students understand displacement and/or density concepts. Three solubility questions were administered to 385 ninth-graders to assess understandings of solubility. Found students have difficulty with some aspects…

Gennaro, Eugene D.

1981-01-01

350

Toward a Comprehensive Picture of Student Understanding of Force, Velocity, and Acceleration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Studentsâ difficulties with conceptual questions about force, velocity, and acceleration have been well documented. However, there has been no single systematic study of student understanding of all paired relations among the concepts of force, velocity, and acceleration. For example, a student who believes an object with a net force on it must be moving might not believe an accelerating object must be moving. In this paper, we describe the development of a test to build a more comprehensive picture of student understanding. We describe modifications to increase the validity of the test by reducing false positives and unwanted inconsistencies. We also report preliminary data suggesting that there are definite patterns in student understanding of the various relations between force, velocity, and acceleration. For example, there are a higher number of students reporting that force and velocity are directionally related then that acceleration and velocity are directionally related.

Rosenblatt, Rebecca; Sayre, Eleanor C.; Heckler, Andrew F.

2009-01-24

351

Sociology provides the conceptual and methodological framework to understand society. Its primary goal is to stimulate thinking about  

E-print Network

Sociology provides the conceptual and methodological framework to understand society. Its primary facets of social life. Using the conceptual and methodological tools that sociology provides, we gain; the application of sociology can lead to a better understanding of social problems and issues and suggest how

Seldin, Jonathan P.

352

Addressing secondary students' naďve ideas about freshwater springs in order to develop an instructional tool to promote conceptual reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Water knowledge" has now become a socio-political and future-orientated necessity. Erroneous notions or preconceptions of hydrology can have a deleterious effect on our understanding of the scientific facts and their interrelations that are of relevance to sustainable water management. This explorative pilot study shows that erroneous and naďve ideas about the origin of freshwater springs are common at the lower secondary level. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to investigate the nature of misconceptions about freshwater springs among 13-year-old students, and (2) to develop an efficient instructional tool that promotes conceptual reconstruction in the learners' minds. To assess students' naďve ideas we conducted interviews, examined student work, and asked students to fill in a questionnaire. The identified naďve ideas were used to construct an instructional tool based on the findings of learning psychology aiming at promoting deep learning, thus facilitating a lasting conceptual reconstruction of the concept of freshwater springs.

Reinfried, S.; Tempelmann, S.; Aeschbacher, U.

2012-02-01

353

Chinese and Australian children's understandings of the Earth: a cross cultural study of conceptual development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to explore Chinese and Australian primary children's conceptual understandings of the Earth. The research was conducted in the interpretive paradigm and was designed to be descriptive with comparative and cross sectional elements. Participants were Year 3 and Year 6 children from three schools in Hunan Province, central south China ( n = 38) and Year 3 and Year 6 children from three schools in Western Australia ( n = 36). In-depth interviews including drawings were carried out to explore the participants' conceptual understandings of the Earth's shape, gravity, day/night cycle and seasons. The results showed that, regardless of different cultures, children from the same year group constructed similar concepts about the Earth. The Year 3 children were more likely than the Year 6 children to demonstrate intuitive conceptions of a round and flat Earth. The Year 6 children were more likely to demonstrate consistent understandings of a spherical Earth. The findings supported the universality of entrenched presuppositions hypothesis. Cultural mediation was found to have a subtle impact on children's understanding of the Earth. A model of conceptual development is proposed.

Tao, Ying; Oliver, Mary; Venville, Grady

2013-06-01

354

Emiratii High School Students' Understandings of Stoichiometry and the Influence of Metacognition on Their Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to investigate Emiratii high school students' understandings of stoichiometry, their use of metacognitive strategies, and the influence of students' use of metacognitive strategies on their understandings of stoichiometry. Two instruments were used in this study, the first to measure students' understandings of…

Haidar, Abdullateef H.; Al Naqabi, Ali K.

2008-01-01

355

Concept-Mapping Activities To Help Students Understand Photosynthesis--and Teachers Understand Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents materials to stimulate active learning through modified concept mapping activities designed to help students appreciate alternative perspectives by using cartoons as a stimulus and focusing on the links within a concept map fragment, and encouraging the probing of understanding by annotating the linking words. (Author/YDS)

Kinchin, Ian M.

2000-01-01

356

Systematic Study of Student Understanding of the Relationships between the Directions of Force, Velocity, and Acceleration in One Dimension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We developed an instrument to systematically investigate student conceptual understanding of the relationships between the directions of net force, velocity, and acceleration in one dimension and report on data collected on the final version of the instrument from over 650 students. Unlike previous work, we simultaneously studied all six possible…

Rosenblatt, Rebecca; Heckler, Andrew F.

2011-01-01

357

Student Solutions Manual to accompany Understanding Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Work more effectively and check solutions as you go along with the text! This Student Solutions Manual is designed for use with Cummings' Understanding Physics. Its primary purpose is to show readers by example how to solve various types of problems given at the end of each chapter in the text. Most of the solutions start from definitions or fundamental relationships and the final equation is derived. This technique highlights the fundamentals and at the same time gives readers the opportunity to review the mathematical steps required to obtain a solution. The mere plugging of numbers into equations derived in the text is avoided for the most part. Readers will learn to examine any assumptions that are made in setting up and solving each problem. Using an interactive strategy, Understanding Physics provides a hands-on introduction to the fundamentals of physics. Built on the foundations of Halliday, Resnick, and Walker's Fundamentals of Physics, 6th Edition, this text represents the latest methods in physics instruction. Incorporating new approaches based on Physics Education Research (PER), this text is designed for courses that use computer-based laboratory tools, and promote Activity Based Physics in lectures, labs, and recitations.

Cummings, Karen; Laws, Priscilla W.; Redish, Edward F.; Cooney, Patrick J.; Christman, J. Richard

2004-05-01

358

Seeking to Understand Faculty-Student Interaction at Community Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One fundamental aspect of engagement in higher education is faculty-student interaction (FSI). FSI has been associated with student success and persistence in both four- and two-year institutions. Due to limited research concerning diverse students, understanding student engagement in higher education is based on White, traditional-age students

Wirt, Lesley G.; Jaeger, Audrey J.

2014-01-01

359

The Development of a Conceptual Model of Student Satisfaction with Their Experience in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to introduce a conceptual model of student satisfaction with their higher education (HE) experience, based on the identification of the variable determinants of student perceived quality and the impact of those variables on student satisfaction and/or dissatisfaction with the overall student experience. The…

Douglas, Jacqueline; McClelland, Robert; Davies, John

2008-01-01

360

Bootstrapping Processes in the Development of Students' Commonsense Matter Theories: Using Analogical Mappings, Thought Experiments, and Learning to Measure to Promote Conceptual Restructuring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores whether the development of students' understanding of matter as something that occupies space and has weight involves conceptual change and restructuring rather than only simple belief revision. Based on an analysis of how the concepts in students' initial matter theory (henceforth MT1) may differ from the concepts in the…

Smith, Carol L.

2007-01-01

361

Approaches to Biology Teaching and Learning: Understanding the Wrong Answers--Teaching toward Conceptual Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Underpinning science education reform movements in the last 20 years--at all levels and within all disciplines--is an explicit shift in the goals of science teaching from students simply creating a knowledge base of scientific facts to students developing deeper understandings of major concepts within a scientific discipline. For example, what use…

Tanner, Kimberly; Allen, Deborah

2005-01-01

362

Approaches to Biology Teaching and Learning: Understanding the Wrong Answers--Teaching toward Conceptual Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underpinning science education reform movements in the last 20 years—at all levels and within all disciplines—is an explicit shift in the goals of science teaching from students simply creating a knowledge base of scientific facts to students developing deeper understandings of major con- cepts within a scientific discipline. For example, what use is a detailed working knowledge of the chemical

Kimberly Tanner; Deborah Allen

2005-01-01

363

Conceptual and procedural understanding of algebra concepts in the middle grades  

E-print Network

in the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Principles and Standards for School Mathematics (2000). Understanding of linear equations and algebraic relationships is fundamental to preparing students for success in future algebra experiences...). This bears sharp contrast to expectations for today?s high school students. The NCTM Principles and Standards (2000) state that all students should be enrolled in enriched, meaningful mathematics courses during each of the four years of high school...

Joffrion, Heather Kyle

2007-04-25

364

Understanding general practice: a conceptual framework developed from case studies in the UK NHS  

PubMed Central

Background General practice in the UK is undergoing a period of rapid and profound change. Traditionally, research into the effects of change on general practice has tended to regard GPs as individuals or as members of a professional group. To understand the impact of change, general practices should also be considered as organisations. Aim To use the organisational studies literature to build a conceptual framework of general practice organisations, and to test and develop this empirically using case studies of change in practice. This study used the implementation of National Service Frameworks (NSFs) and the new General Medical Services (GMS) contract as incidents of change. Design of study In-depth, qualitative case studies. The design was iterative: each case study was followed by a review of the theoretical ideas. The final conceptual framework was the result of the dynamic interplay between theory and empirical evidence. Setting Five general practices in England, selected using purposeful sampling. Method Semi-structured interviews with all clinical and managerial personnel in each practice, participant and non-participant observation, and examination of documents. Results A conceptual framework was developed that can be used to understand how and why practices respond to change. This framework enabled understanding of observed reactions to the introduction of NSFs and the new GMS contract. Important factors for generating responses to change included the story that the practice members told about their practice, beliefs about what counted as legitimate work, the role played by the manager, and previous experiences of change. Conclusion Viewing general practices as small organisations has generated insights into factors that influence responses to change. Change tends to occur from the bottom up and is determined by beliefs about organisational reality. The conceptual framework suggests some questions that can be asked of practices to explain this internal reality. PMID:17244426

Checkland, Kath

2007-01-01

365

A Repeat Performance? Challenges In Developing Robust Conceptual Understanding in Quantum Mechanics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ongoing physics education research (PER) at Grand Valley State University (GVSU) is guiding the development of instructional materials for teaching modern physics. Results from this project can help address the question: To what extent should we expect upper-level physics students to be able to apply concepts previously covered in classâeven those addressed through PER-based instruction at the advanced levelâto different situations? Extensive research at the introductory level has already revealed that such transfer is extremely difficult for beginning students to do on their own. Preliminary results from this project suggest that, even among upper level students, specific conceptual and reasoning difficulties must be addressed explicitly and at multiple instances during instruction.

Ambrose, Bradley S.

2009-10-12

366

Addressing Students' Difficulties in Understanding Two Different Expressions of Gravitational Potential Energy (I): mgh & -GMm/r  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During our investigation of students' understanding of gravitational potential energy, we found some difficulties that students have with this topic. Many students who took upper-level mechanics courses had difficulties in understanding why there are two different expressions of gravitational potential energy. These students said they had some difficulties in understanding why there should be two different signs (+ & ?) and two different forms (g & 1/r) even though these expressions were considered as representing the same gravitational potential energy. To gain understanding of the sources of student difficulties, we used weekly reports and individual interviews. We analyzed student difficulties in terms of conceptual knowledge, procedural knowledge, and contextual knowledge. The results of these research have guided the development of teaching material that addresses students' difficulties in understanding gravitational potential energy. We will show the development process and contents of the material in the second paper on this topic.

Lee, Gyoungho; Yi, Jinseog

2007-11-25

367

Promoting fourth graders' conceptual change of their understanding of electric current via multiple analogies  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the past two decades, a growing amount of research has shown that the use of analogies in science teaching and learning promotes meaningful understanding of complex scientific concepts (Gentner, [1983]; Glynn, [1989]; Harrison & Treagust, [1993]; Wong, [1993]). This article presents a study in which multiple analogies were used as scaffolding to link students' prior understanding of daily life

Mei-Hung Chiu; Jing-Wen Lin

2005-01-01

368

Middle School Students' Understandings About Anthropogenic Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given the complexity of the science involving climate change (IPCC, 2007), its lack of curricular focus within US K-12 schooling (Golden, 2009; Golden & Francis, 2013), and the difficulty in effecting conceptual change in science (Vosniadou, 2007), we sought to research middle school students' conceptions about climate change, in addition to how those conceptions changed during and as a result of a deliberately designed global climate change (GCC) unit. In a sixth grade classroom, a unit was designed which incorporated Argumentation-Driven Inquiry (Sampson & Grooms, 2010). That is, students were assigned to groups and asked to make sense of standard GCC data such as paleoclimate data from ice cores, direct temperature measurement, and Keeling curves, in addition to learning about the greenhouse effect in a modeling lesson (Hocking, et al, 1993). The students were then challenged, in groups, to create, on whiteboards, explanations and defend these explanations to and with their peers. They did two iterations of this argumentation. The first iteration focused on the simple identification of climate change patterns. The second focused on developing causal explanations for those patterns. After two rounds of such argumentation, the students were then asked to write (individually) a "final" argument which accounted for the given data. Interview and written data were analyzed prior to the given unit, during it, and after it, in order to capture complicated nuance that might escape detection by simpler research means such as surveys. Several findings emerged which promised to be of interest to climate change educators. The first is that many students tended to "know" many "facts" about climate change, but were unable to connect these disparate facts in any meaningful ways. A second finding is that while no students changed their entire belief systems, even after a robust unit which would seemingly challenge such, each student engaged did indeed modify the manner in which they discussed the validation of their beliefs. That is, we argue that the unit, and the emphases contained within the unit, resulted in the "epistemic scaffolding" of their ideas, to the extent that they shifted from arguing from anecdotes to arguing based on other types of data, especially from line graphs. Additionally, we found that students' understandings of climate change were tied to their ontological constructions of the subject matter, i.e., many perceived climate change as just another environmentally sensitive issue such as littering and pollution, and were therefore limited in their ability to understand anthropogenic climate change in the vast and robust sense meant by current scientific consensus. Given these known difficulties, it is critical to explore further research of this sort in order to better understand what students are actually thinking, and how that thinking is prone to change, modification, or not. Subsequently, K-12 strategies might be better designed, if that is indeed a priority of US/Western society.

Golden, B. W.

2013-12-01

369

Ninth Grade Students' Understanding of The Nature of Scientific Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the 9th-grade students' understandings of the nature of scientific knowledge. The study also aimed to investigate the differences in students' understanding of the nature of scientific knowledge by gender, and school types. A total of 575 ninth grade students from four different school types (General…

Kilic, Kerem; Sungur, Semra; Cakiroglu, Jale; Tekkaya, Ceren

2005-01-01

370

Students' Understanding of Advanced Properties of Java Exceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines how Information Systems Engineering School students on the verge of their graduation understand the mechanism of exception handling. The main contributions of this paper are as follows: we construct a questionnaire aimed at examining students' level of understanding concerning exceptions; we classify and analyse the students'…

Rashkovits, Rami; Lavy, Ilana

2012-01-01

371

INVESTIGATIONS OF STUDENT UNDERSTANDING OF SOUND PROPAGATION AND RESONANCE  

E-print Network

INVESTIGATIONS OF STUDENT UNDERSTANDING OF SOUND PROPAGATION AND RESONANCE By Katherine Ver;INVESTIGATIONS OF STUDENT UNDERSTANDING OF SOUND PROPAGATION AND RESONANCE By Katherine V.P. Menchen Thesis of determining what students think about the phenomena of sound propagation and resonance using written pretests

Maine, University of

372

Physics Students' Understanding of Relative Speed: A Phenomenographic Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students' understanding of the concept of relative speed is described. A variety of ways of understanding relative speed and of viewing a problem that dealt with this concept were uncovered. The results are used to suggest ways for teachers to proceed in assisting students to enhance their understanding of relative speed.

Walsh, E.; Dall'Alba, G.; Bowden, J.; Martin, E.; Marton, F.; Masters, G.

2006-10-11

373

Helping Education Students Understand Learning Through Designing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a course in which graduate students in education learn practical and theoretical aspects of educational design by creating technologies for learning. The course was built around three themes: Analyzing technologies in which students study state-of-the-art technologies and interview their designers, Design studio in which students design their own technologies using an instructional model that was developed in

Tamar Ronen Fuhrmann; Christopher Hoadley

374

Understanding Asian Graduate Students' English Literacy Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes three potential English literacy problem areas for Asian graduate students. The three areas are: (1) the influence of cultural and personal prior knowledge, (2) the processes of education that students learned in their native schools, and (3) the linguistic characteristics of ESL students. Instructional ideas are provided…

Wang, Ying; Martin, Michael A.; Martin, Sarah H.

2002-01-01

375

Understanding student resistance as a communicative act  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current era of ‘zero tolerance’, disciplinary practices including punishment, expulsion, physical and psychological surveillance, and confinement are a major part of resistant students’ lived experiences. This article is an ethnographic study of student resistance that is observed in an alternative high school in the USA, which serves students expelled from regular schools for their acts of resistance. The

Jeong-Hee Kim

2010-01-01

376

The Department of Sociology Sociology provides the conceptual and methodological framework to understand society. Its primary goal is  

E-print Network

The Department of Sociology Sociology provides the conceptual and methodological framework to understand society. Its primary goal is to stimulate sociological thinking, applying imagination and critical analysis to the many facets of social life. Using the conceptual and methodological tools which sociology

Seldin, Jonathan P.

377

The Department of Sociology Sociology provides the conceptual and methodological framework to understand society. Its primary goal is  

E-print Network

The Department of Sociology Sociology provides the conceptual and methodological framework to understand society. Its primary goal is to stimulate sociological thinking, applying imagination and critical analysis to the many facets of social life. Using the conceptual and methodological tools that sociology

Seldin, Jonathan P.

378

Connecting Practice, Theory and Method: Supporting Professional Doctoral Students in Developing Conceptual Frameworks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From an instrumental view, conceptual frameworks that are carefully assembled from existing literature in Educational Technology and related disciplines can help students structure all aspects of inquiry. In this article we detail how the development of a conceptual framework that connects theory, practice and method is scaffolded and facilitated…

Kumar, Swapna; Antonenko, Pavlo

2014-01-01

379

The Effect of Activity-Based Instruction on Conceptual Development of Seventh Grade Students in Probability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to investigate and compare the effects of activity-based and traditional instructions on students' conceptual development of certain probability concepts. The study was conducted using a pretest-posttest control group design with 80 seventh graders. A developed "Conceptual Development Test" comprising 12 open-ended…

Gurbuz, Ramazan

2010-01-01

380

Exploring Conceptual Integration in Student Thinking: Evidence from a Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two reasons are suggested for studying the degree of conceptual integration in student thinking. The linking of new material to existing knowledge is an important aspect of meaningful learning. It is also argued that conceptual coherence is a characteristic of scientific knowledge and a criterion used in evaluating new theories. Appreciating this…

Taber, Keith S.

2008-01-01

381

Conceptualization and Initial Validation of the College Student Mentoring Scale (CSMS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalence of conceptually valid mentoring relationships in higher education is currently unknown due to a lack of a valid conceptualization within the literature. This article examines the construct validity of College Student Mentoring Scale (CSMS) with an eye toward identifying developmental support functions that should be provided to…

Crisp, Gloria

2009-01-01

382

Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) of students' understanding of vector subtraction  

E-print Network

different, indicating that perception or heuristic thinking is a bigger cause of failure than conceptual, there was one recitation and one traditional lab section. DATA COLLECTION In addition to the standard homework where students would complete some combination of training, testing, and interviewing. Data reported

Zollman, Dean

383

Beyond Explanations: What Else Do Students Need to Understand Science?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' difficulties with learning science have generally been framed in terms of their generalized conceptual knowledge of a science topic as elicited through their explanations of natural phenomena. In this paper, we empirically explore what more goes into giving a scientific account of a natural phenomenon than giving such generalized…

Hamza, Karim M.; Wickman, Per-Olof

2009-01-01

384

Student Understanding of Chromatography: A Hands-On Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a series of exercises intended to help students develop a better understanding of chromatography that employ plant pigments. A collaborative approach leads students to a level of competence that permits them to complete an open-ended exercise. (WRM)

Curtright, Robert; Markwell, John; Emry, Randy

1999-01-01

385

Using Knowledge Space Theory to Assess Student Understanding of Stoichiometry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of knowledge space theory (KST), to assess students' understanding and integration of the different representations in an introductory chemistry course are described. KST is a useful tool for revealing various aspects of students' cognitive structure in chemistry.

Arasasingham, Ramesh D.; Taagepera, Mare; Potter, Frank; Lonjers, Stacy

2004-01-01

386

When a Bilingual Child Describes Living Things: An Analysis of Conceptual Understandings from a Language Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With increasing numbers of students learning science through a second language in many school contexts, there is a need for research to focus on the impact language has on studentsunderstanding of science concepts. Like other countries, Brunei has adopted a bilingual system of education that incorporates two languages in imparting its curriculum. For the first three years of school, Brunei children are taught in Malay and then for the remainder of their education, instruction is in English. This research is concerned with the influence that this bilingual education system has on children’s learning of science. The purpose was to document the patterns of Brunei students’ developing understandings of the concepts of living and non-living things and examine the impact in the change in language as the medium of instruction. A cross-sectional case study design was used in one primary school. Data collection included an interview ( n = 75), which consisted of forced-response and semi-structured interview questions, a categorisation task and classroom observation. Data were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. The results indicate that the transition from Malay to English as the language of instruction from Primary 4 onwards restricted the students’ ability to express their understandings about living things, to discuss related scientific concepts and to interpret and analyse scientific questions. From a social constructivist perspective these language factors will potentially impact on the students’ cognitive development by limiting the expected growth of the studentsunderstandings of the concepts of living and non-living things.

Salleh, Romaizah; Venville, Grady J.; Treagust, David F.

2007-07-01

387

Understanding student computational thinking with computational modeling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently, the National Research Council's framework for next generation science standards highlighted "computational thinking" as one of its "fundamental practices". 9th Grade students taking a physics course that employed the Arizona State University's Modeling Instruction curriculum were taught to construct computational models of physical systems. Student computational thinking was assessed using a proctored programming assignment, written essay, and a series of think-aloud interviews, where the students produced and discussed a computational model of a baseball in motion via a high-level programming environment (VPython). Roughly a third of the students in the study were successful in completing the programming assignment. Student success on this assessment was tied to how students synthesized their knowledge of physics and computation. On the essay and interview assessments, students displayed unique views of the relationship between force and motion; those who spoke of this relationship in causal (rather than observational) terms tended to have more success in the programming exercise.

Aiken, John M.; Caballero, Marcos D.; Douglas, Scott S.; Burk, John B.; Scanlon, Erin M.; Thoms, Brian D.

2013-02-21

388

Initial understanding of vector concepts among students in introductory physics courses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We report the results of an investigation into physics students' understanding of vector addition, magnitude, and direction for problems presented in graphical form. A seven-item quiz, including free-response problems, was administered in all introductory general physics courses during the 2000/2001 academic year at Iowa State. Responses were obtained from 2031 students during the first week of class. We found that more than one quarter of students beginning their second semester of study in the calculus-based physics course, and more than half of those beginning the second semester of the algebra-based sequence, were unable to carry out two-dimensional vector addition. Although the total scores on the seven-item quiz were somewhat better for students in their second semester of physics in comparison to students in their first semester, many students retained significant conceptual difficulties regarding vector methods that are heavily employed throughout the physics curriculum.

Nguyen, Ngoc-Loan; Meltzer, David E.

2005-10-27

389

Addressing secondary school students' everyday ideas about freshwater springs in order to develop an instructional tool to promote conceptual reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Water knowledge" has now become a socio-political and future-orientated necessity. Everyday ideas or preconceptions of hydrology can have a deleterious effect one people's understanding of the scientific facts and their interrelations that are of relevance to sustainable water management. This explorative pilot study shows that preconceived notions about the origin of freshwater springs are common at the lower secondary school level. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to investigate the nature of everyday ideas about freshwater springs among 81 13-yr-old Swiss students, and (2) to develop an efficient instructional tool that promotes conceptual reconstruction in the learners' minds. To assess students' everyday ideas we conducted interviews, examined student work, and asked students to fill in a questionnaire. The results indicate that half of the students have some basic hydrological knowledge. However, several preconceived notions that can significantly impede the understanding of hydrological concepts have been found. A common preconception concerns the idea that solid rocks cannot be permeable and that large underground cavities constitute a necessary precondition for the formation of springs. While these ideas may well be true for karst springs they inhibit the understanding of the concept of other spring types due to their plausibility and intelligibility. We therefore chose the concept of the hillslope spring to construct an instructional tool that takes into account the findings of the psychology of learning aimed at promoting deep learning, thus facilitating a lasting conceptual reconstruction of the concept of springs.

Reinfried, S.; Tempelmann, S.; Aeschbacher, U.

2012-05-01

390

Student Conceptualizations of the Nature of Science in Response to a Socioscientific Issue. Research Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates student conceptualizations of the nature of science (NOS) and how students interpret and evaluate conflicting evidence regarding a socioscientific issue. Eighty-four high school students participated in the study by reading contradictory reports about the status of global warming and responding to questions designed to…

Sadler, Troy D.; Chambers, William F.; Zeidler, Dana L.

2004-01-01

391

Alternatives to Traditional Physics Instruction: Student Perceptions of the Effectiveness of A Conceptual Physics Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adapted a high school physics program to make physics less elite and more accessible to all students. Students surveys evaluated their attitudes regarding the effectiveness of the new conceptual approach. Results indicated that the approach opened the door to physics for many traditionally underrepresented groups. Students considered the revised…

Jones, T. Griffith; Jones, Linda Cronin; Zander, Tracey

1998-01-01

392

A Conceptual Model of Medical Student Well-Being: Promoting Resilience and Preventing Burnout  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This article proposes and illustrates a conceptual model of medical student well-being. Method: The authors reviewed the literature on medical student stress, coping, and well-being and developed a model of medical student coping termed the "coping reservoir." Results: The reservoir can be replenished or drained by various aspects of…

Dunn, Laura B.; Iglewicz, Alana; Moutier, Christine

2008-01-01

393

Student Difficulties in Understanding Probability in Quantum Mechanics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We have investigated student difficulties in understanding and interpreting probability and its relevant technical terms as it relates to quantum measurement. These terms include expectation value, probability density, and uncertainty. From this research, it is evident that students have difficulties in understanding these terms and often fail to differentiate among similar but different concepts. In addition, students' difficulties with the concepts of probability often interfere with their understanding and application of the Uncertainty Principle.

Sadaghiani, Homeyra R.; Bao, Lei

2009-07-13

394

Relation of Student Social Position to Consumer Attitudes and Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of Connecticut high school students from different social positions found differences in consumer attitudes and understandings of money management, credit, insurance, and savings and investments. (CH)

Litro, Robert Frank

1970-01-01

395

Enhancing undergraduate students' chemistry understanding through project-based learning in an IT environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Project-based learning (PBL), which is increasingly supported by information technologies (IT), contributes to fostering student-directed scientific inquiry of problems in a real-world setting. This study investigated the integration of PBL in an IT environment into three undergraduate chemistry courses, each including both experimental and control students. Students in the experimental group volunteered to carry out an individual IT-based project, whereas the control students solved only traditional problems. The project included constructing computerized molecular models, seeking information on scientific phenomena, and inquiring about chemistry theories. The effect of the PBL was examined both quantitatively and qualitatively. The quantitative analysis was based on a pretest, a posttest, and a final examination, which served for comparing the learning gains of the two research groups. For the qualitative analysis, we looked into the experimental students' performance, as reflected by the projects they had submitted. In addition, think alou interviews and observations helped us gain insight into the students' conceptual understanding of molecular structures. Students who participated in the IT-enhanced PBL performed significantly better than their control classmates not only on their posttest but also on their course final examination. Analyzing the qualitative findings, we concluded that the construction of computerized models and Web-based inquiry activities helped promote students' ability of mentally traversing the four levels of chemistry understanding: symbolic, macroscopic, microscopic, and process. More generally, our results indicated that incorporating IT-rich PBL into freshmen courses can enhance students' understanding of chemical concepts, theories, and molecular structures.

Barak, Miri; Dori, Yehudit Judy

2005-01-01

396

Helping students develop an understanding of Archimedes' principle. I. Research on student understanding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper is the first of two that describe how research on student understanding of Archimedes' principle is being used to guide the development of instructional materials on this topic. Our results indicate that standard instruction on hydrostatics leaves many science and engineering majors unable to predict and explain the sinking and floating behavior of simple objects. A number of serious and persistent difficulties with the concepts and principles used to analyze such behavior are identified. Although some of these difficulties are specific to the concept of the buoyant force, many others seem to reflect lingering confusion about concepts that are widely assumed to be understood by students before the study of hydrostatics begins.

Loverude, Michael E.; Kautz, Christian H.; Heron, Paula R.

2005-10-27

397

Investigation of student understanding of the concept of acceleration in one dimension  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper describes a systematic investigation of the understanding of the concept of acceleration among students enrolled in a variety of introductory physics courses at the University of Washington. The criterion for assessing understanding of a kinematical concept is the ability to apply it successfully in interpreting simple motions of real objects. The main thrust of this study has been on the qualitative understanding of acceleration as the ratio Deltav/Deltat. The primary data source has been the individual demonstration interview in which students are asked specific questions about simple motions they observe. Results are reported for the success of different student populations in comparing accelerations for two simultaneous motions. Failure to make a proper comparison was due to various conceptual difficulties which are identified and described. Some implications for instruction are briefly discussed.

Trowbridge, David E.; Mcdermott, Lillian C.

2005-11-28

398

Silent Participants: Understanding Students' Nonoral Responses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Silent students are often actively involved in classroom learning despite appearances to the contrary, and teachers can use special instructional strategies to guide them to overt participation. Students with "communication apprehension" are often assumed to have low intelligence, but they may suffer instead from shyness, various communication…

Hittleman, Daniel R.

399

Why Volunteer? Understanding Motivations for Student Volunteering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The profile of volunteering in English Higher Education (HE) has been enhanced in recent years through various initiatives that have not only funded activities, but have sought to expand the range of volunteering opportunities available to students and recognise the contribution that volunteering can make to students' employability. This expansion…

Holdsworth, Clare

2010-01-01

400

On Understanding Compatibility of Student Pair Programmers  

E-print Network

compatible if students with ... CS1 SE OO H-1 ... different personality types are grouped together. H-2 ... similar actual skill levels are grouped together. H-3 ... similar perceived technical competence; students were mandated to work in pairs, with different assigned partners for each one of these programs

401

Building bridges: understanding student transition to university  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores challenges in ensuring effective student transition from school or college to university. It examines the complex liaison needed for students to progress to appropriate courses, settle into university life and succeed as higher education learners. Secondary data (international literature on transition and the formation of learner identity) are analysed to identify underpinning concepts. Primary data are taken

A. R. J. Briggs; J. Clark; I. Hall

2012-01-01

402

Building Bridges: Understanding Student Transition to University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores challenges in ensuring effective student transition from school or college to university. It examines the complex liaison needed for students to progress to appropriate courses, settle into university life and succeed as higher education learners. Secondary data (international literature on transition and the formation of…

Briggs, A. R. J.; Clark, J.; Hall, I.

2012-01-01

403

Good Morning from Barrow, Alaska! Helping K-12 students understand the importance of research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation focuses on how an educator experiences scientific research and how those experiences can help foster K-12 studentsunderstanding of research being conducted in Barrow, Alaska. According to Zhang and Fulford (1994), real-time electronic field trips help to provide a sense of closeness and relevance. In combination with experts in the field, the electronic experience can help students to better understand the phenomenon being studied, thus strengthening the student’s conceptual knowledge (Zhang & Fulford, 1994). During a seven day research trip to study the arctic sea ice, five rural Virginia teachers and their students participated in Skype sessions with the participating educator and other members of the Radford University research team. The students were able to view the current conditions in Barrow, listen to members of the research team describe what their contributions were to the research, and ask questions about the research and Alaska in general. Collaborations between students and scientist can have long lasting benefits for both educators and students in promoting an understanding of the research process and understanding why our world is changing. By using multimedia venues such as Skype students are able to interact with researchers both visually and verbally, forming the basis for students’ interest in science. A learner’s level of engagement is affected by the use of multimedia, especially the level of cognitive processing. Visual images alone do no promote the development of good problem solving skills. However, the students are able to develop better problem solving skills when both visual images and verbal interactions are used together. As students form higher confidence levels by improving their ability to problem solve, their interest in science also increases. It is possible that this interest could turn into a passion for science, which could result in more students wanting to become scientists or science teachers.

Shelton, M.

2010-12-01

404

How students use spectrophotometric instruments to create understanding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, I investigated how upper-division college students interacted with three laboratory instruments (all spectrophotometers) in order to identify the affordances (what something provides or furnishes) of these spectrophotometers that impacted students' construction of scientific understanding. I specifically wanted to understand how scientific instruments impact student understanding. I used the ideas of distributed cognition and the theory of affordances as a framework to help identify the affordances of these spectrophotometers that impacted students understanding of chemistry concepts and interpretation of data. I found the primary affordances of the spectrophotometer were based around how the nature of the data collected, how the data were displayed, and how the data were recorded. Data acquired in a rapid manner generally focused students on procedural issues due to the students' drive to leave the laboratory as soon as possible. In contrast, techniques that required large amount of data collection over longer periods of time decreased student motivation due to the drudgery of data collection. Computer recording and graphical representation of data helped remove the drudgery and presented the data to students in a manner that aided data interpretation and provided opportunities for student to enhance their understanding of these abstract representations. Overall, we found that instrument designs, experiment designs, and instructor's and students' objectives influenced the affordances that students perceived in instruments. Therefore, instructors must be cognizant of their objectives for having students use instruments in a laboratory setting and choose instruments and procedures that are consistent with those objectives.

Malina, Eric Glenn

405

Exploring Grade 11 Students' Conceptual Pathways of the Particulate Nature of Matter in the Context of Multirepresentational Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the conceptual pathways of 19 Grade 11 introductory chemistry students (age 16-17) as they participated in a multirepresentational instruction on the particulate nature of matter (PNM). This study was grounded in contemporary conceptual change theory, in particular, research on students' conceptual pathways that focuses on…

Adadan, Emine; Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Irving, Karen E.

2010-01-01

406

Mapping for Conceptual Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' understanding of science develops through everyday experiences. As a result, they come to the science classroom with their own notions of how the world works. As teachers, we often must help students overcome their prior naive notions and move them toward a more scientific understanding. This process, known as conceptual change, is…

Kern, Cindy; Crippen Kent J.

2008-01-01

407

Results from a Pilot Study of a Curriculum Unit Designed to Help Middle School Students Understand Chemical Reactions in Living Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students often have trouble understanding key biology ideas because they lack an understanding of foundational chemistry ideas. AAAS Project 2061 is collaborating with BSCS in the development a curriculum unit that connects core chemistry and biochemistry ideas in order to help eighth grade students build the conceptual foundation needed for high…

Herrmann-Abell, Cari F.; Flanagan, Jean C.; Roseman, Jo Ellen

2012-01-01

408

Framework for Conceptual Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students often enter introductory courses lacking a consistent conceptual framework about natural sciences, and after traditional instruction, many experience little change in conceptual understanding. This article analyzes the nature and origin of misconceptions and discusses how they are formed and where they come from. It explains why it is so…

Zirbel, Esther L.

2004-01-01

409

Conceptual Change and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to understand the advanced, scientific concepts of the various disciplines, students cannot rely on the simple memorization of facts. They must learn how to restructure their naive, intuitive theories based on everyday experience and lay culture. In other words, they must undergo profound conceptual change. This type of conceptual change…

Vosniadou, Stella

2007-01-01

410

Studying conceptual change in learning physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Discusses (1) the need for teachers to understand student conceptions; (2) alternative conceptions that students formulate; (3) changing conceptions; (4) representing conceptual knowledge for studying conceptual change; (5) strategies for inducing change; and (6) a taxonomy of conceptual change. (Contains 61 references.)

Dykstra, Dewey; Boyle, Franklin; Monarch, Ira A.

2006-05-22

411

The effect of interactive engagement teaching on student understanding of introductory physics at the faculty of engineering, University of Surabaya, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the effect of a teaching method consisting of peer instruction, worksheets utilization, constructivist classroom dialogue and in?class demonstration. These teaching elements are intended to promote the interactive engagement of first year undergraduate students in an introductory physics course. The conceptual understanding of students in the experimental classes was better than that of students in the control classes

Veronica Cahyadi

2004-01-01

412

Do Student Chemical Engineers Understand Experimental Error?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed are problems encountered when a gas absorption experiment with strong measurement error is used. Notes students either avoid the experiment or report it as defective. Provides ideas to make lab experiments more instructive. (MVL)

Hudgins, R. R.; Reilly, P. M.

1989-01-01

413

Helping the International Student Understand the American University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To be successful in navigating the waters of American higher education, international students need to demonstrate proficiency in the English language and an understanding of the educational expectations of American academia. Unlike Americans who apply to a US university, international students must demonstrate that they understand enough English…

Chang, Mary

2011-01-01

414

Improving Students' Understanding of Electricity and Magnetism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Electricity and magnetism are important topics in physics. Research shows that students have many common difficulties in understanding concepts related to electricity and magnetism. However, research to improve students' understanding of electricity and magnetism is limited compared to introductory mechanics. This thesis explores issues…

Li, Jing

2012-01-01

415

Digital Video 1 DIGITAL VIDEO, LEARNING STYLES AND STUDENT UNDERSTANDING  

E-print Network

Digital Video 1 DIGITAL VIDEO, LEARNING STYLES AND STUDENT UNDERSTANDING Digital Video, Learning learning in physics. Dr. Larkin-Hein is also studying the role that individual learning styles play individual learning style preferences and student understanding of motion concepts were also addressed

Larkin, Teresa L.

416

The Effect of Practical Work on Students' Understanding of Combustion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interviews of and questionnaires given to (n=299) 14- and 15-year-old students in England and Spain on their understanding of combustion and on the teaching and learning styles used with students found that the extensive use of practical work in English schools had only a marginal effect on their understanding of combustion. Includes questionnaire. (27 references)

Watson, Rod; Prieto, T.; Dillon, J.

2006-10-11

417

The Effect of Practical Work on Students' Understanding of Combustion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews of and questionnaires given to (n=299) 14- and 15-year-old students in England and Spain on their understanding of combustion and on the teaching and learning styles used with students found that the extensive use of practical work in English schools had only a marginal effect on their understanding of combustion. Includes…

Watson, Rod; And Others

1995-01-01

418

Student understanding of the ideal gas law, Part I: A macroscopic perspective  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Our findings from a long-term investigation indicate that many students cannot properly interpret or apply the ideal gas law after instruction in introductory physics and chemistry as well as more advanced courses. The emphasis in this paper is on the concepts of pressure, volume, and temperature at the macroscopic level. We describe some serious conceptual and reasoning difficulties that we have identified. Results from our research were applied in the design of a curriculum that has helped improve student understanding of the ideal gas law.

Kautz, Christian H.; Heron, Paula R.; Loverude, Michael E.; Mcdermott, Lillian C.

2012-07-12

419

Threshold Concepts in Geographical Information Systems: A Step towards Conceptual Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Threshold concepts are those transformative concepts in a discipline that are often difficult to understand when first encountered, but when mastered they transform students, both epistemologically and ontologically in relation to the discipline. Using the characteristics of threshold concepts, existing curricula and summative content analysis of…

Srivastava, Sanjeev Kumar

2013-01-01

420

The Effect of Conceptual Diagrams on Aviation Mechanics' Technical Systems Understanding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A quasi-experimental study explored the effect of functional flow diagrams on technical system understanding. An individualized field training package which contained schematic diagrams that illustrated an aircraft's electrical system was complimented with functional flow diagrams. In a 4-week treatment, a control group of 10 students enrolled in…

Satchwell, Richard E.; Johnson, Scott D.

421

the journey into understanding student formation  

E-print Network

of young adults. They leave behind old ways of understanding, believing, and relating to the people around partway along the road from adolescence to adulthood. The campus--its classrooms, administrative offices and skills to understand and critically interpret the world in light of these values, and yet respects

Huang, Jianyu

422

Student Teachers' Levels of Understanding and Model of Understanding about Newton's Laws of Motion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to determine the level of student teachers' understandings of Newton's laws of motion and relating these levels to identify student teachers' models of understanding. An achievement test composed of two parts comprising 12 open ended questions was constructed and given to 45 pre-service classroom teachers. The first part…

Saglam-Arslan, Aysegul; Devecioglu, Yasemin

2010-01-01

423

Understanding the Coping Strategies of International Students: A Qualitative Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

International students encounter a range of additional challenges as a part of their tertiary study experience. A qualitative approach was used to understand the challenges faced by international students, coping strategies that promoted their personal resilience and advice they have for future international students. Twenty-two international…

Khawaja, Nigar G.; Stallman, Helen M.

2011-01-01

424

Standing in the Hallway Improves Students' Understanding of Conformity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To help beginning psychology students understand how they are influenced by social pressures to conform, we developed a demonstration designed to elicit their conformity to a small group of students standing in the hallway before class. Results showed the demonstration increased students' recognition of their own tendency to conform, knowledge of…

Lawson, Timothy J.; Haubner, Richard R.; Bodle, James H.

2013-01-01

425

Interpretation of students' understanding of the concept of weightlessness  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Investigated students' understanding of the concept of weightlessness and found it to be influenced by the confusion between the concepts of weight and gravitational force. The causal structure of students' knowledge presents a platform for interpreting students' alternative ideas about weight and related physical concepts, which could guide physics educators in presenting weight and gravity topics. (49 references)

Galili, Igal

2006-05-08

426

Understanding the Atheist College Student: A Qualitative Examination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine and understand atheist college students' views on faith and how they experience the college campus as a result. I conducted interviews with 16 undergraduate and graduate self-identified atheist college students. Students discussed losing faith and transitioning to atheism; making meaning of life, death, and…

Mueller, John A.

2012-01-01

427

Mathematical Understanding: Analyzing Student Thought Processes while Completing Mathematical Tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shares the findings of an exploratory, qualitative investigation of elementary school students' problem solving strategies. Twelve fourth-grade students were given three mathematical tasks about fractions and interviewed during task completion about their problem solving strategies, and their understanding of how to solve the problems. Students were selected to provide variance across their mathematical achievement on the state-wide test

Drew Polly

428

Understanding vision: students’ use of light and optics resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a qualitative study designed to examine how students construct an understanding of the human eye and vision from their knowledge of light and optics. As would be expected, vast differences are shown to exist between pre- and post-instruction students in terms of not only resource use, but also willingness to transfer their existing knowledge. However, we have found that appropriate scaffolding can facilitate resource activation and guide students to construct an understanding of vision and vision defects.

Jones, Dyan L.; Zollman, Dean

2014-09-01

429

Understanding adolescent student perceptions of science education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study used the Relevance of Science Education (ROSE) survey (Sjoberg & Schreiner, 2004) to examine topics of interest and perspectives of secondary science students in a large school district in the southwestern U.S. A situated learning perspective was used to frame the project. The research questions of this study focused on (a) perceptions students have about themselves and their science classroom and how these beliefs may influence their participation in the community of practice of science; (b) consideration of how a future science classroom where the curriculum is framed by the Next Generation Science Standards might foster students' beliefs and perceptions about science education and their legitimate peripheral participation in the community of practice of science; and (c) reflecting on their school science interests and perspectives, what can be inferred about students' identities as future scientists or STEM field professionals? Data were collected from 515 second year science students during a 4-week period in May of 2012 using a Web-based survey. Data were disaggregated by gender and ethnicity and analyzed descriptively and by statistical comparison between groups. Findings for Research Question 1 indicated that boys and girls showed statistically significant differences in scientific topics of interest. There were no statistical differences between ethnic groups although. For Research Question 2, it was determined that participants reported an increase in their interest when they deemed the context of the content to be personally relevant. Results for Research Question 3 showed that participants do not see themselves as youthful scientists or as becoming scientists. While participants value the importance of science in their lives and think all students should take science, they do not aspire to careers in science. Based on this study, a need for potential future work has been identified in three areas: (a) exploration of the perspectives and interests of non-mainstream students and urban students whose representation in this study was limited; (b) investigation of topics where students expressed low interests topics; and (c) development and design of authentic communities of practice in the science classroom.

Ebert, Ellen Kress

430

Conceptual Change regarding middle school students' experience with Global Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given the complexity of the science involving climate change (IPCC, 2007), its lack of curricular focus within US K-12 schooling (Golden, 2009), and the difficulty in effecting conceptual change in science (Vosniadou, 2007), we sought to research middle school students' conceptions about climate change, in addition to how those conceptions changed during and as a result of a deliberately designed global climate change (GCC) unit. In a sixth grade classroom, a unit was designed which incorporated Argumentation-Driven Inquiry (Sampson & Grooms, 2010). That is, students were assigned to groups and asked to make sense of standard GCC data such as paleoclimate data from ice cores, direct temperature measurement, and Keeling curves, in addition to learning about the greenhouse effect in a modeling lesson (Hocking, et al, 1993). The students were then challenged, in groups, to create, on whiteboards, explanations and defend these explanations to and with their peers. They did two iterations of this argumentation. The first iteration focused on the simple identification of climate change patterns. The second focused on developing causal explanations for those patterns. After two rounds of such argumentation, the students were then asked to write (individually) a "final" argument which accounted for the given data. Interview and written data were analyzed prior to the given unit, during it, and after it, in order to capture complicated nuance that might escape detection by simpler research means such as surveys. Several findings emerged which promised to be of interest to climate change educators. The first is that many students tended to "know" many "facts" about climate change, but were unable to connect these disparate facts in any meaningful ways. A second finding is that while no students changed their entire belief systems, even after a robust unit which would seemingly challenge such, each student engaged did indeed modify the manner in which they discussed the validation of their beliefs. That is, we argue that the unit, and the emphases contained within the unit, resulted in the "epistemic scaffolding" of their ideas, to the extent that they shifted from arguing from anecdote to arguing based on other types of data, especially from line graphs. A third finding underscores prior research in conceptual change, indicating that learning, especially conceptual change, is not a strictly rational process. Students, and others, are highly influenced by extra rational factors, such as the given political, scientific, and/or religious leanings of their families, their own willingness to explore anomalies, and other factors. Given these known difficulties, it is critical to explore further research of this sort in order to better understand what students are actually thinking, and how that thinking is prone to change, modification, or not. Subsequently, K-12 strategies might be better designed, if that is indeed a priority of US/Western society.

Golden, B. W.; Lutz, B.

2011-12-01

431

Conceptual Optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conceptual Physics courses are a staple of the curriculum in many colleges and universities. Such courses stress the development of conceptual understanding without appeal to calculational demonstration of that understanding. We have developed a Conceptual Optics course with a similar thrust but a more focused subject matter: the study of light. The course differs from similar courses typically titled Light or Color in that it attempts to cover most topics taught in more conventional optics courses rather than sampling from the variety of topics among those falling under the optics rubric. The course features an extramural laboratory in which student teams are given equipment, a lab manual, and a notebook and are expected to perform various optics experiments in everyday surroundings. This and other features of the course will be discussed.

Paesler, Michael

1997-11-01

432

"Surprisingly, there is an actual physical applicationâ¦" Student understanding in Math Methods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Among the canonical physics core courses taken by most undergraduate majors is a course in mathematical methods. Physics education research has begun to explore upper division physics courses, as well as the use of mathematics throughout the physics curriculum. The math methods course is an especially opportune environment to study the development of conceptual understanding of key ideas in mathematics and physics as well as the development of broadly applicable skills and the sociocultural norms of physics. In this poster we will explore some of what happened in a particular math methods course, with attention to the development of student content understanding as well as the development of community norms.

Loverude, Michael E.; Li, Sissi L.

2014-02-01

433

Examining the construction process: A study of changes in level 10 students' understanding of classical mechanics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study explored students' conceptual understanding and conceptual growth regarding classical mechanics in the natural context of a Grade-level 10 science classroom. The purpose of the study was to determine the pervasiveness of a pattern observed in an earlier study in which learners initially gave evidence of scientifically valid knowledge structures but then returned or regressed to an earlier, primitive level of understanding. In the current study, concept mapping and interview methods were used to capture students' construction of knowledge patterns across a survey course designed to focus on some big ideas in physics. The analyses of mean ratings of student-generated concept maps and interview transcripts over three data collections did not consistently reveal the progression-regression patterns across the instruction as observed in the earlier study. The students' knowledge structures remained stable across the 10 weeks and remained unchanged 4 weeks after instruction ceased, suggesting that very little construction or restructuring of knowledge was taking place, and possibly worse, that the students' existing knowledge was not challenged sufficiently to promote the construction or reconstruction process. Implications of the alternative interpretations are discussed.

Shymansky, James; Yore, Larry; Treagust, David; Thiele, R. B.; Harrison, A.; Waldrip, L. D.

2005-11-23

434

Enhancing Student Understanding of Environmental Sciences Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an authentic semi-guided student research project. Studies the impact of a regional invasion of non-indigenous worm species on decomposition in forest soils. Describes the experimental design, data analysis, and interpretation of the data. (Contains 16 references.) (YDS)

Gurwick, Noel P.; Krasny, Marianne E.

2001-01-01

435

The Effects of Peer Instruction on Students' Conceptual Learning and Motivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of peer instruction on college students' conceptual learning, motivation, and self-efficacy in an algebra-based introductory physics course for nonmajors. Variables were studied via a quasi-experiment, Solomon four-group design on 123 students. Treatment groups were taught by peer instruction.…

Gok, Tolga

2012-01-01

436

Middle School Students' Conceptual Change in Global Climate Change: Using Argumentation to Foster Knowledge Construction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examined middle school student conceptions about global climate change (GCC) and the change these conceptions undergo during an argument driven instructional unit. The theoretical framework invoked for this study is the "framework theory" of conceptual change (Vosniadou, 2007a). This theory posits that students do not simply correct…

Golden, Barry W.

2011-01-01

437

Students' Conceptual Knowledge and Process Skills in Civic Education: Identifying Cognitive Profiles and Classroom Correlates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2 related studies framed by social constructivism theory, the authors explored a fine-grained analysis of adolescents' civic conceptual knowledge and skills and investigated them in relation to factors such as teachers' qualifications and students' classroom experiences. In Study 1 (with about 2,800 U.S. students), the authors identified 4…

Zhang, Ting; Torney-Purta, Judith; Barber, Carolyn

2012-01-01

438

The Effect of Conceptual Change Approach on Students' Ecology Achievement and Attitude towards Biology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effectiveness of conceptual change texts oriented instruction accompanied by demonstrations in small groups on students' ecology achievement and attitude towards biology. 78 ninth grade students in a public high school participated in this study. While the control group was taught with the traditional method, the…

Cetin, Gulcan; Ertepinar, Hamide; Geban, Omer

2004-01-01

439

The Effect of Conceptual Change Pedagogy on Students' Conceptions of Rate of Reaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on an investigation of the effect of conceptual change pedagogy on students' conceptions of "rate of reaction" concepts. The study used a pre-test/post-test non-equivalent comparison group design approach and the sample consisted of 72 Turkish grade-11 students (aged 16-18 years) selected from two intact classrooms. The "Rate of…

Calik, Muammer; Kolomuc, Ali; Karagolge, Zafer

2010-01-01

440

On the Impact of Formative Assessment on Student Motivation, Achievement, and Conceptual Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Formative assessment was hypothesized to have a beneficial impact on students' science achievement and conceptual change, either directly or indirectly by enhancing motivation. We designed and embedded formatives assessments within an inquiry science unit. Twelve middle-school science teachers with their students were randomly assigned either to…

Yin, Yue; Shavelson, Richard J.; Ayala, Carlos C.; Ruiz-Primo, Maria Araceli; Brandon, Paul R.; Furtak, Erin Marie; Tomita, Miki K.; Young, Donald B.

2008-01-01

441

The Effectiveness of Conceptual Change Texts in Remediating High School Students' Alternative Conceptions Concerning Chemical Equilibrium  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effectiveness of conceptual change texts in remediating high school students' alternative conceptions concerning chemical equilibrium. A quasi-experimental design was used in this study. The subjects for this study consisted of a total 78 tenth-grade students, 38 of them in the experimental group and 40 of them in the…

Ozmen, Haluk

2007-01-01

442

Formulating a Conceptual Model of Nontraditional Student Attrition and Persistence in Postsecondary Vocational Education Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few studies have been conducted on nontraditional student attrition in postsecondary vocational educational programs. This lack of attention is due to methodological limitations, lack of priority on data collection in vocational education, and lack of perceived need for research. The conceptual model of student attrition in postsecondary…

Johnson, David R.

443

Understanding Mental Models of Dilution in Thai Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate Thai students' understanding of dilution and related concepts. The literature suggests that a complete understanding of chemistry concepts such as dilution entails understanding of and the ability to integrate mental models across three levels of representation: the macroscopic, sub-microscopic and…

Jansoon, Ninna; Coll, Richard K.; Somsook, Ekasith

2009-01-01

444

Strategies to enhance student motivation: A conceptual analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional view of academics is that student learning should go beyond and even ignore assessment. The paper demonstrates that students are unlikely ever to have held this view and that academics have gradually come to accept this. There follows an analysis of Herzberg's motivation at work theory and how this may be applied to student learning. This leads to

Lewis Elton

1996-01-01

445

University Students' Conceptualization and Interpretation of Topographic Maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the strategies and assumptions that college students entering an introductory physical geology laboratory use to interpret topographic maps, and follows the progress of the students during the laboratory to analyze changes in those strategies and assumptions. To elicit students’ strategies and assumptions, we created and refined a topographic visualization test that was administered before and after instruction

Douglas Clark; Stephen Reynolds; Vivian Lemanowski; Thomas Stiles; Senay Yasar; Sian Proctor; Elizabeth Lewis; Charlotte Stromfors; James Corkins

2008-01-01

446

Measuring Student Understanding of Geological Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There have been few discoveries in geology more important than "deep time"--the understanding that the universe has existed for countless millennia, such that man's existence is confined to the last milliseconds of the metaphorical geological clock. The influence of deep time is felt in a variety of sciences including geology, cosmology, and…

Dodick, Jeff; Orion, Nir

2003-01-01

447

Understanding Student Performance in a Large Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Across the world, university teachers are increasingly being required to engage with diversity in the classes they teach. Using the data from a large Economics 1 class at a South African university, this attempts to understand the effects of diversity on chances of success and how assessment can impact on this. By demonstrating how theory can be…

Snowball, Jen D.; Boughey, Chrissie

2012-01-01

448

Effects of Argumentation Scaffolds on Student Performance on Conceptual Physics Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Studies have shown that embedding scientific argumentation in problem solving can enhance problem solving skills. However, research has also indicated that students have difficulties constructing arguments without appropriate scaffolds. We investigated the use of argumentation scaffolds on studentsâ argumentation quality, conceptual quality, and solution strategies on conceptual problems in an introductory physics class. In this mixed method study we compared studentsâ performance in two guided conditions â constructing an argument and evaluating two arguments â as well as one control condition. Our results indicate that the use of guiding prompts improves the argumentation and conceptual quality of studentsâ solutions. Further, students in the guided conditions tended to use a wider variety of problem solving strategies than in the control condition. We discuss the implications of these results on the use of argumentation prompts on conceptual problems in introductory physics.

Rebello, Carina M.; Barrow, Lloyd H.; Rebello, N. S.

2014-02-01

449

Students' conceptual practices in science education. Productive disciplinary interactions in a participation trajectory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent research has to a limited extent explored the characteristics of students' conceptual practices as sociocultural phenomena in general and in science education in particular. I approach this issue by studying a group of students while solving a particular scientific problem from A to Z, and as part of this analyse how different cultural means (the knowledge domain and the tools in use) structure the students' interactions and how their interpersonal relations change over this period of time. The aim is to illustrate how these cultural means intersect in productive and less productive ways during the students' conceptual practices. The study has its point of departure in a design experiment where a group of four students, together with their teacher, solve different problems related to the biological phenomenon of sequencing a DNA molecule (the insulin gene). Video-recordings of the students' interactions constitute the basis for this analysis. The cultural means strongly structure the students' conceptual practices during their problem solving processes. Whereas the knowledge domain structured the whole process, the significant roles of the website and the computer-based 3D model of the insulin gene were especially apparent during the second part of the trajectory. The intersection of these cultural means appear productive in terms of disciplinary knowledge when the students' became aware of how to handle this relationship. The interpersonal relations between the students and their teacher altered slightly in the beginning and became increasingly more fixed during the students' progression.

Krange, Ingeborg

2007-01-01

450

A Social Ecological Conceptual Framework for Understanding Adolescent Health Literacy in the Health Education Classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rising concern over chronic health conditions and their prevention and management, health literacy is emerging as\\u000a an important public health issue. As with the development of other forms of literacy, the ability for students to be able\\u000a to access, understand, evaluate and communicate health information is a skill best developed during their years of public\\u000a schooling. Health education

Joan Wharf Higgins; Deborah Begoray; Marjorie MacDonald

2009-01-01

451

Effectiveness of Collaborative Ranking Tasks on Student Understanding of Key Astronomy Concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research concerns the development and assessment of a program of introductory astronomy conceptual exercises called ranking tasks. These exercises were designed based on results from science education research, learning theory, and classroom pilot studies. The investigation involved a single-group repeated measures experiment across eight key introductory astronomy topics with 253 students at the University of Arizona. Student understanding of these astronomy topics was assessed before and after traditional instruction in an introductory astronomy course. Collaborative ranking tasks were introduced after traditional instruction on each topic, and student understanding was evaluated again. Results showed that average scores on multiple-choice tests across the eight astronomy topics increased from 32% before instruction, to 61% after traditional instruction, to 77% after the ranking- task exercises. A Likert scale attitude survey found that 83% of the students participating in the 16-week study thought that the ranking- task exercises helped their understanding of core astronomy concepts. Based on these results, we assert that supplementing traditional le