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1

Conceptual Learning: Enhancing Student Understanding of Physiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students are leaving undergraduate science programs without the knowledge and skills they are expected to have. This is apparent in professional programs, such as medical and veterinary school, where students do not possess the critical thinking skills necessary to be successful. Physiology is a required discipline for these professional programs and often before, as a pre-requisite. Physiology classrooms are an excellent place to teach critical thinking skills because the content consists of integrated processes. Therefore, in one study, it was investigated whether focusing on physiological concepts improved student understanding of physiology in both a non-physiological science course, Invertebrate Zoology, and in an undergraduate physiology course. An educational intervention was used in Invertebrate Zoology, where students were exposed to human physiology concepts that were similar to comparative physiology concepts they had learned during the semester. A pre-/post-test was used to assess learning gains. In a second study, the use of multimedia file usage was correlated to student exam scores in a physiology course. This was done to see if providing additional study materials that focused on specific concepts improved student understanding, as assessed using exam scores. Overall these studies indicate that encouraging assimilation of new concepts that expand upon material from lecture may help students gain a more complete understanding of a concept. The integration of these concepts into pre-existing conceptual frameworks may serve to teach students valuable critical thinking skills such as evaluation of new ideas within their current understanding and synthesizing the new content with the existing information. Focusing on this type of conceptual learning may enable students to apply content knowledge and think through problems. Additionally, focusing on concepts may enable students to improve their understanding of material without being overwhelmed by content.

Waltz, Micah J.

2

Community College Students' Conceptual Understanding of Statistical Measures of Spread  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the conceptual understanding of measures of spread among community college students in an introductory statistics course. The course is centered around deemphasizing computational skills and focused, rather, on development of conceptual understanding. Open-ended questions were developed to explore and assess students'…

Turegun, Mikhail; Reeder, Stacy

2011-01-01

3

Facilitating Conceptual Change in Students' Understanding of Boiling Concept  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to construct a teaching strategy for facilitating students' conceptual understanding of the boiling concept. The study is based on 52 freshman students in the primary science education department. Students' ideas were elicited by a test consisting of nine questions. Conceptual change strategy was designed based on…

Costu, Bayram; Ayas, Alipasa; Niaz, Mansoor; Unal, Suat; Calik, Muammer

2007-01-01

4

Evaluation of Students' Conceptual Understanding of Malaria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, a two-tier diagnostic test for understanding malaria was developed and administered to 314 Bruneian students in Year 12 and in a nursing diploma course. The validity, reliability, difficulty level, discriminant indices, and reading ability of the test were examined and found to be acceptable in terms of measuring students'…

Cheong, Irene Poh-Ai; Treagust, David; Kyeleve, Iorhemen J.; Oh, Peck-Yoke

2010-01-01

5

Assessing Undergraduate Students' Conceptual Understanding and Confidence of Electromagnetics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examines how students' conceptual understanding changes from high confidence with incorrect conceptions to high confidence with correct conceptions when reasoning about electromagnetics. The Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism test is weighted with students' self-rated confidence on each item in order to infer how strongly…

Leppavirta, Johanna

2012-01-01

6

The Conceptual Understanding of Sound by Students with Visual Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: The purpose of the study presented here was to understand and describe the misconceptions of students with visual impairments about sound and instructional techniques that may help them to develop a scientific understanding. Methods: Semistructured interview-centered pre-and posttests were used to identify the students' conceptual

Wild, Tiffany A.; Hilson, Margilee P.; Hobson, Sally M.

2013-01-01

7

Promoting Conceptual Change in First Year Students' Understanding of Evaporation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We constructed the PDEODE (Predict-Discuss-Explain-Observe-Discuss-Explain) teaching strategy, a variant of the classical POE (Predict-Observe-Explain) activity, to promote conceptual change, and investigated its effectiveness on student understanding of the evaporation concept. The sample consisted of 52 first year students in a primary science…

Costu, Bayram; Ayas, Alipasa; Niaz, Mansoor

2010-01-01

8

Students' Attitudes toward and Conceptual Understanding of Chemical Instrumentation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' attitudes toward and conceptual understanding of chemical instrumentation is surveyed. The study shows that, in general, the students' attitudes toward using instrumentation in the lab is quite positive and they felt that using instrumentation in the lab allowed them not only to connect "chemistry" and the "real world", but also to…

Miller, Larry S.; Nakhleh, Mary B.; Nash, John J.; Meyer, Jeanne A.

2004-01-01

9

Introductory College Chemistry Students' Understanding of Stoichiometry: Connections between Conceptual and Computational Understandings and Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many studies of college chemistry students have found a gap between students' success in solving computational chemistry problems and their success in solving conceptual chemistry problems. This paper examines college students' understanding of the concept of stoichiometry, the particulate nature of matter, and chemistry problem solving. This…

Wolfer, Adam J.; Lederman, Norman G.

10

Understanding genetics: Analysis of secondary students' conceptual status  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the conceptual change of students in Grades 10 and 12 in three Australian senior high schools when the teachers included computer multimedia to a greater or lesser extent in their teaching of a genetics course. The study, underpinned by a multidimensional conceptual-change framework, used an interpretive approach and a case-based design with multiple data collection methods. Over

Chi-Yan Tsui; David F. Treagust

2007-01-01

11

On The Conceptual Understanding Of `Work Done' For Secondary One Students In Singapore  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the preliminary findings on students' conceptual understanding of `Work Done' within the Secondary One science syllabus in Singapore. We group our findings into two main categories, `Students' Preconceptions' and `Students' Understanding of Concepts'. This research surfaces key issues in the young students' learning journeys in science. Knowing these students' preconceptions and conceptual understanding of science concepts after instruction should assist science educators in developing pedagogical approaches and the preparation of lesson packages that will help students overcome their learning difficulties.

Munirah, S. K.; Foong, S. K.; Lee, P.

2010-07-01

12

Longitudinal study of student conceptual understanding in electricity and magnetism S. J. Pollock  

E-print Network

Longitudinal study of student conceptual understanding in electricity and magnetism S. J. Pollock at the freshman level on juniors' performance on a conceptual survey of Electricity and Magnetism E&M . We measured student performance on a research-based conceptual instrument--the Brief Electricity & Magnetism

Colorado at Boulder, University of

13

Crafting an International Study of Students' Conceptual Understanding of Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large international investigations into the learning of science, such as the TIMSS and PISA studies, have been enlightening with regard to effective instructional practices. Data from these studies revealed weaknesses and promising practices within nations' educational systems, with evidence to suggest that these studies have led to international reforms in science education. However, these reforms have focused on the general characteristics of teaching and learning across all sciences. While extraordinarily useful, these studies have provided limited insight for any given content domain. To date, there has been no systematic effort to measure individual's conceptual astronomy understanding across the globe. This paper describes our motivations for a coordinated, multinational study of astronomy understanding. First, reformed education is based upon knowing the preexisting knowledge state of our students. The data from this study will be used to assist international astronomy education and public outreach (EPO) professionals in their efforts to improve practices across global settings. Second, while the US astronomy EPO community has a long history of activity, research has established that many practices are ineffective in the face of robust misconceptions (e.g.: seasons). Within an international sample we hope to find subpopulations that do not conform to our existing knowledge of student misconceptions, leading us to cultural or educational practices that hint at alternative, effective means of instruction. Finally, it is our hope that this first venture into large-scale disciplinary collaboration will help us to craft a set of common languages and practices, building capacity and leading toward long-term cooperation across the international EPO community. This project is sponsored and managed by the Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research (CAPER), in collaboration with members of the International Astronomical Union-Commission 46. We are actively welcoming and seeking partners in this work.

Slater, Stephanie; Bretones, P. S.; McKinnon, D.; Schleigh, S.; Slater, T. F.; Astronomy, Center; Education Research, Physics

2013-01-01

14

Identifying students' mental models of sound propagation: The role of conceptual blending in understanding conceptual change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated introductory physics students’ mental models of sound propagation. We used a phenomenographic method to analyze the data in the study. In addition to the scientifically accepted Wave model, students used the “Entity” model to describe the propagation of sound. In this latter model sound is a self-standing entity, different from the medium through which it propagates. All other observed alternative models contain elements of both Entity and Wave models, but at the same time are distinct from each of the constituent models. We called these models “hybrid” or “blend” models. We discuss how students use these models in various contexts before and after instruction and how our findings contribute to the understanding of conceptual change. Implications of our findings for teaching are summarized.

Hrepic, Zdeslav; Zollman, Dean A.; Rebello, N. Sanjay

2010-07-01

15

Enhancing Students' Understanding of Photosynthesis and Respiration in Plant through Conceptual Change Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effectiveness of combining conceptual change text and discussion web strategies on students' understanding of photosynthesis and respiration in plants. Students' conceptual understanding of photosynthesis and respiration in plants was measured using the two-tier diagnostic test developed by Haslam and Treagust (1987,…

Yenilmez, Ayse; Tekkaya, Ceren

2006-01-01

16

Primary Student-Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect: A mixed method study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The greenhouse effect is a reasonably complex scientific phenomenon which can be used as a model to examine students' conceptual understanding in science. Primary student-teachers' understanding of global environmental problems, such as climate change and ozone depletion, indicates that they have many misconceptions. The present mixed method study examines Finnish primary student-teachers' understanding of the greenhouse effect based on the

Ilkka Johannes Ratinen

2011-01-01

17

The Effect of a Conceptual Change Approach on Understanding of Students' Chemical Equilibrium Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a conceptual change approach over traditional instruction on tenth-grade students' conceptual achievement in understanding chemical equilibrium. The study was conducted in two classes of the same teacher with participation of a total of 44 tenth-grade students. In this study, a…

Atasoy, Basri; Akkus, Huseyin; Kadayifci, Hakki

2009-01-01

18

A Conceptual Change Teaching Strategy To Facilitate High School Students' Understanding of Electrochemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study that used a teaching strategy based on two teaching experiments which could facilitate students' conceptual understanding of electrochemistry. Involves two sections (n=29 and n=28) of 10th grade high school students in Venezuela. Concludes that the teaching experiments facilitated student understanding of electrochemistry.…

Niaz, Mansoor; Chacon, Eleazar

2003-01-01

19

Analogy-Integrated e-Learning Module: Facilitating Students' Conceptual Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study deals with the development of an analogy-integrated e-learning module on Cellular Respiration, which is intended to facilitate conceptual understanding of students with different brain hemisphere dominance and learning styles. The module includes eight analogies originally conceptualized following the specific steps used to prepare…

Florida, Jennifer

2012-01-01

20

Testing the Development of Student Conceptual and Visualization Understanding in Quantum Mechanics through the Undergraduate Career.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an assessment instrument designed to test conceptual and visual understanding of quantum theory, probe various aspects of student understanding of some core ideas of quantum mechanics, and investigate how students develop over the undergraduate curriculum. (Contains 52 references.) (Author/YDS)

Cataloglu, E.; Robinett, R. W.

2002-01-01

21

Facilitating Conceptual Change in Ninth Grade Students' Understanding of Human Circulatory System Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the conceptual change text oriented instruction over traditionally designed instruction on ninth grade students' understanding of the human circulatory system concepts, and their retention of this understanding. The subjects of this study consist of 73 ninth grade female students

Alkhawaldeh, Salem A.

2007-01-01

22

Urban High School Students' Critical Science Agency: Conceptual Understandings and Environmental Actions Around Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates how the enactment of a climate change curriculum supports students' development of critical science agency, which includes students developing deep understandings of science concepts and the ability to take action at the individual and community levels. We examined the impact of a four to six week urban ecology curriculum on students from three different urban high schools in the USA. Data collection included pre and posttest written assessments from all students ( n = 75) and pre and post interviews from focal students ( n = 22) to examine how students' conceptual understandings, beliefs and environmental actions changed. Our analyses showed that at the beginning of the curriculum, the majority of students believed that climate change was occurring; yet, they had limited conceptual understandings about climate change and were engaged in limited environmental actions. By the end of the curriculum, students had a significant increase in their understanding of climate change and the majority of students reported they were now engaged in actions to limit their personal impact on climate change. These findings suggest that believing a scientific theory (e.g. climate change) is not sufficient for critical science agency; rather, conceptual understandings and understandings of personal actions impact students' choices. We recommend that future climate change curriculum focus on supporting students' development of critical science agency by addressing common student misconceptions and by focusing on how students' actions can have significant impacts on the environment.

McNeill, Katherine L.; Vaughn, Meredith Houle

2012-04-01

23

Multiple intelligences and alternative teaching strategies: The effects on student academic achievement, conceptual understanding, and attitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the interactions between multiple intelligence strengths and alternative teaching methods on student academic achievement, conceptual understanding and attitudes. The design was a quasi-experimental study, in which students enrolled in Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, a developmental biology course, received lecture only, problem-based learning with lecture, or peer teaching with lecture. These students

Michelle Baragona

2009-01-01

24

Effect of Conceptual Change Approach on Students' Understanding of Reaction Rate Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of conceptual change text oriented instruction compared to traditional instruction on 10th grade students' understanding of reaction rate concepts. 45 students from two classes of the same teacher in a public high school participated in this study. Students in the experimental group…

Kingir, Sevgi; Geban, Omer

2012-01-01

25

Effect of Reformed Courses in Physics and Physical Science on Student Conceptual Understanding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes major changes undertaken in two undergraduate physics courses from traditional lecture method to an inquiry-based method that facilitates active student engagement and changes in the modeling approach to learning. Students' conceptual understanding of physics concepts were evaluated by quasi-experimental design, and the Reform…

Falconer, Kathleen; Wyckoff, Susan; Joshua, Mangala; Sawada, Daiyo

26

Thai Grade 10 and 11 Students' Conceptual Understanding and Ability to Solve Stoichiometry Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stoichiometry and related concepts are an important part of student learning in chemistry. In this interpretive-based inquiry, we investigated Thai Grade 10 and 11 students' conceptual understanding and ability to solve numerical problems for stoichiometry-related concepts. Ninety-seven participants completed a purpose-designed survey instrument…

Dahsah, Chanyah; Coll, Richard K.

2007-01-01

27

Argumentation and Students' Conceptual Understanding of Properties and Behaviors of Gases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of argumentation-based pedagogy on college students' conceptual understanding of properties and behaviors of gases. The sample consists of 108 students (52 in the control group and 56 in the intervention group) drawn from 2 general chemistry college courses taught by the same instructor. Data…

Aydeniz, Mehmet; Pabuccu, Aybuke; Cetin, Pinar Seda; Kaya, Ebru

2012-01-01

28

Using Art-Based Chemistry Activities to Improve Students' Conceptual Understanding in Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to determine the effects of art-based chemistry activities (ABCA) on high school students' conceptual understanding in chemistry. The study used the pretest-posttest control group design. A total of 64 third-year high school students from two different chemistry classes participated in the study. One class was exposed to art-based…

Danipog, Dennis L.; Ferido, Marlene B.

2011-01-01

29

Students' Perceptions and Development of Conceptual Understanding Regarding Trigonometry and Trigonometric Function  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to analyse university level mathematics education students' perceptions on conceptual understanding of trigonometry and trigonometric functions and their content development of these concepts. A case study was conducted with 90 freshman students of Elementary Mathematics Department. The data were gathered via a scale; they…

Cetin, Omer Faruk

2015-01-01

30

Effectiveness of Conceptual Change Text Oriented Instruction on Students' Understanding of Cellular Respiration Concepts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study is to compare the effectiveness of conceptual change text oriented instruction and traditional instruction on students' understanding of cellular respiration concepts and their attitudes toward biology as a school subject. The sample of this study consisted of 84 eleventh-grade students from the 4 classes of a high school.…

Cakir, Ozlem S.; Yuruk, Nejla; Geban, Omer

31

Effectiveness of Conceptual Change Text-Oriented Instruction on Students' Understanding of Cellular Respiration Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effect of conceptual change text-oriented instruction over traditional instruction on students' understanding of cellular respiration concepts and their attitudes toward biology as a school subject. The sample of this study consisted of 84 eleventh-grade students from four classes of a high school. Two of the classes…

Cakirt, Ozlem S.; Geban, Omer; Yuruk, Nejla

2002-01-01

32

Learning in friendship groups: developing studentsconceptual understanding through social interaction  

PubMed Central

The role that student friendship groups play in learning was investigated here. Employing a critical realist design, two focus groups on undergraduates were conducted to explore their experience of studying. Data from the “case-by-case” analysis suggested student-to-student friendships produced social contexts which facilitated conceptual understanding through discussion, explanation, and application to “real life” contemporary issues. However, the students did not conceive this as a learning experience or suggest the function of their friendships involved learning. These data therefore challenge the perspective that student groups in higher education are formed and regulated for the primary function of learning. Given these findings, further research is needed to assess the role student friendships play in developing disciplinary conceptual understanding. PMID:25309488

Senior, Carl; Howard, Chris

2014-01-01

33

Enhancing Students' Understanding of Photosynthesis and Respiration in Plant Through Conceptual Change Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the effectiveness of combining conceptual change text and discussion web strategies on students' understanding of photosynthesis and respiration in plants. Students' conceptual understanding of photosynthesis and respiration in plants was measured using the two-tier diagnostic test developed by Haslam and Treagust (1987, Journal of Biological Education 21: 203--211). The test was administered as pretest and posttest to a total of 233 eighth-grade students in six intact classes of the same school located in an urban area. The test of logical thinking was used to determine the reasoning ability of students. The experimental group was a class of 116 students received discussion web and conceptual change text instruction. A class of 117 students comprised the control group received a traditional instruction. After instruction, data were analyzed with two-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) using the Test of Logical Thinking and pretest scores as covariate. The conceptual change instruction, which explicitly dealt with students' misconceptions, produced significantly greater achievement in understanding of photosynthesis and respiration in plant concepts. Analysis also revealed a significant difference between performance of females and that of males in the favor of females, but the interaction of treatment with gender difference was not significant for learning the concepts.

Yenilmez, Ayse; Tekkaya, Ceren

2006-03-01

34

The Contribution of Conceptual Change Texts Accompanied by Concept Mapping to Students' Understanding of the Human Circulatory System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the contribution of conceptual change texts accompanied by concept mapping instruction to 10th-grade students' understanding of the human circulatory system. Indicates that the conceptual change texts accompanied by concept mapping instruction produced a positive effect on students' understanding of concepts. Concludes that students

Sungur, Semra; Tekkaya, Ceren; Geban, Omer

2001-01-01

35

Improving studentsconceptual understanding of the greenhouse effect using theory-based learning materials that promote deep learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students’ everyday ideas of the greenhouse effect are difficult to change. Environmental education faces the challenge of developing instructional settings that foster studentsconceptual understanding concept of the greenhouse effect in order to understand global warming. To facilitate studentsconceptual development with regard to the greenhouse effect, learning materials aimed at promoting active cognitive learning in order to achieve deep

Sibylle Reinfried; Urs Aeschbacher; Benno Rottermann

2012-01-01

36

Improving Students' Conceptual Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect Using Theory-Based Learning Materials that Promote Deep Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' everyday ideas of the greenhouse effect are difficult to change. Environmental education faces the challenge of developing instructional settings that foster students' conceptual understanding concept of the greenhouse effect in order to understand global warming. To facilitate students' conceptual development with regard to the…

Reinfried, Sibylle; Aeschbacher, Urs; Rottermann, Benno

2012-01-01

37

Effect of a Problem Based Simulation on the Conceptual Understanding of Undergraduate Science Education Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the effect of science teaching with a multimedia simulation on water quality, the "River of Life," on the science conceptual understanding of students (N = 83) in an undergraduate science education (K-9) course is reported. Teaching reality-based meaningful science is strongly recommended by the National Science Education Standards…

Kumar, David Devraj; Sherwood, Robert D.

2007-01-01

38

The Positive and Negative Effects of Science Concept Tests on Student Conceptual Understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the phenomenon of testing effect during science concept assessments, including the mechanism behind it and its impact upon a learner's conceptual understanding. The participants consisted of 208 high school students, in either the 11th or 12th grade. Three types of tests (traditional multiple?choice test, correct concept test, and incorrect concept test) related to the greenhouse effect and

James P. Barufaldi

2010-01-01

39

Effects of Experimenting with Physical and Virtual Manipulatives on Students' Conceptual Understanding in Heat and Temperature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to investigate the comparative value of experimenting with physical manipulatives (PM) in a sequential combination with virtual manipulatives (VM), with the use of PM preceding the use of VM, and of experimenting with PM alone, with respect to changes in students' conceptual understanding in the domain of heat and temperature. A…

Zacharia, Zacharias C.; Olympiou, Georgios; Papaevripidou, Marios

2008-01-01

40

Effect of Conceptual Change Oriented Instruction on Students' Understanding of Heat and Temperature Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the effectiveness of conceptual change oriented instruction and standard science instruction and contribution of logical thinking ability on seventh grade students' understanding of heat and temperature concepts. Misconceptions related to heat and temperature concepts were determined by related literature on this subject.…

Baser, Mustafa

2006-01-01

41

The Positive and Negative Effects of Science Concept Tests on Student Conceptual Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the phenomenon of testing effect during science concept assessments, including the mechanism behind it and its impact upon a learner's conceptual understanding. The participants consisted of 208 high school students, in either the 11th or 12th grade. Three types of tests (traditional multiple-choice test, correct concept test,…

Chang, Chun-Yen; Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Barufaldi, James P.

2010-01-01

42

Effect of Instruction Based on Conceptual Change Activities on Students' Understanding of Static Electricity Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of learning activities based on conceptual change conditions and traditionally designed physics instruction on tenth-grade students' understanding of static electricity concepts and their attitudes toward physics as a school subject. Misconceptions related to static electricity concepts…

Baser, Mustafa; Geban, Omer

2007-01-01

43

Using Two-Tier Test to Identify Primary Students' Conceptual Understanding and Alternative Conceptions in Acid Base  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to identify primary students' conceptual understanding and alternative conceptions in acid-base. For this reason, a 15 items two-tier multiple choice test administered 56 eighth grade students in spring semester 2009-2010. Data for this study were collected using a conceptual understanding scale prepared to include…

Bayrak, Beyza Karadeniz

2013-01-01

44

Scaffolding software: How does it influence student conceptual understanding and motivation?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of scaffolding software on student conceptual understanding and motivation. This study also provides insight on how students use the scaffolding features found in Artemis and the extent to which features show a relationship to student conceptual understanding and motivation. A Randomized Solomon Four Group Design was used in this study. As students worked through a project based unit over photosynthesis, the students performed information seeking activities that were based on their own inquiry. For this purpose, the students in the experimental group used an example of scaffolding software called Artemis, while the students in the control group used a search engine of their choice. To measure conceptual understanding, the researcher analyzed student generated concept maps on photosynthesis using three different methods (quantitative, qualitative, hierarchical). To measure motivation, the researcher used a survey that measured motivation on five different indicators: intrinsic goal orientation, extrinsic goal orientation, task value, control of learning beliefs, self-efficacy for learning and performance. Finally, the researcher looked at the relationship and influence of the scaffolding features on two student performance scores at the end of the unit. This created a total of ten dependent variables in relationship to the treatment. Overall, the students used the collaborative features 25% of the time, the maintenance features 0.84% of the time, the organizational features 16% of the time, the saving/viewing features 7% of the time and the searching features 51% of the time. There were significant correlations between the saving/viewing features hits and the students' task value (r = .499, p < .05), the searching features hits and the students' self-efficacy for learning and performance (r = .553, p < .01), the collaborative features hits and the students' essay performance scores (r = .519, p < .05) and the maintenance features time and the qualitative analysis of the concept maps (r = .576, p < .01). Finally, the results indicated that the scaffolding features in Artemis did not influence student conceptual understanding and motivation.

Butler, Kyle A.

45

Student Use of Scaffolding Software: Relationships with Motivation and Conceptual Understanding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was designed to theoretically articulate and empirically assess the role of computer scaffolds. In this project, several examples of educational software were developed to scaffold the learning of students performing high level cognitive activities. The software used in this study, Artemis, focused on scaffolding the learning of students as they performed information seeking activities. As 5th grade students traveled through a project-based science unit on photosynthesis, researchers used a pre-post design to test for both student motivation and student conceptual understanding of photosynthesis. To measure both variables, a motivation survey and three methods of concept map analysis were used. The student use of the scaffolding features was determined using a database that tracked students' movement between scaffolding tools. The gain scores of each dependent variable was then correlated to the students' feature use (time and hits) embedded in the Artemis Interface. This provided the researchers with significant relationships between the scaffolding features represented in the software and student motivation and conceptual understanding of photosynthesis. There were a total of three significant correlations in comparing the scaffolding use by hits (clicked on) with the dependent variables and only one significant correlation when comparing the scaffold use in time. The first significant correlation ( r = .499, p < .05) was between the saving/viewing features hits and the students' task value. This correlation supports the assumption that there is a positive relationship between the student use of the saving/viewing features and the students' perception of how interesting, how important, and how useful the task is. The second significant correlation ( r = 0.553, p < 0.01) was between the searching features hits and the students' self-efficacy for learning and performance. This correlation supports the assumption that there is a positive relationship between the student use of the searching features and the students' perception of their ability to accomplish a task as well as their confidence in their skills to perform that task. The third significant correlation ( r = 0.519, p < 0.05) was between the collaborative features hits and the students' essay performance scores. This correlation supports the assumption that there is a positive relationship between the student use of the collaborative features and the students' ability to perform high cognitive tasks. Finally, the last significant correlation ( r = 0.576, p < 0.01) was between the maintenance features time and the qualitative analysis of the concept maps. This correlation supports the assumption that there is a positive relationship between the student use of the maintenance features and student conceptual understanding of photosynthesis.

Butler, Kyle A.; Lumpe, Andrew

2008-10-01

46

Avoiding Reflex Responses: Strategies for Revealing Students' Conceptual Understanding in Biology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is widespread concern about the level of scientific literacy in the U. S. An important, although often overlooked, point, is that student learning is generally only a good as the assessments used to measure it. Unfortunately, most assessments measure recall and recognition rather than conceptual understanding, and as a result over-estimate levels of scientific literacy. We have encountered this fact during the construction of the Biology Concept Inventory (BCI). Using the concept of diffusion, which is taught in a wide range of introductory biology, chemistry, and physics courses, as an exemplar, we describe lessons learned and strategies we use to create questions that better probe student understanding.

Klymkowsky, Michael W.; Gheen, Rachel; Garvin-Doxas, Kathy

2007-01-01

47

Multiple intelligences and alternative teaching strategies: The effects on student academic achievement, conceptual understanding, and attitude  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the interactions between multiple intelligence strengths and alternative teaching methods on student academic achievement, conceptual understanding and attitudes. The design was a quasi-experimental study, in which students enrolled in Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, a developmental biology course, received lecture only, problem-based learning with lecture, or peer teaching with lecture. These students completed the Multiple Intelligence Inventory to determine their intelligence strengths, the Students' Motivation Toward Science Learning questionnaire to determine student attitudes towards learning in science, multiple choice tests to determine academic achievement, and open-ended questions to determine conceptual understanding. Effects of intelligence types and teaching methods on academic achievement and conceptual understanding were determined statistically by repeated measures ANOVAs. No significance occurred in academic achievement scores due to lab group or due to teaching method used; however, significant interactions between group and teaching method did occur in students with strengths in logical-mathematical, interpersonal, kinesthetic, and intrapersonal intelligences. Post-hoc analysis using Tukey HSD tests revealed students with strengths in logical-mathematical intelligence and enrolled in Group Three scored significantly higher when taught by problem-based learning (PBL) as compared to peer teaching (PT). No significance occurred in conceptual understanding scores due to lab group or due to teaching method used; however, significant interactions between group and teaching method did occur in students with strengths in musical, kinesthetic, intrapersonal, and spatial intelligences. Post-hoc analysis using Tukey HSD tests revealed students with strengths in logical-mathematical intelligence and enrolled in Group Three scored significantly higher when taught by lecture as compared to PBL. Students with strengths in intrapersonal intelligence and enrolled in Group One scored significantly lower when taught by lecture as compared to PBL. Results of a repeated measures ANOVA for student attitudes showed significant increases in positive student attitudes toward science learning for all three types of teaching method between pretest and posttest; but there were no significant differences in posttest attitude scores by type of teaching method.

Baragona, Michelle

48

A Lakatosian Conceptual Change Teaching Strategy Based on Student Ability To Build Models with Varying Degrees of Conceptual Understanding of Chemical Equilibrium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a study that constructs a Lakatosian teaching strategy that can facilitate conceptual change in students' understanding of chemical equilibrium. Results indicate that the experimental group performed better on tests. Contains 81 references. (DDR)

Niaz, Mansoor

1998-01-01

49

Effects of concept maps and dialogue journals on bilingual students' conceptual understanding in science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of using concept maps or dialogue journals on bilingual students' conceptual understanding in science. Three fourth grade classes, which included 60 students, using the Science and Technology for Children, Plant Growth and Development unit participated in the study. The vocabulary knowledge and conceptual understanding of bilingual and native English students in three treatment groups were compared. The study was conducted over a three month period. The three treatment groups consisted of (1) a control group using only the Science and Technology for Children, Plant Growth and Development unit, (2) the concept map treatment group, and (3) the dialogue journal treatment group. Student achievement was measured using a pretest and a posttest. Significant differences in the pretest and posttest scores were found for all three treatment groups. The concept map treatment group scored significantly higher than the dialogue journal and control groups on the posttest. The use of concept maps was found to be highly effective for both native English and bilingual students.

McFall, Rebecca E.

1999-11-01

50

Identifying Students' Mental Models of Sound Propagation: The Role of Conceptual Blending in Understanding Conceptual Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated introductory physics students' mental models of sound propagation. We used a phenomenographic method to analyze the data in the study. In addition to the scientifically accepted Wave model, students used the "Entity" model to describe the propagation of sound. In this latter model sound is a self-standing entity, different from the…

Hrepic, Zdeslav; Zollman, Dean A.; Rebello, N. Sanjay

2010-01-01

51

Constraints on Conceptual Change: How Elementary Teachers' Attitudes and Understanding of Conceptual Change Relate to Changes in Students' Conceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Like their students, teachers may hold a variety of naďve conceptions that have been hypothesized to limit their ability to support students' learning. This study examines whether changes in elementary students' conceptions are related to their teachers' content knowledge, attitudes, and understanding of conceptual change. The study…

Fulmer, Gavin W.

2013-01-01

52

Assessment in Support of Conceptual Understanding and Student Motivation to Learn Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Classroom-based assessment strategies may influence the development of conceptual understanding and motivational beliefs among elementary learners in science. A contextual analysis of how young children (65 second graders) responded to classroom-based assessment--and the impact that assessment may have had on science learning--suggests that these young children enjoyed learning about science. Their positive attitudes may have developed because of the opportunities for active exploration they were given and the intellectual stimulation that resulted from new and unexpected discoveries in science. Successful assessment experiences may also have contributed to the enthusiasm that these students expressed for science.

Melissa DiGennaro King

2006-01-01

53

Using Memes and Memetic Processes to Explain Social and Conceptual Influences on Student Understanding about Complex Socio-Scientific Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated seventh grade learners' decision making about genetic engineering concepts and applications. A social network analyses supported by technology tracked changes in student understanding with a focus on social and conceptual influences. Results indicated that several social and conceptual mechanisms potentially affected how…

Yoon, Susan

2008-01-01

54

The Effect of Cooperative Learning Approach Based on Conceptual Change Condition on Students' Understanding of Chemical Equilibrium Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the cooperative learning approach based on conceptual change conditions over traditional instruction on 10th grade students' conceptual understanding and achievement of computational problems related to chemical equilibrium concepts. The subjects of this study consisted of 87 tenth grade…

Bilgin, Ibrahim; Geban, Omer

2006-01-01

55

The Contribution of Conceptual Change Texts Accompanied by Concept Mapping to Eleventh-Grade Students Understanding of Cellular Respiration Concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study conducted to investigate the contribution of conceptual change texts, accompanied by concept mapping instruction to eleventh-grade students' understanding of cellular respiration concepts, and their retention of this understanding. Cellular respiration concepts test was developed as a result of examination of related literature and interviews with teachers regarding their observations of students' difficulties. The test was administrated as

Salem A. Al Khawaldeh; Ali M. Al Olaimat

2010-01-01

56

Development of a student-centered instrument to assess middle school students' conceptual understanding of sound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes the development and field test of the Sound Concept Inventory Instrument (SCII), designed to measure middle school students' concepts of sound. The instrument was designed based on known students' difficulties in understanding sound and the history of science related to sound and focuses on two main aspects of sound: sound has material properties, and sound has process properties. The final SCII consists of 71 statements that respondents rate as either true or false and also indicate their confidence on a five-point scale. Administration to 355 middle school students resulted in a Cronbach alpha of 0.906, suggesting a high reliability. In addition, the average percentage of students' answers to statements that associate sound with material properties is significantly higher than the average percentage of statements associating sound with process properties (p <0.001). The SCII is a valid and reliable tool that can be used to determine students' conceptions of sound.

Eshach, Haim

2014-06-01

57

The Effects of an Interactive Computer-Based Simulation Prior to Performing a Laboratory Inquiry-Based Experiment on Students' Conceptual Understanding of Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the effects of interactive computer-based simulations presented prior to inquiry-based laboratory experiments on students' conceptual understanding of mechanics, waves/optics, and thermal physics. Uses conceptual tests to assess conceptual understandings of each topic. Indicates that the use of the simulations improved students'…

Zacharia, Zacharias; Anderson, O. Roger

2003-01-01

58

Middle School Students' Conceptual Understanding of Equations: Evidence From Writing Story Problems. WCER Working Paper No. 2009-3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated middle school students' conceptual understanding of algebraic equations. Participants in the study--257 sixth- and seventh-grade students--were asked to solve one set of algebraic equations and to generate story problems corresponding with another set of equations. Structural aspects of the equations, including the number…

Alibali, Martha W.; Kao, Yvonne S.; Brown, Alayna N.; Nathan, Mitchell J.; Stephens, Ana C.

2009-01-01

59

Impacts of Multi-Representational Instruction on High School Students' Conceptual Understandings of the Particulate Nature of Matter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This quasi-experimental study examined 42 high school introductory chemistry students' conceptual understandings of the particulate nature of matter (PNM) before and immediately after instruction. Two groups of students, who were taught by the same teacher, received one of two possible instructional interventions: Reform-Based Teaching (RBT) or…

Adadan, Emine; Irving, Karen E.; Trundle, Kathy C.

2009-01-01

60

The effect of computer simulations and the learning cycle on students' conceptual understanding of Newton's three laws of motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine how three different methods of instruction would affect a student's conceptual understanding of Sir Isaac Newton's three laws of motion. The three methods were the expository, learning cycle, and computer simulations. Three sections of students enrolled in a suburban mid-western high school's introductory physics course were the subjects of this study. The

Paul Mason Rutherford Jr.

1999-01-01

61

Understanding the Greenhouse Effect by Embodiment--Analysing and Using Students' and Scientists' Conceptual Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the last 20 years, science education studies have reported that there are very different understandings among students of science regarding the key aspects of climate change. We used the cognitive linguistic framework of experientialism to shed new light on this valuable pool of studies to identify the conceptual resources of understanding

Niebert, Kai; Gropengießer, Harald

2014-01-01

62

The Contribution of Conceptual Change Texts Accompanied by Concept Mapping to Eleventh-Grade Students Understanding of Cellular Respiration Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study conducted to investigate the contribution of conceptual change texts, accompanied by concept mapping instruction to eleventh-grade students' understanding of cellular respiration concepts, and their retention of this understanding. Cellular respiration concepts test was developed as a result of examination of related literature…

Al khawaldeh, Salem A.; Al Olaimat, Ali M.

2010-01-01

63

The Contribution of Conceptual Change Texts Accompanied by Concept Mapping to Eleventh-Grade Students Understanding of Cellular Respiration Concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study conducted to investigate the contribution of conceptual change texts, accompanied by concept mapping instruction\\u000a to eleventh-grade studentsunderstanding of cellular respiration concepts, and their retention of this understanding. Cellular\\u000a respiration concepts test was developed as a result of examination of related literature and interviews with teachers regarding\\u000a their observations of students’ difficulties. The test was administrated as

Salem A. Al khawaldeh; Ali M. Al Olaimat

2010-01-01

64

The Contribution of Conceptual Change Texts Accompanied by Concept Mapping to Eleventh-Grade Students Understanding of Cellular Respiration Concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study conducted to investigate the contribution of conceptual change texts, accompanied by concept mapping instruction to eleventh-grade students' understanding of cellular respiration concepts, and their retention of this understanding. Cellular respiration concepts test was developed as a result of examination of related literature and interviews with teachers regarding their observations of students' difficulties. The test was administrated as pre-test, post-test, and delayed post-test to a total of 70 eleventh-grade students in two classes of the same high school in an urban area, taught by the same teacher. The experimental group was a class of 34 students who received conceptual change texts accompanied by concept mapping instruction. A class of 36 students comprised the control group who received traditional instruction. Besides treatment, previous understanding and logical thinking ability were other independent variables involved in this study. The results showed that logical thinking, treatment, previous understanding of cellular respiration concepts each made a statistically significant contribution to the variation in students' understanding of cellular respiration concepts. The result also showed that conceptual change texts accompanied by concept mapping instruction was significantly better than traditional instruction in retention of this understanding.

Al Khawaldeh, Salem A.; Al Olaimat, Ali M.

2010-04-01

65

Does using active learning in thermodynamics lectures improve studentsconceptual understanding and learning experiences?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Encouraging ‘active learning’ in the large lecture theatre emerges as a credible recommendation for improving university courses, with reports often showing significant improvements in learning outcomes. However, the recommendations are based predominantly on studies undertaken in mechanics. We set out to examine those claims in the thermodynamics module of a large first year physics course with an established technique, called interactive lecture demonstrations (ILDs). The study took place at The University of Sydney, where four parallel streams of the thermodynamics module were divided into two streams that experienced the ILDs and two streams that did not. The programme was first implemented in 2011 to gain experience and refine logistical matters and repeated in 2012 with approximately 500 students. A validated survey, the thermal concepts survey, was used as pre-test and post-test to measure learning gains while surveys and interviews provided insights into what the ‘active learning’ meant from student experiences. We analysed lecture recordings to capture the time devoted to different activities in a lecture, including interactivity. The learning gains were in the ‘high gain’ range for the ILD streams and ‘medium gain’ for the other streams. The analysis of the lecture recordings showed that the ILD streams devoted significantly more time to interactivity while surveys and interviews showed that students in the ILD streams were thinking in deep ways. Our study shows that ILDs can make a difference in studentsconceptual understanding as well as their experiences, demonstrating the potential value-add that can be provided by investing in active learning to enhance lectures.

Georgiou, H.; Sharma, M. D.

2015-01-01

66

Growing Pebbles and Conceptual Prisms: Understanding the Source of Student Misconceptions About Rock Formation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a study analyzing narrative essays, stories of rock formation, written by pre-service elementary school teachers. Most of these students had completed a college-level course in earth science, yet they expressed startling misconceptions about how rocks form. These misconceptions arise from deeply held but largely unexamined beliefs (conceptual prisms) that result from the interaction of the student's world view and personal experiences. The study addressed three basic research questions: how do students describe the process of rock formation in narrative essays?, are there common patterns in students' naive conceptions about geology?, and can these patterns be explained by a few underlying beliefs that shape student ideas?

Judi Kusnick

2002-01-01

67

The Impact of Problem-Based Learning on Engineering Students' Beliefs about Physics and Conceptual Understanding of Energy and Momentum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of problem-based learning (PBL) on freshmen engineering students' beliefs about physics and physics learning (referred to as epistemological beliefs) and conceptual understanding of physics. The multiple-choice test of energy and momentum concepts and the Colorado learning attitudes about…

Sahin, Mehmet

2010-01-01

68

The Effects of Students' Cognitive Styles on Conceptual Understandings and Problem-Solving Skills in Introductory Mechanics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine if there are relationships among freshmen students' Field depended or field independent (FD/FI) cognitive style, conceptual understandings, and problem solving skills in mechanics. The sample consisted of 213 freshmen (female = 111, male = 102; age range 17-21) who were enrolled in an introductory physics…

Ates, Salih; Cataloglu, Erdat

2007-01-01

69

First-Year Medical Students' Conceptual Understanding of and Resistance to Conceptual Change Concerning the Central Cardiovascular System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Medical students often have initial understanding concerning medical domains, such as the central cardiovascular system (CCVS), when they enter the study programme. These notions may to some extent be in conflict with scientific understanding, which can be seen as a challenge for medical teaching. Hence, the purpose of this study was to analyse…

Mikkila-Erdmann, Mirjamaija; Sodervik, Ilona; Vilppu, Henna; Kaapa, Pekka; Olkinuora, Erkki

2012-01-01

70

Effectiveness of Conceptual Change Text-Oriented Instruction on Students' Understanding of Energy in Chemical Reactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of conceptual change text instruction (CCT) in the context of energy in chemical reactions. The subjects of the study were 60, 10th grade students at a high school, who were in two different classes and taught by the same teacher. One of the classes was randomly selected as the experimental…

Tastan, Ozgecan; Yalcinkaya, Eylem; Boz, Yezdan

2008-01-01

71

Effects of Problem-Based Learning on University Students' Epistemological Beliefs about Physics and Physics Learning and Conceptual Understanding of Newtonian Mechanics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of problem-based learning on students' beliefs about physics and physics learning and conceptual understanding of Newtonian mechanics. The study further examines the relationship between students' beliefs about physics and their conceptual understanding of mechanics concepts. Participants were 124 Turkish…

Sahin, Mehmet

2010-01-01

72

Implementation of Scientific Community Laboratories and Their Effect on Student Conceptual Learning, Attitudes, and Understanding of Uncertainty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific Community Laboratories, developed by The University of Maryland, have shown initial promise as laboratories meant to emulate the practice of doing physics. These laboratories have been re-created by incorporating their design elements with the University of Toledo course structure and resources. The laboratories have been titled the Scientific Learning Community (SLC) Laboratories. A comparative study between these SLC laboratories and the University of Toledo physics department's traditional laboratories was executed during the fall 2012 semester on first semester calculus-based physics students. Three tests were executed as pre-test and post-tests to capture the change in students' concept knowledge, attitudes, and understanding of uncertainty. The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) was used to evaluate students' conceptual changes through the semester and average normalized gains were compared between both traditional and SLC laboratories. The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS) was conducted to elucidate students' change in attitudes through the course of each laboratory. Finally, interviews regarding data analysis and uncertainty were transcribed and coded to track changes in the way students understand uncertainty and data analysis in experimental physics after their participation in both laboratory type. Students in the SLC laboratories showed a notable an increase conceptual knowledge and attitudes when compared to traditional laboratories. SLC students' understanding of uncertainty showed most improvement, diverging completely from students in the traditional laboratories, who declined throughout the semester.

Lark, Adam

73

Effects of Problem-Based Learning on University Students’ Epistemological Beliefs About Physics and Physics Learning and Conceptual Understanding of Newtonian Mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of problem-based learning on students’ beliefs about physics and physics learning and\\u000a conceptual understanding of Newtonian mechanics. The study further examines the relationship between students’ beliefs about\\u000a physics and their conceptual understanding of mechanics concepts. Participants were 124 Turkish university students (PBL = 55,\\u000a traditional = 69) enrolled in a calculus-based introductory physics class. Students’ beliefs about physics and

Mehmet Sahin

2010-01-01

74

Effects of Student-Generated Diagrams versus Student-Generated Summaries on Conceptual Understanding of Causal and Dynamic Knowledge in Plate Tectonics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grade five students' (n=58) conceptual understanding of plate tectonics was measured by analysis of student-generated summaries and diagrams, and by posttest assessment of both the spatial/static and causal/dynamic aspects of the domain. The diagram group outperformed the summary and text-only groups on the posttest measures. Discusses the effects…

Gobert, Janice D.; Clement, John J.

1999-01-01

75

Arguments, Contradictions, Resistances, and Conceptual Change in Students' Understanding of Atomic Structure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a study aimed at facilitating freshman general chemistry students' understanding of atomic structure based on the work of Thomson, Rutherford, and Bohr. Hypothesizes that classroom discussions based on arguments/counterarguments of the heuristic principles on which these scientists based their atomic models can facilitate students'…

Niaz, Mansoor; Aguilera, Damarys; Maza, Arelys; Liendo, Gustavo

2002-01-01

76

Urban High School Students' Critical Science Agency: Conceptual Understandings and Environmental Actions around Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates how the enactment of a climate change curriculum supports students' development of critical science agency, which includes students developing deep understandings of science concepts and the ability to take action at the individual and community levels. We examined the impact of a four to six week urban ecology curriculum…

McNeill, Katherine L.; Vaughn, Meredith Houle

2012-01-01

77

The impact of science notebook writing on ELL and low-SES students' science language development and conceptual understanding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This quantitative study explored the impact of literacy integration in a science inquiry classroom involving the use of science notebooks on the academic language development and conceptual understanding of students from diverse (i.e., English Language Learners, or ELLs) and low socio-economic status (low-SES) backgrounds. The study derived from a randomized, longitudinal, field-based NSF funded research project (NSF Award No. DRL - 0822343) targeting ELL and non-ELL students from low-SES backgrounds in a large urban school district in Southeast Texas. The study used a scoring rubric (modified and tested for validity and reliability) to analyze fifth-grade school students' science notebook entries. Scores for academic language quality (or, for brevity, language ) were used to compare language growth over time across three time points (i.e., beginning, middle, and end of the school year) and to compare students across categories (ELL, former ELL, non-ELL, and gender) using descriptive statistics and mixed between-within subjects analysis of variance (ANOVA). Scores for conceptual understanding (or, for brevity, concept) were used to compare students across categories (ELL, former ELL, non-ELL, and gender) in three domains using descriptive statistics and ANOVA. A correlational analysis was conducted to explore the relationship, if any, between language scores and concept scores for each group. Students demonstrated statistically significant growth over time in their academic language as reflected by science notebook scores. While ELL students scored lower than former ELL and non-ELL students at the first two time points, they caught up to their peers by the third time point. Similarly, females outperformed males in language scores in the first two time points, but males caught up to females in the third time point. In analyzing conceptual scores, ELLs had statistically significant lower scores than former-ELL and non-ELL students, and females outperformed males in the first two domains. These differences, however, were not statistically significant in the last domain. Last, correlations between language and concept scores were overall, positive, large, and significant across domains and groups. The study presents a rubric useful for quantifying diverse students' science notebook entries, and findings add to the sparse research on the impact of writing in diverse students' language development and conceptual understanding in science.

Huerta, Margarita

78

Enhancing Students' Conceptual Understanding by Engaging Science Text with Reflective Writing as a Hermeneutical Circle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students can have great difficulty reading scientific texts and trying to cope with the professor in the classroom. Part of the reason for students' difficulties is that for a student taking a science gateway course the language, ontology and epistemology of science are akin to a foreign culture. There is thus an analogy between such a student and an anthropologist spending time among a native group in some remote part of the globe. This brings us naturally to the subject of hermeneutics. It is through language that we attempt to understand an alien culture. The hermeneutical circle involves the interplay between our construct of the unfamiliar with our own outlook that deepens with each pass. It can be argued that for novice students to acquire a full understanding of scientific texts, they also need to pursue a recurrent construction of their comprehension of scientific concepts. In this paper it is shown how an activity, reflective-writing, can enhance students' understanding of concepts in their textbook by getting students to approach text in the manner of a hermeneutical circle. This is illustrated using studies made at three post-secondary institutions.

Kalman, Calvin S.

2011-02-01

79

Conceptual Understanding of Causal Reasoning in Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College students often experience difficulties in solving physics problems. These difficulties largely result from a lack of conceptual understanding of the topic. The processes of conceptual learning reflect the nature of the causal reasoning process. Two major causal reasoning methods are the covariational and the mechanism-based approaches.…

Hung, Woei; Jonassen, David H.

2006-01-01

80

The Effects of Writing-to-Learn Activities on Elementary Students' Conceptual Understanding: Learning about Force and Motion through Writing to Older Peers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This quasi-experimental and pre/posttest study was designed to examine whether fourth-grade students who engaged in collaboratively writing letters to 11th-grade students performed better on tests of conceptual understanding of a unit on force and motion than students who did not. The participants included 835 fourth-grade students and 416…

Chen, Ying-Chih; Hand, Brian; McDowell, Leah

2013-01-01

81

Representational Classroom Practices that Contribute to Students' Conceptual and Representational Understanding of Chemical Bonding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding bonding is fundamental to success in chemistry. A number of alternative conceptions related to chemical bonding have been reported in the literature. Research suggests that many alternative conceptions held by chemistry students result from previous teaching; if teachers are explicit in the use of representations and explain their…

Hilton, Annette; Nichols, Kim

2011-01-01

82

Analysis of Physical Science Textbooks for Conceptual Frameworks on Acids, Bases and Neutralization: Implications for Students' Conceptual Understanding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eight physical science textbooks were analyzed for coverage on acids, bases, and neutralization. At the level of the text, clarity and coherence of statements were investigated. The conceptual framework for this topic was represented in a concept map which was used as a coding tool for tracing concepts and links present in textbooks. Cognitive…

Erduran, Sibel

83

Students' Communicative Resources in Relation to Their Conceptual Understanding--The Role of Non-Conventionalized Expressions in Making Sense of Visualizations of Protein Function  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines how students explain their conceptual understanding of protein function using visualizations. Thirteen upper secondary students, four tertiary students (studying chemical biology), and two experts were interviewed in semi-structured interviews. The interviews were structured around 2D illustrations of proteins and an animated…

Rundgren, Carl-Johan; Hirsch, Richard; Chang Rundgren, Shu-Nu; Tibell, Lena A. E.

2012-01-01

84

Conceptual understandings of biology in pre-service science educators and undergraduate biology students at Colorado institutions of higher education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pre-service secondary science individuals, future middle or high school instructors training to become teachers, along with both Honors and general first year undergraduate biology students were investigated to determine how they reason about and understand two core topics in Biology: matter and energy flow through biological systems and evolution by natural selection. Diagnostic Question Clusters were used to assess student understanding of the processes by which matter and energy flow through biological systems over spatial scales, from the atomic-molecular to ecosystem levels. Key concepts and identified misconceptions were examined over topics of evolution by natural selection using the multiple-choice Concept Inventory of Natural Selection (CINS) and open-response Assessing COntextual Reasoning about Natural Selection (ACORNS). Pre-service teachers used more scientifically based reasoning than the undergraduate students over the topics of matter and energy flow. The Honors students used more scientific and less improper informal reasoning than the general undergraduates over matter and energy flow. Honors students performed best on both the CINS and ACORNS items over natural selection, while the general undergraduates scored the lowest on the CINS, and the pre-service instructors scored lowest on the ACORNS. Overall, there remain a large proportion of students not consistently using scientific reasoning about these two important concepts, even in future secondary science teachers. My findings are similar to those of other published studies using the same assessments. In general, very few biology students at the college level use scientific reasoning that exhibits deep conceptual understanding. A reason for this could be that instructors fail to recognize deficiencies in student reasoning; they assume their students use principle-based reasoning. Another reason could be that principle-based reasoning is very difficult and our teaching approaches in college promote memorization of content rather than conceptual change. My findings are significant to the work and progression of concept inventories in biology education, as well as to the instructors of students at all levels of biology curriculum, and those of future science teachers.

Smith, Trenton John

85

A Study of General Education Astronomy Students' Understandings of Cosmology. Part I. Development and Validation of Four Conceptual Cosmology Surveys  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the first in a series of five articles describing a national study of general education astronomy students' conceptual and reasoning difficulties with cosmology. In this paper, we describe the process by which we designed four new surveys to assess general education astronomy students' conceptual cosmology knowledge. These surveys focused…

Wallace, Colin S.; Prather, Edward E.; Duncan, Douglas K.

2011-01-01

86

Development of a Student-Centered Instrument to Assess Middle School Students' Conceptual Understanding of Sound  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the development and field test of the Sound Concept Inventory Instrument (SCII), designed to measure middle school students' concepts of sound. The instrument was designed based on known students' difficulties in understanding sound and the history of science related to sound and focuses on two main aspects of…

Eshach, Haim

2014-01-01

87

The effects of academic literacy instruction on engagement and conceptual understanding of biology of ninth-grade students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Academic language, discourse, vocabulary, motivation, and comprehension of complex texts and concepts are keys to learning subject-area content. The need for a disciplinary literacy approach in high school classrooms accelerates as students become increasing disengaged in school and as content complexity increases. In the present quasi-experimental mixed-method study, a ninth-grade biology unit was designed with an emphasis on promoting academic literacy skills, discourse, meaningful constructivist learning, interest development, and positive learning experiences in order to learn science content. Quantitative and qualitative analyses on a variety of measures completed by 222 students in two high schools revealed that those who received academic literacy instruction in science class performed at significantly higher levels of conceptual understanding of biology content, academic language and vocabulary use, reasoned thought, engagement, and quality of learning experience than control-group students receiving traditionally-organized instruction. Academic literacy was embedded into biology instruction to engage students in meaning-making discourses of science to promote learning. Academic literacy activities were organized according the phases of interest development to trigger and sustain interest and goal-oriented engagement throughout the unit. Specific methods included the Generative Vocabulary Matrix (GVM), scenario-based writing, and involvement in a variety of strategically-placed discourse activities to sustain or "boost" engagement for learning. Traditional instruction for the control group included teacher lecture, whole-group discussion, a conceptual organizer, and textbook reading. Theoretical foundations include flow theory, sociocultural learning theory, and interest theory. Qualitative data were obtained from field notes and participants' journals. Quantitative survey data were collected and analyzed using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM) to measure cognitive and emotional states, revealing patterns of engagement, quality of experience, and flow over the course of the instructional unit. Conceptual understanding was measured using the state persuasive writing rubric to analyze science essays in which students supported a claim with scientific evidence. The study contributes an Engagement Model of Academic Literacy for Learning (EngageALL), a Rubric for Academic Persuasive Writing (RAPW), a unique classification system for analyzing academic vocabulary, and suggestions for situated professional development around a research-based planning framework. A discussion addresses a new direction for future research that explores academic identity development.

Larson, Susan C.

88

Assessing the Development of Chemistry Students' Conceptual and Visual Understanding of Dimensional Analysis via Supplemental Use of Web-Based Software  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to evaluate the effects of a proprietary software program on students' conceptual and visual understanding of dimensional analysis. The participants in the study were high school general chemistry students enrolled in two public schools with different demographics (School A and School B) in the Chattanooga, Tennessee,…

Ellis, Jennifer T.

2013-01-01

89

The Effect of the Conceptual Change Oriented Instruction through Cooperative Learning on 4th Grade Students' Understanding of Earth and Sky Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the conceptual change oriented instruction through cooperative learning (CCICL) and traditional science instruction (TI) on 4th grade students' understanding of earth and sky concepts and their attitudes toward earth and sky concepts. In this study, 56 fourth grade students from the…

Celikten, Oksan; Ipekcioglu, Sevgi; Ertepinar, Hamide; Geban, Omer

2012-01-01

90

Supporting Teacher's Conceptual Understanding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 5-minute audio recording, Jonathan Wray describes ways in which his district is supporting teachers in the transition to the Common Core State Standards. He explains how the shifts, especially in fractions, make it necessary for teachers to have a deeper understanding of the concepts. This recording is also available in PDF format.

Jonathan Wray, M.A.

91

Enhancing Students' Conceptual Understanding by Engaging Science Text with Reflective Writing as a Hermeneutical Circle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students can have great difficulty reading scientific texts and trying to cope with the professor in the classroom. Part of the reason for students' difficulties is that for a student taking a science gateway course the language, ontology and epistemology of science are akin to a foreign culture. There is thus an analogy between such a student and…

Kalman, Calvin S.

2011-01-01

92

Upper Secondary Students' Understanding of the Use of Multiple Models in Biology Textbooks—The Importance of Conceptual Variation and Incommensurability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we investigate students' ability to discern conceptual variation and the use of multiple models in genetics when reading content-specific excerpts from biology textbooks. Using the history and philosophy of science as our reference, we were able to develop a research instrument allowing students themselves to investigate the occurrence of multiple models and conceptual variation in Swedish upper secondary textbooks. Two excerpts using different models of gene function were selected from authentic textbooks. Students were given the same questionnaire-instrument after reading the two texts, and the results were compared. In this way the students themselves made a classification of the texts which could then be compared with the researchers' classification of the texts. Forty-one upper secondary students aged 18-19 participated in the study. Nine of the students also participated in semi-structured interviews. Students recognized the existence of multiple models in a general way, but had difficulty discerning the different models and the conceptual variation that occurs between them in the texts. Further they did not recognize the occurrence of incommensurability between multiple models. Students had difficulty in transforming their general knowledge of multiple models into an understanding of content specific models of gene function in the textbooks. These findings may have implications for students' understanding of conceptual knowledge because research has established textbooks as one of the most influential aspects in the planning and execution of biology lessons, and teachers commonly assign reading passages to their students without further explanation.

Gericke, Niklas; Hagberg, Mariana; Jorde, Doris

2013-04-01

93

Teaching Mathematical Trade Topics for Conceptual Understanding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is intended to assist trade and industrial education teachers in teaching mathematical trade topics in a way that will increase students' conceptual understanding of them. The first chapter provides an overview of the book's contents and suggests ways of using it. The next five chapters address the following aspects of using principles…

Larkin, Alan; Phillips, Keith

94

Explaining Newton's Laws of Motion: Using Student Reasoning through Representations to Develop Conceptual Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of students' reasoning and argumentation skills in school science is currently attracting strong research interest. In this paper we report on a study where we aimed to investigate student learning on the topic of motion when students, guided by their teacher, responded to a sequence of representational challenges in which their…

Waldrip, Bruce; Prain, Vaughan; Sellings, Peter

2013-01-01

95

The Impact of Science Notebook Writing on ELL and Low-SES Students' Science Language Development and Conceptual Understanding  

E-print Network

the instructors? guidance (i.e., scaffolding) towards ?accurate? conceptions. Based on the latter idea, researchers have advocated integrating literacy into science instruction, acknowledging the power of discourse on building conceptual understanding...

Huerta, Margarita

2013-04-05

96

Using a Computer Animation To Improve Students' Conceptual Understanding of a Can-Crushing Demonstration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents several student responses to viewing a can-crushing demonstration in which a soda can containing a small amount of water was heated on a hot-plate to boil the water, removed from the heat, and sealed by inverting over a container of cold water. Students were given a quiz, made predictions, and explained what happened on a molecular level.…

Sanger, Michael J.; Phelps, Amy J.; Fienhold, Jason

2000-01-01

97

Conceptual Understanding of Shape and Space by Braille-Reading Norwegian Students in Elementary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: The study presented here investigated the ways in which students who read braille were able to complete geometric tasks and how they constructed mental representations of the shapes of objects. Methods: Data were collected in an educational experiment conducted as a geometry course for students who read braille. A case study approach…

Klingenberg, Oliv G.

2012-01-01

98

Understanding Conservation of Laws in Mechanics: Students' Conceptual Change in Learning about Collisions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews research on student learning about collisions in physics instruction. Focus is placed on the main differences between the spontaneous perspective in describing/interpreting collisions and the disciplinary perspective based upon the energy and linear momentum conservation laws. (PR)

Grimellini-Tomasini, N.; And Others

1993-01-01

99

The Origin and Extent of Student's Understandings: The Effect of Various Kinds of Factors in Conceptual Understanding in Volcanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated and compared 130 students' perceptions of volcanoes and volcanic activity from an inner city elementary school (Year 6), middle school (Year 9) and student teachers in the science education department. A qualitative and quantitative methodology was used for this investigation. The data collection was based on three research stages: collection of information by the association of ideas,

Burckin Dal

2006-01-01

100

Student Use of Scaffolding Software: Relationships with Motivation and Conceptual Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to theoretically articulate and empirically assess the role of computer scaffolds. In this project, several examples of educational software were developed to scaffold the learning of students performing high level cognitive activities. The software used in this study, Artemis, focused on scaffolding the learning of…

Butler, Kyle A.; Lumpe, Andrew

2008-01-01

101

Fundamental Computer Science Conceptual Understandings for High School Students Using Original Computer Game Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2009, the North Carolina Virtual Public Schools worked with researchers at the William and Ida Friday Institute to produce and evaluate the use of game creation by secondary students as a means for learning content related to career awareness in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines, with particular emphasis in…

Ernst, Jeremy V.; Clark, Aaron C.

2012-01-01

102

Growing Pebbles and Conceptual Prisms - Understanding the Source of Student Misconceptions about Rock Formation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes narrative essays--stories of rock formation--written by pre-service elementary school teachers. Reports startling misconceptions among preservice teachers on pebbles that grow, human involvement in rock formation, and sedimentary rocks forming as puddles as dry up, even though these students had completed a college level course on Earth…

Kusnick, Judi

2002-01-01

103

Exploring the Influence of the Mass Media on Primary Students' Conceptual Understanding of Genetics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The new Australian Curriculum ignites debate about science content appropriate for primary school children. Abstract genetics concepts such as genes and DNA are still being avoided in primary school, yet research has shown that, by age 10, many students have heard of DNA and/or genes. Scientific concepts appear in the mass media, but primary…

Donovan, Jenny; Venville, Grady

2012-01-01

104

Facilitating Students' Conceptual Understanding of Boiling Using a Four-Step Constructivist Teaching Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the work presented here was to devise an activity associated with factors affecting boiling points. The intervention used a four-step constructivist-based teaching strategy, which was subsequently evaluated by a cohort of students. Data collection consisted of application of a purpose designed questionnaire consisting of four open-ended…

Calik, Muammer

2008-01-01

105

Exploring Middle School Students' Understanding of Three Conceptual Models in Genetics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Genetics is the cornerstone of modern biology and a critical aspect of scientific literacy. Research has shown, however, that many high school graduates lack fundamental understandings in genetics necessary to make informed decisions about issues and emerging technologies in this domain, such as genetic screening, genetically modified foods, etc.…

Freidenreich, Hava Bresler; Duncan, Ravit Golan; Shea, Nicole

2011-01-01

106

Evaluation of the Effects of Argumentation Based Science Teaching on 5th Grade Students' Conceptual Understanding of the Subjects Related to "Matter and Change"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of Argumentation Based Science Teaching on 5th grade students' conceptual understanding of the subjects related to "Matter and Change". This research is a qualitative research and its design is a multiple (compare) case study. In this study, semi-structured interviews related to the…

Çinar, Derya; Bayraktar, Sule

2014-01-01

107

Effect of Animation Enhanced Conceptual Change Texts on 6th Grade Students' Understanding of the Particulate Nature of Matter and Transformation During Phase Changes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the effect of animation enhanced conceptual change texts (CCT-CA) on grade 6 students' understanding of the particulate nature of matter (PNM) and transformation during the phase changes was investigated. A quasi-experimental design and one control group (CG, N = 25) and one experimental group (EG, N = 26) were used. While the…

Ozmen, Haluk

2011-01-01

108

Examining the Relationship Between Students' Understanding of the Nature of Models and Conceptual Learning in Biology, Physics, and Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research addresses high school studentsunderstandings of the nature of models, and their interaction with model?based software in three science domains, namely, biology, physics, and chemistry. Data from 736 high school studentsunderstandings of models were collected using the StudentsUnderstanding of Models in Science (SUMS) survey as part of a large?scale, longitudinal study in the context of technology?based

Janice D. Gobert; Laura O’Dwyer; Paul Horwitz; Barbara C. Buckley; Sharona Tal Levy; Uri Wilensky

2011-01-01

109

TOCUSO: Test of Conceptual Understanding on High School Optics Topics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Physics educators around the world often need reliable diagnostic materials to measure students' understanding of physics concept in high school. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a new diagnostic tool on High School Optics concept. Test of Conceptual Understanding on High School Optics (TOCUSO) consists of 25 conceptual items that…

Akarsu, Bayram

2012-01-01

110

A Student-centred Approach: Assessing the Changes in Prospective Science Teachers’ Conceptual Understanding by Concept Mapping in a General Chemistry Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although researchers in higher education propose alternatives to traditional approaches to assessment, traditional methods\\u000a are commonly used in college or university science courses. The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility and validity\\u000a of Prospective Science Teachers’ (PSTs) concept maps as authentic assessment tools in a student-centred approach to describe\\u000a the changes in the conceptual understanding of the

Osman Nafiz Kaya

2008-01-01

111

Understanding Quality in Conceptual Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing focus on early development as a major factor in determining overall quality, many researchers are trying to define what makes a good conceptual model. However, existing frameworks often do little more than list desirable properties. The authors examine attempts to define quality as it relates to conceptual models and propose their own framework, which includes a systematic

Odd Ivar Lindland; Guttorm Sindre; Arne Sřlvberg

1994-01-01

112

Students' understandings of electrochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrochemistry is considered by students to be a difficult topic in chemistry. This research was a mixed methods study guided by the research question: At the end of a unit of study, what are students' understandings of electrochemistry? The framework of analysis used for the qualitative and quantitative data collected in this study was comprised of three categories: types of knowledge used in problem solving, levels of representation of knowledge in chemistry (macroscopic, symbolic, and particulate), and alternative conceptions. Although individually each of the three categories has been reported in previous studies, the contribution of this study is the inter-relationships among them. Semi-structured, task-based interviews were conducted while students were setting up and operating electrochemical cells in the laboratory, and a two-tiered, multiple-choice diagnostic instrument was designed to identify alternative conceptions that students held at the end of the unit. For familiar problems, those involving routine voltaic cells, students used a working-forwards problem-solving strategy, two or three levels of representation of knowledge during explanations, scored higher on both procedural and conceptual knowledge questions in the diagnostic instrument, and held fewer alternative conceptions related to the operation of these cells. For less familiar problems, those involving non-routine voltaic cells and electrolytic cells, students approached problem-solving with procedural knowledge, used only one level of representation of knowledge when explaining the operation of these cells, scored higher on procedural knowledge than conceptual knowledge questions in the diagnostic instrument, and held a greater number of alternative conceptions. Decision routines that involved memorized formulas and procedures were used to solve both quantitative and qualitative problems and the main source of alternative conceptions in this study was the overgeneralization of theory related to the particulate level of representation of knowledge. The findings from this study may contribute further to our understanding of students' conceptions in electrochemistry. Furthermore, understanding the influence of the three categories in the framework of analysis and their inter-relationships on how students make sense of this field may result in a better understanding of classroom practice that could promote the acquisition of conceptual knowledge --- knowledge that is "rich in relationships".

O'Grady-Morris, Kathryn

113

Understanding Co-development of Conceptual and Epistemic Understanding through Modeling Practices with Mobile Internet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study explores how engaging in modeling practice, along with argumentation, leverages students' epistemic and conceptual understanding in an afterschool science/math class of 16 tenth graders. The study also explores how students used mobile Internet phones (smart phones) productively to support modeling practices. As the modeling practices became more challenging, student discussion occurred more often, from what to model to providing explanations for the phenomenon. Students came to argue about evidence that supported their model and how the model could explain target and related phenomena. This finding adds to the literature that modeling practice can help students improve conceptual understanding of subject knowledge as well as epistemic understanding.

Ryu, Suna; Han, Yuhwha; Paik, Seoung-Hey

2015-04-01

114

Understanding Co-development of Conceptual and Epistemic Understanding through Modeling Practices with Mobile Internet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study explores how engaging in modeling practice, along with argumentation, leverages students' epistemic and conceptual understanding in an afterschool science/math class of 16 tenth graders. The study also explores how students used mobile Internet phones (smart phones) productively to support modeling practices. As the modeling practices became more challenging, student discussion occurred more often, from what to model to providing explanations for the phenomenon. Students came to argue about evidence that supported their model and how the model could explain target and related phenomena. This finding adds to the literature that modeling practice can help students improve conceptual understanding of subject knowledge as well as epistemic understanding.

Ryu, Suna; Han, Yuhwha; Paik, Seoung-Hey

2015-01-01

115

Epistemic Beliefs and Conceptual Understanding in Biotechnology: A Case Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this investigation was to explore students' epistemic beliefs and conceptual understanding of biotechnology. Epistemic beliefs can influence reasoning, how individuals evaluate information, and informed decision making abilities. These skills are important for an informed citizenry that will participate in debates regarding areas in science such as biotechnology. We report on an in-depth case study analysis of three undergraduate, non-science majors in a biotechnology course designed for non-biochemistry majors. We selected participants who performed above average and below average on the first in-class exam. Data from multiple sources—interviews, exams, and a concept instrument—were used to construct (a) individual profiles and (b) a cross-case analysis of our participants' conceptual development and epistemic beliefs from two different theoretical perspectives—Women's Ways of Knowing and the Reflective Judgment Model. Two independent trained researchers coded all case records independently for both theoretical perspectives, with resultant initial Cohen's kappa values above .715 (substantial agreement), and then reached consensus on the codes. Results indicate that a student with more sophisticated epistemology demonstrated greater conceptual understandings at the end of the course than a student with less sophisticated epistemology, even though the latter performed higher initially. Also a student with a less sophisticated epistemology and low initial conceptual performance does not demonstrate gains in their overall conceptual understanding. Results suggest the need for instructional interventions fostering epistemological development of learners in order to facilitate their conceptual growth.

Rebello, Carina M.; Siegel, Marcelle A.; Witzig, Stephen B.; Freyermuth, Sharyn K.; McClure, Bruce A.

2012-04-01

116

Effects of Conceptual Change Texts and Laboratory Experiments on Fourth Grade Students' Understanding of Matter and Change Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether conceptual change texts and laboratory experiments are effective in overcoming misconceptions and whether the concepts were acquired permanently when these methods were utilized. In this study, we addressed some topics from the "Matter and Change" unit in science and technology class of…

Durmus, Jale; Bayraktar, Sule

2010-01-01

117

Epistemic Beliefs and Conceptual Understanding in Biotechnology: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this investigation was to explore students' epistemic beliefs and conceptual understanding of biotechnology. Epistemic beliefs can influence reasoning, how individuals evaluate information, and informed decision making abilities. These skills are important for an informed citizenry that will participate in debates regarding areas in…

Rebello, Carina M.; Siegel, Marcelle A.; Witzig, Stephen B.; Freyermuth, Sharyn K.; McClure, Bruce A.

2012-01-01

118

Explicit Argumentation Instruction to Facilitate Conceptual Understanding and Argumentation Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Argumentation is accepted by many science educators as a major component of science education. Many studies have investigated students' conceptual understanding and their engagement in argumentative activities. However, studies conducted in the subject of chemistry are very rare. Purpose: The present study aimed to investigate the…

Cetin, Pinar Seda

2014-01-01

119

Exploring the Development of Conceptual Understanding through Structured Problem-Solving in Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study on the effect of a structured problem-solving strategy on problem-solving skills and conceptual understanding of physics was undertaken with 189 students in 16 disadvantaged South African schools. This paper focuses on the development of conceptual understanding. New instruments, namely a solutions map and a conceptual index, are…

Gaigher, E.; Rogan, J. M.; Braun, M. W. H.

2007-01-01

120

Understanding Cellular Respiration: An Analysis of Conceptual Change in College Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores and documents the frequencies of conceptual difficulties confronted by college students (n=200) seeking to understand the basic processes of cellular respiration. Findings suggest that novices harbor a wide range of conceptual difficulties that constrain their understanding of cellular respiration and many of these conceptual problems…

Songer, Catherine J.; Mintzes, Joel J.

1994-01-01

121

THE ROLE OF SELF-REGULATED LEARNING IN FOSTERING STUDENTS' CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDING OF COMPLEX SYSTEMS WITH HYPERMEDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the role of self-regulated learning (SRL) in facilitating students' shifts to more sophisticated mental models of the circulatory system as indicated by both performance and process data. We began with Winne and colleagues' information processing model of SRL (Winne, 2001; Winne & Hadwin, 1998) and used it to examine how students regulated their own learning when using

ROGER AZEVEDO; JOHN T. GUTHRIE; DIANE SEIBERT

2004-01-01

122

Upper Secondary Students' Understanding of the Use of Multiple Models in Biology Textbooks--The Importance of Conceptual Variation and Incommensurability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study we investigate students' ability to discern conceptual variation and the use of multiple models in genetics when reading content-specific excerpts from biology textbooks. Using the history and philosophy of science as our reference, we were able to develop a research instrument allowing students themselves to investigate the…

Gericke, Niklas; Hagberg, Mariana; Jorde, Doris

2013-01-01

123

Students' Understanding of Tides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports the findings of research into students' understanding of tides. Students from secondary school and pre-service primary school teacher trainees were chosen as subjects and their understanding was assessed by questionnaire. (Author/CCM)

Viiri, Jouni

2000-01-01

124

Ranking Tasks for Assessing Conceptual and Quantitative Understanding in Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A challenge for astronomy teachers is to deeply and meaningfully assess studentsconceptual and quantitative understanding of astronomy topics. In an effort to evaluate studentsunderstanding, members of the Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team are creating and field-testing innovative approaches to assessment. Leveraging both astronomy and physics education research, we are creating a series of assessment tools that require students’ to place items or quantities in a rank order from “greatest to least.” These conceptually challenging tasks span the entire domain of topics and highlight the most important physical laws taught in a typical introductory astronomy course for non-science majoring undergraduates. When completed, these ranking tasks will be able to be delivered via paper-and-pencil tasks or a drag-and-drop computer interface a series of assessment tasks that are capable of determining the depth of student understanding in astronomy. Ref: Hudgins, David W., Prather, Edward. E., Grayson, Diane J., Derck P. (2006). Effectiveness of Collaborative Ranking Tasks on Student Understanding of Key Astronomy Concepts, The Astronomy Education Review, 5(1):1-22.

Prather, Edward E.; Slater, T. F.; Loranz, D.

2006-12-01

125

Teacher Candidates' Conceptual Understandings of Mathematics Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As universities strive to produce the best mathematics teachers possible through both graduate and undergraduate programs, teacher educators must constantly work towards helping teacher candidates create their own conceptual understanding of mathematics. This pilot study examined the effect teaching in a constructivist manner had on teacher…

Barlow, Angela T.; Reddish, Jill Mizell

2005-01-01

126

Using a schoolyard garden to increase language acquisition and conceptual understanding of science in elementary ELL students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This action research study examined a small cross-section of a Texas public school population. Participants were kindergarten through third grade students enrolled in the English as a Second Language (ESL) Program who were pulled out of their general classroom to receive English support within the content area of science. This study looked at how effective a hands-on learning experience using a schoolyard garden enhanced the academic language and science content of the participants. The study began in mid-March and concluded at the end of April with each group receiving 40 minutes of instruction five days a week. Each group consisted of a Beginner, Intermediate, and Advanced/Advanced High student for a total of 12 participants. Four forms of data were used in this study: archival, pre-test, post-test, and journal. Rubrics were used to analyze individual students' level of academic language before and after the study. The results illustrate that the younger students (kindergarten and first grade) descriptions were very basic and concrete while the older students had more accurate and descriptive responses. Upon completion of this research, it was determined that the usage of a schoolyard garden compliments both the acquisition of academic language and the increase in science content knowledge.

Stewart, Morgan

127

Understanding complex Earth systems: volatile metabolites as microbial ecosystem proxies and student conceptual model development of coastal eutrophication  

E-print Network

research strands which contribute to the scientific and pedagogical understanding of complex Earth systems. In the first strand, a method that characterizes volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as ecological proxies of soil microbial ecosystems was validated...

McNeal, Karen Sue

2009-05-15

128

Argument-Driven Inquiry in Undergraduate Chemistry Labs: The Impact on Students' Conceptual Understanding, Argument Skills, and Attitudes toward Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a new instructional model called Argument-Driven Inquiry (ADI). This model is designed to promote student engagement in processes of investigation design and scientific argumentation. In this study, the ADI instructional model is compared with a more traditional approach to instruction across 16 laboratory sections of…

Walker, Joi Phelps; Sampson, Victor; Grooms, Jonathon; Anderson, Brittany; Zimmerman, Carol O.

2012-01-01

129

The Role of Self-Regulated Learning in Fostering Students' Conceptual Understanding of Complex Systems with Hypermedia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the role of self-regulated learning (SRL) in facilitating students' shifts to more sophisticated mental models of the circulatory system as indicated by both performance and process data. We began with Winne and colleagues' information processing model of SRL (Winne, 2001; Winne & Hadwin, 1998) and used it to examine how…

Azevedo, Roger; Guthrie, John T.; Seibert, Diane

2004-01-01

130

Case-Based Instruction: Improving Students' Conceptual Understanding through Cases in a Mechanical Engineering Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, there has been a push within engineering curricula to adopt more learner-centered pedagogies, such as case-based instruction. Case-based instruction has been hypothesized to make the curriculum more relevant and motivating for students by pushing them to integrate the concepts they have learned with other experiences. The current study…

Yadav, Aman; Vinh, Megan; Shaver, Gregory M.; Meckl, Peter; Firebaugh, Stephanie

2014-01-01

131

A Comparison of Students' Conceptual Understanding of Electric Circuits in Simulation Only and Simulation-Laboratory Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this experimental study was to compare learning outcomes of students using a simulation alone (simulation environment) with outcomes of those using a simulation in parallel with real circuits (combination environment) in the domain of electricity, and to explore how learning outcomes in these environments are mediated by implicit (only…

Jaakkola, Tomi; Nurmi, Sami; Veermans, Koen

2011-01-01

132

Modelling Photosynthesis to Increase Conceptual Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Biology students in their first year at university have difficulty understanding the abstract concepts of photosynthesis. The traditional didactic lecture followed by practical exercises that show various macroscopic aspects of photosynthesis often do not help the students visualise or understand the submicroscopic (molecular-level) reactions that…

Ross, Pauline; Tronson, Deidre; Ritchie, Raymond J.

2006-01-01

133

Effects of Problem-Based Learning with Web-Anchored Instruction in Nanotechnology on the Science Conceptual Understanding, the Attitude towards Science, and the Perception of Science in Society of Elementary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the effects of Problem-Based Leaning (PBL) with web-anchored instruction in nanotechnology on the science conceptual understanding, the attitude towards science, and the perception of science in society of elementary students. A mixed-methods approach was used. Subjects (N=46) participated in the study for approximately two…

Yurick, Karla Anne

2011-01-01

134

The Effectiveness of Brain-Based Teaching Approach in Dealing with the Problems of Students' Conceptual Understanding and Learning Motivation towards Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers of science-based education in Malaysian secondary schools, especially those in the field of physics, often find their students facing huge difficulties in dealing with conceptual ideas in physics, resulting thus in a lack of interest towards the subject. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the Brain-Based Teaching…

Saleh, Salmiza

2012-01-01

135

College Students' Understanding of Atmospheric Ozone Formation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown that high school and college students have a lack of conceptual understanding of global warming, ozone, and the greenhouse effect. Most research in this area used survey methodologies and did not include concepts of atmospheric chemistry and ozone formation. This study investigates college students' understandings of atmospheric…

Howard, Kristen E.; Brown, Shane A.; Chung, Serena H.; Jobson, B. Thomas; VanReken, Timothy M.

2013-01-01

136

Can You Explain This? - Conceptual Exercises for Physics Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This workbook of conceptual exercises, created by Christopher Wozny of Waycross College, covers the material from introductory physics. It is written to help students understand important physics concepts and principles and to help them develop the problem-solving skills needed to solve conceptual exercises consistently and correctly. Each chapter examines a different topic and has three different types of conceptual exercises, â??Conflicting Contentionsâ?ť tasks, â??Qualitative Reasoningâ?ť tasks, and â??Can You Explain This?â?ť tasks.

Wozny, Christopher

2009-05-18

137

Students' Understanding of Photosynthesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reported are the differences in the understanding of concepts involved in photosynthesis and its role in ecology between students who had studied advanced biology and those who had not. Reports that the less experienced students had a poorer understanding of autotrophic respiration and energy aspects of photosynthesis. (CW)

Eisen, Yehudit; Stavy, Ruth

1988-01-01

138

Implementation of 5E Inquiry Incorporated with Analogy Learning Approach to Enhance Conceptual Understanding of Chemical Reaction Rate for Grade 11 Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this study was to enhance student understanding of the scientific concepts of chemical reaction rate. Forty-four grade 11 students were the target group. The treatment tools were seven learning plans of 5E inquiry incorporated with an analogy learning approach during 15 hours of class time. In each learning plan, the students

Supasorn, Saksri; Promarak, Vinich

2015-01-01

139

High School Intervention for Influenza Biology and Epidemics/Pandemics: Impact on Conceptual Understanding among Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding real-life issues such as influenza epidemiology may be of particular interest to the development of scientific knowledge and initiation of conceptual changes about viruses and their life cycles for high school students. The goal of this research project was to foster the development of adolescents' conceptual understanding of viruses…

Dumais, Nancy; Hasni, Abdelkrim

2009-01-01

140

A Study of General Education Astronomy Students' Understandings of Cosmology. Part V. The Effects of a New Suite of Cosmology "Lecture-Tutorials" on Students' Conceptual Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the final paper in a five-paper series describing our national study of the teaching and learning of cosmology in general education astronomy college-level courses. A significant portion of this work was dedicated to the development of five new "Lecture-Tutorials" that focus on addressing the conceptual and reasoning difficulties that our…

Wallace, Colin S.; Prather, Edward E.; Duncan, Douglas K.

2012-01-01

141

It's Rather like Learning a Language: Development of talk and conceptual understanding in mechanics lessons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although a broad literature exists concerning the development of conceptual understanding of force and other topics within mechanics, little is known about the role and development of students’ talk about the subject. The paper presents an in?depth investigation of students’ talk whilst being introduced to the concept of force. The main research goal was to investigate and understand how students

Karsten Rincke

2011-01-01

142

CHAPTER 9: Conceptual Understanding I. OVERVIEW  

E-print Network

. In section II, I present results on students' understanding of Newton's laws of motion and force for each tests discussed in chapter 4 (Hestenes et al.,3 Hake,4 Thornton and Sololoff5 ) indicate that many the Force Concept Inventory (FCI)7 and the Force Motion Concept Evaluation (FMCE)8 , have been developed

Maryland at College Park, University of

143

Showing Automatically Generated Students' Conceptual Models to Students and Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A student conceptual model can be defined as a set of interconnected concepts associated with an estimation value that indicates how well these concepts are used by the students. It can model just one student or a group of students, and can be represented as a concept map, conceptual diagram or one of several other knowledge representation…

Perez-Marin, Diana; Pascual-Nieto, Ismael

2010-01-01

144

Elementary Teachers' Epistemological and Ontological Understanding of Teaching for Conceptual Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the ways in which elementary teachers applied their understanding of conceptual learning and teaching to their instructional practices as they became knowledgeable about conceptual change pedagogy. Teachers' various ways to interpret and utilize students' prior ideas were analyzed in both epistemological…

Kang, Nam-Hwa

2007-01-01

145

Procedural and Conceptual Understandings of the Arithmetic Mean: A Comparison of Visual and Numerical Approaches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the average, or arithmetic mean, has a rich conceptual meaning, it is often defined simply as the outcome of a procedure. The purpose of this study was to compare the nature and extent of the procedural and conceptual understandings developed by two groups of students who received different forms of instruction, one based on the…

George, Elizabeth Ann

146

Students Do Not Overcome Conceptual Difficulties after Solving 1000 Traditional Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the relationship between traditional physics textbook problem solving and conceptual understanding. Reports that students had many of the well-known conceptual difficulties with basic mechanics and that there was little correlation between the number of problems solved and conceptual understanding. (Contains 21 references.)…

Kim, Eunsook; Pak, Sung-Jae

2002-01-01

147

Understanding cellular respiration: An analysis of conceptual change in college biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored and documented the frequencies of conceptual difficulties confronted by college students seeking to understand the basic processes of cellular respiration. Using concept maps, clinical interviews and an open-ended instrument, viewpoints were elicited from 100 (novice) introductory biology students before and after relevant instruction in cellular respiration and from 100 (experienced) students enrolled in advanced biology courses. Chi-square

Catherine J. Songer; Joel J. Mintzes

1994-01-01

148

Learning environment, learning styles and conceptual understanding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years there have been many studies on learners developing conceptions of natural phenomena. However, so far there have been few attempts to investigate how the characteristics of the learners and their environment influence such conceptions. This study began with an attempt to use an instrument developed by McCarthy (1981) to describe learners in Malaysian primary schools. This proved inappropriate as Asian primary classrooms do not provide the same kind of environment as US classrooms. It was decided to develop a learning style checklist to suit the local context and which could be used to describe differences between learners which teachers could appreciate and use. The checklist included four dimensions — perceptual, process, self-confidence and motivation. The validated instrument was used to determine the learning style preferences of primary four pupils in Penang, Malaysia. Later, an analysis was made regarding the influence of learning environment and learning styles on conceptual understanding in the topics of food, respiration and excretion. This study was replicated in the Philippines with the purpose of investigating the relationship between learning styles and achievement in science, where the topics of food, respiration and excretion have been taken up. A number of significant relationships were observed in these two studies.

Ferrer, Lourdes M.

1990-01-01

149

Effect of Explicit Problem Solving Instructions on the Problem Solving Performance and Conceptual Understanding of Introductory College Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two sections of introductory non-calculus general physics lecture courses, with a total enrolment of 120 students, were used to investigate the impact of explicit problem solving instruction on students' problem solving ability and conceptual understanding. The comparison group was instructed in textbook style problem solving strategy. Students' conceptual understanding was assessed by adminstering the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) at the begening and end of the semester. Required written rationale for multiple choice questions and responses to multistep problems were analyzed to further assess conceptual understanding and problem solving skills of the students in the two groups. A significant difference was noted in both understanding and problem solving performance.

Numan, Muhammad; Sobolewski, Stanley

1998-04-01

150

Young elementary students' conceptual understandings of lunar phases before and after an inquiry-based and technology-enhanced instructional intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This mixed methods study explored young children's understandings of targeted lunar concepts, including when the moon can be observed, observable lunar phase shapes, predictable lunar patterns, and the cause of moon phases. Twenty-one children (ages seven to nine years) from a multi-aged classroom participated in this study. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews, student drawings, and card sorting before and

Sally Merryman Hobson

2008-01-01

151

Young elementary students' conceptual understandings of lunar phases before and after an inquiry-based and technology-enhanced instructional intervention  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This mixed methods study explored young children's understandings of targeted lunar concepts, including when the moon can be observed, observable lunar phase shapes, predictable lunar patterns, and the cause of moon phases. Twenty-one children (ages seven to nine years) from a multi-aged classroom participated in this study. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews, student drawings, and card sorting before and after an inquiry-based, technology-enhanced instructional intervention. Students' lunar calendars, written responses, field notes, and videotaped class sessions also provided data throughout the study. Data were analyzed using codes from prior lunar studies, constant comparative analysis, and nonparametric analysis. The instructional intervention included lunar data gathering, recording, and sharing, through the use of Starry Night planetarium software and an inquiry-based instruction on moon phases (McDermott, 1996). In a guided inquiry context children worked in groups to gather and analyze nine weeks of lunar data. Findings indicated a positive change in students' understanding of all targeted concepts. After the intervention more children understood that the moon could be observed sometimes during the day, more children drew scientific moon phase shapes, and more children drew scientific representations of the moon phase sequences. Also, more children understood the cause of moon phases.

Hobson, Sally Merryman

152

Cross-Grade Comparison of Students' Understanding of Energy Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aims of this cross-grade study were (1) to determine the level of understanding of energy concepts of students at different academic grades and the differences in understanding between these grades and (2) to analyse the conceptual development of these students. Two hundred and forty-three students at 3 different levels (high school,…

Saglam-Arslan, Aysegul

2010-01-01

153

Effectiveness of Conceptual Change Instruction on Understanding of Heat and Temperature Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the differential effects of two modes of instructional program (conceptual change oriented and traditionally designed) and gender difference on students' understanding of heat and temperature concepts, and their attitudes toward science as a school subject. The subjects of this study consisted of 72 seventh grade students

Baser, Mustafa; Geban, Omer

2007-01-01

154

Three Phase Ranking Framework for Assessing Conceptual Understanding in Algebra Using Multiple Representations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Algebra students may often demonstrate a certain degree of proficiency when manipulating algebraic expressions and verbalizing their behaviors. Do these abilities imply conceptual understanding? What is a reliable indicator that would provide educators with a relatively trustworthy and consistent measure to identify whether students learn…

Panasuk, Regina M.

2010-01-01

155

Supporting Conceptual Change in School Science: A Possible Role for Tacit Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When students reason during school science, they often refer to conceptions that are derived from out-of-school experiences and are poor proxies for science orthodoxy. However, for some areas of science, these conceptions represent only a proportion of students' full conceptual knowledge, for tacit understanding exists that is superior to the…

Howe, Christine; Devine, Amy; Tavares, Joana Taylor

2013-01-01

156

It's Rather like Learning a Language: Development of Talk and Conceptual Understanding in Mechanics Lessons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although a broad literature exists concerning the development of conceptual understanding of force and other topics within mechanics, little is known about the role and development of students' talk about the subject. The paper presents an in-depth investigation of students' talk whilst being introduced to the concept of force. The main research…

Rincke, Karsten

2011-01-01

157

Dialogic Framing of Scientific Content for Conceptual and Epistemic Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article draws on M. M. Bakhtin's (1981) notion of dialogism to articulate what it means to understand a scientific idea. In science, understanding an idea is both conceptual and epistemic and is exhibited by an ability to use it in explanation and argumentation. Some distillation of these activities implies that dialogic understanding of a…

Ford, Michael J.; Wargo, Brian M.

2012-01-01

158

Biology Student Teachers' Conceptual Frameworks regarding Biodiversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, biodiversity has received a great deal of attention worldwide, especially in environmental education. The reasons for this attention are the increase of human activities on biodiversity and environmental problems. The purpose of this study is to investigate biology student teachers' conceptual frameworks regarding biodiversity.…

Dikmenli, Musa

2010-01-01

159

Understanding psychiatric institutionalization: a conceptual review  

PubMed Central

Background Since Goffman’s seminal work on psychiatric institutions, deinstitutionalization has become a leading term in the psychiatric debate. It described the process of closure or downsizing of large psychiatric hospitals and the establishment of alternative services in the community. Yet, there is a lack of clarity on what exactly the concept of institutionalization means in present-day psychiatry. This review aims to identify the meaning of psychiatric institutionalization since the early 1960s to present-day. Method A conceptual review of institutionalization in psychiatry was conducted. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize the findings. Results Four main themes were identified in conceptualizing institutionalization: bricks and mortar of care institutions; policy and legal frameworks regulating care; clinical responsibility and paternalism in clinician-patient relationships; and patients’ adaptive behavior to institutionalized care. Conclusions The concept of institutionalization in psychiatry reflects four distinct themes. All themes have some relevance for the contemporary debate on how psychiatric care should develop and on the role of institutional care in psychiatry. PMID:23773398

2013-01-01

160

Surveying Students' Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Acid-Base Behavior of Substances  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By the end of their high school studies, students should be able to understand macroscopic and sub-microscopic conceptualization of acid-base behavior and the relationship between these conceptual models. The aim of this article is to ascertain whether grade-12 students have sufficient background knowledge to explain the properties of acids,…

Furio-Mas, Carles; Calatayud, Maria-Luisa; Barcenas, Sergio L.

2007-01-01

161

Conceptual Continuity and the Science of Baseball: Using Informal Science Literacy to Promote Students' Science Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project explores "conceptual continuity" as a framework for understanding students' native ways of understanding and describing. Conceptual continuity suggests that the relationship between the use of words in one genre and the scientific genre can exist at varying levels of association. This perspective can reveal the varied relationships…

Brown, Bryan A.; Kloser, Matt

2009-01-01

162

Building Conceptual Understanding in Young Scientists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of a new pedagogic approach to geology used to create a sequence of investigative activities enabling students to speculate, hypothesize, observe, test, reason, and infer about the characteristics of rocks. The approach is framed by two questions: (1) What are the key characteristics of different rock groups?; and (2) How did the…

Hawley, Duncan

2002-01-01

163

Mapping Student Understanding in Chemistry: The Perspectives of Chemists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preliminary pilot studies and a field study show how a generalizable conceptual framework calibrated with item response modeling can be used to describe the development of student conceptual understanding in chemistry. ChemQuery is an assessment system that uses a framework of the key ideas in the discipline, called the Perspectives of Chemists,…

Claesgens, Jennifer; Scalise, Kathleen; Wilson, Mark; Stacy, Angelica

2009-01-01

164

Evaluation of Students' Understanding of Thermal Concepts in Everyday Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aims of this study were to determine the underlying conceptual structure of the thermal concept evaluation (TCE) questionnaire, a pencil-and-paper instrument about everyday contexts of heat, temperature, and heat transfer, to investigate students' conceptual understanding of thermal concepts in everyday contexts across several school years and…

Chu, Hye-Eun; Treagust, David F.; Yeo, Shelley; Zadnik, Marjan

2012-01-01

165

High-School Students' Conceptual Difficulties and Attempts at Conceptual Change: The Case of Basic Quantum Chemical Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested for deep understanding and critical thinking about basic quantum chemical concepts taught at 12th grade (age 17-18). Our aim was to achieve conceptual change in students. A quantitative study was conducted first (n = 125), and following this 23 selected students took part in semi-structured interviews either individually or in…

Tsaparlis, Georgios; Papaphotis, Georgios

2009-01-01

166

At-Risk and Bilingual Fifth-Grade Students' On-Task Behavior and Conceptual Understanding in Earth Science-Related Topics during Inquiry-, Technology-, and Game-Based Activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Graduate K-12 (GK12) program has been developed by NSF to support the national effort to advance scientific knowledge through educational partnerships. This paper highlights research conducted during the 2006-2007 school year with the Texas A&M University GK12 project. Two elementary schools with very high numbers of at risk students - those who are poor, speak English as their second language, and have a history of failing state-mandated tests were identified to be the field site for the GK12 project. In these two, high-minority (97% and 40% African American and Hispanic) schools, 80% and 56% of the children have been identified by the state as at risk; 94% and 52% are classified as economically disadvantaged; and 46% and 2% are limited English proficient, respectively. In the past year, 30% and 73% of fifth grade students in these schools passed the science portion of the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) test. Data collected during a three- week period where GK12 fellows taught the fifth graders Earth science-related topics is presented. During the implementation, students were engaged in technology-, inquiry-, and game-based activities. Students were divided into low-, medium-, and high-abilities in one school, and regular and bilingual groups in the other. Pre- post open-ended multiple choice tests indicated that all but the low performing students' conceptual understanding (CU) significantly (p < 0.05) improved during the IT activity. The low and high student groups' CU significantly improved during the inquiry activity, and the high and bilingual students' CU significantly improved for the game activities. Classroom observation assessments showed that there was a significant (p < 0.10) positive (0.347) correlation between on-task behavior and CU. Significant differences between student groups' CU and on-task behavior indicated that technology-based activities showed greatest differences between the low- ability learners and the other students, whereas, inquiry-based activities tended not to show such extremes. In the case of the bilingual and regular students however, technology-based instruction tended to increase their scores and decrease gaps with other groups. Using different pedagogical approaches (e.g., technology-, inquiry- and game-based methods) to teach Earth science is important to reach all elementary students. Earth science educators should not forget that there does not exist any one teaching and learning method that will be a 'quick fix' for the masses. However, educational partnerships between universities and K-12 schools strengthen the efforts to increase scientific literacy among all students, including diverse and at risk populations.

McNeal, K.; Vasquez, Y.; Avandano, C.; Moreno, K.; Besinaiz, J.

2007-12-01

167

Conceptual Understanding of the Arithmetic Mean. Draft.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The understanding of children and adults regarding four component properties of the arithmetic mean was studied. The component properties were: (1) the mean is a data point between extreme values of a score distribution; (2) the sum of deviations about the mean equals zero; (3) when the mean is calculated, any value of zero must be taken into…

Leon, Marjorie Roth; Zawojewski, Judith S.

168

Understanding the Role of Academic Language on Conceptual Understanding in an Introductory Materials Science and Engineering Course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students may use the technical engineering terms without knowing what these words mean. This creates a language barrier in engineering that influences student learning. Previous research has been conducted to characterize the difference between colloquial and scientific language. Since this research had not yet been applied explicitly to engineering, conclusions from the area of science education were used instead. Various researchers outlined strategies for helping students acquire scientific language. However, few examined and quantified the relationship it had on student learning. A systemic functional linguistics framework was adopted for this dissertation which is a framework that has not previously been used in engineering education research. This study investigated how engineering language proficiency influenced conceptual understanding of introductory materials science and engineering concepts. To answer the research questions about engineering language proficiency, a convenience sample of forty-one undergraduate students in an introductory materials science and engineering course was used. All data collected was integrated with the course. Measures included the Materials Concept Inventory, a written engineering design task, and group observations. Both systemic functional linguistics and mental models frameworks were utilized to interpret data and guide analysis. A series of regression analyses were conducted to determine if engineering language proficiency predicts group engineering term use, if conceptual understanding predicts group engineering term use, and if conceptual understanding predicts engineering language proficiency. Engineering academic language proficiency was found to be strongly linked to conceptual understanding in the context of introductory materials engineering courses. As the semester progressed, this relationship became even stronger. The more engineering concepts students are expected to learn, the more important it is that they are proficient in engineering language. However, exposure to engineering terms did not influence engineering language proficiency. These results stress the importance of engineering language proficiency for learning, but warn that simply exposing students to engineering terms does not promote engineering language proficiency.

Kelly, Jacquelyn

169

Supporting Conceptual Understandings of and Pedagogical Practice in Technology through a Website in New Zealand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on the up-date and development of an on-line resource to support of teachers' conceptual understandings and pedagogical practice in New Zealand. Techlink is a website dedicated to supporting technology teachers, students and those with an interest in technology education. This research documents part of a Ministry of Education…

Fox-Turnbull, Wendy; O'Sullivan, Gary

2013-01-01

170

Assessing the Conceptual Understanding about Heat and Thermodynamics at Undergraduate Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, a Thermodynamic Concept Test (TCT) was designed to assess student's conceptual understanding heat and thermodynamics at undergraduate level. The different statistical tests such as item difficulty index, item discrimination index, point biserial coefficient were used for assessing TCT. For each item of the test these indices…

Kulkarni, Vasudeo Digambar; Tambade, Popat Savaleram

2013-01-01

171

Understanding Early Elementary Children's Conceptual Knowledge of Plant Structure and Function through Drawings  

PubMed Central

This study examined children's drawings to explain children's conceptual understanding of plant structure and function. The study explored whether the children's drawings accurately reflect their conceptual understanding about plants in a manner that can be interpreted by others. Drawing, survey, interview, and observational data were collected from 182 students in grades K and 1 in rural southeastern United States. Results demonstrated the children held a wide range of conceptions concerning plant structure and function. These young children held very simple ideas about plants with respect to both their structure and function. Consistent with the drawings, the interviews presented similar findings. PMID:25185222

Ellis, Jane P.; Jones, Alan M.

2014-01-01

172

A CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDING OF LEAKAGE DURING SOIL-GAS SAMPLING  

EPA Science Inventory

A heuristic model is developed to develop a conceptual understanding of leakage during soil-gas sampling. Leakage is shown to be simply a function of the permeability contrast between the formation and borehole and geometric factors. As the ratio of formation to borehole permea...

173

Understanding Systematic Conceptual Structures in Polysemous Medical Terms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polysemy is a bottleneck for the demanding needs of semantic data management. We suggest the importance of a well-founded conceptual analysis for understanding some systematic structures underlying polysemy in the medical lexicon. We present some cases studies, which exploit the methods (ontological integration and general theories) and tools (description logics and ontology libraries) of the ONIONS methodology defined elsewhere by

Aldo Gangemi; Domenico M. Pisanelli; Geri Steve

2000-01-01

174

The case method of instruction, conceptual change, and student attitude  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the case method of instruction (CMI) on conceptual change in students' understanding of genes, biodiversity, and evolution topics, and to investigate the effect of learning with CMI on student attitude regarding the discipline of science, and learning about science. The study also investigated students' perceptions of their learning gains based on CMI. This was a mixed-methods action research study that used a quasi-experimental design. The study participants were enrolled in three sections (n1 = 20, n2 = 16, n3 = 30) of the same introductory biology course during the spring of 2006 at a small, private university in the southeastern United States. At the beginning of the semester, students completed a pretest composed of six open-ended questions (two on each topic) to uncover their alternative conceptions---or lack of them, and after instruction using CMI, students answered the same questions as a post-test on two hourly class exams. The answers were scored with original rubrics and the differences between the scores were analyzed using the Student's paired t-Test. In addition, twelve student volunteers were interviewed twice, once after each exam, by an independent interviewer, to elicit their understanding about the method of CMI, their understanding of the topics from the recent exam, and their attitudes about science and learning about science. The interviews were audio taped and transcribed, and analyzed for themes and comments about conceptual understanding and learning about science. Students also completed two instruments anonymously: the Science Attitude Inventory (SAI II) and the Student Assessment of Learning Gains (SALG). The SAI II was completed on the first and the last day of the semester to assess change in student attitude about science and the pretest and posttest scores were analyzed for significant differences. Students completed the SALG online immediately before the course final exam to provide their opinion on learning science with CMI and their perception of learning gains made by using CMI. Student responses in each of 5 categories were studied and written comments were analyzed. According to the interview data, CMI presented a new learning paradigm for students and many agreed that the method made learning more interesting, motivating, and relevant, and as a consequence they learned more and expect to retain knowledge longer. Based on the pretest answers, many students had alternative conceptions, but some responses indicated a lack of preconceptions altogether. All classes showed an increase in conceptual learning of all three topics, based on the analysis of the posttest rubric scores, with evolution concepts showing the largest increase. CMI appears to have a no effect on student attitude toward science, according to the SAI II data, it but does affect student attitude about learning science, based on the interview data. CMI appears to be a teaching strategy that can promote student engagement in learning science and may help students to make progress toward conceptual change.

Gallucci, Kathleen K.

175

Using the Biodatamation(TM) strategy to learn introductory college biology: Value-added effects on selected students' conceptual understanding and conceptual integration of the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this exploratory research was to study how students learn photosynthesis and cellular respiration and to determine the value added to the student's learning by each of the three technology-scaffolded learning strategy components (animated concept presentations and WebQuest-style activities, data collection, and student-constructed animations) of the BioDatamation(TM) (BDM) Program. BDM learning strategies utilized the Theory of Interacting Visual

Jewel Jurovich Reuter

2005-01-01

176

Learning science in small groups: The relationship of conversation to conceptual understanding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between conversation and conceptual understanding of erosion. The objective of this study was to investigate how fifth grade students' conceptions of erosion changed while they used stream tables and worked in groups of four within an inquiry-based curriculum. This study used symbolic interactionism and sociocognitive frameworks to interpret science learning in the elementary classroom. The research focused on the conceptual understanding of the focal group students, their use of classroom discourse to talk about their understandings of erosion, and the expertise that emerged while using stream tables. This study took place over a one-semester long study on erosion. Key informants were eight fifth graders. The data sources consisted of children's journals; transcripts of audiotaped interviews with the key informants before, during, and after the erosion unit; transcripts of videotapes of the students using the stream tables; and field notes recording children's discourse and activity. Individual and group cases were constructed during the study. The knowledge of the eight focal group children was placed on a hierarchy of conceptual understanding that contained 8 components of the erosion process. All four of the students whose ideas were examined in depth gained in their conceptual understanding of erosion. Students' individual expertise enhanced their own conceptual understanding. The contribution of classroom discourse and expertise to conceptual understanding differed between the two focal groups. Group 1 used essential expertise to sustain generative conversations, maximizing their learning opportunities. Students in Group 1 got along with one another, rotated assigned roles and jobs, and were able to start their own generative conversations. Members of Group 1 asked generative questions, connected stream table events to real life situations, and involved everyone in the group. Group 2 engaged in a predominance of procedural discourse and had fewer learning opportunities. Group 2 had two dominant personalities who developed a conflict over roles and jobs, keeping their peers out of the conversation. Students in Group 2 had generative conversations, but these were not sustained due to the lack of acknowledgment of peer expertise and the starting their own generative conversations.

McDonald, James Tarleton

177

Concept analysis: method to enhance interdisciplinary conceptual understanding.  

PubMed

This article is a presentation of a method of concept analysis designed to assist in understanding the unique manner in which various disciplines use the same word or group of words to describe differing conceptual ideas. Nurse researchers often borrow research instruments developed in other disciplines. However, research instruments are developed in accordance with the philosophical underpinnings of a specific discipline with the intent to contribute to the knowledge base of that discipline. Therefore, it is uncertain whether research instruments borrowed from other disciplines actually measure the conceptual phenomenon from a nursing perspective. PMID:23644261

Bonis, Susan A

2013-01-01

178

Writing to Promote and Assess Conceptual Understanding in College Algebra  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concept-focused quiz questions required College Algebra students to write about their understanding. The questions can be viewed in three broad categories: a focus on sense-making, a focus on describing a mathematical object such as a graph or an equation, and a focus on understanding vocabulary. Student responses from 10 classes were analyzed.…

Gay, A. Susan; Peterson, Ingrid

2014-01-01

179

Assessing Student Understanding with Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most science teachers are amazed when grading tests and quizzes, often wondering how and why students have reached a conclusion, particularly when students fail to provide a detailed account of their logic. Ideally, a variety of assessments should be used to identify alternate student conceptions or gaps in understanding, particularly when preparing students for state-mandated exams. With this in mind, a free internet-based software package, IMMEX (interactive multimedia exercises) was designed to use authentic scenarios to gauge students' problem-solving skills and science knowledge.

Charles T. Cox Jr.

2006-06-01

180

Students' Perceptions of Statistics: An Exploration of Attitudes, Conceptualizations, and Content Knowledge of Statistics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although statistics education research has focused on students' learning and conceptual understanding of statistics, researchers have only recently begun investigating students' perceptions of statistics. The term perception describes the overlap between cognitive and non-cognitive factors. In this mixed-methods study, undergraduate students

Bond, Marjorie E.; Perkins, Susan N.; Ramirez, Caroline

2012-01-01

181

Relationship between student performance on conceptual and computational problems of chemical equilibrium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this study is to compare student performance on problems requiring conceptual understanding or the use of algorithmic solution strategies, that is, computational problems. Seventy?eight science major freshman students at the Universidad de Oriente (Venezuela) were tested to obtain information on various aspects of chemical equilibrium. Results obtained support the hypothesis that students who perform better on

Mansoor Niaz

1995-01-01

182

Concept Development of Decimals in Chinese Elementary Students: A Conceptual Change Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to examine the concept development of decimal numbers in 244 Chinese elementary students in grades 4-6. Three grades of students differed in their intuitive sense of decimals and conceptual understanding of decimals, with more strategic approaches used by older students. Misconceptions regarding the density nature of…

Liu, Ru-De; Ding, Yi; Zong, Min; Zhang, Dake

2014-01-01

183

High School Intervention for Influenza Biology and Epidemics/Pandemics: Impact on Conceptual Understanding among Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Understanding real-life issues such as influenza epidemiology may be of particular interest to the development of scientific knowledge and initiation of conceptual changes about viruses and their life cycles for high school students. The goal of this research project was to foster the development of adolescents' conceptual understanding of viruses and influenza biology. Thus, the project included two components: 1) pre- and posttests to determine students' conceptions about influenza biology, epidemics/pandemics, and vaccination; and 2) design an intervention that supports conceptual change to promote improvements in influenza knowledge based on these primary conceptions. Thirty-five female students from a high school biology class participated in a series of instructional activities and pre- and posttest assessments. Results from the pretest indicated that high school students exhibit a limited understanding of concepts related to viruses. Six weeks after an intervention that promoted active learning, results from a posttest showed that conceptions about influenza are more accurately related to the provided scientific knowledge. Although adolescents have nonscientific models to explain influenza biology, we showed that a carefully designed intervention can affect students' knowledge as well as influence the implementation of health education programs in secondary schools. PMID:19255137

Hasni, Abdelkrim

2009-01-01

184

Effective Assessment: Probing Students' Understanding of Natural Selection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evolution by natural selection provides the conceptual framework upon which much of modern biology is based: therefore understanding core ideas about biological evolution is an essential part of scientific literacy. Nonetheless, research repeatedly shows that high school and college students have difficulties understanding the notion of natural…

Stern, Luli

2004-01-01

185

Improving students' understanding of quantum mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Learning quantum mechanics is especially challenging, in part due to the abstract nature of the subject. We have been conducting investigations of the difficulties that students have in learning quantum mechanics. To help improve student understanding of quantum concepts, we are developing quantum interactive learning tutorials (QuILTs) as well as tools for peer-instruction. The goal of QuILTs and peer-instruction tools is to actively engage students in the learning process and to help them build links between the formalism and the conceptual aspects of quantum physics without compromising the technical content. They focus on helping students integrate qualitative and quantitative understanding, confront and resolve their misconceptions and difficulties, and discriminate between concepts that are often confused. In this talk, I will give examples from my research in physics education of how students' prior knowledge relevant for quantum mechanics can be assessed, and how learning tools can be designed to help students develop a robust knowledge structure and critical thinking skills.

Singh, Chandralekha

2011-03-01

186

A Functional Conceptualization of Understanding Science in the News  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The idea that the public should have the capacity for understanding science in the news has been embraced by scientists, educators, and policymakers alike. An oft-cited goal of contemporary science education, in fact, is to enhance students' understanding of science in the news. But what exactly does it "mean" to understand science…

Anderson, Megan M.

2012-01-01

187

Understanding the Student-Faculty Mentoring Process: Its Effects on At-Risk University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this investigation was to understand the student-faculty mentoring process and how mentoring relationships facilitate at-risk students' adjustment to college. The sample consisted of 65 college students who were involved in a Faculty Mentoring Program (FMP) at a four-year institution. A conceptual model was tested relating ethnic…

Santos, Silvia J.; Reigadas, Elena T.

2004-01-01

188

Using the Biodatamation(TM) strategy to learn introductory college biology: Value-added effects on selected students' conceptual understanding and conceptual integration of the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this exploratory research was to study how students learn photosynthesis and cellular respiration and to determine the value added to the student's learning by each of the three technology-scaffolded learning strategy components (animated concept presentations and WebQuest-style activities, data collection, and student-constructed animations) of the BioDatamation(TM) (BDM) Program. BDM learning strategies utilized the Theory of Interacting Visual Fields(TM) (TIVF) (Reuter & Wandersee, 2002a, 2002b; 2003a, 2003b) which holds that meaningful knowledge is hierarchically constructed using the past, present, and future visual fields, with visual metacognitive components that are derived from the principles of Visual Behavior (Jones, 1995), Human Constructivist Theory (Mintzes & Wandersee, 1998a), and Visual Information Design Theory (Tufte, 1990, 1997, 2001). Student alternative conceptions of photosynthesis and cellular respiration were determined by the item analysis of 263,267 Biology Advanced Placement Examinations and were used to develop the BDM instructional strategy and interview questions. The subjects were 24 undergraduate students of high and low biology prior knowledge enrolled in an introductory-level General Biology course at a major research university in the Deep South. Fifteen participants received BDM instruction which included original and innovative learning materials and laboratories in 6 phases; 8 of the 15 participants were the subject of in depth, extended individual analysis. The other 9 participants received traditional, non-BDM instruction. Interviews which included participants' creation of concept maps and visual field diagrams were conducted after each phase. Various content analyses, including Chi's Verbal Analysis and quantitizing/qualitizing were used for data analysis. The total value added to integrative knowledge during BDM instruction with the three visual fields was an average increase of 56% for cellular respiration and 62% increase for photosynthesis knowledge, improved long-term memory of concepts, and enhanced biological literacy to the multidimensional level, as determined by the BSCS literacy model. WebQuest-style activities and data collection provided for animated prior knowledge in the past visual field, and detailed content knowledge construction in the present visual field. During student construction of animated presentations, layering required participants to think by rearranging words and images for improved hierarchical organization of knowledge with real-life applications.

Reuter, Jewel Jurovich

189

A helpful way to conceptualize and understand reenactments.  

PubMed

Attempts to understand the purpose and the etiology of reenactments can lead to confusion because reenactments can occur for a variety of reasons. At times, individuals actively reenact past traumas as a way to master them. However, in other cases, reenactments occur inadvertently and result from the psychological vulnerabilities and defensive strategies characteristic of trauma survivors. This article offers a means to conceptualize and understand the many ways in which reenactments can occur. Psychotherapeutic strategies are offered to help individuals integrate past traumas and decrease their chances of becoming involved in destructive reenactments. PMID:9631344

Levy, M S

1998-01-01

190

Surveying Students' Conceptual Knowledge of Electricity and Magnetism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism (CSEM) which was developed to assess students' knowledge of topics in electricity and magnetism. Reports on the number of student difficulties in electricity and magnetism. (Contains 23 references.) (Author/YDS)

Maloney, David P.; O'Kuma, Thomas L.; Hieggelke, Curtis J.; Van Heuvelen, Alan

2001-01-01

191

An analysis of science conceptual knowledge in journals of students with disabilities and normally achieving students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science education reforms of the last two decades have focused on raising the bar for ALL students which includes students with mild to moderate disabilities. Formative assessment can be used to assess the progress of these students to inquire, understand scientific concepts, reason scientifically, make decisions, and communicate effectively in science. The purpose of this study is to examine the use of science journals as a formative assessment in a guided inquiry unit of study for students with learning disabilities. Two normally achieving students (NA) and five students with learning disabilities (SLD) participated in a study of mammals that utilized journals to record the development of student knowledge through the course of study. Students were interviewed after the lessons were complete using the same prompts required in the journals. Themes were developed from the student writings and their verbal discourse using Grounded Theory. Journals and verbal discourse were rated following the themes of Knowledge Telling (KT) and Knowledge Transformation (KTR). Concept maps were developed for the Pre and Post test lessons (written and verbal discourses) by the raters in an attempt to further explain the knowledge that the students conveyed. The results of this study suggest that SLD are able to demonstrate knowledge about mammals better through verbal discourse than written discourse. While the NA students wrote more and used more technical discourse than did their SLD peers, the conceptual understanding of the topic by the SLD was no less inclusive than their NA peers when accessed verbally. The journals demonstrated limited conceptual growth for the SLD. Further, while lexical density is important to the development of knowledge in science, this study suggests the "conceptual density" may be another important indicator to examine.

Grigg, Gail S.

192

Conceptual continuity and the science of baseball: using informal science literacy to promote students’ science learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project explores conceptual continuity as a framework for understanding students’ native ways of understanding and describing. Conceptual continuity suggests that\\u000a the relationship between the use of words in one genre and the scientific genre can exist at varying levels of association.\\u000a This perspective can reveal the varied relationships between ideas explained in everyday or vernacular genres and their association

Bryan A. Brown; Matt Kloser

2009-01-01

193

Research in physical chemistry and chemical education: Part A: Water Mediated Chemistry of Oxidized Atmospheric Compounds Part B: The Development of Surveying Tools to Determine How Effective Laboratory Experiments Contribute to Student Conceptual Understanding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation is a combination of two research areas, experimental physical chemistry, Chapters I to V, and chemical education, Chapters VI to VII. Chapters I to V describe research on the water-mediated chemistry of oxidized atmospheric molecules and the impact that water has on the spectra of these environmental systems. The role of water in the Earth's atmosphere has been of considerable interest due to its ability to impact chemistry and climate. Oxidized atmospheric molecules in the presence of water have the ability to form hydrogen bonded water complexes. The spectroscopic investigation of nitric acid-water complexes, outlined in Chapter III, was undertaken to characterize intermolecular hydrogen bonds in a water-restricted environment at ambient temperatures. Additionally, this characterization of nitric acid-water complexes allowed for the comparison of calculated overtone OH-stretching vibrational band frequencies, intensities, and anharmonicities of intermolecular hydrogen-bonded water complexes with experimental observations. Oxidized organic molecules, such as aldehydes and ketones, in addition to forming hydrogen-bonded water complexes can undergo a hydration reaction of the carbonyl group and form germinal diols in the presence of water. This chemistry has been studied extensively in bulk aqueous media, however little is known about this process in the gas-phase at low water concentrations. The focus of the studies outlined in Chapters IV and V is motivated by the ability of pyruvic acid and formaldehyde to form germinal diols and water complexes in water-restricted environment. This water-mediated chemistry changes the physical and chemical properties of these organic molecules, therefore, impacting the partitioning between gas and particle phase, as well as the chemistry and photochemistry of oxidized organic molecules in the Earth's atmosphere. The results presented in this dissertation may help resolve the significant discrepancy between atmospherically measured oxidized organic molecules and predictions of atmospheric models at different relative humidities. The chemical education portion of this manuscript presented in Chapters VI and VII includes the development of a survey to determine how effective a laboratory experiment is in contributing to students' understanding of fundamental chemistry. The specific example used is an electrochemical cell. Our initial results showed that while most of our students could answer quantitative questions about the operation of the cell, their conceptual understanding of the microscopic processes that occur within the cell was inconsistent with the material presented in class. In particular, we noticed that while many students were able to correctly describe the events that take place at the surface of the anode and cathode, their understanding of the events that take place at the salt bridge was lacking. In this investigation, we were able to confirm the misconceptions reported in previous studies. Our results suggest that a relatively modest, incremental revision of the experiment reduces these misconceptions and helped the students to develop a molecular-scale picture of the processes that occur within an electrochemical cell.

Maron, Marta Katarzyna

194

Students' Understanding of Trigonometric Functions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article students' understanding of trigonometric functions in the context of two college trigonometry courses is investigated. The first course was taught by a professor unaffiliated with the study in a lecture-based course, while the second was taught using an experimental instruction paradigm based on Gray and Tall's (1994) notion of…

Weber, Keith

2005-01-01

195

Using Analogy and Model to Enhance Conceptual Change in Thai Middle School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined conceptual change of Thai middle school students after learning photosynthesis with analogy and model. The analogy mapped key features from the analog (cooking food) to the target concept (photosynthesis). Modeling photosynthesis activity provided the opportunity for students to understand how plants use sugar to synthesize…

Wichaidit, Sittichai; Wongyounoi, Somson; Dechsri, Precharn; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin

2011-01-01

196

Introductory Biology Students' Conceptual Models and Explanations of the Origin of Variation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mutation is the key molecular mechanism generating phenotypic variation, which is the basis for evolution. In an introductory biology course, we used a model-based pedagogy that enabled students to integrate their understanding of genetics and evolution within multiple case studies. We used student-generated conceptual models to assess…

Bray Speth, Elena; Shaw, Neil; Momsen, Jennifer; Reinagel, Adam; Le, Paul; Taqieddin, Ranya; Long, Tammy

2014-01-01

197

Remediating High School Students' Misconceptions Concerning Diffusion and Osmosis through Concept Mapping and Conceptual Change Text.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the effectiveness of combining conceptual change text and concept mapping strategies on students' understanding of diffusion and osmosis. Results indicate that while the average percentage of students in the experimental group holding a scientifically correct view rose, the percentage of correct responses in the control group…

Tekkaya, Ceren

2003-01-01

198

The Effect of Supplementing Instruction with Conceptual Change Texts on Students' Conceptions of Electrochemical Cells  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of instruction supplemented by conceptual change texts (CCTs) over traditional instruction on students' understanding of electrochemical (galvanic and electrolytic) cell concepts. The participants of the study consisted of 64 students from the two classes of a high school located in…

Yuruk, Nejla

2007-01-01

199

Evolution in students' understanding of thermal physics with increasing complexity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the development in studentsunderstanding of fundamental principles in the context of learning a current interdisciplinary research topic—soft matter—that was adapted to the level of high school students. The topic was introduced in a program for interested 11th grade high school students majoring in chemistry and/or physics, in an off-school setting. Soft matter was presented in a gradual increase in the degree of complexity of the phenomena as well as in the level of the quantitative analysis. We describe the evolution in students’ use of fundamental thermodynamics principles to reason about phase separation—a phenomenon that is ubiquitous in soft matter. In particular, we examine the impact of the use of free energy analysis, a common approach in soft matter, on the understanding of the fundamental principles of thermodynamics. The study used diagnostic questions and classroom observations to gauge the student’s learning. In order to gain insight on the aspects that shape the understanding of the basic principles, we focus on the responses and explanations of two case-study students who represent two trends of evolution in conceptual understanding in the group. We analyze changes in the two case studies’ management of conceptual resources used in their analysis of phase separation, and suggest how their prior knowledge and epistemological framing (a combination of their personal tendencies and their prior exposure to different learning styles) affect their conceptual evolution. Finally, we propose strategies to improve the instruction of these concepts.

Langbeheim, Elon; Safran, Samuel A.; Livne, Shelly; Yerushalmi, Edit

2013-12-01

200

Conceptual Ecology of Evolution Acceptance among Greek Education Students: The Contribution of Knowledge Increase  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we explored the factors related to acceptance of evolutionary theory among students/preservice preschool education teachers using conceptual ecology for biological evolution as a theoretical frame. We aimed to examine the acceptance and understanding of evolutionary theory and also the relationship of acceptance and understanding of…

Athanasiou, Kyriacos; Katakos, Efstratios; Papadopoulou, Penelope

2012-01-01

201

Gender differences in conceptual understanding of Newtonian mechanics: a UK cross-institution comparison  

E-print Network

We present results of a combined study from three UK universities where we investigate the existence and persistence of a performance gender gap in conceptual understanding of Newtonian mechanics. Using the Force Concept Inventory, we find that students at all three universities exhibit a statistically significant gender gap, with males outperforming females. This gap is narrowed but not eliminated after instruction, using a variety of instructional approaches. Furthermore, we find that before instruction the quartile with the lowest performance on the diagnostic instrument comprises a disproportionately high fraction (~50%) of the total female cohort. The majority of these students remain in the lowest-performing quartile post-instruction. Analysis of responses to individual items shows that male students outperform female students on practically all items on the instrument. Comparing the performance of the same group of students on end-of-course examinations, we find no statistically significant gender gaps...

Bates, Simon; MacPhee, Cait; Sands, David; Birch, Marion; Walet, Niels R

2012-01-01

202

University Students' Understanding of Thermal Physics in Everyday Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thermal physics is in the realm of everyday experience, underlies current environmental concerns, and underpins studies in sciences, health and engineering. In the state of NSW in Australia, the coverage of thermal topics in high school is minimal, and, hence, so is the conceptual understanding of students. This study takes a new approach at…

Georgiou, Helen; Sharma, Manjula Devi

2012-01-01

203

Student Understanding of Liquid-Vapor Phase Equilibrium  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student understanding of the equilibrium coexistence of a liquid and its vapor was the subject of an extended investigation. Written assessment questions were administered to undergraduates enrolled in introductory physics and chemistry courses. Responses have been analyzed to document conceptual and reasoning difficulties in sufficient detail to…

Boudreaux, Andrew; Campbell, Craig

2012-01-01

204

Conceptual continuity and the science of baseball: using informal science literacy to promote students' science learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This project explores conceptual continuity as a framework for understanding students' native ways of understanding and describing. Conceptual continuity suggests that the relationship between the use of words in one genre and the scientific genre can exist at varying levels of association. This perspective can reveal the varied relationships between ideas explained in everyday or vernacular genres and their association to scientific explanations. We conducted a 2-year study involving 15 high school baseball players' understanding of the physics involved in baseball. First, we conducted a quantitative assessment of their science understanding by administering a test prior to season one (2006) and season two (2007). Second, we examined the types of linguistic resources students used to explain their understanding. Third, we revisited our data by using conceptual continuity to identify similarities between students' conceptual understanding in the informal contexts and their similarities to canonical scientific ideas. The results indicated students' performance on the multiple-choice questions suggested no significant improvement. The qualitative analyses revealed that students were able to accurately explain different components of the idea by using a diversity of scientific and non-scientific genres. These results call attention to the need to reconstruct our vision of science learning to include a more language sensitive approach to teaching and learning.

Brown, Bryan A.; Kloser, Matt

2009-12-01

205

An investigation of the use of microcomputer-based laboratory simulations in promoting conceptual understanding in secondary physics instruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physics education research has shown that students bring alternate conceptions to the classroom which can be quite resistant to traditional instruction methods (Clement, 1982; Halloun & Hestenes, 1985; McDermott, 1991). Microcomputer-based laboratory (MBL) experiments that employ an active-engagement strategy have been shown to improve student conceptual understanding in high school and introductory university physics courses (Thornton & Sokoloff, 1998). These (MBL) experiments require a specialized computer interface, type-specific sensors (e.g. motion detectors, force probes, accelerometers), and specialized software in addition to the standard physics experimental apparatus. Tao and Gunstone (1997) have shown that computer simulations used in an active engagement environment can also lead to conceptual change. This study investigated 69 secondary physics students' use of computer simulations of MBL activities in place of the hands-on MBL laboratory activities. The average normalized gain in students' conceptual understanding was measured using the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation (FMCE). Student attitudes towards physics and computers were probed using the Views About Science Survey (VASS) and the Computer Attitude Scale (CAS). While it may be possible to obtain an equivalent level of conceptual understanding using computer simulations in combination with an active-engagement environment, this study found no significant gains in students' conceptual understanding ( = -0.02) after they completed a series of nine simulated experiments from the Tools for Scientific Thinking curriculum (Thornton & Sokoloff, 1990). The absence of gains in conceptual understanding may indicate that either the simulations were ineffective in promoting conceptual change or problems with the implementation of the treatment inhibited its effectiveness. There was a positive shift in students' attitudes towards physics in the VASS dimensions of structure and reflective thinking, while there was a negative shift in students' attitudes towards computers in the CAS subscales of anxiety and usefulness. The negative shift in attitudes towards computers may be due to the additional time and work required by the students to perform the simulation experiments with no apparent reward in terms of their physics grade. Suggestions for future research include a qualitative element to observe student interactions and alternate formats for the simulations themselves.

Tomshaw, Stephen G.

206

Students' Conceptual Difficulties in Quantum Mechanics: Potential Well Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, students' conceptual difficulties about some basic concepts in quantum mechanics like one-dimensional potential well problems and probability density of tunneling particles were identified. For this aim, a multiple choice instrument named Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Test has been developed by one of the researchers of this study…

Ozcan, Ozgur; Didis, Nilufer; Tasar, Mehmet Fatih

2009-01-01

207

Engaging students in learning: a review of a conceptual organiser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Student engagement in learning is a complex process influenced by many factors. This article introduces a conceptual organiser developed from a review of the literature. It captures four key perspectives – motivation and agency, transactional engagement, institutional support and active citizenship – and suggested indicators for each perspective. Data from a project researching student engagement with first?time enrolled students in

Linda Leach; Nick Zepke

2011-01-01

208

Students Conceptualizing Transcription and Translation from a Cellular Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is difficult for students to conceptualize biochemical processes that are portrayed as two-dimensional figures in a textbook. Instead of relying on overheads, PowerPoint, or textbook figures, the authors have students imagine themselves actually being inside a cell. Students have a specific role in the cell: helping with the transcription and…

Concannon, James; Buzzetta, Maegan

2010-01-01

209

Teaching Fluids: Intended Knowledge and Students' Actual Conceptual Evolution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an approach to teaching the conceptually demanding topic of fluids which focuses on promoting student teachers' continual evolution toward a suggested scientific model. Discusses the approach in detail. Contains 45 references. (DDR)

Psillos, D.; Kariotoglou, P.

1999-01-01

210

A Generational Approach to Understanding Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter establishes the conceptual framework for understanding the Millennial generation by presenting a theoretical model of generational succession that demonstrates the value of studying how the values of one generation interact with and are influenced by others.

Coomes, Michael D.; DeBard, Robert

2004-01-01

211

The nature of elementary students' science discourse and conceptual learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This qualitative study examined the nature of 5th-grade students' oral and written discourse in relation to their conceptual learning during six science inquiry-based lessons. Qualitative data were collected using small group observations, transcriptions of small group discourse, students' science notebooks, and student interviews. These data were used to create an in-depth illustration of 5th-grade students' discourse and the impact of that discourse on their science conceptual learning. Findings indicated students spoke in three main discourse classifications during small group inquiries and two of these discourses were also present in the science notebook entries. Findings further indicated gender did not impact the nature of students' oral or written discourse regarding their conceptual learning. Implications for classroom practice and suggestions for further research in elementary science education are offered.

Parks, Melissa Y.

212

Measuring the development of conceptual understanding in chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this dissertation research is to investigate and characterize how students learn chemistry from pre-instruction to deeper understanding of the subject matter in their general chemistry coursework. Based on preliminary work, I believe that students have a general pathway of learning across the "big ideas," or concepts, in chemistry that can be characterized over the course of instruction. My hypothesis is that as students learn chemistry they build from experience and logical reasoning then relate chemistry specific ideas in a pair-wise fashion before making more complete multi-relational links for deeper understanding of the subject matter. This proposed progression of student learning, which starts at Notions, moves to Recognition, and then to Formulation, is described in the ChemQuery Perspectives framework. My research continues the development of ChemQuery, an NSF-funded assessment system that uses a framework of the key ideas in the discipline and criterion-referenced analysis using item response theory (IRT) to map student progress. Specifially, this research investigates the potential for using criterion-referenced analysis to describe and measure how students learn chemistry followed by more detailed task analysis of patterns in student responses found in the data. My research question asks: does IRT work to describe and measure how students learn chemistry and if so, what is discovered about how students learn? Although my findings seem to neither entirely support nor entirely refute the pathway of student understanding proposed in the ChemQuery Perspectives framework. My research does provide an indication of trouble spots. For example, it seems like the pathway from Notions to Recognition is holding but there are difficulties around the transition from Recognition to Formulation that cannot be resolved with this data. Nevertheless, this research has produced the following, which has contributed to the development of the ChemQuery assessment system, (a) 13 new change items with good fits, 3 new change items that need further study, (b) a refined scoring guide and (c) a set of item exemplars that can then be developed further into a computer-adapted model so that more data can be captured.

Claesgens, Jennifer Marie

213

Teaching to the Test…or Testing to Teach: Exams Requiring Higher Order Thinking Skills Encourage Greater Conceptual Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to test the effect of exam-question level on fostering student conceptual understanding, low-level and high-level quizzes and exams were administered in two sections of an introductory biology course. Each section was taught in a high-level inquiry based style but was assigned either low-level questions (memory oriented) on the quizzes…

Jensen, Jamie L.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Woodard, Steven M.; Kummer, Tyler A.

2014-01-01

214

Calculus Students' Understanding of Volume  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers have documented difficulties that elementary school students have in understanding volume. Despite its importance in higher mathematics, we know little about college students' understanding of volume. This study investigated calculus students' understanding of volume. Clinical interview transcripts and written responses to…

Dorko, Allison; Speer, Natasha M.

2013-01-01

215

Student Centeredness: Conceptualizing and Operationalizing It.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the concept of student-centered instruction at the higher education level and proposes use of the STUCEN scale to evaluate student centeredness as an institution-wide strategy and to link it to performance criteria such as student recruitment, retention, and graduation. The philosophy of student centeredness is discussed in…

Bangura, Abdul Karim

216

Student success in an introductory psychology course: A conceptual model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to identify factors that predict student success in an undergraduate introductory psychology course. The study focuses on key behaviors relevant to success in the classroom for nontraditional students (class participation and homework completion), although it is extendible to other settings as well. A framework is proposed to conceptualize the important dimensions of academic ability,

Sherri Lynn Rings

2000-01-01

217

Is a Rectangle a Square? Developing Mathematical Vocabulary and Conceptual Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Desiring to better encourage students' thinking and conceptual development, a fourth-grade teacher examines classroom discourse and written work during her students' analysis and description of basic geometric shapes.

Renne, Christine G.

2004-01-01

218

Understanding the Conceptual Development Phase of Applied Theory-Building Research: A Grounded Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a provisional grounded theory of conceptual development for applied theory-building research. The theory described here extends the understanding of the components of conceptual development and provides generalized relations among the components. The conceptual development phase of theory-building research has been widely…

Storberg-Walker, Julia

2007-01-01

219

A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Faster-Than-Light Neutrinos  

E-print Network

Recent experiments have led to the production of neutrinos with transit times indicating the appearance of traveling faster than the speed of light. In this paper, we present a conceptual framework to understand how faster-than-light events involving neutrinos (as indicated by time-of-flight) might occur. We propose that observations of this kind do not violate the special theory of relativity; instead, they only help to provide evidence in support of the general theory of relativity at quantum scales. Given the relativistic effects of the neutrino on its local spacetime environment, the measured time-of-flight at the macroscopic level is attributable to a decrease in the effective path length traversed by the neutrino. Specifically, along preferred directions, we show that the Kerr metric allows for the compression of spacetime; hence, the decreased path length hypothesis is plausible. Furthermore, when the motion of the neutrino is along the preferred direction for spacetime compression, the Kerr metric also predicts strong frame dragging effects near the Planck length. In the region where strong frame dragging occurs, we propose that the microscopic explanation for the path length compression is due to the formation of 'micro-wormholes' near the Planck length.

Eric Sakk; Aradhya P. Kumar

2012-03-14

220

Understanding Nursing Home Worker Conceptualizations about Good Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored how direct care workers in nursing homes conceptualize good care and how their conceptualizations are influenced by external factors surrounding their work environment and the relational dynamics between them and residents. Study participants were drawn from a local service employees' union, and in-depth interviews were…

Chung, Gawon

2013-01-01

221

Gestures and metaphors as indicators of conceptual understanding of sedimentary systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the geometry and evolution of sedimentary systems and sequence stratigraphy is crucial to the development of geoscientists and engineers working in the petroleum industry. There is a wide variety of audiences within industry who require relatively advanced instruction in this area of geoscience, and there is an equally wide array of approaches to teaching this material in the classroom and field. This research was undertaken to develop a clearer picture of how conceptual understanding in this area of sedimentary geology grows as a result of instruction and how instructors can monitor the completeness and accuracy of student thinking and mental models. We sought ways to assess understanding that did not rely on model-specific jargon but rather was based in physical expression of basic processes and attributes of sedimentary systems. Advances in cognitive science and educational research indicate that a significant part of spatial cognition is facilitated by gesture, (e.g. giving directions, describing objects or landscape features). We aligned the analysis of gestures with conceptual metaphor theory to probe the use of mental image-schemas as a source of concept representation for students' learning of sedimentary processes. In order to explore image schemas that lie in student explanations, we focused our analysis on four core ideas about sedimentary systems that involve sea level change and sediment deposition, namely relative sea level, base level, and sea-level fluctuations and resulting basin geometry and sediment deposition changes. The study included 25 students from three U.S. Midwestern universities. Undergraduate and graduate-level participants were enrolled in senior-level undergraduate courses in sedimentology and stratigraphy. We used semi-structured interviews and videotaping for data collection. We coded the data to focus on deictic, iconic, and metaphoric gestures, and coded interview transcripts for linguistic metaphors using the rubric established by Lakoff (1987) and Lakoff and Johnson (1999). The results suggested that students attempted to make more iconic and metaphoric gestures when dealing with abstract concepts such as relative sea level, base level, and unconformities. Schemas that were evident in both gesture and linguistic expressions dominantly included container schemas, schemas that expressed a source-path-goal relationship, and schemas that represented linear scales of quantity, such as thickness or time. Based on the analysis of gestures that expressed these central ideas, we found that proper use of representational gestures likely indicates completeness in conceptual understanding. We concluded that students rely on image schemas to develop ideas about complex sedimentary systems. Our research also supports the hypothesis that gestures provide an independent and non-linguistic indicator of image-schemas serving as mental models that shape conceptual development. The implication is that instructors should encourage proper gesture use by students during instruction, and also that gesture and linguistic metaphor could potentially be used as tools to assess student understanding.

Riggs, E. M.; Herrera, J. S.

2012-12-01

222

Stellar Ideas: Exploring Students' Understanding of Stars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, high school and first-year undergraduate students were asked about their understanding of stars. The hypothesis guiding this research posits that high school students who have taken a semester-long astronomy course will have an understanding of stars most related to scientific knowledge, compared with high school students enrolled…

Agan, Lori

2004-01-01

223

Investigating the impact of visuohaptic simulations for conceptual understanding in electricity and magnetism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study examined the efficacy of a haptic simulation used as a pedagogical tool to teach freshmen engineering students about electromagnetism. A quasi-experimental design-based research was executed in two iterations to compare the possible benefits the haptic device provided to the cognitive learning of students. In the first iteration of the experiment performance of learners who used visual-only simulations was compared to the performance of those who used visuohaptic. In the second iteration of the experiment modifications were made to learning materials and experiment procedures to enhance research design. Research hypothesis states that multimodal presentation of information may lead to better conceptual understanding of electromagnetism compared to visual presentation alone.

Sanchez Martinez, Karla L.

224

Spatial abilities, Earth science conceptual understanding, and psychological gender of university non-science majors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research has shown the presence of many Earth science misconceptions and conceptual difficulties that may impede concept understanding, and has also identified a number of categories of spatial ability. Although spatial ability has been linked to high performance in science, some researchers believe it has been overlooked in traditional education. Evidence exists that spatial ability can be improved. This correlational study investigated the relationship among Earth science conceptual understanding, three types of spatial ability, and psychological gender, a self-classification that reflects socially-accepted personality and gender traits. A test of Earth science concept understanding, the Earth Science Concepts (ESC) test, was developed and field tested from 2001 to 2003 in 15 sections of university classes. Criterion validity was .60, significant at the .01 level. Spearman/Brown reliability was .74 and Kuder/Richardson reliability was .63. The Purdue Visualization of Rotations (PVOR) (mental rotation), the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) (spatial perception), the Differential Aptitude Test: Space Relations (DAT) (spatial visualization), and the Bem Inventory (BI) (psychological gender) were administered to 97 non-major university students enrolled in undergraduate science classes. Spearman correlations revealed moderately significant correlations at the .01 level between ESC scores and each of the three spatial ability test scores. Stepwise regression analysis indicated that PVOR scores were the best predictor of ESC scores, and showed that spatial ability scores accounted for 27% of the total variation in ESC scores. Spatial test scores were moderately or weakly correlated with each other. No significant correlations were found among BI scores and other test scores. Scantron difficulty analysis of ESC items produced difficulty ratings ranging from 33.04 to 96.43, indicating the percentage of students who answered incorrectly. Mean score on the ESC was 34%, indicating that the non-majors tested exhibited many Earth science misconceptions and conceptual difficulties. A number of significant results were found when independent t-tests and correlations were conducted among test scores and demographic variables. The number of previous university Earth science courses was significantly related to ESC scores. Preservice elementary/middle majors differed significantly in several ways from other non-majors, and several earlier results were not supported. Results of this study indicate that an important opportunity may exist to improve Earth science conceptual understanding by focusing on spatial ability, a cognitive ability that has heretofore not been directly addressed in schools.

Black, Alice A. (Jill)

225

Student Understanding of Light as an Electromagnetic Wave: Relating the Formalism to Physical Phenomena.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some serious difficulties that students have in understanding physical optics may be due in part to a lack of understanding of light as an electromagnetic wave. Describes the development and use of tutorials designed to address students' conceptual difficulties. (Contains over 15 references.) (Author/WRM)

Ambrose, Bradley S.; Heron, Paula R. L.; Vokos, Stamatis; McDermott, Lillian C.

1999-01-01

226

Coming to Understand the Formal Definition of Limit: Insights Gained from Engaging Students in Reinvention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to elaborate Cottrill et al.'s (1996) conceptual framework of limit, an explanatory model of how students might come to understand the limit concept. Drawing on a retrospective analysis of 2 teaching experiments, we propose 2 theoretical constructs to account for the students' success in formulating and understanding

Swinyard, Craig; Larsen, Sean

2012-01-01

227

Promoting Pre-Service Elementary Students' Understanding of Chemical Equilibrium through Discussions in Small Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of small group discussion on students' conceptual understanding of chemical equilibrium. Students' understanding of chemical equilibrium concepts was measured using the Misconception Identification Test. The test consisted of 30 items and administered as pre-posttests to a total of 81…

Bilgin, Ibrahim

2006-01-01

228

College students' use of science content during socioscientific issues negotiation: Impact of evolution understanding and acceptance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to explore the evolution science content used during college students' negotiation of biology-based socioscientific issues (SSI) and examine how it related to students' conceptual understanding and acceptance of biological evolution. Specific research questions were, (1a) what specific evolutionary science content do college students evoke during SSI negotiation, (1b) what is the depth of the

Samantha R. Fowler

2009-01-01

229

STUDENTS' UNDERSTANDING OF LOGARITHMIC FUNCTION ...  

E-print Network

this dual nature of notation that separates the less able math student from the ... functions, because until this point in their learning of functions, students have .... Perhaps the students' misconceptions came from insufficient explicit teaching of this ... in math to make their solution match what they remember from previous ...

Rachael Kenney

2013-03-27

230

Student-Student Online Coaching: Conceptualizing an Emerging Learning Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this paper is to describe student-student online coaching, defined as "an online service where a student gets support on a specific subject matter from a more experienced student". Student-student online coaching emphasizes learning a subject matter by giving a student the opportunity to get coached by a coach, i.e. a more experienced…

Hrastinski, Stefan; Stenbom, Stefan

2013-01-01

231

Predicting fifth-grade students' understanding of ecological science concepts with motivational and cognitive variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need to identify factors that contribute to students' understanding of ecological concepts has been widely expressed in recent literature. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between fifth grade students' prior knowledge, learning strategies, interest, and learning goals and their conceptual understanding of ecological science concepts. Subject were 72 students from three fifth grade classrooms located in a metropolitan area of the eastern United States. Students completed the goal commitment, interest, and strategy use questionnaire (GISQ), and a knowledge test designed to assess their prior knowledge and conceptual understanding of ecological science concepts. The learning goals scale assessed intentions to try to learn and understand ecological concepts. The interest scale assessed the feeling and value-related valences that students ascribed to science and ecological science concepts. The strategy use scale assessed the use of two cognitive strategies (monitoring and elaboration). The knowledge test assessed students' understanding of ecological concepts (the relationship between living organisms and their environment). Scores on all measures were examined for gender differences; no significant gender differences were observed. The motivational and cognitive variables contributed to students' understanding of ecological concepts. After accounting for interest, learning goals, and strategy use, prior knowledge accounted for 28% of the total variance in conceptual understanding. After accounting for prior knowledge, interest, learning goals, and strategy use explained 7%, 6%, and 4% of the total variance in conceptual understanding, respectively. More importantly, these variables were interrelated to each other and to conceptual understanding. After controlling for prior knowledge, learning goals, and strategy use, interest did not predict the variance in conceptual understanding. After controlling for prior knowledge, interest, and strategy use, learning goals did not predict the variance in conceptual understanding. And, after controlling for prior knowledge, interest, and learning goals, strategy use did not predict the variance in conceptual understanding. Results of this study indicated that prior knowledge, interest, learning goals, and strategy use should be included in theoretical models design to explain and to predict fifth grade students' understanding of ecological concepts. Results of this study further suggested that curriculum developers and science teachers need to take fifth grade students' prior knowledge of ecological concepts, interest in science and ecological concepts; intentions to learn and understand ecological concepts, and use of cognitive strategies into account when designing instructional contexts to support these students' understanding of ecological concepts.

Alao, Solomon

232

Using Student-Led Seminars and Conceptual Workshops to Increase Student Participation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the use of two strategies designed to increase student participation in a teacher education class: student-led seminars and conceptual workshops. Quantitative data, collected by a graduate student observer, showed increased student participation in classroom discussion and activities. Also, qualitative findings collected…

McMullen, Victoria Budzinski

2014-01-01

233

Exploring the Development of Students' Conceptual Profiles of Chemical Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Carries out a naturalistic small-scale study involving a class from a senior high school in Spain over two years. Analyzes students' essays on chemical change using text analysis techniques. Reports the development of four conceptual profiles and the implications of research for the process of teaching the concept of chemical change. (Author/KHR)

Solsona, Nuria; Izquierdo, Merce; de Jong, Onno

2003-01-01

234

Interactive Patterns and Conceptual Convergence during Student Collaborations in Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines cognitive and social processes in group interactions that shape collaborative learning in science classrooms. Three small groups of students were observed while working collaboratively on explaining the burning of a candle under a jar. The learning environment served as a context for examination of conceptual convergence, a…

Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Sadler, Troy D.

2008-01-01

235

Engaging Students in Learning: A Review of a Conceptual Organiser  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student engagement in learning is a complex process influenced by many factors. This article introduces a conceptual organiser developed from a review of the literature. It captures four key perspectives--motivation and agency, transactional engagement, institutional support and active citizenship--and suggested indicators for each perspective.…

Leach, Linda; Zepke, Nick

2011-01-01

236

Assessing Student Understanding of Physical Hydrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our objective is to characterize and assess upper division and graduate student thinking by developing and testing an assessment tool for a physical hydrology class. The class' learning goals are: (1) Quantitative process-based understanding of hydrologic processes, (2) Experience with different methods in hydrology, (3) Learning, problem solving, communication skills. These goals were translated into two measurable tasks asked of students in a questionnaire: (1) Describe the significant processes in the hydrological cycle and (2) Describe laws governing these processes. A third question below assessed the students' ability to apply their knowledge: You have been hired as a consultant by __ to (1) assess how urbanization and the current drought have affected a local spring and (2) predict what the effects will be in the future if the drought continues. What information would you need to gather? What measurements would you make? What analyses would you perform? Student and expert responses to the questions were then used to develop a rubric to score responses. Using the rubric, 3 researchers independently blind-coded the full set of pre and post artifacts, resulting in 89% inter-rater agreement on the pre-tests and 83% agreement on the post-tests. We present student scores to illustrate the use of the rubric and to characterize student thinking prior to and following a traditional course. Most students interpreted Q1 in terms of physical processes affecting the water cycle, the primary organizing framework for hydrology, as intended. On the pre-test, one student scored 0, indicating no response, on this question. Twenty students scored 1, indicating rudimentary understanding, 2 students scored a 2, indicating a basic understanding, and no student scored a 3. Student scores on this question improved on the post-test. On the 22 post-tests that were blind scored, 11 students demonstrated some recognition of concepts, 9 students showed a basic understanding, and 2 students had a full understanding of the processes linked to hydrology. Half the students had provided evidence of the desired understanding; however, half still demonstrated only a rudimentary understanding. Results on Q2 were similar. On the pre-test, 2 students scored 0, 21 students scored 1, indicating rudimentary understanding, 2 students scored a 2, and no student scored a 3. On the post-test, again approximately half the students achieved the desired understanding: 9 students showed some recognition of concepts, 12 students demonstrated a basic understanding; only one student exhibited full understanding. On Q3, no student scored 0, 9 scored 1, 15 scored 2 and 1 student scored 3. On the post-test, one student scored 1, 16 students scored 2, and 5 students scored 3. Students were significantly better at responding to Q3 (the application) as opposed to Q1 and Q2, which were more abstract. Research has shown that students are often better able to solve contextualized problems when they are unable to deal with more abstract tasks. This result has limitations including the small number of participants, all from one institution, and the fact that the rubric was still under development. Nevertheless, the high inter-rater agreement by a group of experts is significant; the rubric we developed is a potentially useful tool for assessment of learning and understanding physical hydrology. Supported by NSF CAREER grant (EAR-0955750).

Castillo, A. J.; Marshall, J.; Cardenas, M. B.

2012-12-01

237

Understanding of Acid-Base Concept by Using Conceptual Change Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores changes of the tenth-grade students' conceptions about acids and bases by using conceptual change text oriented instruction accompanied with analogies. Since conceptual change is viewed not only as a process of replacement of old concepts but also a process of learning to relate ideas to appropriate contexts, the instruction…

Cetingul, Puren Ipek; Geban, Omer

2005-01-01

238

Understanding Disabilities & Online Student Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Online learning has been growing at an exponential rate over the past decade, providing new opportunities for students seeking quality courses and programs offered through flexible formats. However, as higher education continues to expand online offerings, services must be expanded simultaneously to support all students. This article focuses on…

Betts, Kristen; Welsh, Bill; Pruitt, Cheryl; Hermann, Kelly; Dietrich, Gaeir; Trevino, Jorge G.; Watson, Terry L.; Brooks, Michael L.; Cohen, Alex H.; Coombs, Norman

2013-01-01

239

Assessing student learning of Newton's laws: The Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation and the Evaluation of Active Learning Laboratory and Lecture Curricula  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation, a research-based, multiple-choice assessment of student conceptual understanding of Newton's Laws of Motion. We discuss a subset of the questions in detail, and give evidence for their validity. As examples of the application of this test, we first present data which examine student learning of dynamics concepts in traditional

Ronald K. Thornton; David R. Sokoloff

1998-01-01

240

Students' different understandings of class diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The software industry needs well-trained software designers and one important aspect of software design is the ability to model software designs visually and understand what visual models represent. However, previous research indicates that software design is a difficult task to many students. This article reports empirical findings from a phenomenographic investigation on how students understand class diagrams, Unified Modeling Language

Jonas Boustedt

2012-01-01

241

Conceptualizations of Spirituality, Religion, and Faith: Comparing Biblical Notions with the Perspectives of Protestant Christian Students at a Lutheran College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a larger investigation into the spiritual climate at one Lutheran college, we interviewed Protestant Christian students in order to compare their conceptualizations of spirituality, religion, and faith with biblical notions of those concepts. We found that the students' understandings of those concepts only loosely reflected general…

Craft, Christy Moran; Rockenbach, Alyssa Bryant

2011-01-01

242

Teacher Development in Action: Understanding Language Teachers' Conceptual Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bringing together multiple sources of data and combining existing theories across language teacher cognition, teacher education, second language motivation, and psychology, this empirically-grounded analysis of teacher development in action offers new insights into the complex and dynamic nature of language teachers' conceptual change. (Contains…

Kubanyiova, Magdalena

2012-01-01

243

Perspectives on Information Literacy: A Framework for Conceptual Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information literacy, 40 years since the term was coined, remains a conceptually contested aspect of library and information science research. This paper uses a review of the literature related to the concept of information literacy to identify three different perspectives, their historical origins, and connection to library and information…

Addison, Colleen; Meyers, Eric

2013-01-01

244

On Understanding Compatibility of Student Pair Programmers  

E-print Network

. Freshmen seem to work better with partners with similar Myers Briggs personality type. Students' self-esteem guidance on forming student pairs to improve the chances that pairs will be compatible and have in seeing if we could improve the compatibility of student pair programmers. To understand the factors

245

On Understanding Compatibility of Student Pair Programmers  

E-print Network

. Freshmen seem to work better with partners with different Myers Briggs personality type. Students' self-esteem guidance on forming student pairs to improve the chances that pairs will be compatible and have in seeing if we could improve the compatibility of student pair programmers. To understand the factors

Gehringer, Ed

246

Creating meaningful learning experiences: Understanding students' perspectives of engineering design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a societal need for design education to prepare holistic engineers with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes to innovate and compete globally. Design skills are paramount to the espoused values of higher education, as institutions of higher learning strive to develop in students the cognitive abilities of critical thinking, problem solving, and creativity. To meet these interests from industry and academia, it is important to advance the teaching and learning of engineering design. This research aims to understand how engineering students learn and think about design, as a way for engineering educators to optimize instructional practice and curriculum development. Qualitative research methodology was used to investigate the meaning that engineering students' ascribe to engineering design. The recruitment of participants and corresponding collection of data occurred in two phases using two different data collection techniques. The first phase involved the distribution of a one-time online questionnaire to all first year, third year, and fourth year undergraduate engineering students at three Canadian Universities. After the questionnaire, students were asked if they would be willing to participate in the second phase of data collection consisting of a personal interview. A total of ten students participated in interviews. Qualitative data analysis procedures were conducted on students' responses from the questionnaire and interviews. The data analysis process consisted of two phases: a descriptive phase to code and categorize the data, followed by an interpretative phase to generate further meaning and relationships. The research findings present a conceptual understanding of students' descriptions about engineering design, structured within two educational orientations: a learning studies orientation and a curriculum studies orientation. The learning studies orientation captured three themes of students' understanding of engineering design: awareness, relevance, and transfer. With this framework of student learning, engineering educators can enhance learning experiences by engaging all three levels of students' understanding. The curriculum studies orientation applied the three holistic elements of curriculum---subject matter, society, and the individual---to conceptualize design considerations for engineering curriculum and teaching practice. This research supports the characterization of students' learning experiences to help educators and students optimize their teaching and learning of design education.

Aleong, Richard James Chung Mun

247

Revitalizing Astronomy Teaching Through Research on Student Understanding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the years, considerable rhetoric exists about which instructional strategies induce the largest conceptual and attitude gains in non-science majoring, undergraduate university students. To determine the effectiveness of lecture-based approaches in astronomy and astrobiology, we found that student scores on a 68-item pre-test/post-test concept inventory showed a statistically significant increase from 30% to 52% correct. In contrast, students evaluated after the use of Lecture-Tutorials increased to 72%. The Lecture Tutorials are intended for use during lecture by small student groups and compliment existing courses with conventional lectures. Based on extensive research on student understanding, Lecture-Tutorials offer professors an effective, learner-centered, classroom-ready alternative to lecture that does not require any outside equipment or drastic course revision for implementation. Each 15-minute Lecture-Tutorial poses a carefully crafted sequence of conceptually challenging, Socratic-dialogue driven questions, along with graphs and data tables, all designed to encourage students to reason critically about difficult concepts in astronomy and astrobiology.

Slater, T.

2006-08-01

248

Perspective of a Chemist: A Framework to Promote Conceptual Understanding of Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Living by Chemistry (LBC) is a high school curriculum project that proposes framing the big ideas of chemistry to provide developmental cohesion across the curriculum and promote conceptual understanding. The proposed framework, called perspectives of Chemists," is intended to allow measurement of individual conceptual change in chemistry over…

Claesgens, Jennifer; Scalise, Kathleen; Draney, Karen; Wilson, Mark; Stacy, Angelica

249

5-Minute Demonstrations to Enhance the Conceptual Understanding of Engineering Lectures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Introductory engineering classes are often taught in large lecture halls, but due to a lack of laboratory apparatus, professors use chalk or erasers to demonstrate physical principles. "Imagine this chalk is a Gaussian sphere" is a phrase underclassmen hear and are expected to learn by. Clearly, easily accessible, illustrative instructional aids could facilitate learning complex engineering concepts. This paper describes a set of 5-minute demonstrations that are simple to execute, require very little equipment, and can be used to increase students' conceptual understanding. Each activity demonstrates a basic engineering principle taken from courses, such as Differential Equations, Physics, Circuits, and Thermodynamics - topics that are required classes for all disciplines. Emphasis is placed on convenience and ease of use by the professor, with most equipment small enough to carry in a pocket or briefcase. These demonstrations introduce a laboratory element into the lecture without the necessity of having a laboratory onsite.

Perrin, Michele

250

Computer-Intensive Algebra and Students' Conceptual Knowledge of Functions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a research project that examined the effects of the Computer-Intensive Algebra (CIA) and traditional algebra curricula on students' (N=802) understanding of the function concept. Results indicate that CIA students achieved a better understanding of functions and were better at the components of modeling, interpreting, and translating.…

O'Callaghan, Brian R.

1998-01-01

251

Western Australian school students' understanding of biotechnology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Are science educators providing secondary school students with the background to understand the science behind recent controversies such as the recently introduced compulsory labelling of genetically modified foods? Research from the UK suggests that many secondary school students do not understand the processes or implications of modern biotechnology. The situation in Australia is unclear. In this study, 1116 15-year-old students from eleven Western Australian schools were surveyed to determine their understanding of, and attitude towards, recent advances in modern biotechnology. The results indicate that approximately one third of students have little or no understanding of biotechnology. Many students over-estimate the use of biotechnology in our society by confusing current uses with possible future applications. The results provide a rationale for the inclusion of biotechnology, a cutting edge science, in the school science curriculum

Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

2003-01-01

252

A cross-cultural, multilevel study of inquiry-based instruction effects on conceptual understanding and motivation in physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Student achievement and motivation to learn physics is highly valued in many industrialized countries including the United States and Japan. Science education curricula in these countries emphasize the importance and encourage classroom teachers to use an inquiry approach. This dissertation investigated high school students' motivational orientations and their understanding of physics concepts in a context of inquiry-based instruction. The goals were to explore the patterns of instructional effects on motivation and learning in each country and to examine cultural differences and similarities. Participants consisted of 108 students (55 females, 53 males) and 9 physics teachers in the United States and 616 students (203 females and 413 males) and 11 physics teachers in Japan. Students were administered (a) Force Concept Inventory measuring physics conceptual understanding and (b) Attitudes about Science Questionnaire measuring student motivational orientations. Teachers were given a survey regarding their use of inquiry teaching practices and background information. Additionally, three teachers in each country were interviewed and observed in their classrooms. For the data analysis, two-level hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) methods were used to examine individual student differences (i.e., learning, motivation, and gender) within each classroom (i.e., inquiry-based teaching, teaching experience, and class size) in the U.S. and Japan, separately. Descriptive statistical analyses were also conducted. The results indicated that there was a cultural similarity in that current teaching practices had minimal influence on conceptual understanding as well as motivation of high school students between the U.S. and Japan. In contrast, cultural differences were observed in classroom structures and instructional approaches. Furthermore, this study revealed gender inequity in Japanese students' conceptual understanding and self-efficacy. Limitations of the study, as well as implications for high school physics teachers are discussed. Future research in this line could explore students' use of cognitive strategies to overcome misconceptions in Western and Eastern cultures. Also, exploring the best practices in changing student misconceptions and promoting motivation across cultures would enrich our understanding and current teaching practices.

Negishi, Meiko

253

Understanding Student Veterans in Transition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this research report the author details a phenomenological study documenting identity development in student veterans making the transition from active military service to higher education. This study took place at a doctoral granting proprietary university with a significant veteran population and consisted of in-depth interviews. This…

Jones, Kevin C.

2013-01-01

254

The Effect of Concept Mapping on Student Understanding and Correlation with Student Learning Styles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the use of concept mapping as a pedagogical strategy to promote change in the learning styles of pre-nursing students. Students' individual learning styles revealed two subsets of students; those who demonstrated a learning style that favors abstract conceptualization and those who demonstrated a learning style that favors concrete experience. Students in the experimental groups performed concept mapping activities designed to facilitate an integrative understanding of interactions between various organ systems of the body while the control group received a traditional didactic instruction without performing concept mapping activities. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected in order to measure differences in student achievement. Analysis of the quantitative data revealed no significant change in the learning styles of students in either the control or experimental groups. Learning style groups were analyzed qualitatively for recurring or emergent themes that students identified as facilitating their learning. An analysis of qualitative data revealed that most students in the pre-nursing program were able to identify concepts within the class based upon visual cues, and a majority of these students exhibited the learning style of abstract conceptualization. As the laboratory experience for the course involves an examination of the anatomical structures of the human body, a visual identification of these structures seemed to be the most logical method to measure students' ability to identify anatomical structures.

Mosley, William G.

255

Assessing student understanding of measurement and uncertainty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A test to assess student understanding of measurement and uncertainty has been developed and administered to more than 500 students at two large research universities. The aim is two-fold: (1) to assess what students learn in the first semester of introductory physics labs and (2) to uncover patterns in student reasoning and practice. The forty minute, eleven item test focuses on direct measurement and student attitudes toward multiple measurements. After one revision cycle using think-aloud interviews, the test was administered to students to three groups: students enrolled in traditional laboratory lab sections of first semester physics at North Carolina State University (NCSU), students in an experimental (SCALE-UP) section of first semester physics at NCSU, and students in first semester physics at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The results were analyzed using a mixture of qualitative and quantitative methods. In the traditional NCSU labs, where students receive no instruction in uncertainty and measurement, students show no improvement on any of the areas examined by the test. In SCALE-UP and at UNC, students show statistically significant gains in most areas of the test. Gains on specific test items in SCALE-UP and at UNC correspond to areas of instructional emphasis. Test items were grouped into four main aspects of performance: "point/set" reasoning, meaning of spread, ruler reading and "stacking." Student performance on the pretest was examined to identify links between these aspects. Items within each aspect are correlated to one another, sometimes quite strongly, but items from different aspects rarely show statistically significant correlation. Taken together, these results suggest that student difficulties may not be linked to a single underlying cause. The study shows that current instruction techniques improve student understanding, but that many students exit the introductory physics lab course without appreciation or coherent understanding for the concept of measurement uncertainty.

Abbott, David Scot

256

Science Olympiad students' nature of science understandings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent reform efforts in science education focus on scientific literacy for all citizens. In order to be scientifically literate, an individual must have informed understandings of nature of science (NOS), scientific inquiry, and science content matter. This study specifically focused on Science Olympiad students' understanding of NOS as one piece of scientific literacy. Research consistently shows that science students do not have informed understandings of NOS (Abd-El-Khalick, 2002; Bell, Blair, Crawford, and Lederman, 2002; Kilcrease and Lucy, 2002; Schwartz, Lederman, and Thompson, 2001). However, McGhee-Brown, Martin, Monsaas and Stombler (2003) found that Science Olympiad students had in-depth understandings of science concepts, principles, processes, and techniques. Science Olympiad teams compete nationally and are found in rural, urban, and suburban schools. In an effort to learn from students who are generally considered high achieving students and who enjoy science, as opposed to the typical science student, the purpose of this study was to investigate Science Olympiad students' understandings of NOS and the experiences that formed their understandings. An interpretive, qualitative, case study method was used to address the research questions. The participants were purposefully and conveniently selected from the Science Olympiad team at a suburban high school. Data collection consisted of the Views of Nature of Science -- High School Questionnaire (VNOS-HS) (Schwartz, Lederman, & Thompson, 2001), semi-structured individual interviews, and a focus group. The main findings of this study were similar to much of the previous research in that the participants had informed understandings of the tentative nature of science and the role of inferences in science, but they did not have informed understandings of the role of human imagination and creativity, the empirical nature of science, or theories and laws. High level science classes and participation in Science Olympiad did not translate into informed understandings of NOS. There were implications that labs with a set procedure and given data tables did not contribute to informed NOS understandings, while explicit instruction may have contributed to more informed understandings. Exploring these high achieving, Science Olympiad students' understandings of NOS was a crucial step to understanding what experiences formed these students' understandings so that teachers may better their practices and help more students succeed in becoming scientifically literate citizens.

Philpot, Cindy J.

2007-12-01

257

Conceptual Change in Students’ Molecular Biology Education: Tilting at Windmills?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hands-on instructional approach with medium-achieving 10th-grade students (N = 294) successfully demonstrated the achievement of a conceptual change. Two teaching variations were applied (I-1, I-2), both dealing with a hands-on gene technology lesson in an out-of-school laboratory. I-2 additionally confronted the participants with alternative conceptions to some of the central issues involved in gene technology following a constructivist teaching

Gaitano Franke; Franz X. Bogner

2011-01-01

258

Using Multiple Representations to Promote Grade 11 Students' Scientific Understanding of the Particle Theory of Matter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored two groups of Grade 11 (age 16-17) students' conceptual understandings about aspects of particle theory before, immediately after, and 3 months after instruction with multiple representations (IMR) and instruction with verbal representations (IVR). Data sources included open-ended questionnaires, interviews, and student

Adadan, Emine

2013-01-01

259

Student Understanding of the Wave Nature of Matter: Diffraction and Interference of Particles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a study of student understanding of the wave nature of matter in the context of the pattern produced by the diffraction and interference of particles. Errors made by students after standard instruction indicates the presence of similar conceptual and reasoning difficulties at three different educational levels. (Contains over 20…

Vokos, Stamatis; Shaffer, Peter S.; Ambrose, Bradley S.; McDermott, Lillian C.

2000-01-01

260

An Investigation into the Understanding of Earth Sciences among Students Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the students teachers' opinions, including rock formation and improper terms related to or different from these ideas, all of which are considered or must be considered in geology classes, have been analyzed. Alternative conception is used to inform our understanding of students teachers' ideas and describe any conceptual

Dal, Burckin

2009-01-01

261

High School Students' Understanding of Chromosome/Gene Behavior during Meiosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates high school students' understanding of the physical relationship of chromosomes and genes as expressed in their conceptual models and in their ability to manipulate the models to explain solutions to dihybrid cross problems. Describes three typical models and three students' reasoning processes. Discusses four implications. (YP)

Stewart, Jim; Dale, Michael

1989-01-01

262

A Cross-Age Study of Student Understanding of the Concept of Homeostasis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The conceptual views of homeostasis held by students (n=300) in seventh grade life science, tenth grade biology, and college zoology were examined. A biographical questionnaire, the results from two Piagetian-like developmental tasks, and a concept evaluation statement of homeostasis were collected from each student. Understanding of the concept…

Westbrook, Susan L.; Marek, Edmund A.

1992-01-01

263

Using Virtual Reality Computer Models to Support Student Understanding of Astronomical Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine how 3-dimensional (3-D) models of the Solar System supported student development of conceptual understandings of various astronomical phenomena that required a change in frame of reference. In the course described in this study, students worked in teams to design and construct 3-D virtual reality computer…

Barnett, Michael; Yamagata-Lynch, Lisa; Keating, Tom; Barab, Sasha A.; Hay, Kenneth E.

2005-01-01

264

College Students' Use of Science Content during Socioscientific Issues Negotiation: Impact of Evolution Understanding and Acceptance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the evolution science content used during college students' negotiation of biology-based socioscientific issues (SSI) and examine how it related to students' conceptual understanding and acceptance of biological evolution. Specific research questions were, (1a) what specific evolutionary science content do…

Fowler, Samantha R.

2009-01-01

265

The Mismatch among Students' Views about Nature of Science, Acceptance of Evolution, and Evolutionary Science Understandings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored interrelationships among high school students' views about nature of science (NOS), acceptance of evolution, and conceptual understanding of evolution, and the extent to which these may have shifted from pre- to post-instruction on evolutionary theory. Eighty-one students enrolled in ninth-grade Biology responded to…

Cavallo, Ann M. L.; White, Kevin J.; McCall, David

2011-01-01

266

Evaluating conceptual change in high school honors chemistry students studying quantum concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High school honors chemistry students have difficulty applying abstract nanooscopic concepts to predict chemical properties. This dissertation aims at evaluating misconceptions and conceptual change in quantum concepts among honors chemistry students from a suburban high school near Boston. For that purpose a new graphical organizer known as a linkage matrix was developed. The researcher investigated the relative extent to which students shifted to a paradigm of using quantum concepts when explaining macroscopic properties such as solubility or color. The researcher compared the qualitative effects of traditional methods of instruction, i.e. lecture/lab in three classes of seventeen students with the additional effects of discovery via computer simulation on student understanding from two of those classes. Students produced concept maps both prior and subsequent to their study of quantum chemistry. The researcher applied the student-cohort's propositional phrases in a linkage matrix based on eight concepts to analyze student understanding of quantum concepts. Four students from each of the experimental classes were interviewed regarding their c-maps linking phrases to identify patterns and assess the scoring validity. The linkage matrix was used to determine the twelve linking phrases exhibiting a thirty percent improvement in student understanding. All students exhibited a decrease in the number of misconceptions. However, the experimental group showed a greater capacity to link more concepts at a deeper level after the intervention. Previously documented misconception such as overgeneralization, and the particulate nature of matter are exacerbated by the difficulty students have with energy and, sign. The research suggests that the activities designed should allow students practice manipulating the variables. The correlational reasoning ability of the students was evaluated using the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking as a potential cause of students' difficulty attributing the relationships among concepts.

Hurwitz, Charles Leonard

267

Mechanisms influencing student understanding on an outdoor guided field trip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field trips are a basic and important, yet often overlooked part of the student experience. They provide the opportunity to integrate real world knowledge with classroom learning and student previous personal experiences. Outdoor guided field trips leave students with an increased understanding, awareness and interest and in science. However, the benefits of this experience are ambiguous at best (Falk and Balling, 1982; Falk and Dierking, 1992; Kisiel, 2006.) Students on an outdoor guided field trip to a local nature park experienced a significant increase in their understanding of the rock cycle. The changes in the pre-field trip test and the post-field trip test as well as their answers in interviews showed a profound change in the students' understanding and in their interest in the subject matter. The use of the "student's voice" (Bamberger and Tal, 2008) was the motivation for data analysis. By using the students' voice, I was able to determine the mechanisms that might influence their understanding of a subject. The central concepts emerging from the data were: the outdoor setting; the students' interest; the social interaction. From these central concepts, a conceptual model was developed. The outdoor setting allows for the freedom to explore, touch, smell and movement. This, in turn, leads to an increased interest in subject matter. As the students are exploring, they are enjoying themselves and become more open to learning. Interest leads to a desire to learn (Dewey, 1975). In addition to allowing the freedom to explore and move, the outdoor setting creates the condition for social interaction. The students talk to each other as they walk; they have in-depth discourse regarding the subject matter---with the teachers, each other and with the guides. The guides have an extremely important role in the students' learning. The more successful guides not only act as experts, but also adjust to the students' needs and act or speak accordingly. The interconnections of these three concepts---the outdoor setting, the students' interest, the social interaction---worked to provide the mechanisms by which the students increased their understanding of the rock cycle.

Caskey, Nourah Al-Rashid

268

Revelations from Counting: A Window to Conceptual Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A design research study was conducted over two years with 20 second grade students who are part of the Measure Up (MU) research and development project underway at the University of Hawai'i. Students were asked to count in multiple bases. After doing so, they were asked how they knew when to go to a new place value and why it was necessary. All 20…

Slovin, Hannah

2011-01-01

269

Teaching for conceptual change: An intervention to promote deeper understanding of diffusion and osmosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emergent processes are distinguished from non-emergent processes on the basis of the qualitative relationships among the agents' interactions and the causal relationships between the agents' interactions and the pattern. Research suggests students often have robust misconceptions about emergent processes (such as diffusion) because they do not have the mental model to interpret these processes This study investigates the extent to which a domain-general understanding of emergent processes can help provide students with an enhanced understanding of diffusion and osmosis This is a quasi-experimental study using non-equivalent groups design to compare the treatment and control groups. Sixty-six community college students enrolled in an introductory biology course comprised the participants. Students' prior knowledge about emergent processes, diffusion, and osmosis were assessed by pre-tests. The treatment group received the intervention -- an instructional module about the differences between scientific processes that are emergent versus processes that are non-emergent. The control group did not receive the intervention but received the process assessment to determine incoming knowledge about scientific processes and any gains in knowledge about scientific processes. Both groups received the same specific content instruction about diffusion and osmosis, which was derived from the regular and established curriculum for the course. Both groups were given post-tests to assess whether they learned the concepts, and whether they were able to achieve a deep understanding that resulted in a comprehension of the transport of substances across cell membranes and how that might be applied in particular health-related situations. Data were analyzed using t-tests and analysis of variance. No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups based on the learning measures Limitations include sample restrictions and not taking into account individual ability levels of the participants. In addition, the short length of this intervention may not provide adequate time for students to successfully acquire the schema to understand conceptually difficult science concepts such as diffusion and osmosis. Future directions of research include expanding the sample size and length of exposure to the intervention, in addition to examining the individual ability levels of the participants.

Berg, Cheryl

270

Measuring Conceptual Gains and Benefits of Student Problem Designs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Writing assignments can be an effective way of getting students to practice higher-order learning skills in physics. One example of such an assignment is that of problem design. One version of the problem design assignment asks the student to evaluate the material from a chapter, after all instruction and other activities are complete. The student is to decide what concepts and ideas are most central, or critical in the chapter, and construct a problem that he or she feels best encompasses the major themes. Here, we use two concept surveys (FCI and EMCS) to measure conceptual gains for students completing the problem design assignment and present the preliminary results, comparing across several categories including gender, age, degree program, and class standing.

Mandell, Eric; Snyder, Rachel; Oswald, Wayne

2011-10-01

271

Understanding the Integral: Students' Symbolic Forms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers are currently investigating how calculus students understand the basic concepts of first-year calculus, including the integral. However, much is still unknown regarding the "cognitive resources" (i.e., stable cognitive units that can be accessed by an individual) that students hold and draw on when thinking about the integral. This…

Jones, Steven R.

2013-01-01

272

Western Australian School Students' Understanding of Biotechnology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys (n=1116) 15-year-old students from 11 Western Australian schools to determine their understanding of and attitude towards recent advances in modern biotechnology. Discusses reasons for students' over-estimation of the use of biotechnology in society. Provides a rationale for the inclusion of biotechnology, a cutting edge science, in the…

Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

2003-01-01

273

Understanding and Preventing College Student Suicide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suicide is currently the second leading cause of death among college students in the United States. This complex issue on college campuses is often overlooked, and this book combines the efforts from several leaders in the field of suicidology in an attempt to grasp a better understanding of college student suicide. The book is divided into four…

Lamis, Dorian A.; Lester, David

2011-01-01

274

Investigating Students' Understanding of the Dissolving Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a previous study, the authors identified several student misconceptions regarding the process of dissolving ionic compounds in water. The present study used multiple-choice questions whose distractors were derived from these misconceptions to assess students' understanding of the dissolving process at the symbolic and particulate levels. The…

Naah, Basil M.; Sanger, Michael J.

2013-01-01

275

Improving Students' Understanding of Quantum Measurement  

SciTech Connect

We describe the difficulties advanced undergraduate and graduate students have with quantum measurement. To reduce these difficulties, we have developed research-based learning tools such as the Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorial (QuILT) and peer instruction tools. A preliminary evaluation shows that these learning tools are effective in improving students' understanding of concepts related to quantum measurement.

Zhu Guangtian; Singh, Chandralekha [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, 15260 (United States)

2010-10-24

276

Students' Understandings and Misconceptions of Algebraic Inequalities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics [NCTM] requires students in grades nine through 12 to be able to explain inequalities using mathematical relational symbols and be able to understand the meaning of inequalities and their solutions (NCTM, 2000). Studies have shown that not only middle and high school students have difficulties with…

Rowntree, Rebecca V.

2009-01-01

277

Students' Understanding of Orbitals: A Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study of chemistry includes many abstract concepts that students may find difficult to understand. A fundamental yet troublesome part of introductory chemistry courses is the topic of electron configuration and specifically quantum-mechanical orbitals. In an effort to examine the way students internalize the concept of atomic orbitals and how…

MacKinnon, Gregory R.

278

Conceptualizing Nanoscale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One strategy for enhancing students' understanding of nanoscale is to shift students' existing understandings of relative scale by helping them conceptually transport their strongest scale benchmark--themselves--into the nanoscale world. This article describes a set of activities to scaffold high school students' nanoscsale conceptions and to help them appreciate the scale at which nanotechnology operates, both in a relative and an absolute sense.

Thomas Tretter

2006-12-01

279

Upper High School Students' Understanding of Electromagnetism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although electromagnetism is an important component of upper secondary school physics syllabuses in many countries, there has been relatively little research on students' understanding of the topic. A written test consisting of 16 diagnostic questions was developed and used to survey the understanding of electromagnetism of upper secondary school…

Saglam, Murat; Millar, Robin

2006-01-01

280

Socioscientific Issues: A Path Towards Advanced Scientific Literacy and Improved Conceptual Understanding of Socially Controversial Scientific Theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis investigates the use of socioscientific issues (SSI) in the high school science classroom as an introduction to argumentation and socioscientific reasoning, with the goal of improving students' scientific literacy (SL). Current research is reviewed that supports the likelihood of students developing a greater conceptual understanding of scientific theories as well as a deeper understanding of the nature of science (NOS), through participation in informal and formal forms of argumentation in the context of SSI. Significant gains in such understanding may improve a student's ability to recognize the rigor, legitimacy, and veracity of scientific claims and better discern science from pseudoscience. Furthermore, students that participate in significant SSI instruction by negotiating a range of science-related social issues can make significant gains in content knowledge and develop the life-long skills of argumentation and evidence-based reasoning, goals not possible in traditional lecture-based science instruction. SSI-based instruction may therefore help students become responsible citizens. This synthesis also suggests that that the improvements in science literacy and NOS understanding that develop from sustained engagement in SSI-based instruction will better prepare students to examine and scrutinize socially controversial scientific theories (i.e., evolution, global warming, and the Big Bang).

Pinzino, Dean William

281

College students' conceptualizations of deficits involved in mild intellectual disability.  

PubMed

Precedential rulings in recent capital murder trials may, in some cases, leave it up to a jury to determine whether or not an individual meets criteria for an intellectual disability (ID) and should be spared from the death penalty. Despite the potential for misconceptions about ID to bias decisions, few empirical studies have examined the public's conceptualizations of individuals with ID. This study sought to examine 890 college students' conceptualizations of the deficits involved in mild ID. Students were asked to respond to two online surveys about the cognitive and adaptive behavior deficits that people with mild ID may experience. While most students were correct about basic facts, such as ID is not contagious and not curable, there was no clear consensus regarding beliefs about individuals with ID getting married, having children, or engaging in other mainstream activities of adult living. Students' responses are examined in light of results of studies that identify and examine bona fide deficits and areas of successful mainstreaming among persons with ID. Implications of misconceptions are discussed. PMID:22093668

Musso, Mandi W; Barker, Alyse A; Proto, Daniel A; Gouvier, Wm Drew

2012-01-01

282

Research and Teaching: Student Understanding of Ionizing Radiation and Radioactivity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Results from research into the teaching and learning of physics have shown that many college students have significant conceptual and reasoning difficulties relating to topics of radioactivity. Interviewing students from three different science background

Edward E. Prather

2001-10-01

283

Effectiveness of Ninth-Grade Physics in Maine: Conceptual Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Physics First movement--teaching a true physics course to ninth-grade students--is gaining popularity in high schools. There are several different rhetorical arguments for and against this movement, and it is quite controversial in physics education. However, there is no actual evidence to assess the success, or failure, of this substantial…

O'Brien, Michael J.; Thompson, John R.

2009-01-01

284

Conceptual Development in Infancy: The Understanding of Containment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infants of 14 months of age demonstrated significantly improved understanding of containment as a result of a training intervention in which they played with cans and tubes in their homes for a month. After training, their test scores were similar to those of untrained 20-month-old children. (RH)

MacLean, Darla J.; Schuler, Maureen

1989-01-01

285

Conceptual Development in Infancy: The Understanding of Containment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of studies investigated the development of infants' understanding of the containment function of certain objects. In Experiment 1, infants' absolute preference for looking at either a can or a tube was tested. No preference was found. Two measures were used in Experiments 2 and 3. One assessed infants' looking response or gaze behavior…

MacLean, Darla J.

286

A Conceptual Understanding of Employability: The Employers' View in Rwanda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many governments believe that investing in human capital should increase citizens' employability, which is why it is often presented as a solution to the problems of knowledge-based economies and societies, rising unemployment rates and economic competiveness. The aim of this study is to understand employers' views regarding the employability of…

Bamwesiga, Penelope Mbabazi

2013-01-01

287

Teaching Care Ethics: Conceptual Understandings and Stories for Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An ethic of care acknowledges the centrality of the role of caring relationships in moral education. Care ethics requires a conception of "care" that differs from the quotidian use of the word. In order to teach care ethics more effectively, this article discusses four interrelated ways that teachers' understandings of care differ…

Rabin, Colette; Smith, Grinell

2013-01-01

288

Student understanding of symmetry and Gauss's law of electricity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the difficulties that students in calculus-based introductory physics courses have with the concepts of symmetry, electric field, and electric flux which are important for applying Gauss's law. The determination of the electric field using Gauss's law requires determining the symmetry of a particular charge distribution and predicting the direction of the electric field everywhere if a high symmetry exists. Effective application of Gauss's law implicitly requires understanding the principle of superposition for electric fields. Helping students learn when Gauss's law can be readily applied to determine the strength of the electric field, and then helping them learn to determine the appropriate shape of Gaussian surfaces if sufficient symmetry exists, can help develop their reasoning and problem-solving skills. We administered free-response and multiple-choice questions and conducted interviews with individual students using a think-aloud protocol to elucidate the difficulties that students have with the concepts of symmetry, electric field, and electric flux. We also developed a multiple-choice test that targets these conceptual issues to obtain quantitative information about their difficulties and administered it to 541 students in the introductory calculus-based physics courses and to upper-level undergraduates in an electricity and magnetism course and to graduate students enrolled in a teaching assistant seminar course. We find that undergraduate students have many common difficulties with these concepts.

Singh, Chandralekha

2006-10-01

289

Subject- and Experience-Bound Differences in Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of Sustainable Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the results of a nationwide questionnaire study of 3229 Swedish upper secondary school teachers' conceptual understanding of sustainable development in relation to their subject discipline and teaching experience. Previous research has shown that teachers have difficulties understanding the complex concept of…

Borg, C.; Gericke, N.; Höglund, H.-O.; Bergman, E.

2014-01-01

290

Differential Effects of the Manipulation of Endoplasmic Reticulum Data Sets Using Image J Analysis Software for Conceptual Understanding in a College Biology Course  

E-print Network

understanding of scientific concepts and not simply reinforce the ritualistic manipulation? (NRC, 1996, p.52). This deviation from traditional instruction has created a challenge for instructors, since the focal point of instruction has been to increase... derived from their work. Inquiry also refers to the activities of students in which they develop knowledge and understanding of scientific ideas, as well as an understanding of how scientists study the natural world? (NRC, 1996, p. 23). Conceptual...

Lane, Cleveland O., Jr.

2012-02-14

291

High school students' understanding and problem solving in population genetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is an investigation of student understanding of population genetics and how students developed, used and revised conceptual models to solve problems. The students in this study participated in three rounds of problem solving. The first round involved the use of a population genetics model to predict the number of carriers in a population. The second round required them to revise their model of simple dominance population genetics to make inferences about populations containing three phenotype variations. The third round of problem solving required the students to revise their model of population genetics to explain anomalous data where the proportions of males and females with a trait varied significantly. As the students solved problems, they were involved in basic scientific processes as they observed population phenomena, constructed explanatory models to explain the data they observed, and attempted to persuade their peers as to the adequacy of their models. In this study, the students produced new knowledge about the genetics of a trait in a population through the revision and use of explanatory population genetics models using reasoning that was similar to what scientists do. The students learned, used and revised a model of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium to generate and test hypotheses about the genetics of phenotypes given only population data. Students were also interviewed prior to and following instruction. This study suggests that a commonly held intuitive belief about the predominance of a dominant variation in populations is resistant to change, despite instruction and interferes with a student's ability to understand Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and microevolution.

Soderberg, Patti D.

292

Students with Severe Disabilities in the General Education Program: A Conceptual and Practical Framework for Rural School Administrators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adaptation of Bolman and Deal's conceptual framework of organizational theory and related research provides educational administrators with structural, political, human-resource, and symbolic frames for understanding current educational practices and for planning the integration of severely disabled students into the general education program of…

Capper, Colleen A.

1989-01-01

293

Middle school students' conceptual change in global climate change: Using argumentation to foster knowledge construction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research examined middle school student conceptions about global climate change (GCC) and the change these conceptions undergo during an argument driven instructional unit. The theoretical framework invoked for this study is the framework theory of conceptual change (Vosniadou, 2007a). This theory posits that students do not simply correct incorrect ideas with correct ones, but instead weigh incoming ideas against already existing explanatory frameworks, which have likely served the learner well to this point. The research questions were as follows: (1) What are the patterns of students' conceptual change in GCC? (a) What conceptions are invoked in student learning in this arena? (b) What conceptions are most influential? (c) What are the extra-rational factors influencing conceptual change in GCC? This research took place in an urban public school in a medium sized city in the southeastern United States. A sixth grade science teacher at Central Middle school, Ms. Octane, taught a course titled "Research Methods I., which was an elective science course that students took as part of a science magnet program. A unit was designed for 6th grade instruction that incorporated an Argument-Driven Inquiry (ADI) approach, centered on the subject matter of Global Climate change and Global Warming. Students were immersed in three separate lessons within the unit, each of which featured an emphasis upon creating scientific explanations based upon evidence. Additionally, each of the lessons placed a premium on students working towards the development of such explanations as a part of a group, with an emphasis on peer review of the robustness of the explanations proposed. The students were involved in approximately a two week unit emphasizing global climate change. This unit was based on an argumentation model that provided data to students and asked them to develop explanations that accounted for the data. The students then underwent a peer-review process to determine if their explanations could be modified to better account for the data as pointed out by peers. As the students experienced the three lessons comprising the unit, data were taken of various modes, including pre-unit, mid-unit, post-unit, and delayed-post unit interviews, observer notes from the classroom, and artifacts created by the students as individuals and as members of a group. At the end of the unit, a written post-assessment was administered, and post-interviews were conducted with the selected students. These varied data sources were analyzed in order to develop themes corresponding to their frameworks of climate change. Negative cases were sought in order to test developing themes. Themes that emerged from the data were triangulated across the various data sources in order to ensure quality and rigor. These themes were then used to construct understandings of various students' frameworks of the content. Several findings emerged from this research. The first finding is that each student underwent some conceptual change regarding GCC, although of varying natures. The students' synthetic frameworks of GCC were more complex than their initial, or naive frameworks. Some characteristics of the naive frameworks included that the students tended to conflate climate change with a broader, generic category of environmental things. Examples of this conflation include the idea that climate change entails general pollution, litter, and needless killing of dolphins while fishing for tuna. This research suggests that students might benefit from explicit attention to this concept in terms of an ontological category, with the ideal synthetic view realizing that GCC is itself an example of an emergent process. Another characteristic of their naive frameworks includes some surprisingly accurate notions of GCC, including a general sense that temperatures and sea levels are rising. At the same time, none of the students were able to adequately invoke data to support their understandings of GCC. Instead, when data were invoked, students tended to include anecdotal informat

Golden, Barry W.

294

Improving high school physical science students' understanding of the electromagnetic spectrum: A modified diagram approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focus of this study was to identify major conceptual difficulties that selected public high school physical science students encounter in understanding a standard electromagnetic spectrum diagram. A research-driven, modified version of that standard diagram was used in this study to determine the value added to student understanding of electromagnetic waves. A content analysis was performed on electromagnetic spectrum diagrams found in US textbooks from the 1950s through the present. A class of public high school physical science students participated in a study consisting of four activities conducted during a three-week unit. Students were given a pre- and post-achievement test and a pre- and post-survey on the regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. At the conclusion of each activity, selected students were interviewed and each co-constructed a concept map with the researcher. The Electromagnetic Spectrum Literacy Rubric (ESLR) was designed and used to assess students' conceptual understanding periodically as they proceeded through the unit study. A mixed methods analysis was performed, employing both qualitative and quantitative data. A paired t-test determined that there was a statistically significant difference (p = 0.014) between the pre- and post-achievement test scores for the class of students participating in the unit study. Effect sizes also determined that students have difficulties with mathematical calculations and wave properties. These topics present conceptual challenges which must be overcome to understand and use an electromagnetic spectrum diagram effectively.

Quebedeaux, James Edward

295

Students' Understanding of Stern Gerlach Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The Stern Gerlach experiment has played a central role in the discovery of spin angular momentum and it has also played a pivotal role in elucidating foundational issues in quantum mechanics. Here, we discuss investigation of students' difficulties related to the Stern Gerlach experiment by giving written tests and interviewing advanced undergraduate and graduate students in quantum mechanics. We also discuss preliminary data that suggest that the Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorial (QuILT) related to the Stern Gerlach experiment is helpful in improving students' understanding of these concepts.

Zhu Guangtian; Singh, Chandralekha [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, 15260 (United States)

2009-11-05

296

A Conceptual Framework for Assessing Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning in College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual framework for assessing student motivation and self-regulated learning in the college classroom is presented. The framework is based on a self-regulatory (SRL) perspective on student motivation and learning in contrast to a student approaches to learning (SAL) perspective. The differences between SRL and SAL approaches are discussed, as are the implications of the SRL conceptual framework for developing

Paul R. Pintrich

2004-01-01

297

Enhancing Pre-Service Elementary Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of Solution Chemistry with Conceptual Change Text  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on the use of a constructivist-based pedagogy to enhance understanding of some features of solution chemistry. Pre-service science teacher trainees' prior knowledge about the dissolution of salts and sugar in water were elicited by the use of a simple diagnostic tool. The test revealed widespread alternative conceptions. These…

Calik, Muammer; Ayas, Alipasa; Coll, Richard Kevin

2007-01-01

298

Using a conceptual flow, inquiry based learning, and language development to yield enduring understanding in science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This project was designed to incorporate three curriculum development strategies that have been created to increase student achievement in various content areas. Conceptual flow design, the 5E Instructional Model, and English language development strategies were used to create a seventh grade Genetics Unit. The unit was evaluated by three external experts and carried out in two seventh grade classrooms in an effort to assess its effectiveness. Based on the evaluators' feedback, the initial conceptual flow and lessons were found to be inconsistent and confusing. Overall, the organization of this unit seemed to support student achievement. The conceptual flow and the lesson layout of the unit were revised based on the evaluation data. All revisions and the established protocols will serve as models for further science curriculum development in the Norwalk-La Mirada Unified School District.

Gunderson, Angelica E.

299

Embedding Evolution: Exploring Changes in Students' Conceptual Development, Beliefs, and Motivations in a Population Ecology Unit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to explore student changes in conceptual development, epistemology, and motivations when evolution concepts are embedded and explicit reflective discourse is used in a unit for population ecology. The two research problems were: (1) What changes are observed in student's conceptual development, epistemology, and motivations when there is explicit reflective discourse within a population ecology unit with embedded evolution?, and (2) In what ways does explicit reflection influence students' mental models within a population ecology unit with embedded evolution? This mixed-method, quasi-experimental study assessed two regular high school biology classes in a small, urban, Midwestern high school. Students in this study had not studied evolution within any formal chapters, but had been immersed in a curriculum with embedded evolution. The study was conducted over a four-week period in a population ecology unit near the beginning of second semester. Instruction emphasized basic conceptions in population ecology. Five key intervention activities included evolutionary concepts as part of an embedded curriculum. The independent variable was explicit reflective discourse with one or two intervention questions after completion of these activities. Data included pre- and posttest surveys measuring (a) evolutionary understanding of natural selection, (b) science beliefs, and (c) science motivations. Written artifacts included (a) explanations to scenarios, (b) pre- and post-argument reflections revealing student's science beliefs and science motivations resultant from two argumentations, and (c) three, pre-, post-, and 6-week final concept maps constructed from 12 concepts. All data sources provided descriptive data. Conceptual change was interpreted from an ontological, epistemological, and motivational perspective. The experimental class receiving explicit reflective discourse showed greater overall increases in conceptual development. Students in both classes constructed teleological and proximate explanations. Overall, the experimental class gave greater numbers of evolutionary explanations. Scored propositions from concept maps showed a mixture of synthetic and scientific conceptions in both classes, however the experimental group showed greater scientific quality. Students in both classes exhibited direct-process ontology. Both classes had high degrees of epistemological and motivational commitments demonstrated by their engagement and subsequent improvements in conceptual development in both evolutionary and ecological conceptions.

Rose, Nancy L.

300

Experiment to Help Students Understand Pulmonary Compliance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compliance is a difficult concept for students to grasp, and in partic-ular, pulmonary compliance is quite difficult because it involves an understanding of both lung and chest compliance. To help students understand pulmonary compliance characteristics, relaxation curves for the chest cage (Fig. 1A), lung (Fig. 1B), and combined lung-chest cage (Fig. 1C) are often presented to medical students. To facilitate an understanding of the relaxation curves, we demonstrate how the curves are generated by substituting a balloon for the lungs and a tennis ball for the chest cage. Students are told that when the lung is removed from the chest cage, it closely resembles a collapsed balloon. Subsequently, a collapsed balloon is connected to a pressure transducer that is coupled to a data acquisition system. The students observe that, when pressure inside the balloon equals outside pressure, or transmural pressure is zero, balloon volume is close to zero. Starting from essentially zero balloon volume, a measured volume of air is put into the balloon, and the recoil or relaxation pres-sure associated with the addition of that air volume is recorded. Additional measured volumes of air are added to the balloon, and the corresponding recoil or relaxation pressure is recorded. Compliance of the balloon is obtained by plotting balloon recoil or relaxation pressure on the x-axis and balloon volume on the y-axis. The slope of this plot is balloon compliance.

PhD Stephen M. DiCarlo (Wayne State Univ Sch Med Dept of Physiology)

2002-06-01

301

Elementary School Students' Understandings of Technology Concepts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in grades 2 (n=27), 4 (n=37), and 6 (n=28) were asked questions about artifacts or pictures. Their explanations, which revealed their understanding of such technological concepts as material properties and stability, were classified as naive, artifact related, or not artifact related. Explanations tended to cluster in a classification at…

Davis, Robert S.; Ginns, Ian S.; McRobbie, Campbell J.

2002-01-01

302

Helping Your Students Better Understand Credit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines 10 issues concerning credit that students should understand: credit reports; credit reporting; obligations when signing/cosigning a loan; creating positive credit history; privacy and the credit report; how lenders make and monitor credit decisions; mailing lists and preapproved credit offers; protecting against credit card fraud; use of…

Mahaney, Judi

1997-01-01

303

Understanding Student Article Retrieval Behaviors: Instructional Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluates the use of full-text databases amongst 425 undergraduate and graduate students in western New York. A review of literature implicated convenience, time issues, article retrieval option knowledge, and the appreciation and understanding of research article quality as potential predictors of full-text reliance. These variables…

Cook-Cottone, Catherine P.; Dutt-Doner, Karen; Schoen, David

2005-01-01

304

Students' Different Understandings of Class Diagrams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The software industry needs well-trained software designers and one important aspect of software design is the ability to model software designs visually and understand what visual models represent. However, previous research indicates that software design is a difficult task to many students. This article reports empirical findings from a…

Boustedt, Jonas

2012-01-01

305

Conceptual difficulties experienced by senior high school students of electrochemistry: Electrochemical (galvanic) and electrolytic cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research investigated students' understanding of electrochemistry following a 7-9-week course of instruction. A list of conceptual and propositional knowledge statements was formulated, and this provided the framework for semistructured interviews that were conducted with 32 students in their final year of high school chemistry, following instruction in electrochemistry. Three misconceptions identified in this study and five which have been reported earlier are incorporated into an alternative framework about electric current. The framework is grounded on the notion that a current always involves drifting electrons, even in solution. Another area where students' misconceptions were prevalent was in relation to the sign of the anode and cathode. Students who thought the anode was negatively charged believed cations would move toward it, and those who thought it was positively charged were unable to explain why electrons move away from it. Electrolytic cells also proved troublesome for students. Many students did not associate the positions of the anode and cathode with the polarity of the applied electromotive force (e.m.f.). Other students attempted to reverse features of electrochemical cells and apply the reversals to electrolytic cells. The implications of the research relate to students' interpretation of the language that is used to describe scientific phenomena and the tendency for students to overgeneralize, due to comments made by teachers or statements in textbooks.

Garnett, Pamela J.; Treagust, David F.

306

Understanding integrated care: a comprehensive conceptual framework based on the integrative functions of primary care  

PubMed Central

Introduction Primary care has a central role in integrating care within a health system. However, conceptual ambiguity regarding integrated care hampers a systematic understanding. This paper proposes a conceptual framework that combines the concepts of primary care and integrated care, in order to understand the complexity of integrated care. Methods The search method involved a combination of electronic database searches, hand searches of reference lists (snowball method) and contacting researchers in the field. The process of synthesizing the literature was iterative, to relate the concepts of primary care and integrated care. First, we identified the general principles of primary care and integrated care. Second, we connected the dimensions of integrated care and the principles of primary care. Finally, to improve content validity we held several meetings with researchers in the field to develop and refine our conceptual framework. Results The conceptual framework combines the functions of primary care with the dimensions of integrated care. Person-focused and population-based care serve as guiding principles for achieving integration across the care continuum. Integration plays complementary roles on the micro (clinical integration), meso (professional and organisational integration) and macro (system integration) level. Functional and normative integration ensure connectivity between the levels. Discussion The presented conceptual framework is a first step to achieve a better understanding of the inter-relationships among the dimensions of integrated care from a primary care perspective. PMID:23687482

Valentijn, Pim P.; Schepman, Sanneke M.; Opheij, Wilfrid; Bruijnzeels, Marc A.

2013-01-01

307

Conceptualizing, Understanding, and Predicting Responsible Decisions and Quality Input  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In areas such as climate change, where uncertainty is high, it is arguably less difficult to tell when efforts have resulted in changes in knowledge, than when those efforts have resulted in responsible decisions. What is a responsible decision? More broadly, when it comes to citizen input, what is "high quality" input? And most importantly, how are responsible decisions and quality input enhanced? The aim of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of the different dimensions of "responsible" or "quality" public input and citizen decisions by comparing and contrasting the different predictors of those different dimensions. We first present different possibilities for defining, operationalizing and assessing responsible or high quality decisions. For example, responsible decisions or quality input might be defined as using specific content (e.g., using climate change information in decisions appropriately), as using specific processes (e.g., investing time and effort in learning about and discussing the issues prior to making decisions), or on the basis of some judgment of the decision or input itself (e.g., judgments of the rationale provided for the decisions, or number of issues considered when giving input). Second, we present results from our work engaging people with science policy topics, and the different ways that we have tried to define these two constructs. In the area of climate change specifically, we describe the development of a short survey that assesses exposure to climate information, knowledge of and attitudes toward climate change, and use of climate information in one's decisions. Specifically, the short survey was developed based on a review of common surveys of climate change related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors, and extensive piloting and cognitive interviews. Next, we analyze more than 200 responses to that survey (data collection is currently ongoing and will be complete after the AGU deadline), and report the predictors of reported use of climate information in one's personal and work-related decisions, as well as significant predictors of one's willingness to commit to attend a four-hour public meeting and discussion with city leaders and energy experts for the purposes of thinking about and discussing local energy-related decisions. Finally, in order to consider future directions for assessing "responsible" or "quality" input in the area of climate change, we report data and results from experimental studies conducted in a different area of science: nanotechnology. Specifically, we discuss our methods for assessing quality of written input on the future development and regulation of nanotechnology under different experimental conditions (e.g., written alone or after discussion with a group), and the compare and contrast the best predictors of those operational definitions to those that we have explored in the area of climate change outreach contexts. Discussion will focus on the pros and cons of different ways of assessing the quality of public input.

Wall, N.; PytlikZillig, L. M.

2012-12-01

308

A Framework for Understanding Physics Students' Computational Modeling Practices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the growing push to include computational modeling in the physics classroom, we are faced with the need to better understand students' computational modeling practices. While existing research on programming comprehension explores how novices and experts generate programming algorithms, little of this discusses how domain content knowledge, and physics knowledge in particular, can influence students' programming practices. In an effort to better understand this issue, I have developed a framework for modeling these practices based on a resource stance towards student knowledge. A resource framework models knowledge as the activation of vast networks of elements called "resources." Much like neurons in the brain, resources that become active can trigger cascading events of activation throughout the broader network. This model emphasizes the connectivity between knowledge elements and provides a description of students' knowledge base. Together with resources resources, the concepts of "epistemic games" and "frames" provide a means for addressing the interaction between content knowledge and practices. Although this framework has generally been limited to describing conceptual and mathematical understanding, it also provides a means for addressing students' programming practices. In this dissertation, I will demonstrate this facet of a resource framework as well as fill in an important missing piece: a set of epistemic games that can describe students' computational modeling strategies. The development of this theoretical framework emerged from the analysis of video data of students generating computational models during the laboratory component of a Matter & Interactions: Modern Mechanics course. Student participants across two semesters were recorded as they worked in groups to fix pre-written computational models that were initially missing key lines of code. Analysis of this video data showed that the students' programming practices were highly influenced by their existing physics content knowledge, particularly their knowledge of analytic procedures. While this existing knowledge was often applied in inappropriate circumstances, the students were still able to display a considerable amount of understanding of the physics content and of analytic solution procedures. These observations could not be adequately accommodated by the existing literature of programming comprehension. In extending the resource framework to the task of computational modeling, I model students' practices in terms of three important elements. First, a knowledge base includes re- sources for understanding physics, math, and programming structures. Second, a mechanism for monitoring and control describes students' expectations as being directed towards numerical, analytic, qualitative or rote solution approaches and which can be influenced by the problem representation. Third, a set of solution approaches---many of which were identified in this study---describe what aspects of the knowledge base students use and how they use that knowledge to enact their expectations. This framework allows us as researchers to track student discussions and pinpoint the source of difficulties. This work opens up many avenues of potential research. First, this framework gives researchers a vocabulary for extending Resource Theory to other domains of instruction, such as modeling how physics students use graphs. Second, this framework can be used as the basis for modeling expert physicists' programming practices. Important instructional implications also follow from this research. Namely, as we broaden the use of computational modeling in the physics classroom, our instructional practices should focus on helping students understand the step-by-step nature of programming in contrast to the already salient analytic procedures.

Lunk, Brandon Robert

309

Professional Development Aligned with AP Chemistry Curriculum: Promoting Science Practices and Facilitating Enduring Conceptual Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recent revisions to the advanced placement (AP) chemistry curriculum promote deep conceptual understanding of chemistry content over more rote memorization of facts and algorithmic problem solving. For many teachers, this will mean moving away from traditional worksheets and verification lab activities that they have used to address the vast…

Herrington, Deborah G.; Yezierski, Ellen J.

2014-01-01

310

Conceptual Understandings as Transition Points: Making Sense of a Complex Social World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching for conceptual understanding has been heralded as an effective approach within many curriculum frameworks internationally in an age of rapid and constant change around what counts as "knowledge". Drawing from research and experience within the social studies curriculum, this paper reflects on some of the largely unstated and unexplored…

Milligan, Andrea; Wood, Bronwyn

2010-01-01

311

Chinese and Australian Children's Understandings of the Earth: A Cross Cultural Study of Conceptual Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore Chinese and Australian primary children's conceptual understandings of the Earth. The research was conducted in the interpretive paradigm and was designed to be descriptive with comparative and cross sectional elements. Participants were Year 3 and Year 6 children from three schools in Hunan Province,…

Tao, Ying; Oliver, Mary; Venville, Grady

2013-01-01

312

A conceptual framework to understand retailers' logistics1 and transport organization illustrated for groceries' goods2  

E-print Network

A conceptual framework to understand retailers' logistics1 and transport organization ­ illustrated38 * Corresponding author9 10 11 1 IFSTTAR,12 Production Systems, logistics, Transport Organisation as retailers, through in-house or51 outsourced logistics deliveries to points of sale, have a high share

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

313

Chinese and Australian Year 3 Children's Conceptual Understanding of Science: A Multiple Comparative Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children have formal science instruction from kindergarten in Australia and from Year 3 in China. The purpose of this research was to explore the impact that different approaches to primary science curricula in China and Australia have on children's conceptual understanding of science. Participants were Year 3 children from three schools of high,…

Tao, Ying; Oliver, Mary Colette; Venville, Grady Jane

2012-01-01

314

Understanding and Theorizing the Role of Culture in the Conceptualizations of Successful Aging and Lifelong Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successful aging and lifelong learning are value-laden concepts that are culturally determined. To this effect, people with different value systems and cultural backgrounds may perceive and understand these two concepts differently, resulting in different definitions and conceptualizations by people in diverse cultural contexts. There have been…

Tam, Maureen

2014-01-01

315

Understanding the structure of the set of rational numbers: a conceptual change approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present article, we argue that the conceptual change approach to learning can apply in the case of mathematics, taking into consideration the particular nature of mathematical knowledge and the neurobiological bases of mathematical cognition. In the empirical study that is reported in this article, we investigated ninth graders’ understanding of algebraic and structural properties of rational numbers, from

Xenia Vamvakoussi; Stella Vosniadou

2004-01-01

316

Promoting the Understanding of Photosynthesis Among Elementary School Student Teachers Through Text Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate elementary school pre-service teachers' understanding of photosynthesis and to examine if a refutational text can support understanding of photosynthesis better than a non-refutational text. A total of 91 elementary school pre-service teachers read either a refutational or a non-refutational text concerning photosynthesis and then answered open-ended questions. Our results indicate that there are critical problems associated with student teachers learning about the process of photosynthesis, even after it has been systematically taught in teacher education. However, the results positively indicate that refutational science texts seem to foster effective conceptual change among student teachers. The results interestingly showed that students who read a refutational text improved their systemic and factual understanding of photosynthesis more than did those who read a non-refutational text. Especially students who had naďve prior understanding regarding photosynthesis benefitted more from a refutational text. Thus, a refutational text may act as an effective facilitator of conceptual change. These results have implications for teacher education, where conceptual mastery of the most important science phenomena, such as photosynthesis, should be achieved. A refutational text is an easy and effective way to support conceptual change in higher education. Thus, this study highlights the importance of domain-specific science education in teacher programmes.

Södervik, Ilona; Mikkilä-Erdmann, Mirjamaija; Vilppu, Henna

2014-08-01

317

Identifying Students Difficulties in Understanding Concepts Pertaining to Cell Water Relations: An Exploratory Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study identified students' conceptual difficulties in understanding concepts and processes associated with cell water relationships (osmosis), determined possible reasons for these difficulties, and pilot-tested instruments and research strategies for a large scale comprehensive study. Research strategies used included content analysis of…

Friedler, Y.; And Others

318

The Effect of Guided Inquiry-Based Instruction on Middle School Students' Understanding of Lunar Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effect of non-traditional guided inquiry instruction on middle school students' conceptual understandings of lunar concepts. Multiple data sources were used to describe participants' conceptions of lunar phases and their cause, including drawings, interviews, and a lunar shapes card sort. The data were analyzed via a…

Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Atwood, Ronald K.; Christopher, John E.; Sackes, Mesut

2010-01-01

319

How Do Early Childhood Students Conceptualize Play-Based Curriculum?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study's purpose was to discover student understanding of play-based curriculum. Traditionally, play has been misunderstood in pedagogical terms, and was widely interpreted in our study. The Early Years Learning Framework suggests educator guidance in sustaining play is essential for learning and development. As teacher educators, we wanted to…

Ridgway, Avis; Quinones, Gloria

2012-01-01

320

Introductory Biology StudentsConceptual Models and Explanations of the Origin of Variation  

PubMed Central

Mutation is the key molecular mechanism generating phenotypic variation, which is the basis for evolution. In an introductory biology course, we used a model-based pedagogy that enabled students to integrate their understanding of genetics and evolution within multiple case studies. We used student-generated conceptual models to assess understanding of the origin of variation. By midterm, only a small percentage of students articulated complete and accurate representations of the origin of variation in their models. Targeted feedback was offered through activities requiring students to critically evaluate peers’ models. At semester's end, a substantial proportion of students significantly improved their representation of how variation arises (though one-third still did not include mutation in their models). Students’ written explanations of the origin of variation were mostly consistent with their models, although less effective than models in conveying mechanistic reasoning. This study contributes evidence that articulating the genetic origin of variation is particularly challenging for learners and may require multiple cycles of instruction, assessment, and feedback. To support meaningful learning of the origin of variation, we advocate instruction that explicitly integrates multiple scales of biological organization, assessment that promotes and reveals mechanistic and causal reasoning, and practice with explanatory models with formative feedback. PMID:25185235

Shaw, Neil; Momsen, Jennifer; Reinagel, Adam; Le, Paul; Taqieddin, Ranya; Long, Tammy

2014-01-01

321

Examining the effects of computational tools on students' understanding of thermodynamics of material concepts and representations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technology is becoming a more critical agent for supporting learning as well as research in science and engineering. In particular, technology-based tools in the form of simulations and virtual environments support learning using mathematical models and computational methods. The purpose of this research is to: (a) measure the value added in conveying Thermodynamics of materials concepts with a blended learning environment using computational simulation tools with lectures; and (b) characterize students' use of representational forms to convey their conceptual understanding of core concepts within a learning environment that blended Gibbs computational resource and traditional lectures. A mix-method approach was implemented that included the use of statistical analysis to compare student test performance as a result of interacting with Gibbs tool and the use of Grounded Theory inductive analysis to explore students' use of representational forms to express their understanding of thermodynamics of material concepts. Results for the quantitative study revealed positive gains in students' conceptual understanding before and after interacting with Gibbs tool for the majority of the concepts tested. In addition, insight gained from the qualitative analysis helped provide understanding about how students utilized representational forms in communicating their understanding of thermodynamics of material concepts. Knowledge of how novice students construct meaning in this context will provide insight for engineering education instructors and researchers in understanding students' learning processes in the context of educational environments that integrate expert simulation tools as part of their instructional resources for foundational domain knowledge.

Ogunwuyi, Oluwatosin

322

Career and Technical Education (CTE) Student Success in Community Colleges: A Conceptual Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Career and technical education (CTE) students pursuing occupational associate's degrees or certificates differ from students seeking academic majors at 2-year institutions in several ways. This article examines several theoretical models of student persistence and offers a conceptual model of student success focused on CTE students in community…

Hirschy, Amy S.; Bremer, Christine D.; Castellano, Marisa

2011-01-01

323

Using Student Reasoning to Inform the Development of Conceptual Learning Goals: The Case of Quadratic Functions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the proliferation of mathematics standards internationally and despite general agreement on the importance of teaching for conceptual understanding, conceptual learning goals for many K-12 mathematics topics have not been well-articulated. This article presents a coherent set of five conceptual learning goals for a complex mathematical…

Lobato, Joanne; Hohensee, Charles; Rhodehamel, Bohdan; Diamond, Jaime

2012-01-01

324

Do the students understand the thermodynamics concepts?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last years, researchers have made efforts to evaluate how thermodynamical concepts and laws are being learned by students. In a previous study, we based our research on the answers to a test presented to a restrict number of university students. We have identified a number of specific difficulties such as the understanding of heat, temperature, work and internal energy concepts and applications of the first and second laws of thermodynamics to simple physical processes. In this work, we extend our study to students of other different university courses to realize how thermodynamics concepts and laws are being learned and understood. We are particularly interested how the university students are able to apply the first and second laws to irreversible processes. The methodology consists on the analysis of the results obtained with a questionnaire of multiple choice forms with only one correct answer. The investigation was carried in the University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, in Portugal, with students of several courses such as Forest, Environmental and Animal Science Engineering, Physics/Chemistry teaching among others. We found that many students had difficulties with the application of first and second laws to irreversible processes. Many others are misunderstanding the energy transfer signal convention.

Pereira, Mário; Caramelo, Liliana; Anacleto, Joaquim

2010-05-01

325

The Relationship between Comprehension and Conceptual Mathematics of Third Grade Students at a Selected Elementary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between reading comprehension scores and conceptual mathematics scores of third grade students at a selected elementary school. The sample consisted of 27 students of which 15 were females and 12 were males. Data were collected using a teacher made conceptual math exam and the scores from…

Kariuki, Patrick N.; Morris, Dustin A.

2013-01-01

326

Facilitating Students' Conceptual Change and Scientific Reasoning Involving the Unit of Combustion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports research from a 3 year digital learning project to unite conceptual change and scientific reasoning in the learning unit of combustion. One group of students had completed the course combining conceptual change and scientific reasoning. The other group of students received conventional instruction. In addition to the…

Lee, Chin-Quen; She, Hsiao-Ching

2010-01-01

327

Using cluster analysis to identify patterns in students' responses to contextually different conceptual problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the evolution of student responses to seven contextually different versions of two Force Concept Inventory questions in an introductory physics course at the University of Arkansas. The consistency in answering the closely related questions evolved little over the seven-question exam. A model for the state of student knowledge involving the probability of selecting one of the multiple-choice answers was developed. Criteria for using clustering algorithms to extract model parameters were explored and it was found that the overlap between the probability distributions of the model vectors was an important parameter in characterizing the cluster models. The course data were then clustered and the extracted model showed that students largely fit into two groups both pre- and postinstruction: one that answered all questions correctly with high probability and one that selected the distracter representing the same misconception with high probability. For the course studied, 14% of the students were left with persistent misconceptions post instruction on a static force problem and 30% on a dynamic Newton’s third law problem. These students selected the answer representing the predominant misconception slightly more consistently postinstruction, indicating that the course studied had been ineffective at moving this subgroup of students nearer a Newtonian force concept and had instead moved them slightly farther away from a correct conceptual understanding of these two problems. The consistency in answering pairs of problems with varied physical contexts is shown to be an important supplementary statistic to the score on the problems and suggests that the inclusion of such problem pairs in future conceptual inventories would be efficacious. Multiple, contextually varied questions further probe the structure of students’ knowledge. To allow working instructors to make use of the additional insight gained from cluster analysis, it is our hope that the physics education research community will make these methods available though their Web sites.

Stewart, John; Miller, Mayo; Audo, Christine; Stewart, Gay

2012-12-01

328

CHARACTERIZATION AND MEASUREMENT OF INTRODCUTORY COLLEGE ASTRONOMY AND PHYSICS STUDENT UNDERSTANDING OF NEWTONIAN GRAVITY  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The topic of Newtonian gravity offers a unique perspective from which to investigate and encourage conceptual change because it is something with which everyone has daily experience, and because it is taught in two courses that reach a variety of students - introductory college astronomy (‘Astro 101’) and physics (‘Phys 101’). Informed by the constructivist theory of learning, this study characterizes and measures Astro 101 and Phys 101 studentsunderstanding of Newtonian gravity within four conceptual domains - Directionality, Force Law, Independence of Other Forces, and Threshold. A phenomenographic analysis of student-supplied responses to open-ended questions about gravity resulted in characterization of students’ alternative models and misapplications of the scientific model. These student difficulties informed the development of a multiple-choice assessment instrument, the Newtonian Gravity Concept Inventory (NGCI). Classical Test Theory (CTT), student interviews, and expert review show that the NGCI is a reliable and valid tool for assessing both Astro 101 and Phys 101 studentsunderstanding of gravity. Furthermore, the NGCI can provide extensive and robust information about differences between Astro 101 and Phys 101 students and curricula. Comparing and contrasting CTT values and response patterns shows qualitative differences in each of the four conceptual domains. Additionally, performing an Item Response Theory (IRT) analysis calibrates item parameters for all Astro 101 and Phys 101 courses and provides Newtonian gravity ability estimates for each student. Physics students show significantly higher pre- and post-instruction IRT abilities than astronomy students, but they show approximately equal gains. Linear regression models that control for student characteristics and classroom dynamics show that: (1) differences in post-instruction abilities are most influenced by students’ pre-instruction abilities and the level of interactivity in the classroom, and (2) there is no differential effect of the astronomy curriculum compared to the physics curriculum on student’s overall post-instruction Newtonian gravity abilities.

Williamson, Kathryn

2014-01-01

329

Using conceptual blending to describe how students use mathematical integrals in physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calculus is used across many physics topics from introductory to upper-division courses. The fundamental concepts of differentiation and integration are important tools for solving real-world problems involving nonuniformly distributed quantities. Research in physics education has reported students’ lack of ability to transfer their calculus knowledge to physics. In order to better understand students’ deficiencies, we collected data from group teaching or learning interviews as students solved physics problems requiring setting up integrals. We adapted the conceptual blending framework from cognitive science to make sense of the ways in which students combined their knowledge from calculus and physics to set up integrals. We found that many students were not able to blend their mathematics and physics knowledge in a productive way though they have the required mathematics knowledge. We discussed the productive and unproductive blends that students created when setting up integrals. The results of the study also suggested possible strategies to shifting students’ constructing of blends to more powerful ones.

Hu, Dehui; Rebello, N. Sanjay

2013-12-01

330

Addressing secondary students' naďve ideas about freshwater springs in order to develop an instructional tool to promote conceptual reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Water knowledge" has now become a socio-political and future-orientated necessity. Erroneous notions or preconceptions of hydrology can have a deleterious effect on our understanding of the scientific facts and their interrelations that are of relevance to sustainable water management. This explorative pilot study shows that erroneous and naďve ideas about the origin of freshwater springs are common at the lower secondary level. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to investigate the nature of misconceptions about freshwater springs among 13-year-old students, and (2) to develop an efficient instructional tool that promotes conceptual reconstruction in the learners' minds. To assess students' naďve ideas we conducted interviews, examined student work, and asked students to fill in a questionnaire. The identified naďve ideas were used to construct an instructional tool based on the findings of learning psychology aiming at promoting deep learning, thus facilitating a lasting conceptual reconstruction of the concept of freshwater springs.

Reinfried, S.; Tempelmann, S.; Aeschbacher, U.

2012-02-01

331

Enhancing Pre-Service Elementary School Teachers' Understanding of Essential Science Concepts through a Reflective Conceptual Change Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the impact of a reflective teaching method on pre-service elementary teachers' conceptual understanding of the lunar phases, reasons for seasons, and simple electric circuits. Data were collected from 40 pre-service elementary teachers about their conceptual understanding of the lunar phases, reasons for seasons and day…

Aydeniz, Mehmet; Brown, Clara Lee

2010-01-01

332

Chinese and Australian children's understandings of the Earth: a cross cultural study of conceptual development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to explore Chinese and Australian primary children's conceptual understandings of the Earth. The research was conducted in the interpretive paradigm and was designed to be descriptive with comparative and cross sectional elements. Participants were Year 3 and Year 6 children from three schools in Hunan Province, central south China ( n = 38) and Year 3 and Year 6 children from three schools in Western Australia ( n = 36). In-depth interviews including drawings were carried out to explore the participants' conceptual understandings of the Earth's shape, gravity, day/night cycle and seasons. The results showed that, regardless of different cultures, children from the same year group constructed similar concepts about the Earth. The Year 3 children were more likely than the Year 6 children to demonstrate intuitive conceptions of a round and flat Earth. The Year 6 children were more likely to demonstrate consistent understandings of a spherical Earth. The findings supported the universality of entrenched presuppositions hypothesis. Cultural mediation was found to have a subtle impact on children's understanding of the Earth. A model of conceptual development is proposed.

Tao, Ying; Oliver, Mary; Venville, Grady

2013-06-01

333

Understanding intercultural transitions of medical students  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this research was to explore the transition of medical students to an international branch campus of a medical university established in Bahrain. Methods In order to gain insights into this transition, we explored two culturally diverse systems of learning of the university and the local schools in Bahrain, using Communities of Practice as a lens for understanding transitions. Focus groups were conducted with secondary school teachers and first year medical students. Additionally, semi-structured interviews were conducted with university lecturers.   Results The findings suggest that, while Communities of Practice have been influential in contextualising transitions to university, this model does not seem to help us to fully understand intercultural transitions to the case-study university. Conclusions The research emphasises that more attention should be given to learner individual agency within this theory as a framework for understanding transitions. It also challenges approaches within medical education that attempt to standardise systems of learning through acquisition of established practices. PMID:25725207

Mansour, Nasser; Fisher, Ros

2015-01-01

334

Understanding childbirth practices as an organizational cultural phenomenon: a conceptual framework  

PubMed Central

Understanding the main values and beliefs that might promote humanized birth practices in the specialized hospitals requires articulating the theoretical knowledge of the social and cultural characteristics of the childbirth field and the relations between these and the institution. This paper aims to provide a conceptual framework allowing examination of childbirth practices through the lens of an organizational culture theory. A literature review performed to extrapolate the social and cultural factors contribute to birth practices and the factors likely overlap and mutually reinforce one another, instead of complying with the organizational culture of the birth place. The proposed conceptual framework in this paper examined childbirth patterns as an organizational cultural phenomenon in a highly specialized hospital, in Montreal, Canada. Allaire and Firsirotu’s organizational culture theory served as a guide in the development of the framework. We discussed the application of our conceptual model in understanding the influences of organizational culture components in the humanization of birth practices in the highly specialized hospitals and explained how these components configure both the birth practice and women’s choice in highly specialized hospitals. The proposed framework can be used as a tool for understanding the barriers and facilitating factors encountered birth practices in specialized hospitals. PMID:24215446

2013-01-01

335

Using Targeted Active-Learning Exercises and Diagnostic Question Clusters to Improve Students' Understanding of Carbon Cycling in Ecosystems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we used targeted active-learning activities to help students improve their ways of reasoning about carbon flow in ecosystems. The results of a validated ecology conceptual inventory (diagnostic question clusters [DQCs]) provided us with information about students' understanding of and reasoning about transformation of inorganic and…

Maskiewicz, April Cordero; Griscom, Heather Peckham; Welch, Nicole Turrill

2012-01-01

336

Using Pictures to Enhance Students' Understanding of Bayes' Theorem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students often have difficulty understanding algebraic proofs of statistics theorems. However, it sometimes is possible to prove statistical theorems with pictures in which case students can gain understanding more easily. I provide examples for two versions of Bayes' theorem.

Trafimow, David

2011-01-01

337

Mapping for Conceptual Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students' understanding of science develops through everyday experiences. As a result, they come to the science classroom with their own notions of how the world works. As teachers, we often must help students overcome their prior na?ve notions and move them toward a more scientific understanding. This process, known as conceptual change, is fundamental to student learning. It can be aided with strategies designed to help students rationalize their perceptions in light of accepted scientific understanding. This article outlines one such strategy: a process of recursive concept mapping the authors call "mapping for conceptual change."

Cindy Kern

2008-09-01

338

THE EXAMINED LIFE: UNDERSTANDING STUDENT PERSPECTIVES ON TESTING  

E-print Network

The goal of this thesis is to understand students' perceptions of examinations and how they affect their lives. Based on the lack of research regarding student perceptions of testing events, it is assumed that the student's ...

Kleine, Sarah Elizabeth

2011-08-31

339

Approaches to Biology Teaching and Learning: Understanding the Wrong Answers--Teaching toward Conceptual Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underpinning science education reform movements in the last 20 years—at all levels and within all disciplines—is an explicit shift in the goals of science teaching from students simply creating a knowledge base of scientific facts to students developing deeper understandings of major con- cepts within a scientific discipline. For example, what use is a detailed working knowledge of the chemical

Kimberly Tanner; Deborah Allen

2005-01-01

340

Approaches to Biology Teaching and Learning: Understanding the Wrong Answers--Teaching toward Conceptual Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Underpinning science education reform movements in the last 20 years--at all levels and within all disciplines--is an explicit shift in the goals of science teaching from students simply creating a knowledge base of scientific facts to students developing deeper understandings of major concepts within a scientific discipline. For example, what use…

Tanner, Kimberly; Allen, Deborah

2005-01-01

341

Connecting Practice, Theory and Method: Supporting Professional Doctoral Students in Developing Conceptual Frameworks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From an instrumental view, conceptual frameworks that are carefully assembled from existing literature in Educational Technology and related disciplines can help students structure all aspects of inquiry. In this article we detail how the development of a conceptual framework that connects theory, practice and method is scaffolded and facilitated…

Kumar, Swapna; Antonenko, Pavlo

2014-01-01

342

Conceptualizing Matrix Multiplication: A Framework for Student Thinking, an Historical Analysis, and a Modeling Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about the variety of ways students conceptualize matrix multiplication, yet this is a fundamental part of most introductory linear algebra courses. My dissertation follows a three-paper format, with the three papers exploring conceptualizations of matrix multiplication from a variety of viewpoints. In these papers, I explore (1)…

Larson, Christine

2010-01-01

343

The Effect of Information Mapping Strategy on Mathematics Conceptual Knowledge of Junior High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of information mapping strategy on mathematics conceptual knowledge of junior high school students in Rokan Hulu Riau, Indonesia. The study also examined the relationship between mathematics conceptual knowledge and mathematics achievement. Using a quasi-experimental method, the study was…

Zulnaidi, Hutkemri; Zakaria, Effandi

2010-01-01

344

A conceptual framework for understanding the association between school bullying victimization and substance misuse.  

PubMed

This article reviews current research findings and presents a conceptual framework for better understanding the relationship between bullying victimization (hereafter referred to as victimization) and substance misuse (hereafter referred to as SM) among adolescents. Although victimization and SM may appear to be separate problems, research suggests an intriguing relationship between the 2. We present a brief, empirical overview of the direct association between victimization and adolescent SM, followed by a proposed conceptual framework that includes co-occurring risk factors for victimization and SM within family, peer, and school and community contexts. Next, we discuss potential mediators linking victimization and SM, such as internalizing problems, traumatic stress, low academic performance, and school truancy and absence. We then identify potential moderating influences of age, gender and sex, social supports, and school connectedness that could amplify or abate the association between victimization and SM. Finally, we discuss practice and policy implications. PMID:25545436

Hong, Jun Sung; Davis, Jordan P; Sterzing, Paul R; Yoon, Jina; Choi, Shinwoo; Smith, Douglas C

2014-11-01

345

Addressing secondary school students' everyday ideas about freshwater springs in order to develop an instructional tool to promote conceptual reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Water knowledge" has now become a socio-political and future-orientated necessity. Everyday ideas or preconceptions of hydrology can have a deleterious effect one people's understanding of the scientific facts and their interrelations that are of relevance to sustainable water management. This explorative pilot study shows that preconceived notions about the origin of freshwater springs are common at the lower secondary school level. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to investigate the nature of everyday ideas about freshwater springs among 81 13-yr-old Swiss students, and (2) to develop an efficient instructional tool that promotes conceptual reconstruction in the learners' minds. To assess students' everyday ideas we conducted interviews, examined student work, and asked students to fill in a questionnaire. The results indicate that half of the students have some basic hydrological knowledge. However, several preconceived notions that can significantly impede the understanding of hydrological concepts have been found. A common preconception concerns the idea that solid rocks cannot be permeable and that large underground cavities constitute a necessary precondition for the formation of springs. While these ideas may well be true for karst springs they inhibit the understanding of the concept of other spring types due to their plausibility and intelligibility. We therefore chose the concept of the hillslope spring to construct an instructional tool that takes into account the findings of the psychology of learning aimed at promoting deep learning, thus facilitating a lasting conceptual reconstruction of the concept of springs.

Reinfried, S.; Tempelmann, S.; Aeschbacher, U.

2012-05-01

346

Light and optics conceptual evaluation findings from first year optometry students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Light and Optics Conceptual Evaluation (LOCE) was developed to examine conceptual understanding of basic geometric and physical optics for the Active Learning in Optics and Photonics program administered by UNESCO. This 50 item test (46 multiple choice, 4 ray-tracing short answer) was administered to entering students in the Optometry professional degree (OD) program. We wanted to determine how much of the physics/optics concepts from undergraduate physics courses (a pre-requisite for entry to the OD program) were retained. In addition, the test was administered after the first year students had taken a required course in geometric and visual optics as part of their first semester courses. The LOCE was completed by two consecutive classes to the program in 2010 (n=89) and 2011 (n=84). The tests were administered the first week of the term and the test was given without any prior notice. In addition, the test was administered to the class of 2010 students after they had completed the course in geometric and visual optics. The means of the test were 22.1 (SD=4.5; range: 12-35) and 21.3(SD=5.1; range: 11-35) for the two entering classes. There was no statistical significance between the two classes (t-test, p<0.05). Similarly there was no difference between the scores in terms of gender. The post-course test (administered during the first week of the second term) showed a statistically significant improvement (mean score went from 22.1 to 31.1, a 35% improvement). It should be noted that both groups of students performed worse in questions related to physical optics as well as lens imaging, while scoring best in questions related to refraction and reflection. These data should be taken into consideration when designing optics curricula for optometry (and other allied health programs such as opticianry or ophthalmology).

Thapa, Damber; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan

2014-07-01

347

Faculty empowerment of students to foster civility in nursing education: A merging of two conceptual models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Academic incivility negatively impacts faculty and student well-being, weakens professional relationships, and impedes effective teaching and learning. This article addresses the prevalent concern of student incivility and provides useful strategies for faculty to empower students. Two conceptual models, Fostering Civility in Nursing Education and an Empowerment Model, were merged to illustrate how the concepts of civility and empowerment can be

Cynthia M. Clark; Bonnie L. Davis Kenaley

2011-01-01

348

Seeking to Understand Faculty-Student Interaction at Community Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One fundamental aspect of engagement in higher education is faculty-student interaction (FSI). FSI has been associated with student success and persistence in both four- and two-year institutions. Due to limited research concerning diverse students, understanding student engagement in higher education is based on White, traditional-age students

Wirt, Lesley G.; Jaeger, Audrey J.

2014-01-01

349

Learning Using Dynamic and Static Visualizations: Students' Comprehension, Prior Knowledge and Conceptual Status of a Biotechnological Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of biotechnology education at the high-school level has been recognized in a number of international curriculum frameworks around the world. One of the most problematic issues in learning biotechnology has been found to be the biotechnological methods involved. Here, we examine the unique contribution of an animation of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in promoting conceptual learning of the biotechnological method among 12th-grade biology majors. All of the students learned about the PCR using still images ( n = 83) or the animation ( n = 90). A significant advantage to the animation treatment was identified following learning. Students’ prior content knowledge was found to be an important factor for students who learned PCR using still images, serving as an obstacle to learning the PCR method in the case of low prior knowledge. Through analysing students’ discourse, using the framework of the conceptual status analysis, we found that students who learned about PCR using still images faced difficulties in understanding some mechanistic aspects of the method. On the other hand, using the animation gave the students an advantage in understanding those aspects.

Yarden, Hagit; Yarden, Anat

2010-05-01

350

The influence of formative assessments on student motivation, achievement, and conceptual change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study connected research on formative assessment, motivation, and conceptual change. In particular, it examined three research questions: (1) Can formative assessment improve students' motivational beliefs? (2) Can formative assessment improve students' achievement in science and bring about conceptual change? and (3) Are students' science achievement and conceptual change correlated with their motivational beliefs? Formative assessment in this study refers to assessments embedded in an inquiry-based curriculum. To answer those questions, a randomized experiment was conducted. One thousand and two 6th or 7th graders of 12 teachers in 12 different schools in six states participated in the study. The 12 teachers were matched in pairs and randomly assigned to the experimental and control group. The experimental group employed embedded formative assessments while teaching a science curriculum unit and the control group taught the same unit without formative assessments. All the students were given a motivation survey and one or more achievement tests at pre- and posttest. By comparing the experimental and control students' motivation and achievement scores at pretest and posttest, I examined whether the formative assessment treatment affected students' motivation, learning, and conceptual change. By correlating students' posttest motivation, achievement as well as conceptual change scores, I examined whether students' motivation was related to their achievement and conceptual change. Analyses indicated that, the embedded assessments used by the experimental group did not significantly influence students' motivation, achievement, or conceptual change compared to students in the control group. Most motivation beliefs were correlated with students' achievement in a way similar to what has been reported in the literature. They were not correlated with students' conceptual change scores as hypothesized. Teachers, as well as some contextual factors associated with teachers, were extremely influential on students' motivation, achievement, and conceptual change; teacher effects overshadowed the treatment effect. This study revealed many of the challenges and problems teachers, researchers and randomized experiments are likely to encounter. It also highlighted the difficulty and importance of high-fidelity formative assessment implementation. Finally, it suggested that a cognitive approach in studying conceptual change still has great value to further research.

Yin, Yue

2005-07-01

351

When a Bilingual Child Describes Living Things: An Analysis of Conceptual Understandings from a Language Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With increasing numbers of students learning science through a second language in many school contexts, there is a need for research to focus on the impact language has on studentsunderstanding of science concepts. Like other countries, Brunei has adopted a bilingual system of education that incorporates two languages in imparting its curriculum. For the first three years of school, Brunei children are taught in Malay and then for the remainder of their education, instruction is in English. This research is concerned with the influence that this bilingual education system has on children’s learning of science. The purpose was to document the patterns of Brunei students’ developing understandings of the concepts of living and non-living things and examine the impact in the change in language as the medium of instruction. A cross-sectional case study design was used in one primary school. Data collection included an interview ( n = 75), which consisted of forced-response and semi-structured interview questions, a categorisation task and classroom observation. Data were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. The results indicate that the transition from Malay to English as the language of instruction from Primary 4 onwards restricted the students’ ability to express their understandings about living things, to discuss related scientific concepts and to interpret and analyse scientific questions. From a social constructivist perspective these language factors will potentially impact on the students’ cognitive development by limiting the expected growth of the studentsunderstandings of the concepts of living and non-living things.

Salleh, Romaizah; Venville, Grady J.; Treagust, David F.

2007-07-01

352

A Discussion Group Program Enhances the Conceptual Reasoning Skills of Students Enrolled in a Large Lecture-Format Introductory Biology Course  

PubMed Central

It has been well-established that discussion groups enhance student learning in large lecture courses. The goal of this study was to determine the impact of a discussion group program on the development of conceptual reasoning skills of students enrolled in a large lecture-format introductory biology course. In the discussion group, students worked on problems based on topics discussed in lecture. The program was evaluated using three assessment tools. First, student responses to pre- and posttests were analyzed. The test question asked the students to demonstrate the relationships between 10 different but related terms. Use of a concept map to link the terms indicated an advanced level of conceptual reasoning skills. There was a 13.8% increase in the use of concept maps from pre- to posttest. Second, the students took a Likert-type survey to determine the perceived impact of the program on their conceptual reasoning skills. Many of the students felt that the program helped them understand and use the main course concepts to logically solve problems. Finally, average exam grades increased as the semester progressed. The average final grade in the course was 75%. Students enrolled in the course the previous year (where the lecture component of the course did not assess or reflect student learning in the discussion group) had an average final grade of 69%. The results of this study demonstrate that the discussion group program improves the conceptual reasoning skills of students enrolled in a large lecture-format introductory biology course. PMID:23653815

Peteroy-Kelly, Marcy A.

2007-01-01

353

Exploring Grade 11 Students' Conceptual Pathways of the Particulate Nature of Matter in the Context of Multirepresentational Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the conceptual pathways of 19 Grade 11 introductory chemistry students (age 16-17) as they participated in a multirepresentational instruction on the particulate nature of matter (PNM). This study was grounded in contemporary conceptual change theory, in particular, research on students' conceptual pathways that focuses on…

Adadan, Emine; Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Irving, Karen E.

2010-01-01

354

Using conceptual metaphor and functional grammar to explore how language used in physics affects student learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces a theory about the role of language in learning physics. The theory is developed in the context of physics students and physicists talking and writing about the subject of quantum mechanics. We found that physicists’ language encodes different varieties of analogical models through the use of grammar and conceptual metaphor. We hypothesize that students categorize concepts into ontological categories based on the grammatical structure of physicists’ language. We also hypothesize that students overextend and misapply conceptual metaphors in physicists’ speech and writing. Using our theory, we will show how, in some cases, we can explain student difficulties in quantum mechanics as difficulties with language.

Brookes, David T.; Etkina, Eugenia

2007-06-01

355

Middle School Students' Understandings About Anthropogenic Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given the complexity of the science involving climate change (IPCC, 2007), its lack of curricular focus within US K-12 schooling (Golden, 2009; Golden & Francis, 2013), and the difficulty in effecting conceptual change in science (Vosniadou, 2007), we sought to research middle school students' conceptions about climate change, in addition to how those conceptions changed during and as a result of a deliberately designed global climate change (GCC) unit. In a sixth grade classroom, a unit was designed which incorporated Argumentation-Driven Inquiry (Sampson & Grooms, 2010). That is, students were assigned to groups and asked to make sense of standard GCC data such as paleoclimate data from ice cores, direct temperature measurement, and Keeling curves, in addition to learning about the greenhouse effect in a modeling lesson (Hocking, et al, 1993). The students were then challenged, in groups, to create, on whiteboards, explanations and defend these explanations to and with their peers. They did two iterations of this argumentation. The first iteration focused on the simple identification of climate change patterns. The second focused on developing causal explanations for those patterns. After two rounds of such argumentation, the students were then asked to write (individually) a "final" argument which accounted for the given data. Interview and written data were analyzed prior to the given unit, during it, and after it, in order to capture complicated nuance that might escape detection by simpler research means such as surveys. Several findings emerged which promised to be of interest to climate change educators. The first is that many students tended to "know" many "facts" about climate change, but were unable to connect these disparate facts in any meaningful ways. A second finding is that while no students changed their entire belief systems, even after a robust unit which would seemingly challenge such, each student engaged did indeed modify the manner in which they discussed the validation of their beliefs. That is, we argue that the unit, and the emphases contained within the unit, resulted in the "epistemic scaffolding" of their ideas, to the extent that they shifted from arguing from anecdotes to arguing based on other types of data, especially from line graphs. Additionally, we found that students' understandings of climate change were tied to their ontological constructions of the subject matter, i.e., many perceived climate change as just another environmentally sensitive issue such as littering and pollution, and were therefore limited in their ability to understand anthropogenic climate change in the vast and robust sense meant by current scientific consensus. Given these known difficulties, it is critical to explore further research of this sort in order to better understand what students are actually thinking, and how that thinking is prone to change, modification, or not. Subsequently, K-12 strategies might be better designed, if that is indeed a priority of US/Western society.

Golden, B. W.

2013-12-01

356

Conceptual Optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conceptual Physics courses are a staple of the curriculum in many colleges and universities. Such courses stress the development of conceptual understanding without appeal to calculational demonstration of that understanding. We have developed a Conceptual Optics course with a similar thrust but a more focused subject matter: the study of light. The course differs from similar courses typically titled Light or Color in that it attempts to cover most topics taught in more conventional optics courses rather than sampling from the variety of topics among those falling under the optics rubric. The course features an extramural laboratory in which student teams are given equipment, a lab manual, and a notebook and are expected to perform various optics experiments in everyday surroundings. This and other features of the course will be discussed.

Paesler, Michael

1997-11-01

357

Students' Understandings of Human Organs and Organ Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses students' understandings of their own internal structure. Analysis shows the extent to which student understanding increases with age and the degree to which students know more about some organs and organ systems than others. Gender differences in the drawings were generally not large and there were some intriguing differences in the…

Reiss, Michael J.; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

2001-01-01

358

Generalizing Levels of Students' Understandings about Conductivity: A SOLO Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a developmental sequence for students' understandings about conductivity. From written responses, a number of levels of understanding were identified and holistic descriptions of the increasingly complex way students explain conductivity are presented. Identifying distinct differences in student work samples is consistent…

McPhan, Greg

2008-01-01

359

Students' Understanding of Advanced Properties of Java Exceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines how Information Systems Engineering School students on the verge of their graduation understand the mechanism of exception handling. The main contributions of this paper are as follows: we construct a questionnaire aimed at examining students' level of understanding concerning exceptions; we classify and analyse the students'…

Rashkovits, Rami; Lavy, Ilana

2012-01-01

360

Australian Secondary School Students' Understanding of Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated 438 Year 10 students (15 and 16 years old) from Western Australian schools, on their understanding of the greenhouse effect and climate change, and the sources of their information. Results showed that most students have an understanding of how the greenhouse effect works, however, many students merge the processes of the…

Dawson, Vaille; Carson, Katherine

2013-01-01

361

Comparison of the Effects of Computer-Based Practice and Conceptual Understanding Interventions on Mathematics Fact Retention and Generalization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors' purpose was to determine the effects of computer-based practice and conceptual interventions on computational fluency and word-problem solving of fourth- and fifth-grade students with mathematics difficulties. A randomized pretest-posttest control group design found that students assigned to the computer-based practice…

Kanive, Rebecca; Nelson, Peter M.; Burns, Matthew K.; Ysseldyke, James

2014-01-01

362

Peeling the Onion: Student Teacher's Conceptions of Literary Understanding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied the theories student teachers held about literary understanding through interviews with 25 Hungarian and 8 Swedish student teachers. Categories of theories captured a substantial portion of the variation in how literary understanding can be seen. Three central aspects of human understanding, variation, discernment, and simultaneity, could…

Carlsson, Maj Asplund; Fulop, Marta; Marton, Ference

2001-01-01

363

Secondary school students' understanding of the nature of science  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stratified random sample of 32 secondary students chosen from nine schools in eastern and central Newfoundland, Canada,\\u000a were interviewed to determine their views of the nature of science. The interview transcripts were reduced to a set of individualized\\u000a conceptual inventories. A number of general trends were identified. Most students were found to have difficulty establishing\\u000a the domain of science,

Alan K. Griffiths; Maurice Barry

1991-01-01

364

Beyond Explanations: What Else Do Students Need to Understand Science?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' difficulties with learning science have generally been framed in terms of their generalized conceptual knowledge of a science topic as elicited through their explanations of natural phenomena. In this paper, we empirically explore what more goes into giving a scientific account of a natural phenomenon than giving such generalized…

Hamza, Karim M.; Wickman, Per-Olof

2009-01-01

365

Results from a Pilot Study of a Curriculum Unit Designed to Help Middle School Students Understand Chemical Reactions in Living Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students often have trouble understanding key biology ideas because they lack an understanding of foundational chemistry ideas. AAAS Project 2061 is collaborating with BSCS in the development a curriculum unit that connects core chemistry and biochemistry ideas in order to help eighth grade students build the conceptual foundation needed for high…

Herrmann-Abell, Cari F.; Flanagan, Jean C.; Roseman, Jo Ellen

2012-01-01

366

Understanding the Early Integration Experiences of College Students with Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought to better understand the early integration experiences of college students with disabilities by examining two research questions: (1) How well do the variables in Tinto's (1993) classic model of student attrition predict the early integration experiences of college students with disabilities? and (2) How do students with…

Shepler, Dustin K.; Woosley, Sherry A.

2012-01-01

367

Conceptual Change regarding middle school students' experience with Global Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given the complexity of the science involving climate change (IPCC, 2007), its lack of curricular focus within US K-12 schooling (Golden, 2009), and the difficulty in effecting conceptual change in science (Vosniadou, 2007), we sought to research middle school students' conceptions about climate change, in addition to how those conceptions changed during and as a result of a deliberately designed global climate change (GCC) unit. In a sixth grade classroom, a unit was designed which incorporated Argumentation-Driven Inquiry (Sampson & Grooms, 2010). That is, students were assigned to groups and asked to make sense of standard GCC data such as paleoclimate data from ice cores, direct temperature measurement, and Keeling curves, in addition to learning about the greenhouse effect in a modeling lesson (Hocking, et al, 1993). The students were then challenged, in groups, to create, on whiteboards, explanations and defend these explanations to and with their peers. They did two iterations of this argumentation. The first iteration focused on the simple identification of climate change patterns. The second focused on developing causal explanations for those patterns. After two rounds of such argumentation, the students were then asked to write (individually) a "final" argument which accounted for the given data. Interview and written data were analyzed prior to the given unit, during it, and after it, in order to capture complicated nuance that might escape detection by simpler research means such as surveys. Several findings emerged which promised to be of interest to climate change educators. The first is that many students tended to "know" many "facts" about climate change, but were unable to connect these disparate facts in any meaningful ways. A second finding is that while no students changed their entire belief systems, even after a robust unit which would seemingly challenge such, each student engaged did indeed modify the manner in which they discussed the validation of their beliefs. That is, we argue that the unit, and the emphases contained within the unit, resulted in the "epistemic scaffolding" of their ideas, to the extent that they shifted from arguing from anecdote to arguing based on other types of data, especially from line graphs. A third finding underscores prior research in conceptual change, indicating that learning, especially conceptual change, is not a strictly rational process. Students, and others, are highly influenced by extra rational factors, such as the given political, scientific, and/or religious leanings of their families, their own willingness to explore anomalies, and other factors. Given these known difficulties, it is critical to explore further research of this sort in order to better understand what students are actually thinking, and how that thinking is prone to change, modification, or not. Subsequently, K-12 strategies might be better designed, if that is indeed a priority of US/Western society.

Golden, B. W.; Lutz, B.

2011-12-01

368

Teaching Students to Understand History Graphically.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

History textbooks usually read like dictionaries and encyclopedias--compact, fact-filled, and dry. To help senior high school students get meaning from this kind of text, teachers can use graphic techniques to preview the text, to guide students during reading, and to review the text after the students have read it. (RM)

Donlan, Dan

1985-01-01

369

Threshold Concepts in Geographical Information Systems: A Step towards Conceptual Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Threshold concepts are those transformative concepts in a discipline that are often difficult to understand when first encountered, but when mastered they transform students, both epistemologically and ontologically in relation to the discipline. Using the characteristics of threshold concepts, existing curricula and summative content analysis of…

Srivastava, Sanjeev Kumar

2013-01-01

370

The Effect of Conceptual Diagrams on Aviation Mechanics' Technical Systems Understanding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A quasi-experimental study explored the effect of functional flow diagrams on technical system understanding. An individualized field training package which contained schematic diagrams that illustrated an aircraft's electrical system was complimented with functional flow diagrams. In a 4-week treatment, a control group of 10 students enrolled in…

Satchwell, Richard E.; Johnson, Scott D.

371

Complex Problem Exercises in Developing Engineering Students' Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Electromagnetics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Complex multistep problem exercises are one way to enhance engineering students' learning of electromagnetics (EM). This study investigates whether exposure to complex problem exercises during an introductory EM course improves students' conceptual and procedural knowledge. The performance in complex problem exercises is compared to prior success…

Leppavirta, J.; Kettunen, H.; Sihvola, A.

2011-01-01

372

Students' mental models of sound propagation: Implications for a theory of conceptual change  

E-print Network

to the scientifically accepted wave model, students used the "entity" model. In this model sound is a self, Steinberg, & Redish, 1999; Wittmann, Steinberg, & Redish, 2002) Also, since sound is a wave phenomenon, we1 Students' mental models of sound propagation: Implications for a theory of conceptual change

Zollman, Dean

373

Students' "Uses and Gratification Expectancy" Conceptual Framework in Relation to E-Learning Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the systematic development of a "Uses and Gratification Expectancy" (UGE) conceptual framework which is able to predict students' "Perceived e-Learning Experience." It is argued that students' UGE as regards e-learning resources cannot be implicitly or explicitly explored without first examining underlying communication…

Mondi, Makingu; Woods, Peter; Rafi, Ahmad

2007-01-01

374

The Effect of Conceptual Change Pedagogy on Students' Conceptions of Rate of Reaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on an investigation of the effect of conceptual change pedagogy on students' conceptions of "rate of reaction" concepts. The study used a pre-test/post-test non-equivalent comparison group design approach and the sample consisted of 72 Turkish grade-11 students (aged 16-18 years) selected from two intact classrooms. The "Rate of…

Calik, Muammer; Kolomuc, Ali; Karagolge, Zafer

2010-01-01

375

The Effectiveness of Conceptual Change Texts in Remediating High School Students' Alternative Conceptions Concerning Chemical Equilibrium  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effectiveness of conceptual change texts in remediating high school students' alternative conceptions concerning chemical equilibrium. A quasi-experimental design was used in this study. The subjects for this study consisted of a total 78 tenth-grade students, 38 of them in the experimental group and 40 of them in the…

Ozmen, Haluk

2007-01-01

376

The Effects of Peer Instruction on Students' Conceptual Learning and Motivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of peer instruction on college students' conceptual learning, motivation, and self-efficacy in an algebra-based introductory physics course for nonmajors. Variables were studied via a quasi-experiment, Solomon four-group design on 123 students. Treatment groups were taught by peer instruction.…

Gok, Tolga

2012-01-01

377

A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH SCHOOL SOCIAL STUDIES CURRICULA FOR PALESTINIAN STUDENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to develop a conceptual framework for the development of high school social studies curricula for Palestinian students. It is expected that the framework will be used as a guideline to develop new social studies curricula for Palestinian high school students and\\/or to revise existing ones.^ The formulation of a rationale to serve as a

AHMED MAHMOUD BADR

1981-01-01

378

Middle School Students' Conceptual Change in Global Climate Change: Using Argumentation to Foster Knowledge Construction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examined middle school student conceptions about global climate change (GCC) and the change these conceptions undergo during an argument driven instructional unit. The theoretical framework invoked for this study is the "framework theory" of conceptual change (Vosniadou, 2007a). This theory posits that students do not simply correct…

Golden, Barry W.

2011-01-01

379

Understanding student computational thinking with computational modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the National Research Council's framework for next generation science standards highlighted "computational thinking" as one of its "fundamental practices". 9th Grade students taking a physics course that employed the Arizona State University's Modeling Instruction curriculum were taught to construct computational models of physical systems. Student computational thinking was assessed using a proctored programming assignment, written essay, and a series of think-aloud interviews, where the students produced and discussed a computational model of a baseball in motion via a high-level programming environment (VPython). Roughly a third of the students in the study were successful in completing the programming assignment. Student success on this assessment was tied to how students synthesized their knowledge of physics and computation. On the essay and interview assessments, students displayed unique views of the relationship between force and motion; those who spoke of this relationship in causal (rather than observational) terms tended to have more success in the programming exercise.

Aiken, John M.; Caballero, Marcos D.; Douglas, Scott S.; Burk, John B.; Scanlon, Erin M.; Thoms, Brian D.; Schatz, Michael F.

2013-01-01

380

Understanding Student Computational Thinking with Computational Modeling  

E-print Network

Recently, the National Research Council's framework for next generation science standards highlighted "computational thinking" as one of its "fundamental practices". Students taking a physics course that employed the Arizona State University's Modeling Instruction curriculum were taught to construct computational models of physical systems. Student computational thinking was assessed using a proctored programming assignment, written essay, and a series of think-aloud interviews, where the students produced and discussed a computational model of a baseball in motion via a high-level programming environment (VPython). Roughly a third of the students in the study were successful in completing the programming assignment. Student success on this assessment was tied to how students synthesized their knowledge of physics and computation. On the essay and interview assessments, students displayed unique views of the relationship between force and motion; those who spoke of this relationship in causal (rather than obs...

Aiken, John M; Douglas, Scott S; Burk, John B; Scanlon, Erin M; Thoms, Brian D; Schatz, Michael F

2012-01-01

381

Assessing the Effect of Web-Based Learning Tools on Student Understanding of Stoichiometry Using Knowledge Space Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports a comparative study using knowledge space theory (KST) to assess the impact of a Web-based instructional software program on students' understanding of the concept of stoichiometry. The software program called Mastering Chemistry Web (MCWeb) allows students to practice problems that emphasize the development of molecular-level conceptualization and visualization, analytical reasoning, and proportional reasoning, as well as learning to recognize and relate different representations in chemistry. The experimental design compared students in two sections taught by the same instructor. One section used the MCWeb instructional software as homework (MCWeb group) while the other section used text-based homework (non-MCWeb group, control). Several assessments revealed significantly better performance by the students in the MCWeb group over the control group whether measured in terms of in-class exams, conceptual versus algorithmic tests, or a KST test to assess the ability to make connections between the molecular, symbolic, and graphical representations of chemical phenomena, as well as to conceptualize, visualize and solve numerical problems. The KST analysis showed that both groups made significant improvements in their conceptual understanding of stoichiometry and limiting reagents, but that the MCWeb group showed more improvements than the non-MCWeb group. In both cases, the overall thinking patterns of the students were from symbolic representations, to numerical problem solving, to visualization or conceptualization. Visual or conceptual reasoning at a molecular level came last in the students' knowledge structures even after instruction. Many students found this type of reasoning to be difficult and MCWeb was successful in teaching these methods to introductory chemistry students.

Arasasingham, Ramesh D.; Taagepera, Mare; Potter, Frank; Martorell, Ingrid; Lonjers, Stacy

2005-08-01

382

Examining the Validity of Knowledge Mapping as a Measure of Elementary Students' Scientific Understanding. CSE Technical Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowledge mapping is expected to measure deep conceptual understanding and allow students to characterize relationships among concepts in a domain visually. This research examined the validity of knowledge mapping as an assessment tool in science. The approach to investigating this validity was three-pronged. First, a model was outlined for the…

Klein, Davina C. D.; Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; Osmundson, Ellen; Herl, Howard E.; O'Neil, Harold F., Jr.

383

University Students' Conceptualization and Interpretation of Topographic Maps  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the strategies and assumptions that college students entering an introductory physical geology laboratory use to interpret topographic maps, and follows the progress of the students during the laboratory to analyze changes in those strategies and assumptions. To elicit students' strategies and assumptions, we created and…

Clark, Douglas; Reynolds, Stephen; Lemanowski, Vivian; Stiles, Thomas; Yasar, Senay; Proctor, Sian; Lewis, Elizabeth; Stromfors, Charlotte; Corkins, James

2008-01-01

384

Building Bridges: Understanding Student Transition to University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores challenges in ensuring effective student transition from school or college to university. It examines the complex liaison needed for students to progress to appropriate courses, settle into university life and succeed as higher education learners. Secondary data (international literature on transition and the formation of…

Briggs, A. R. J.; Clark, J.; Hall, I.

2012-01-01

385

Improving Students' Understanding of Electricity and Magnetism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Electricity and magnetism are important topics in physics. Research shows that students have many common difficulties in understanding concepts related to electricity and magnetism. However, research to improve students' understanding of electricity and magnetism is limited compared to introductory mechanics. This thesis explores issues…

Li, Jing

2012-01-01

386

Students' Understanding of the Particulate Nature of Matter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The particulate nature of matter is identified in science education standards as one of the fundamental concepts that students should understand at the middle school level. However, science education research in indicates that secondary school students have difficulties understanding the structure of matter. The purpose of the study is to describe…

Singer, Jonathan E.; Tal, Revital; Wu, Hsin-Kai

2003-01-01

387

Helping the International Student Understand the American University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To be successful in navigating the waters of American higher education, international students need to demonstrate proficiency in the English language and an understanding of the educational expectations of American academia. Unlike Americans who apply to a US university, international students must demonstrate that they understand enough English…

Chang, Mary

2011-01-01

388

The Effect of Practical Work on Students' Understanding of Combustion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews of and questionnaires given to (n=299) 14- and 15-year-old students in England and Spain on their understanding of combustion and on the teaching and learning styles used with students found that the extensive use of practical work in English schools had only a marginal effect on their understanding of combustion. Includes…

Watson, Rod; And Others

1995-01-01

389

Student Teachers' Levels of Understanding and Model of Understanding about Newton's Laws of Motion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to determine the level of student teachers' understandings of Newton's laws of motion and relating these levels to identify student teachers' models of understanding. An achievement test composed of two parts comprising 12 open ended questions was constructed and given to 45 pre-service classroom teachers. The first part…

Saglam-Arslan, Aysegul; Devecioglu, Yasemin

2010-01-01

390

Science Sampler: Enhancing student understanding of physical and chemical changes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students within the Findlay, Ohio, City School District, as well as students across the country, struggle with understanding physical and chemical changes. Therefore, in this article, the authors suggest some standards-based activities to clarify misconceptions and provide formative assessments to measure your students’ progress as they determine the difference between chemical and physical changes.

Julie McIntosh

2010-10-01

391

Understanding the Atheist College Student: A Qualitative Examination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine and understand atheist college students' views on faith and how they experience the college campus as a result. I conducted interviews with 16 undergraduate and graduate self-identified atheist college students. Students discussed losing faith and transitioning to atheism; making meaning of life, death, and…

Mueller, John A.

2012-01-01

392

Playing "Sherlock Holmes": Enhancing Students' Understanding of Prejudice and Stereotyping.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experiential classroom exercise that was designed to help students understand stereotyping and prejudice. The instructor read behavioral and psychological descriptions, asked students to imagine they were Sherlock Holmes, and identify classmates to whom the descriptions might apply. States that students of color reported more benefits…

Junn, Ellen N.; Grier, Leslie K.; Behrens, Debra P.

2001-01-01

393

Understanding and affecting student reasoning about sound waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Student learning of sound waves can be helped through the creation of group-learning classroom materials whose development and design rely on explicit investigations into student understanding. We describe reasoning in terms of sets of resources, i.e. grouped building blocks of thinking that are commonly used in many different settings. Students in our university physics classes often used sets of resources

Michael C. Wittmann; Richard N. Steinberg; Edward F. Redish

2003-01-01

394

Characterizing Student Mathematics Teachers' Levels of Understanding in Spherical Geometry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an exploratory study aimed at the identification of students' levels of understanding in spherical geometry as van Hiele did for Euclidean geometry. To do this, we developed and implemented a spherical geometry course for student mathematics teachers. Six structured, "task-based interviews" were held with eight student

Guven, Bulent; Baki, Adnan

2010-01-01

395

Science Sampler: Enhancing Student Understanding of Physical and Chemical Changes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students within the Findlay, Ohio, City School District, as well as students across the country, struggle with understanding physical and chemical changes. Therefore, in this article, the authors suggest some standards-based activities to clarify misconceptions and provide formative assessments to measure your students' progress as they determine…

McIntosh, Julie; White, Sandra; Suter, Robert

2009-01-01

396

University Students' Understanding of Electromagnetic Induction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined engineering and physical science students' understanding of the electromagnetic induction (EMI) phenomena. It is assumed that significant knowledge of the EMI theory is a basic prerequisite when students have to think about electromagnetic phenomena. To analyse students' conceptions, we have taken into account the…

Guisasola, Jenaro; Almudi, Jose M.; Zuza, Kristina

2013-01-01

397

Developing Middle School Students' Understanding of Recursive and Explicit Reasoning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated students' generalizations of numeric situations through the use of a whole-class teaching experiment in which students were provided problem situations in order to: (1) trace students' understanding of recursive and explicit reasoning; and (2) describe the sociomathematical norms and classroom practices that were…

Lannin, John

398

Using the Science Writing Heuristic to Promote Understanding of Science Conceptual Knowledge in Middle School  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Middle school is the time when science becomes a much more prominent subject than it was in elementary school and when students' ideas about science are cemented. It is important for middle school students to participate in science activities that reflect the nature of science rather than simply complete replication activities. Thus, inquiry-based activities need to be a critical component of middle school science. The Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) is an inquiry-based approach developed by Hand and Keys (1999) that provides a scaffold for implementing inquiry activities based on the use of critical-thinking and reasoning skills. These skills require that students constantly negotiate meaning throughout the inquiry process as a way to construct rich understandings of the topic.

Brian Hand

2006-01-01

399

Understanding adolescent student perceptions of science education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study used the Relevance of Science Education (ROSE) survey (Sjoberg & Schreiner, 2004) to examine topics of interest and perspectives of secondary science students in a large school district in the southwestern U.S. A situated learning perspective was used to frame the project. The research questions of this study focused on (a) perceptions students have about themselves and their science classroom and how these beliefs may influence their participation in the community of practice of science; (b) consideration of how a future science classroom where the curriculum is framed by the Next Generation Science Standards might foster students' beliefs and perceptions about science education and their legitimate peripheral participation in the community of practice of science; and (c) reflecting on their school science interests and perspectives, what can be inferred about students' identities as future scientists or STEM field professionals? Data were collected from 515 second year science students during a 4-week period in May of 2012 using a Web-based survey. Data were disaggregated by gender and ethnicity and analyzed descriptively and by statistical comparison between groups. Findings for Research Question 1 indicated that boys and girls showed statistically significant differences in scientific topics of interest. There were no statistical differences between ethnic groups although. For Research Question 2, it was determined that participants reported an increase in their interest when they deemed the context of the content to be personally relevant. Results for Research Question 3 showed that participants do not see themselves as youthful scientists or as becoming scientists. While participants value the importance of science in their lives and think all students should take science, they do not aspire to careers in science. Based on this study, a need for potential future work has been identified in three areas: (a) exploration of the perspectives and interests of non-mainstream students and urban students whose representation in this study was limited; (b) investigation of topics where students expressed low interests topics; and (c) development and design of authentic communities of practice in the science classroom.

Ebert, Ellen Kress

400

Student understanding of Symmetry and Gauss's law  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Helping students learn why Gauss's law can or cannot be easily applied to determine the strength of the electric field at various points for a particular charge distribution, and then helping them learn to determine the shape of the Gaussian surfaces if sufficient symmetry exists can develop their reasoning and problem solving skills. We investigate the difficulties that students in calculus-based introductory physics courses have with the concepts of symmetry, electric field and electric flux that are pivotal to Gauss's law of electricity. Determination of the electric field using Gauss's law requires discerning the symmetry of a particular charge distribution and being able to predict the direction of the electric field everywhere if a high symmetry exists. It requires a good grasp of how to add the electric field vectors using the principle of superposition, and the concepts of area vector and electric flux. We administered free response and multiple-choice questions and conducted interviews with individual students using a think-aloud protocol to elucidate the difficulties students have with the concepts of symmetry, electric field and electric flux. Here we discuss student responses to some questions on a multiple-choice test administered to them. The test can be used both as a teaching and assessment tool.

Singh, Chandralekha

2005-09-01

401

Conceptualizing Engagement: Contributions of Faculty to Student Engagement in Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of student engagement, now prominent in the engi- neering education and higher education communities, has a long intellectual history. Yet only recently has attention focused on the role that faculty play as designers of educational environments to support student engagement. Drawing from examples and data from the Engineering Change study (which evaluated the impact of the new EC2000

HELEN L. CHEN; LISA R. LATTUCA; ERIC R. HAMILTON

402

Teachers' Perceptions of Student Bullying: A Conceptual and Empirical Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is an analysis of the nature and meaning of bullying in schools. First, the literature on student bullying is reviewed and a definition of bullying is proposed. Next, we developed a set of items to operationalize teacher perceptions of student bullying. An initial, exploratory factor analysis suggested two rather distinct aspects of…

Smith, Page A.; Hoy, Wayne K.

2004-01-01

403

Feelings Count: Conceptualizing and Measuring Students' Happiness in Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of positive subjective well-being (SWB) is supported by the wide-ranging network of relations between students' SWB and crucial school processes and outcomes, such as positive student engagement behavior, interpersonal relationships, coping skills, and academic achievement. Some studies have revealed that not only is positive SWB a…

Huebner, Scott

2010-01-01

404

Using Psychological Models to Understand Student Motivation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Efforts to enhance student motivation can be more effective if they are approached from the perspective of psychological models of what drives human behavior including social learning theory, personal growth as a primary goal, cognitive development theory, self-efficacy theory, and expectancy-value theory. (Author/MLW)

Lucas, Ann F.

1990-01-01

405

Enhancing Student Understanding of Environmental Sciences Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an authentic semi-guided student research project. Studies the impact of a regional invasion of non-indigenous worm species on decomposition in forest soils. Describes the experimental design, data analysis, and interpretation of the data. (Contains 16 references.) (YDS)

Gurwick, Noel P.; Krasny, Marianne E.

2001-01-01

406

Teaching Students To Understand Their Artwork.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are techniques that elementary and secondary art teachers can use to help students evaluate their own works of art. These include mapping and diagramming, tracings, coverings, cutting apart and placing together, estimating, framing, enlarging and reducing, simplification and elaboration, projecting, playful tools, celebrations and…

Szekely, George

1985-01-01

407

Student President Committed to Understanding, Honesty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the author's profile. The author is an enrolled member of the Comanche Tribe and a descendant of the last leader of the Quahada Band. Currently, she attends Comanche Nation College in Lawton, Oklahoma, where she is a junior-level student majoring in both biology and chemistry with a minor in non-romance languages. From…

Steinmeyer, Allison Paige

2009-01-01

408

Understanding Adolescent Student Perceptions of Science Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used the "Relevance of Science Education" (ROSE) survey (Sjoberg & Schreiner, 2004) to examine topics of interest and perspectives of secondary science students in a large school district in the southwestern U.S. A situated learning perspective was used to frame the project. The research questions of this study focused on…

Ebert, Ellen Kress

2012-01-01

409

Effectiveness of Collaborative Ranking Tasks on Student Understanding of Key Astronomy Concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research concerns the development and assessment of a program of introductory astronomy conceptual exercises called ranking tasks. These exercises were designed based on results from science education research, learning theory, and classroom pilot studies. The investigation involved a single-group repeated measures experiment across eight key introductory astronomy topics with 253 students at the University of Arizona. Student understanding of these astronomy topics was assessed before and after traditional instruction in an introductory astronomy course. Collaborative ranking tasks were introduced after traditional instruction on each topic, and student understanding was evaluated again. Results showed that average scores on multiple-choice tests across the eight astronomy topics increased from 32% before instruction, to 61% after traditional instruction, to 77% after the ranking- task exercises. A Likert scale attitude survey found that 83% of the students participating in the 16-week study thought that the ranking- task exercises helped their understanding of core astronomy concepts. Based on these results, we assert that supplementing traditional lecture- based instruction with collaborative ranking-task exercises can significantly improve student understanding of core astronomy topics.

Hudgins, David W.; Prather, Edward E.; Grayson, Diane J.; Smits, Derck P.

410

Addressing Student Misconceptions Concerning Electron Flow in Aqueous Solutions with Instruction Including Computer Animations and Conceptual Change Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the effects of both computer animations of microscopic chemical processes occurring in a galvanic cell and conceptual-change instruction based on chemical demonstrations on students' conceptions of current flow in electrolyte solutions. Finds that conceptual change instruction was effective at dispelling student misconceptions but…

Sanger, Michael J.; Greenbowe, Thomas J.

2000-01-01

411

Middle School Students' Conceptual Learning from the Implementation of a New NSF Supported Curriculum: Interactions in Physical Science[TM  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new National Science Foundation supported curriculum, Interactions in Physical Science[TM], was evaluated on students' conceptual change in the twelve concept areas of the national physical science content standard (B) for grades 5-8. Eighth grade students (N = 66) were evaluated pre and post on a 31-item multiple-choice test of conceptual

Eick, Charles J.; Dias, Michael; Smith, Nancy R. Cook

2009-01-01

412

Using Conceptual Metaphor and Functional Grammar to Explore How Language Used in Physics Affects Student Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper introduces a theory about the role of language in learning physics. The theory is developed in the context of physics students and physicists talking and writing about the subject of quantum mechanics. We found that physicists' language encodes different varieties of analogical models through the use of grammar and conceptual metaphor.…

Brookes, David T.; Etkina, Eugenia

2007-01-01

413

Consistency of Students' Conceptions of Wave Propagation: Findings from a Conceptual Survey in Mechanical Waves  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We recently developed a multiple-choice conceptual survey in mechanical waves. The development, evaluation, and demonstration of the use of the survey were reported elsewhere [A. Tongchai et al. Int. J. Sci. Educ. 31 2437 (2009)]. We administered the survey to 902 students from seven different groups ranging from high school to second year…

Tongchai, Apisit; Sharma, Manjula Devi; Johnston, Ian D.; Arayathanitkul, Kwan; Soankwan, Chernchok

2011-01-01

414

Conceptual Ecology of the Evolution Acceptance among Greek Education Students: Knowledge, Religious Practices and Social Influences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we explored some of the factors related to the acceptance of evolution theory among Greek university students training to be teachers in early childhood education, using conceptual ecology for biological evolution as a theoretical framework. We examined the acceptance of evolution theory and we also looked into the relationship…

Athanasiou, Kyriacos; Papadopoulou, Penelope

2012-01-01

415

High-Ability Students: New Ways to Conceptualize Giftedness and Provide Psychological Services in the Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychologists working in the schools have an opportunity to affect in new and exciting ways the services they provide to high-ability students. A talent development framework offers a unique lens through which gifted services is conceptualized. The framework moves school psychologists beyond viewing giftedness and high IQ as synonymous to…

Nicpon, Megan Foley; Pfeiffer, Steven I.

2011-01-01

416

Conceptualizing the Classroom of Target Students: A Qualitative Investigation of Panelists' Experiences during Standard Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasingly, research has focused on the cognitive processes associated with various standard-setting activities. This qualitative study involved an examination of 16 third-grade reading teachers' experiences with the cognitive task of conceptualizing an entire classroom of hypothetical target students when the single-passage bookmark method or…

Hein, Serge F.; Skaggs, Gary

2010-01-01

417

Evaluation of an Innovative Mathematics Program in Terms of Classroom Environment, Student Attitudes, and Conceptual Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dull classroom environments, poor students' attitudes and inhibited conceptual development led to the creation of an innovative mathematics program, the Class Banking System (CBS), which enables teachers to use constructivist ideas and approaches. To assess the effectiveness of the CBS, actual and preferred versions of the Individualized Classroom…

Spinner, Howard; Fraser, Barry J.

418

Measuring Student Understanding of Geological Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There have been few discoveries in geology more important than "deep time"--the understanding that the universe has existed for countless millennia, such that man's existence is confined to the last milliseconds of the metaphorical geological clock. The influence of deep time is felt in a variety of sciences including geology, cosmology, and…

Dodick, Jeff; Orion, Nir

2003-01-01

419

Argumentation skills and conceptual knowledge of undergraduate students in a physics by inquiry class  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Teaching argumentation skills has been the focus of science education research which views argumentation instruction as a way to improve scientific reasoning skills in science classrooms. Argumentation research has mostly focused on examining the quality of classroom discourse in science classes, scaffolding student argumentation process, and in-service science teacher development of pedagogical skills related to argumentation. Yet, there is paucity of studies exist in the literature which has examined prospective science teacher development of argumentation skills. This study aims to reduce this gap in the argumentation literature. This study investigated prospective science teacher development of argumentation skills and conceptual knowledge, relationship between argumentation skills and conceptual knowledge, and the relation of argumentation and conceptual knowledge gains to prospective science teacher initial conceptual knowledge level in an undergraduate course where argumentation skills were incorporated to the science curriculum. Initially, data were collected from 125 students who were involved in an inquiry-based physics course at a midwestern university. Argumentation skills for the concepts of balancing and sinking and floating were assessed by the use of argumentation tests which were constructed for this study and administered four times during the course. In addition to written argumentation tests, argumentation discourse of one small group of students was audio-taped two times during the course. Physics conceptual knowledge was administered at the beginning and at the end of the instruction by a conceptual test which was constructed for this study. A total of 36 students who responded to all the data collection activities comprised the analysis sample. It was found that the prospective science teacher argumentation skills regarding balancing and sinking and floating concepts improved during the course. More specifically, their counter-argument and rebuttal evidence and justification scores developed during the course. It was also found that improvement of counter-argument and rebuttal evidence scores was content independent whereas improvement of counter-argument and rebuttal justification scores was content dependent. The results showed that prospective science teacher conceptual physics knowledge was improved from the beginning to the end of the instruction. More specifically, their declarative and situational knowledge scores increased from the pretest to the posttest. The results also showed that prospective science teacher argumentation scores can be related to physics conceptual knowledge pretest and posttest scores. In addition, it was found that argumentation gain scores were not related to prospective science teacher initial conceptual knowledge level. According to these findings, implications regarding prospective science teacher education and explicit teaching about argumentation were discussed.

Acar, Omer

420

The Effects of Grouping and Instructional Strategies on Conceptual Understanding and Critical Thinking Skills in the Secondary Biology Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe selected instructional strategies (traditional and constructivist) and grouping practices (homogeneous and heterogeneous) on conceptual understanding and critical thinking skills in biology classrooms in three high schools. The context of the study was the teaching and learning of plant…

Duffy, Maryellen; Zeidler, Dana L.

421

Effect of the 5E Model on Prospective Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of Diffusion and Osmosis: A Mixed Method Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to explore a group of prospective primary teachers' conceptual understanding of diffusion and osmosis as they implemented a 5E constructivist model and related materials in a science methods course. Fifty prospective primary teachers' ideas were elicited using a pre- and post-test and delayed post-test survey consisting…

Artun, Huseyin; Costu, Bayram

2013-01-01

422

Exploring the Usefulness of Two Conceptual Frameworks for Understanding How Organizational Factors Influence Innovation Implementation in Cancer Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Moving knowledge into practice and the implementation of innovations in health care remain significant challenges. Few researchers adequately address the influence of organizations on the implementation of innovations in health care. The aims of this article are to (1) present 2 conceptual frameworks for understanding the organizational factors…

Urquhart, Robin; Sargeant, Joan; Grunfeld, Eva

2013-01-01

423

Use of a Walk Through Time to Facilitate Student Understandings of the Geological Time Scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students often have difficulties in appreciating just how old the earth and the universe are. While they can simply memorize a number, they really do not understand just how big that number really is, in comparison with other, more familiar student referents like the length of a human lifetime or how long it takes to eat a pizza. (See, e.g., R.D. Trend 2001, J. Research in Science Teaching 38(2): 191-221) Students, and members of the general public, also display such well-known misconceptions as the "Flintstone chronology" of believing that human beings and dinosaurs walked the earth at the same time. (In the classic American cartoon "The Flintstones," human beings used dinosaurs as draft animals. As scientists we know this is fiction, but not all members of the public understand that.) In an interdisciplinary undergraduate college class that dealt with astronomy, cosmology, and biological evolution, I used a familiar activity to try to improve student understanding of the concept of time's vastness. Students walked through a pre-determined 600-step path which provided a spatial analogy to the geological time scale. They stopped at various points and engaged in some pre-determined discussions and debates. This activity is as old as the hills, but reports of its effectiveness or lack thereof are quite scarce. This paper demonstrates that this activity was effective for a general-audience, college student population in the U.S. The growth of student understandings of the geological time scale was significant as a result of this activity. Students did develop an understanding of time's vastness and were able to articulate this understanding in various ways. This growth was monitored through keeping track of several exam questions and through pre- and post- analysis of student writings. In the pre-writings, students often stated that they had "no idea" about how to illustrate the size of the geological time scale to someone else. While some post-time walk responses simply restated what was done in the walk through time, some students were able to develop their own ways of conceptualizing the vastness of the geological time scale. A variety of findings from student understandings will be presented. This work has been supported in part by the Distinguished Scholars Program of the National Science Foundation (DUE-0308557).

Shipman, H. L.

2004-12-01

424

Perceptual Influence of Ugandan Biology Students' Understanding of HIV/AIDS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Uganda, curbing the spread of HIV/AIDS has largely depended on public and private media messages about the disease. Media campaigns based on Uganda’s cultural norms of communication are metaphorical, analogical and simile-like. The topic of HIV/AIDS has been introduced into the Senior Three (Grade 11) biology curriculum in Uganda. To what extent do students’ pre-conceptions of the disease, based on these media messages influence students’ development of conceptual understanding of the disease, its transmission and prevention? Of significant importance is the impact the conceptions students have developed from the indirect media messages on classroom instruction on HIV/AIDS. The study is based in a theoretical framework of conceptual change in science learning. An interpretive case study to determine the impact of Ugandan students’ conceptions or perceptions on classroom instruction about HIV/AIDS, involving 160 students aged 15-17, was conducted in four different Ugandan high schools: girls boarding, boys boarding, mixed boarding, and mixed day. Using questionnaires, focus group discussions, recorded biology lessons and informal interviews, students’ preconceptions of HIV/AIDS and how these impact lessons on HIV/AIDS were discerned. These preconceptions fall into four main categories: religious, political, conspiracy and traditional African worldviews. Results of data analysis suggest that students’ prior knowledge is persistent even after biology instructions. This has implications for current teaching approaches, which are mostly teacher-centred in Ugandan schools. A rethinking of the curriculum with the intent of offering science education programs that promote understanding of the science of HIV/AIDS as opposed to what is happening now—insensitivity to misconceptions about the disease—is needed.

Mutonyi, Harriet; Nashon, Samson; Nielsen, Wendy S.

2010-08-01

425

Understanding the College Choice Process of Catholic Homeschooled Students  

E-print Network

The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand how Catholic homeschooled students navigate the college choice process. With the growth of homeschooling in the United States nearly doubling in the past eight years (Cogan, 2010), this study...

Henry, Linda Mary

2011-05-31

426

Effect of Current Electricity Simulation Supported Learning on the Conceptual Understanding of Elementary and Secondary Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the impact of computer simulation and supported science learning on a teacher's understanding and conceptual knowledge of current electricity. Pre/Post tests were used to measure the teachers' concept attainment. Overall, there was a significant and large knowledge difference effect from Pre to Post test. Two interesting interactions were observed during the data analysis. The first was the difference between Elementary and Secondary teachers. Both groups had significant gains, with large effect sizes, but the Elementary teachers (Pre-Mean = 3.70, Post-Mean = 7.51) started lower and ended higher exhibiting a significantly larger gain than the Secondary teachers (Pre-Mean = 4.96, Post-Mean = 6.71). The second interaction was the impact of gender. Both groups showed significant gains, with large effect sizes, but females (Pre-Mean = 3.90, Post-Mean = 7.21) gained significantly more than males (Pre-Mean = 5.13, Post-Mean = 7.01). These results confirm that computer simulation supported science learning can have a positive effect on concept attainment in teachers.

Kumar, David Devraj; Thomas, P. V.; Morris, John D.; Tobias, Karen M.; Baker, Mary; Jermanovich, Trudy

2011-04-01

427

Moving toward a holistic conceptual framework for understanding healthy aging among gay men.  

PubMed

In the last four decades, we have witnessed vast and important transitions in the social, economic, political, and health contexts of the lived experiences of gay men in the United States. This dynamic period, as evidenced most prominently by the transition of the gay rights movement to a civil rights movement, has shifted the exploration of gay men's health from one focusing primarily on HIV/AIDS into a mainstream consideration of the overall health and wellbeing of gay men. Against this backdrop, aging gay men in the United States constitute a growing population, for whom further investigations of health states and health-related disparities are warranted. In order to advance our understanding of the health and wellbeing of aging gay men, we outline here a multilevel, ecosocial conceptual framework that integrates salient environmental, social, psychosocial, and sociodeomgraphic factors into sets of macro-, meso-, and micro-level constructs that can be applied to comprehensively study health states and health care utilization in older gay men. PMID:25492304

N Halkitis, Perry; Kapadia, Farzana; C Ompad, Danielle; Perez-Figueroa, Rafael

2015-05-01

428

Digital video, learning styles, and student understanding of kinematics graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Student ability to analyze and interpret motion graphs following laboratory instruction that utilized interactive digital video as well as traditional instructional techniques was investigated. Research presented suggested that digital video tools serve to motivate students and may be an effective mechanism to enhance student understanding of motion concepts. Two laboratory exercises involving motion concepts were developed for this study. Students were divided into two instructional groups. The treatment group used digital video techniques and the control group used traditional techniques to perform the laboratory exercises. Student understanding of motion concepts were assessed, in part, using the Test of Understanding Graphs-Kinematics. Other assessment measures included student responses to a set of written graphical analysis questions and two post-lab activities. Possible relationships between individual learning style preferences and student understanding of motion concepts were also addressed. Learning style preferences were assessed using the Productivity Environmental Preference Survey prior to the instructional treatments. Students were asked to comment in writing about their learning styles before and after they were given the learning style assessment. Student comments revealed that the results they received from Productivity Environmental Preference Survey accurately reflected their learning styles. Results presented in this study showed that no significant relationship exists between students' learning style preferences and their ability to interpret motion graphs as measured by scores on the Test of Understanding Graphs-Kinematics. In addition, the results showed no significant difference between instructional treatment and mean scores on the Test of Understanding Graphs-Kinematics. Analysis of writing activities revealed that students in the treatment group responded more effectively than students in the control group to graphical interpretation questions that closely paralleled the motions they had observed during the laboratory. However, students in both instructional groups displayed similar levels of difficulty when confronted with motions that deviated from what they had observed in the laboratory. After controlling for differences in student ability levels using SAT scores and course grades, a significant difference in mean scores on the Test of Understanding Graphs-Kinematics was observed between males and females. Males and females as a separate population had similar mean SAT scores and course grades. A suggestion was made that the observed difference between males and females based on mean scores on the Test of Understanding Graphs- Kinematics could be due to a gender bias inherent in the instrument. A recommendation was made that future studies could address this observed gender difference.

Hein, Teresa Lee

1997-12-01

429

Using Student Development Theories as Conceptual Frameworks in Leadership Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theories of student learning and development are particularly important in leadership education because they make prescriptions about how people can adopt increasingly complex ways of being, knowing, and doing--essential forms of development for leadership learning. Increasingly, there is a call for leadership educators to adopt interdisciplinary…

Owen, Julie E.

2012-01-01

430

High School Students' Understandings and Representations of the Electric Field  

E-print Network

This study investigates the understandings and representations of the electric field expressed by Chinese high school students ages 15 to 16 who have not yet received high school-level physics instruction. The literature has reported students' ideas of the electric field post-instruction as indicated by their performance on textbook-style questionnaires. However, by relying on measures such as questionnaires, previous research has inadequately captured the thinking process that led students to answer questions in the ways that they did. The present study portrays the beginning of this process by closely examining students' understandings pre-instruction. The participants in this study were asked to engage in a lesson that included informal group tasks that involved playing a Web-based hockey game that replicated an electric field and drawing comic strips that used charges as characters. The lesson was videotaped, students' work was collected, and three students were interviewed afterward to ascertain more det...

Cao, Ying

2014-01-01

431

Contrasting Cases of Calculus Students' Understanding of Derivative Graphs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study adds momentum to the ongoing discussion clarifying the merits of visualization and analysis in mathematical thinking. Our goal was to gain understanding of three calculus students' mental processes and images used to create meaning for derivative graphs. We contrast the thinking processes of these three students as they attempted to…

Haciomeroglu, Erhan Selcuk; Aspinwall, Leslie; Presmeg, Norma C.

2010-01-01

432

Understanding Retention in US Graduate Programs by Student Nationality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to better understand the differences in selected retention constructs by student nationality in US graduate programs. Surveys administered at four universities across the United States during fall 2010 resulted in responses from 685 PhD students from six international regions. Using univariate ANOVA, responses were…

Crede, Erin; Borrego, Maura

2014-01-01

433

Education Doctoral Student Attitudes toward and Understanding of Economics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes toward and understanding of economics possessed by Doctor of Education students in Adult and Higher Education that were enrolled at The University of South Dakota. The study further sought to find areas or topics of interest in the field of economics that Doctor of Education students possess,…

Rogers, Kevin L.

2009-01-01

434

Using Molecular Representations to Aid Student Understanding of Stereochemical Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stereochemistry is an important topic in organic chemistry. It is also a difficult topic for students to learn. This study investigated the relative effectiveness on students' understanding of three kinds of molecular representations of stereochemistry concepts. Instructional activities compared the use of either: (i) computer-based molecular…

Abraham, Michael; Varghese, Valsamma; Tang, Hui

2010-01-01

435

Student Approaches to Achieving Understanding--Approaches to Learning Revisited  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a phenomenographic study that investigates students' approaches to achieving understanding. The results are based on interviews, addressing physiological phenomena, with 16 medical students in a problem-based curriculum. Four approaches--sifting, building, holding and moving--are outlined. The holding and moving approaches…

Fyrenius, Anna; Wirell, Staffan; Silen, Charlotte

2007-01-01

436

Helping Students Understand Essay Marking Criteria and Feedback  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the study was to look at the effectiveness of combining a variety of teaching and learning methods in an attempt to facilitate students' understanding of assessment criteria. Fifty-three psychology students were asked to complete the mismatch exercise (Norton et al., 2002), and a booklet entitled "Your Assignment results and how to…

Defeyter, Margaret Anne; McPartlin, Pamela Louise

2007-01-01

437

Understanding and Affecting Student Reasoning about Sound Waves.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the design and development of curriculum materials that ask students to think about physics from a different view. These group-learning classroom materials specifically aim to bring about improvement of student understanding of sound waves. (Contains 29 references.) (Author/SOE)

Wittmann, Michael C.; Steinberg, Richard N.; Redish, Edward F.

2003-01-01

438

Effects of Cooperative Learning on Students' Understanding of Metallic Bonding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study focused on investigating the effectiveness of instruction via newly developed teaching materials based on cooperative learning when compared to a traditional approach, on ninth grade students' understanding of metallic bonding. Fifty-seven ninth grade science students from two science classes in the same high school participated…

Acar, Burcin; Tarhan, Leman

2008-01-01

439

Understanding Sleep Disorders in a College Student Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College students' sleep habits are changing dramatically, and related sleep problems are increasing. Reviews the current literature on sleep problems, focusing on the college student population. The unique challenges of college settings are discussed as they apply to understanding sleep problems, and suggestions are made for professionals who work…

Jensen, Dallas R.

2003-01-01

440

Secondary Students' Understanding of Basic Ideas of Special Relativity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A major topic that has marked "modern physics" is the theory of special relativity (TSR). The present work focuses on the possibility of teaching the basic ideas of the TSR to students at the upper secondary level in such a way that they are able to understand and learn the ideas. Its aim is to investigate students' learning processes towards the…

Dimitriadi, Kyriaki; Halkia, Krystallia

2012-01-01

441

Postreading Questioning and Middle School Students' Understanding of Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined the effectiveness of a "story map," a questioning technique (Beck & McKeown, 1981) for improving students' understanding of literature. Though the story map idea was widely adopted as a student-initiated strategy, the original story map--a teacher-generated, postreading questioning framework--was never empirically tested. This…

Liang, Lauren Aimonette; Watkins, Naomi M.; Graves, Michael F.; Hosp, John

2010-01-01

442

Bootstrapping Student Understanding of What Is Going on in Econometrics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains that econometrics is an intellectual game played by rules based on the sampling distribution concept. Contains explanations for why many students are uncomfortable with econometrics. Encourages instructors to use explain-how-to-bootstrap exercises to promote student understanding. (RLH)

Kennedy, Peter E.

2001-01-01

443

Understanding the Complexities of Student Motivations in Mathematics Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student motivation has long been a concern of mathematics educators. However, commonly held distinctions between intrinsic and extrinsic motivations may be insufficient to inform our understandings of student motivations in learning mathematics or to appropriately shape pedagogical decisions. Here, motivation is defined, in general, as an…

Walter, Janet G.; Hart, Janelle

2009-01-01

444

Asking the Right Questions: Helping Mainstream Students Understand Other Cultures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two common tendencies that lead many mainstream students to misinterpret other cultures are the combative response and the exoticizing response. These misinterpretations, however, can be excellent learning moments for helping students understand the constructed nature of culture and the contextual nature of learning. Transformational multicultural…

Taylor, Jefferey H.

445

Students' Understanding of Theory in Undergraduate Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates undergraduate students' application of theory in their analysis of problems presented in authentic leadership cases. Taking a phenomenographic research approach, the paper identifies two levels at which students understand "theory": Level 1-Theory as knowledge acquired from books; Level 2-Theory as support…

Liff, Roy; Rovio-Johansson, Airi

2014-01-01

446

Diagrams: Useful Tools for Investigating a Student's Understanding of Buoyancy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sometimes it is difficult to decide whether a student has a true understanding of a physics concept or whether they are very good at rote learning key words and phrases. Sometimes, when you are marking exams, you feel you have to give the student full marks because everything is there, even though it is not quite "right". This is where a diagram…

Creagh, Christine

2008-01-01

447

Invisible Misconceptions: Student Understanding of Ultraviolet and Infrared Radiation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of nonvisible wavelengths for the study of astronomy suggests that student understanding of nonvisible light is an important consideration in astronomy classrooms. Questionnaires, interviews, and panel discussions were used to investigate 6-12 student and teacher conceptions of ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR). Alternative…

Libarkin, Julie C.; Asghar, Anila; Crockett, C.; Sadler, Philip

2011-01-01

448

Veterinary studentsunderstanding of a career in practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lack of a clear perception of the realities of a career in veterinary medicine could adversely affect young graduates’ satisfaction with the profession and their long-term commitment to it. Veterinary studentsunderstanding of a career in practice were explored. Traditionalentry first-year and final-year students, as well as entry-level ‘Gateway’ (widening participation) students, were invited to complete a questionnaire exploring their

J. L. Tomlin; D. C. Brodbelt; S. A. May

2010-01-01

449

Toward Understanding Body Image Importance: Individual Differences in a Canadian Sample of Undergraduate Students  

PubMed Central

This study examined the relationships between body image importance (BII) andperfectionism and body satisfaction in a Canadian sample of undergraduate students. Specifically, perfectionism was conceptualized as a common cause of BII and body satisfaction. Furthermore, gender-schematic processing was examined as a moderator of sex differences in BII, which have been inconsistently found. As hypothesized, there was no significant partial correlation between BII and body satisfaction, controlling for perfectionism. Also, a significant Sex × Gender Schematicity interaction indicated that gender schematicity moderates sex differences in BII. Implications for understanding individual differences in, and elevated levels of BII are discussed. PMID:23421695

Delaney, Mary E.

2013-01-01

450

New insights into student understanding of complete circuits and the conservation of current  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research reported in this paper represents an in-depth examination of the finding from an earlier investigation that university students often do not develop a functional understanding of the concept of a complete circuit. Participants in this study included undergraduates in introductory and upper-division physics courses as well as graduate teaching assistants. Although the concept of a complete circuit is covered in the standard undergraduate curriculum, students in all three groups had difficulty in applying this concept to single-loop, resistive circuits. Students frequently did not apply the conservation of current when analyzing circuits containing more than one battery. Certain basic conceptual difficulties spanned all of the populations and even persisted after instruction in upper-division courses that involved analog electronics.

Stetzer, MacKenzie R.; van Kampen, Paul; Shaffer, Peter S.; McDermott, Lillian C.

2013-02-01

451

Conceptual understanding and groundwater quality of selected basin-fill aquifers in the Southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey has been conducting a regional analysis of water quality in the principal aquifer systems in the southwestern United States (hereinafter, 'Southwest') since 2005. Part of the NAWQA Program, the objective of the Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study is to develop a better understanding of water quality in basin-fill aquifers in the region by synthesizing information from case studies of 15 basins into a common set of important natural and human-related factors found to affect groundwater quality. The synthesis consists of three major components: 1. Summary of current knowledge about the groundwater systems, and the status of, changes in, and influential factors affecting quality of groundwater in basin-fill aquifers in 15 basins previously studied by NAWQA (this report). 2. Development of a conceptual model of the primary natural and human-related factors commonly affecting groundwater quality, thereby building a regional understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to contaminants. 3. Development of statistical models that relate the concentration or occurrence of specific chemical constituents in groundwater to natural and human-related factors linked to the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to contamination. Basin-fill aquifers occur in about 200,000 mi2 of the 410,000 mi2 SWPA study area and are the primary source of groundwater supply for cities and agricultural communities. Four of the principal aquifers or aquifer systems of the United States are included in the basin-fill aquifers of the study area: (1) the Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers in California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona; (2) the Rio Grande aquifer system in New Mexico and Colorado; (3) the California Coastal Basin aquifers; and (4) the Central Valley aquifer system in California. Because of the generally limited availability of surface-water supplies in the arid to semiarid climate, cultural and economic activities in the Southwest are particularly dependent on supplies of good-quality groundwater. Irrigation and public-supply withdrawals from basin-fill aquifers in the study area account for about one quarter of the total withdrawals from all aquifers in the United States. Many factors influence the quality of groundwater in the 15 case-study basins, but some common factors emerge from the basin summaries presented in this report. These factors include the chemical composition of the recharge water, consolidated rock geology and composition of aquifer materials derived from consolidated rock, and land and water use. The major water-quality issues in many of the developed case-study basins are increased concentrations of dissolved solids, nitrate, and VOCs in groundwater as a result of human activities. The information presented and the citations listed in this report serve as a resource for those interested in the groundwater-flow systems in the NAWQA case-study basins. The summaries of water-development history, hydrogeology, conceptual understanding of the groundwater system under both predevelopment and modern conditions, and effects of natural and human-related factors on groundwater quality presented in the sections on each basin also serve as a foundation for the synthesis and modeling phases of the SWPA regional study.

Thiros, Susan A.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Anning, David W.; Huntington, Jena M.

2010-01-01

452

Characterizing and Representing Student's Conceptual Knowledge of Chemical Bonding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chemical bonding knowledge is fundamental and essential to the understanding of almost every topic in chemistry, but it is very difficult to learn. While many studies have characterized some of the central elements of knowledge of this topic, these elements of knowledge have not been systematically organized. We describe the development and…

Yayon, Malka; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Fortus, David

2012-01-01

453

Understanding Student Cognition about Complex Earth System Processes Related to Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth's climate system includes complex behavior and interconnections with other Earth spheres that present challenges to student learning. To better understand these unique challenges, we have conducted experiments with high-school and introductory level college students to determine how information pertaining to the connections between the Earth's atmospheric system and the other Earth spheres (e.g., hydrosphere and cryosphere) are processed. Specifically, we include psychomotor tests (e.g., eye-tracking) and open-ended questionnaires in this research study, where participants were provided scientific images of the Earth (e.g., global precipitation and ocean and atmospheric currents), eye-tracked, and asked to provide causal or relational explanations about the viewed images. In addition, the students engaged in on-line modules (http://serc.carleton.edu/eslabs/climate/index.html) focused on Earth system science as training activities to address potential cognitive barriers. The developed modules included interactive media, hands-on lessons, links to outside resources, and formative assessment questions to promote a supportive and data-rich learning environment. Student eye movements were tracked during engagement with the materials to determine the role of perception and attention on understanding. Students also completed a conceptual questionnaire pre-post to determine if these on-line curriculum materials assisted in their development of connections between Earth's atmospheric system and the other Earth systems. The pre-post results of students' thinking about climate change concepts, as well as eye-tracking results, will be presented.

McNeal, K. S.; Libarkin, J.; Ledley, T. S.; Dutta, S.; Templeton, M. C.; Geroux, J.; Blakeney, G. A.

2011-12-01

454

Let's talk about integration: a study of students' understandings of integration.  

PubMed

Today, the knowledge concerning clinical reasoning is advanced enough to translate into curriculum interventions such as an integrated curriculum, in which science theory and clinical practice can be interwoven effectively. However, the interpretations of what integration means differ and the purpose of this study was to elicit how students understand integration. This study was carried out using an interpretative perspective. Medical students, in their 2nd year of study, were asked to apply basic science knowledge from all previous courses to clinical cases in an examination. Subsequent to the examination, focus group interviews were conducted. The interviews were audio recorded, transcribed and analysed by the use of qualitative content analysis. The analysis revealed how students comprehended integration: as the creation of wholeness, as relating new knowledge to core concepts, as reasoning, as application and as collaboration between teachers. The five categories were linked to three dimensions: intra-personal, inter-personal and organizational, each of which resonates with different theories of how expertise is developed. The outcome of this study adds to our understanding of how students conceptualize integration. The categories of 'integration' drawn out by the study are helpful in promoting further discussion of how eliciting students' own reports of cognition and may help the ongoing design of curricula by putting students at the center of the curriculum design process. PMID:24604665

Laksov, Klara Bolander; McGrath, Cormac; Josephson, Anna

2014-12-01

455

Assessing Elementary Science Methods Students' Understanding about Global Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Global climate change, referred to as climate change in this paper, has become an important planetary issue, and given that K-12 students have numerous alternative conceptions or lack of prior knowledge, it is critical that teachers have an understanding of the fundamental science underlying climate change. Teachers need to understand the natural…

Lambert, Julie L.; Lindgren, Joan; Bleicher, Robert

2012-01-01

456

How Do Students Acquire an Understanding of Logarithmic Concepts?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of logarithms, an important tool for calculus and beyond, has been reduced to symbol manipulation without understanding in most entry-level college algebra courses. The primary aim of this research, therefore, was to investigate college students' understanding of logarithmic concepts through the use of a series of instructional tasks…

Mulqueeny, Ellen

2012-01-01

457

Perspectives: Helping Students Understand the Nature of Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An important goal of science teaching is to help students understand the "nature of science"--what science is and how science works. The nature of science addresses the importance of creativity and imagination in scientific work; how scientists invent explanations for phenomena; the difference between observation and inference; how scientific ideas are subject to change; and how culture and society influence science. By focusing on not just what we know but how we know, teachers are providing students with a robust view of science. This article discusses how to help students understand the nature of science.

Deborah L. Hanuscin

2009-03-01

458

Measuring enactment of innovations and the factors that affect implementation and sustainability: moving toward common language and shared conceptual understanding.  

PubMed

This article describes research that focuses on the concern that researchers are unable to fully realize the potential value of their collective efforts because they do not have shared conceptual or operational tools for communicating assumptions, ideas, research strategies, or findings with others outside, or even within their disciplines. This research, through the lens of measuring implementation of educational programs, has taken steps toward bringing researchers' varied pictures of understanding into a coherent landscape. This article describes a conceptual framework for describing aspects of implementation, a conceptual framework for describing the factors that affect implementation, and tools for measuring each. It describes the challenges addressed in the development of these approaches, and the application of these approaches to current studies in education and other fields in the social sciences. In doing so, it demonstrates that meaningful communication between researchers and accumulation of knowledge across fields is possible, and necessary. PMID:22948708

Century, Jeanne; Cassata, Amy; Rudnick, Mollie; Freeman, Cassie

2012-10-01

459

Conceptual framework for understanding the bidirectional links between food insecurity and HIV/AIDS1234  

PubMed Central

Food insecurity, which affects >1 billion people worldwide, is inextricably linked to the HIV epidemic. We present a conceptual framework of the multiple pathways through which food insecurity and HIV/AIDS may be linked at the community, household, and individual levels. Whereas the mechanisms through which HIV/AIDS can cause food insecurity have been fairly well elucidated, the ways in which food insecurity can lead to HIV are less well understood. We argue that there are nutritional, mental health, and behavioral pathways through which food insecurity leads to HIV acquisition and disease progression. Specifically, food insecurity can lead to macronutrient and micronutrient deficiencies, which can affect both vertical and horizontal transmission of HIV, and can also contribute to immunologic decline and increased morbidity and mortality among those already infected. Food insecurity can have mental health consequences, such as depression and increased drug abuse, which, in turn, contribute to HIV transmission risk and incomplete HIV viral load suppression, increased probability of AIDS-defining illness, and AIDS-related mortality among HIV-infected individuals. As a result of the inability to procure food in socially or personally acceptable ways, food insecurity also contributes to risky sexual practices and enhanced HIV transmission, as well as to antiretroviral therapy nonadherence, treatment interruptions, and missed clinic visits, which are strong determinants of worse HIV health outcomes. More research on the relative importance of each of these pathways is warranted because effective interventions to reduce food insecurity and HIV depend on a rigorous understanding of these multifaceted relationships. PMID:22089434

Young, Sera L; Cohen, Craig R; Kushel, Margot B; Tsai, Alexander C; Tien, Phyllis C; Hatcher, Abigail M; Frongillo, Edward A; Bangsberg, David R

2011-01-01

460

Progression in High School Students' (Aged 16-18) Conceptualizations about Chemical Reactions in Solution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the development over time of students' understandings of the concept of chemical reaction in the context of two familiar reactions in solution. Based on interviews (n=48), results show that students made some progress in their understanding of the concept of chemical reaction but some fundamental misconceptions remained. (Author/MM)

Boo, Hong-Kwen; Watson, J. R.

2001-01-01

461

Investigating High School Students' Conceptualizations of the Biological Basis of Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students go to school to learn. How much, however, do students understand about the biological basis of this everyday process? Blackwell et al. (1) demonstrated a correlation between education about learning and academic achievement. Yet there are few studies investigating high school students' conceptions of learning. In this mixed-methods…

Fulop, Rebecca M.; Tanner, Kimberly D.

2012-01-01

462

Understanding the Role of Academic Language on Conceptual Understanding in an Introductory Materials Science and Engineering Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students may use the technical engineering terms without knowing what these words mean. This creates a language barrier in engineering that influences student learning. Previous research has been conducted to characterize the difference between colloquial and scientific language. Since this research had not yet been applied explicitly to…

Kelly, Jacquelyn

2012-01-01

463

Remediating Misconceptions Concerning Chemical Bonding through Conceptual Change Text  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of conceptual change texts oriented instruction on 9th grade students' understanding of chemical bonding concepts. In this study, the main aim of the preparation of conceptual change texts was to activate students' prior knowledge and misconceptions and to help them to understand the chemical…

Pabuccu, Aybuke; Geban, Omer

2006-01-01

464

Survey Instrument Probing Student Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through student interviews and multiple iterations of open-ended and multiple-choice surveys (involving over 3,600 undergraduate non-science majors), we have developed at multiple-choice survey instrument for assessing undergraduate student understanding of the atmospheric greenhouse effect. Central topics include: 1) the energies of light given off by the sun and absorbed and given off by Earth's atmosphere and surface, 2) energy balance,

John M. Keller; T. F. Slater; E. E. Prather

2006-01-01

465

Paper Towers: Building students' understandings of technological design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"What do you think the National Science Education Standards are referring to when they talk about science and technology ?" The authors posed this question to a group of undergraduate education majors during a science teaching methods course. The students' somewhat myopic notions of technology provided the perfect segue to introduce the activity, Paper Towers, which can be used in the middle school science classroom to help students develop their understandings of technological design.

James Minogue

2006-11-01

466

THE EFFECT OF REPRESENTATION AND REPRESENTATIONAL SEQUENCE ON STUDENTSUNDERSTANDING  

E-print Network

This study investigates the effect of representational sequence on studentsunderstanding of mathematical concepts. Pilot studies were conducted with 129 high school students on solving inverse trigonometric identities and with 10 pre-service secondary teachers on representing Simpson’s Paradox. Structured activities with a variety of representations and representational sequences were used to examine the impact on students ’ learning. This study also includes outcomes of surveys of 8 middle school teachers on different aspects of using representations in mathematics classroom. Our ongoing work finds this impact significant and claims that particular representational sequences need to be sensitive to specific content, learning outcomes, student prior knowledge and learning style. Theoretical Framework The body of existing research on the role of representation in improving students’ mathematical understanding is convincing enough even for educational skeptics. That is why NCTM (2000) included the principle of representation among the five most important process standards of school mathematics. Studying an effect that representations have on studentsunderstanding is critical for effectiveness of teaching mathematics. “We teach mathematics most

Lawrence M. Lesser; Mourat A. Tchoshanov

467

A Student Assembled Spectrograph with a CCD Detector to Assist with Students' Understanding of Spectrometry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To help students develop an understanding of the proper use and function of spectrographs and monochromators we describe a student-assembled spectrograph using a "webcam" detector. The apparatus also works well as a low-cost demonstration, helping students make connections between an atomic spectrum observed by eye and a plot of the relative…

Grove, T. T.; Masters, M. F.

2007-01-01

468

Students Meet Wilfred Gordon: Helping Students with Special Needs Understand Their Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding how memory works is important for success in school, for "all" students. One way for teachers to help students with disabilities learn about memory is to use picture books and then learn strategies. Picture books are useful for students with disabilities because these resources have moved beyond a means to scaffold early literacy…

Zambo, Debby M.

2006-01-01

469

Students' Language Proficiency Effects upon Teachers' Assessment of Students' Mathematical Understanding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In current mathematics reform, assessment is integral to effective instruction. However, accurate assessment of over three million limited English proficient (LEP) students in today's schools is of great concern. How does students' language proficiency affect the accuracy of teachers' assessment of students' mathematical understanding? This…

Rhine, Steve

470

Student understanding of basic concepts in dc electric circuits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After instruction on dc circuits in a typical introductory physics course, students are often able to apply the formalism they have learned to analyze relatively complicated circuits, even those containing multiple batteries and multiple loops. However, research conducted over a period of many years has shown that despite facility with the equations, students often fail to understand some very basic concepts. Results from a recent investigation involving multiple batteries reveal the surprising extent of the gap between what is taught and what students learn. The findings have strong implications for instruction.

Shaffer, Peter

2007-03-01

471

Using the Conceptual Change Instruction To Improve Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the effect of conceptual change instruction on grade 11 students' understanding of respiration. The Respiration Concept Test was developed and used to test students' misconceptions. Results indicate that the conceptual change instruction that explicitly addressed students' misconceptions produced significantly greater achievement in…

Alparslan, Cem; Tekkaya, Ceren; Geban, Omer

2003-01-01

472

Enhancing Eight Grade Students' Scientific Conceptual Change and Scientific Reasoning through a Web-based Learning Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports the impacts of the Scientific Concept Construction and Reconstruction (SCCR) digital learning system on eighth grade students' concept construction, conceptual change, and scientific reasoning involving the topic of \\

Ya-Wen Liao; Hsiao-Ching She

2009-01-01

473

Food Safety Attitudes in College Students: A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis of a Conceptual Model  

PubMed Central

College students are one of the most at-risk population groups for food poisoning, due to risky food safety behaviors. Using the Likert Scale, undergraduate students were asked to participate in a Food Safety Survey which was completed by 499 students ages 18–25. Data was analyzed using SPSS and AMOS statistical software. Four conceptual definitions regarding food safety were defined as: general food safety, bacterial food safety, produce food safety, and politics associated with food safety. Knowledge seems to be an important factor in shaping students attitudes regarding general and bacterial safety. Ethnicity plays a role in how people view the politics of food safety, and the safety of organic foods. PMID:23364131

Booth, Rachelle; Hernandez, Magaly; Baker, Erica L.; Grajales, Tevni; Pribis, Peter

2013-01-01

474

A conceptual curriculum framework designed to ensure quality student health visitor training in practice.  

PubMed

This paper describes the challenges faced by a trust in England following the introduction of the Health Visitor Implementation Plan. Two practice education facilitators designed a conceptual curriculum framework to ensure quality student health visitor education in practice. This curriculum complimented the excellent academic course already delivered by the University. A justification is provided for the design of the curriculum framework, including a rationale for the introduction of specific training sessions. Student and practice teacher feedback demonstrate the success of the introduction of this programme to ensure the development of student health visitors fit for practice. The conclusion places emphasis on the importance of continuous evaluation of the training programme to meet the needs of the students and the service. PMID:25167726

Hollinshead, Jayne; Stirling, Linda

2014-07-01

475

Conceptual change through the use of student-generated analogies of photosynthesis and respiration by college non-science majors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two of the most important and difficult concepts in biology are photosynthesis and respiration. A pilot study was performed using student volunteers from introductory biology classes to assess student alternative frameworks regarding photosynthesis and respiration. The results of the pilot study were used to construct the Instrument for the Assessment of Respiration and Photosynthesis (IFARP). This was an 11-item, three-tier multiple choice instrument designed to conveniently assess the common misconceptions students have about these concepts upon entering a biology course. The first tier of each item of the IFARP contained a multiple choice question about photosynthesis or respiration. The second tier had a multiple choice question regarding the reason for the choice in the first tier. The third tier asked the students to indicate how confident they were in their responses, on a scale from 1 (not very confident) to 5 (very confident). The IFARP was administered as a pretest and posttest to a group of science non-majors in an introductory biology course. No significant changes were observed in student performance as measured by the IFARP between the pretest and posttest administrations. The students did, however, demonstrate a statistical increase in mean confidence levels regarding their knowledge of photosynthesis and respiration. Even though their comprehension and understanding regarding photosynthesis and respiration had not increased, the confidence they had in their responses about these two concepts had increased. The IFARP was also administered to a group of nursing student volunteers in an introductory microbiology course. This group of students also participated in the use of student-generated analogies as a learning strategy to alter conceptual frameworks. One test group of students provided analogies to photosynthesis and respiration, while the other test group provided analogies to two other concepts. No significant changes were observed in the nursing students between the pretest and posttest IFARP administrations. While there was a numeric increase in the scores of the students who used student-generated analogies for photosynthesis and respiration, there was no statistical increase in their performance. Also, t-test comparisons between the two test groups showed no significant differences.

Hill, Gary D.

476

College students' use of science content during socioscientific issues negotiation: Impact of evolution understanding and acceptance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to explore the evolution science content used during college students' negotiation of biology-based socioscientific issues (SSI) and examine how it related to students' conceptual understanding and accep