Brewer, Stephanie M.; Jozefowicz, James J.
The authors address two informal writing assignments implemented in introductory economics classes. One assignment involves students writing short reflection papers, and the other assignment involves students writing short journal entries for a designated period of time. Both assignments are designed to help students realize that economics is…
Mojzsis, Stephen J.
the sample is or is not a component of the Mars soil simulant. 7. Next, measure the reflectance of the sample Orange 600 Red 645 Deep Red 7000 IR 1 735 IR 2 810 IR 3 880 IR 4 940 SAMPLE NAME Visual observations 525 Green 560 Yellow 585 Orange 600 Red 645 Deep Red 7000 IR 1 735 IR 2 810 IR 3 880 IR 4 940 #12
Hutchins, Holly M.
In this article, I describe my reflections on developing student authors through a class research project. I review the assignment origins and description and my role in the students' developmental journey from transforming a class assignment to a publishable work. (Contains 1 figure.)
Due to the increasing importance of critical reflection as part of the key skills agenda in higher education in the UK, staff and students need to develop an awareness of the stages of reflection and how these may be employed to develop better quality reflective writing and more controlled and informed assessment of that writing if required. This paper considers
The goal of this article is to describe a continuum of levels of reflection. It briefly focuses on Deanna Kuhn's research into the development of scientific thinking and Robert Kegan's Object-Subject Theory of Development applied to the problems of inspiring students to be able to reflect. Assignments for improving students' ability to reflect are…
Poole, Gary; Jones, Lydia; Whitfield, Michael
The challenges of teaching students to reflect on experience and, thus, learn from it, are better understood with the application of constructs from cognitive psychology. The present paper focuses on two such constructs--self-schemas and scripts--to help educators better understand both the threats and opportunities associated with effective…
Boase-Jelinek, Daniel; Parker, Jenni; Herrington, Jan
This paper describes lessons learnt whilst using an online peer review system in an undergraduate unit for pre-service teachers. In this unit, students learn to use information technologies as part of their future teaching practice. The unit aims to foster graduates who become lifelong reflective educators by providing opportunities to explore and…
The following members in the Space Physics & Aeronomy Section received Outstanding Student Paper Awards at the 2003 AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco, California. Arve Aksnes; Aroh Barjatya; Jacob Bortnik; Amir Caspi; Ruben Delgado; Galen Fowler; Paul G. Hanlon; Sid Henderson; Tara B. Hiebert; Chia-Lin Huang; Steven P. Joy; Eun-Hwa Kim; Colby Lemon; Yingjuan Ma; Elizabeth A. MacDonald; Jaco Minnie; Mitsuo Oka; Yoshitaka Okazaki; Erin J. Rigler; Ina P. Robertson; Patrick A. Roddy; Sang-Il Roh; Albert Y. Shih; Christopher Smithtro; Emma Spanswick; Maria Spasojevic; Hiroki Tanaka; Linghua Wang; Deirdre E. Wendel; Jichun Zhang>
The following members in the Space Physics & Aeronomy Section received Outstanding Student Paper Awards at the 2003 AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco, California. Arve Aksnes; Aroh Barjatya; Jacob Bortnik; Amir Caspi; Ruben Delgado; Galen Fowler; Paul G. Hanlon; Sid Henderson; Tara B. Hiebert; Chia-Lin Huang; Steven P. Joy; Eun-Hwa Kim; Colby Lemon; Yingjuan Ma; Elizabeth A. MacDonald; Jaco Minnie; Mitsuo Oka; Yoshitaka Okazaki; Erin J. Rigler; Ina P. Robertson; Patrick A. Roddy; Sang-Il Roh; Albert Y. Shih; Christopher Smithtro; Emma Spanswick; Maria Spasojevic; Hiroki Tanaka; Linghua Wang; Deirdre E. Wendel; Jichun Zhang>
This paper presents an assessment of a biology education seminar for science graduate students. It describes how this seminar emphasized pedagogy and reflective assignments to help students identify and explore novel instructional strategies, discover who they are as teachers, focus on student learning, and acknowledge the challenges of effective teaching. Overall, the course facilitated reflection about personal teaching style and acceptance of new teaching ideas via assignments that encouraged written and verbal reflection by students.
This paper focus on the reflection of my teaching practices using students' Math Moments. I began to invest time in the past mathematical experiences of my students to better help me understand my own teaching practices. Throughout this paper I will reflect on my own teaching practice, delve into relevant literature and will use poignant math…
One presentation in the Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism Section was named Outstanding Student Paper at AGU's Spring Meeting in Baltimore, Md.Weixin Xu was honored for his presentation of “Alteration of fine-grained tianomagnetite in the interstitial glass of pillow basalts from the Atlantic Ocean: A component of the decrease in NRM intensity with aging.” Xu attended the Zhejiang University in China, where he obtained a B.A. in geology. He received an M.S. in petroleum geologyo in July 1985 from the Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, Beijing, China. In September 1991, he started a Ph.D. program in rock magnetism at the University of Michigan. His research involves the use of electron microscopy, XRD, and rock magnetic measurements, and the study of magnetic minerals in mid-Atlantic ocean floor basalts, Stillwater gabbros, and Rocky Mountain carbonates.
Cowin, Kathleen M.
This article describes a seminar process in which poetry is used with student teachers to provide a focal point for reflection and introspection. Through this reflection process, students have been able to reflect deeply and personally on their student-teaching experiences, on their own personalities in the context of those experiences, and on…
O'Connell, Timothy S.; Dyment, Janet E.; Smith, Heidi A.
This paper explores the intersection of reflection, journal writing and creativity. Undergraduate students who participated in a residential field camp were required to keep a creative reflective journal to demonstrate their theoretical and practical understandings of their experience. This study reports on the content analysis of 42 student…
A project for a seminar course in macroeconomic policy which involved students in writing, presenting, and discussing a position paper on a specific policy issue is described. Students rated the exercise very highly. (RM)
Atiles, Julia; Pinholster, Lauren
This action research article shares the story of a student teacher and the arduous, but rewarding process of self-reflection. The authors integrate real life examples of the implementation of self-reflective strategies of a student teacher with self-efficacy, teacher life cycle, and effectiveness literature to analyze the student teacher's…
In order to consistently give quality feedback to students, the author introduces the revision and automation tools in Microsoft Word 2007. These features, Comments, Tracking, and Changes, are part of the Review group in MS Word 2007. Additionally, the AutoCorrect feature can be used to enhance and support editing endeavors. This article offers a…
Smith, Karen; Clegg, Sue; Lawrence, Elizabeth; Todd, Malcolm J.
The importance of employability in higher education and increasing numbers of students working while studying led leaders on a social science degree to introduce work experience modules. This paper reports on an in-depth case study based on the analysis of staff and student interviews, the students' reflective assignments, and a focus group…
Schussler, Elisabeth; Torres, Lisette E.; Rybczynski, Stephen; Gerald, Gary W.; Monroe, Emy; Sarkar, Purbasha; Shahi, Dhan; Osman, Muna A.
This paper presents an assessment of a biology education seminar for science graduate students. It describes how this seminar emphasized pedagogy "and" reflective assignments to help students identify and explore novel instructional strategies, discover who they are as teachers, focus on student learning, and acknowledge the challenges of…
Johnson County Community Coll., Overland Park, KS. Johnson County Center for Local History.
Thirteen papers on Kansas and Johnson County, Kansas history are presented. The papers were written by students in a course at the Johnson County Center for Local History or for independent study in local history. The papers are: "Conditions and Construction of Gardner Lake"; "The History of St. Joseph's Church, Shawnee, Kansas"; "Patrons of…
Davis, Elizabeth Anna
Research in recent decades has emphasized the importance of reflection for students learning science, but educators have not reached consensus on the most effective ways to promote reflection, nor has a mechanism explaining the effects of reflection been accepted. Furthermore, many have put forth technology as a vehicle for improving student learning, yet others discount its ability to facilitate real reflection. This research determines whether reflection prompts promote knowledge integration for students working on science projects and what level of prompt specificity best supports students in that endeavor. The Knowledge Integration Environment (KIE) affords investigation of computer-delivered prompts for students completing complex projects. This research takes place in the context of the KIE software and curriculum as used in an eighth grade physical science class. Pilot research on prompts indicated that focusing students on reflection significantly increased knowledge integration. A basic question unanswered by the pilot research was: As students work on projects like those used in KIE, do they merely need to be prompted to reflect, or do they need guidance in determining what to reflect about? The prompts contrasted in this research differ in their specificity. Some students received directed prompts aimed at fostering planning and self-monitoring, while others received generic 'stop and think' prompts. The investigations describe the gross effects of reflection prompts, then attempt to identify a mechanism behind those effects through characterizing the kinds of reflection they elicit and the beliefs about science and learning science of individuals using the prompts. I argue that by engaging in reflection, students identify weaknesses in their knowledge and then are more ready and able to link and distinguish their ideas. Generic prompts are more effective than directed prompts at engaging students in these knowledge integration processes. Autonomous students benefit most from generic prompts for reflection. This research contributes to teaching practice, technology design, and the educational and cognitive research literature. The success of generic prompts, in particular, indicates that instructional designers should concentrate on building learning environments that provide opportunities for students to reflect, and allow students to take responsibility for directing their own reflection autonomously.
Kheng, Yeoh Khar; Sethela, June
The objective of this paper is to analyze written reflections on learning log of among the third and final year students undertaking an entrepreneurship module. Data was collected in the form of written reflection taken from the learning log of 140 students from 3 classes. At the end of the collection only 136 students' responses were managed to…
Gunn, Cindy L.
Many teacher training programs, including MATESOL programs, encourage their trainees to be reflective practitioners. The MATESOL program at The American University of Sharjah (AUS) is no exception and offers the students many opportunities for reflection. This article discusses my experience with a recent cohort's reaction to being asked to…
Smith, Stewart W.
Lind S. Gee, a graduate student at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, is the first recipient of the AGU Seismology Section's newly established Best Student Paper Award. The award was for her paper on the recovery of upper mantle structure by higher-mode waveform analysis, which was coauthored with A.L. Lerner-Lamand and T.H. Jordan. The calculations that she presented demonstrated that there is a rich potential for earth structure experiments utilizing these techniques. The award is given on the basis of paper content and presentation, and it was clear that her contribution was outstanding on both counts. Lind received her B.A. in Geology from Harvard in 1982 and expects to complete her Ph.D. work at MIT by 1988.
Harford, Judith; MacRuairc, Gerry; McCartan, Dermot
This paper examines the use of peer-videoing in the classroom as a means of promoting reflection among student teachers. Ten pre-service teachers participating in a teacher education programme in a university in the Republic of Ireland and ten pre-service teachers participating in a teacher education programme in a university in the North of…
Osman, Gihan; Koh, Joyce Hwee Ling
The paper discusses the results of a study on the use of blogging to encourage students to engage in the making of theory-practice linkages and critical thinking within the context of a graduate management course. Sixty-five students participated in collaborative blogging for a period of five weeks. The transcripts of these blogs were analyzed…
Ezati, Betty Akullu; Ocheng, Mary K.; Ssentamu, Proscovia N.; Sikoyo, Leah N.
This paper explores the role of journal writing in enhancing student teachers' learning during school practice. It analyses data from 22 student teachers' journals and 23 questionnaires. The study focuses on the areas that student teachers reflected on most, the nature of their reflection and the extent to which previous experiences informed their…
West, Thomas W.; And Others
The seven essays in this paper were submitted by winners of the CAUSE ELITE (Exemplary Leadership and Information Technology Excellence) Award. The papers reflect leadership and achievement through effective management and use of information resources. Papers include: "More Lessons from the CIO Trail: from Butch Cassidy to City Slicker," (Thomas…
Maloney, Stephen; Tai, Joanna Hong-Meng; Lo, Kristin; Molloy, Elizabeth; Ilic, Dragan
In health professional education, reflective practice is seen as a potential means for self-improvement from everyday clinical encounters. This study aims to examine the level of student honesty in critical reflection, and barriers and facilitators for students engaging in honest reflection. Third year physiotherapy students, completing summative…
Maloney, Stephen; Tai, Joanna Hong-Meng; Lo, Kristin; Molloy, Elizabeth; Ilic, Dragan
In health professional education, reflective practice is seen as a potential means for self-improvement from everyday clinical encounters. This study aims to examine the level of student honesty in critical reflection, and barriers and facilitators for students engaging in honest reflection. Third year physiotherapy students, completing summative reflective essays on clinical encounters using the modified Gibbs cycle, were invited to participate in an anonymous online survey. Student knowledge and beliefs about reflective practice, and disclosure of the truthfulness of their reflections, were assessed using a mixed method approach. A total of 34 students, from a maximum possible of 48 (71 %), participated in the study activities. A total of 68 % stated that they were at least 80 % truthful about their experiences. There was general student consensus that reflective practice was important for their growth as a clinician. Students questioned the belief that the reflection needed to be based on a factual experience. Reflective practice can be a valuable addition to the clinical education of health care professionals, although this value can be diminished through dishonest reflections if it is not carefully implemented. Student influences on honest reflection include; (1) the design of any assessment criteria, and (2) student knowledge and competency in applying critical reflection. PMID:22926807
Brenner, Adam M.
Objective: The author describes the results of a reflection exercise for psychiatry clerkship students. Method: The author performed a qualitative analysis on 100 "reflection" papers written by medical students in their psychiatry clerkship and identified the most prominent thematic content. Results: The most common thematic content involved…
Dyment, Janet E.; O'Connell, Timothy S.
In this paper, we review 11 research articles that examine the level of reflection found in student journals in higher education across a range of disciplines. Our review reveals little to no consistency in the research community around the mechanisms and process of assessing levels of reflection in student journals. Our analysis also reveals that…
Strand, Anne-Sofie M.; Cedersund, Elisabet
The aim of this paper is to explore how school staff members involved in Student Health and Welfare conferences reflect on individual students with high levels of truancy based on their personal relationships. Using positioning analysis, the transcriptions of 15 interviews with staff were analysed. The school staff's reflections on the…
McGarr, Oliver; McCormack, Orla
A new model of reflective practice for student teachers on school placement was implemented into a teacher education program. The model aimed to encourage critical reflection that challenged hegemonic assumptions and power relations. In contrast to this, the analysis of the student teachers' reflections revealed a desire to fit in and…
ORIGINAL PAPER Egg pigmentation reflects female and egg quality in the spotless starling Sturnus that blue colouration in eggs has evolved as a signal of female quality that males can use to modulate deposition in the eggshell is expected to signal female antioxidant capacity and egg quality. Since
ORIGINAL PAPER Spectral reflectance properties of iridescent pierid butterfly wings Bodo D. Wilts with open access at Springerlink.com Abstract The wings of most pierid butterflies exhibit a main of the wing upper sides a distinct structural colouration, which is created by stacks of lamellae
Hollander, Charles, Ed.
The National Student Association (NSA) presents its position on student drug involvement in part 1 of this collection. A resolution calling for re-investigation of existing marijuana laws and guaranteed rights to the privacy of students was passed by NSA in August, 1966. This resolution is discussed. In part 2, papers presented at the National…
Smith, Lynn C.; Pape, Sharon L.
The question posed in this study was whether university reading methods courses influenced student teachers' instructional choices through a process of reflective judgment. It also examined the students' actual practices as they related to the complexity of their reflections, and whether reflective judgment could be improved by using journal…
Mena-Marcos, Juanjo; Garcia-Rodriguez, Maria-Luisa; Tillema, Harm
Some researchers claim that reflection helps student teachers to better understand their practice teaching. This study aims to explore how deliberate reflection by student teachers is encouraged as a way to prepare, analyse and evaluate their practice. A total of 104 student teachers in primary education participated in this study during their…
De Bruin, H. L.; van der Schaaf, M. F.; Oosterbaan, A. E.; Prins, F. J.
Several studies concluded that deep reflection is infrequently reached in student portfolios. An explanation for these disappointing conclusions might be that motivation for portfolio reflection determines the quality of reflection. This study aimed to examine the relationship between motivation for using digital portfolios and reflection.…
Donovan, Moira O
Reflection and reflective practice continues to be contentious issues in nursing. The focus of this article is the use of reflection by pre-registration mental health students. The broad aim of this preliminary study was to discover student mental health nurses' perceptions of reflection as a learning strategy during clinical placement. Using a constructivist grounded theory methodology [Charmaz, K., 2000. Grounded theory: Objectivist and Constructivist Methods. In: Denzin, N., Lincoln, Y. (Eds.), Handbook of Qualitative Research, second ed. Sage, Thousand Oaks, California], five students were interviewed individually in their clinical placements. Data analysis revealed three major categories: understanding the process of reflection, using reflection in clinical practice, and needing support and guidance. Findings indicated that students were primarily using reflection-on-action, but to varying extents. Overall, students felt that reflection facilitated their learning. Factors were discovered that both helped and hindered students' use of reflection. These included level of preparation to reflect, a limited culture of reflection and the level of support from preceptors, clinical staff, clinical placement co-ordinators, and lecturers. In conclusion, it appears that a collaborative approach between students, Health Service Providers and institutes of nursing is vital for the successful development and implementation of reflective learning strategies in clinical placement. Suggestions are made as to how a collaborative approach may be developed to enhance this process. PMID:17081658
The split between higher education and vocational education and training (VET) in Australia is not clean. This paper discusses a number of aspects of this tertiary education sector: the Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF), which describes the qualifications offered by the three education sectors: schools, higher education and VET; student…
According to composition researcher Ken Macrorie, the student research paper violates the pedagogical premise that writing skills are best learned when the writer says something he or she really believes in, for a specific purpose, to a well-defined audience. The problem is not solved by simply telling students that their classmates as well as…
in human-computer interaction (HCI), and they have been researched and taught for some years nowReflections on Teaching Human-Computer Interaction to Blind Students Teresa Chambel, Pedro Antunes. Carriço and N. Guimarães (2009) Reflections on Teaching Human Computer Interaction to Blind Students
Wilson, Travis; Perry, Michelle; Anderson, Carolyn J.; Grosshandler, Dean
This study examined the verbal prompts a tutor used to promote reflection and young students' responses to these prompts. Seven children (ages 8-12) participated in 260 min of one-on-one tutoring to learn scientific concepts related to gear movement; the tutor spontaneously provided these students with 763 prompts for reflection. Prompts reliably…
Katelyn Barney; Elizabeth Mackinlay
Reflective journal writing is acknowledged as a powerful method for promoting student learning in higher education contexts. Numerous scholars highlight the benefits of reflective writing and journaling for students and teachers in a wide range of teaching areas. There is however, little discussion of how reflective writing is used in teaching and learning in Indigenous Australian studies. This paper explores
Leijen, Ali; Valtna, Kai; Leijen, Djuddah A. J.; Pedaste, Margus
This article discusses some of the ambiguities related to the concept of reflection in education, and presents an alternative approach for determining the focus and quality of students' reflection. Accordingly, the focus of reflection can vary from a concrete technical aspect of an experience to the broader societal context of that experience, and…
Janssen, Fred; de Hullu, Els; Tigelaar, Dineke
In many teacher training courses, reflection upon practice plays a very important role in learning to teach. A number of strategies have been developed to help student teachers learn to reflect. Current reflection strategies often focus on problematic instead of on positive experiences. Ideas from positive psychology and solution-based therapy…
van Velzen, Joke H
The development of a questionnaire to assess students' use of self-reflective thinking in the classroom is described. On the basis of a literature search, items were selected. The items are students' self-report measures and open-ended questions. The participants were 96 fourth grade secondary vocational students from six classes in The Netherlands, all of whom were used to learning in cooperative groups. Complementary data were selected to validate this questionnaire. Visual inspection of the frequencies indicated a difference between levels of students' self-reflecting thinking. Between-subjects t tests showed that students' motivational engagement and marks could be used to validate the measure of self-reflective thinking. The implication of the questionnaire to assess students' self-reflective thinking within the classroom are discussed. PMID:15762399
The purpose of this paper is to illuminate the intersection between institutional requirements for reflection and students' actual reflection initiatives in the social and health care education programmes. A situated perspective makes it possible to illuminate individuals' commitment, curiosity and uncertainty as bases for understanding…
Harland, Darci J.; Wondra, Joshua D.
This study focused on the depth of reflection in the writing of preservice teachers who completed end-of-the-semester reflective papers or reflective blogs for undergraduate education courses associated with clinical experiences. Coders rated the depth of reflection as one of four categories: non-reflection, understanding, reflection, or critical…
Watson, Gavan Peter Longley; Kenny, Natasha
Critical reflection is a highly valued and widely applied learning approach in higher education. There are many benefits associated with engaging in critical reflection, and it is often integrated into the design of graduate level courses on university teaching as a life-long learning strategy to help ensure that learners build their capacity as…
This paper reflects on the use of Facebook as an online learning environment for first year design students from 2008 to 2011. Between 2008 and 2010 three student cohorts from the University of Adelaide engaged with their peers through forums hosted by Facebook, submitting work-in-progress imagery and critiquing peers' submissions. In 2011…
This study aims to probe into the cognitive sources and reflective content of student teachers' socialization, such as job proficiency, goals and values, school culture, and role regulation by "teaching blog". This paper utilizes eight student teachers of business, data processing, Chinese, English, science, and technology as subjects. Through…
This paper reviews the effectiveness of web logs ("blogs"), or online journals, within the context of a compulsory final-year placement unit for public relations students. The key goal behind the use of Web2.0 technology was to encourage ongoing, reflective practice via an exchange between students thereby limiting feelings of isolation commonly…
This paper aims to develop the Reflective Thinking Tendency Scale (RTTS) for teachers and student teachers. Survey was the research method used in the study. In this research, there were 599 cases and 456 of these cases were the students of the departments of the Turkish language teaching and primary school teaching within grades of 2nd, 3rd and…
Smit, David W.
It is maintained in this paper that the "crisis" in writing is more a function of instructors' attitudes and expectations than a result of how students actually write. There are various reasons to question the crisis, for example: while the results of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)--the most careful test of writing ability…
Schippers, Jessica Lynn
and reflecting on learning. The questionnaires also included open-ended items allowing students to write about their overall confidence in mathematics and growth as learners. The study's results supported four conclusions. First, the Semester Goals sheet...
Wright, Anna; Hawkes, Gillian; Baker, Becky; Lindqvist, Susanne Marie
This paper reports work from a Centre for Interprofessional Practice in a higher education institution in the UK that offers four levels of interprofessional learning (IPL) to all healthcare students. The second level (IPL2) integrates professional practice into the learning process, requiring students to shadow a qualified healthcare professional (from a different profession) for half a day. Students complete a reflective statement upon their learning experience on their return. A study was undertaken to analyse students' reflective statements in depth to see their observations and reflections on the shadowing visit. Using frame analysis, 160 reflective statements were analyzed, identifying common words and phrases used by students, which were then grouped together under six themes. Three of these related directly to the assignment: communication styles and techniques; communication between healthcare professionals and comparison of students' own and other healthcare professionals' roles. Three themes emerged from student's own interpretation of observations and reflections made during the shadowing of a different professional: attitudes toward other professions; power structures between professionals and patients and between professionals and impact of communication on patient care. Interprofessional shadowing gives students an opportunity to observe communication between healthcare professionals and patients and to reflect on broader issues surrounding collaborative working. PMID:22525001
The study designed to contribute to existing research on Problem-Based Learning (PBL) chose a focus group comprising 16 MSc. Petroleum Engineering students (six females). Using PBL as the method of instruction, students examined a real-life petroleum engineering problem that highlighted numerous areas of their existing curriculum. They worked in…
Cannon Dawson, Candice
This dissertation is a narrative inquiry research project that focuses on the collegiate experiences of African American students at both historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly white institutions (PWIs). I look at how African American college students who engage in race or culturally specific activities, the degree…
Autry, Linda L.; Walker, Mary E.
The authors conducted a qualitative study on the use of artistic representation to promote students' creativity and enhance their ability to self-reflect. The researchers used self-reflection articles about artistic representation and responses to a questionnaire at the end of the semester. Three overarching themes, as seen through the lens of the…
Shapiro, Johanna; Cohn, Felicia; Najm, Wadie
AIM To describe a curriculum incorporating written reflection followed by reflective discussion with the goal of enhancing students’ recognition and handling of cross-cultural and health disparity issues in different healthcare delivery settings. PROGRAM AND SETTING This required curriculum was implemented within a 4-week family medicine clerkship (n?=?188 students, 6 to 12 per rotation) in 23 successive rotations over 2 years. Electronic submission of a written assignment in response to structured questions was followed by in-class discussion in week 4. PROGRAM EVALUATION Outcomes were students’ session evaluations, thematic analysis of student responses, and analysis of faculty facilitators’ reflections about discussion sessions. Students’ cultural knowledge about their patients’ health beliefs around diabetes was assessed using multiple choice questions at the beginning and end of the clerkship. RESULTS One hundred percent of students submitted narratives. Student evaluations demonstrated high acceptance, appreciation of sessions and faculty. Analyses of written assignments and in-class discussions identified recurring themes. Students achieved greater synthesis and more nuanced understanding of cross-cultural encounters after discussion. Self-rating of confidence in addressing cultural issues after the curriculum was high at 3.17?±?SD 0.57 (1–4). Cultural knowledge scores improved significantly. Core components for success were clerkship director support, required participation, experienced faculty facilitators without evaluative roles, a structured assignment and formal forum for trigger question discussion DISCUSSION Written reflection followed by facilitated peer discussion adds value to simple ‘exposure’ to cross-cultural clinical experiences for medical students. PMID:20352505
Averett, Paige E.; Arnd-Caddigan, Margaret
This article includes a review of the literature on personal epistemology and the reflective judgment model and applies these theoretical concepts to undergraduate students who engage in service-learning projects. The application will provide instructors with greater understanding of students' abilities and limitations in their…
Study abroad brings an enriching experience to students' academic and personal lives. This narrative essay relays two students' experiences with study abroad sojourns and touches upon their technology use during their study abroad as recounted in semi-structured interviews. Details of their cultural experiences and reflections thereof as…
This article describes how teachers effectively manage learning through active engagement of all students throughout each class period. A case study is presented which demonstrates how students learn through active and reflective engagement with ideas, the environment, and other learners (National Middle School Association, 2010). The case study…
Kell, Clare; Van Deursen, Robert
This study measured the learning preference profile development and readiness for self-directed learning over time of two undergraduate student cohorts experiencing different curricular presentations of essentially the same syllabus. The results from three measurement points are reported following each cohort through their first half of the BSc (Honours) Physiotherapy Course, Cardiff. At intake both cohorts preferred a concrete, fact-based learning environment, which was teacher structured. Over time, the cohorts responded significantly differently to their curricula in respect of the student-structured learning preference (LP) variable (p < 0.05), and displayed trends (p < 0.1) towards response difference for the concrete, interpersonal and individual LP variables. Cohort differences are discussed in terms of the planned curriculum changes made during the intervening revalidation exercise. It is suggested that curricula mould students' learning profile development. The impact of this statement on future curriculum development is discussed and educational research-in-action promoted. PMID:12098455
Hulkari, Kirsti; Mahlamaki-Kultanen, Seija
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate evidence for the use of web discussion in the assessment of work-based learning in practical nurse education. The paper seeks to investigate what kind of conclusions can be drawn from the students' learning and learning processes, especially from their ability to reflect by analysing web…
Gramling, Phil; Nelson, Major
A rationale, goals, and the procedure for instituting a quality point system to assess high school students' academic achievement in Gainesville (Georgia) High School are outlined. Hypothetical examples of converting grade point averages to quality point averages in low, average, and high difficulty courses are provided to show the impact of the…
Wismath, Shelly; Orr, Doug; Good, Brandon
Twenty-first century teaching and learning focus on the fundamental skills of critical thinking and problem solving, creativity and innovation, and collaboration and communication. Metacognition is a crucial aspect of both problem solving and critical thinking, but it is often difficult to get students to engage in authentic metacognitive…
In this activity, students learn that infrared light is reflected in the same manner as visible light. Students align a series of mirrors so that they can turn on a TV with a remote control when the remote is not in a direct line with the TV. As a result of their experiment with reflection, students deduce that infrared light is another form of light and is a part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Section 1 of the activity guide includes teacher notes, information on materials and preparation, student misconceptions and a student pre-test. Each activity section also includes teacher notes, student activity sheets, and answer keys. This activity requires a TV and remote control. It is the third of four activities in Active Astronomy, which are designed to complement instruction on the electromagnetic spectrum, focusing on infrared light.
Bussard, Michelle E
Clinical judgment is an essential skill needed by RNs. Employers expect new graduate nurses to enter the work-force with established clinical judgment skills. Therefore, nurse educators must ensure that prelicensure nursing students develop clinical judgment before graduation. This qualitative, interpretive description study reviewed the reflective journals of 30 prelicensure nursing students who participated in four progressive high-fidelity simulation (HFS) scenarios during a medical-surgical nursing course. Eight themes were identified in the reflective journals: (a) expectations about the patient, (b) recognition of a focused assessment, (c) interpretation of medications, laboratory data, and diagnostics, (d) communication with the patient, (e) collaboration and interprofessionalism, (f) prioritizing interventions, (g) skillfulness with interventions, and (h) incorporation of skills and information into real patient situations. This study indicated that reflective journaling following progressive HFS scenarios may be an effective teaching-learning strategy to assist prelicensure nursing students in the development of clinical judgment. PMID:25535760
Muncy, James A.
Reflective learning has long been studied in many disciplines. A primary way that reflective learning has been taught is through journaling. With the advent of e-learning, journaling has moved to the Web in the form of blogs. The current paper reviews the current state of journaling and blogging research with specific recommendations for marketing…
Farr, Fiona; Riordan, Elaine
During the course of pre-and in-service teacher education programmes, reflection can happen in a number of ways, for example: reflective journals, personal stories and pair/group co-operative discussions, professional development portfolios, and blogs and electronic portfolios. The aim of this paper is to examine various technologies such as…
Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Madsen, Lene Møller
This paper presents a case for interviewing students as an effective yet complex way to integrate reflexive practice into teaching and research. Even though many human geographers are accustomed to conducting qualitative interviews in various contexts, it is not straightforward to interview one's own students. This paper addresses three…
Waller, Lisa; Edens, Kellah
The purpose of this study thus was to empirically investigate the association between teachers' self-reported reflective practices and their use of student response systems. Analysis of responses from 214 teacher participants from the southeastern US to the "Teachers' Technology Use and Belief Survey (TTUBS)" revealed the following findings.…
Eric Davis; Jennifer Pereira; Courtney Allen; Kristina Socarras; Kelly Bodurtha
Graduate students in a school-based introductory play-therapy course participated in providing 5–6 play sessions with kindergarten and first-grade students. A qualitative examination of reflection papers written by the students was conducted to determine the impact of the en vivo experience on student counselors' play-therapy preparation and experience. Results suggested that the en vivo experience impacted graduate students' perceptions of their
Pavlovich, Kathryn; Collins, Eva; Jones, Glyndwr
This article examines learning journals as a method for developing self-awareness within a business education context, exploring "how can effective design and assessment of reflective journals assist the development of students' self-knowledge?" The authors describe three different approaches to learning journals, with each case study outlining…
Stephens, Kristen R.
This article offers suggestions to help gifted students develop quality products that demonstrate their research and learning experiences. It stresses the importance of a timeline, selection of media, demonstration of higher level thinking skills, communication to an audience, product evaluation, product celebration, reflection, and skill…
It might seem axiomatic that the character of a university's academic experience would be reflected in the character of its admissions processes. Unfortunately, it is not--at least, not in the world of continuing and adult education. Universities that offer rich academic programs, high-quality student/faculty relationships, and top-quality…
California at Davis, University of
The Ryuichi Kitamura Paper Award For the best paper authored by a student mentor combination the success of his students. Ryuichi Kitamura co-authored many papers with his students and made of papers, the Travel Analysis Methods Section (ADB00) of the Transportation Research Board is pleased
Blass, Eddie; Jasman, Anne; Levy, Roger
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to share the reflections of a group of five academics who started supervising practice-based doctoral students at a similar time in the same institution. Design/methodology/approach: The supervisors engaged in a collaborative research process themselves, exploring their supervision practices, due in part to…
This paper explores a Sport Education pilot project as a case study of the approach in a primary school setting. The data was obtained from the end of unit written reflections of a class of upper primary students in an urban Australian primary school. The Sport Education unit of work was implemented by the school's physical education teacher who…
Olsen, Heather M.; Burk, Brooke
Leadership skill development has been identified as an important element of future leisure service professionals academic preparation. Thus, the purpose of this paper was to utilize in-depth course reflection and service-learning to assess whether undergraduate students enrolled in a leadership course were meeting the leadership objectives set…
Johnson Jr.,, Ray
Goals for StudentWriting #12;The College's curriculum reflects ambitious goals for student writing, and professions The following pages offer a more detailed explanation of these goals and suggestions to help faculty engage students in working toward them. To meet these ambitious goals, the college has made
Raupp, Gregory B.; O'Rourke, Shawn M.; Allee, David R.; Venugopal, Sameer; Bawolek, Edward J.; Loy, Douglas E.; Ageno, Scott K.; O'Brien, Barry P.; Rednour, Steve; Jabbour, Ghassan E.
The U.S. Army, Arizona State University (ASU) and commercial industry have joined forces to create the Flexible Display Center (FDC) at Arizona State University, a large-scale collaborative venture designed to rapidly advance flexible display technology to the brink of commercialization. The Center has completed its startup phase and is now engaged in an intensive and aggressive applied research and development program that will produce high quality, high performance active matrix reflective and emissive flexible display technology demonstrators (TDs). Electrophoretic ink and cholesteric liquid crystals have been selected as Center reflective imaging layer technologies; these technologies are attractive because they are fully reflective and bistable (extremely low power) and because the materials are environmentally robust and intrinsically rugged. Organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) have been chosen as the emissive imaging layer technology. These three electro-optic subsystems will be integrated with a flexible a-Si thin film transistor active matrix backplane platform. We have created the integrated design, backplane fabrication, display assembly, test and evaluation capability to enable rapid cycles of learning and technology development. Backplane fabrication is currently accomplished on a 6" wafer scale pilot line linked to a Manufacturing Execution System and supported by a comprehensive suite of in-fab metrology tools. We are currently installing a GEN II pilot line, with qualified operation slated for 2006. This line will be used to demonstrate process and display form factor capability, while providing high yield low volume manufacturing of pilot-scale levels of technology demonstrators for the Army and our commercial partners.
Literacy Field Research Group, Dundas (Ontario).
This document contains six papers describing program-based research from rural literacy program in Ontario, Canada. Some of the reports describe action research from pilot projects. The papers raise questions about responding to the special challenges of rural needs, such as whether there is an additional expense to providing service of equal…
Kyza, Eleni A.
Recent calls to reform science education propose changes in the content and structure of the learning of science. At the classroom level, these calls emphasize investigations that are inquiry-based and parallel the nature of scientific work. Research on students' inquiry practices has suggested that engaging in inquiry is difficult, as students need to approach inquiry reflectively and assume more responsibility over their learning than has been traditionally expected from them. This dissertation presents the results of an empirical study investigating the following questions: (a) What elements of reflective inquiry do middle school students engage in when asked to conduct complex investigations, and what kind of challenges do they face? (b) What role can software-based learning environments play in supporting students' reflective inquiry practices? These questions were investigated by studying six pairs of middle-school students as they problem-solved a software investigation involving the analysis of complex data. The findings are presented in the alternative dissertation format of two research papers. The first paper, entitled Reasoning with scientific data: middle-school students' processes of theory-evidence coordination, investigates the process through which three pairs of students coordinated their theories with the evidence in the data, describes the variability in the ways that students coordinated theory and evidence, and discusses the challenges the groups faced. The findings suggest that students engaged in reflective inquiry to varying degrees and that they needed further scaffolding to address the challenges they faced. The second paper, entitled The role of the Progress Portfolio tool in scaffolding middle-school students' reflective inquiry in science, investigates the role of a software-based intervention designed to support students' engagement in four reflective inquiry practices: attending to evidence, interpreting data, evaluating hypotheses against the interpreted data, and constructing evidence-based explanations. The findings suggest that introducing a tool that allows students to record their progress and prompts them to articulate their understanding can support reflective inquiry practices. These findings also inform the design of learning environments by providing descriptions of how students interact with software-based scaffolding and how software design can contribute to middle school students' reflective inquiry practices.
Ivala, Eunice; Gachago, Daniela; Condy, Janet; Chigona, Agnes
Employers in South Africa are calling for students graduating from higher education institutions (HEIs) to exhibit the capacity for reflection. However, many tertiary institutions fall short in allowing opportunities for reflection. As a result, HEIs are grappling to find ways of fostering reflection amongst their students. This paper argues that…
Forrest, David V
Techniques developed for teaching more empathic affect recognition and reflection to medical students during their introduction to psychiatric interviewing begin with a concrete grounding in facial muscular movements and facial affect recognition, and proceed to the use of countertransferential affective experience to aid in ascertaining personality types. Observations about the temper of today's medical students by psychoanalysts may be of help in avoiding increasing their already substantial characterological resistance to affective learning and empathy that has recently been reported in the medical education literature. PMID:21699350
Krol, Christine A.
Training teachers as reflective practitioners is an important element in many teacher education programs. Teacher education literature indicates that journal writing is an approach that fosters reflection, and is an effective source of dialogue between student and teacher. This document reports on an action research study on the use of journals in…
Kim, Kyoungna; Grabowski, Barbara L.; Sharma, Priya
Only few studies have explicitly attended to the nature of the perceived underlying factors that prompt young adolescents' reflective thinking in association with K-12 learning environment. This paper focuses on an analysis of the factors that are perceived by young students as prompting their reflective thinking and how those factors apply to the…
Briggs, Crista L; Lovan, Sherry R
It is common for young students to enter nursing school with untested or immature spiritual belief systems. This exploratory study elicited feedback from nursing students in response to a guided reflection about spiritual health. As a precursor to classroom teaching, participants wrote a short, nongraded anonymous response to a series of 10 broad questions, with no single answer considered right or wrong. At the conclusion of this classroom activity, students completed a survey indicating the extent to which they believed it was beneficial. The majority of the participants (97%) considered it important to identify their own beliefs about spiritual matters prior to entering the clinical setting. As a result of the classroom reflection activity, most of the participants agreed or strongly agreed that the exercise (a) heightened their awareness about spiritual issues, (b) encouraged them to consider spiritual matters they had never thought about before, (c) caused them to feel more confident discussing spiritual matters with patients, and (d) inspired them to learn more and/or seek clarity regarding the questions presented. Based on the findings, nursing faculty should consider adding a similar classroom reflection activity prior to entering the clinical setting where patients and/or family members ask questions about spiritual matters. PMID:25081367
Stephens, Ronald D., Ed.
The increased presence of drugs and weapons in schools has forced school officials to step up searches of students, lockers, and school property. The landmark case of "New Jersey vs. TLO" set standards concerning reasonable suspicion and reasonable searches. School officials must be familiar with recent court opinions on student searches, use good…
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Congressional Budget Office.
During the fiscal year 1976, outlays for social security student benefits made it the second largest federal program for direct aid to students (second to the Veterans' Readjustment Benefits). Benefits paid on account of a dependent child normally end on a child's eighteenth birthday; but 1965 legislation extended coverage to 18-to-21-year-old…
California at Santa Cruz, University of
that require our attention: Education, Community and Efficiency Education The opportunity to pursue a rigorous) a rising cost of education which asks many students to balance educational pursuits with work education is central to students' experiences of UCSC. They want the university to support meaningful
Stevens, Cheryl; Schneider, Paige P.; Johnson, Corey W.
This paper describes a process for guiding students through the writing of a Professional Philosophy of Recreation Paper and a one-page philosophy statement suitable for use in students' professional portfolios. The authors describe how the review of recreation education literature, scholarship on teaching and learning, and assessment of student…
Student Checklist for Research Paper This information should be shared with students before they begin work on the research paper My Research Paper includes: Sophisticated and focused writing thesis; I have considered opposing viewpoints to the thesis in my paper A compelling introduction
Over the past 30 years, physics education research has guided the development of instructional strategies that can significantly enhance students' functional understanding of concepts in introductory physics. Recently, attention has shifted to instructional goals that, while widely shared by teachers of physics, are often more implicit than explicit in our courses. These goals involve the expectations and attitudes that students have about what it means to learn and understand physics, together with the behaviors and actions students think they should engage in to accomplish this learning. Research has shown that these ``hidden'' elements of the curriculum are remarkably resistant to instruction. In fact, traditional physics courses tend to produce movement away from expert-like behaviors. At Western Washington University, we are exploring ways of promoting metacognition, an aspect of the hidden curriculum that involves the conscious monitoring of one's own thinking and learning. We have found that making this reflective thinking an explicit part of the course may not be enough: adequate framing and scaffolding may be necessary for students to meaningfully engage in metacognition. We have thus taken the basic approach of developing metacognition, like conceptual understanding, through guided inquiry. During our teaching experiments, we have collected written and video data, with twin goals of guiding iterative modifications to the instruction as well as contributing to the knowledge base about student metacognition in introductory physics. This talk will provide examples of metacognition activities from course assignments and labs, and will present written data to assess the effectiveness of instruction and to illustrate specific modes of students' reflective thinking.
This paper examines the work-based learning about employability reported by 26 undergraduate Geography and Environmental Management students on part-time, unpaid work placements. The students' "reflective essays" emphasized their learning more in terms of emotional challenges than in terms of skills, as being pushed out of their…
Yuen Lie Lim, Lisa-Angelique
Problem-based learning (PBL) is a constructivist approach to learning which is believed to promote reflective thinking in students. This study investigated how students in one particular institution developed in their reflective thinking habits--Habitual Action, Understanding, Reflection, and Critical Reflection--as they went through the daily…
Tsang, Annetta K. L.
University professional programs seek to develop students as reflective practitioners. The ability to critically reflect is often assumed to occur along the way. The explicit development of critical reflective skills among students is challenging. This study describes the utilization of online group discussion for critical reflection and provides…
Davis, Elizabeth A.
Investigates ways of prompting middle school science students to reflection. Contrasts two types of reflection prompts, generic prompts and directed prompts. Discusses the relationship between reflection types and student understanding of a science project. Describes the role of reflection in prompting multiple, complementary knowledge integration…
Kinser, Kevin; Mueller, John A.; Brownell, Jayne E.
This paper describes the attempt to use the Internet to study a particular student culture. The goal is to highlight the ethical and procedural issues encountered in the Internet study of an online student culture. The primary purpose of the study was to examine how closeted gay students experience their identity on campus and in an online…
This paper traces the development over several years of an initiative involving student journals that was introduced into a tertiary science education course for pre-service teachers to promote enhanced learning of how to teach science. Very soon after introducing the journals into course work the lecturer began engaging in "unplanned" informal…
The core of this volume is formed by four chapters (2-5) with detailed reconstructions of the arguments and derivations in four of Einstein's most important papers, the three main papers of his annus mirabilis 1905 (on the light quantum, Brownian motion, and special relativity) and his first systematic exposition of general relativity of 1916. The derivations are given in sufficient detail and in sufficiently modernized notation (without any serious distortion of the originals) for an undergraduate physics major to read and understand them with far less effort than it would take him or her to understand (English translations of) Einstein's original papers. Each of these four papers is accompanied by a detailed introduction, which covers the conceptual development of the relevant field prior to Einstein's contribution to it and corrects some of the myths surrounding these papers that still have not been fully eradicated among physicists. (One quibble: though Kennedy correctly points out that the goal of the light quantum paper was not to explain the photoelectric effect, it is also not quite right to say that 'it was written to explain the Wien region of blackbody radiation' (p. xv). Einstein used this explanatory feat as the central argument for his light quantum hypothesis.) These four chapters then are the most valuable part of the volume. They could be used, independently of one another, but preferably in conjunction with Einstein's original texts, in courses on quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, electrodynamics, and general relativity, respectively, to add a historical component to such courses. As a historian of science embedded in a physics department who is regularly called upon to give guest lectures in such courses on the history of their subjects, I can highly recommend the volume for this purpose. However, I would not adopt this volume as (one of) the central text(s) for a course on the history of modern physics. For one thing, chapter 1, which in just 26 pages (not counting six pages of notes and references) covers everything from Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler and Newton to Maxwell and Lorentz to Einstein's early biography to a cardboard version of Popper versus Kuhn, is too superficial to be useful for such a course. To a lesser extent, this is also true for chapter 6, which compresses the development of quantum theory after Einstein's 1905 paper into 20 pages (plus seven pages of notes and references) and for chapter 7, a brief epilogue. However, this is not my main worry. One could easily supplement or even replace the bookends of the volume with other richer sources and use this volume mainly for its excellent detailed commentaries on some Einstein classics in the four chapters in between. My more serious reservation about the use of the volume as a whole in a history of physics course, ironically, comes from the exact same feature that made me whole-heartedly recommend its core chapters for physics courses. This is especially true for the chapters on special and general relativity. How useful is it for a student to go through, in as much detail as this volume provides, the Lorentz transformation of Maxwell's equations in vector form? I can see how a student in an E&M class (with a section on special relativity) might benefit from this exercise. The clumsiness of the calculations in vector form by Lorentz and Einstein could help a student encountering Maxwell's equations in tensor form for the first time appreciate the advantages of the latter formalism. Similarly, it would be useful for a student in a GR class to go through the basics of tensor calculus in the old-fashioned but not inelegant mathematical introduction of Einstein's 1916 review article on general relativity. This could reinforce mastery of material that a student in a GR class will have to learn anyway (though Einstein's presentation of the mathematics of both special and general relativity in The Meaning of Relativity would seem to be more suitable for these purposes). It is not so clear what benefit a student in a history of phy
Derkacheva, O. Yu.
A rapid and non-destructive method for analyzing the structure of cellulose fibers using IR reflectance spectroscopy from a paper surface was developed and verified for correctness. IR absorption and reflectance spectra of standard paper samples of known composition (sheets made of four fibers of different origin without additives and with additives of kaolin and chalk) were analyzed. Good correlations between these two spectral methods were found for the studied samples. Calibration curves were useful for assessing the structure of cellulose samples from XVIth century historical paper. Data on the degree of cellulose ordering that were obtained from the paper reflectance spectra indicated that the studied sheets consisted mainly of flax fibers with added cotton. This agreed fully with the historical fact that the studied samples were rag papers.
Sarwar, Gul Shahzad; Trumpower, David L.
Reflection has recently been emphasized as a constructive pedagogical activity. However, little attention has been given to the quality of reflections that students write. In this study, we explored the reflections that students make about their knowledge organization as part of a formative learning activity. More specifically, we assessed the…
Background Reflection is a meta-cognitive process, characterized by: 1. Awareness of self and the situation; 2. Critical analysis and understanding of both self and the situation; 3. Development of new perspectives to inform future actions. Assessors can only access reflections indirectly through learners’ verbal and/or written expressions. Being privy to the situation that triggered reflection could place reflective materials into context. Video-cases make that possible and, coupled with a scoring rubric, offer a reliable way of assessing reflection. Methods Fourth and fifth year undergraduate medical students were shown two interactive video-cases and asked to reflect on this experience, guided by six standard questions. The quality of students’ reflections were scored using a specially developed Student Assessment of Reflection Scoring rubric (StARS®). Reflection scores were analyzed concerning interrater reliability and ability to discriminate between students. Further, the intra-rater reliability and case specificity were estimated by means of a generalizability study with rating and case scenario as facets. Results Reflection scores of 270 students ranged widely and interrater reliability was acceptable (Krippendorff’s alpha?=?0.88). The generalizability study suggested 3 or 4 cases were needed to obtain reliable ratings from 4th year students and???6 cases from 5th year students. Conclusion Use of StARS® to assess student reflections triggered by standardized video-cases had acceptable discriminative ability and reliability. We offer this practical method for assessing reflection summatively, and providing formative feedback in training situations. PMID:22520632
Janson, Christopher; Parikh, Sejal; Young, James; Fudge, La'Von
Principal preparation around the development of reflective practices has traditionally focused on the individual reflective practices of principals. Recently, reflective discourse between principals and students has facilitated principals' understanding of student perspectives regarding school policies and processes. We explore the use of digital…
Hsieh, Pei-Hsuan; Chen, Nian-Shing
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of reflective thinking effects in the process of designing software on students' learning performances. The study contends that reflective thinking is a useful teaching strategy to improve learning performance among lower achieving students. Participants were students from two groups: Higher…
Brita A. Theadford
This qualitative case study examined four middle school science teachers from Southern New Jersey perceptions and reflections about their selections of instructional strategies used to teach scientific concepts to seventh and eighth grade students. They reflected upon their pedagogy by reviewing videotaped lessons, reflective journaling, and participating in in-depth interviews. The findings in this study indicated that reflecting upon instruction
Wolff, Ann Lesser
Effective teacher educators reflect and upon reflection, make important changes to lessons, units, and instructional strategies. But have they ever considered the importance reflection has for students or what bearing "their" reflections have on them as their teachers? During the first six weeks of the (introductory) Child Development and…
Kalman, Calvin S.
Students can have great difficulty reading scientific texts and trying to cope with the professor in the classroom. Part of the reason for students' difficulties is that for a student taking a science gateway course the language, ontology and epistemology of science are akin to a foreign culture. There is thus an analogy between such a student and an anthropologist spending time among a native group in some remote part of the globe. This brings us naturally to the subject of hermeneutics. It is through language that we attempt to understand an alien culture. The hermeneutical circle involves the interplay between our construct of the unfamiliar with our own outlook that deepens with each pass. It can be argued that for novice students to acquire a full understanding of scientific texts, they also need to pursue a recurrent construction of their comprehension of scientific concepts. In this paper it is shown how an activity, reflective-writing, can enhance students' understanding of concepts in their textbook by getting students to approach text in the manner of a hermeneutical circle. This is illustrated using studies made at three post-secondary institutions.
Ziegler, Brittany; Montplaisir, Lisa
A shift is currently taking place in which explicit connections between content are being emphasized. Biology is not an isolated discipline, yet undergraduate courses frequently focus on discrete knowledge. Students often engage in rote learning, struggle with transforming and applying content. Integrative thinking occurs when students recognize connections to content. Written reflections provide students with the opportunity to demonstrate this thinking. We transformed student-written reflections into concept webs to gain insights into how students connect biological concepts. We were interested in determining if characteristics of integrative thinking develop through reflections. The results indicate a significant relationship between concepts and integrated relationships. Integrative thinking varied but declined overall. Concept webs allow for an examination of student integrative thinking through the transformation of reflection and provide insights into the connections and relationships that students draw between biological concepts. Reflections can transform learning by facilitating and allowing for the evaluation of integrative thinking. PMID:23209012
Wickstrom, Carol D.
This paper discusses a study of student-teacher discourse during the process of portfolio assessment in a college reading assessment course. Data were collected during one semester in which portfolio process was one means of student assessment. The portfolio process allowed students multiple opportunities to reflect in written and oral formats. It…
van Velzen, Joke H; Tillema, Harm H
This study examined students' use of self-reflection in relation to their teachers' coaching behavior in a cooperative learning situation. Participants were 218 fourth grade secondary vocational students and 12 teachers of different study domains in The Netherlands. Students rated teachers' coaching behavior. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that teachers' guidance was related to students' use of self-reflective thinking. Teachers' coaching style was measured as their instructional beliefs, self-efficacy beliefs, and coaching behavior. Visual inspection of means of students' rating of teachers' behavior and by students' self-reflective thinking indicated that teachers, whose intentions and behavior are in line with student-led teaching, provide a coaching style that is high in guidance and encourages students' use of self-reflective thinking. The implications of teachers' coaching behavior in the classroom are discussed. PMID:15762405
Henderson, Penny; Johnson, Martin H
Background Development of the reflective skills of medical students is an acknowledged objective of medical education. Description Description of an educational exercise which uses an email-based process for developing the reflective skills of undergraduate medical students. Student quotations illustrate learning outcomes qualitatively. Discussion The process described is immediate, direct, linked to learning objectives, enables rapid responses to be given to the students individually, and is followed by group sharing of learning. It provides a rigorous and robust feedback loop for students. It is relatively economic for teachers and incidentally benefits curriculum design and evolution. The approach supports development of a reflective approach to learning. PMID:12003640
Howe, Eric Michael; Wÿss Rudge, David
This paper provides an argument in favor of a specific pedagogical method of using the history of science to help students develop more informed views about nature of science (NOS) issues. The paper describes a series of lesson plans devoted to encouraging students to engage, unbeknownst to them, in similar reasoning that led scientists to understand sickle-cell anemia from the perspective of multiple subdisciplines in biology. Students pursue their understanding of a "mystery disease"; by means of a series of open-ended problems that invite them to discuss it from the perspective of anatomy, physiology, ecology, evolution, and molecular and cell biology. Throughout this unit, instructors incorporate techniques that invite students to explicitly and reflectively discuss various NOS issues with reference to this example and more generally. It is argued on the grounds of constructivist tenets that this pedagogy has substantial advantages over more implicit approaches. The findings of an empirical study using an open-ended survey and follow-up, semi-structured interviews to assess students' pre- and post-instruction NOS conceptions support the efficacy of this approach.
This paper critically evaluates the use of journals as a pedagogic tool to encourage reflection, critique and self-analysis by students. Based within a postgraduate teaching module that has operated annually since 2008 and was awarded the Royal Town Planning Institute's Award for Teaching Excellence in 2009, reflexive journals were employed as a…
Al-Rawahi, Nawar M.; Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.
The current study investigates the effectiveness of grade-ten students' reflective science journal writing on their self-regulated learning strategies. We used a pre-post control group quasi-experimental design. The sample consisted of 62 tenth-grade students (15 years old) in Oman, comprising 32 students in the experimental group and 30 students…
ORIGINAL PAPER Eyespan reflects reproductive quality in wild stalk-eyed flies Samuel Cotton Æ stalk-eyed fly, Teleopsis dalmanni. We also explored the relationship between eyespan and reproductive selection Á Ornaments Á Wild Á Stalk-eyed fly Á Testis Á Accessory glands Á Fecundity Á Fertility S. Cotton
Aukes, Leo C.; Geertsma, Jelle; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Zwierstra, Rein P.; Slaets, Joris P.J.
Objective: This study's aim was to test the expectation that enhanced experiential learning is an effective educational method that encourages personal reflection in medical students. Methods: Using a pre post-test follow-up design, the level of the personal reflection ability of an exposure group of first-year medical students participating in a new enhanced experiential learning program was compared to that of a control group of second- and third-year medical students participating in a standard problem-based learning program. Personal reflection was assessed using the Groningen Reflection Ability Scale (GRAS). Students’ growth in reflection was analyzed with multilevel analysis. Results: After one year, first-year medical students in the exposure group achieved a level of personal reflection comparable to that reached by students of the control group in their third year. This difference in growth of reflection was statistically significant (p<.001), with a small effect size (effect size = 0.18). The reflection growth curve of the control group declined slightly in the third year as a function of study time. Conclusion: Enhanced experiential learning has a positive effect on the personal reflection ability of undergraduate medical students. PMID:20165543
Explores limitations of current reflective practices, starting with their ideological roots in the process movement. Highlights ways that students are able to remain distanced from the discursive conventions and social practices that they are ostensibly learning to control. Describes a revised reflective assignment involving student portfolio…
Sikorski-Julier, April Zosia
This study is my attempt to consciously reflect on what is at hand in one student's work. I set out to learn about how students react to responses they receive. As I read portfolios at the end of the semester, Sapphrikah chose me through her amazing ability to consciously reflect and grow as a writer, activist, and womyn. By examining…
Reflection is considered as a mental process of an individual's internal problem-solving activity and rarely observed in face-to-face instruction. As a consequence, students have few opportunities to observe and learn from each other. This study aimed to arouse students' reflection on both self-correction (one's own problem-solving process in…
Although adolescents are currently the most frequent users of the Internet, many youngsters still have difficulties with a critical, reflective, and responsible use of the Internet. A study was carried out on teaching with a digital role-play game to increase students' reflective Internet skills. In this game, students had to promote a fictional…
Su, Yuling; Chung, Ya-hui
It remains ambiguous how college students form perceptions of professional development by identifying their emotional reactions and reflecting on their experiences in a situated setting. College students undergo professional development by participating in field experiences and reflecting on their experiential learning. In addition, researchers…
Beylefeld, Adriana A.
Medicine has become a profession with increasing accountability to the needs of society. To meet this need, real-world, community-located experiences and reflection are frequently used to promote students' learning and personal growth. This article reports first-year medical students' reflective writing after visiting a primary…
Li, Bowei; Fu, Longwen; Zhang, Wei; Feng, Weiwei; Chen, Lingxin
This paper presents a novel paper-based analytical device based on the colorimetric paper assays through its light reflectance. The device is portable, low cost (<20 dollars), and lightweight (only 176 g) that is available to assess the cost-effectiveness and appropriateness of the original health care or on-site detection information. Based on the light reflectance principle, the signal can be obtained directly, stably and user-friendly in our device. We demonstrated the utility and broad applicability of this technique with measurements of different biological and pollution target samples (BSA, glucose, Fe, and nitrite). Moreover, the real samples of Fe (II) and nitrite in the local tap water were successfully analyzed, and compared with the standard UV absorption method, the quantitative results showed good performance, reproducibility, and reliability. This device could provide quantitative information very conveniently and show great potential to broad fields of resource-limited analysis, medical diagnostics, and on-site environmental detection. PMID:24375226
White, Jillian V.
Reflection covers both the cognitive process and the broad range of activities that enhance learning resulting from experience. While much of what we know about reflection is rooted in experiential learning, leadership education programs which frame leadership as an experience could benefit from a richer understanding of the role of reflection in…
Lee, Okseon; Ravizza, Dean; Lee, Myung-Ah
Preparing teacher candidates to be reflective professionals is a critical component of physical education teacher education programs. Although many specific strategies have been developed to facilitate post-lesson reflection, strategies for reflecting on future work and professional life have not been widely explored. As a way to facilitate…
Hill, Anne E.; Davidson, Bronwyn J.; Theodoros, Deborah G.
Background: Reflective practice is reported to enhance clinical reasoning and therefore to maximize client outcomes. The inclusion of targeted reflective practice in academic programmes in speech-language therapy has not been consistent, although providing opportunities for speech-language therapy students to reflect during their clinical practice…
Quinton, Sarah; Smallbone, Teresa
Engaging in reflection is a vital part of learning for university students and its practice should be embedded in course design. Feedback on written work can be used as a vehicle for reflection. Both the gift and receipt of feedback and the habit of reflection require practice and capturing this experiential learning can be achieved in a class…
Furman, Rich; Coyne, Ann; Negi, Nalini Junko
This descriptive article explores the uses of poetry and journaling exercises as means of helping students develop their self-reflective capacities within the context of international social work. First, self-reflection and its importance to social work practice and education is discussed. Second, the importance of self-reflection in international…
Sarah Quinton; Teresa Smallbone
Engaging in reflection is a vital part of learning for university students and its practice should be embedded in course design. Feedback on written work can be used as a vehicle for reflection. Both the gift and receipt of feedback and the habit of reflection require practice and capturing this experiential learning can be achieved in a class environment. This
Ying Xie; Fengfeng Ke; Priya Sharma
\\u000aReflection is an important prerequisite to making meaning of new information, and to advance from surface to deep learning. Strategies such as journal writing and peer feedback have been found to promote reflection as well as deep thinking and learning. This study used an empirical design to investigate the interaction effects of peer feedback and blogging on college students' reflective
Ying Xie; Fengfeng Ke; Priya Sharma
Reflection is an important prerequisite to making meaning of new information, and to advance from surface to deep learning. Strategies such as journal writing and peer feedback have been found to promote reflection as well as deep thinking and learning. This study used an empirical design to investigate the interaction effects of peer feedback and blogging on college students' reflective
Dyment, Janet E.; O'Connell, Timothy S.
Although reflective journals are widely used across many disciplines in higher education, the research that examines their use presents an unclear picture of the quality of reflection found in them. Some research reveals that student journals contain primarily deeply reflective entries. Yet other research presents a less optimistic perspective,…
Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2010
In a time of scarce resources, many colleges and universities are looking for ways to stretch their existing resources for student success. At the same time, most institutions have a significant number of student workers. This paper presents the latest research that describes the vital role of on-campus employment in student retention. This report…
This action research study was designed to explore, in-depth, how 70 senior nursing students experienced an assignment that involved reading and reflecting on a short story, Ella, and the educator's experience during the process. Four sources of data were collected: student reflections, field notes, a classroom process recording by an expert educator/observer, and a focus group interview. Four themes emerged: (1) student reflections revealed their inner, often hidden landscapes; (2) Ella prompted clarification of the past and/or triggered future projective thinking; (3) Ella clarified difficult-to-teach concepts; and (4) the interface between students' thoughts and teacher responses provided a platform of connectivity. I propose that reading well-written stories may enhance students' clinical reasoning skills and ethical comportment within the confines of a classroom. In addition, when students are introduced to literary patients like Ella, they can dwell with the characters at a more peaceful pace which, in itself, may encourage reflectivity. PMID:24317789
Background Medical students in academic difficulty are often described as lacking insight. The Self Reflection and Insight Scale (SRIS) is a tool for measuring insight which has been validated in medical students. We investigated whether self reflection and insight scores correlate with academic performance in Year 4 medical students from a six year undergraduate medical degree, and whether self reflection and insight changes after one year of clinical training. Methods Self reflection and insight scores were measured in 162 students at the start of Year 4 at the University of Western Australia. Performance in end of year written and clinical exams was monitored and correlated with SRIS. Seventy of the students were surveyed again at the start of Year 5 to see if scores changed or were stable after one year of full time clinical training. Results We found no correlation between self reflection or insight and academic performance in written and clinical exams. There was a significant increase in recognition of the need for self reflection in Year 5 compared with Year 4. Conclusions While no correlation was found between this measure of self reflection and insight with academic performance, there was an increase in students’ recognition of the need for reflection after one year of clinical studies. This study is a valuable first step towards a potentially exciting research domain and warrants further longitudinal evaluation with larger cohorts of students using additional measures of achievement. PMID:23971859
In this quick activity, Dracula has a hole in his house and learners help solve the problem by using a mirror and protractor to reflect incoming light out of his house. This activity introduces learners to vocabulary associated with light and optics including reflected ray, angle of incident, and angle of reflection. This Dracula-themed activity also works well during Halloween.
In this activity, learners play a game and use pattern blocks to explore mirror images and reflection. First, learners play the mirror game and try to follow everything the "leader" does but in a way that will look like a mirror image (reflections, not copies). Then, learners make reflections of each other's pattern block designs.
Zhang, Yong; Cao, Chun-yu; Feng, Wen-ying; Xu, Ming; Su, Zhen-hua; Liu, Xiao-meng; Lü, Wei-jun
As one of the most powerful tools to investigate the compositions of raw materials and the property of pulp and paper, infrared spectroscopy has played an important role in pulp and paper industry. However, the traditional transmission infrared spectroscopy has not met the requirements of the producing processes because of its disadvantages of time consuming and sample destruction. New technique would be needed to be found. Fourier transform attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) is an advanced spectroscopic tool for nondestructive evaluation and could rapidly, accurately estimate the production properties of each process in pulp and paper industry. The present review describes the application of ATR-FTIR in analysis of pulp and paper industry. The analysis processes will include: pulping, papermaking, environmental protecting, special processing and paper identifying. PMID:21595211
Agbeko, Julius Kofi; Kita, Masakazu
This article describes a novel, hands-on method to qualitatively determine the extent of microbial activity in topsoil using ordinary blank paper. Appropriate and scalable for the high school and college level, these experiments expose students to some of the challenges facing environmental researchers and also contribute to curriculum development…
This article will reflect on my experiences in becoming an advanced scrub practitioner (ASP), using a reflective model to support the structure. Since Dewey's simple claim (1938, cited by Rolfe 2001) that 'we learn by doing and realising what came of what we did', many other authors have advocated and adapted this mantra (Rogers 1983 cited by Rolfe 2001, Gibbs 1988). A reflective model enables learning whilst utilising experiential knowledge from previous reflections (Rolfe 2001). Using Gibbs' reflective model this article reflects and evaluates the experience of becoming an ASP looking at both positive and negative issues, benefits to patients, colleagues and the organisation I work within. It examines issues of accountability and concludes by asking the question 'what next?' PMID:21560551
Micheletto, Melinda J.
The purpose of this study was to use an audience response system (ARS) to engage students in classroom discussions concerning sensitive and controversial topics (e.g., business ethics), assess student's ethical orientation and conduct in unethical behaviors, and encourage reflection on their personal level of ethicality. Students used ARS devices…
Kalisch, Hilary R.; Coughlin, Deanna R.; Ballard, Sharon M.; Lamson, Angela
Analysis of student journals examined the effect intergenerational service-learning had upon undergraduate students' attitudes and perceptions of older adults. Students (N = 102) engaged in 12 hours of service-learning with older adults that included writing structured reflection journals. Coding involved open, axial, and selective coding with…
Students rarely use their graded exams to study. An alternative method of grading exams, based on self-reflection, encourages students to use their mistakes as a learning resource. In this grading method, the test is returned with each question simply marked as "right" or 'wrong." Students can then go over their exams and resubmit them with…
This document contains the following full and short papers on student modeling from ICCE/ICCAI 2000 (International Conference on Computers in Education/International Conference on Computer-Assisted Instruction): (1) "A Computational Model for Learner's Motivation States in Individualized Tutoring System" (Behrouz H. Far and Anete H. Hashimoto);…
Crossman, Joanne M.; Kite, Stacey L.
Our business communication classes will continue to be enriched by students from various cultural backgrounds, many of them ESL learners. Among the numerous benefits of this diversity are opportunities for all students to develop essential life skills through course-embedded community service learning (CSL) projects. This study analyzes students'…
Lewis, Abigail; Moore, Catherine; Nang, Charn
Employers in the 21st century seek graduates with a demonstrated ability to be independent, self-managing, lifelong learners. In this paper the authors explore student responses to a tutorial activity designed to promote lifelong learning skills. The activity is framed around situated learning theory, and capitalises on the affordances of video…
Provides a detailed, non-mathematical analysis of total internal reflection based on the interaction of light and matter and the principle of superposition. Discusses factors affecting the critical angle and the percent of the incident beam that is refracted and reflected. (JM)
This study is part of a larger research project investigating the effects of using metalinguistic reflection integrated into a communicative class as a way of promoting second language acquisition among French-speaking Grade six (i.e. 10-11 year old) ESL learners (n=81). Even though metalinguistic reflection is thought to promote language…
Background Teacher feedback on student reflective writing is recommended to improve learners’ reflective competence. To be able to improve teacher feedback on reflective writing, it is essential to gain insight into which characteristics of written feedback stimulate students’ reflection processes. Therefore, we investigated (1) which characteristics can be distinguished in written feedback comments on reflective writing and (2) which of these characteristics are perceived to stimulate students’ reflection processes. Methods We investigated written feedback comments from forty-three teachers on their students’ reflective essays. In Study 1, twenty-three medical educators grouped the comments into distinct categories. We used Multiple Correspondence Analysis to determine dimensions in the set of comments. In Study 2, another group of twenty-one medical educators individually judged whether the comments stimulated reflection by rating them on a five-point scale. We used t-tests to investigate whether comments classified as stimulating and not stimulating reflection differed in their scores on the dimensions. Results Our results showed that characteristics of written feedback comments can be described in three dimensions: format of the feedback (phrased as statement versus question), focus of the feedback (related to the levels of students’ reflections) and tone of the feedback (positive versus negative). Furthermore, comments phrased as a question and in a positive tone were judged as stimulating reflection more than comments at the opposite side of those dimensions (t?=?(14.5)?=?6.48; p?=?< .001 and t?=?(15)?=??1.80; p?.10 respectively). The effect sizes were large for format of the feedback comment (r?=?.86) and medium for tone of the feedback comment (r?=?.42). Conclusions This study suggests that written feedback comments on students’ reflective essays should be formulated as a question, positive in tone and tailored to the individual student’s reflective level in order to stimulate students to reflect on a slightly higher level. Further research is needed to examine whether incorporating these characteristics into teacher training helps to improve the quality of written feedback comments on reflective writing. PMID:23829790
Vargas, Ernest A.; Fraley, Lawrence E.
To instruct consists of arranging controls between teacher, student, and subject matter. Initial controls must emanate from the teacher since those of the subject matter are minimal, crude, or missing. Teachers mand students to behave in certain ways with respect to a given subject matter. Eventually, however, the teacher must transfer the teacher mediated and managed control of the student to natural controls functioning directly through student interaction with the subject matter. Difficulty in doing this occurs due to the reinforcers for both student and teacher derived from social contact. Nevertheless, the student eventually must be taught to interact with the subject matter independent of teacher involvement if the student is to maintain effective contact with the subject matter beyond the period of formal instruction. PMID:22478606
Larin, Hélène; Wessel, Jean; Al-Shamlan, Amal
Background Although Western models of education are being used to establish health professional programs in non-Western countries, little is known about how students in these countries perceive their learning experiences. The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the reflections of physiotherapy students from a Middle East culture during their clinical placements and to compare them to reflections of physiotherapy students from a Western culture. Methods Subjects were six senior students (3 females, 3 males, mean age 22.6 years) and 15 junior, female students (mean age 20.1 years) in the baccalaureate physiotherapy program at a university in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). They wrote weekly entries in a journal while in their clinical placements. They described an event, their reaction to it, and how it might affect their future behavior. Two evaluators independently read and coded the content of all the journals, and then worked together to categorize the data and develop themes. A third evaluator, an UAE national, independently read the journals to validate the content analysis. A feedback session with students was used to further validate the data interpretation. The themes were compared to those derived from a similar study of Canadian physiotherapy students. Results The content of the students' reflections were grouped into 4 themes: professional behavior, awareness of learning, self-development and shift to a patient orientation, and identification and analysis of ethical issues. Although the events were different, students from the UAE considered many of the same issues reflected on by Canadian students. Conclusion Physiotherapy students from a Middle East culture consider many of the same issues as students from a Western culture when asked to reflect on their clinical experience. They reflect on their personal growth, on how they learn in a clinical setting, and on the ethical and professional behaviors of themselves and others. PMID:15661079
Gill, Anne C.; Teal, Cayla R.; Morrison, Laura J.
Abstract Background Medical education leaders have called for a curriculum that proactively teaches knowledge, skills, and attitudes required for professional practice and have identified professionalism as a competency domain for medical students. Exposure to palliative care (PC), an often deeply moving clinical experience, is an optimal trigger for rich student reflection, and students' reflective writings can be explored for professional attitudes. Objective Our aim was to evaluate the merit of using student reflective writing about a PC clinical experience to teach and assess professionalism. Methods After a PC patient visit, students wrote a brief reflective essay. We explored qualitatively if/how evidence of students' professionalism was reflected in their writing. Five essays were randomly chosen to develop a preliminary thematic structure, which then guided analysis of 30 additional, randomly chosen essays. Analysts coded transcripts independently, then collaboratively, developed thematic categories, and selected illustrative quotes for each theme and subtheme. Results Essays revealed content reflecting more rich information about students' progress toward achieving two professionalism competencies (demonstrating awareness of one's own perspectives and biases; demonstrating caring, compassion, empathy, and respect) than two others (displaying self-awareness of performance; recognizing and taking actions to correct deficiencies in one's own behavior, knowledge, and skill). Conclusions Professional attitudes were evident in all essays. The essays had limited use for formal summative assessment of professionalism competencies. However, given the increasing presence of PC clinical experiences at medical schools nationwide, we believe this assessment strategy for professionalism has merit and deserves further investigation. PMID:23937062
Cochrane, Jill; Heron, Alexandra; Lawlor, Kerry
Student placements in the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) have a number of benefits including the recruitment of staff to this specialty, students' learning of important observational skills and reenforcing the knowledge and skills of existing staff. However, the combination of critically ill children and large amounts of complex equipment can be daunting for the student nurse commencing a clinical placement in PICU. Careful induction, ongoing mentoring and opportunities to explore issues help to overcome students' fears of being unable to cope, and support the application of theory to practice in this challenging environment. PMID:18335901
Low retention in the sciences is due in part to students' perceptions of grading practices as harsh and of faculty as unapproachable. Improving retention of science students therefore requires the creation of educational spaces where students feel better supported in their development as learners. To this end, we are piloting a system that facilitates regular student reflection and personalized instructor feedback to support students in becoming mindful, collaborative, and resilient scientists. Students choose one of four topics to guide their reflections, and instructor responses aim to acknowledge and empathize with students' difficulties, recognize their efforts to improve, and provide them with additional resources whenever appropriate. In addition to fostering a supportive learning environment, this system further acts as a vehicle for continual formative assessment, enabling instructors to modify the learning environment to respond to students' needs in real time. In this talk, we report preliminary results on how regular reflection and feedback shape students' experiences in a physics course and how students' reflections evolve over time. This work enjoys support from the American Association of Physics Teachers (AAPT) Physics Education Research Leadership and Organizing Council (PERLOC).
Frantz, Kyle J.
MA non-thesis paper requirements All Master's students have to complete a research paper in order to graduate. The paper usually develops from a term paper in one of the classes taken by a student. After the paper is completed, the advisor signs a cover-page form and a learning outcomes form (both provided
The study of social studies is an important subject especially if ESL students are to understand the world around them. To study social studies effectively students often need to read texts which are most often at a level only written for native speakers which can be daunting at times and this can often turn into a tedious task but also that they…
Babiuc-Hamilton, Maria; Hamilton, Tim
We found that exam scores in introductory physics courses show a wedge-shaped pattern when plotted against the order they are turned in. The article will explore some of the factors contributing to this pattern and will propose guidelines to help determine an ideal test time limit, aimed at students with good perseverance and average skill. The reason for this pattern appears to stem from a combination of students' skills and perseverance. The first students to finish tend to have either the best or worst grades in the class, with few in between. Students with the highest skills (knowledge, memory, problem-solving skills) need little time to finish, and they have the confidence to turn in the test quickly, before other students. Good students with moderately high skills tend to take longer. The later submissions gradually converge to a grade close the class average. Results of over 200 grades from students in different introductory physics classes, from two universities, taught using a variety of methods, when collected and analyzed, show the same wedge-shaped pattern. This seems to indicate a universal component of the pattern, which does not depend on the teaching methods or the test structure. From our analysis, we aim at deriving what an ideal test time limit would be, at which students hit a point of diminishing returns.
Nasri, William Z.
Suggestions are offered to improve the educational experience of international students in North American library and information science programs. Reevaluation of course content, improved communication of program information to students, consideration of foreign realities and governmental practices, improved English language and keyboarding…
The GP Section Best Student Paper Award for the 1987 AGU Spring Meeting has been awarded to Patricia Weisse of Syracuse University (Syracuse, N.Y.). Her paper, entitled “The Effect of Progressive Deformation and Metasomatism on Magnetic Fabrics of Mylonitic Granite and Granodiorite, Pinaleno Mountains Shear Zone, Arizona”, was written in conjunction with Jean Crespi of the U.S. Geological Survey (Reston, Va.). Weisse, who has a B.S. from Lehigh University and an M.S. from the University of Massachusetts, is currently pursuing a Ph.D. in paleomagnetism at Syracuse University.
Wang, Jing-Ru; Lin, Sheau-Wen
This study has resulted in an elementary science methods course that facilitates the identification and description of the changes in students' conceptions and understanding of inquiry teaching, and the cultural influences, reflections, and situational factors influencing these changes. Written responses to open-ended questions, reflective…
Winchester, Tiffany M.; Winchester, Maxwell
This exploratory study considered Larrivee's assessment of teachers' reflective practice levels by using a formative, weekly, online student evaluation of teaching (SET) tool through a virtual learning environment (VLE) as a means to encourage reflective practice. In-depth interviews were conducted with six faculty members in three departments at…
Trede, Franziska; Smith, Megan
Reflective practice in practice settings can enhance practice knowledge, self-assessment and lifelong learning, develop future practice capability and professional identity, and critically appraise practice traditions rather than reproduce them. The inherent power imbalance between student and educator runs the risk for the reflective practice…
Dye, Deanna; Scott, Karen Wilson; Ostrom, Lee; Devine, Nancy; Leight, Jennifer
An essential component of expert professional practice is a practitioner's ability to critically reflect on one's performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of specific electronic feedback provided by the coordinator of clinical education on students' critical reflection ability displayed in weekly journal writings during…
UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Sugarcane Bagasse Paper%D0%B5%D0%B4%D0%B8%D1%8F/%D0%A0%D0%BE%D0%BC-%D0%B8- %D0%9A%D0%B0%D1%88%D0%B0%D1%81%D0%B0/ Sugarcane this project to investigate and compare the advantages and disadvantages between sugarcane bagasse paper
Theadford, Brita A.
This qualitative case study examined four middle school science teachers from Southern New Jersey perceptions and reflections about their selections of instructional strategies used to teach scientific concepts to seventh and eighth grade students. They reflected upon their pedagogy by reviewing videotaped lessons, reflective journaling, and participating in in-depth interviews. The findings in this study indicated that reflecting upon instruction contributes to the knowledge base of teaching, improves teachers' individual practices, and helps practitioners become deliberate about their instructional practices. Teacher should have opportunities to observe, investigate and practice using components they perceive as useful instructional strategies to teach scientific concepts to middle school students. When teachers engage in reflection, pedagogical strategies transform and teachers lean toward choosing instructional strategies that are less teacher-centered toward that of more student-centered. In conclusion, it is evident that engaging in student-centered dialogue, argumentation, and researched-based projects improved the way students learned. The participants found that constructivist, hands-on inquiry and reasoning, are skills that middle school students can readily engage in and students can develop skills that help them to think and act more like scientist.
Nursing students in the 21st century are entering highly complex health care systems that require advocates for social justice and human rights on behalf of patients. Nurses are well positioned as patient advocates. This article presents a brief overview of the historical and theoretical perspectives underpinning emancipatory knowing and proposes several methods nursing faculty can use to empower nursing students to provide care informed by this way of knowing. Nursing faculty are urged to adopt a curriculum that supports an emancipatory and caring praxis and to mentor students to provide care supportive of social justice, particularly for the vulnerable and marginalized members of society. Nursing students who learn to embrace and value emancipatory knowing during their educational program may likely continue this praxis after they graduate. PMID:24410636
This article depicts challenges for students and teachers involved in developing a reflective portfolio to promote autonomous learning in Taiwan. One hundred and one students in a Taiwan university completed their individual portfolio projects. A pre-course questionnaire, post-course self-evaluation, and the instructor's field notes were the data…
Field experience makes a strong contribution to the learning of students. However, the procedure for conducting training sessions based on experiential teaching methods is relatively unclear, and the contents and aspects of students' reflections during such training are not well known. This study applied experiential teaching methods in a college…
This article presents a reflective case study analysis of an attempt to enhance student learning through the introduction of student-centred teaching methods in a masters-level social research methods subject. The introduction of a range of specific techniques, including case study teaching, problem based learning, groupwork, role-play and…
Coffey, Anne M.
Teacher education students confront the challenging task of acquiring a unique and complex set of skills during their courses. These skills are acquired through the study of education theory together with practical experience in the classroom. Perhaps one of the most important skills that students quickly need to develop is that of reflective…
Taskin Can, Bilge; Yildrim, Cennet
The purpose of this research is to develop a reliable and valid instrument in order to determine the elementary school students' levels about reflective thinking. A total of 320 students of 6th, 7th and 8th grades from 6 different primary schools participated in the study. It was identified that the instrument was composed of totally 17 items…
In this piece Peter Kent, headteacher of Lawrence Sheriff School in Rugby in the UK, reflects upon the role of the student voice in selecting and recruiting new teaching staff. Contextualised by some recent unsympathetic reporting in the UK media, Peter explains why for their school community, using the student voice to inform teacher recruitment…
Smits, Marieke; Sluijsmans, Dominique; Jochems, Wim
This study investigates the effects of a competency-oriented course and the effects of feedback training on students' reflection skills. Thirty-one nursing students enrolled in a conventional course with lectures and assignments following a traditional test. Subsequently, they enrolled in a competency-oriented course, which included more…
Kong, Siu Cheung; Shroff, Ronnie H.; Hung, Hing Keung
To ensure their teaching quality, it is important for student teachers to undertake self reflection on their teaching performance after supervised teaching sessions. With the goal of sharpening the teaching competence of student teachers, a dual function system that uses web based and video based technologies is being developed to facilitate self…
Ni, Hong; Jones, Constance; Bruning, Roger
To increase school psychologists' understanding of school contextual culture in China, this study used a qualitative research method to investigate 30 Chinese elementary school teachers' evaluation criteria as reflected in narrative student evaluations. In the study, 450 narrative student evaluations were coded and analysed. Overall, results…
Harris, Jimmy Carl; Wear, Stella Brown
The need to teach student teachers to be reflective in solving problems and planning teaching events has led to an interest in developing appropriate data collection procedures for interns learning to perform self-evaluations. A study of 15 undergraduate student teachers was conducted to determine the extent to which they could perform unaided…
This study utilizes a concept mapping method to explore the underlying structure and dimensionality of Korean student teachers' autobiographical reflections on their professional identity formation. Participants consist of 90 students enrolled in bachelor's and master's degree programs in English teacher education. The study results imply core…
This article explores learning opportunities offered by students' written reflections as they learn through writing an action research proposal. From tapping into students' reported struggles, I analysed data using three stages of qualitative data analysis: data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing (Miles and Huberman 1994). It emerged…
Koksal, Mustafa Serdar; Cakiroglu, Jale; Geban, Omer
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of explicit-embedded-reflective (EER) instruction in nature of science (NOS) understandings of ninth-grade advanced science students. This study was conducted with 71 students, who were divided into three groups, by using non-equivalent quasi-experimental design. In the treatment…
Betts, Lucy R.; Cross, Amanda
While there are a number of technologies that have been used, with varying levels of success, to support visually impaired students, the purpose of this article is to reflect upon the authors' experiences of supporting a visually impaired student through a nine-month level two undergraduate biological psychology module. The authors developed a…
Phan, Huy P.
Introduction: The work of reflective thinking (Mezirow, 1991, 1998) and epistemological beliefs (Schommer, 1990, 1993; Schommer-Aikins, Duell & Hutter, 2005) is increasingly recognized as playing an important role in students' academic learning. Furthermore, students' approaches to their learning are also considered as contributing factors in…
Walmsley, Christopher; Birkbeck, Jane
An autobiographical writing assignment given to fourth-year BSW students is described and evaluated. Its purpose is to encourage students to reflect upon their life experience and identify significant values and life principles embedded in their personal narrative, and explore these as a foundation for social work practice. The limitations of…
This personal reflection looks at the benefits of using performance pedagogy in the Shakespeare classroom, both in terms of a general understanding of the period and a student's personal connection to the text. Though the essay acknowledges our profession's ongoing dialogue in this area, it mostly seeks to look at how a student may change once she…
Buchanan, Teresa K.; Benedict, Joan
After the hurricanes, faculty asked the students to help with the relief efforts in different ways. Most students volunteered to work in shelters directly with individual or groups of children, youths, and adults. After their experiences, they wrote brief reflections about what they had done. Their comments show that they developed a better…
Recreation professionals use outdoor programs in rustic settings to promote the intellectual, physical, emotional, and professional development of their students. One important aspect of personal growth is to develop the ability to think critically about one's own learning, and journaling is one approach for achieving this goal. Outdoor programs…
Farrell, Thomas S. C.
Research in general education suggests that relationship-building is at the core of quality learning experiences. Yet relationship-building has not received the attention, it deserves from researchers in the field of TESOL where teacher-student relationships of various types are a central component in successful teaching and learning. This article…
Olive, James L.
This qualitative multiple-case study utilized a life history methodology in which written and oral narratives were obtained from six postsecondary students who self-identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, and/or queer (LGBQ). Through the construction of life histories, the researcher endeavored to understand how past experiences and behaviors shaped…
Unrath, Kathleen; Kerridge, Daria
This descriptive research focuses on the teaching experiences of two preservice art education interns and the meanings they attributed to their student teaching field experience. Of interest is how these preservice teacher interns have experientially formulated ideas on what it means to be an art teacher and how their traits of altruism, artistic…
Rizzo, D. M.; Dewoolkar, M.; Hayden, N.; Oka, L.; Pearce, A. R.
The civil and environmental engineering (CEE) programs at the University of Vermont (UVM) incorporate systems thinking and a systems approach to sustainable engineering problem solving. A systems approach considers long-term social, environmental and economic factors within the context of the engineering problem solution and encompasses sustainable engineering solutions. Our goal is to prepare students to become leaders in their chosen field who can anticipate co-products associated with forecasted solutions. As a way of practicing the systems approach, we include service-learning projects in many of our undergraduate engineering courses, culminating with the senior capstone design course. We use a variety of formative and summative assessment methods to gage student understanding and attitudes including student surveys, focus groups, assessment of student projects, and student reflections. Student reflections from two courses -Modeling Environmental and Transportation Systems (31 juniors) and Senior Design Project (30 seniors) are compared. Of these, 25 students were common to both courses. The focus of the systems modeling service-learning project involved mentoring home-schooled children (11-14 yrs old) to solve problems of mobility, using the fun and inspiration of biomimicry. Students were required to invent innovative methods to move people or goods that improve associated constraints (i.e., minimize congestion, reduce pollution, increase safety), or reduce the need for transportation altogether. The capstone design project required a comprehensive engineering design involving two or more CEE sub-disciplines. Both service-learning projects were intended to enhance students’ academic learning experience, attain civic engagement and reinforce transferable skills (written and oral communication, teamwork, leadership and mentoring skills). The student course reflections were not guided; yet they provided valuable data to assess commonalities and differences in student attitudes toward their service-learning projects, specifically, the development of transferable skills. In the spirit of service-learning pedagogy, we divide the contents of students’ written reflections into three categories - academic enhancement, civic engagement and personal growth skills. The commonalities focused mostly on civic engagement. Differences are observed primarily in academic enhancement and personal growth categories. Students working on the biomimicry design project reflected on personal growth (e.g. leadership skills, mentoring, creativity, organizational skills, communication to nontechnical audience), but did not credit it with academic enhancement. In contrast, the senior design reflections concentrated on academics, specifically, students appreciated the enhancement of technical skills as a part of their engineering experience.
Miller, Nod, Ed.; Jones, David J., Ed.
The following papers are included: "Social Classification of Women's Work" (Benn, Burton); "Developing Models of Learning from Experience" (Boud, Walker); "'Research Reflecting Practice?'" (Edwards, Usher); "Metaphors and Their Implications for Research and Practice in Adult and Community Education" (Hunt); "'Common-Sense' Approach to Reflection"…
Satija, Sushil K.
Over the last ten years, neutron reflectivity has emerged as a powerful technique for the investigation of surface and interfacial phenomena in many different fields. In this paper, a short review of some of the work on neutron reflectivity form polymer films performed at NIST reactor is presented. Specific examples of ordering in diblock copolymer films as well adsorbed polymer brushes are presented.
Qualitative Calculus of Systems 1 Presented at AERA 2010 | Best Student Paper, SIG-LS/ATL Running of Systems 2 Presented at AERA 2010 | Best Student Paper, SIG-LS/ATL Abstract Our everyday world | Best Student Paper, SIG-LS/ATL QUALITATIVE CALCULUS OF SYSTEMS: EXPLORING STUDENTS' UNDERSTANDING
Rusche, Sarah Nell; Jason, Kendra
Inspired by inquiry-guided learning and critical self-reflection as pedagogical approaches, we describe exercises that encourage students to develop critical thinking skills through inquiry and reflective writing. Students compile questions and reflections throughout the course and, at the end of the term, use their writings for a comprehensive…
Sykes, Christopher; Dean, Bonnie Amelia
In the Work-Integrated Learning (WIL) curriculum, reflection on workplace activities is widely used to support student learning. Recent critiques have demonstrated the limitations of current approaches to support students' reflective learning of workplace practices. By employing a practice-based approach, we seek to refocus WIL reflection on…
McDonald, Paige L.; Straker, Howard O.; Schlumpf, Karen S.; Plack, Margaret M.
This article discusses a learning partnership among faculty and students to influence reflective practice in a blended course. Faculty redesigned a traditional face-to-face (FTF) introductory physician assistant course into a blended course to promote increased reflection and higher order thinking. Early student reflective writing suggested a need…
There are several paradigms for color generation in reflective displays (e-Paper) including RGBW color filtering or stacked RGB or CMY. Theoretically, the highest white state reflectance and best color gamut are achieved by stacking three layers of pixels. However, stacking 3 layers induces significant optical losses especially at high resolution and typically does not allow for video operation. Therefore RGBW color filtering is currently preferred for higher resolution and single-layer e-Paper, but only provides color at 25% of the area and a maximum theoretical white reflectance of 50%. Presented herein is a new bi-primary color-system that cooperatively displays two complimentary colors inside a single sub-pixel, and therefore doubles the white state reflectance and color gamut for single-layer e-Paper. Also discussed are candidate e-Paper technologies that may be able to adopt the bi-primary color system, including possible advantages and challenges for each technology.
Background Reflective practice is a desirable trait in physicians, yet there is little information about how it is taught to or learned by medical students. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an online Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) exercise with a face-to-face debriefing session would prompt third year medical students to reflect on their current skills and lead them to further reflection on clinical decision making in the future. Methods All third year medical students at the University Of Maryland School Of Medicine who completed their pediatrics clerkship between 7/1/09 and 2/11/11 were required to complete the EBM exercise. Following completion each student received a personal report (Learning Profile) of their responses and attended a one hour large group debriefing session. Student responses to a survey following the debriefing sessions were analyzed using a post-test survey design with a single experimental cohort. Results Ninety-five percent of students completing the debriefing survey indicated that the debriefing session helped them better understand their learning profiles; 68% stated that their profiles allowed them to evaluate themselves and their decisions. Sixty-three percent noted that participating in the exercise and the debrief would lead them to either learn more about EBM and use EBM more in the future or reflect more on their own decision making. Conclusions The EBM exercise was a successful way to introduce the concept of reflective practice to third year medical students, and the graphic Learning Profiles were effective instigators of discussion and reflection. PMID:25106435
Describes how a Title 1 lead teacher used the "hypothesis-test" approach with Joshua, a fifth-grade student from a "ravaged background" who was about two years behind in academic performance. Shows how, pursuing his inquiry, Joshua eventually became a strategic reader and a confident engaged learner. Notes that Joshua's turning point was also the…
Kamata, Masahiro; Yajima, Seiko
An educational experiment illustrates the electrolysis of water and copper chloride to middle school science students. The electrolysis cell is composed of filter paper soaked with Na[subscript 2]SO[subscript 4] or CuCl[subscript 2] aqueous solution sandwiched, along with a sheet of platinum foil, between two coin-type lithium batteries. When the…
Xie, Ying; Sharma, Priya
Reflective learning refers to a learner's purposeful and conscious manipulation of ideas toward meaningful learning. Blogs have been used to support reflective thinking, but the commonly seen blog software usually does not provide overt mechanisms for students' high-level reflections. A new tool was designed to support the reflective…
Lindblad, Asa Kettis; Hall, Stina; Lundmark, Annika; Ring, Lena
Objective To test the reliability, feasibility, and responsiveness of a categorization scheme for assessing pharmacy students' levels of reflection during internships. Methods Pharmacy interns at Uppsala University were asked to write a reflective essay about patient counseling at the start and end of their internships. A modified version of Kember's categorization scheme for assessing the level of reflection was used to evaluate these essays. Results Based on their essay scores, the students' levels of reflection increased during the internship course (p < 0.001) The mean time for categorization was 3 minutes per essay. The interrater reliability of the 182 essays was ? = 0.63. Conclusions The evaluation of the categorization scheme showed that it has good interrater reliability, feasibility, and responsiveness. This scheme might be useful in pharmacy practice educational settings, but needs further validation. PMID:18322568
Vechter, Andrea; Brierley, Christopher
This article examines the Paper Partners program at Ryerson University, Toronto. This peer-mentoring program was developed to support the academic writing skills of students whose first language of academic study was not English. The program integrated a team of student-facilitators, a talk-aloud co-editing process, and a reflective feedback…
Objective To explore the use of web and palm digital assistant (PDA)-based patient logs to facilitate reflective learning in an ambulatory medicine clerkship. Design Thematic analysis of convenience sample of three successive rotations of medical students’ patient log entries. Setting Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Participants MS3 and MS4 students rotating through a required block ambulatory medicine clerkship. Interventions Students are required to enter patient encounters into a web-based log system during the clerkship. Patient-linked entries included an open text field entitled, “Learning Need.” Students were encouraged to use this field to enter goals for future study or teaching points related to the encounter. Measurement and Main Results The logs of 59 students were examined. These students entered 3,051 patient encounters, and 51 students entered 1,347 learning need entries (44.1% of encounters). The use of the “Learning Need” field was not correlated with MS year, gender or end-of-clerkship knowledge test performance. There were strong correlations between the use of diagnostic thinking comments and observations of therapeutic relationships (Pearson’s r=.42, p<0.001), and between diagnostic thinking and primary interpretation skills (Pearson’s r=.60, p<0.001), but not between diagnostic thinking and factual knowledge (Pearson’s r =.10, p=.46). CONCLUSIONS We found that when clerkship students were cued to reflect on each patient encounter with the electronic log system, student entries grouped into categories that suggested different levels of reflective thinking. Future efforts should explore the use of such entries to encourage and track habits of reflective practice in the clinical curriculum. PMID:17786523
Washington at Seattle, University of
1st April 2014 OCEAN 482/508 THE CHANGING ARCTIC OCEAN Wednesday Paper Discussions The Wednesday paper discussions are ~ 30 min student-led discussions of a published paper, with the paper assigned a week in advance. Everyone is expected to read the paper before the class discussion. The main
Toscano, Rose Marie; McKee, Barbara; Lepoutre, Dominique
The study identified social, educational, and demographic characteristics of deaf postsecondary students who demonstrated strong reading and writing skills. Questionnaire information, information from institutional databases, and in-depth personal interviews were used to identify factors and characteristics that positively influenced the attainment of strong academic literacy skills. Among the areas investigated were school experiences, reading and writing experiences, study habits and attitudes, communication preferences, personality traits, and home and family background. Results of the study generally support previous work conducted with talented hearing youth. Several primary themes emerged from the study: heavy parental involvement in early education and educational decisions, differing modes of communication but extensive family communication, early exposure to and intensive experiences with reading and writing, an enjoyment of reading, a relatively limited social life, high parental and secondary school expectations, the importance of television, and positive self-image. PMID:12061192
Papadimos, Thomas J
Reflective thought (critical thinking) is essential to the medical student who hopes to become an effective physician. John Dewey, one of America's foremost educators in the early twentieth century, revolutionized critical thinking and its role in education. In the mid twentieth century Hannah Arendt provided profound insights into the problem of diminishing human agency and political freedom. Taken together, Dewey's insight regarding reflective thought, and Arendt's view of action, speech, and power in the public realm, provide mentors and teachers of medical students guidance in the training of thought and the need for its effective projection at the patient's bedside and in the community. PMID:19368737
Larkin, Ingrid; Beatson, Amanda
This paper documents a teaching innovation addressing the challenges of embedding and assessing reflective practice in work-integrated learning, specifically marketing internships. We identify four issues relating to this problem: lack of knowledge or skill for reflection, limitations of physical journals, facilitation of different forms of…
Rué, Joan; Font, Antoni; Cebrián, Gisela
There is wide agreement that problem-based learning is a key strategy to promote individual abilities for "learning how to learn". This paper presents the main contributions that reflective journals and the problem-based learning approach can make to foster professional knowledge and quality learning in higher education. Thirty-six…
Wince, Michael H.; Borden, Victor M. H.
The relationship between student satisfaction and performance and persistence were studied at a large midwestern, urban commuter university. A student satisfaction survey was completed by 1,643 students (out of 3,004 students), who rated their level of satisfaction with 48 specific and 5 general aspects of their college experiences. Performance…
Describes the implementation of Exxon's Student-to-Student advising program at Wautauga College. Advanced students are hired to teach beginning students basic college survival skills including time management, taking lecture notes, reading textbooks, taking exams, writing reports, making oral presentation, and improving interpersonal relations.…
Howe, Eric Michael; Rudge, David Wyss
This paper provides an argument in favor of a specific pedagogical method of using the history of science to help students develop more informed views about nature of science (NOS) issues. The paper describes a series of lesson plans devoted to encouraging students to engage, "unbeknownst to them", in similar reasoning that led scientists to…
This paper provides insight into the way in which distance learning had changed over the past 30 years from the perspective of the author as a distance learning student. The question is then asked as to whether current practice is reducing flexibility for distance learning students? The paper starts with a discussion of flexible learning and the…
Sharpless, Joanna; Baldwin, Nell; Cook, Robert; Kofman, Aaron; Morley-Fletcher, Alessio; Slotkin, Rebecca; Wald, Hedy S
Professional identity formation (PIF) within medical education is the multifaceted, individualized process through which students develop new ways of being in becoming physicians. Personal backgrounds, values, expectations, interests, goals, relationships, and role models can all influence PIF and may account for diversity of both experience and the active constructive process of professional formation. Guided reflection, including reflective writing, has been used to enhance awareness and meaning making within the PIF process for both students and medical educators and to shed light on what aspects of medical education are most constructive for healthy PIF. Student voices about the PIF process now emerging in the literature are often considered and interpreted by medical educators within qualitative studies or in broad theoretical overviews of PIF.In this Commentary, the authors present a chorus of individual student voices from along the medical education trajectory. Medical students (years 1-4) and a first-year resident in pediatrics respond to a variety of questions based on prevalent PIF themes extracted from the literature to reflect on their personal experiences of PIF. Topics queried included pretending in medical education, role of relationships, impact of formal and informal curricula on PIF (valuable aspects as well as suggestions for change), and navigating and developing interprofessional relationships and identities. This work aims to vividly illustrate the diverse and personal forces at play in individual students' PIF processes and to encourage future pedagogic efforts supporting healthy, integrated PIF in medical education. PMID:25881650
Ballantyne, Roy; Packer, Jan
Analysis of journal entries of 13 doctor of education students confirms the usefulness of journals for reflecting on and connecting academic learning and experience. Different writing styles (analytic, extracting, affective) had different learning outcomes. Course-feedback style had little benefit. (SK)
Hertzog, Jodie; Williams, Renee
Introducing students to sensitive social issues like intimate violence in lower level courses can spark their sociological imaginations motivating them to do further research in order to gain reflective knowledge about such topics. In order to promote two course objectives: (1) recognizing and applying sociological concepts and theories, and (2)…
Brown, Fredda; Michaels, Craig A.
As people see a powerful technology and philosophical value system originally developed to promote the self-determination and inclusion of individuals students with severe disabilities applied to and having impact on the broader school population, they wonder what the outcomes will be. In this article, the authors reflect on two issues: (1) the…
Dekker-Groen, Agaath M.; van der Schaaf, Marieke F.; Stokking, Karel M.
This study aimed to evaluate a training programme for Dutch teachers in six institutes for nursing education to support students' reflection skills. The research question was: what are the feasibility, quality and effects of the programme? The training programme focused on four competences of teachers regarding instructing, guiding, giving…
Hale, Judy A.
The primary purpose of this qualitative study was to determine the perceptions of preservice elementary education majors. The subjects for this study were obtained from a sample of 79 junior and senior elementary education majors enrolled at a southern university. Students viewed the movie "Mr. Holland's Opus" and were asked to write a reflective…
Reid, Louann, Ed.; Golub, Jeffrey N., Ed.
This book offers successful classroom practices that encourage students to learn purposefully and constructively by reflecting on their own learning processes and by making connections between what they read (whether verbal or visual texts) and the lives they lead. Extending from middle and high school through college composition and English…
Social work practice requires that graduates be prepared to deal with complex, multifaceted problems which cannot be defined completely, do not have absolute, correct answers and can be approached from multiple perspectives. This study evaluated the influence of case-based instruction on MSW students' reflective judgment, an aspect of critical…
Reason, Robert D.; Kimball, Ezekiel W.
In this article, we synthesize existing theory-to-practice approaches within the student affairs literature to arrive at a new model that incorporates formal and informal theory, institutional context, and reflective practice. The new model arrives at a balance between the rigor necessary for scholarly theory development and the adaptability…
This article reports on a research process where focussed reflection on pharmacist-patient simulations led to meta-pragmatic awareness and directions for pedagogical practice. The research participants were third-year EAL pharmacy students, who were practising being pharmacists, and pharmacy staff members, who played the part of patients. Analysis…
Aubusson, Peter; Griffin, Janette; Steele, Frances
Reflection is critical to successful pre-service teacher learning, but it is hard to teach and difficult for students to conceptualize. This article reports a self-study, with others, where a practitioner and colleagues scrutinized an intervention in teacher education. The study employed design-based methodology to examine an intervention in a…
Etkina, Eugenia; Karelina, Anna; Ruibal-Villasenor, Maria; Rosengrant, David; Jordan, Rebecca; Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.
Design activities, when embedded in an inquiry cycle and appropriately scaffolded and supplemented with reflection, can promote the development of the habits of mind (scientific abilities) that are an important part of scientific practice. Through the Investigative Science Learning Environment ("ISLE"), students construct physics knowledge by…
Morgan, Bobbette M.; Rodriguez, Alma D.; Rosenberg, Graciela P.
Classes of undergraduate and graduate students assigned to three professors were used to experience cooperative learning, jigsaw strategies, and to reflect on the process that occurred over a semester. The work is based upon theories of social interdependence, cognitive development, and behavioral learning. Pre- and post surveys were completed by…
Pinkerton, Rolffs; Talley, Joseph E.; Cooper, Stacie L.
The authors offer reflections on what seems to work in individual psychotherapy with university students. Discussion centers around the topics of triage and disposition, referral, crisis intervention, stress management, open-ended psychotherapy, extratherapeutic factors, and the psychotherapy relationship. These observations are not intended to be…
The context of this article is the new technological environment and the struggle to use meaningful teaching practices in Norwegian schools. Students' critical reflections in two different technological learning environments in six upper secondary schools are compared. Three of these schools offer Internet-connected computers in special computer…
Mabrouk, Patricia Ann
The author describes the principal findings of a survey study looking at student perceptions of a new form-based approach to reflective journaling. A form-based journal assignment was developed for use in introductory lecture courses and tested over a two-year period in an Honors General Chemistry course for engineers with a total of 157…
Lazar, Alon; Litvak-Hirsch, Tal; Bar-On, Dan; Beyth-Marom, Ruth
While Holocaust related activities and educational programs around the world are growing in number, published reports on their impact are scarce, especially on the university level. The free responses of 94 Jewish-Israeli university students who took the course "Psychology of the Holocaust" yielded eight themes. The results reflect a change of…
Linder, Sandra; McGaha, Julie
This essay offers suggestions for faculty who are designing study abroad (SA) experiences by outlining a three-week Maymester study abroad to Reggio Emilia, Italy, and a semester-long study abroad to Brussels, Belgium. The authors reflect on commonalities in planning, recruiting, preparing students, and conducting each trip, as well as some of the…
Wen, Chin-Chen; Lin, Meei-Ju; Lin, Chi-Wei; Chu, Shao-Yin
Purpose Structured narrative reflective writing combined with guided feedback is an efficient teaching method for enhancing medical students’ reflective capacity. However, what kinds of feedback offered and reflection presented in a reflective group remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of feedback in a reflective dialogue group. Methods Fifth-year medical students on a monthly interval rotation at the pediatric department of a medical center in eastern Taiwan during the 2012 academic year completed their reflective writing regarding patient and family psychosocial issues, and were subsequently debriefed in a 2-h group discussion session to receive feedback from a clinical tutor and peers. Content analysis was conducted to explore the characteristics of feedback and reflection presented in the reflective dialogue. The evaluative questionnaire regarding the benefits of reflection with others was administrated following the group session. Results Forty students participated in five reflective groups and 108 psychosocial issues were discussed and identified. The tutor played an initiating role in the group discussion by providing six equal feedback types involving exploring new knowledge, initiating advanced discussion, highlighting the issues, and encouraging the students. The students provided eight types of feedback that involved a substantial deep discussion on psychosocial issues and action plans based on the complex interactive ecological network of clinical encounters. Each student attained 1.25 times the depth or breadth of reflection after receiving feedback and experienced the benefits of reflection with others. Conclusion Through structured narrative reflective writing combined with pluralistic group discussion with a tutor and peers, the medical students had time to think deeply and broadly about psychosocial issues among patients and their family members. Facilitative feedback providing new knowledge, deeper discussion, and exploring new ways of action planning for psychosocial issues was recommended to promote students’ reflective capacity. PMID:25661500
Harr, Gary Lynn
A student Web portal is a personalized, student-centric view of College Web resources. The "Artemis" system at Florida Community College at Jacksonville (FCCJ), represents movement toward realization of the efficiencies and student service possibilities of a Web portal. This proposal recommends a radical expansion of Artemis functions, one that…
Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2002
Given the range of student learning, behavior, and emotional problems experienced each day by teachers and families, meeting the challenge of supplying appropriate support is complex. Efforts to do so may be handicapped by the way in which student support interventions currently are conceived, organized, and implemented. Student supports are…
This report contains four case studies from further education colleges in England that have been addressing student retention and dropout issues during the last several years. The case studies demonstrate successful student retention strategies in diverse college contexts with different student populations. They cover the following colleges:…
Cross, Dolores; Olinsky, Arlene
The characteristics of student loan borrowers and differences between those who repay their loans and those who default are examined. Data are based on the New York State Higher Education Services Corporation Guaranteed Student Loan database and responses to a questionnaire mailed in spring 1984 to a sample of New York State student loan…
Lachmann, Hanna; Fossum, Bjöörn; Johansson, Unn-Britt; Karlgren, Klas; Ponzer, Sari
Students' engagement and reflection on learning activities are important during interprofessional clinical practice. The contextual activity sampling system (CASS) is a methodology designed for collecting data on experiences of ongoing activities by frequent distribution of questionnaires via mobile phones. The aim of this study was to investigate if the use of the CASS methodology affected students' experiences of their learning activities, readiness for interprofessional learning, academic emotions and experiences of interprofessional team collaboration. Student teams, consisting of 33 students in total from four different healthcare programs, were randomized into an intervention group that used CASS or into a control group that did not use CASS. Both quantitative (questionnaires) and qualitative (interviews) data were collected. The results showed that students in the intervention group rated teamwork and collaboration significantly higher after than before the course, which was not the case in the control group. On the other hand, the control group reported experiencing more stress than the intervention group. The qualitative data showed that CASS seemed to support reflection and also have a positive impact on students' experiences of ongoing learning activities and interprofessional collaboration. In conclusion, the CASS methodology provides support for students in their understanding of interprofessional teamwork. PMID:24754545
Background Reflective writing enhances personal and professional development. It is essential for the teachers to be familiar with the students’ perceptions to improve the students’ learning. Our aim was to deepen the understanding of the medical students’ perceptions of the studies and the coming profession. Methods Our theoretical perspective is constructivist, based upon the relativist view that individuals construct realities to understand and navigate the world. Constructivist methodologies are hermeneutic, with the focus on understanding rather than explaining. Thirty-five written reflections were collected in the first and fifth semesters at Lund University Medical School, Sweden. We used a thematic analysis, close to editing style analysis, inspired by K Malterud, who has modified Giorgi’s phenomenological method. Results For first-semester students the focus is on studies and methods to structure them. The fifth semester is permeated by strategies for achieving a sense of ‘good enough’, qualities of a good doctor and applicability. Clinical placement as a motivating element is important for both semesters. Conclusions A sense of ‘good enough’ is crucial for students to get by. Reflective writing can illuminate the strategies for achieving this. Clinical placement is vital for motivation. PMID:24690405
Yang, Shu-Huei; Shih, Chun-Kuang; Liu, Chu-Hsiu; Peng, Hsiang-Ting; Chan, Wing P.
We designed a cross-disciplinary interdepartmental volunteer program, which involved student participation in "community care teams for the elderly living alone." Our aim was to enhance communication between students and the elderly. Students were expected to meet and learn to get along with the elderly, to develop listening and…
Eleni A. Kyza
Recent calls to reform science education propose changes in the content and structure of the learning of science. At the classroom level, these calls emphasize investigations that are inquiry-based and parallel the nature of scientific work. Research on students' inquiry practices has suggested that engaging in inquiry is difficult, as students need to approach inquiry reflectively and assume more responsibility
Reitan, Henry M., Ed.; Sadowski, Bernard S., Ed.
The papers presented at three conferences dealing with nontraditional students at community colleges comprise this report. Papers included are: "Aging in America" by Francis Scott; "Aging in Oregon: A Look at Clackamas Community College" by Larry Forsythe; "Community Needs Assessment: Some Reflections" by Alice Kethley; "Education for Aging: A…
Robinson, Evan T.; And Others
This study analyzed personal and collaborative reflective activities and their effect on the development of a graduate student as both a learner and a teacher. As a learner, the graduate student kept a reflective journal for 5 consecutive quarters (15 months). Collaboration with colleagues took place in both formal and informal settings and…
Goldberg, Lynette R; Brown, Gina R; Mosack, Victoria A; Fletcher, Phyllis A
This study analyzed students' written reflections following their initial exposure to interprofessional teamwork in case-based problem-solving. A three-hour seminar featuring three sequenced scenarios was developed and offered 12-times over two semesters. A total of 305 students from a variety of healthcare programs worked together with standardized patients in an on-campus laboratory simulating hospital ward and rehabilitation settings. A thematic analysis of students' reflections showed that they valued the shared learning and realistic case study. However, they felt the experience would be strengthened by working in smaller, more representative teams that included students from medicine, psychology, and social work to enable more effective communication and comprehensive case discussion. While useful for future planning, the identified themes did not enable a comparative statistical analysis of what students found helpful and difficult and a re-coding of students' responses now is underway. Implications for measuring the effectiveness of future interprofessional case-based learning center on addressing the identified weaknesses, and establishing a research design that enables a comparison of pre- and post-seminar data, and the effectiveness of the IPE experience compared to profession-specific experiences. PMID:25300806
Leigh, S. Rebecca
This paper explores the potential of sketchbooks as a pathway for developing ideas for writing in high school English classrooms. This paper examines how shifting between drawing and writing impacts students' ability to develop ideas for writing and create meaningful texts. Specifically, this paper explores four types of visual sign making that…
Bleicher, Robert E.; Correia, Manuel G.
This study examines a "small moments" writing strategy to nurture reflection in undergraduate college students participating in a course-based service-learning activity. Using grounded theory methodology to analyze reflection journal entries, the authors identified themes that indicate that, by writing "small moments" reflection journal entries,…
Xie, Ying; Sharma, Priya
Reflective learning can assist a learner's purposeful and conscious manipulation of ideas toward meaningful learning and knowledge integration. Blogs have been used to support reflection, but Blogs usually do not provide overt mechanisms for students to make connections between different parts of an experience, which is integral to reflective…
Fryer, Roland, Jr.
This paper describes an experiment designed to investigate the impact of aligning student, parent, and teacher incentives on student achievement. On outcomes for which incentives were provided, there were large treatment effects. Students in treatment schools mastered more than one standard deviation more math objectives than control students, and…
Steven M. Mintz
This paper explains the use of reflective learning techniques to create and deliver a new ethics course. Students apply virtue-based reasoning with reflective thinking to resolve conflicts faced by accounting professionals. Teaching techniques include class discussion, minute papers, reflection journals, role playing, and case analysis. Students express their thoughts orally and in written form, interact with other students, receive feedback
Iorio, Josh; Decker, Mark Lowry
Although universities acknowledge that teacher training is critical for ensuring quality undergraduate education, research has repeatedly demonstrated that universities typically do an inadequate job of preparing graduate students for their instructor role. In this paper, we show that both graduate students and universities find the pedagogical…
Understanding how students can better manage their expectations has been a topic of interest in pedagogy for some time, yet solutions remain elusive. This paper describes a recent study which aimed to help students make more realistic predictions by increasing their metacognition. At the outset, participants completed a metacognitive awareness…
Wilkerson-Jerde, Michelle Hoda
There are increasing calls to prepare K-12 students to use computational tools and principles when exploring scientific or mathematical phenomena. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether and how constructionist computer-supported collaborative environments can explicitly engage students in this practice. The Categorizer is a…
Pathak, Parag A.; Sethuraman, Jay
This paper formally examines two competing methods of conducting a lottery in assigning students to schools, motivated by the design of the centralized high school student assignment system in New York City. The main result of the paper is that a single and multiple lottery mechanism are equivalent for the problem of allocating students to schools…
Mason, Mary; Chew, Martha
Two papers explore feminist strategies for adapting traditional humanities and English courses to the needs of nontraditional and professional students. The first paper, "A Feminist Approach to Teaching Humanities to Non-Traditional Students" by Mary Mason, discusses a "public humanities" course, that is, a course for returning students who hope…
Clark, Melissa A.; Gleason, Philip; Tuttle, Christina Clark; Silverberg, Marsha K.
This paper presents findings from the first national randomized study of the impacts of charter schools on student achievement, which included 36 charter middle schools across 15 states. The paper compares students who applied and were admitted to these schools through randomized admissions lotteries with students who applied and were not…
Stevenson, Heidi J.; Cain, Kellie J.
Encouraged in large part by the work of Schon (1983), teacher education programs have spent the last two decades providing preservice teachers with experiences designed to help them examine their beliefs and develop reflective habits (Roskos et al., 2001; Tsangaridou & Siedentop, 1995; Zeichner & Liston, 1987). The present study…
Laiken, Marilyn E.
At the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education of the University of Ontario, a course entitled Developing and Leading High Performing Teams: Theory and Practice is experimenting with a design that surfaces the action/reflection paradox for the purpose of learning how to manage this polarity. Whether the product is defined as services or goods,…
Students' learning in inquiry-based investigations has drawn considerable attention of the science education community. Inquiry activities can be viewed as knowledge construction processes in which students are expected to develop conceptual understanding and critical thinking abilities. Our study aimed to explore the effect of experiments with different levels of inquiry on students' interactions in the laboratory setting, as well as on students' written arguments and reflections. Our results are based on direct observations of group work in college general chemistry laboratories and analysis of associated written lab reports. The analysis of students' interactions in the laboratory was approached from three major analytic dimensions: Functional analysis, cognitive processing, and social processing. According to our results, higher levels of inquiry were associated with an increase in the relative frequency of episodes where students were engaged in proposing ideas versus asking and answering each others' questions. Higher levels of inquiry also favored episodes in which experimental work was approached in a more exploratory (versus procedural) manner. However, no major changes were observed in the extent to which students were engaged in either interpretive discussions of central scientific concepts and ideas. As part of our study we were also interested in characterizing the effects of experiments involving different levels of inquiry on the structure and adequacy of university general chemistry students' written arguments, as well as on the nature of their reflections about laboratory work. Our findings indicate that the level of inquiry of the observed experiments had no significant impact on the structure or adequacy of arguments generated by students. However, the level of inquiry of the experiments seemed to have a major impact on several areas of students' written reflections about laboratory work. In general, our results elicit trends and highlight issues that can help instructors and curriculum developers identify strategies to better support and scaffold productive engagement in the laboratory. Our results suggest that careful design and implementation of instructional interventions may be needed to maximize the learning effects of the more open-ended inquiry activities at the college level.
Xu, Zeyu; Hannaway, Jane; D'Souza, Stephanie
This paper describes the school mobility rates for elementary and middle school students in North Carolina and attempts to estimate the effect of school mobility on the performance of different groups of students using student fixed effects models. School mobility is defined as changing schools at times that are non-promotional (e.g., moving…
Duijnhouwer, Hendrien; Prins, Frans J.; Stokking, Karel M.
This study investigated the effects of feedback providing improvement strategies and a reflection assignment on students' writing motivation, process, and performance. Students in the experimental feedback condition (n = 41) received feedback including improvement strategies, whereas students in the control feedback condition (n = 41) received…
Bazemore, Julie Anthony
Understanding students' perceptions of the assessment tasks in their secondary English classes is vital to the improvement of teaching and learning. This study took a mixed-methods approach, using a student survey and a teacher questionnaire to conjoin students' perceptions and their teachers' reflections. A modified form of the…
Coralie Haller; Ron Fisher; Rod Gapp
Purpose – To provide an understanding of the ways in which Confucian Heritage students use reflection as a means of learning at university. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The approach is an exploratory qualitative study into the ways in which Confucian Heritage students learn while studying at university. Data are collected by means of semi-structured formal interviews involving six students enrolled in a
Bank, C.; Rotzien, J.
More and more students and faculty engage in collaborative research. Field geophysics provides a fascinating venue, as it always contributes to interpersonal relations, usually involves off-campus work, and often allows us to meet new people and explore a different culture. Tackling an authentic research problem keeps a faculty member excited about her/his discipline, while allowing a student to engage in the process of science, follow a researcher's thoughts and contribute to a real project. The exchange of ideas and the generation of new knowledge is rewarding to the student as it facilitates her/his academic growth. Despite the obvious advantages of including students in field-based research, few students are allowed such an opportunity because of the institutional commitment in time and money that is necessary for success. Other challenges in field-based geophysical research include steep learning curves related to the use of equipment, unknown outcomes (data that is often difficult to interpret), and a true commitment to the project on the student's part. The faculty member on the other hand faces additional challenges because of the responsibility for students in the field, scheduling constraints, limited funding, and students' diverse academic goals. This presentation will be given by a faculty member and a student who have engaged in various authentic research projects. Projects ranged from afternoon lab exercises on campus (eg, microgravity survey over a tunnel on campus), course projects connected to field trips (eg, magnetic study and subsequent potential field analysis), summer research projects (eg, georadar survey of Deboullie Lake rock glacier), to year-long undergraduate thesis projects (eg, potential field studies at igneous centres of the Navajo Volcanic Field). We will present highlights of these projects, examine their pedagogical merits, and discuss the advantages and rewards we earned as well as the challenges we faced. Despite all challenges, we find that the outcomes, the sense of accomplishment, the rich interpersonal exchange, and the intellectual as well as personal growth of students is well worth the effort that goes into planning and executing such projects. Our aim is to promote collaborative and authentic research, and to find out about creative ways to bring such an experience to a wider range of interested students.
Proceedings from the first three History and Philosophy of Science and Science Teaching Conferences are examined to identify the profile of papers in science content areas. Those papers with a chemistry education emphasis are investigated more closely. Results indicate that papers with physics content dominate. Chemistry and biology content were…
The Theses, Papers and Publications of Henry D. Bowen and His Students 1952 1991 The breadth;Theses, Papers and Publications of HENRY D. BOWEN and His Graduate Students: 1952 1991 North Carolina 1992 ©1992 H.D. Bowen ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Worldwide i #12;The Theses, Papers and Publications of Henry
Background The move to frame medical education in terms of competencies – the extent to which trainees “can do” a professional responsibility - is congruent with calls for accountability in medical education. However, the focus on competencies might be a poor fit with curricula intended to prepare students for responsibilities not emphasized in traditional medical education. This study examines an innovative approach to the use of potential competency expectations related to advancing global health equity to promote students’ reflections and to inform curriculum development. Methods In 2012, 32 medical students were admitted into a newly developed Global Health and Disparities (GHD) Path of Excellence. The GHD program takes the form of mentored co-curricular activities built around defined competencies related to professional development and leadership skills intended to ameliorate health disparities in medically underserved settings, both domestically and globally. Students reviewed the GHD competencies from two perspectives: a) their ability to perform the identified competencies that they perceived themselves as holding as they began the GHD program and b) the extent to which they perceived that their future career would require these responsibilities. For both sets of assessments the response scale ranged from “Strongly Disagree” to “Strongly Agree.” Wilcoxon’s paired T-tests compared individual students’ ordinal rating of their current level of ability to their perceived need for competence that they anticipated their careers would require. Statistical significance was set at p?.01. Results Students’ ratings ranged from “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree” that they could perform the defined GHD-related competencies. However, on most competencies, at least 50 % of students indicated that the stated competencies were beyond their present ability level. For each competency, the results of Wilcoxon paired T-tests indicate – at statistically significant levels - that students perceive more need in their careers for GHD-program defined competencies than they currently possess. Conclusion This study suggests congruence between student and program perceptions of the scope of practice required for GHD. Students report the need for enhanced skill levels in the careers they anticipate. This approach to formulating and reflecting on competencies will guide the program’s design of learning experiences aligned with students’ career goals. PMID:24886229
Nurses have to solve complex problems for their patients and their families, and as such, nursing care capability has become a focus of attention. The aim of this longitudinal study was to develop a self-reflection practice exercise program for nursing students to be used during clinical practice and to evaluate the effects of this program empirically and longitudinally on change in students' clinical competence, self-reflection, stress, and perceived teaching quality. An additional aim was to determine the predictors important to nursing competence. We sampled 260 nursing students from a total of 377 practicum students to participate in this study. A total of 245 students nurse completed 4 questionnaires, Holistic Nursing Competence Scale, Self-Reflection and Insight Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, and Clinical Teaching Quality Scale, at 2, 4, and 6 months after clinical practice experience. Generalized estimating equation models were used to examine the change in scores on each of the questionnaires. The findings showed that, at 6 months after clinical practice, nursing competence was significantly higher than at 2 and 4 months, was positively related to self-reflection and insight, and was negatively related to practice stress. Nursing students' competence at each time period was positively related to clinical teachers' instructional quality at 4 and 6 months. These results indicate that a clinical practice program with self-reflection learning exercise improves nursing students' clinical competence and that nursing students' self-reflection and perceived practice stress affect their nursing competence. Nursing core competencies are enhanced with a self-reflection program, which helps nursing students to improve self-awareness and decrease stress that may interfere with learning. Further, clinical practice experience, self-reflection and insight, and practice stress are predictors of nursing students' clinical competence. PMID:26428348
White, Peter; Chapman, Stella
Basic animal-handling skills are essential for any veterinary practitioner to work safely and confidently. This short article offers the reflections of two students who undertook training in basic animal-handling skills at the University of Sydney as part of the Veterinary Science degree program. Several students attending their final-year clinical rotation at the University of Sydney were asked to informally assess their own basic animal-handling skills at the beginning of the course and in their final year. These perceptions were matched to career choices and demonstrated the positive effect of skills training in career choice. As with any skills-based training program, limitations such as time and finances place restrictions on student learning, and there is a continual need to assess and, where possible, make improvements to the program. PMID:18326769
Baumann, Steven L; Murphy, Denise C; Ganzer, Christine Anne
This global perspective column focuses on a humanbecoming hermeneutic study of first semester graduate nursing students' reflections on an art museum exhibit titled; Bodies in Balance: The Art of Tibetan Medicine. The research question that guided the study was "what is the emerging meaning of living balance as depicted in the exhibit? The students' essays were interpreted in light of the humanbecoming perspective. The essays were summarized and yielded four themes; surprising and amazing, interconnectedness of all things, unexpected elements and commonalities, and attention to daily living. Parse's three core knowings of living quality (fortifying wisdom, discerning witness and penetrating silence) were considered with the emergent meanings from the students' essays on living balance as depicted in The Art of Tibetan Medicine exhibit. This study showed the use of art in the teaching about global health in graduate nursing education. PMID:25805389
Thomson, Alan; Harley, Dwight; Cave, Marie; Clandinin, Jean
Background Narrative Reflective Practice (NRP) is a process that helps medical students become better listeners and physicians. We hypothesized that NRP would enhance students’ performance on multiple-choice question exams (MCQs), on objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs), and on subjective clinical evaluations (SCEs). Methods The MCQs, OSCEs and SCEs test scores from 139 third year University of Alberta medical students from the same class doing their Internal Medicine rotation were collected over a 12 month period. All preceptors followed the same one-hour clinical teaching format, except for the single preceptor who incorporated 2 weeks of NRP in the usual clinical teaching of 16 students. The testing was done at the end of each 8-week rotation, and all students within each cohort received the same MCQs, OSCE and SCEs Results Independent t-tests were used to assess group differences in the mean MCQ, OSCE and SCE scores. The group receiving NRP training scored 4.7% higher on the MCQ component than those who did not. The mean differences for OSCE and SCE scores were non-significant. Conclusions Two weeks NRP exposure produced an absolute increase in students’ MCQ score. Longer periods of NRP exposure may also increase the OSCE and SCE scores. This promising pilot project needs to be confirmed using several trained preceptors and trainees at different levels of their clinical experience.
Previous research on attrition has focused on the economic consequences of low graduation rates in terms of costs to students and families (from tuition and fees that do not culminate in a credential), lost time, and income and tax losses from low educational attainment in the workforce. However, no systematic attention has been given to another…
In November 2009, the BC Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) hosted a "Visioning Session" to revisit the framework and definitions that have been used to measure the mobility of transfer students in British Columbia. Members of BCCAT's standing committees participated along with representatives from the Ministry of Advanced Education and…
Spang, Alonzo T.
Research is needed to determine whether American Indian students really benefit from counseling as perceived by non-Indians, the nature of current methods of formal and informal counseling of Indians, effective forms of counseling for Indians, the relationship between Indians' self-esteem and employment, factors affecting vocational…
Student assessment procedures used by the University of Mid-America/State University of Nebraska (UMA/SUN) for its first two televised courses, Introductory Psychology and Accounting I, are presented in this report. Included are descriptions of various experiments in producing test items, a report on the construction of tests from the items, and a…
Sharrad, Paul, Ed.
Ten papers discuss the relationship between cultural awareness and literature, with specific references to cultural resonances between East and West and between developed and developing nations. The papers represent seminar presentations of the Contact Literature Project in Honolulu in 1981. Contact literature refers to the study of literary…
Montagner, Cristina; Bacci, Mauro; Bracci, Susanna; Freeman, Rachel; Picollo, Marcello
An accurate characterisation of the organic dyes used in artworks, especially those made of paper, is an important factor in designing safe conservation treatments. In the case of synthetic organic dyes used in modern works of art, for example, one frequently encountered difficulty is that some of these dyes are not still commercially available. Recognizing this problem, the authors of this paper present the results of an analysis of UV-Vis-NIR fibre optic reflectance spectra of 82 samples of dyed paper prepared with 41 dyes. The samples come from a historic book, The Dyeing of Paper in the Pulp, which was published by Interessen-Gemeinschaft (I.G.) Farbenindustrie in 1925. The dyes used in the paper pulp belong to the azo compounds, acridine, anthraquinone, azine, diphenylmethane, indigoid, methine, nitro, quinoline, thiazine, triphenylmethane, sulphur and xanthene classes. PMID:21715217
Montagner, Cristina; Bacci, Mauro; Bracci, Susanna; Freeman, Rachel; Picollo, Marcello
An accurate characterisation of the organic dyes used in artworks, especially those made of paper, is an important factor in designing safe conservation treatments. In the case of synthetic organic dyes used in modern works of art, for example, one frequently encountered difficulty is that some of these dyes are not still commercially available. Recognizing this problem, the authors of this paper present the results of an analysis of UV-Vis-NIR fibre optic reflectance spectra of 82 samples of dyed paper prepared with 41 dyes. The samples come from a historic book, The Dyeing of Paper in the Pulp, which was published by Interessen-Gemeinschaft (I.G.) Farbenindustrie in 1925. The dyes used in the paper pulp belong to the azo compounds, acridine, anthraquinone, azine, diphenylmethane, indigoid, methine, nitro, quinoline, thiazine, triphenylmethane, sulphur and xanthene classes.
Pelayo, Jose Maria G., III.; Jao, Rodolfo V.; Pelayo, Jose Juancho S.
The research study involved sixty one (61) respondents (20 male and 41 females) Convenience sampling was used to select the respondents. All of the respondents are students of Systems Plus College Foundation taking up the subject General Psychology. Average age of the respondents is 18 years old. Based on the gathered data, all of the respondents…
Cavazos, Alyssa G.
This narrative provides a personal account of the author's student-teaching experience in a primarily Latina/o high school. In an analysis of the journal in which observations were during the experience, the following themes emerged: (a) high expectations before the semester, (b) conflicting messages, (c) teachers' expectations for standard…
Elby Coherence vs. Fragmentation in student epistemologies p. 1 DRAFT paper please do not cite Coherence vs. Fragmentation in student epistemologies: A reply to Smith & Wenk Andrew Elby Department Coherence vs. Fragmentation in student epistemologies p. 2 Abstract In the literature on conceptual change
Donovan, Colleen; Figlio, David; Rush, Mark
This paper presents the first evidence of the effects of school accountability systems on the long-term human capital development of high-performing, college-bound students. The results are mixed. On the one hand, the evidence is consistent that school accountability sanction threats are associated with changes in student study habits. Students…
Brophy, Jere E.
This paper reviews educational theory and research on student learning gains (especially in basic skills in elementary grades) and on motivating students to value and engage willingly in academic tasks. Research on the link between teacher behavior and student learning and attitudes is addressed in the first section, followed by a section…
Burke, Mary A.; Sass, Tim R.
In this paper we analyze the impact of classroom peers on individual student performance with a unique longitudinal data set covering all Florida public school students in grades 3-10 over a five-year period. Unlike many previous data sets used to study peer effects in education, our data set allow us to identify each member of a given student's…
Husen, Torsten; Saha, Lawrence J.; Noonan, Richard
Part 1 of this paper reviews major research findings on the relationship of teacher characteristics to student achievement. Of the 16 teacher variables analyzed, those identified as important to student performance are teacher certification, ability and achievement, experience, inservice training, expectations for students, and methods. Policy…
Erickson, Frederick; And Others
This paper serves as a prologue to three case studies exemplifying instances in which the status of a student in the classroom was socially constructed by the teacher and the attitudes of other students. In each case the student was considered as a "problem" in the classroom. It is noted that teachers appear to include in their judgements of…
Collins, Courtney A.; Gan, Li
This paper examines schools' decisions to sort students into different classes and how those sorting processes impact student achievement. There are two potential effects that result from schools creating homogeneous classes--a "tracking effect," which allows teachers to direct their focus to a more narrow range of students, and a peer effect,…
Makeham, Sheila; Lee, Charles
Where a student can benefit from having an examination paper presented aurally, the traditional method is to provide a reader. This can be socially uncomfortable for students, and offers of readers are frequently declined. A trial is reported in which examinations were presented on an Apple iPod. This is a medium with which many students are…
Aziz, Fatihah; Jusoh, Abd Wahab; Abu, Mohd Syafarudy
A decision tree is one of the techniques in data mining for prediction. Using this method, hidden information from abundant of data can be taken out and interpret the information into useful knowledge. In this paper the academic performance of the student will be examined from 2002 to 2012 from two faculties; Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering and Faculty of Microelectronic Engineering in University Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP). The objectives of this study are to determine and compare the factors that affect the students' academic achievement between the two faculties. The prediction results show there are five attributes that have been considered as factors that influence the students' academic performance.
Block, Lauren; Morgan-Gouveia, Melissa; Levine, Rachel B; Cayea, Danelle
Because safe transitions of care are critical to patient safety, it is important to prepare physician trainees to assist in patient transitions from the hospital. As part of a discharge skills workshop for medical students, a brief reflective exercise was used to understand student perceptions of discharge problems and encourage application of classroom learning. Written reflections completed before and after the workshop were analyzed qualitatively to identify barriers to discharge observed on clinical clerkships and evaluate how the discharge skills workshop influenced student understanding of safe discharges. Students also completed a quantitative evaluation of the workshop. Seventy-eight of the 96 students (81%) at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine who participated in the discharge skills workshop volunteered to submit their written reflections. Eighteen themes were identified within two domains (barriers to safe discharges and solutions to improve discharges). The most commonly cited barrier was the sense that the discharge was rushed or premature. Three of the barrier themes and six of the solution themes were related to the importance of communication and collaboration in safe discharges. Students reported that the reflective exercise personalized the learning experience (mean 3.27 ± 0.86 on a scale of 1 (not at all) to 4 (a lot)). Students observed barriers to safe discharges on their clerkships related to poor communication, insufficient time spent planning discharges, and lack of patient education. Brief reflection encouraged students to apply lessons learned in a didactic session to consider solutions for providing safer patient care. PMID:24697755
Rowicki, Mark Adam
This study examined the role of reflective journal writing on the development of critical thinking in seventh grade integrated science students. The students participating in this study were part of four science classes taught by the same instructor, using the same curriculum and methods employed during this study. The larger working group consisted of 69 seventh grade students who were allowed to participate in this study by virtue of a signed consent form. The 12 students who comprised the smaller writing group were selected from the larger working group. The smaller, criterion-based writing group was selected from the working group based on their level of critical thinking as indicated on the pre-test instrument. The study utilized several methods of data collection. Data were collected through analyses of student journal entries, class discussions, and a pre and posttest instrument to measure a student's level of critical thinking. All participants were given code names to mask their identity. The findings of this study indicate that a majority of the students' ability to think critically appeared to improve after 18 weeks of reflective journal writing. However, no relationship was found between a student's level of critical thinking and his or her ability to write reflectively. Although many participants did improve their level of reflective writing and critical thinking, there was no direct relationship found between the two skills. This study provided some evidence that reflective journal writing is beneficial for students although some benefits may be intangible. The attitudes of many students toward writing improved, and there was a noticeable increase in students' willingness to share their thoughts and respond to questions in class. Practice in reflective writing also contributed to improved writing skills by the participants. Additionally, there are five recommendations for further research derived from this study.
Keup, Jennifer Rinella
This study constructs a typology of student value orientation (defined as student aspirations, attitudes, and values related to the college experience) as it relates to student satisfaction with college. Value orientation traits are used to identify direct effects on overall student satisfaction; trait variables examine the possibility that…
This paper describes how a water monitoring program uses a science research paper to help students apply knowledge learned from the field, the lab, and class discussion. The application consists of examining water quality data of a river and determining what factors had an impact on the river, either biotic or abiotic. Students are asked to…
The purpose of this paper is to help countries understand some of the "key principles and characteristics of an effective student assessment system". The focus is on assessment of student learning and achievement at the K-12 level. The paper extracts principles and guidelines from countries' experiences, professional testing…
Gilat Brill; Anat Yarden
Question-asking is a basic skill, required for the development of scientific thinking. However, the way in which science lessons are conducted does not usually stimulate question-asking by students. To make students more familiar with the scientific inquiry process, we developed a curriculum in developmental biology based on research papers suitable for high-school students. Since a scientific paper poses a research
This paper demystifies reflective practice on teaching by focusing on the idea of reflection itself and how it has been conceived by two philosophers, Plato and Irigaray. It argues that reflective practice has become a standardized method of defining the teacher in teacher education and teacher accreditation systems. It explores how practices of…
Wittich, Christopher M.; Pawlina, Wojciech; Drake, Richard L.; Szostek, Jason H.; Reed, Darcy A.; Lachman, Nirusha; McBride, Jennifer M.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Beckman, Thomas J.
Improving professional attitudes and behaviors requires critical self reflection. Research on reflection is necessary to understand professionalism among medical students. The aims of this prospective validation study at the Mayo Medical School and Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine were: (1) to develop and validate a new instrument for…
Chang, Chi-Cheng; Chen, Cheng-Chuan; Chen, Yi-Hui
This research attempted to categorize reflection in a Web-based portfolio assessment using the Chinese Word Segmenting System (CWSS). Another aim of this research was to explore reflective performance in which individual differences were further examined. Participants were 45 eight-grade students from a junior high school taking a computer course.…
Allanson, Patricia Elizabeth
The purpose of this study was to determine if online reflections through social networking affect students' sense of community and levels of perceived conceptual learning in Algebra I courses. Social constructivism, connectivism, and computer-mediated communication in relation to reflective practices form the theoretical and practical…
Davis, Sara McCormick
Developing reflective practice in pre-service student teachers is a goal of many teacher education programs. This article describes three activities used in a graduate teacher education program that were designed to use an arts focus to provoke deeper reflection about teaching and learning. Clay tiles were used for illustrating personal metaphors…
Harten, Michael D.
This study analyzed three analytical essays and three metacognitive reflections written by 36 high school sophomores during one school year. After they had written analytical essays, students wrote reflections in which they described their writing process, explained what they did well, and identified two areas for improvement. The study focused on…
This qualitative case study examined how middle school science teachers conducted collaborative inquiry and reflection about students' conceptual understanding, and how individual teachers in the middle school science group acted and made reflections in response to their collaborative inquiry. It also examined external influences that affected the…
This paper concerns "The Little Red Schoolbook," an English translation of the Danish book "Den lille rode bog fur skoleelever." After the book's publication in the UK, opponents were successful in pressing for its publisher's prosecution. The ensuing trial led to its withdrawal and its bowdlerisation. It is argued that the work played some part…
Brill, Gilat; Yarden, Anat
Question-asking is a basic skill, required for the development of scientific thinking. However, the way in which science lessons are conducted does not usually stimulate question-asking by students. To make students more familiar with the scientific inquiry process, we developed a curriculum in developmental biology based on research papers suitable for high-school students. Since a scientific paper poses a research question, demonstrates the events that led to the answer, and poses new questions, we attempted to examine the effect of studying through research papers on students' ability to pose questions. Students were asked before, during, and after instruction what they found interesting to know about embryonic development. In addition, we monitored students' questions, which were asked orally during the lessons. Questions were scored according to three categories: properties, comparisons, and causal relationships. We found that before learning through research papers, students tend to ask only questions of the properties category. In contrast, students tend to pose questions that reveal a higher level of thinking and uniqueness during or following instruction with research papers. This change was not observed during or following instruction with a textbook. We suggest that learning through research papers may be one way to provide a stimulus for question-asking by high-school students and results in higher thinking levels and uniqueness. PMID:14673492
Heine, Hilda C.
This paper provides background information about the geography, language, culture, and political history of the Micronesian region, noting that Hawaii's public schools are experiencing an increase in the enrollment of children from Micronesia. Micronesia includes the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; the three Freely Associated States…
Student Federal Tax Information Beginning with the 2012-2013 school year, Student Financial Services will not accept paper copies of Federal Tax Returns. We will ONLY be accepting copies of official Federal Income Tax Transcripts for verification purposes OR tax data transferred via the IRS Data
Isaac, Carol; Behar-Horenstein, Linda; Lee, Barbara; Catalanotto, Frank
To respond to widespread disparities in access to oral health care, the Institute of Medicine, the Commission on Dental Accreditation (CODA), and the U.S. surgeon general have stressed that prospective dentists should become culturally competent, socially responsible practitioners. The aim of this study was to examine linguistic differences in dental students' reflective writing assignments before and after interviewing an individual who was culturally different from themselves. The authors analyzed 160 documents from 80 first-year dental students at the University of Florida in 2012. This cohort consisted of 36 male (45%) and 44 female (55%) students; 26 (32%) were from underrepresented minority (URM) groups and 54 (68%) were identified as white non-minority. Text analysis software identified word counts, categories, frequencies, and contexts. Significantly positive differences occurred for interviews between assignments 1 and 2 (p=0.005 to p<0.001) in five areas of cultural diversity. Differences were observed for Factor 1 ("important others' influence") between assignments (p<0.001), assignments by interview categories (p=0.033), and URM/majority participants by assignments by interview category (p=0.018). Factor 4 ("my social world in relation to others") was statistically different between assignments for URM/majority participants (p=0.019). Factor 5 ("wrong because") was statistically different for gender (p=0.041), suggesting that males may have experienced a rebound effect from stereotype suppression. The findings suggest that the use of reflective writing and interviews affected the students' awareness of how important others had influenced their lives and attitudes and facilitated their questioning preconceived assumptions. Reactions to coursework focusing on social and personal domains warrant further investigation. PMID:25729025
Milman, Natalie B.
This paper describes the findings of a qualitative study to examine preservice teacher education students' experiences and reasons for creating digital teaching portfolios. Also, it examines the advantages and disadvantages of creating digital teaching portfolios. Findings indicate that the process of creating digital teaching portfolios was a…
Magntorn, Ola; Hellden, Gustav
This paper addresses student-teachers' ability to "read nature" in a woodland habitat before and after a 10-week ecology course. "Reading nature" is our definition of the ability to observe, describe and explain basic ecology in the field. Data consists of field-based pre-course and post-course interviews followed up by metacognitive interviews…
Cambra-Fierro, Jesus; Cambra-Berdun, Jesus
Purpose: This paper aims to demonstrate that students' self-evaluations contribute to improving academic results and life skills. Design/methodology/approach: Taking as reference a group of previously validated scales (part 1: measurement), a causal model is developed. Hypotheses are tested through the structural equations methodology by using the…
Ballantyne, Roy; Anderson, David; Packer, Jan
Although the important role of providing fieldwork experiences for students in the natural environment is now well-established within environmental education literature, there is still little research evidence to guide teachers in their choice of effective teaching strategies. This paper presents findings from an interpretive case study designed…
Cooper, Linda Z.
This paper presents a case study that examines an internship as service learning and participating students' perceptions of their learning in two learning environments. The internship experience in this situation is first examined to ascertain that it qualifies as service learning. At the conclusion of this service learning internship experience,…
Herington, Carmel; Weaven, Scott
This paper presents an action research approach to exploring methods of improving the learning styles and outcomes of first year university students within large class environments. The genesis of this project stemmed from an observation that entire tutorial groups were often lethargic in their approach to learning. Following a survey of learning…
Becherer, Vicky H.
With the ever-changing healthcare systems, nursing students need to think at a high level by applying their knowledge from theory to the clinical setting by prioritizing, delegating, and problem solving to provide safe, competent, quality nursing care. Using action research, nursing students participated in R.A.V.E. (Reflective Thinking Allows…
Haller, Coralie; Fisher, Ron; Gapp, Rod
Purpose: To provide an understanding of the ways in which Confucian Heritage students use reflection as a means of learning at university. Design/methodology/approach: The approach is an exploratory qualitative study into the ways in which Confucian Heritage students learn while studying at university. Data are collected by means of…
Smith, Valerie M.
This article presents knowledge about disability issues that seven undergraduate students constructed through participation in a semester-long service learning class. In-depth interviews and examination of reflective journals revealed that students used their experiences to question the nature of relationships with people with disabilities, the…
Billett, Stephen; Ovens, Carolyn
As many, perhaps most, high-school students engage in paid part-time employment, there is available in any Australian senior school classroom a range of work experiences that can be used to assist students to consider and reflect on working life and post-school pathways. Furthermore, these experiences are more readily available and authentic than…
Thompson, Graham; Pilgrim, Alan; Oliver, Kristy
A self-assessment schedule has been developed for first-year geography students at Curtin University of Technology. Its purpose is to guide students towards independent learning by encouraging them to reflect more on "what" and "how" they learn. Results of the 2003 and 2004 trials showed that the self-assessment schedule had a positive impact on…
Shek, Daniel T L; Wu, Florence K Y
To promote the holistic development of university students, a course entitled "Tomorrow's Leaders" was developed and offered at The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. Based on a case study approach, reflective journals of five outstanding students of the course are presented and analyzed (i.e., thick description), with several themes emerging from the reflection. First, the students liked the course, and they identified many positive attributes. Second, the students appreciated the instructors. Third, the students viewed that the course contributed to different aspects of their development. Fourth, some areas of improvements were proposed. In conjunction with other evaluation mechanisms, the present findings strongly suggest that the course is able to promote psychosocial competencies in university students taking this course. PMID:22973167
Shek, Daniel T. L.; Wu, Florence K. Y.
To promote the holistic development of university students, a course entitled “Tomorrow's Leaders” was developed and offered at The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. Based on a case study approach, reflective journals of five outstanding students of the course are presented and analyzed (i.e., thick description), with several themes emerging from the reflection. First, the students liked the course, and they identified many positive attributes. Second, the students appreciated the instructors. Third, the students viewed that the course contributed to different aspects of their development. Fourth, some areas of improvements were proposed. In conjunction with other evaluation mechanisms, the present findings strongly suggest that the course is able to promote psychosocial competencies in university students taking this course. PMID:22973167
Reading reflections are designed to encourage students to complete readings before coming to class, to reflect more deeply on the content of the reading, to make personal meaning from the meaning, and to develop their metacognitive skills for lifelong learning. The reflections consist of three questions: (1) What is the main point of the reading?, (2) What information did you find surprising? Why?, and (3) What did you find confusing? Why? Students submit short responses to two of three questions prior to coming to class. Metacognitive components of the activity Reading reflections address many elements of metacognition, including knowledge, control, and reflection. Reading reflections are designed to help students develop knowledge about themselves as learners, learning tasks (reading), prior knowledge, content, self-monitoring, self-assessment, and reflection. Metacognitive goals The primary goals of this activity are to help students develop their skills of self-assessment, and to reflect more deeply on the content of their reading assignments. Reflective thinking is an essential element of expert learners, so this activity helps students develop skills as intentional learners for lifelong learning. Assessing students' metacognition Reading reflections (n = 35 in a typical semester) count for approximately 10% of the course grade. I do not grade these reflections, but give students credit if they are turned in on time (before class) and if they clearly demonstrate significant reflection.
The Student Success Student Profile for Fall 2007 reflects admission,enrollment, performance and special interest data pertaining to students at the University of Kansas (Lawrence, Edwards and Medical Center campuses). Data provided is Fall 2007 (unless o
) Ethnicity1 Full-time/Part-time1 Level1 Residency1 School1 Undergraduate/Graduate1 Data Sources Student and special interest data pertaining to students at the University of Kansas (Lawrence, Edwards and MedicalThe Student Success Student Profile for Fall 2007 reflects admission,enrollment, performance
Farina, Deborah O.
Current traditional reflective practices in teacher preparation may be failing to address the needs of teacher candidates in terms of their identity formation as teachers. This qualitative study, utilizing a participant group of six graduate students in their student teaching internships at a small public liberal arts university, explored whether…
How to Present a Paper in Theoretical Computer Science: A Speaker's Guide for Students Ian Parberry How to Present a Paper, Dat5 2006 #12;Introduction Often you need to present your own or others work Success in academia can be assisted by being a good speaker 2 How to Present a Paper, Dat5 2006 #12
Backes, Ben; Velez, Erin Dunlop
This paper utilizes a comprehensive longitudinal dataset containing a census of every public high school student in Florida to describe two- to four-year college transfer patterns. Our main finding is the significant degree to which community college transfer students are sensitive to distance: relative to recent high school graduates, community…
The adoption of problem-based learning as a teaching method in the advertising and public relations programs offered by the Business TAFE (Technical and Further Education) School at RMIT University is explored in this paper. The effect of problem-based learning on student engagement, student learning and contextualised problem-solving was…
Cooke, Rachel; Rosenthal, Danielle
In fall 2008, students from first-year Composition I and upper-level classes at Florida Gulf Coast University participated in a citation analysis study. The citation pages of their research papers revealed that the students used more books, more types of sources, and more overall sources when a librarian provided instruction. When these results…
This paper considers the scholarly knowledge base that exists on classroom management in an effort to educate teachers about managing classrooms and students. The concepts of instruction, classroom management, student socialization, and disciplinary intervention as functions commonly performed by teachers are defined. It is argued that a sustained…
Thomas, Emily; Reznik, Gayle; Dawes, William
This paper argues that a typical use of regression models to target student recruitment efforts is theoretically unsound and may therefore be operationally inefficient. It presents results from a study using a predictive model to identify the prospective students on whom recruitment efforts have the greatest impact. The model uses four kinds of…
Johnson, Robert Clover, Ed.; Cohen, Oscar P., Ed.
This collection of papers examines the controversy about the full inclusion movement for students with deafness. The collection begins with an introduction by Oscar P. Cohen which traces the history of education of deaf students, examines legal provisions used to justify full inclusion, and urges continuation of the continuum of special services.…
Hamm, Simon; Angliss, William
The preference of students to choose a career in events management over hospitality despite low demand for skills is the focus of this paper. The need for greater involvement of external stakeholders is identified as important in ensuring that students make an informed decision when choosing a career path. A model representing the ideal situation…
Adey, David, Comp.; And Others
Seventeen papers from the University of South Africa's Conference on Distance Education are presented. They include: "Establishing a Formal Student Support System--Time Is of the Essence" (Karen Hinrichs); "A Student Services Unit in a Distance Education Institution" (Hendrik Gous); "Distance Education and the Community: New Partnerships and…
Taherbhai, Husein; Seo, Daeryong; Bowman, Trinell
Literature in the United States provides many examples of no difference in student achievement when measured against the mode of test administration i.e., paper-pencil and online versions of the test. However, most of these researches centre on "regular" students who do not require differential teaching methods or different evaluation processes…
Rhoads, Robert A.
This paper examines the organizational context in which student protest is currently enacted and finds a new generation of campus activism organized around multiculturalism. Qualitative methods are used to analyze five case studies of student protest: (1) the Mills College (California) strike of 1990; (2) the Chicano studies movement at the…
Fryer, Roland G., Jr.
This paper describes a series of school-based randomized trials in over 250 urban schools designed to test the impact of financial incentives on student achievement. In stark contrast to simple economic models, our results suggest that student incentives increase achievement when the rewards are given for inputs to the educational production…
Ward, Kelly; Vernon, Andrea
This paper explores community perceptions of students and faculty involved in service learning and campus outreach initiatives, examining how communities and campuses engage in service activities; how the service mission of higher education is perceived; whether service learning students help or hinder community agencies; and how partnerships…
Komis, Vassilis; Ergazaki, Marida; Zogza, Vassiliki
This study aims at highlighting the collaborative activity of two high school students (age 14) in the cases of modeling the complex biological process of plant growth with two different tools: the "paper & pencil" concept mapping technique and the computer-supported educational environment "ModelsCreator". Students' shared activity in both cases…
Brill, Gilat; Yarden, Anat
Question-asking is a basic skill, required for the development of scientific thinking. However, the way in which science lessons are conducted does not usually stimulate question-asking by students. To make students more familiar with the scientific inquiry process, we developed a curriculum in developmental biology based on research papers…
Borden, Victor M. H.
A market segmentation analysis was conducted on students at a large midwestern urban university using two forms of hierarchical cluster analysis on student characteristics: an agglomerative procedure using a matching-type association measure and a divisive chi-square based automatic interaction detection (CHAID) procedure. Data were extracted from…
Kjeldsen, Tinne Hoff; Blomhøj, Morten
Mathematical models and mathematical modeling play different roles in the different areas and problems in which they are used. The function and status of mathematical modeling and models in the different areas depend on the scientific practice as well as the underlying philosophical and theoretical position held by the modeler(s) and the practitioners in the extra-mathematical domain. For students to experience the significance of different scientific practices and cultures for the function and status of mathematical modeling in other sciences, students need to be placed in didactical situations where such differences are exposed and made into explicit objects of their reflections. It can be difficult to create such situations in the teaching of contemporary science in which modeling is part of the culture. In this paper we show how history can serve as a means for students to be engaged in situations in which they can experience and be challenged to reflect upon and criticize, the use of modeling and the significance of the context for the function and status of modeling and models in scientific practices. We present Nicolas Rashevsky's model of cell division from the 1930s together with a discussion of disagreement between him and some biologists as one such episode from the past. We illustrate how a group of science students at Roskilde University, through their work with this historical case, experienced that different scientific cultures have different opinions of the value of a model as an instrument for gaining scientific knowledge; that the explanatory power of a model is linked not only to the context of its use, but also to the underlying philosophical and theoretical position held by the modeler(s) and the scientists discussing the model and its use. The episode's potential to challenge students to reflect upon and criticize the modeling process and the function of models in an extra mathematical domain is discussed with respect to the notions of internal and external reflections.
Use of Synchrotron Reflectance Infrared Spectromicroscopy as a Rapid, Direct, Non on the infrared microscope sample holder and were measured in reflectance mode. The paper used was measured radiation-based infrared (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy offers a powerful, non-destructive method for the study
Lillyman, Sue; Gutteridge, Robin; Berridge, Pat
This paper evaluates the use of storyboarding within a classroom setting as a means of addressing end of life issues and engaging second year student nurses in creative, critical thinking and deeper reflection on practice. Storyboarding is a process that was developed to encourage learners to use the creative right brain and the critical left brain to formulate ideas in front of a group and then to look at those ideas critically (Lottier, 1986). The session was evaluated using a questionnaire and group discussion to elicit perceived learning from students. The activity was to create the storyboards in small groups, then review the content generated by discussion with the whole group. Main themes identified by the students included breaking bad news, dealing with cardiac arrest situation, coping with families following bereavement and the dying patient. Evaluation of the teaching session suggested that students found storyboarding helped to identify cultural aspects and feelings related to the dying patient. Students valued sharing with each other and the opportunity to have their experiences heard. It was noted that although this method provided as valuable learning experience for the student it is staff and time intensive and attention is required to establish a climate of trust and safety. The risk of exposing unexpected emotions within individual students appears no greater than with other approaches to teaching about loss, death and dying. PMID:20880744
This paper analyses the experience of one individual in the development and delivery of an innovative, undergraduate leadership development module. The module is accessed by practising health care professionals in Malaysia as part of a top-up Honours Degree and is delivered solely using a virtual learning environment (VLE), in this case Blackboard. The aim of this analysis is to contribute to the current body of knowledge regarding the use of VLE technology to facilitate learning at a distance. Of particular relevance is the paper's focus on: the drivers for e-learning; widening participation and increasing access; the experience of designing and delivering learning of relevance for this contemporary student population and evaluating the VLE experience/module. The development and delivery of this module is one result of a rapidly growing area of education. As a novice teacher in her first year in the higher education sector, this experience was a significant and stimulating challenge for a number of reasons and these are explored in greater depth. This is achieved by means of personal reflection using the phases of module development and delivery as a focus. PMID:19040861
Gleaves, Alan; Walker, Caroline; Grey, John
This is the second of two papers based on a study of how digital and paper diaries contribute to students' understanding of the processes of their learning within their academic disciplines. The purpose of the study was to use diary writing as a vehicle by which we would try and comprehend how students both make sense of assessment feedback and…
Relying primarily on the responses of a proportionally weighted sample of undergraduate students attending eighteen major public research universities (N greater than 300K, responses from greater than 130K, n greater than 40K) that are part of the Student Experience in the Research University Consortium, this paper concludes that students from…
To ensure a modern bioscience curriculum that responds to the current needs of stakeholders, there is a need to embed a range of generic capabilities that enables graduates to succeed in and contribute to a rapidly changing world, as well as building strong bioscience skills and knowledge. The curriculum must also prepare students for a rapidly evolving competitive work place and align with the needs of industry. This creates a challenge, how do we develop generic capabilities without losing discipline content. This report analyses teamwork projects embedded in an undergraduate Biotechnology degree designed to promote teamwork skills along with a deeper understanding of the underpinning biochemistry. Student reflective writing was used to capture students' understanding and experience of teamwork as well as provide insight into their metacognition. The analysis demonstrates that 73% of Year 3 and 93% of Year 4 students were capable of learning about teamwork through reflective writing. While the importance of frequent high quality communication was a common theme, evidence suggests that many students were unsophisticated in their use of communication software. The analysis also highlighted the depth of metacognition that underpins successful team function and the significant weaknesses in self-insight some students possess. These findings challenge assumptions regarding student capacity for leadership and the ability of some students to contribute to successful team outcomes. It is essential for the design of teamwork experiences to fully understand the competencies that underlie teamwork, the metacognitive processes required, and ensure that assessments are fair and measure individual academic performance. PMID:22807426
Corcoran, Amy M; True, Gala; Charles, Natasha; Margo, Katherine L
Since the Association of American Medical Colleges geriatric competencies were released, educators are striving to incorporate them into medical student curricula. The purpose of this study is to examine medical students' reflections after an interdisciplinary, hospice staff-precepted clinical experience, and whether these reflections relate to the geriatric competencies which focus on palliative care. From July 2010 to June 2011, 155 2nd- and 3rd-year medical students participated in a required, half-day hospice experience, with 120 (77%) submitting narrative reflections for analysis. The narratives were analyzed using the constant comparative method associated with grounded theory, followed by consensus-building in an iterative process, to identify themes. Six themes were identified from the analysis of student narratives: demonstrating a new or expanded knowledge of hospice care (79%, 95/120), developing new insights about self and others (74%, 89/120), changing attitudes toward hospice care (63%, 76/120), linking patient needs with appropriate team members (43%, 52/120), understanding patient goals of care (43%, 51/120), and discussing palliative care as a treatment option (27%, 32/120). The authors conclude that a brief, interdisciplinary, hospice staff-precepted clinical experience is an effective model to inspire medical students to reflect on geriatric palliative care. Students clearly reflected on the geriatric palliative care competencies of symptom assessment and management, and gained insight into the role of the hospice team members and how hospice care can be a positive treatment option. Future educators should think about building on this type of high impact learning experience, and developing items to measure application of knowledge gained. PMID:23972213
Towndrow, Phillip Alexander; Ling, Tan Aik; Venthan, A. M.
The purpose of this research paper is to detail how reflective journal writing can be used to facilitate science students' curiosity and engagement in laboratory work. This study advocates reflective journal writing as an instructional tool and a student-created learning resource that can serve additional formative assessment purposes. The…
August, Diane, Comp.; And Others
This paper presents recommendations designed to ensure that limited-English-proficient (LEP) children are included in proposals embodied in "Goals 2000." These are as follows: persons knowledgeable about the education of LEP students should be included in national, state and local panels; all educational reform activities should address the needs…
Ho, Van; Chang, Sue; Olivas, Rosa; Almacen, Catherine; Dimanlig, Marbert; Rodriguez, Heather
This article written by baccalaureate nursing students briefly discusses the use of music therapy in clients on mechanical ventilation in intensive care units. The article explores the possible benefits of music therapy and its use in other aspects of health care. PMID:23042464
Background The six year medical programme at the University of the Witwatersrand admits students into the programme through two routes – school entrants and graduate entrants. Graduates join the school entrants in the third year of study in a transformed curriculum called the Graduate Entry Medical Programme (GEMP). In years I and 2 of the GEMP, the curriculum is structured into system based blocks. Problem-based learning, using a three session format, is applied in these two years. The curriculum adopts a biopsychosocial approach to health care, which is implemented through spiral teaching and learning in four main themes – basic and clinical sciences, patient-doctor, community- doctor and personal and professional development. In 2010 this programme produced its fifth cohort of graduates. Methods We undertook a qualitative, descriptive and contextual study to explore the graduating students’ perceptions of the programme. Interviews were conducted with a total of 35 participants who volunteered to participate in the study. The majority of the participants interviewed participated in focus group discussions. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically, using Tesch’s eight steps. Ethics approval for the study was obtained from the Human Research Ethics Committee of the University of the Witwatersrand. Participants provided written consent to participate in the interviews and for the interviews to be audio-taped. Results Six themes were identified. These were: two separate programmes, problem-based learning and Garmins® (navigation system), see patients for real, being seen as doctors, assessment: of mice and MCQ’s, a cry for support and personal growth and pride. Participants were vocal in their reflections of experiences encountered during the programme and made several insightful suggestions for curriculum transformation. The findings suggest that graduates are exiting the programme confident and ready to begin their internships. Conclusions The findings of this study have identified a number of areas which need attention in the curriculum. Specifically attention needs to be given to ensuring that assessment is standardized; student support structures and appropriate levels of teaching. The study demonstrated the value of qualitative methods in obtaining students’ perceptions of a curriculum. PMID:22742710
Scott W. Bonham; Duane L. Deardorff; Robert J. Beichner
Homework gives students an opportunity to practice important college-level physics skills. A switch to Web-based homework alters the nature of feedback received, potentially changing the pedagogical benefit. Calculus- and algebra-based introductory physics students enrolled in large paired lecture sections at a public university completed homework of standard end-of-the-chapter exercises using either the Web or paper. Comparison of their performances on
Chin, Chi-Chin; Tuan, Hsiao-Lin
The purpose of this study was to enhance the reflection of pre-service science teachers by infusing museum resources and context into a methods course. Qualitative methods were used for data collection from 21 students who took the course. The data sources came from field notes, reports, diaries, and interviews. The findings showed that when the…
Chamoso, J. M.; Caceres, M. J.
Research in teacher-training counsels that reflection should be fostered in order to prepare capable professionals for educational practice. For this reason, a teaching-learning process for training mathematics student-teachers in Spanish university classrooms incorporating an assessment system that included keeping a learning portfolio was…
Howard, Z R; Donalson, L M; Kim, W K; Li, X; Zabala Díaz, I; Landers, K L; Maciorowski, K G; Ricke, S C
Because food and poultry industries are demanding an improvement in written communication skills among graduates, research paper writing should be an integral part of a senior undergraduate class. However, scientific writing assignments are often treated as secondary to developing the technical skills of the students. Scientific research paper writing has been emphasized in an undergraduate course on advanced food microbiology taught in the Poultry Science Department at Texas A& M University (College Station, TX). Students' opinions suggest that research paper writing as part of a senior course in Poultry Science provides students with scientific communication skills and useful training for their career, but more emphasis on reading and understanding scientific literature may be required. PMID:16523638
The Ocean Sciences Section has selected four students to receive Best Student Paper Awards for the 1988 Joint AGU and American Society for Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO) Meeting held last January in New Orleans.Brad M. Bebout received a Best Student Paper Award for his paper “The Use of Agricultural Waste (Corn Slash) to Support Microzone-Associated Nitrogen Fixation by Marine Microorganisms.” Bebout is an M.S. candidate in marine sciences at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. His thesis is on “The Role of Marine Fungi in Food Selection and Nutrition of the Salt Marsh Periwinkle Littorina irrorata Say (Gastropoda).” He received his B.A. in biology from the University of California, Santa Cruz.
Guideline for Term Paper There is no specific format for the reading assignments that students. Understanding of the papers Students must understand the main topics and the basic principles of the papers that they select, and those concepts must be described in the term paper by their own words. 2. How effectively
Gelfer, Jeffrey I.; Perkins, Peggy G.
Student portfolios provide information for the teacher, help children question and reflect on their work, communicate progress and growth to parents and teachers, and are useful in developing and evaluating children's school programs. To obtain a more adequate notion of what a student portfolio is, it is useful to ask five questions: (1) What do…
Nurnberg, Peter; Schapiro, Morton; Zimmerman, David
The college choice process can be reduced to three questions: (1) Where does a student apply?; (2) Which schools accept the students?; and (3) Which offer of admission does the student accept? This paper addresses question three. Specifically, we offer an econometric analysis of the matriculation decisions made by students accepted to Williams…
Wegner, Claas; Remmert, Kathrin; Strehlke, Friederike
Critics encourage the process of "reflection" as a prerequisite for professionalizing how teachers behave in the classroom. Reflection helps in recognizing areas in need of improvement. Self-reflection is hence one of the teacher's most important skills in order to work constantly on one's teaching and how to improve it. However, the…
Case, Jan; Backes, Erica; Babu, Sonica; White, Ashley; Jennings, Elizabeth
Simultaneous calls have been issued for reflective thinking and interdisciplinary collaboration in the teaching and the practice of rehabilitation counseling. This article introduces a learning tool, Fanciful Reflections, which can serve as a stimulus in such endeavors. Classroom and in-the-field applications of "fanciful reflecting" are provided…
Jargowsky, Paul A.; El Komi, Mohamed
This paper explores the relative effects of school and neighborhood characteristics on student achievement. Previous empirical studies have estimated one of these effects in the absence of controls for the other, leading to potentially misleading results. Results show school variables are more robust and explain a greater degree of the variance in…
The focus of this paper is a group of rural high school students and the factors that contributed to their participation in mathematics classes beyond those minimally required for high school graduation. The author follows Gutierrez (2002) in referring to participation as course taking, particularly in elective and advanced mathematics classes.…
Marie, Olivier; Zölitz, Ulf
This paper investigates how legal cannabis access affects student performance. Identification comes from an exceptional policy introduced in the city of Maastricht which discriminated legal access based on individuals' nationality. We apply a difference-in-difference approach using administrative panel data on over 54,000 course grades of local…
Ronco, Sharron L.
This paper demonstrates the application of common statistical methods to evaluate the dimensionality, reliability, generalizability, and potential biasing factors of the student assessment of instruction (SAI) instrument used at Florida Atlantic University. Findings indicated: (1) factor analysis uncovered just two factors, one describing…
The goal of this analysis was to obtain local citation behavior data on undergraduates researching history, political science, and sociology papers. The study found that students cited books and journals even with the availability of web sources; however, usage varied by subject. References to specific websites' domains also varied across subject…
Thesis Capitalization Rules Overcapitalization is a recurring issue in theses, student papers, and even some published literature. Simple nouns are often capitalized incorrectly in government sources as capitalization guidelines. The bottom line: Know the rules, but, above all else, be consistent. GENERAL RULES
Orvis, Jessica N.; Orvis, Jeffrey A.
Active engagement in the classroom is one of the best tools available for overcoming conceptual difficulties. Science educators agree that students of all ages learn more by participating actively in the interpretation of scientific phenomena (NAS 2003; NSF 1998). In this article, the authors describe demonstrations in class using paper wads as an…
Brown, Greg; And Others
The annotated bibliography of over 150 commercially available career education materials for educable retarded (EMR) students is the second in a series of working papers from Project PRICE (Programming Retarded in Career Education). Entries are grouped under 22 competencies considered essential for community adjustment, which fall under three…
This paper analyzes households' response to the introduction of intra-district school choice and examines the impact of exercising this choice on student test scores in Pinellas County Schools, one of the largest school districts in the United States. Households react strongly to the incentives created by such programs, leading to significant…
Asbeck, Peter M.
Student paper Effects of Gate Recess Depth on Pulsed I-V Characteristics of AlGaNlGaN HFETs Adam pulsed I-V characteristics of AlGaNiGaN HFETS fabricated with gate regions recessed into the AlGaN harrier layer with different recess geometries. Pulsed I-V characteristics are known to correlate with rf
Macedo-Rouet, Monica; Ney, Muriel; Charles, Sandrine; Lallich-Boidin, Genevieve
The use of computers to deliver course-related materials is rapidly expanding in most universities. Yet the effects of computer vs. printed delivery modes on students' performance and motivation are not yet fully known. We compared the impacts of Web vs. paper to deliver practice quizzes that require information search in lecture notes. Hundred…
FOR STUDENT PAPER COMPETITION 1 Adaptive Design for Distributed MIMO Radar Using Sparse Modeling Output (MIMO) radar systems with widely separated antennas provide spatial diversity gain by viewing a new metric to analyze the performance of the radar system. We develop an adaptive mechanism
Collins, Eva-Maria S.; Calhoun, Tessa R.
This article presents the combination of three enhanced educational approaches for training future scientists. These methods incorporate skills generally not introduced in the freshman year: student-led blackboard introductions; the writing of scientific papers; and the design, execution, and presentation of an independent lab module. We tested…
Caetano, Gregorio; Patrinos, Harry A.; Palacios, Miguel
This paper reports the results of an experiment designed to test for the presence of debt aversion. The population who participated in the experiment were recent financial aid candidates and the experiment focused on student loans. The goal is to shed new light on different aspects of the perceptions with respect to debt. These perceptions can…
Acceleration, which involves the reorganization of instruction and curricula in ways that facilitate the completion of academic requirements in an expedited manner, is an increasingly popular strategy at community colleges for improving the outcomes of developmental education students. This paper reviews the literature on acceleration and…
DeSimone, Jeffrey S.
This paper estimates the effect of paid employment on grades of full-time, four-year students from four nationally representative cross sections of the Harvard College Alcohol Study administered during 1993-2001. The relationship could be causal in either direction and is likely contaminated by unobserved heterogeneity. Two-stage GMM regressions…
Rhoads, Robert A.
This paper describes how an ethnographer proceeded in a study of group identify, voice, and participation in the greater culture of gay and bisexual college men at a large research university. The researcher, himself a heterosexual man, conceptualized the investigation as a crossing of cultural borders. The investigator initially attended several…
Ryan, Michael; Brough, Dean
While requiring students to think reflectively is a desirable teaching goal, it is often fraught with complexity and is sometimes poorly implemented in higher education. In this paper, we describe an approach to academic reflective practices that fitted a design subject in fashion education and was perceived as effective in enhancing student…
Describes student teachers' thoughts and feelings during a British Council funded project involving a working visit to Bulgaria for 12 student teachers of English and geography, examining the widely experienced feelings of otherness and noting other intercultural and interdisciplinary dimensions. The paper discusses the value of the project in…
Garng Huang, Senior Member, IEEE H. Zhang, Student Member IEEE Abstract: This paper first analyzes engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843-3128. H. Zhang is currently a Ph.D. student
Northern British Columbia, University of
Information Sheet Students PaperCut 1. When you log into a computer on campus, the PaperCut Balance window will appear in the right hand corner of your screen. 2. Each semester, you will need to ensure you have an account credit to be used for printing. Your current balance will appear in the Paper
Sen, Barbara; Ford, Nigel
This paper presents the "SEA-change" model of reflection. It was developed to support the growing interest in reflective practice within the library domain. The model was developed from experience gained teaching and training reflective writing to students and practitioners within librarianship. The model was tested using data gathered from the…
Yaghjian, Lucretia B.
In order to teach theological reflection well, it is necessary to teach students how to write it well. This paper probes the writing of theological reflection as a rhetorical process and a theological practice by (1) situating theological reflection broadly within a "correlation" model, adapted for theological writers; (2) identifying two…
Rocha, Magda; Guimarães, Maria Isabel
The adaptation of the student career construction inventory was carried out with a Portuguese sample of 356 first-year economics, management, psychology, nursing, nutrition sciences, bio-engineering, and biosciences students (244 women, 112 men; M age = 19.4, SD = 4.4) in the Catholic University of Portugal, Porto. Confirmatory factorial analysis supported the prior structure of the reflective models, with acceptable fit indexes. Internal consistency coefficients for the scales were poor to acceptable (.51 to .89). The formative nature of career adaptability was supported in a complex model identified by structural relations for which the fit indexes were weak but acceptable for a preliminary study. PMID:23402052
Kumar, Revathy; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.
This paper examines school policies relating to alcohol and illicit drug use, and their associations with the prevalence of alcohol and marijuana use among students. Both "punitive" and "supportive" policies are examined. Other studies examining punitive disciplinary measures--such as close monitoring of student behavior, having various security…
Aiuti, Alessandro; Cossu, Giulio; de Felipe, Pablo; Galli, Maria Cristina; Narayanan, Gopalan; Renner, Matthias; Stahlbom, Axel; Schneider, Christian K; Voltz-Girolt, Caroline
In the European Union, the Committee for Advanced Therapies of the European Medicines Agency takes the lead in the scientific assessment for marketing authorization applications for advanced therapy medicinal products, which include gene therapy medicinal products, somatic cell therapy medicinal products, and tissue-engineered products. The Committee for Advanced Therapies also takes the lead in defining the scientific framework for the quality, nonclinical and clinical development of such products. This reflection paper represents the Committee's current thinking on management of clinical risks deriving from insertional mutagenesis. A multidisciplinary approach to insertional mutagenesis is provided. This reflection paper has been adopted by the committee in its April 2013 meeting. PMID:23862696
Background Self-reflection and reflective practice are increasingly considered as essential attributes of competent professionals functioning in complex and ever-changing healthcare systems of the 21st century. The aim of this study was to determine the extent of students' awareness and understanding of the reflective process and the meaning of 'self-reflection' within the contextual framework of their learning environment in the first-year of their medical/dental education. We endorse that the introduction of such explicit educational tasks at this early stage enhances and promotes students' awareness, understanding, and proficiency of this skill in their continuing life-long health professional learning. Methods Over two years, students registered in first-year pathology at the University of Saskatchewan were introduced to a self-reflection assignment which comprised in the submission of a one-page reflective document to a template of reflective questions provided in the given context of their learning environment. This was a mandatory but ungraded component at the midterm and final examinations. These documents were individually analyzed and thematically categorized to a "5 levels-of-reflection-awareness" scale using a specially-designed rubric based on the accepted major theories of reflection that included students' identification of: 1) personal abilities, 2) personal learning styles 3) relationships between course material and student history 4) emotional responses and 5) future applications. Results 410 self-reflection documents were analyzed. The student self-awareness on personal learning style (72.7% level 3+) and course content (55.2% level 3+) were well-reflected. Reflections at a level 1 awareness included identification of a) specific teaching strategies utilized to enhance learning (58.4%), b) personal strengths/weaknesses (53%), and c) emotional responses, values, and beliefs (71.5%). Students' abilities to connect information to life experiences and to future events with understanding were more evenly distributed across all 5 levels of reflection-awareness. Conclusions Exposure to self-reflection assignments in the early years of undergraduate medical education increases student awareness and promotes the creation of personal meaning of one's reactions, values, and premises in the context of student learning environments. Early introduction with repetition to such cognitive processes as practice tools increases engagement in reflection that may facilitate proficiency in mastering this competency leading to the creation of future reflective health professionals. PMID:21943239
Bonham, Scott W.; Deardorff, Duane L.; Beichner, Robert J.
Homework gives students an opportunity to practice important college-level physics skills. A switch to Web-based homework alters the nature of feedback received, potentially changing the pedagogical benefit. Calculus- and algebra-based introductory physics students enrolled in large paired lecture sections at a public university completed homework of standard end-of-the-chapter exercises using either the Web or paper. Comparison of their performances on regular exams, conceptual exams, quizzes, laboratory, and homework showed no significant differences between groups; other measures were found to be strong predictors of performance. This indicates that the change in medium itself has limited effect on student learning. Ways in which Web-based homework could enable exercises with greater pedagogical value are discussed.
Zyromski, Brett; Bryant, Alfred, Jr.; Gerler, Edwin R., Jr.
This phenomenological study of students' online responses to the Succeeding in School program offers rare insight into how Native American and other minority students perceived and experienced their school environment. Students' strategies regarding behavior and attitude changes they would use to improve their success and counseling implications…
Page, Betsy J.; Jencius, Marty J.; Rehfuss, Mark C.; Foss, Louisa L.; Dean, Erin P.; Petruzzi, Megan L.; Olson, Seth D.; Sager, Denise E.
This article reports on an investigation of students' perceptions of an online discussion group conducted using PalTalk, which is Internet-based audio conferencing software. After initial practice with the program, students conducted four group sessions in which they discussed nonconfidential topics related to supervision of counseling. Students…
Ambrose, Lucy J; Ker, Jean S
Existing research into learning about patient safety focuses on identifying how educational interventions improve educational outcomes but few studies offer evidence that inform educators about the mechanisms involved in learning about patient safety. The current evidence based in undergraduates is also limited to outcomes that relate to knowledge and skills. A realist approach involving three cycles of data collection in a single cohort of students over 5 years used different outcomes in Kirkpatrick's framework to identify the mechanisms that influence students learning about patient safety. Data source 1. Focus groups identified an overarching theoretical model of the mechanisms that influence patient safety learning for medical students. Data source 2 Identified if the mechanisms from data source 1 could be demonstrated at the outcome level of knowledge and attitudes. Data source 3 Established associations between mechanisms and outcomes at skills and behavioural level, in a standardised simulated ward setting. Data source 1: The interpretation of data from seven focus groups involving sixty students identified reflection at two levels of Mezirow's descriptions; reflection and critical reflection as mechanisms that influence learning about error. Data source 2: Sixty-one students participated. The associations found, reflection and knowledge of actions to take for patient safety, r = 0.44 (P = 0.00) and critical reflection and intentions regarding patient safety, r = 0.40 (P = 0.00) Data source 3: Forty-eight students participated. The correlation identified associations between critical reflection and planned changes following feedback was, r = 0.48 (P = 0.00) and reflection and knowledge based errors r = -0.30 (P = 0.03). A realist approach identified two different levels of reflection were associated with different patient safety outcomes for this cohort of students. Critical reflection was associated with attitudes and reflection was associated with knowledge of actions and error behaviours. These findings give educators greater depth of information about the role of reflection in patient safety. PMID:23812868
Balgopal, Meena M.; Montplaisir, Lisa M.
The process of reflective writing can play a central role in making meaning as learners process new information and connect it to prior knowledge. An examination of the written discourse can therefore be revealing of learners' cognitive understanding and affective (beliefs, feelings, motivation to learn) responses to concepts. Despite reflective…
Xie, Ying; Ke, Fengfeng; Sharma, Priya
Reflection is an important prerequisite to making meaning of new information, and to advance from surface to deep learning. Strategies such as journal writing and peer feedback have been found to promote reflection as well as deep thinking and learning. This study used an empirical design to investigate the interaction effects of peer feedback and…
The use of personal, reflective writing exercises is well documented in the disciplines of composition and management, and each discipline has been highly influential in establishing pedagogical practices in the business communication classroom. However, we see little evidence of the pedagogical practice, the use of personal reflective writing…
Leistikow, Bruce N.
as required by the federal Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 (FERPA); the CaliforniaQUICK GUIDE TO PRIVACY OF STUDENT RECORDS (FERPA) MOST STUDENT RECORDS ARE CONFIDENTIAL Staff must protect the privacy of paper and electronic records containing confidential student information
Nelson, Bethany; Froehner, Megan; Gault, Barbara
This paper discusses the challenges college students with children face, as well as the steps colleges, universities, and the surrounding communities must take to help students succeed in their work as both students and parents. The role of parenthood in postsecondary settings needs greater focus from the higher education reform community. Unless…
Kalleberg, Arne L.; Dunn, Michael
The extent to which community college students experience labor market success depends on both the attributes of the individual students and the characteristics of the community colleges they attend. In this paper, we examine the impact of community college characteristics on the earnings of first-time college students who enrolled in the North…
Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2009
Every year a large percentage of the former students who respond to the Diploma, Associate Degree, and Certificate Student Outcomes (DACSO) Survey say they have taken previous post-secondary education, and more than half of those students report that they have completed a previous credential. The purpose of this paper is to look at these former…
This paper provides initial reflections on the impact of the economic crisis on education across the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) area by analysing the OECD educationtoday crisis survey responses of June 2009. It first looks at the impact of the crisis on education demand and participation, after which the focus…
Swales, John M.
This is a corpus-based study of a key aspect of academic writing in one discipline (biology) by final-year undergraduates and first-, second-, and third-year graduate students. The papers come from the Michigan Corpus of Upper-level Student Papers, a freely available electronic database. The principal aim of the study is to examine the extent of…
Baker, Russell K.; Thornton, Barry; Adams, Michael
Plagiarism is a continual problem in academia. Plagiarism-detection tools like Turnitin have been used for nearly ten years to help university faculty and administration combat this form of cheating (turnitin.com). This paper evaluates the difference in plagiarism levels in graduate-student term papers when students are not provided access to…
Kurczek, Jake; Johnson, Jacob
A major influence on education since the 1950’s has been Bloom’s Taxonomy, a classification of learning objectives across multiple domains meant to educate the whole student (Anderson and Krathwohl, 2001). Although it has influenced educational pedagogy in primary education, higher education remains, in antiquity, heavily lecture based; viewing the instructor as an expert who professes their vast knowledge to their students. However, when students serve as instructor, it is difficult to apply this traditional view to the college classroom. Here we discuss the development, pedagogical approach, and experience of a senior level seminar course in which the students and instructor collaboratively explored an emerging field, embodied cognition, which combines research and theory from psychology and neuroscience among other disciplines, in which neither the students nor instructor were an expert. Students provided feedback and evaluations at three time points over the course of the semester, before class started, at midterm and at the end of the semester in order to address the experience and effectiveness of a collaborative seminar experience in which the instructor assumed a role closer to an equal of the students. Student responses revealed both high levels of satisfaction and degrees of perceived learning within the course at both the midterm and final evaluation. The approach of this seminar may be beneficial when applied to other seminars or course formats as students in this course felt as though they were learning more and appreciated being a more equal partner in their own learning process. PMID:24693265
Kurczek, Jake; Johnson, Jacob
A major influence on education since the 1950's has been Bloom's Taxonomy, a classification of learning objectives across multiple domains meant to educate the whole student (Anderson and Krathwohl, 2001). Although it has influenced educational pedagogy in primary education, higher education remains, in antiquity, heavily lecture based; viewing the instructor as an expert who professes their vast knowledge to their students. However, when students serve as instructor, it is difficult to apply this traditional view to the college classroom. Here we discuss the development, pedagogical approach, and experience of a senior level seminar course in which the students and instructor collaboratively explored an emerging field, embodied cognition, which combines research and theory from psychology and neuroscience among other disciplines, in which neither the students nor instructor were an expert. Students provided feedback and evaluations at three time points over the course of the semester, before class started, at midterm and at the end of the semester in order to address the experience and effectiveness of a collaborative seminar experience in which the instructor assumed a role closer to an equal of the students. Student responses revealed both high levels of satisfaction and degrees of perceived learning within the course at both the midterm and final evaluation. The approach of this seminar may be beneficial when applied to other seminars or course formats as students in this course felt as though they were learning more and appreciated being a more equal partner in their own learning process. PMID:24693265
Leggette, Holli R.; Witt, Christy; Dooley, Kim E.; Rutherford, Tracy; Murphrey, Theresa Pesl; Doerfert, David; Edgar, Leslie D.
Experiential learning allows students to connect previous experiences with new ideas. Second Life (SL) is a virtual world that allows students to simulate real-world experiences. SL was utilized as an educational tool in an agricultural risk and crisis communications course. Weekly journal entries pertaining to the SL simulation were analyzed to…
Rivera Maulucci, María S.; Brown, Bryan A.; Grey, Salina T.; Sullivan, Shayna
This study explores the experiences of six urban middle school students in an authentic science inquiry program. Drawing on data including teaching journal entries, student work folders, and semi-structured focus group interviews of six participants, the findings explore six dimensions of authentic science inquiry, an approach to science inquiry…
Batey, Jacqueline J.; Lupi, Marsha H.
The study-abroad internship option for students is one example of a transformational learning opportunity (TLO) that is becoming increasingly popular in programs offered by colleges and universities in the United States (Alfaro, 2008; Cushner & Mahon, 2002). These TLOs often have the potential to broaden, enrich, or augment student learning and…
Ching, Cynthia Carter; Kafai, Yasmin B.
Background: Existing research suggests that one of the challenges for teachers in persisting with innovative inquiry curricula is their difficulty scaffolding students' transitions into technology-supported and open-ended activities. The question of whether students can effectively scaffold one another's transitions has not been previously…
Demir, Cennet Engin
This study analyzes the perceptions of Turkish and American middle school students of school and schooling by examining the metaphors they produce. A total of 18 American and 24 Turkish students were interviewed as part of this study. The results show differences in the participants' perceptions of schooling by culture. Turkish participants…
The theoretical underpinnings of student-centred learning suggest motivation to be an integral component. However, lack of clarification of what is involved in motivation in education often results in unchallenged assumptions that fail to recognise that what motivates some students may alienate others. This case study, using socio-cognitive…
This study examines how high school students were affected by having an openly gay teacher and compares its results to a previous study (Rofes, 2000). The author's lesbian, gay, or bisexual students experienced a sense of relief that they could finally feel comfortable about themselves, as well as feeling happy that others in the school were…
This study uses formal and informal student feedback as a source for understanding the impact of experimental course elements. Responses were used to develop a codebook, which was then applied to the entire dataset. The results inform our understanding of student's conceptions of professional identity, learning styles and curriculum design.…
Kimball, Ezekiel W.; Ryder, Andrew J.
Though history has long been a part of graduate preparation in higher education administration, new student affairs professionals often struggle to see its relevance to their work. We present a conceptual framework that links organizational ecology, institutional culture and climate, and student development through a historical lens. We then…
Fatima, Tashimova; Zukhra, Ismagambetova; Rima, Dzhansaraeyva; Alma, Mirsabekova; Aliya, Karabayeva; Farisa, Oskenbai
The representation level of the teacher in the inner world of the students is influencing the success in the study activities (Liimets H. I.). Because they are real accompaniers to students in the learning process, as in the temporal aspect, as well as in content, the question arises about the possibility of their impact on particular coping…
Burkholder, Jessica Reno
A modified version of Moustakas' (1994) method of analyzing phenomenological data was used to illuminate how full-time, single, Turkish international graduate students conceptualized their experiences as international students. The participants detailed common and salient aspects of their experience: personal growth, decisions regarding…
Bryan, Michelle L.; Wilson, Brandy S.; Lewis, Ashlee A.; Wills, Lisa E.
The purpose of this investigation was to explore doctoral students' experiences engaging in conversations about the role of race and racism in education during their programs. We conducted focus groups with graduate students in a School of Education at a predominantly White institution in the South. Our findings support the notion that creating…
Students with emotional and behavioral disorders continue to challenge educators, and their progress in school has not been favorable. In my experience, we have failed to implement some of the most promising practices with this group of students. In this article, I discuss three approaches, positive supports, mentoring and relationship building,…
Makinen, Jarkko; Olkinuora, Erkki
The purpose of the study was to bridge the gap between situational and more general measures in investigating university students' studying. More precisely, the aim was to establish a connection between students' situational reaction tendencies and their general study orientations. Furthermore, situational reaction tendencies were related to the…
Helping students prepare for solo and ensemble festivals can be an arduous task for music educators. From choosing appropriate repertoire, to learning pitches, to securing accompanists, to ensuring that students understand appropriate dress and conduct, myriad details are involved in successful preparation for educational and enriching…
Pei?Ling Hsu; Michiel van Eijck
Working at scientists’ elbows is one suggestion that educators make to improve science education, because such “authentic experiences” provide students with various types of science knowledge. However, there is an ongoing debate in the literature about the assumption that authentic science activities can enhance students’ understandings of scientific practice. The purpose of the study is to further address the debate
Beaton, Anne M.
Why do I do that to myself? As a secondary English teacher, I want desperately for my students to pursue their own interests in their writing, but then I am stuck negotiating topics that push the envelope (read: make me uncomfortable): suicide attempts, cutting, abusive boyfriends, and drug use. When a student noted on his submission that it had…
stressed in ESRP 285 lectures. The second student example involves electric vehicles. This student enjoyed learning about policies to promote production and sale of more efficient and cleaner cars. He vehicles, and he was even more interested in the feebates policy to promote increased sale of electric
Dias, Juliana Chioda Ribeiro; Maroco, João; Campos, Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini
Online data collection is becoming increasingly common and has some advantages compared to traditional paper-and-pencil formats, such as reducing loss of data, increasing participants' privacy, and decreasing the effect of social desirability. However, the validity and reliability of this administration format must be established before results can be considered acceptable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity, reliability, and equivalence of paper-and-pencil and online versions of the Weight Concerns Scale (WCS) when applied to Brazilian university students. A crossover design was used, and the Portuguese version of the WCS (in both paper-and-pencil and online formats) was completed by 100 college students. The results indicated adequate fit in both formats. The simultaneous fit of data for both groups was excellent, with strong invariance between models. Adequate convergent validity, internal consistency, and mean score equivalence of the WCS in both formats were observed. Thus, the WCS presented adequate reliability and validity in both administration formats, with equivalence/stability between answers. PMID:25751051
Mahlios, Marc C.; Engstrom, D.; Soroka, G.; Shaw, Donita J.
to the fourth category, social strategies. The social strategies were seen as the means by which the student teachers could bring dissonant perceptions of the classroom into a cognitive framework consistent with their view of reality or seek changes... displays occurrences of each strategy. Also indicated in Table 1 are two other entry categories. A No Action (NA) category was formed to account for entries where the student teachers encountered cognitive dissonance, but did not express...
This article considers university staff's place in students' worlds from a psychodynamic perspective. It looks at "studenthood" as a psychological stage, in which relationship to university and university staff is seen as being recruited into a personal developmental context. It sketches some psychodynamic background for understanding the role…
Hertzog, Hillary S.; O'Rode, Nancy
This article presents an "evidence-based" program improvement effort that sought to strengthen student teachers' implementation of subject-specific pedagogy for teaching mathematics in a K-8 multiple subject teacher education program. The authors report the process of how they used a research-based approach to gather evidence about "status quo" of…
George Akom; Brandy Skjold; HangHwa Hong; Robert Kagumba; Fang Huang
Research emphasizes requirements of NOS knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, internalized beliefs in the importance of NOS, and intentional translation of this knowledge into explicit\\/reflective classroom instruction. Science educators conduct much of this research targeting K-16 arenas. Yet, a gap exists in the literature with respect to understanding how science educators come to their own understanding of NOS, NOS research, and NOS
Hagiwara, Sumi; Maulucci, Maria S. Rivera; Ramos, S. Lizette
This forum article consists of commentaries--authored by Sumi Hagiwara, Maria S. Rivera Maulucci and Lizette Ramos--on the feature article by Virginia Jennings Bolshakova, Carla C. Johnson, and Charlene M. Czerniak. We reflect on a series of questions that take retrospective, introspective, and prospective views of self-efficacy in science…
Teaching a required introductory Bible course to non-majors at a church-related college presents a number of pedagogical challenges. When considering how to teach such a course in the context of concerns common to the liberal arts, I find myself reflecting on authority. My thoughts on the teaching of this course in my own context are organized…
Hickman, M.; Collins, D.
Outdoor practitioners widely embed reflective practice (RP) into the delivery of experiential education, but its contribution to their continued professional development remains under developed; by default, claims of its worth to the experiential education, they deliver must be approached with caution. Although the value of RP has been established…
Thomas, Emily H.; Galambos, Nora
To investigate how students' characteristics and experiences affect satisfaction, this study used regression and decision-tree analysis with the CHAID algorithm to analyze student opinion data from a sample of 1,783 college students. A data-mining approach identifies the specific aspects of students' university experience that most influence three…
O'Gara, Lauren; Karp, Melinda Mechur; Hughes, Katherine L.
This study examines the Student Success course in two urban community colleges in the Northeast. Through analysis of student interview data, we find that the Student Success course helps students learn about the college, receive course advice, and develop stronger study skills. The course also acts as a catalyst for building important…
Supervision is an essential part of doctoral study, consisting of relationship and process aspects, underpinned by a range of values. To date there has been limited research specifically about disabled doctoral students' experiences of supervision. This paper draws on qualitative, narrative interviews about doctoral supervision with disabled…
This paper expands on one educator's experiences teaching advanced English at a Mexican private college, focusing on the productive use of collaborative learning (CL). CL is a philosophy of teaching that involves working, building, learning, changing, and improving together. A key element of CL is positive interdependence, with students believing…
Veronica Swallow; Maggie Coates
Using reflection within a metacognitive model this paper aims to explore and discuss two recently developed approaches to flexible education. The increasing number of new nursing roles coupled with a dramatically changing health care environment determines the need for educational approaches that recognise and value learning in daily practice. By presenting a lecturer’s and a student’s reflections of two such
Tucker, Bill; And Others
This paper discusses the use of reflective learning in service-learning projects in three different undergraduate courses. In a small group communications course, groups of five or six students were assigned to work with a non-profit agency to assist them in solving a problem. The students reflected on their group meetings in journals and wrote…
Yamaguchi, Ryoko; Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.
Despite considerable recent public and judicial attention to the issue of drug testing, little empirical research has focused on the relationship between drug testing in schools and the actual use of illicit drugs by students. To explore this issue, we use school-level survey data about drug testing from the Youth, Education, and Society study and…
Lucas, Ursula; Tan, Phaik Leng
The development of a capacity to engage in critical reflection is central to higher education. However, students vary in this capacity and its development requires students to move from an absolute towards a contextual way of knowing. Using 32 semi-structured interviews, this study identifies the ways of knowing of 17 business and accounting…
Despite the common use of the term reflection in higher education assessment tasks, learners are not often taught "how" to communicate their disciplinary knowledge through reflection. This paper argues that students can and should be taught how to reflect in deep and transformative ways. It highlights the reflexive pedagogical balancing…
Irby, Beverly J.; Brown, Genevieve
This paper reports on a study that analyzed 91 written reflections in the professional-development portfolios of 13 doctoral students in educational leadership. The purpose of the research was to determine dichotomous expressions of thoughts between eight males (56 reflections) and five females (35 reflections). The study took place in a regional…
Brown, Gordon D A; Wood, Alex M; Ogden, Ruth S; Maltby, John
It was shown that student satisfaction ratings are influenced by context in ways that have important theoretical and practical implications. Using questions from the UK's National Student Survey, the study examined whether and how students' expressed satisfaction with issues such as feedback promptness and instructor enthusiasm depends on the context of comparison (such as possibly inaccurate beliefs about the feedback promptness or enthusiasm experienced at other universities) that is evoked. Experiment 1 found strong effects of experimentally provided comparison context—for example, satisfaction with a given feedback time depended on the time's relative position within a context. Experiment 2 used a novel distribution-elicitation methodology to determine the prior beliefs of individual students about what happens in universities other than their own. It found that these beliefs vary widely and that students' satisfaction was predicted by how they believed their experience ranked within the distribution of others' experiences. A third study found that relative judgement principles also predicted students' intention to complain. An extended model was developed to show that purely rank-based principles of judgement can account for findings previously attributed to range effects. It was concluded that satisfaction ratings and quality of provision are different quantities, particularly when the implicit context of comparison includes beliefs about provision at other universities. Quality and satisfaction should be assessed separately, with objective measures (such as actual times to feedback), rather than subjective ratings (such as satisfaction with feedback promptness), being used to measure quality wherever practicable. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25620847
Smith, Chris Selby; Hopkins, Sonnie
Students in two Australian Technical and Further Education (TAFE) institutes were surveyed (862 usable responses from 1,700 metropolitan students, 297 from 1,008 regional students). Focus group discussions were held with three metro and five regional students. A higher proportion of regional than metro students were volunteers or wanted to…
Spiro, Louis M.
Student market segmentation separates prospective college students into subgroups with similar characteristics, the most commonly used being geography, demography, attitudes, and behavior. Recruitment efforts can then focus on student segments similar to the present student body or on other students that might be attracted. The goal is to make…
The main aim of this study was to assess and compare undergraduate students' homework performance using a web-based testing system with paper-based, hand-graded one in introductory physics courses. Students' perceptions about each method were then investigated. Every semester during the two-year period, one of the two identical sections of…
Knapp, Clifford E.
This book demonstrates how educators and youth leaders can help middle-school and older students understand and define their relationship with nature and learn the importance of protecting the environment. Chapter 1 defines environmental ethics and discusses biocentric and anthropocentric ways of seeing the world. Chapter 2 examines how ecology,…
Willox, Ashlee Cunsolo; Harper, Sherilee L.; Bridger, Dawson; Morton, Stephanie; Orbach, Ariella; Sarapura, Silvia
Metaphors are pervasive and accessible thinking and learning machines that have the ability to disrupt and transform our patterns of thought. While much has been written about metaphor as a pedagogical tool, the potential learning opportunity that arises when students co-create metaphor within the classroom as a way to make sense and meaning of…
Evidence of the increasing use of technology in counselor education is indicated by the increase in journal articles, programs, websites, and books on this topic (Albrecht & Jones, 2001; Layne & Hohenshil, 2005). The Internet has emerged as an important tool in the training and supervision of counseling students (Conn, Roberts, & Powell, 2009;…
Schellhaas, Andree; Burts, Diane C.; Aghayan, Carol
This article describes the independent study project of a student who was a graduate assistant in a child development laboratory preschool when Hurricanes Katrina and Rita struck the Gulf Coast area. Through her experiences with "Project Katrina" she deepens her understanding of developmentally appropriate practices as she learns firsthand about…
Lewis, Theresa Lyvette
Dual enrollment is one means of facilitating increased degree productivity, which can lead to the more educated workforce needed in today's society. This qualitative study was designed to obtain student perceptions about their dual enrollment experience, including how it impacted their decision to go to college and what comparisons they would make…
Based on more than three years of in-depth research, this book tells the stories of a small group of Latino and Latina students attending a predominantly White high school in a rural area of southeast Michigan. The book takes readers inside the hallways and classrooms of Addison High and into the homes and neighborhoods of Spanish-speaking…
Munoz, Ramona Marie
Scope and Method of Study: The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify the factors that supported low-income first-generation (LIFG) transfer graduates of four-year institutions in their persistence at the community college level. Specifically, this study focused on students who started at a community college in a Mid-Western State and…
Richard, Cathleen Becnel
A problem facing education today is that learning typically requires rote memorization rather than the use of higher-order thinking skills. Higher-order thinking is needed in a global society to solve real world problems, therefore students should be required to develop and practice higher-order thinking skills. The purpose of this mixed method…
Elam, Carol L.; Hafferty, Frederic W.; Messmer, James M.; Blue, Amy V.; Flipse, Ann R.; Lazarus, Cathy J.; Chauvin, Sheila W.
Seventy-five students from five medical schools participated in structured interviews to elicit their community service history and opinions regarding the relationship of community service to the medical school admissions process and the medical school curriculum. An analysis of responses indicates that service leaders were: (a) influenced by…
This article explores young women's agency in relation to the body and the possible role of women's studies in interpreting body experiences and constructing agency. The article is based on written accounts of one's body experience written by Finnish students of women's studies. The young women's accounts manifested two types of agency: the…
Lamiaa S. Youssef
This article summarizes a case study that examines the use of a course-integrated model in the formative evaluation of instruction. Through informal yet structured questionnaires, learning journals, and classroom assessment techniques, student feedback is collected on a regular basis to help the instructor monitor the effectiveness of instruction and the quality of the learning environment. The article focuses on reporting
Lamiaa S. Youssef
This article summarizes a case study that examines the use of a course-integrated model in the formative evaluation of instruction. Through informal yet structured questionnaires, learning journals, and classroom assessment techniques, student feedback is collected on a regular basis to help the instructor monitor the effectiveness of instruction and the quality of the learning environment. The article focuses on reporting
Whitmore, Kathryn F.; Crowell, Caryl G.
Ten years ago, an ethnographic study in a bilingual whole-language third-grade classroom identified conditions that defined the classroom as a learning community: a high level of intellectual expectation, symmetric power and trust relationships, authenticity, and additive bilingualism and biliteracy. The students' insights strengthened the…
Reis, Pedro; Galvao, Cecilia
In this article the authors resort to a qualitative analysis of the plot of science fiction stories about a group of scientists, written by two 11th-grade Earth and Life Science students (aged 17), and to semi-structured interviews, with the double purpose of diagnosing their conceptions of the nature of science (namely, as regards scientists'…
Bishop, Catharine F.; Caston, Michael I.; King, Cheryl A.
Learner-centered environments effectively implement multiple teaching techniques to enhance students' higher education experience and provide them with greater control over their academic learning. This qualitative study involves an exploration of the eight reasons for learner-centered teaching found in Terry Doyle's 2008 book,…
Lieb, Klaus; Franke, Andreas G.
The use of stimulants for the purpose of pharmacological neuroenhancement (NE) among students is a subject of increasing public awareness. The risk of addiction development by stimulant use for NE is still unanswered. Therefore, face-to-face interviews were carried out among 18 university students experienced in the nonmedical use of methylphenidate and amphetamines for NE assessing aspects of addiction. Interviews were tape-recorded, verbatim-transcribed, and analyzed using a qualitative approach. The interviews showed that participants—the majority had current or lifetime diagnoses of misuse or addiction to alcohol or cannabis—reported an awareness of the risk of addiction development associated with stimulant use and reported various effects which may increase their likelihood of future stimulant use, for example, euphoric effects, increase of self-confidence, and motivation. They also cited measures to counteract the development of addiction as well as measures taken to normalize again after stimulant use. Students were convinced of having control over their stimulant use and of not becoming addicted to stimulants used for NE. We can conclude that behavior and beliefs of the students in our sample appear to be risky in terms of addiction development. However, long-term empirical research is needed to estimate the true risk of addiction. PMID:26064931
Hildt, Elisabeth; Lieb, Klaus; Bagusat, Christiana; Franke, Andreas G
The use of stimulants for the purpose of pharmacological neuroenhancement (NE) among students is a subject of increasing public awareness. The risk of addiction development by stimulant use for NE is still unanswered. Therefore, face-to-face interviews were carried out among 18 university students experienced in the nonmedical use of methylphenidate and amphetamines for NE assessing aspects of addiction. Interviews were tape-recorded, verbatim-transcribed, and analyzed using a qualitative approach. The interviews showed that participants-the majority had current or lifetime diagnoses of misuse or addiction to alcohol or cannabis-reported an awareness of the risk of addiction development associated with stimulant use and reported various effects which may increase their likelihood of future stimulant use, for example, euphoric effects, increase of self-confidence, and motivation. They also cited measures to counteract the development of addiction as well as measures taken to normalize again after stimulant use. Students were convinced of having control over their stimulant use and of not becoming addicted to stimulants used for NE. We can conclude that behavior and beliefs of the students in our sample appear to be risky in terms of addiction development. However, long-term empirical research is needed to estimate the true risk of addiction. PMID:26064931
Burrows, Andrea; Thomas, Jonathan; Woods, Angie; Suess, Robert; Dole, Deborah
The focus of this article is the exploration of and an explanation of student researchers' affect and activity in an action research project. Using a hermeneutical theoretical framework we argue that the researcher group as a whole constructs a wave process and at the same time each individual researcher in the group creates a wave process that…
Zsiray, Stephen W., Jr.; And Others
Ninth grade poses unique academic, physical, social, and emotional challenges to students; in fact, it may be the defining year for predicting high school success. It could also be the last chance to catch pupils who are in danger of dropping out of school. The Freshman Center program attempts to give ninth graders the opportunity to succeed. This…
Nilsson, Elisabet M.; Jakobsson, Anders
The empirical study, in this article, involved 42 students (ages 14-15), who used the urban simulation computer game SimCity 4 to create models of sustainable future cities. The aim was to explore in what ways the simulated "real" worlds provided by this game could be a potential facilitator for science learning contexts. The topic investigated is…
Poth, Cheryl; Pei, Jacqueline; Job, Jenelle M.; Wyper, Katherine
The value of research-informed classroom practices is well recognized and thus this qualitative study was designed to explore, from multiple perspectives, the experiences and influences of classroom practices for students with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). The inductive analysis of 11 focus groups and three interviews involving 60…
Roberts, Simon J.; Ryrie, Angus
Despite reported increases in higher education (HE) sports coach education provision there are very few studies which have investigated student self-learning curricula as a mechanism to prepare sports coaches with the complexities of learning how to coach. Using an action research methodology, this article examines how case-method teaching (CMT)…
Bigenho, Christopher William
The rapid growth of online and blended learning environments in both higher education and K-12, along with the development of innovative game based, narrative driven, problem-based learning (PBL) systems known as Alternate Reality Games (AltRG), has led to the need to understand student's abilities to self-regulate their learning behaviors…
Lay, Kathy; McGuire, Lisa
Students come to the classroom with life experience that may reinforce stigmatization of those who struggle with addiction. Educators must address this dynamic directly if addiction practitioners are to move beyond their personal experiences and come to understand the neuroscience of addiction, evidence-based practices, and the human potential for…
Quezada, Reyes L.; Christopherson, Richard W.
The need to provide alternative and exciting community service-learning experiences with university students has been a challenge to institutions of higher education. One institution was able to capitalize on an idea of integrating challenge and adventure-based activities as a form of community service. This article focuses on undergraduate…
Crews, William E., Jr.
This document presents a two-part study. In the first part, open-ended questions based on interview studies were administered via paper-and-pencil tasks to 76 sixth and eighth grade students. In the second part, the earth and sun relationship questions were extracted, modified, and given to 178 seventh grade students. In part one, the performance…
Jaggars, Shanna Smith; Xu, Di
Policymakers have become increasingly concerned with measuring--and holding colleges accountable for--students' labor market outcomes. In this paper we introduce a piecewise growth curve approach to analyzing community college students' labor market outcomes, and we discuss how this approach differs from Mincerian and fixed-effects approaches. Our…
Fryer, Roland G.
Financial incentives for teachers to increase student performance is an increasingly popular education policy around the world. This paper describes a school-based randomized trial in over two-hundred New York City public schools designed to better understand the impact of teacher incentives on student achievement. I find no evidence that teacher…
This paper deals with the vocabulary problems encountered by advanced ESL students. While beginning and intermediate texts tend to control vocabulary and adapt reading selections to the learner, advanced students are usually forced to confront unabridged texts. Reading is a way to increase vocabulary, but a lack of vocabulary makes the reading…
Use of total internal reflection Raman (TIR) and attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy to analyze component separation in thin offset ink films after setting on coated paper surfaces.
Kivioja, Antti; Hartus, Timo; Vuorinen, Tapani; Gane, Patrick; Jääskeläinen, Anna-Stiina
The interactive behavior of ink constituents with porous substrates during and after the offset print process has an important effect on the quality of printed products. To help elucidate the distribution of ink components between the retained ink layer and the substrate, a variety of spectroscopic and microscopic analysis techniques have been developed. This paper describes for the first time the use of total internal reflection (TIR) Raman spectroscopy to analyze the penetration behavior of separated offset ink components (linseed oil, solid color pigment) in coated papers providing chemically intrinsic information rapidly, nondestructively, and with minimal sample preparation. In addition, the already widely applied technique of attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) was evaluated in parallel and compared. The results of the ATR-IR Raman clearly revealed an improvement in uppermost depth resolution compared with values previously published from other nondestructive techniques, and the method is shown to be capable of providing new knowledge of the setting of thin (0.25-2 ?m) offset ink films, allowing the spreading and the penetration behavior on physically different paper coating surfaces to be studied. PMID:23735252
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify student and staff experiences with online learning at higher education (HE) using the software Elluminate Live! Design/methodology/approach: This paper adopts a qualitative approach, focusing on the reflections of participants (student and teacher) collated over a 12 month period of piloting online…
Oksman, Antti; Kuivalainen, Kalle; Ta?G, Carl-Mikael; Juuti, Mikko; Mattila, Rauno; Hietala, Eero; Gane, Patrick A. C.; Peiponen, Kai-Erik
Gloss of a product, such as print gloss, is mainly inspected with conventional white light glossmeters both at laboratory or production facilities. However, problems occur in conventional gloss measurement when the inspected surface is vertically moved in the plane of incidence and reflection or when the measurement area is small or curved. For a partial solution to these problems, we have previously introduced diffractive optical element-based glossmeters (DOGs) for the gloss inspection in laboratories and off-line use. We present a new construction of DOG, termed ?DOG 1D, for the one-dimensional on-line print gloss measurement, in the form of the reflectance determination normal to the surface. The function of the glossmeter is demonstrated by laboratory tests and on-line measurements at a heat-set web offset printing machine. It is shown that gloss (i.e., normal reflectance) and minute gloss variation of papers and prints can be measured at the printing line using the glossmeter. This glossmeter is expected to be useful in real-time monitoring of the gloss and surface-specific absorption not only in the printing industry but also in inspection of products in other industrial sectors, such as metal finishing, laminating, paper, and construction materials manufacturing.
Alan Ovens; Richard Tinning
The aim of this paper is to understand whether student teachers enact reflection differently as they encounter different situations within their teacher education programme. Group memory-work was used to generate and analyse five participants' memories of learning to teach. Three different discursive contexts were identified in the students' stories and each demonstrates that students reflexively enact reflection in relation to
Price, Derek V.
Learning communities bring together small groups of college students who take two or more linked courses together--typically as a cohort. During the last few decades, many colleges and universities have started or expanded learning communities as a method to deliver curricula to students and forge closer bonds between students, among students and…
College students are increasingly combining studying with paid employment, and community college students tend to work even longer hours compared with students at four-year colleges. Yet, there is little evidence on the academic consequences of community college students' term-time employment. Using a rare administrative dataset from Washington…
Tannure-Nascimento, I C; Nascimento, F S; Turatti, I C; Lopes, N P; Trigo, J R; Zucchi, R
Nestmate recognition is one the most important features in social insect colonies. Although epicuticular lipids or cuticular hydrocarbons have both structural and defensive functions in insects, they also seem to be involved in several aspects of communication in wasps, bees and ants. We analyzed and described for the first time the cuticular hydrocarbons of a Neotropical paper wasp, Polistes satan, and found that variation in hydrocarbon profile was sufficiently strong to discriminate individuals according to their colony membership. Therefore, it seems that small differences in the proportion of these compounds can be detected and used as a chemical-based cue by nestmates to detect invaders and avoid usurpation. PMID:17624862
Emch, G. G.; Mehra, Jagdish
Among the founding fathers of modern quantum physics few have contributed to our basic understanding of its concepts as much as E.P. Wigner. His articles on the epistemology of quantum mechanics and the measurement problem, and the basic role of symmetries were of fundamental importance for all subsequent work. He was also the first to discuss the concept of consciousness from the point of view of modern physics. All these papers can be found in this volume together with Wigner's philosophical writings. The book should be a gem for all those interested in the history and philosophy of science.
Robertson-Boersma, Danielle; Butt, Peter; Dell, Colleen Anne
What’s Your Cap: Know When to Put a Lid on Drinking (WYC) is a student-led and research-based binge-drinking prevention campaign at the University of Saskatchewan, Canada. It was formed to encourage a culture of alcohol moderation on the university campus through peer-to-peer engagement that emphasizes promotional items and activities of interest to students. Since its development in 2011, WYC has been guided by a logic model that promotes: 1) perceived and actual student drinking norms on campus; 2) benefits of a student-led initiative; and 3) merits of working with community partners. With the release of a clinical guide in Canada for alcohol screening, brief intervention, and referral (SBIR) in 2013, WYC was prompted to consider whether it is a form of population-based SBIR. SBIR is commonly undertaken in the substance use field by health care practitioners, and this paper shares the potential for a student-based SBIR modification on a university campus.
Robertson-Boersma, Danielle; Butt, Peter; Dell, Colleen Anne
What's Your Cap: Know When to Put a Lid on Drinking (WYC) is a student-led and research-based binge-drinking prevention campaign at the University of Saskatchewan, Canada. It was formed to encourage a culture of alcohol moderation on the university campus through peer-to-peer engagement that emphasizes promotional items and activities of interest to students. Since its development in 2011, WYC has been guided by a logic model that promotes: 1) perceived and actual student drinking norms on campus; 2) benefits of a student-led initiative; and 3) merits of working with community partners. With the release of a clinical guide in Canada for alcohol screening, brief intervention, and referral (SBIR) in 2013, WYC was prompted to consider whether it is a form of population-based SBIR. SBIR is commonly undertaken in the substance use field by health care practitioners, and this paper shares the potential for a student-based SBIR modification on a university campus. PMID:26339219
Haricombe, Lorraine J.; Prabha, Chandra
for the field in which I had chosen to pursue a career: library science.” Smith writes that she was a student of Professor Lancaster in two courses: Information Storage and Retrieval and Vocabulary Control. He literally wrote the textbook for each course... Director of the (then) Graduate School of Library Science (GSLS), hired Lancaster in 1970 to launch the school’s program in Biomedical Librarianship. Lancaster served as direc- 750 library trends/spring 2008 tor of the program for four years until 1973...
Shapiro, Angela; Johnston, Aidan
As part of its evolving e-learning programme, the pedagogic value of vidcasts is currently being explored at Glasgow Caledonian University. The vidcasts are accessible on the internet and embedded links refer back to the Effective Learning Service's website to offer users the option of additional clarification if necessary. They aim to encourage and enhance students' learning in higher education, particularly in relation to academic writing. The vidcasts have been available for use during academic year 2009/2010 and have been accessed by over 1,000 individuals. Research on their use is ongoing and has provided valuable data for future developments.
In this problem students use spatial awareness and visualization to solve problems related to reflection (bilateral) symmetry. Learners are given three shapes and must assemble as many different but symmetrical composites as possible. Ideas for implementation, extension and support are included along with printable sheets of the shapes and a poster.
Linda D. Webster; Edward J. Mirielli
The focus of this paper is to introduce the topic of academic service learning and describe the need for academic service learning experiences in technical fields such as computer science and information technology. The intellectual roots of academic service learning, as discussed by Morton and Saltmarsh, go back to the Progressive Era in U.S. history, particularly in the works of
Millar, Andrew J.
is an emotive topic and one of enduring political interest and sensitivity. The media often portrays schools they need in their personal and social lives. The paper draws on findings from the most recent national is conducted at regular 3 yearly intervals and provides a clear and robust picture of positive and negative
Limniou, Maria; Downes, John J.; Maskell, Simon
Nowadays, the use of datasets is of crucial importance for the advancement of educational research. Specifically in the field of Higher Education, many researchers might share through online data repositories their research outputs in order for data to be reusable, accessible and accountable to educational community. The aim of this paper is to…
Parkes, Kelly A.; Kajder, Sara
This paper focuses on the role of multimodal technologies in facilitating reflective processes and the subsequent assessment of reflectivity for students in pre-professional programs. Reflective practice has been established as a critical tool for developing identity in and on practice. This paper will focus firstly on reviewing salient literature…
McClenney, Kay M.; Marti, C. Nathan
In 2004, the Lumina Foundation for Education approved a generous grant to support validation research to explore and document the validity of the Community College Student Report (CCSR), add to the higher education field's understanding of student engagement, and help to identify research or institutional practices that require further attention.…
This dissertation analyzes the effect of smaller classes on student performance using student-level test score data from the state of Texas, focusing on three specific issues: heterogeneity in the returns to smaller classes across a score...
The author finds using software to make audio comments on students' writing improves students' understanding of her responses and increases their willingness to take her suggestions for revision more seriously. In the process of recording audio comments, she came to a new understanding of her students' writing needs and her responsibilities as…
Growing concerns over the achievement of U.S. students have led to proposals to reward good teachers and penalize (or fire) bad ones. The leading method for assessing teacher quality is "value added" modeling (VAM), which decomposes students' test scores into components attributed to student heterogeneity and to teacher quality. Implicit in the…
Harter, James L.; Szurminski, Marlene
Community colleges have many concerns over attrition and retention rates. Studies show that 50% of freshmen drop out before completion of a degree or certificate, and nearly half of all attending students are 25 years or older yet lack basic math, reading, and writing skills. Students experiencing learning difficulties, and older students such as…
Dee, Thomas; Jacob, Brian
The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act compelled states to design school-accountability systems based on annual student assessments. The effect of this Federal legislation on the distribution of student achievement is a highly controversial but centrally important question. This study presents evidence on whether NCLB has influenced student…