Science.gov

Sample records for studies united states

  1. Social Studies: United States. Grade 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellogg, E. G.

    This teachers guide attempts to facilitate the study of the United States through a conceptual approach and multimedia instruction in a spiral curriculum. There are five units: 1) Natural Setting --location, climate, terrain, water, soil, and economic and esthetic value, and conservation; 2) Historial Development --North American Indian cultures,…

  2. Social Studies in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Victor A.

    1980-01-01

    Suggests that the nature of the social studies educational program in the United States can be viewed as the result of many influences, including the domination of history in the schools, the publishing industry, and the large number of national organizations which focus on specific subject matter areas. Various definitions of social studies are…

  3. Seismic Risk Studies in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algermissen, S.T.

    A new seismic risk map of the United States is presented, along with strain release and maximum Modified Mercalli intesity maps of the country. Frequency of occurrence of damaging earthquakes was not considered in zone ratings, but included frequency studies may aid interpretation. Discussion of methods is included with review of calculations. (MH)

  4. Social Studies: The United States in Asia, Past and Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotton, Michael

    The American Studies quinmester course for grades ten through twelve on the United States and Asia emphasizes how United States foreign policy evolved in Asia from the Spanish American War in 1898 which was a turning point in policy to the present and the need to understand the involvement of foreign policy and its implication for mutual…

  5. Operations: A Comparative Study of the United States and Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Cheng-Yao; Becker, Jerry; Byun, Mi-Ran; Yang, Der-Ching; Huang, Tsai-Wei

    2013-01-01

    This study examined (a) the differences in preservice teachers’ procedural knowledge in four areas of fraction operations in Taiwan and the United States, (b) the differences in preservice teachers’ conceptual knowledge in four areas of fraction operations in Taiwan and the United States, and (c) correlation in preservice teachers’ conceptual…

  6. Ethnic Studies in the United States: Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washburn, David E.

    In an effort to determine the state-of-the-art of ethnic studies in U.S. higher education, 3,038 postsecondary institutions in the United States and outlying areas were surveyed during the 1977-78 academic year. The study sought information about which schools have programs; which ethnic groups were studied; the number and nature of the courses…

  7. Black Studies in the United States. Three Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Robert L., Jr.; And Others

    Three essays are presented that discuss, in general terms, information that was collected in 1987-88 concerning the current status of black studies in the United States. The researchers were invited to survey selected black studies departments, programs, institutes, and centers judged to be representative of the structural diversity and…

  8. Portuguese Study in Higher Education in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milleret, Margo

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the results of a national survey of Portuguese instructors that investigates enrollment growth in regions and institutions of higher education in the United States. It details the reasons why Portuguese enrollments have grown steadily since 1998, while providing data on the numbers of students enrolled in classes and the number…

  9. A multicenter study of plasma use in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Triulzi, Darrell; Gottschall, Jerome; Murphy, Edward; Wu, Yanyun; Ness, Paul; Kor, Daryl; Roubinian, Nareg; Fleischmann, Debra; Chowdhury, Dhuly; Brambilla, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Background Detailed information regarding plasma use in the United States is needed to identify opportunities for practice improvement and design of clinical trials of plasma therapy. Study Design and Methods Ten US hospitals collected detailed medical information from the electronic health records for 1 year (2010-2011) for all adult patients transfused with plasma. Results A total of 72,167 units of plasma were transfused in 19,596 doses to 9269 patients. The median dose of plasma was 2 units (interquartile range, 2-4; range 1-72); 15% of doses were 1 unit, and 45% were 2 units. When adjusted by patient body weight (kg), the median dose was 7.3 mL/kg (interquartile range, 5.5-12.0). The median pretransfusion international normalized ratio (INR) was 1.9 (25%-75% interquartile range, 1.6-2.6). A total of 22.5% of plasma transfusions were given to patients with an INR of less than 1.6 and 48.5% for an INR of 2.0 or more. The median posttransfusion INR was 1.6 (interquartile range, 1.4-2.0). Only 42% of plasma transfusions resulted in a posttransfusion INR of less than 1.6. Correction of INR increased as the plasma dose increased from 1 to 4 units (p < 0.001). There was no difference in the INR response to different types of plasma. The most common issue locations were general ward (38%) and intensive care unit (ICU; 42%). Conclusion This large database describing plasma utilization in the United States provides evidence for both inadequate dosing and unnecessary transfusion. Measures to improve plasma transfusion practice and clinical trials should be directed at patients on medical and surgical wards and in the ICU where plasma is most commonly used. PMID:25522888

  10. Passive-solar retrofit study for the United States Navy

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, W.O.; Miles, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    A passive solar retrofit study has been conducted for the United States Navy at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The purpose of the study was to determine the energy savings obtainable in concrete block buildings from several passive solar heating strategies. A procedure involving the use of test cell data and computer simulation was employed to assess the merits of six retrofit options. The six strategies selected were chosen on the basis of providing a series of options that will deliver increasing energy savings at the cost of correspondingly increased levels of commitment.

  11. Passive-solar-retrofit study for the United States Navy

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, W.O.; Miles, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    A passive solar retrofit study has been conducted for the United States Navy at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The purpose of the study was to determine the energy savings obtainable in concrete block buildings from several passive solar heating strategies. A procedure involving the use of test cell data and computer simulation was employed to assess the merits of six retrofit options. The six strategies selected were chosen on the basis of providing a series of options that will deliver increasing energy savings at the cost of correspondingly increased levels of commitment.

  12. A Study of the Life and Culture of Young Korean Students Studying in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Doo Hyoo

    2010-01-01

    The number of young Korean students studying abroad--many moving to English-speaking countries--has increased. This article describes the lives of young Korean students studying in the United States. For data collection, unstructured interviews were conducted with young Korean students studying in the Northwestern states of the United States.…

  13. National variation in United States sepsis mortality: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The regional distribution of a disease may provide important insights regarding its pathophysiology, risk factors and clinical care. While sepsis is a prominent cause of death in the United States (US), few studies have examined regional variations with this malady. We identified the national variation in sepsis deaths in the US. We conducted a descriptive analysis of 1999-2005 national vital statistics data from the National Center for Health Statistics summarized at the state-level. We defined sepsis deaths as deaths attributed to an infection, classified according to the International Classification of Diseases, Version 10. We calculated national and state age-adjusted sepsis-attributed mortality rates. Results National age-adjusted sepsis mortality was 65.5 per 100,000 persons (95% CI: 65.8 - 66.0). State level sepsis mortality varied more than two-fold (range 41 to 88.6 per 100,000 persons; median 60.8 per 100,000, IQR 53.9-74.4 per 100,000). A cluster extending from the Southeastern to the mid-Atlantic US encompassed states with the highest sepsis mortality. Conclusions Sepsis mortality varies across the US. The states with highest sepsis mortality form a contiguous cluster in the Southeastern and mid-Atlantic US. These observations highlight unanswered questions regarding the characteristics and care of sepsis. PMID:20156361

  14. PARTS WASHING ALTERNATIVES STUDY - UNITED STATES COAST GUARD

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report has been written to assist the United States Coast Guard (USCG) industrial managers in determining the most cost effective and environmentally acceptable parts washing alternatives for their specific applications. An; evaluation was conducted on four different cleane...

  15. Commemorative Sculpture in the United States: A Unit of Study for Grades 8-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Percoco, James; Richman, Michael

    Using primary source documents, this teaching unit focuses on the role monuments and memorials play in the culture. Teacher background materials include a unit overview and unit context, correlation to National Standards for United States History, unit objectives, a lesson plan list, and historical background on commemorative sculpture in the…

  16. United States studies in orbital debris - Prevention and mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftus, Joseph P., Jr.; Potter, Andrew E.

    1990-01-01

    Debris in space has become an issue that has commanded considerable interest in recent years as society has become both more dependent upon space based systems, and more aware of its dependence. After many years of study the United States Space Policy of February 1988 directed that all sectors of the U.S. community minimize space debris. Other space organizations have adopted similar policies. Among the study activities leading to the policy and to subsequent implementing directives were discussions with the ESA, NASDA, and other space operating agencies. The policy derived from technical consensus on the nature of the issues and upon the courses of action available to mitigate the problem, but there remains the concern as to the adequacy of the data to define cost effective strategies. There are now in place mechanisms to continue technical discussions in more formal terms.

  17. EMAP WESTERN UNITED STATES LANDSCAPE CHARACTERIZATION NORTHWEST OREGON PILOT STUDY AREA DATA AND PRODUCT BROWSER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) is conducting a pilot study in the western United States. This study will advance the science of ecological monitoring and demonstrate techniques for regional-scale assessme...

  18. EMAP WESTERN UNITED STATES LANDSCAPE CHARACTERIZATION SOUTHERN ROCKIES PILOT STUDY AREA DATA AND PRODUCT BROWSER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) is conducting a pilot study in the western United States. This study will advance the science of ecological monitoring and demonstrate techniques for regional-scale assessme...

  19. English in the Southern United States. Studies in English Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagle, Stephen J., Ed.; Sanders, Sara L., Ed.

    This collection of papers provides a broad overview of the foundations of, and current research on, language variation in the southern United States, exploring historical and cultural elements, iconic contemporary features, and current changes in progress. The 12 papers are: (1) "The Origins of Southern American English" (John Algeo); (2)…

  20. Indiana's Academic Standards: United States History--Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This booklet clearly spells out what students should know and be able to do in United States History. Examples are given to help students understand what is required to meet the standards. Students should review this guide with their teachers and share it with their parents and family. This two-semester course builds upon concepts developed in…

  1. The Beginnings of Communication Study in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schramm, Wilbur

    The history of communication research in the United States is reviewed in this paper through an extensive look at the lives of four men who made significant contributions to the field: Harold Lasswell, Kurt Lewin, Paul Lazarsfeld, and Carl Hovland. The pattern of institute formation in the social sciences is briefly reviewed to explain the…

  2. A study of geothermal prospects in the western United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The commercial development potential of 13 underdeveloped geothermal prospects in the Western United States was examined, and the prospects were ranked in order of relative potential for development on the basis of investment considerations. The following were considered in the ranking: geotechnical and engineering data, energy market accessibility, administrative constraints, and environmental and socio-economic factors. The primary ranking criterion is the unit cost of energy production expected from each prospect. Secondary criteria are administrative constraints, environmental factors and the quality of the geotechnical data.

  3. 22 CFR 63.8 - Grants to United States participants to study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Grants to United States participants to study... AND ON BEHALF OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE INTERNATIONAL EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAM § 63.8 Grants to United States participants to study. A citizen of the United States who has been awarded...

  4. 22 CFR 63.8 - Grants to United States participants to study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grants to United States participants to study... AND ON BEHALF OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE INTERNATIONAL EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAM § 63.8 Grants to United States participants to study. A citizen of the United States who has been awarded...

  5. 22 CFR 63.8 - Grants to United States participants to study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grants to United States participants to study... AND ON BEHALF OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE INTERNATIONAL EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAM § 63.8 Grants to United States participants to study. A citizen of the United States who has been awarded...

  6. 22 CFR 63.8 - Grants to United States participants to study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Grants to United States participants to study... AND ON BEHALF OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE INTERNATIONAL EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAM § 63.8 Grants to United States participants to study. A citizen of the United States who has been awarded...

  7. 22 CFR 63.8 - Grants to United States participants to study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Grants to United States participants to study... AND ON BEHALF OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE INTERNATIONAL EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAM § 63.8 Grants to United States participants to study. A citizen of the United States who has been awarded...

  8. Fusion-fission hybrid studies in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Berwald, D.H.; Cheng, E.T.; Delene, J.G.; Jassby, D.L.

    1986-05-20

    Systems and conceptual design studies have been carried out on the following three hybrid types: (1) The fission-suppressed hybrid, which maximizes fissile material produced (Pu or /sup 233/U) per unit of total nuclear power by suppressing the fission process and multiplying neutrons by (n,2n) reactions in materials like beryllium. (2) The fast-fission hybrid, which maximizes fissile material produced per unit of fusion power by maximizing fission of /sup 238/U (Pu is produced) in which twice the fissile atoms per unit of fusion power (but only a third per unit of nuclear power) are made. (3) The power hybrid, which amplifies power in the blanket for power production but does not produce fuel to sell. All three types must sell electrical power to be economical.

  9. United States.

    PubMed

    Birmingham, Karen

    2008-10-01

    The 'Green House' effect; the rise of community care; and suicide awareness Baltimore: When he took a parttime job in a nursing home, Harvard-trained physician Bill Thomas realised that the biggest problems residents faced were not their illnesses but 'loneliness, helplessness and boredom'. He went on to found the Eden Alternative, 'a movement to de-institutionalise nursing homes', and has since revolutionised older people's residential care around Baltimore, replacing nursing homes with clusters of small homes, each for up to ten residents. Called 'Green Houses', Dr Thomas now has a $10 million (£5.6 million) grant to replace more than 100 nursing homes in all 50 US states with these small dwellings. Last month he began teaching an experimental class at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County's Erickson School on Aging, Management and Policy: 'Aging 100: You Say You Want a Revolution'. Classes will be broadcast on YouTube. PMID:27316081

  10. A Study of United States Hydroelectric Plant Ownership

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas G Hall

    2006-06-01

    Ownership of United States hydroelectric plants is reviewed from several perspectives. Plant owners are grouped into six owner classes as defined by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. The numbers of plants and the corresponding total capacity associated with each owner class are enumerated. The plant owner population is also evaluated based on the number of owners in each owner class, the number of plants owned by a single owner, and the size of plants based on capacity ranges associated with each owner class. Plant numbers and corresponding total capacity associated with owner classes in each state are evaluated. Ownership by federal agencies in terms of the number of plants owned by each agency and the corresponding total capacity is enumerated. A GIS application that is publicly available on the Internet that displays hydroelectric plants on maps and provides basic information about them is described.

  11. Loess studies in central United States: Evolution of concepts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Follmer, L.R.

    1996-01-01

    Few words in the realm of earth science have caused more debate than "loess". It is a common term that was first used as a name of a silt deposit before it was defined in a scientific sense. Because this "loose" deposit is easily distinguished from other more coherent deposits, it was recognized as a matter of practical concern and later became the object of much scientific scrutiny. Loess was first recognized along the Rhine Valley in Germany in the 1830s and was first noted in the United States in 1846 along the lower Mississippi River where it later became the center of attention. The use of the name eventually spread around the world, but its use has not been consistently applied. Over the years some interpretations and stratigraphic correlations have been validated, but others have been hotly contested on conceptual grounds and semantic issues. The concept of loess evolved into a complex issue as loess and loess-like deposits were discovered in different parts of the US. The evolution of concepts in the central US developed in four indefinite stages: the eras of (1) discovery and development of hypotheses, (2) conditional acceptance of the eolian origin of loess, (3) "bandwagon" popularity of loess research, and (4) analytical inquiry on the nature of loess. Toward the end of the first era around 1900, the popular opinion on the meaning of the term loess shifted from a lithological sense of loose silt to a lithogenetic sense of eolian silt. However, the dual use of the term fostered a lingering skepticism during the second era that ended in 1944 with an explosion of interest that lasted for more than a decade. In 1944, R.J. Russell proposed and H.N. Fisk defended a new non-eolian, property-based, concept of loess. The eolian advocates reacted with surprise and enthusiasm. Each side used constrained arguments to show their view of the problem, but did not examine the fundamental problem, which was not in the proofs of their hypothesis, but in the definition of

  12. Financial Planning for Study in the United States: A Guide for Students from Other Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasnett, Martena

    This booklet is written especially for students who are considering leaving their home countries to enter a college or university in the United States for a period of study. Its purpose is to provide these students with information about the costs of study in the United States, what responsibilities they will be expected to assume in meeting these…

  13. The National Environmental Literacy Project: A Baseline Study of Middle Grade Students in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBeth, William; Volk, Trudi L.

    2009-01-01

    The authors discuss environmental literacy in the United States and present a brief summary of the results of a major national study designed to attain a baseline measure of environmental literacy among middle school students in the United States. The authors include events that led up to the study and describe future directions for environmental…

  14. A Cross-Cultural Study of Teachers' Instructional Practices in Singapore and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanTassel-Baska, Joyce; Feng, Annie; MacFarlane, Bronwyn; Heng, Mary Anne; Teo, Chua Tee; Wong, Marie Linda; Quek, Chwee G.; Khong, Beng Choo

    2008-01-01

    This cross-cultural study, utilizing a structured instructional behavior rating form, examined distinguishing and comparable teaching practices in secondary gifted classrooms in Singapore and the United States. Teachers from Singapore (n = 67) and teachers from the United States (n = 33) in 5 subject domains including math, science, English,…

  15. Studying Dutch emigration to the United States: new methods and concepts.

    PubMed

    Swierenga, R P

    1984-01-01

    The author considers how modern computerized methods could be applied to the study of migration from the Netherlands to the United States. An example is presented using data on Dutch migration from 1835 to 1880. The sources of available data in the Netherlands and the United States are reviewed. PMID:12267139

  16. Changing Patterns of Finance in Higher Education. Country Study: United States of America. OECD Educational Monographs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This report on the United States of America is one in a series of country studies prepared in the framework of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Education Committee activity on changing patterns of finance in higher education. The United States maintains the largest and most diverse system of higher education in the…

  17. Active tectonic studies in the United States, 1987-1990

    SciTech Connect

    Weldon, R.J., II )

    1991-01-01

    The techniques and instrumentation used in active tectonic studies are discussed, and recent results are reviewed. It is suggested that a critical mass of data on several particular regions has been accumulated, making possible critical debates and attempts to assess earthquake hazards. Particular attention is given to studies of the Pacific Northwest region, basin and range deformation studies, and distributed deformation and hidden earthquake sources. Also included is a comprehensive bibliography for the period.

  18. Human Exposures to PAHs: an Eastern United States Pilot Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Personal exposure monitoring for select polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was performed as part of the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) Pilot Study in Baltimore, MD and in four surrounding counties (NHEXAS-Maryland). An objective of this effort was to esta...

  19. Social Studies 11: United States History and Government. Tentative Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

    The course content is organized around 15 major concepts and ideas identified as fundamental to the social studies program. The concepts are: (1) change, (2) choice, (3) citizenship, (4) culture, (5) diversity, (6) empathy, (7) environment, (8) human rights, (9) identity, (10) interdependence, (11) justice, (12) political system, (13) power, (14)…

  20. Recreation in the United States. National Historic Landmark Theme Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charleton, James H.

    This report examines a number of outstanding and illustrative examples of a broad range of properties representing recreational activities that suggest themselves for possible National Historic Landmark recognition. The properties described in the study have been selected to represent places and activities that have had a major impact on American…

  1. Comparison of Elementary Social Studies Curricula of Turkey and the United States on Values Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merey, Zihni; Kus, Zafer; Karatekin, Kadir

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the social studies teaching curricula of Turkey and the United States in terms of values education. The study is a model case study that relies upon one of the qualitative research methods. The data come from the elementary social studies curricula of both countries through the documents analysis method. The…

  2. Factors Influencing Chinese Students' Decisions to Study in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Larry; Shen, Libi

    2016-01-01

    The central research question was: Why do Chinese students want to study in the United States? The participants were 20 Chinese students who studied in the U.S. Ten interview questions were used and data were processed in NVivo 10. Five major themes emerged from this study: (a) American culture benefits foreign perceptions of education in the…

  3. Comparison of Social Studies Education in the United States, China, and South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Yali; Hoge, John D.; Choi, Jungsoon; Lee, Seung-Yun

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a brief picture of social studies education in the United States, China, and South Korea. It begins with a brief account of the K-12 curriculum structure and history of social studies education in each country in the 20th century. It then turns to a contemporary look at the social studies, the national curriculum standards…

  4. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory...

  5. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory...

  6. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory...

  7. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory...

  8. 31 CFR 500.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 500.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including U.S. trust...

  9. United States History: From Community to Society. Unit Five: National Expansion. Grade Six. Project Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    The purpose of this fifth in a series of resource units intended for use at the sixth grade level is to provide concepts on the internal migration of peoples from the Atlantic Seaboard and immigration of foreigners to the Northwest and New South. Students trace migration patterns, noting that culture and materials objects also move with the people…

  10. Analyzing the United States Department of Transportation's Implementation Strategy for High Speed Rail: Three Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Ryan

    High-speed rail (HSR) has become a major contributor to the transportation sector with a strong push by the Obama Administration and the Department of Transportation to implement high-speed rail in the United States. High-speed rail is a costly transportation alternative that has the potential displace some car and airport travel while increase energy security and environmental sustainability. This thesis will examine the United States high-speed rail implementation strategy by comparing it to the implementation strategies of France, Japan, and Germany in a multiple case study under four main criteria of success: economic profitability, reliability, safety, and ridership. Analysis will conclude with lessons to be taken away from the case studies and applied to the United States strategy. It is important to understand that this project has not been established to create a comprehensive implementation plan for high-speed rail in the United States; rather, this project is intended to observe the depth and quality of the current United States implementation strategy and make additional recommendations by comparing it with France, Japan, and Germany.

  11. Remarks on the Needed Reform of German Studies in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleve, John Van; Willson, A. Leslie

    This book addresses the problem of the future of Germanics as a field of study at colleges and universities in the United States. It is noted that the study of Germanics has been losing tens of thousands of students for the past 25 years, that this slide downward is no longer attracting enough attention from the Germanics community, and if it…

  12. A Comparative Study of Advertising in Israel and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krohn, Franklin B.; Brahms, Robert

    A study compared advertising media usage, advertising reach, and consumers' attitudes toward advertising in Israel and the United States. The study used data gathered from an Israeli survey of 1,600 consumers and an American survey of 1,500 consumers. The findings revealed that the press was the dominant advertising medium in both countries, in…

  13. The Impact of Distance Education on Higher Education: A Case Study of the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruth, Gail D.; Caruth, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    Distance education has been credited for bringing education to students who would not otherwise have educational opportunities. This study used a qualitative case study approach to examine the research to determine the impact of distance education on higher education in the United States. This look into the impact of distance education is…

  14. International Students' Employment Search in the United States: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sangganjanavanich, Varunee Faii; Lenz, A. Stephen; Cavazos, Javier, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    After completing their academic degree, international student populations face unique situations in their search for employment in the United States. This study used a phenomenological examination to identify the perceptions and the experiences of eight undergraduate international students who participated in a 10-week support group during the…

  15. A Global Investigation of Child Labor: Case Studies from India, Uganda, and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Selena

    This curriculum guide was developed to help students gain a broader perspective about child labor and become more familiar with the issues, controversies, and debates that surround it. Three case studies are highlighted: (1) a street child in India; (2) child soldiers in Uganda; and (3) a migrant farm worker child in the United States. Each case…

  16. How Marketing Practices Affect Education: A Comparative Case Study of Canada, the United States and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine; Goddard, J. Tim

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the theory and practice of the commercialization of education in Canada, using comparative examples from the United States and Australia. Critical theory provides the framework for the study. From the broad focus of business practice, the examination is narrowed down to marketing, and even further to branding, at all levels,…

  17. Psychosocial Adjustment of Hmong Refugees during Their First Decade in the United States: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westermeyer, Joseph; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Hmong refugees in Minnesota were studied on three occasions during their first decade in the United States. While there was general evidence of acculturation, psychiatric care seeking, and reduced psychiatric symptom levels, a large subset of Hmong refugees remained culturally isolated and manifested depression, anxiety, hostility, and other…

  18. Our Global Future: Implications for Social Studies Education in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Jan L.

    The purpose of this paper is to probe the relationship between the emerging global context of life for citizens in the United States and the further development of the field of social studies. The paper first examines the concept of the world problematique, described as the sudden realization of the world as a global system with complex problems…

  19. Private Schools and National Policy: A Comparative Study of Australia and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Thomas H.

    Pursuant to the emerging political issue of government financial support for private schools in the United States, a study was made of the Australian system of educational finance, which includes substantial government aid to nongovernment schools. Following a historical analysis and typology of government educational policy in both countries, a…

  20. A Study of How Australia, Canada and Japan are Perceived on United States Television Network News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Myles P.

    A study was conducted to explore the way network television news observes three countries friendly to the United States: Australia, Canada, and Japan. Every news story from 1968 to 1983 on the ABC, CBS, and NBC networks that mentioned any of the three countries or their people was examined. Coders classified the 4,038 stories based on origin,…

  1. Influence of Leader Behaviors on Creativity: A Comparative Study between South Korea and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Seog Joo

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates what are the relationships between different leader behaviors (i.e. supportive, participative, and controlling leader behaviors) and follower creativity, and whether the relationships differ between South Korea and the United States. Although creativity research suggests that supportive leader behaviors tend to enhance…

  2. How Study Abroad Shapes Global Careers: Evidence from the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohajeri Norris, Emily; Gillespie, Joan

    2009-01-01

    What is the impact of study abroad on U.S. college students' career paths? What factors of education abroad differentiate alumni who later worked or volunteered for international organizations in the United States and/or in other countries compared with alumni who did not pursue global-career experiences? This article presents findings that…

  3. Economic Literacy in the United States, Germany, and Austria: Results of Cross National Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumm, Volker; Beck, Klaus

    Designed to assess the economic literacy of high school students in Austria, Germany, and the United States, this research study involved the administration of an economic literacy test and gathering data on attitudes toward economics, on intelligence, and on moral maturity. The main focus of the research was a comparison between 11th and 12th…

  4. Science on Display: A Study of the United States Science Exhibit, Seattle World's Fair, 1962.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, James B.; And Others

    Fairgoers, who attended the United States Science Exhibit at the Seattle World's Fair and therefore were exposed to the elaborate attempt at mass education that it represented, were studied as if they were "students." Attitudes towards science and scientists, information retention, and background characteristics were measured. Attendance and crowd…

  5. Japanese Studies in the United States. A Report on the State of the Field, Present Resources and Future Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akita, George; And Others

    This report presents the results of a systematic survey of the field of Japanese studies in the United States conducted during a period of eighteen months prior to 1970. The objectives of the report were: (1) to provide a fuller understanding of the contours of the field; (2) to offer documentation on the identity of scholars at work in the field;…

  6. What the United States Can Learn From Singapore's World-Class Mathematics System (and What Singapore Can Learn from the United States): An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Alan; Leinwand, Steven; Anstrom, Terry; Pollock, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study compares key features of the Singapore and U.S. mathematics systems in the primary grades, when students need to build a strong mathematics foundation. It identifies major differences between the mathematics frameworks, textbooks, assessments, and teachers in Singapore and the United States. It also presents initial results…

  7. International student mobility and highly skilled migration: a comparative study of Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    She, Qianru; Wotherspoon, Terry

    2013-12-01

    Against the backdrop of demographic change and economic reconfiguration, recruiting international students, especially those at tertiary level, has drawn growing attention from advanced economies as part of a broad strategy to manage highly skilled migration. This comparative study focuses on three English speaking countries receiving international students: Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom. International student policies, in particular entry and immigration regulations, and the trends in student mobility since the late 1990s are examined drawing on secondary data. By exploring the issue from the political economy perspectives, this study identifies distinct national strategies for managing student mobility, determines key factors shaping the environment of student migration in each nation, and addresses the deficiency of human capital theory in the analysis of global competition for high skills. PMID:23667802

  8. NEW STUDIES OF URBAN FLOOD FREQUENCY IN THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauer, Vernon B.

    1986-01-01

    Five reports dealing with flood magnitude and frequency in urban areas in the southeastern United States have been published during the past 2 years by the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS). These reports are based on data collected in Tampa and Tallahassee, Florida; Atlanta, Georgia; and several cities in Alabama and Tennessee. Each report contains regression equations useful for estimating flood peaks for selected recurrence intervals at ungauged urban sites. A nationwide study of urban flood characteristics by the USGS published in 1983 contains equations for estimating urban peak discharges for ungauged sites. At the time that the nationwide study was conducted, data from only 35 sites in the southeastern United States were available. The five new reports contain data for 88 additional sites. These new data show that the seven-parameter estimating equations developed in the nationwide study are unbiased and have prediction errors less than those described in the nationwide report.

  9. A comparative study of the status of GSHP applications in the United States and China

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiaobing; Lu, Shilei; Hughes, Patrick; Cai, Zhe

    2015-04-28

    Ground source heat pump (GSHP) or geothermal heat pump technology was first developed and commercially introduced in the late 1970s, and GSHP units representing approximately 3.9 million tons of cooling had been installed in the United States by 2012. Applications of GSHP technology also have grown rapidly in China since it was introduced into China in the 1990s through collaboration between the Chinese and US governments. It is estimated that by 2013, about 400 million m2 (4.3 billion ft2) of building floor space in China was heated and/or cooled by GSHP systems. Moreover, governments in both China and the United States have programs that in some way support and/or promote the use of GSHP technology. After decades of practice, both countries have accumulated abundant experience in applying GSHP technology, but both also are confronted with various challenges to rapidly deploying this technology. Under the sponsorship of the US–China Clean Energy Research Center for Building Energy Efficiency, researchers reviewed and compared the current status of GSHP applications in the United States and China, including related policies, standards, technologies, equipment, costs, market development, and barriers. Finally, based on this comparative study, future collaborations between the two countries are recommended to improve the application of the GSHP technology and fully realize its energy saving potential.

  10. Changing environmental strategies over time: an empirical study of the steel industry in the United States.

    PubMed

    Clemens, B

    2001-06-01

    This study investigates how environmental strategies change over time. We submit evidence from the US steel industry that firms have modified their strategies over time. We offer that US industry passed through three stages--cost minimization, cost-effective compliance, and beneficial environmental controls. We compare typologies of environmental strategies and choose that of C. Oliver as the most appropriate. We investigate how environmental strategies in the steel industry changed over time a 4-year period. We offer that a further understanding of Oliver's strategies may increase understanding of the relationship between business and government on environmental issues. One over-arching problem in our field is the need to adequately operationalize how firms change strategies and pass through different stages. We hope that our study will help future researchers and practitioners better articulate the concepts of environmental strategies over time. Our study focused on the steel industry in the United States. We chose the US steel industry as one of the major environmental actors in the United States. The United States Environmental Protection Agency ranks the iron and steel industry as the largest industrial source of toxic environmental contamination. We encourage researchers to evaluate and test our methodology and findings in other contexts--both in other nations and different industries. PMID:11434033

  11. The Association of State and National Legislation with Living Kidney Donation Rates in the United States: A National Study

    PubMed Central

    Boulware, L. E.; Troll, M. U.; Plantinga, L. C.; Powe, N. R.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of state legislation and federal policies supporting living donors on living kidney donation rates in the United States is unknown. We studied living kidney donation rates from 1988 to 2006, and we assessed changes in donation before and after the enactment of state legislation and the launch of federal initiatives supporting donors. During the study, 27 states enacted legislation. Among states enacting legislation, there was no statistically significant difference in the average rate of increase in overall living kidney donations after compared to before state legislation enactment (annual increase in donations per 1 000 000 population [95% confidence interval] 2.39 [1.94–2.84] compared to 1.68 [0.89–2.47] respectively, p > 0.05). Among states not enacting legislation, there was a statistically significantly greater annual increase in overall donation rates from 1997 to 2002 compared to before 1997 when federal initiatives commenced, but there was no growth in annual rates after 2002. State and federal legislation were associated with increases in living-unrelated donation. These findings suggest that although existing public policies were not associated with improvements in the majority of donations from living-related donors, they may have had a selective effect on barriers to living-unrelated kidney donation. PMID:18510639

  12. United States crustal thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allenby, R. J.; Schnetzler, C. C.

    1983-01-01

    The thickness of the crust, the thickness of the basal (intermediate or lower) crustal layer, and the average velocity at the top of the mantle have been mapped using all available deep-penetrating seismic-refraction profiles in the conterminous United States and surrounding border areas. These profiles are indexed to their literature data sources. The more significant long wavelength anomalies on the three maps are briefly discussed and analyzed. An attempt to use Bouguer gravity to validate mantle structure was inconclusive.

  13. Migration between the United States and Canada: a study of labour market adjustment.

    PubMed

    Brox, J A

    1983-01-01

    "... The main purpose of this study is to examine population flows between Canada and the United States [from mid-1947 to mid-1972] in order to investigate the degree to which labour market adjustment is aided by such movements. [The author considers] several functional forms of the migration relationship in an attempt to empirically determine how the decision to migrate is formed. [He also compares the] results with those obtained by Courchene...for Canadian interprovincial migration in an effort to compare the effects of international and internal migration on labour market adjustment." It is found that "migration between the United States and Canada over the post-war period is an economic variable. In fact, [a] simple model employing differences in income levels and unemployment rates has been able to explain nearly ninety-five per cent of the variation in the migration rate." The author also notes that "although migration between Canada and the United States does occur in such a way as to aid labour market adjustment, it is not as efficient as internal migration." (summary in FRE, SPA) PMID:12159570

  14. A comparative study of the status of GSHP applications in the United States and China

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Xiaobing; Lu, Shilei; Hughes, Patrick; Cai, Zhe

    2015-04-28

    Ground source heat pump (GSHP) or geothermal heat pump technology was first developed and commercially introduced in the late 1970s, and GSHP units representing approximately 3.9 million tons of cooling had been installed in the United States by 2012. Applications of GSHP technology also have grown rapidly in China since it was introduced into China in the 1990s through collaboration between the Chinese and US governments. It is estimated that by 2013, about 400 million m2 (4.3 billion ft2) of building floor space in China was heated and/or cooled by GSHP systems. Moreover, governments in both China and the Unitedmore » States have programs that in some way support and/or promote the use of GSHP technology. After decades of practice, both countries have accumulated abundant experience in applying GSHP technology, but both also are confronted with various challenges to rapidly deploying this technology. Under the sponsorship of the US–China Clean Energy Research Center for Building Energy Efficiency, researchers reviewed and compared the current status of GSHP applications in the United States and China, including related policies, standards, technologies, equipment, costs, market development, and barriers. Finally, based on this comparative study, future collaborations between the two countries are recommended to improve the application of the GSHP technology and fully realize its energy saving potential.« less

  15. A Comparative Study of Child Temperament and Parenting in Beijing, China and the Western United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Christian L.; Hart, Craig H.; Yang, Chongming; Robinson, Clyde C.; Olsen, Susanne Frost; Zeng, Qing; Olsen, Joseph A.; Jin, Shenghua

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine comparable dimensions and linkages between child temperament and parenting styles with samples from Beijing, China and the western United States. Participants included 404 mothers and fathers from Beijing, China and 325 mothers and fathers from the western United States. Both mothers and fathers…

  16. School Choice in Spain and the United States: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umpstead, Regina; Jankens, Benjamin; Ortega Gil, Pablo; Weiss, Linda; Umpstead, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    This article explores issues of school choice in Spain and the United States by examining the roles and functions of "centros concertados," publicly funded private schools in Spain, and public charter schools in the United States, to provide key insights into the similarities and differences between them. After making a national…

  17. The Ten-Ecosystem Study - Landsat ADP mapping of forest and rangeland in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kan, E. P.; Weber, F. P.

    1978-01-01

    The Ten-Ecosystem Study was designed to assess the maximum information content of Landsat data and its utility for large area classification using a uniform technical approach on the 10 generalized forest and rangeland ecosystems of the United States. Conclusions on the feasibility of using Landsat remote sensing automatic data processing methods, selecting the best seasons, analyzing costs and the effects of site complexity, miscellaneous analysis, problems, and recommendations were derived from 2 years of study, the project being three-fourths completed.

  18. United States History: From Community to Society. Unit One: Indian America Before White Settlement. Grade Six. Project Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    Unit I for grade six deals with the American Indian in a cross cultural approach. Pupils use case studies to examine the Aztecs, who were later conquered by the Spanish, and the Iroquois, who came into contact with the French and English, as total cultures and draw comparisons between the two. The main part of each resource unit is set up in a…

  19. Multilingual Literacies in Transnational Digitally Mediated Contexts: An Exploratory Study of Immigrant Teens in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Wan Shun Eva; Rosario-Ramos, Enid

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the literacy practices that are involved in transnational social and information networking among youths of immigrant backgrounds in the United States. In particular, it investigates the ways in which young migrants of diverse national origins in the United States are utilising digital media to organise social relationships…

  20. Nonlinear Seismic Analysis of Morrow Point Dam: A Study for the United States Bureau of Reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, C R; Solberg, J

    2004-02-20

    This research and development project was sponsored by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), who are best known for the dams, power plants, and canals it constructed in the 17 western states. The mission statement of the USBR's Dam Safety Office, located in Denver, Colorado, is ''to ensure Reclamation dams do not present unacceptable risk to people, property, and the environment.'' The Dam Safety Office does this by quickly identifying the dams which pose an increased threat to the public, and quickly completing the related analyses in order to make decisions that will safeguard the public and associated resources. The research study described in this report constitutes one element of USBR's research and development work to advance their computational and analysis capabilities for studying the response of dams to strong earthquake motions. This project focused on the seismic response of Morrow Point Dam, which is located 263 km southwest of Denver, Colorado.

  1. Study of persistent elevated pollution episodes in the northeastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughan, W.M.; Chan, M.; Cantrell, B.; Pooler, F.

    1982-03-01

    To examine chemical transformation within stagnant air masses and the atmospheric processes acting upon such air masses, the United States EPA sponsored a study in the summer of 1980 in the northeastern region of the country. Ten research aircraft and several mobile and stationary surface monitoring platforms from three EPA contractors, seven federal agencies, and four universities participated in an intensive measurement program between 16 July and 15 August 1980. Pollutants of interest included SO/sub 2/, NO, NO/sub x/, HC, O/sub 3/, sulfate, nitrate, and aerosols in general.

  2. Multidisciplinary team malfunctioning on a state hospital unit: a case study.

    PubMed

    Gomez, E A; Ruiz, P; Langrod, J

    1980-01-01

    The use of multidisciplinary teams in the care of psychiatric patients can be countertherapeutic unless attention is paid to the dynamics of team functioning. The authors present a case study of team malfunctioning on an inpatient unit in a state hospital that resulted from staff's role confusion and insecurity. Patient care was relegated to second place as major interpersonal conflicts among the staff were played out along ethnic and cultural lines. Resolution of the conflicts required identifying their source, clarifying staff roles, and initiating a special inservice training program focused primarily on the needs of paraprofessional staff. PMID:7353821

  3. Phenylalanine hydroxylase gene mutations in the United States: report from the Maternal PKU Collaborative Study.

    PubMed Central

    Guldberg, P.; Levy, H. L.; Hanley, W. B.; Koch, R.; Matalon, R.; Rouse, B. M.; Trefz, F.; de la Cruz, F.; Henriksen, K. F.; Güttler, F.

    1996-01-01

    The major cause of hyperphenylalaninemia is mutations in the gene encoding phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH). The known mutations have been identified primarily in European patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the spectrum of mutations responsible for PAH deficiency in the United States. One hundred forty-nine patients enrolled in the Maternal PKU Collaborative Study were subjects for clinical and molecular investigations. PAH gene mutations associated with phenylketonuria (PKU) or mild hyperphenylalaninemia (MHP) were identified on 279 of 294 independent mutant chromosomes, a diagnostic efficiency of 95%. The spectrum is composed of 71 different mutations, including 47 missense mutations, 11 splice mutations, 5 nonsense mutations, and 8 microdeletions. Sixteen previously unreported mutations were identified. Among the novel mutations, five were found in patients with MHP, and the remainder were found in patients with PKU. The most common mutations were R408W, IVS12nt1g-->a, and Y414C, accounting for 18.7%, 7.8%, and 5.4% of the mutant chromosomes, respectively. Thirteen mutations had relative frequencies of 1%-5%, and 55 mutations each had frequencies < or = 1%. The mutational spectrum corresponded to that observed for the European ancestry of the U.S. population. To evaluate the extent of allelic variation at the PAH locus within the United States in comparison with other populations, we used allele frequencies to calculate the homozygosity for 11 populations where >90% ascertainment of mutations has been obtained. The United States was shown to contain one of the most heterogeneous populations, with homozygosity values similar to Sicily and ethnically mixed sample populations in Europe. The extent of allelic heterogeneity must be a major determining factor in the choice of mutation-detection methodology for molecular diagnosis in PAH deficiency. Images Figure 1 PMID:8659548

  4. Key operational characteristics in emergency department observation units: a comparative study between sites in the United States and Asia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To improve efficiency, emergency departments (EDs) use dedicated observation units (OUs) to manage patients who are unable to be discharged home, yet do not clearly require inpatient hospitalization. However, operational metrics and their ideal targets have not been created for this setting and patient population. Variation in these metrics across different countries has not previously been reported. This study aims to define and compare key operational characteristics between three ED OUs in the United States (US) and three ED OUs in Asia. Methods This is a descriptive study of six tertiary-care hospitals, all of which are level 1 trauma centers and have OUs managed by ED staff. We collected data via various methods, including a standardized survey, direct observation, and interviews with unit leadership, and compared these data across continents. Results We define multiple key operational characteristics to compare between sites, including OU length of stay (LOS), OU discharge rate, and bed turnover rate. OU LOS in the US and Asian sites averaged 12.9 hours (95% CI, 8.3 to 17.5) and 20.5 hours (95% CI, -49.4 to 90.4), respectively (P = 0.39). OU discharge rates in the US and Asia averaged 84.3% (95% CI, 81.5 to 87.2) and 88.7% (95% CI, 81.5 to 95.8), respectively (P = 0.11), and the bed turnover rates in the US and Asian sites averaged 1.6 patients/bed/day (95% CI, -0.1 to 3.3) and 0.9 patient/bed/day (95% CI, -0.6 to 2.4), respectively (P = 0.27). Conclusions Prior research has shown that the OU is a resource that can mitigate many of problems in the ED and hospital, while simultaneously improving patient care and satisfaction. We describe key operational characteristics that are relevant to all OUs, regardless of geography or healthcare system to monitor and maximize efficiency. Although measures of LOS and bed turnover varied widely between US and Asian sites, we did not find a statistically significant difference. Use of these metrics

  5. Constitution of the State of Illinois and United States: Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Office of Education, Springfield.

    The study guide, intended for adults wishing to obtain a General Educational Development (GED) certificate in Illinois, discusses the U.S. Constitution, the Illinois Constitution, the Declaration of Independence, and rules for displaying the U.S. flag. The objective is to aid adults in passing the constitution component of the GED examination.…

  6. A Unit of Study Approach for Teaching Common Core State Standards for Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pytash, Kristine E.; Morgan, Denise N.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide an overview of the unit of study framework for teaching writing and explain how it sets the stage for developing "academic momentum" in students (Strahan, 2008, p. 4). To help readers understand the unit of study framework in action, the authors describe how a unit unfolds in one subject area,…

  7. National Petroleum Council Source and Supply Study - the potential for natural gas in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Gautier, D.L. ); Brown, R.L. )

    1993-01-01

    This paper summarizes the contribution of the Source and Supply Task Group to the recent (December 1992) National Petroleum Council (NPC) study entitled [open quotes]The Potential for Natural Gas in the United States.[close quotes] This task group evaluated potential sources of additions to US natural gas reserves with a team of more than 100 participants, representing various trade, academic, government, and industry organizations. The group evaluated reserve growth, unconventional resources, and undiscovered conventional resources of natural gas over a range of prices and to the year 2010. The study concluded that the US recoverable resource base consists of nearly 1,300 Tcf in the lower 48 States alone, of which more than 413 Tcf will be in new fields and 203 Tcf will be added from reserve appreciation. In addition, more than 519 Tcf will be available as recoverable unconventional resources of gas in coalbeds, gas shales, tight sands, and in other categories. Of the total resource, more than 600 Tcf will be recoverable at wellhead prices of $2.50 per million British thermal units. The NPC evaluation of the US resource base concluded that the domestic natural-gas resource is plentiful and that technological advances will ensure that the resources will be available to fill any foreseeable demand over the next few decades. 3 refs., 6 figs., 18 tabs.

  8. The pedagogical purposes of interdisciplinary social science: a view from area studies in the United States.

    PubMed

    Engerman, David C

    2015-01-01

    "Interdisciplinarity" is widely praised in modern academe for its apparent ability to generate important research results and contribute to scholarly innovation. This essay examines a crucial case of interdisciplinary work in the humanities and social sciences: the area studies complex that emerged in the United States after World War II. Examining both celebrations and critiques of area studies, this essay concludes that the enterprise made a major contribution to national life not through the production of scholarship (the usual focus of historians of higher education) but through the innovative model of undergraduate teaching and graduate training that expanded the geographic and linguistic horizons of American undergraduate and graduate life. A final section of the essay suggests the relevance of this pedagogical focus for contemporary debates about the future of area studies. PMID:25418888

  9. Resilience skills as emergent phenomena: A study of emergency departments in Brazil and the United States.

    PubMed

    Wachs, Priscila; Saurin, Tarcisio Abreu; Righi, Angela Weber; Wears, Robert Lewis

    2016-09-01

    Although the use of resilience skills (RSs) by emergency department (ED) front-line staff is ubiquitous, the nature and origin of these skills tend to be taken for granted. This study investigates the research question "where do RSs come from"? Case studies in two EDs were undertaken in order to answer the research question: one in Brazil and the other in the United States. The case studies adopted the same data collection and analysis procedures, involving interviews, questionnaires, observations, and analysis of documents. A model for describing RSs as emergent phenomena is proposed. The model indicates that RSs arise from interactions between: work constraints, hidden curriculum, gaps in standardized operating procedures, organizational support for resilience, and RSs themselves. An instantiation of the model is illustrated by a critical event identified from the American ED. The model allows the identification of leverage points for influencing the development of RSs, instead of leaving their evolution purely to chance. PMID:26972019

  10. Religion and Early Marriage in the United States: Evidence from the Add Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Uecker, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Early marriage has important consequences for individuals in the United States. Several studies have linked religion to early marriage but have not examined this relationship in depth. Using data from Waves 1, 3, and 4 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, I conduct multilevel event-history analysis to examine how religion, at both individual and contextual levels, is associated with early marriage. Further, I test mediators of the religion-early marriage relationship. I find significant variation in early marriage by religious tradition, religious service attendance, religious salience, belief in scriptural inerrancy, and religious context in high school. The individual religious effects—but not the school context effects—are explained in part by differential attitudes toward marriage and cohabitation. PMID:25045173

  11. Religion and Early Marriage in the United States: Evidence from the Add Health Study.

    PubMed

    Uecker, Jeremy

    2014-06-01

    Early marriage has important consequences for individuals in the United States. Several studies have linked religion to early marriage but have not examined this relationship in depth. Using data from Waves 1, 3, and 4 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, I conduct multilevel event-history analysis to examine how religion, at both individual and contextual levels, is associated with early marriage. Further, I test mediators of the religion-early marriage relationship. I find significant variation in early marriage by religious tradition, religious service attendance, religious salience, belief in scriptural inerrancy, and religious context in high school. The individual religious effects-but not the school context effects-are explained in part by differential attitudes toward marriage and cohabitation. PMID:25045173

  12. A Nationally Representative Study of Early Childhood Home Visiting Service Use in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lanier, Paul; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn; Welch, Hannah

    2015-10-01

    Early childhood home visiting (HV) services are expanding broadly across the United States. Supported by federal policy, HV is now an integral part of maternal and child health services. However, no nationally representative estimate of HV use is available and no research has compared HV use across states. The 2011/12 National Survey on Children's Health was used to estimate the national and state prevalence of HV use for children 0-3 years. Generalized linear mixed modeling was used to predict HV use. An estimated 2,137,044 US children and families received HV during pregnancy and up to child age of 3 years. State HV prevalence range was 3.7-30.6 %. Nationally, 19.1 % of children below the federal poverty line received HV services. Although family poverty increased the odds of receiving HV services, higher rates of child poverty at the state level predicted less use of HV services. Important predictors of HV use include infant/child need factors (health risk, adverse experiences), predisposing factors (family size), and enabling factors (insurance type). This study provides the first estimates of national and state HV service use. Although findings indicate HV services are targeted to children at elevated risk for poor physical or developmental outcomes, our estimates show the vast majority of at-risk children did not receive HV services, including more than 80 % of low-income children, 76 % of preterm infants, and 57 % of very low birth weight infants. Increasing HV service availability could decrease negative health outcomes for young children. PMID:25680701

  13. Amphibian responses to wildfire in the western united states: Emerging patterns from short-term studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hossack, B.R.; Pilliod, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    The increased frequency and severity of large wildfires in the western United States is an important ecological and management issue with direct relevance to amphibian conservation. Although the knowledge of fire effects on amphibians in the region is still limited relative to most other vertebrate species, we reviewed the current literature to determine if there are evident patterns that might be informative for conservation or management strategies. Of the seven studies that compared pre- and post-wildfire data on a variety of metrics, ranging from amphibian occupancy to body condition, two reported positive responses and five detected negative responses by at least one species. Another seven studies used a retrospective approach to compare effects of wildfire on populations: two studies reported positive effects, three reported negative effects from wildfire, and two reported no effects. All four studies that included plethodontid salamanders reported negative effects on populations or individuals; these effects were greater in forests where fire had been suppressed and in areas that burned with high severity. Species that breed in streams are also vulnerable to post-wildfire changes in habitat, especially in the Southwest. Wildfire is also important for maintaining suitable habitat for diverse amphibian communities, although those results may not be evident immediately after an area burns. We expect that wildfire will extirpate few healthy amphibian populations, but it is still unclear how populations will respond to wildfire in the context of land management (including pre- and post-fire timber harvest) and fragmentation. Wildfire may also increase the risk of decline or extirpation for small, isolated, or stressed (e.g., from drought or disease) populations. Improved understanding of how these effects vary according to changes in fire frequency and severity are critical to form more effective conservation strategies for amphibians in the western United States.

  14. Modifiable determinants of youth violence in Australia and the United States: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Hemphill, Sheryl A; Smith, Rachel; Toumbourou, John W; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Catalano, Richard F; McMorris, Barbara J; Romaniuk, Helena

    2009-12-01

    Youth violence is a global problem. The major research into youth violence has been conducted in the United States (U.S.) and there has been little research to investigate whether the prevalence or predictors are similar in comparable Western countries like Australia. In the current paper, analyses are conducted using two waves of data collected as part of a cross-national longitudinal study of adolescent development in approximately 4000 students aged 12 to 16 years in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, U.S.. Students completed a self-report survey of problem behaviours including violent behaviour, as well as risk and protective factors across five domains (individual, family, peer, school, community).Compared to Washington State, rates of attacking or beating another over the past 12-months were lower in Victoria for females in the first survey and higher for Victorian males in the follow-up survey. Preliminary analyses did not show state-specific predictors of violent behaviour. Therefore, the final multivariate model included the combined Washington State and Victorian samples. In the multivariate model, protective factors were being female and student emotion control. Risk factors were prior violent behaviour, family conflict, association with violent peers, community disorganisation, community norms favourable to drug use, school suspensions, and arrests. A major implication of these findings is that the range of factors that influence violent behaviour in North America may also apply in Australia. Hence, the application of U.S. early intervention and prevention programs may be warranted, with some tailoring to the Australian context. PMID:20204170

  15. Cross-sectional study of pulmonary function in carbon black workers in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, J.M.; Diaz, J.F.; Fyfe, I.M.; Ingalls, T.H.

    1988-04-01

    Since a proportion of airborne carbon black particles is of respirable size, the possibility that it may affect pulmonary function was investigated in 913 employees of 6 carbon black producers in the United States. Exposure was estimated by combining the mean total dust exposures of each job category with the length of time workers had spent in each job, giving a measurement expressed in mg/m3.months. Pulmonary function was measured by spirometry. The major variables affecting pulmonary function were age and cigarette smoking. When the effects of age and smoking were controlled in an age-specific, two-way analysis of variance, no consistent effects of total dust exposure were detectable in these workers. This study provided no evidence that exposure to total dust under the conditions pertaining in the contemporary carbon black industry had detrimental effects on the pulmonary function of men employed in the production and handling of this product.

  16. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for United States Coast Guard Headquarters

    SciTech Connect

    Schey, Stephen; Francfort, Jim

    2015-05-01

    Federal agencies are mandated to purchase alternative fuel vehicles, increase consumption of alternative fuels, and reduce petroleum consumption. Available plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) provide an attractive option in the selection of alternative fuel vehicles. PEVs, which consist of both battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), have significant advantages over internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles in terms of energy efficiency, reduced petroleum consumption, and reduced production of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and they provide performance benefits with quieter, smoother operation. This study intended to evaluate the extent to which the United States Coast Guard Headquarters (USCG HQ) could convert part or all of their fleet of vehicles from petroleum-fueled vehicles to PEVs.

  17. Limitations to the study of man in the United States space program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Phillip A.; Greenisen, Mike

    1992-01-01

    Research on humans conducted during space flight is fraught both with great opportunities and great obstacles. The purpose of this paper is to review some of the limitations to United States research in space in the hope that an informed scientific community may lead to more rapid and efficient solution of these problems. Limitations arise because opportunities to study the same astronauts in well-controlled situations on repeated space flights are practically non-existent. Human research opportunities are further limited by the necessity of avoiding simultaneous mutually-interfereing experiments. Environmental factors including diet and other physiological perturbations concomitant with space flight also complicates research design and interpretation. Technical limitations to research methods and opportunities further restrict the development of the knowledge base. Finally, earth analogues of space travel all suffer from inadequacies. Though all of these obstacles will eventually be overcome; creativity, diligence, and persistence are required to further our knowledge of humans in space.

  18. Feasibility study of an aerospace museum in the western United States. Volume 2: Documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Papers supporting the study on establishing an aerospace museum in the western United States are presented. These cover the following areas of investigation: (1) The potential locations in the west were analyzed, and the most logical locations for museum development are Los Angeles, San Francisco, San Diego, Seattle, and Phoenix/Tucson. (2) The 26 museums and other organizations with significant public displays of aeronautics, astronautics, or astronomy are listed. (3) The activities and functions of museums, and their obligations to the user-visitor are discussed. (4) The sources for construction and improvements, operations, and acquisitions are described. (5) General curatorial responsibilites in preserving and exhibiting aerospace specimens and artifacts are also discussed.

  19. Acceptability of Salt Fluoridation in a Rural Latino Community in the United States: An Ethnographic Study.

    PubMed

    Barker, Judith C; Guerra, Claudia; Gonzalez-Vargas, M Judy; Hoeft, Kristin S

    2016-01-01

    Compared to other population groups in the United States, caries (tooth decay) is a disproportionately prevalent disease among Latino populations, especially among low-income and rural sub-groups and children under five years of age. Fluoride is a primary preventive for caries. While water fluoridation is a major and effective public health means for delivering fluoride on a mass scale, it does not reach many rural areas or population groups such as Latinos who eschew drinking water from municipal sources. This study examines the acceptability to such groups of salt fluoridation, an alternate means of delivering fluoride long used on a global scale. An ethnographic study in California's rural Central Valley was performed. Thirty individual interviews and 5 focus groups (N = 61) were conducted in Spanish to investigate low-income Latino migrant caregivers' experiences, views and understandings of domestic salt, oral health, caries prevention and fluoride. Audio data were transcribed, translated, coded and thematically analyzed. Table salt was readily available and frequently consumed. Both adult and child daily sodium consumption was high. Despite a general feeling that it was good, and present in dentifrices or dietary supplements, most participants had little knowledge about fluoride. Concerns were raised about cardio-vascular and other possibly deleterious effects if an increase in salt consumption occurred because fluoridated salt was viewed as having 'extra' benefits. Once informed about fluoride's safety and role in caries prevention, most participants expressed willingness to use fluoridated salt, especially if it benefitted children. Reassurance about its safety and benefits, and demonstration of its taste, were important aspects of acceptance. Taste was paramount. Participants would not consume more fluoridated salt than their current salt as that would result in unpleasant changes in food flavor and taste. While salt fluoridation is acceptable, the

  20. Acceptability of Salt Fluoridation in a Rural Latino Community in the United States: An Ethnographic Study

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Judith C.; Hoeft, Kristin S.

    2016-01-01

    Compared to other population groups in the United States, caries (tooth decay) is a disproportionately prevalent disease among Latino populations, especially among low-income and rural sub-groups and children under five years of age. Fluoride is a primary preventive for caries. While water fluoridation is a major and effective public health means for delivering fluoride on a mass scale, it does not reach many rural areas or population groups such as Latinos who eschew drinking water from municipal sources. This study examines the acceptability to such groups of salt fluoridation, an alternate means of delivering fluoride long used on a global scale. An ethnographic study in California’s rural Central Valley was performed. Thirty individual interviews and 5 focus groups (N = 61) were conducted in Spanish to investigate low-income Latino migrant caregivers’ experiences, views and understandings of domestic salt, oral health, caries prevention and fluoride. Audio data were transcribed, translated, coded and thematically analyzed. Table salt was readily available and frequently consumed. Both adult and child daily sodium consumption was high. Despite a general feeling that it was good, and present in dentifrices or dietary supplements, most participants had little knowledge about fluoride. Concerns were raised about cardio-vascular and other possibly deleterious effects if an increase in salt consumption occurred because fluoridated salt was viewed as having ‘extra’ benefits. Once informed about fluoride’s safety and role in caries prevention, most participants expressed willingness to use fluoridated salt, especially if it benefitted children. Reassurance about its safety and benefits, and demonstration of its taste, were important aspects of acceptance. Taste was paramount. Participants would not consume more fluoridated salt than their current salt as that would result in unpleasant changes in food flavor and taste. While salt fluoridation is acceptable

  1. Overview of flow studies for recycling metal commodities in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sibley, Scott F.

    2011-01-01

    Metal supply consists of primary material from a mining operation and secondary material, which is composed of new and old scrap. Recycling, which is the use of secondary material, can contribute significantly to metal production, sometimes accounting for more than 50 percent of raw material supply. From 2001 to 2011, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists studied 26 metals to ascertain the status and magnitude of their recycling industries. The results were published in chapters A-Z of USGS Circular 1196, entitled, "Flow Studies for Recycling Metal Commodities in the United States." These metals were aluminum (chapter W), antimony (Q), beryllium (P), cadmium (O), chromium (C), cobalt (M), columbium (niobium) (I), copper (X), germanium (V), gold (A), iron and steel (G), lead (F), magnesium (E), manganese (H), mercury (U), molybdenum (L), nickel (Z), platinum (B), selenium (T), silver (N), tantalum (J), tin (K), titanium (Y), tungsten (R), vanadium (S), and zinc (D). Each metal commodity was assigned to a single year: chapters A-M have recycling data for 1998; chapters N-R and U-W have data for 2000, and chapters S, T, and X-Z have data for 2004. This 27th chapter of Circular 1196 is called AA; it includes salient data from each study described in chapters A-Z, along with an analysis of overall trends of metals recycling in the United States during 1998 through 2004 and additional up-to-date reviews of selected metal recycling industries from 1991 through 2008. In the United States for these metals in 1998, 2000, and 2004 (each metal commodity assigned to a single year), 84 million metric tons (Mt) of old scrap was generated. Unrecovered old scrap totaled 43 Mt (about 51 percent of old scrap generated, OSG), old scrap consumed was 38 Mt (about 45 percent of OSG), and net old scrap exports were 3.3 Mt (about 4 percent of OSG). Therefore, there was significant potential for increased recovery from scrap. The total old scrap supply was 88 Mt, and the overall new

  2. United States West Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On Thursday (Feb. 14, 2002), the cloud cover that often overshadows the western United States this time of year broke to provide those at the Olympic Games with a beautiful day. The nearly cloud-free day was captured by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASAs Terra spacecraft. A thick layer of snow blankets northernmost Nevada, northern Utah, most of Idaho and western Wyoming. The snow surrounds and highlights Utahs Great Salt Lake. Just south of the lake, clouds can be seen hovering over southern Utah. (In general, clouds appear streaky and uneven on a satellite image, and snow cover appears solid with definable borders.) North of the Great Salt Lake, one can clearly discern the light gray Northern Rocky Mountains cutting through Idaho and up into Canada. Moving southwest, the spine-like Sierra Nevada mountains separate the greenery of Southern California from the brown deserts of Arizona and Nevada. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  3. Community-Based Art Studios in Europe and the United States: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vick, Randy M.; Sexton-Radek, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    This survey research compares the structure and practices of 7 community studio art programs for artists with disabilities in Europe to 8 studio art therapy programs in the United States. Art therapy and disability arts literature was reviewed to establish a theoretical context for this project. A survey research method was used, with statistical…

  4. Grammatical Theory in the United States from Bloomfield to Chomsky. Cambridge Studies in Linguistics: 67.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, P. H.

    A survey of the history of linguistic theory concerning grammar in the United States traces the development of theory since 1910. It begins with a general historical review of American linguistics. The subsequent three chapters focus on grammar. The first of these deals with morphology, beginning with Leonard Bloomfield's ideas in both his early…

  5. Trends in Authoritarianism: A Study of Adolescents in West Germany and the United States Since 1945.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederer, Gerda

    1982-01-01

    Surveys carried out in the United States in 1966 and 1978 and in West Germany in 1945 and 1979 showed significant decreases in authoritarianism scale scores in adolescents over time. Although the degree of attitude change was greater in West Germany, American adolescents appear somewhat more authoritarian (in relation to school, family and…

  6. Graduate Study in Chemistry in the United States: A Guide for Non-U.S. Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Judy Diane; Fernando, Quintus

    A guide to help students from other countries pursue graduate education in chemistry in the United States is presented. The process of gaining admission to U.S. universities is emphasized, and the nature of graduate education is briefly explained. It is noted that students majoring in chemistry are expected to have a sound background in…

  7. INTRODUCTION OF ASIAN SOYBEAN RUST UREDINIOSPORES INTO THE MIDWESTERN UNITED STATES – A CASE STUDY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2005, weekly rain samples collected at 124 National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) sites in the eastern and central United States were screened for Asian soybean rust (ASR; Phakopsora pachyrhizi) urediniospores. Application of a quantitative polymerase chain rea...

  8. SESTAT: A Tool for Studying Scientists and Engineers in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kannankutty, Nirmala; Wilkinson, R. Keith

    The Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System (SESTAT) is a comprehensive and integrated system of information about scientists and engineers in the United States. It comprises data collected through three national sample surveys supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF): The National Survey of College Graduates, the National…

  9. Character Development at the United States Air Force Academy: A Phenomenological Case Study of Graduates' Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. Micheal

    2010-01-01

    The United States Air Force Academy develops commissionable officers of character through an intense 4-year program that includes academic, athletic, and military education and training. The literature was silent on whether the Academy effectively develops character or, if so, how the development takes place. This was a phenomenological case study…

  10. Multicultural Education in Social Studies Textbooks in South Korea and the United States: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Younghan

    2013-01-01

    Today, globalization has increased cross-border migration in many countries. The public school classroom in the United States has been getting more diverse, linguistically, culturally, racially, and ethnically. Classrooms in South Korea are also becoming linguistically, culturally, racially, and ethnically diverse because of the fast growth of…

  11. The Oral Health Burden in the United States: A Summary of Recent Epidemiological Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Daniel J.; Weintraub, Jane A.

    1993-01-01

    This article reviews recent large-scale epidemiological surveys of oral health in the United States, outlines risk factors for oral disease, and makes recommendations for future surveys. Discussion is limited to dental caries, periodontal diseases, tooth loss, edentulism, oral cancer, and orofacial clefts. (Author/MSE)

  12. Medical collections in public libraries of the United States: a brief historical study.

    PubMed Central

    Wannarka, M

    1968-01-01

    During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, it was not unusual for a public library in the United States to include a collection of medical books among its resources. The origin and development of these collections, the growth of the movement, and the factors which contributed to the eventual withdrawal of these collections from the public library are recounted here. PMID:4951139

  13. Dominican Family Networks and United States Immigration Policy: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Vivian; Weiss, Carol I.

    1979-01-01

    This analysis of the acculturative process of one immigrant Dominican family shows that United States immigration policy forces the separation of families. Immigration regulations do not recognize the cooperating kin groups as "family," and thus necessitate extra-legal strategies to reunify these extended families. (MC)

  14. A Comparison Study of United States and African Students on Perceptions of Obesity and Thinness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogan, Jeanine C.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    College students in Ghana (n=349) and the United States (n=219) completed questionnaires about perceptions about weight, dieting, and ideal bodies. Students in Ghana were more accepting of large body size. Findings illustrated that perceptions of ideal body size and corresponding behaviors are influenced by culture and gender. (SLD)

  15. A Comparative Study of Library and Information Science Education: China and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ziming

    1992-01-01

    Provides background on the historical and current status of library and information science education in China. A comparative analysis then examines similarities and differences in origin, evolution, scale, structure, curriculum, faculty, and students in library and information science education between China and the United States; and reasons for…

  16. Voices from La Frontera: Study of School Districts along the United States/Mexico Border.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WestEd, San Francisco, CA.

    School board associations in California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas jointly commissioned this report to identify common issues in K-12 education along the United States/Mexico border. Surveys returned from 206 school districts within 100 miles of the border indicate that this is a diverse and historically impoverished region with a growing…

  17. A Study of Master's Degrees in Orchestral Conducting in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Brian Allen

    2010-01-01

    In order to learn to be an orchestra conductor in the United States of America, students often begins their formal education by seeking to earn a master's degree in orchestral conducting. This project compiled a listing of American universities which offer a master's degree in orchestral conducting and categorized the component parts of their…

  18. Adult Political Education in West Germany and the United States: Papers and Discussion. German Studies Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Inst. of German Studies.

    The document presents the text of two speeches and a group discussion of adult political education in the United States and Germany from a conference to compare recent social, economic, and political developments in the two countries. The first speech characterizes adult political education in Germany as comprising approximately 10% of the total…

  19. Depression and Nigerian-born immigrant women in the United States: a phenomenological study.

    PubMed

    Ezeobele, I; Malecha, A; Landrum, P; Symes, L

    2010-04-01

    This phenomenological study, using the Husserlian philosophy, explored the perceptions of Nigerian-born immigrant women in the United States and their portrayal of depression. Through face-to-face, semi-structured, audio-taped interviews incorporating open-ended questions and probes to facilitate discussion, the study examined a purposive sample of 19 Nigerian-born immigrant women's perception of depression. Data were analysed using Colaizzi's seven step method of data analysis. The findings from the study uncovered six themes: (1) craziness and madness; (2) curse and evil spirit possession; (3) denial and secrecy; (4) isolation and rejection; (5) spirituality and religion; and (6) need for education. Findings indicated that Nigerian-born women were not able to differentiate depression from other types of mental illnesses. The women described depression as something that affects others and not them. The women's perception provided insight into why the clergy was preferred for treatment of depression rather than health care professionals. The findings of the study should increase the awareness of nurses and other health care professionals of the need to focus on evidence-based, culturally specific research, and illuminate issues surrounding depression in this population. PMID:20465767

  20. An Ethnographic Study of the Social Context of Migrant Health in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Seth M

    2006-01-01

    Background Migrant workers in the United States have extremely poor health. This paper aims to identify ways in which the social context of migrant farm workers affects their health and health care. Methods and Findings This qualitative study employs participant observation and interviews on farms and in clinics throughout 15 months of migration with a group of indigenous Triqui Mexicans in the western US and Mexico. Study participants include more than 130 farm workers and 30 clinicians. Data are analyzed utilizing grounded theory, accompanied by theories of structural violence, symbolic violence, and the clinical gaze. The study reveals that farm working and housing conditions are organized according to ethnicity and citizenship. This hierarchy determines health disparities, with undocumented indigenous Mexicans having the worst health. Yet, each group is understood to deserve its place in the hierarchy, migrant farm workers often being blamed for their own sicknesses. Conclusions Structural racism and anti-immigrant practices determine the poor working conditions, living conditions, and health of migrant workers. Subtle racism serves to reduce awareness of this social context for all involved, including clinicians. The paper concludes with strategies toward improving migrant health in four areas: health disparities research, clinical interactions with migrant laborers, medical education, and policy making. PMID:17076567

  1. Electronic Word of Mouth on Twitter About Physical Activity in the United States: Exploratory Infodemiology Study

    PubMed Central

    Campo, Shelly; Janz, Kathleen F; Eckler, Petya; Yang, Jingzhen; Snetselaar, Linda G; Signorini, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    Background Twitter is a widely used social medium. However, its application in promoting health behaviors is understudied. Objective In order to provide insights into designing health marketing interventions to promote physical activity on Twitter, this exploratory infodemiology study applied both social cognitive theory and the path model of online word of mouth to examine the distribution of different electronic word of mouth (eWOM) characteristics among personal tweets about physical activity in the United States. Methods This study used 113 keywords to retrieve 1 million public tweets about physical activity in the United States posted between January 1 and March 31, 2011. A total of 30,000 tweets were randomly selected and sorted based on numbers generated by a random number generator. Two coders scanned the first 16,100 tweets and yielded 4672 (29.02%) tweets that they both agreed to be about physical activity and were from personal accounts. Finally, 1500 tweets were randomly selected from the 4672 tweets (32.11%) for further coding. After intercoder reliability scores reached satisfactory levels in the pilot coding (100 tweets separate from the final 1500 tweets), 2 coders coded 750 tweets each. Descriptive analyses, Mann-Whitney U tests, and Fisher exact tests were performed. Results Tweets about physical activity were dominated by neutral sentiments (1270/1500, 84.67%). Providing opinions or information regarding physical activity (1464/1500, 97.60%) and chatting about physical activity (1354/1500, 90.27%) were found to be popular on Twitter. Approximately 60% (905/1500, 60.33%) of the tweets demonstrated users’ past or current participation in physical activity or intentions to participate in physical activity. However, social support about physical activity was provided in less than 10% of the tweets (135/1500, 9.00%). Users with fewer people following their tweets (followers) (P=.02) and with fewer accounts that they followed (followings) (P=.04

  2. The United States Planetary Science Decadal Survey 2009-11: Mission Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, Thomas R.; Reh, Kim; Moeller, Robert; Borden, Chester

    2010-05-01

    The United States National Research Council (NRC, the working arm of the National Academies) is currently conducting, at the request of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), a "Decadal Survey" of the planetary sciences. One of the tasks for the Survey committee and panels is to provide "A prioritized list of major flight investigations in the New Frontiers and larger classes recommended for initiation over the decade 2013-2022."[1] To ensure credibility of the flight missions on this list, NASA is funding panel-requested mission studies of various types to generate accurate descriptions of the missions, which are then sent to an independent institution for generation of cost estimates. The approach to mission studies taken by the previous and the current Planetary Science Decadal Surveys are somewhat different. Mission studies in support of the previous Planetary Science Decadal Survey [2] were almost exclusively "point design" studies, appropriate when a mission's science priorities and most effective implementation approach are well defined and understood. The current decadal survey is placing more emphasis on establishing, when needed, that understanding and definition before undertaking point design studies. In some cases, only a limited number of aspects of a mission concept are not sufficiently well defined, so a full point design study is not warranted; instead, detailed study of the less mature aspects is a better approach. The recognition that a point design study is not the answer to every request for information about a mission concept motivated the current survey to consider multiple types of mission concept studies. The three primary types now being used include architectural-level studies, point design studies, and detailed studies. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief general description of the different types of mission studies being conducted in support of the 2009-11 US NRC Planetary Science Decadal Survey, and to

  3. Chronic back pain among older construction workers in the United States: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiuwen S; Wang, Xuanwen; Fujimoto, Alissa; Dobbin, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed chronic back pain among older construction workers in the United States by analyzing data from the 1992-2008 Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a large-scale longitudinal survey. Fixed-effects methods were applied in the multiple logistic regression model to explore the association between back pain and time-varying factors (e.g., employment, job characteristics, general health status) while controlling for stable variables (e.g., gender, race, ethnicity). Results showed that about 40% of older construction workers over the age of 50 suffered from persistent back pain or problems. Jobs involving a great deal of stress or physical effort significantly increased the risk of back disorders and longest-held jobs in construction increased the odds of back disorders by 32% (95% CI: 1·04-1·67). Furthermore, poor physical and mental health were strongly correlated with back problems. Enhanced interventions for construction workers are urgently needed given the aging workforce and high prevalence of back disorders in this industry. PMID:22762489

  4. An Institutional Case Study of Colleges and Universities Associated with Sea Grant in the Pacific Region of the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Adelheid C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine fishery degree programs at colleges and universities associated with the Sea Grant program in the Pacific region of the United States and to describe how each addresses protecting, rebuilding, and maintaining healthy oceans. Methodology: The study was a qualitative institutional case study that…

  5. A Comparative Study of the Distance Education History in China and the United States: A Socio-Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Haijun

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute to the understanding of international distance education development through comparison of the distance education historical developments in China and the United States (U.S.). This study, utilizing a document analysis method, studied historical documents, explored the historical development of…

  6. Globalisation, Language and Education: A Comparative Study of the United States and Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy-Campbell, Zaline M.

    2001-07-01

    Educational language choice has been one of the most provocative issues of the 20th century and continues to be a dominant issue at the turn of the new millennium. Efforts to naturalize English as the only suitable language for post primary school education persist in many African countries, including Tanzania. In the United States the campaign for "English only" in the schools is gaining momentum, despite the increasing multilingual population in the schools. Focusing on Tanzania and the United States, this article examines the fallacy of a monolingual, English only, policy in education. It examines the ethos surrounding the debate about the language of instruction, and considers some of the detrimental effects upon students of attempting to impose a monolingual policy. Finally, the paper suggests possible roles of educators and researchers in fostering international understanding of educational language issues as one aspect of the quest for global peace and social justice in the 21st century.

  7. Geographic patterns of industry in the United States. An aid to the study of occupational disease.

    PubMed

    Stone, B J; Blot, W J; Fraumeni, J F

    1978-07-01

    The geographic location of 18 major manufacturing industries within the United States is illustrated by a series of computer-generated county maps. The metal and machinery industries, the two largest employers, an the transportation and rubber industries are concentrated in the northeastern quadrant of the United States, while most counties with textile, apparel, tobacco, and furniture manufacturing are in the South. Other industries had different patterns. The counties where industry was concentrated tended to be more urban and to have higher levels of income and education. The maps and associated demographic data on industrial counties may prove a useful adjunct to county maps illustrating mortality patterns for cancer and other diseases. Despite obvious limitations, the visual patterns and correlation analyses may help to generate and formulate hypothese concerning occupationally induced diease. PMID:671124

  8. Wind Capacity Credit in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, M.; Porter, K.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide an analysis and comparison of recent studies on the capacity credit of wind in the United States. We offer suggestions and recommendations for future studies, based on the recent work. We examine key wind capacity studies in the United States, emphasizing those done in the past three years.

  9. Providers' perspectives on the vaginal birth after cesarean guidelines in Florida, United States: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Women's access to vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC) in the United States has declined steadily since the mid-1990s, with a current rate of 8.2%. In the State of Florida, less than 1% of women with a previous cesarean deliver vaginally. This downturn is thought to be largely related to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) VBAC guidelines, which mandate that a physician and anesthesiologist be "immediately available" during a trial of labor. The aim of this exploratory qualitative study was to explore the barriers associated with the ACOG VBAC guidelines, as well as the strategies that obstetricians and midwives use to minimize their legal risks when offering a trial of labor after cesarean. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 obstetricians, 12 midwives, and a hospital administrator (n = 24). Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim, and thematic analysis informed the findings. Results Fear of liability was a central reason for obstetricians and midwives to avoid attending VBACs. Providers who continued to offer a trial of labor attempted to minimize their legal risks by being highly selective in choosing potential candidates. Definitions of "immediately available" varied widely among hospitals, and providers in solo or small practices often favored the convenience of a repeat cesarean delivery rather than having to remain in-house during a trial of labor. Midwives were often marginalized due to restrictive hospital policies and by their consulting physicians, even though women with previous cesareans were actively seeking their care. Conclusions The current ACOG VBAC guidelines limit US obstetricians' and midwives' ability to provide care for women with a previous cesarean, particularly in community and rural hospitals. Although ACOG has proposed that women be allowed to accept "higher levels of risk" in order to be able to attempt a trial of labor in some settings, access to VBAC is unlikely to

  10. Air-chemistry studies over the Gulf of Mexico: a bilateral scientific cooperative project between the United States of America and the United States of Mexico. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Parungo, F.; Miller, J.

    1988-02-01

    This report documents the scientific research of a bilateral cooperative project between the United States of America and The United States of America. In 1986 scientists from both nations joined a research cruise in the Gulf of Mexico to investigate the air chemistry over the water that the two nations share. Emphases were placed on natural air quality, anthropogenic air pollution, acid rain, air-sea-land exchanges of gases and aerosols. The investigation included in-situ measurements and post-cruise laboratory analyses. Chemical, physical, meteorological, and oceanographic analyses were conducted to survey temporal and spatial variations of diverse parameters throughout the Gulf. The data sets were analyzed, interpreted, and intercorrelated. The results show that during the cruise (20 July-22 August), the large-scale air trajectories were easterly from the Caribbean Sea at all levels; however, the Gulf air measured was highly polluted in general.

  11. 7 CFR 1160.104 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States. 1160.104 Section 1160.104 Agriculture... Definitions § 1160.104 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous states in the continental United States and the District of Columbia, except that United States means the 50 states of the United...

  12. Landforms of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geological Survey (Dept. of Interior), Reston, VA.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in landforms of the United States with a nontechnical introduction to the subject. Separate sections examine deposital versus erosional landforms in the central stable region of the United States, the Appalachian Highlands, the Ozark Region,…

  13. Climates of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, John L.

    This document is designed to provide basic information about the climates of the United States and the causes of these climates. Events of interest in the climatological history of the United States are described and illustrated by many maps, charts and diagrams. The booklet has three major parts. Part I discusses climate and climate control in…

  14. UNITED STATES RENAL DATA SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Renal Data System (USRDS) is a national data system that collects, analyzes, and distributes information about end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the United States. The USRDS is funded directly by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseas...

  15. 77 FR 27481 - United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division United States v. Exelon Corporation, et al.; Public Comment and Response on Proposed Final Judgment Pursuant to the Antitrust Procedures and Penalties Act, 15 U.S.C. 16(b)-(h), the United States hereby publishes below the...

  16. Interhospital Facility Transfers in the United States: A Nationwide Outcomes Study

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Davies, Sheryl; McDonald, Kathryn; Wang, N. Ewen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Patient transfers between hospitals are becoming more common in the United States. Disease-specific studies have reported varying outcomes associated with transfer status. However, even as national quality improvement efforts and regulations are being actively adopted, forcing hospitals to become financially accountable for the quality of care provided, surprisingly little is known about transfer patients or their outcomes at a population level. This population-wide study provides timely analyses of the characteristics of this particularly vulnerable and sizable inpatient population. We identified and compared characteristics and outcomes of transfer and nontransfer patients. Methods With the use of the 2009 Nationwide Inpatient Sample, a nationally representative sample of U.S. hospitalizations, we examined patient characteristics, in-hospital adverse events, and discharge disposition for transfer versus nontransfer patients in this observational study. Results We identified 1,397,712 transfer patients and 31,692,211 nontransfer patients. Age, sex, race, and payer were significantly associated with odds of transfer (P < 0.05). Transfer patients had higher risk-adjusted inpatient mortality (4.6 versus 2.1, P < 0.01), longer length of stay (13.3 versus 4.5, P < 0.01), and fewer routine disposition discharges (53.6 versus 68.7, P < 0.01). In-hospital adverse events were significantly higher in transfer patients compared with nontransfer patients (P < 0.05). Conclusions Our results suggest that transfer patients have inferior outcomes compared with nontransfer patients. Although they are clinically complex patients and assessing accountability as between the transferring and receiving hospitals is methodologically difficult, transfer patients must nonetheless be included in quality benchmark data to assess the potential impact this population has on hospital outcome profiles. With hospital accountability and value-based payments constituting an integral

  17. Review of Technical Studies in the United States in Support of Burnup Credit Regulatory Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, John C; Parks, Cecil V; Mueller, Don; Gauld, Ian C

    2010-01-01

    Taking credit for the reduction in reactivity associated with fuel depletion can enable more cost-effective, higher-density storage, transport, disposal, and reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) while maintaining sufficient subcritical margin to establish an adequate safety basis. Consequently, there continues to be considerable interest in the United States (U.S.), as well as internationally, in the increased use of burnup credit in SNF operations, particularly related to storage, transport, and disposal of commercial SNF. This interest has motivated numerous technical studies related to the application of burnup credit, both domestically and internationally, as well as the design of SNF storage, transport and disposal systems that rely on burnup credit for maintaining subcriticality. Responding to industry requests and needs, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated a burnup credit research program in 1999, with support from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), to develop regulatory guidance and the supporting technical bases for allowing and expanding the use of burnup credit in pressurized-water reactor SNF storage and transport applications. Although this NRC research program has not been continuous since its inception, considerable progress has been achieved in many key areas in terms of increased understanding of relevant phenomena and issues, availability of relevant information and data, and subsequently updated regulatory guidance for expanded use of burnup credit. This paper reviews technical studies performed by ORNL for the U.S. NRC burnup credit research program. Examples of topics include reactivity effects associated with reactor operating characteristics, fuel assembly characteristics, burnable absorbers, control rods, spatial burnup distributions, cooling time, and assembly misloading; methods and data for validation of isotopic composition predictions; methods and data for validation of criticality calculations; and

  18. Prospective study of ultraviolet radiation exposure and mortality risk in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Wen; Wheeler, David C; Park, Yikyung; Spriggs, Michael; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Freedman, D Michal; Abnet, Christian C

    2013-08-15

    Geographic variations in mortality rate in the United States could be due to several hypothesized factors, one of which is exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Limited evidence from previous prospective studies has been inconclusive. The association between ambient residential UVR exposure and total and cause-specific mortality risks in a regionally diverse cohort (346,615 white, non-Hispanic subjects, 50-71 years of age, in the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-AARP Diet and Health Study) was assessed, with accounting for individual-level confounders. UVR exposure (averaged for 1978-1993 and 1996-2005) from NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer was linked to the US Census Bureau 2000 census tract of participants' baseline residence. Multivariate-adjusted Cox proportional-hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Over 12 years, UVR exposure was associated with total deaths (n = 41,425; hazard ratio for highest vs. lowest quartiles (HRQ4 vs. Q1) = 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.09; Ptrend < 0.001) and with deaths (all Ptrend < 0.05) due to cancer (HRQ4 vs. Q1 = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.11), cardiovascular disease (HRQ4 vs. Q1 = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.12), respiratory disease (HRQ4 vs. Q1 = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.21, 1.55), and stroke (HRQ4 vs. Q1 = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.33) but not with deaths due to injury, diabetes, or infectious disease. These results suggest that UVR exposure might not be beneficial for longevity. PMID:23863757

  19. A Comparative Case Study on School Management Practices in Two Schools in the United States and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silman, Fatos; Simsek, Hasan

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at comparing administrative processes in two schools, one in the United States and one in Turkey, in light of the two distinct administrative paradigms: the Anglo-Saxon and Napoleonic traditions. The study showed that in the Turkish school, which is thought to be an example of the Napoleonic administrative tradition, school…

  20. Graduate Coursework in College Counseling: An Exploratory Study of the Certificate Programs Training Pathway in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Christopher William

    2014-01-01

    This research is a qualitative case study of graduate certificate programs offered in college counseling in the United States. This study presents historical and current information about eight different college counseling certificate programs and seven themes that describe these programs in the context of national college access and college…

  1. Opportunities for Graduate Study in Agriculture in the United States. Bulletin, 1911, No. 2. Whole Number 447

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, A. C.

    1911-01-01

    This bulletin, describing the opportunities in the United States for graduate study in agriculture and those closely allied sciences which have a direct application in agriculture, is the result of an inquiry made by the Bureau of Education in cooperation with the committee on graduate study of the Association of American Agricultural Colleges and…

  2. Different Pearl Indices in studies of hormonal contraceptives in the United States: Impact of study population

    PubMed Central

    Gerlinger, Christoph; Trussell, James; Mellinger, Uwe; Merz, Martin; Marr, Joachim; Bannemerschult, Ralf; Schellschmidt, Ilka; Endrikat, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of subject characteristics on efficacy as measured by the Pearl Index (PI) in clinical trials and to make study populations similar by matching. Methods Our analysis used US data from four large Phase III studies. We compared results from one fertility control patch study with pooled data from three studies with virtually identical design on oral hormonal contraceptives. First, we identified three characteristics that had the most impact on the PI. Second, we used these three variables and matched subjects from the patch study with those from the OC studies. Finally, we calculated the PIs for matched and unmatched subjects from both the patch study and the OC studies. Results A total of 3,706 subjects were included in our analysis. The variables ‘Hispanic ethnicity’, ‘previous pregnancy’ and ‘previous use of hormonal contraceptives’ had the most impact on the PI. The PIs for the matched patch cohort and the matched OC cohort were 2.97 and 2.48, respectively. Those for the unmatched patch cohort and the unmatched OC cohort were 10.17 and 0.90, respectively. Conclusion Subject characteristics strongly influence the PI in clinical studies of hormonal contraceptives. In particular, Hispanic ethnicity, previous pregnancies and no previous use of hormonal contraceptives result in a higher PI. Implications PIs from different clinical trials cannot be meaningfully compared unless subject characteristics that have most impact on the PI are similar, or are made to be similar statistically as we did here by matching. PMID:24813941

  3. Differences in incomes of physicians in the United States by race and sex: observational study

    PubMed Central

    Ly, Dan P; Seabury, Seth A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To estimate differences in annual income of physicians in the United States by race and sex adjusted for characteristics of physicians and practices. Design Cross sectional survey study. Setting Nationally representative samples of US physicians. Participants The 2000-13 American Community Survey (ACS) included 43 213 white male, 1698 black male, 15 164 white female, and 1252 black female physicians. The 2000-08 Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC) physician surveys included 12 843 white male, 518 black male, 3880 white female, and 342 black female physicians. Main outcome measures Annual income adjusted for age, hours worked, time period, and state of residence (from ACS data). Income was adjusted for age, specialty, hours worked, time period, years in practice, practice type, and percentage of revenue from Medicare/Medicaid (from HSC physician surveys). Results White male physicians had a higher median annual income than black male physicians, whereas race was not consistently associated with median income among female physicians. For example, in 2010-13 in the ACS, white male physicians had an adjusted median annual income of $253 042 (95% confidence interval $248 670 to $257 413) compared with $188 230 ($170 844 to $205 616) for black male physicians (difference $64 812; P<0.001). White female physicians had an adjusted median annual income of $163 234 ($159 912 to 166 557) compared with $152 784 ($137 927 to $167 641) for black female physicians (difference $10 450; P=0.17). $100 000 is currently equivalent to about £69 000 (€89 000). Patterns were unaffected by adjustment for specialty and characteristics of practice in the HSC physician surveys. Conclusions White male physicians earn substantially more than black male physicians, after adjustment for characteristics of physicians and practices, while white and black female physicians earn similar incomes to each other, but significantly

  4. A mathematical approach to the study of the United States Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bommarito, Michael J.; Katz, Daniel M.

    2010-10-01

    The United States Code (Code) is a document containing over 22 million words that represents a large and important source of Federal statutory law. Scholars and policy advocates often discuss the direction and magnitude of changes in various aspects of the Code. However, few have mathematically formalized the notions behind these discussions or directly measured the resulting representations. This paper addresses the current state of the literature in two ways. First, we formalize a representation of the United States Code as the union of a hierarchical network and a citation network over vertices containing the language of the Code. This representation reflects the fact that the Code is a hierarchically organized document containing language and explicit citations between provisions. Second, we use this formalization to measure aspects of the Code as codified in October 2008, November 2009, and March 2010. These measurements allow for a characterization of the actual changes in the Code over time. Our findings indicate that in the recent past, the Code has grown in its amount of structure, interdependence, and language.

  5. Climate adaptation wedges: a case study of premium wine in the western United States

    SciTech Connect

    Diffenbaugh, Noah; White, Michael A; Jones, Gregory V; Ashfaq, Moetasim

    2011-01-01

    Design and implementation of effective climate change adaptation activities requires quantitative assessment of the impacts that are likely to occur without adaptation, as well as the fraction of impact that can be avoided through each activity. Here we present a quantitative framework inspired by the greenhouse gas stabilization wedges of Pacala and Socolow. In our proposed framework, the damage avoided by each adaptation activity creates an 'adaptation wedge' relative to the loss that would occur without that adaptation activity. We use premium winegrape suitability in the western United States as an illustrative case study, focusing on the near-term period that covers the years 2000 39. We find that the projected warming over this period results in the loss of suitable winegrape area throughout much of California, including most counties in the high-value North Coast and Central Coast regions. However, in quantifying adaptation wedges for individual high-value counties, we find that a large adaptation wedge can be captured by increasing the severe heat tolerance, including elimination of the 50% loss projected by the end of the 2030 9 period in the North Coast region, and reduction of the projected loss in the Central Coast region from 30% to less than 15%. Increased severe heat tolerance can capture an even larger adaptation wedge in the Pacific Northwest, including conversion of a projected loss of more than 30% in the Columbia Valley region of Washington to a projected gain of more than 150%. We also find that warming projected over the near-term decades has the potential to alter the quality of winegrapes produced in the western US, and we discuss potential actions that could create adaptation wedges given these potential changes in quality. While the present effort represents an initial exploration of one aspect of one industry, the climate adaptation wedge framework could be used to quantitatively evaluate the opportunities and limits of climate adaptation

  6. Access, quality, and costs of care at physician owned hospitals in the United States: observational study

    PubMed Central

    Orav, E John; Jena, Anupam B; Dudzinski, David M; Le, Sidney T; Jha, Ashish K

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare physician owned hospitals (POHs) with non-POHs on metrics around patient populations, quality of care, costs, and payments. Design Observational study. Setting Acute care hospitals in 95 hospital referral regions in the United States, 2010. Participants 2186 US acute care hospitals (219 POHs and 1967 non-POHs). Main outcome measures Proportions of patients using Medicaid and those from ethnic and racial minority groups; hospital performance on patient experience metrics, care processes, risk adjusted 30 day mortality, and readmission rates; costs of care; care payments; and Medicare market share. Results The 219 POHs were more often small (<100 beds), for profit, and in urban areas. 120 of these POHs were general (non-specialty) hospitals. Compared with patients from non-POHs, those from POHs were younger (77.4 v 78.4 years, P<0.001), less likely to be admitted through an emergency department (23.2% v. 29.0%, P<0.001), equally likely to be black (5.1% v 5.5%, P=0.85) or to use Medicaid (14.9% v 15.4%, P=0.75), and had similar numbers of chronic diseases and predicted mortality scores. POHs and non-POHs performed similarly on patient experience scores, processes of care, risk adjusted 30 day mortality, 30 day readmission rates, costs, and payments for acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, and pneumonia. Conclusion Although POHs may treat slightly healthier patients, they do not seem to systematically select more profitable or less disadvantaged patients or to provide lower value care. PMID:26333819

  7. Unemployment and Mortality: A Comparative Study of Germany and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Lavis, John N.; MacNab, Ying C.; Hertzman, Clyde

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between unemployment and mortality in Germany, a coordinated market economy, and the United States, a liberal market economy. Methods. We followed 2 working-age cohorts from the German Socio-economic Panel and the US Panel Study of Income Dynamics from 1984 to 2005. We defined unemployment as unemployed at the time of survey. We used discrete-time survival analysis, adjusting for potential confounders. Results. There was an unemployment–mortality association among Americans (relative risk [RR] = 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.7, 3.4), but not among Germans (RR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.0, 2.0). In education-stratified models, there was an association among minimum-skilled (RR = 2.6; 95% CI = 1.4, 4.7) and medium-skilled (RR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.5, 3.8) Americans, but not among minimum- and medium-skilled Germans. There was no association among high-skilled Americans, but an association among high-skilled Germans (RR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.3, 7.0), although this was limited to those educated in East Germany. Minimum- and medium-skilled unemployed Americans had the highest absolute risks of dying. Conclusions. The higher risk of dying for minimum- and medium-skilled unemployed Americans, not found among Germans, suggests that the unemployment–mortality relationship may be mediated by the institutional and economic environment. PMID:22698036

  8. Climate adaptation wedges: a case study of premium wine in the western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; White, Michael A.; Jones, Gregory V.; Ashfaq, Moetasim

    2011-04-01

    Design and implementation of effective climate change adaptation activities requires quantitative assessment of the impacts that are likely to occur without adaptation, as well as the fraction of impact that can be avoided through each activity. Here we present a quantitative framework inspired by the greenhouse gas stabilization wedges of Pacala and Socolow. In our proposed framework, the damage avoided by each adaptation activity creates an 'adaptation wedge' relative to the loss that would occur without that adaptation activity. We use premium winegrape suitability in the western United States as an illustrative case study, focusing on the near-term period that covers the years 2000-39. We find that the projected warming over this period results in the loss of suitable winegrape area throughout much of California, including most counties in the high-value North Coast and Central Coast regions. However, in quantifying adaptation wedges for individual high-value counties, we find that a large adaptation wedge can be captured by increasing the severe heat tolerance, including elimination of the 50% loss projected by the end of the 2030-9 period in the North Coast region, and reduction of the projected loss in the Central Coast region from 30% to less than 15%. Increased severe heat tolerance can capture an even larger adaptation wedge in the Pacific Northwest, including conversion of a projected loss of more than 30% in the Columbia Valley region of Washington to a projected gain of more than 150%. We also find that warming projected over the near-term decades has the potential to alter the quality of winegrapes produced in the western US, and we discuss potential actions that could create adaptation wedges given these potential changes in quality. While the present effort represents an initial exploration of one aspect of one industry, the climate adaptation wedge framework could be used to quantitatively evaluate the opportunities and limits of climate adaptation

  9. Fast food perceptions: a pilot study of college students in Spain and the United States.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Rachel; Dundes, Lauren

    2008-09-01

    Comparing survey data of college students from Spain and the United States provides insight into how perceptions about fast food are culture and gender-specific. More American college males (61%) considered value (amount of food for the money) to be a priority than did other respondents (35%) and relatively few American college males (29%) cited nutritional status as important (versus 60% of other college respondents). Convenience of fast food is more important to Americans (69%) than Spaniards (48%) while more Spanish college students (49%) than Americans (18%) objected to the proliferation of fast food establishments in their own countries. PMID:18439711

  10. Receiver function studies in the southwestern United States and correlation between stratigraphy and Poisson's ratio, southwestern Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilbride, Fiona Elizabeth Anne

    2000-10-01

    This dissertation consists of two separate lines of research. The first uses the receiver function technique to estimate crustal thickness and Poisson's ratio for three receiver stations in the southwestern United States. One station is located in El Paso because relatively few geophysical experiments have been conducted in the southern Rio Grande rift. Two stations are located on the Colorado Plateau, in an attempt to resolve an ongoing dispute concerning the crustal thickness of this province. The results of the receiver functions studies are used as additional constraints for gravity models along two regional profiles coincident with the much shorter profiles of the Pacific to Arizona Crustal Experiment (PACE) that was led by the U.S. Geological Survey on the Colorado Plateau. Because the profiles extend into adjacent provinces, these models are balanced for isostatic equilibrium and are consistent with elevations predicted by buoyancy calculations. The results are most consistent with a thick (≈50 km) crust for the Colorado Plateau and do not support the presence of large lateral thickness variations within the plateau. The second line of research presented also derives Poisson's ratio, in this case from seismic refraction data. The results are used to interpret a structural cross-section in southwest Washington State and to shed light on a feature of low resistivity (1--5 Om) located in the High Cascades (the Southern Washington Cascades Conductor or SWCC). This feature is delineated by the interpretation of magnetotelluric and seismic reflection profiles and has been interpreted to be largely composed of Lower Eocene marine sedimentary rocks. Both lines of research estimate Poisson's ratio using dissimilar techniques, but have produced results consistent with one another. Poisson's ratio for quartz-rich rocks (such as sandstones and granites) generally lies between 0.23 and 0.26, as exemplified by the upper crust of the Rio Grande rift, and by sedimentary

  11. Social processes underlying acculturation: a study of drinking behavior among immigrant Latinos in the Northeast United States

    PubMed Central

    LEE, CHRISTINA S.; LÓPEZ, STEVEN REGESER; COBLY, SUZANNE M.; TEJADA, MONICA; GARCÍA-COLL, CYNTHIA; SMITH, MARCIA

    2010-01-01

    Study Goals To identify social processes that underlie the relationship of acculturation and heavy drinking behavior among Latinos who have immigrated to the Northeast United States of America (USA). Method Community-based recruitment strategies were used to identify 36 Latinos who reported heavy drinking. Participants were 48% female, 23 to 56 years of age, and were from South or Central America (39%) and the Caribbean (24%). Six focus groups were audiotaped and transcribed. Results Content analyses indicated that the social context of drinking is different in the participants’ countries of origin and in the United States. In Latin America, alcohol consumption was part of everyday living (being with friends and family). Nostalgia and isolation reflected some of the reasons for drinking in the USA. Results suggest that drinking in the Northeastern United States (US) is related to Latinos’ adaptation to a new sociocultural environment. Knowledge of the shifting social contexts of drinking can inform health interventions. PMID:20376331

  12. United States earthquakes, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Stover, C.W.

    1988-01-01

    The report contains information for eartthquakes in the 50 states and Puerto Rico and the area near their shorelines. The data consist of earthquake locations (date, time, geographic coordinates, depth, and magnitudes), intensities, macroseismic information, and isoseismal and seismicity maps. Also, included are sections detailing the activity of seismic networks operated by universities and other government agencies and a list of results form strong-motion seismograph records.

  13. Surgical Procedures of the Elbow: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Observational Study in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Kinaci, Ahmet; Neuhaus, Valentin; Ring, David

    2015-01-01

    Background: Elbow surgery is shared by several subspecialties. We were curious about the most common elbow surgeries and their corresponding diagnoses in the United States. Methods: We used the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) and the National Survey of Ambulatory Surgery (NSAS) data gathered in 2006-databases that together provide an estimate of all inpatient and ambulatory surgical care in the US. Results: An estimated 150,000 elbow surgeries were performed in the US in 2006, 75% in an outpatient setting. The most frequent diagnosis treated operative was enthesopathy (e.g. lateral epicondylitis) and it was treated with several different procedures. More than three quarters of all elbow surgeries treated enthesopathy, cubital tunnel syndrome, or fracture (radial head in particular). Arthroscopy and arthroplasty accounted for less than 10% of all elbow surgeries. Conclusions: Elbow surgery in the United States primarily addresses enthesopathies such as tennis elbow, cubital tunnel syndrome, and trauma. It is notable that some of the most common elbow surgeries (those that address enthesopathy and radial head fracture) are some of the most variably utilized and debated. PMID:25692163

  14. Joint-Service Integration: An Organizational Culture Study of the United States Department of Defense Voluntary Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Martin K.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the descriptive case study with a multiple case framework was to (a) describe the organizational cultures of education programs and leaders in the United States (U.S.) Department of Defense (DoD) voluntary education system on Oahu, Hawaii; (b) determine if an overlapping common organizational culture exists; and (c) assess the…

  15. A Survey of Public and Leadership Attitudes Toward Nuclear Power Development in the United States. Study No. 2515.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris (Louis) and Associates, Inc., New York, NY.

    This publication details a study done by Louis Harris and Associates in 1975 to assess attitudes toward nuclear power in the United States. The survey consisted of three parts. The first part was in-person, door-to-door interviews with 1,537 scientifically selected households nationwide. The second part was 301 personal interviews, about 1 hour…

  16. Comparing Teachers' Views on Morality and Moral Education, a Comparative Study in Turkey and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LePage, Pamela; Akar, Hanife; Temli, Yeliz; Sen, Derya; Hasser, Neil; Ivins, Ilene

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the researchers examined how K-8 teachers approach morality, moral education, and the moral development of children in Turkey and in the United States. Both countries have diverse cultures and long histories with secular education systems. Surveys were sent to teachers in nine cities in both countries. Results suggest that Turkish…

  17. Teaching a Pedagogy of Peace: A Study of Peace Educators in United States Schools in the Aftermath of September 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Pamela Bolotin; Duss, Leslie Smith

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study, based on in-depth semi-structured interviews, depicts practices of seven peace educators in public elementary and secondary classrooms in the United States during the time of the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001 through the US engagement in war in Afghanistan and Iraq. Focusing on individual perceptions of practice…

  18. A Multi-Scale Comparative Study of Shape and Sprawl in Metropolitan Regions of the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kugler, Tracy A.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation constitutes a multi-scale quantitative and qualitative investigation of patterns of urban development in metropolitan regions of the United States. This work has generated a comprehensive data set on spatial patterns of metropolitan development in the U.S. and an approach to the study of such patterns that can be used to further…

  19. The Educational Attainments of the "Second Generation": A Comparative Study of Britain, Canada, and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothon, Catherine; Heath, Anthony; Lessard-Phillips, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    Background: This analysis compares the educational attainments of the "new" second generation in Britain, Canada, and the United States using three nationally representative datasets. Objective: To assess how the second generation has fared within Western educational systems. The study examines the achievements of seven minority ethnic groups:…

  20. Perspectives on Safety and Health among Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers in the United States and Mexico: A Qualitative Field Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallones, Lorann; Acosta, Martha S. Vela; Sample, Pat; Bigelow, Philip; Rosales, Monica

    2009-01-01

    Context: A large number of hired farmworkers in the United States come from Mexico. Understanding safety and health concerns among the workers is essential to improving prevention programs. Purpose: The purpose of this pilot study was to obtain detailed information about safety and health concerns of hired farmworkers in Colorado and in Mexico.…

  1. Aims and Control of the Universities: A Comparative Study of Academic Governance in Sweden and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duster, Troy

    This is a comparative study of university control in Sweden and the United States with particular attention to the question of what difference it makes as to which segment of the university community controls a particular aspect of university life and university function. It is an exploration of the problem of the relationship between the…

  2. A Study of the Leadership Styles of Campus Based Women's Centers in Higher Education in the Southeast United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLuz, Nikki

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the organizational and institutional variables that influence the leadership styles of directors of campus-based women's centers at public and private four-year universities in the southeast United States. The researcher examined the leadership frame (or frames), as measured by Bolman and Deal's (1990) Leadership Orientations…

  3. Titanium recycling in the United States in 2004, chap. Y of Sibley, S.F., ed., Flow studies for recycling metal commodities in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2010-01-01

    As one of a series of reports that describe the recycling of metal commodities in the United States, this report discusses the titanium metal fraction of the titanium economy, which generates and uses titanium metal scrap in its operations. Data for 2004 were selected to demonstrate the titanium flows associated with these operations. This report includes a description of titanium metal supply and demand in the United States to illustrate the extent of titanium recycling and to identify recycling trends. In 2004, U.S. apparent consumption of titanium metal (contained in various titanium-bearing products) was 45,000 metric tons (t) of titanium, which was distributed as follows: 25,000 t of titanium recovered as new scrap, 9,000 t of titanium as titanium metal and titanium alloy products delivered to the U.S. titanium products reservoir, 7,000 t of titanium consumed by steelmaking and other industries, and 4,000 t of titanium contained in unwrought and wrought products exported. Titanium recycling is concentrated within the titanium metals sector of the total titanium market. The titanium market is otherwise dominated by pigment (titanium oxide) products, which generate dissipative losses instead of recyclable scrap. In 2004, scrap (predominantly new scrap) was the source of roughly 54 percent of the titanium metal content of U.S.-produced titanium metal products.

  4. United States laws under review.

    PubMed

    Leahey, M

    2007-01-01

    As well as reauthorisation of the Medical Device User Fee and Modernization Act, others isues are under consideration by the United States Congress. These include the introduction of incentives for the development of medical devices for paediatric care. PMID:17585722

  5. An epidemiological study of roadway fatalities related to farm vehicles: United States, 1988 to 1993.

    PubMed

    Gerberich, S G; Robertson, L S; Gibson, R W; Renier, C

    1996-11-01

    Compared with the estimated injury fatality rate for workers in all occupations (nine in 100,000 in 1988) the farm fatality rate (48 in 100,000) was among the highest in the nation; in 1993, these rates were eight and 35 in 100,000, respectively. On-road farm-vehicle fatalities have been identified as a significant problem, yet these events apparently have not been investigated in a comprehensive manner. The purpose of this study was to investigate the circumstances surrounding all on-road, non-truck, farm-vehicle crash fatalities in the United States form 1988 through 1993. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's Fatal Accident Reporting System, which includes data for all US fatal on-road motor vehicle crashes, was the source of data. Driver-related variables were compared among farm vehicles, vehicles in collisions with farm vehicles, and all other vehicles in rural, fatal crashes; environmental variables were compared between rural farm-vehicle and non-farm-vehicle crashes. During 1988 to 1993, in rural areas, 444 farm-vehicle occupants were killed; in addition, 238 occupants of other vehicles or pedestrians were killed in collisions with the farm vehicles. The farm vehicles were disproportionately involved in overturns, rear-end collisions, and incidents in which the injured person fell from the vehicle, when compared with all other non-farm vehicles involved in rural-area fatal crashes. Of the farm vehicles involved in fatal crashes at night, dawn, or dusk, 65% were struck in the rear, compared with 4% of vehicles involved in fatal non-farm-vehicle crashes. Compared with drivers in all other rural crashes, farm-vehicle operators were more likely to be male, have a greater proportion of convictions for driving while intoxicated, and a lower proportion of previous speeding convictions. From this initial investigation, it appears that the fatal-crash involvement of farm vehicles are related to vehicle and environmental factors that are changeable

  6. Dietary Sources of Sodium in China, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, Women and Men Aged 40 to 59 Years: The INTERMAP Study

    PubMed Central

    ANDERSON, CHERYL A. M.; APPEL, LAWRENCE J.; OKUDA, NAGAKO; BROWN, IAN J.; CHAN, QUEENIE; ZHAO, LIANCHENG; UESHIMA, HIROTSUGU; KESTELOOT, HUGO; MIURA, KATSUYUKI; CURB, J. DAVID; YOSHITA, KATSUSHI; ELLIOTT, PAUL; YAMAMOTO, MONICA E.; STAMLER, JEREMIAH

    2014-01-01

    Public health campaigns in several countries encourage population-wide reduced sodium (salt) intake, but excessive intake remains a major problem. Excessive sodium intake is independently related to adverse blood pressure and is a key factor in the epidemic of prehypertension/ hypertension. Identification of food sources of sodium in modern diets is critical to effective reduction of sodium intake worldwide. We used data from the INTERMAP Study to define major food sources of sodium in diverse East Asian and Western population samples. INTERMAP is an international, cross-sectional, epidemiologic study of 4, 680 individuals ages 40 to 59 years from Japan (four samples), People’s Republic of China (three rural samples), the United Kingdom (two samples), and the United States (eight samples); four in-depth, multipass 24-hour dietary recalls/person were used to identify foods accounting for most dietary sodium intake. In the People’s Republic of China sample, most (76%) dietary sodium was from salt added in home cooking, about 50% less in southern than northern samples. In Japan, most (63%) dietary sodium came from soy sauce (20%), commercially processed fish/seafood (15%), salted soups (15%), and preserved vegetables (13%). Processed foods, including breads/cereals/grains, contributed heavily to sodium intake in the United Kingdom (95%) and the United States (for methodological reasons, underestimated at 71%). To prevent and control prehypertension/hypertension and improve health, efforts to remove excess sodium from diets in rural China should focus on reducing salt in home cooking. To avoid excess sodium intake in Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, salt must be reduced in commercially processed foods. PMID:20430135

  7. 31 CFR 800.225 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 800.225 Section 800... TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.225 United States. The term United States or U.S. means the United States of America, the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any...

  8. A study of four medicinal plant complexes of Mexico and adjacent United States.

    PubMed

    Linares, E; Bye, R A

    1987-01-01

    A survey of medicinal herbs in markets of central and northern Mexico and southwestern United States revealed the existence of plant complexes of different species sharing common names, morphological and aromatic characteristics, and uses. Four complexes (with the "label" species listed first) discussed include: "cachani" with Roldana sessilifolia, Iostephane madrensis, Liatris punctata, Psacalium sp., and Potentilla sp.; "chuchupate" with Ligusticum porteri and Myroxylon balsamum; "hierba anís" with Tagetes lucida, T. filifolia, T. micrantha, Artemisia dracunculus, Pimpinella anisum, and Illicium verum; and "matarique" with Psacalium decompositum, P. peltatum, P. sinuatum, P. sp., and Acourtia thurberi. The distribution analysis of utilization and natural occurrence of plants in each complex indicated the presence of a dominant or "label" plant whose use extended beyond its natural range and which had substitutes derived from local plants that were not registered far beyond their respective natural ranges. PMID:3613608

  9. A Modeling Study of the On-Going Drought and Heat Wave over the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, S.; Wang, H.; Koster, R.; Suarez, M.

    2012-01-01

    Ensembles of AGCM experiments have been conducted to examine the causes of the on-going drought and heat wave affecting much of the United States. The results show that the drought and hot temperatures that have been especially severe over Texas and parts of Mexico since late 2010 are the result of a combination of SST forcing from both the tropical Pacific and the tropical Atlantic, with the latter playing a particularly important role during later half of the summer of 2011, and the warm SSTs off the East Coast contributing to the warm conditions along the East Coast. An extension of the model simulations into the summer of 2012 suggests that the warm conditions are again primarily driven by SST forcing - despite the return of the tropical Pacific to neutral conditions. The results of additional experiments currently being conducted to separate the influences of the 2012 SST anomalies in the various ocean basins will be discussed.

  10. The urban heat island dynamics during heat waves: a study of cities in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Leiqiu

    2016-04-01

    The urban heat island (UHI) is a common phenomenon describing that metropolitan areas are usually warmer than their rural surroundings. This effect is compounded by extreme heat events, which are a leading cause of weather-related human mortality in many countries worldwide. However, the spatial and diurnal variability of temperature and humidity in urban and adjacent rural areas during extreme heat events is not well measured and therefore not well understood. The recently developed dataset of near-surface air and dew temperature from MODIS atmospheric profiles and the new method for the UHI quantification--urban heat island curve are used to quantify the urban climatic changes during heat waves in cities of the United States. The enhanced and weakened UHIs are observed in various cities. The causes of UHI changes during heat waves are discussed, including climate region, vegetation type and amount, city geolocation, etc.

  11. Coal Fires in the United States: A Case Study in Government Inattention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2006-12-01

    Coal fires occur in all coal producing nations. Like most other environmental problems fires are not confined by political boundaries. Important economic coal seams in the United States are found across the Inter-montaine west, the Midwest, and Appalachia. The age of these deposits differs, as does the grade and sulfur content of the coal, the mining techniques utilized for exploitation of this resource, and the markets in which the coal is traded. Coal fires are ordinary occurrences under extraordinary conditions. Every coal bed exposed in an underground or surface mine has the potential to ignite. These fires are spread thinly over the political geography and over time, so that constituencies rarely coalesce to petition government to address the coal fire problem. Coal fires produce serious problems with long term consequences for society. They threaten mine safety, consume a non-renewable resource, and produce toxic gases with serious health effects for local populations. Additionally, as coal production in the developing world intensifies, these problems worsen. The lack of government attention to coal fires is due to the confluence of at least four independent political factors: 1) The separated powers, federated system in which decisions in the United States are made; 2) Low levels of political energy available in Congress to be expended on coal fires, measured by the magnitude of legislative majorities and seniority; 3) The mid-twentieth century model of scientific and technical information moving indirectly to legislators through the bureaucratic agencies; 4) The chronic and diffuse nature of fires across space and time.

  12. 75 FR 81651 - United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... States v. Adobe Systems, Inc., No. 1:10- cv-01629, 75 FR 60820, 60828-30 (D.D.C. filed Sept. 24, 2010... firm's employees. United States v. Adobe Systems, Inc., No. 1:10-cv-01629, Complaint, 75 FR 60822 (D.D.C. filed Sept. 24, 2010); Competitive Impact ] Statement, 75 FR 60823 (D.D.C. filed Sept. 24,...

  13. Studies of the proterozoic tectonic evolution of the southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeley, John Martin

    This dissertation is comprised of an introductory chapter (1) and four subsequent chapters (2, 3, 4, and 5) which concentrate on the evolution of Proterozoic rocks of the southwestern United States. Chapter 2 utilizes gravity and magnetic geophysical techniques to delineate subsurface occurrences of Mesoproterozoic Unkar and Neoproterozoic Chuar Group rocks in northern Arizona and southern Utah. These rocks were delineated using gravity and aeromagnetic data, in combination with gravity profile modeling, seismic velocity analysis, geologic cross-sections, analysis of surface geologic structures, and analysis of drilling data. Delineation of Proterozoic extensional trends within this region provides insights in to Proterozoic paleogeography along the southwestern margin of Laurentia. Chapter 3 focuses on the geologic mapping and areal distribution of the Mesoproterozoic Apache Group, Troy Quartzite and diabase in central Arizona. Landsat TM imagery was used in combination with existing geologic maps of the region to define the areal distribution of these units. Results were used to construct a regional-scale photo-geologic map of exposed Middle Proterozoic rocks. Chapter 4 introduces a sequence stratigraphic model for siliciclastic rocks of the Mesoproterozoic Lanoria Formation of the Franklin Mountains, Texas, comprised of 700+ m of marine shelf and marginal marine sandstone, siltstone and mudstone. It is divided into six members (L1 through L6). Four facies associations are identified: proximal, distal shelf; tidal flat; incised valley; and, estuarine/deltaic. Six stratigraphic sequences have been interpreted. Sequences LS1, LS2, LS4 and LS6 represent marine shelf deposits. Sequence LS3 comprises incised valley fill and overlying tidal flat deposits. Sequence LS5 comprises incised valley fill overlain by estuarine/deltaic sediments. Sequences, facies, and paleocurrents suggest a northward sloping platform, indicating a southern source. Tidal processes dominated on

  14. Study of water quality improvements during riverbank filtration at three midwestern United States drinking water utilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, W.; Bouwer, E.; Ball, W.; O'Melia, C.; Lechevallier, M.; Arora, H.; Aboytes, R.; Speth, T.

    2003-04-01

    RBF reflected a preferential removal of NOM of particular character. The results of this study indicate that RBF appears to be equally capable of removing material of different character. The different removal mechanisms in the subsurface (e.g. sorption, biodegradation, filtration) combine to provide similar removal of the operationally defined hydrophilic and hydrophobic fractions of organic material upon ground passage. Thus, the reductions in DBP formation upon RBF observed during the first two phases of this research are largely the result of a decrease in the NOM concentration rather than a major shift in the NOM character. Preliminary monitoring of a number of microorganisms indicates that RBF may also serve as a significant barrier for the removal of microbial contaminants, including human pathogens. The monitoring data demonstrated >3 log removal of Clostridium spores and >2 log removal of bacteriophage. Assuming that these indicator organisms can be used as surrogates for Giardia cysts and human enteric viruses, RBF at the three study sites surpassed the performance requirements in the United States for conventional coagulation, sedimentation, and filtration (e.g., 2.5 log removal for Giardia cysts and 2.0 log removal of viruses). References Cosovic, D.; Hrsak, V.; Vojvodic, V.; &Krznaric, D., 1996. Transformation of organic matter and bank filtration from a polluted stream. Wat. Res., 30:12:2921. Doussan, C.; Poitevin, G.; Ledoux, E.; &Detay, M., 1997. River bank filtration: Modeling of the changes in water chemistry with emphasis on nitrogen species, J. Contam. Hydrol., 25:129. Hiscock, K.M. &Grischek, T., 2002. Attenuation of Groundwater Pollution by Bank Filtration. Jour. Hydrol., 266:139. Juttner, F., 1995. Elimination of Terpenoid Odorous Compounds by Slow Sand and River Bank Filtration of the Ruhr River, Germany. Wat. Sci. Tech., 31:11:211. Kivimaki, A-L.; Lahti, K.; Hatva, T.; Tuominen, S.M.; &Miettinen, I.T., 1998. Removal of organic matter during

  15. 7 CFR 60.127 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false United States. 60.127 Section 60.127 Agriculture... FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.127 United States. United States means the... the United States, and the waters of the United States as defined in § 60.132....

  16. 75 FR 5373 - United States Mint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... United States Mint ACTION: Notification of Pricing for 2010 United States Mint Presidential $1 Coin Proof Set. \\TM\\ SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of the 2010 United States Mint Presidential $1 Coin Proof Set. The 2010 United States Mint Presidential $1 Coin Proof Set, featuring $1...

  17. Bicyclist Safety Behaviors in an Urban Northeastern, United States City: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Elizabeth Suzanne; Arabian, Sandra Strack; Salzler, Matthew J; Bugaev, Nikolay; Rabinovici, Reuven

    2016-01-01

    Bicycling is gaining popularity in the United States, and laws and safety recommendations are being established to keep bicyclists safer. To improve road safety for bicyclists, there is a need to characterize their compliance with road laws and safety behaviors. Adult bicyclists were observed at three high-traffic intersections in Boston, MA, with state recommendations of wearing a helmet and riding in a bike lane. State law compliance for displaying reflectors during the day and of a front light and a rear light/reflector at night, obeying traffic signals, and giving pedestrians the right of way was also observed. Variables were compared between personal and shared/rented bicyclists and analyzed by time of day. A total of 1,685 bicyclists were observed. Because of the speed of the bicyclists and obstructed views, only a sampling of 802 bicyclists was observed for reflectors/front light. Overall, 74% wore a helmet, 49% had reflectors/front lights, 95% rode in bike lanes, 87% obeyed traffic signals, and 99% gave the right of way to pedestrians. Compared with shared bicyclists (n = 122), personal bicyclists (n = 1563) had a higher helmet-wearing behaviors (77% vs. 39%, p = .0001). Shared bicyclists had a higher (p = .0001) compliance with reflectors/lights (100%) than personal bicyclists (39%, n = 265). Boston bicyclists ride in bike lanes, obey traffic signals, give pedestrians the right of way, and wear helmets while having suboptimal compliance with light/reflector use. Educational programs and stricter law enforcement aimed at these safety behaviors should be part of the effort to improve safety for all road users. PMID:27163219

  18. The Projections of United States and New York State Revenues and Expenditures. Research Study 11. First Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furno, Orlando F.; Gaughan, James M.

    Forecasting from an educational planner's viewpoint, this study projects national and New York State revenues and expenditures until 1990. It is also intended to provide methodological guides for educational planners. Projections assume the continuation of long-term cyclical trends. Four basic procedures were used to project economic data: the…

  19. Decision Rightness and Emotional Responses to Abortion in the United States: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Rocca, Corinne H.; Kimport, Katrina; Roberts, Sarah C. M.; Gould, Heather; Neuhaus, John; Foster, Diana G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Arguments that abortion causes women emotional harm are used to regulate abortion, particularly later procedures, in the United States. However, existing research is inconclusive. We examined women’s emotions and reports of whether the abortion decision was the right one for them over the three years after having an induced abortion. Methods We recruited a cohort of women seeking abortions between 2008-2010 at 30 facilities across the United States, selected based on having the latest gestational age limit within 150 miles. Two groups of women (n=667) were followed prospectively for three years: women having first-trimester procedures and women terminating pregnancies within two weeks under facilities’ gestational age limits at the same facilities. Participants completed semiannual phone surveys to assess whether they felt that having the abortion was the right decision for them; negative emotions (regret, anger, guilt, sadness) about the abortion; and positive emotions (relief, happiness). Multivariable mixed-effects models were used to examine changes in each outcome over time, to compare the two groups, and to identify associated factors. Results The predicted probability of reporting that abortion was the right decision was over 99% at all time points over three years. Women with more planned pregnancies and who had more difficulty deciding to terminate the pregnancy had lower odds of reporting the abortion was the right decision (aOR=0.71 [0.60, 0.85] and 0.46 [0.36, 0.64], respectively). Both negative and positive emotions declined over time, with no differences between women having procedures near gestational age limits versus first-trimester abortions. Higher perceived community abortion stigma and lower social support were associated with more negative emotions (b=0.45 [0.31, 0.58] and b=-0.61 [-0.93, -0.29], respectively). Conclusions Women experienced decreasing emotional intensity over time, and the overwhelming majority of women felt

  20. Cost Resulting from Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Shortages in the United States: A Hypothetical Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Scott, James C.; Shah, Neha; Porco, Travis; Flood, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Background From 2012 through 2014, the United States experienced acute shortages and price escalations of several first-line anti-tuberculosis (TB) medications. Because secondary TB drug regimens are longer and adverse events occur more frequently with them, we sought to conservatively estimate the cost, to patients and the health care system, of TB treatment and medication adverse events from alternative regimens during drug shortages. Methods We assessed the cost of treatment for TB disease in the absence of isoniazid (INH), rifampin (RIF), or pyrazinamide (PZA), or both INH and RIF. We simulated adverse events based on published probabilities using a monthly discrete-time stochastic model. For total costs, we summed costs of medications, routine testing, and treatment of adverse events using procedural terminology codes. We report average cost ratios of TB treatment during drug shortages to standard TB treatment. Results The cost ratio of TB treatment without INH, RIF, or PZA to standard treatment was 1.7 (Range: 1.2, 2.3), 4.9 (Range: 3.2, 7.3), and 1.1 (Range: 0.7, 1.7) times higher, respectively. Without both INH and RIF, the cost ratio was 18.6 (Range: 10.0, 39.0) times higher. When the prices for INH, RIF and PZA were increased, the cost for standard treatment increased by a factor of 2.7 (Range: 1.9, 3.0). The percentage of patients experiencing at least one adverse event while taking standard therapy was 3.9% (Range: 1.3%, 11.8%). This percentage increased to 51.5% (Range: 20.1%, 83.8%) when RIF was unavailable, and increased to 82.5% (Range: 41.2%, 98.5%) when both INH and RIF were unavailable. Conclusions Our conservative model illustrates that an interruption in first-line anti-TB medications leads to appreciable additional costs and adverse events for patients. The availability of these drugs in the United States should be ensured. Models that incorporate the effectiveness of alternative regimens, delays in treatment initiation, and TB transmission

  1. Barriers and Facilitators to Implementing Primary Stroke Center Policy in the United States: Results From 4 Case Study States

    PubMed Central

    Slade, Catherine P.; Brewer, Gene A.; Gase, Lauren N.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We identified barriers and facilitators to the state-level implementation of primary stroke center (PSC) policies, which encourage the certification or designation of specialized stroke treatment facilities and may address concerns such as transportation bypass, telemedicine, and treatment protocols. Methods. We studied the experiences of 4 states (Florida, Massachusetts, New Mexico, and New York) selected from the 18 states that had enacted PSC policies or were actively considering doing so. We conducted semistructured interviews during fieldwork in each case study state. Results. Our results showed that system fragmentation, gaps in human and financial resources, and complexity at the interorganizational and operational levels are common barriers and that policy champions, stakeholder support and communication, and operational adaptation are essential facilitators in the adoption and implementation of PSC policies. Conclusions. The identification of barriers and facilitators reveals the contextual elements that can help or hinder policy implementation and may be useful in informing policy formulation and implementation in other jurisdictions. Proactively identifying jurisdictional challenges and opportunities may help facilitate the policy process for PSC designation and allow jurisdictions to develop more effective stroke systems of care. PMID:21233430

  2. Acute HIV-1 infection in the Southeastern United States: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    McKellar, Mehri S; Cope, Anna B; Gay, Cynthia L; McGee, Kara S; Kuruc, Joann D; Kerkau, Melissa G; Hurt, Christopher B; Fiscus, Susan A; Ferrari, Guido; Margolis, David M; Eron, Joseph J; Hicks, Charles B

    2013-01-01

    In 1998 a collaboration between Duke University and the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (UNC) was founded to enhance identification of persons with acute HIV-1 infection (AHI). The Duke-UNC AHI Research Consortium Cohort consists of patients ≥18 years old with a positive nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) and either a negative enzyme immunoassay (EIA) test or a positive EIA with a negative/indeterminate Western blot. Patients were referred to the cohort from acute care settings and state-funded HIV testing sites that use NAAT testing on pooled HIV-1 antibody-negative samples. Between 1998 and 2010, 155 patients with AHI were enrolled: 81 (52%) African-Americans, 63 (41%) white, non-Hispanics, 137 (88%) males, 108 (70%) men who have sex with men (MSM), and 18 (12%) females. The median age was 27 years (IQR 22-38). Most (n=138/155) reported symptoms with a median duration of 17.5 days. The median nadir CD4 count was 408 cells/mm(3) (IQR 289-563); the median observed peak HIV-1 level was 726,859 copies/ml (IQR 167,585-3,565,728). The emergency department was the most frequent site of initial presentation (n=55/152; 3 missing data). AHI diagnosis was made at time of first contact in 62/137 (45%; 18 missing data) patients. This prospectively enrolled cohort is the largest group of patients with AHI reported from the Southeastern United States. The demographics reflect the epidemic of this geographic area with a high proportion of African-Americans, including young black MSM. Highlighting the challenges of diagnosing AHI, less than half of the patients were diagnosed at the first healthcare visit. Women made up a small proportion despite increasing numbers in our clinics. PMID:22839749

  3. Update: Influenza Activity - United States.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sophie; Blanton, Lenee; Kniss, Krista; Mustaquim, Desiree; Steffens, Craig; Reed, Carrie; Bramley, Anna; Flannery, Brendan; Fry, Alicia M; Grohskopf, Lisa A; Bresee, Joseph; Wallis, Teresa; Garten, Rebecca; Xu, Xiyan; Elal, Anwar Isa Abd; Gubareva, Larisa; Barnes, John; Wentworth, David E; Burns, Erin; Katz, Jacqueline; Jernigan, Daniel; Brammer, Lynnette

    2015-12-11

    CDC collects, compiles, and analyzes data on influenza activity year-round in the United States. The influenza season generally begins in the fall and continues through the winter and spring months; however, the timing and severity of circulating influenza viruses can vary by geographic location and season. Influenza activity in the United States remained low through October and November in 2015. Influenza A viruses have been most frequently identified, with influenza A (H3) viruses predominating. This report summarizes U.S. influenza activity for the period October 4-November 28, 2015. PMID:26656182

  4. Predictors of patient satisfaction with inpatient hospital pain management across the United States: A national study.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Daniel C; Shen, Megan Johnson; Holcombe, Randall F

    2016-07-01

    Satisfactory pain management of hospitalized patients remains a national unmet need for the United States. Although prior research indicates that inpatient pain management may be improving nationally, not all populations of patients rate pain management as equally satisfactory. County-level predictors, such as demographics and population density, and hospital-level predictors (eg, hospital-bed number), are understudied determinants of pain management patient satisfaction. We created a multivariate regression model of pain management patient satisfaction scores as indicated by Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) survey results based on county and hospital level predictors. Number of hospital beds (β = -0.16), percent foreign-born (β = -0.16), and population density (β = -0.08) most strongly predicted unfavorable ratings, whereas African American (β = 0.23), white (β= 0.23), and younger population (β = 0.08) most strongly predicted favorable ratings. Greater attention should be placed on pain management in larger hospitals that serve foreign-born patients in population-dense areas. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2016;11:498-501. © 2016 Society of Hospital Medicine. PMID:26970075

  5. Simulating nitrate response functions in watersheds: Case studies in the United States and New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusyev, Maksym; Abrams, Daniel; Morgenstern, Uwe; Stewart, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Non-point sources of nitrate contamination are a common concern in different parts of the world and are difficult to characterize. Due to the solubility of nitrate, it easily enters groundwater and may take years or decades to completely flush to a stream. During this time, it may undergo denitrification, in particular if dissolved oxygen levels are low, requiring a representation of spatially distributed nitrate input as well as detailed hydrogeology. In this presentation, nitrate response functions are generated with four different methodologies that are listed in the order of decreasing degrees of freedom: groundwater flow and chemical transport (MODFLOW/MT3D), groundwater flow with solute particle tracing (MODFLOW/MODPATH), cross-sectional groundwater flow model (MODFLOW), and lumped parameter models (LPMs). We tested these approaches in selected watersheds in the Eastern and Midwestern United States as well as New Zealand and found similar nitrate results in all cases despite different model complexities. It is noted that only the fully three dimensional MODFLOW models with MT3D or MODPATH could account for detailed patterns of land use and nitrate applications; the cross-sectional models and lumped parameter models could only do so approximately. Denitrification at depth could also be explicitly accounted for in all four approaches, although this was not a major factor in any of the watersheds investigated.

  6. The evolution of sunscreen products in the United States--a 12-year cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Steven Q; Tanner, Paul R; Lim, Henry W; Nash, J F

    2013-01-01

    Excessive exposure from ultraviolet (UV) radiation contributes to the development of skin cancers and photoaging. Topical sunscreen products remain one of the most widely used forms of protection for the majority of the public. The objective of this analysis was to examine photoprotection trends (e.g., SPF value) and the degree of UVA I protection from 1997 to 2009 in the United States. Sunscreen products purchased and evaluated in 1997 (N = 59), 2003 (N = 188) and again in 2009 (N = 330), totaling 577, were included in this analysis. Information regarding (1) the SPF value, (2) name and concentration of the active ingredients, (3) type of products (i.e., daily vs. recreational/beach), and (4) claims of UVA protection was recorded and analyzed. In addition, the critical wavelength (CW) of 330 products from 2009 was determined. The results showed an increase in the SPF values of products from 1997 to 2009. The percentage of low SPF products (SPF 4-14) decreased from 27% in 1997 to 6% in 2009. The number of products containing a known UVA-I filter (i.e., avobenzone or zinc oxide) increased from 5% in 1997 to 70% in 2009. Lastly, approximately, 225 (68%) of the products tested in 2009 attained CW > 370 nm. In the past decade, sunscreen products have undergone fundamental improvements, the most significant of which is the breadth of protection against UVA I. PMID:23032968

  7. Syphilis in the United States.

    PubMed

    Shockman, Solomon; Buescher, Lucinda S; Stone, Stephen P

    2014-01-01

    Syphilis gained notoriety in the 1500s, when it became widespread throughout Europe. While the origins of syphilis are not certain, recent data have shown that it may have originated in the Americas from a close relative that causes Yaws (Treponema pallidum pertenue).(1) For the past 500years, the disease has shown its various faces all over the world. The 19th century saw an entire medical subspecialty-syphilology (sometimes known as syphilography)-devoted to the study of the great disease, then known as "the great imitator." Syphilis has an entire textbook of presentations and can mimic many other infections and immune-mediated processes. At the beginning of the 20th century, the many faces of the disease led to Sir William Osler's well-known aphorism, "The physician who knows syphilis knows medicine."(2) When penicillin was discovered, and used to treat syphilis in 1943, some thought that syphilis would go by the wayside, but syphilis continued what it has been doing for so many years . . . inconspicuously infecting humans. The United States has seen the incidence of syphilis increase numerous times throughout the past 70years. Every decrease in the incidence of syphilis is followed shortly by an increase. A marked shift in the epidemiology occurred from 1990 to 2000. In the 1990s, syphilis primarily occurred in heterosexual minority groups. In the new millennium, a majority of cases of syphilis are now transmitted among men who have sex with men (MSM).(3) This contribution discusses the incidence of syphilis in the United States and the reasons these trends continue. PMID:24559556

  8. Disparity between state fish consumption advisory systems for methylmercury and US Environmental Protection Agency recommendations: A case study of the south central United States.

    PubMed

    Adams, Kimberly J; Drenner, Ray W; Chumchal, Matthew M; Donato, David I

    2016-01-01

    Fish consumption advisories are used to inform citizens in the United States about noncommercial game fish with hazardous levels of methylmercury (MeHg). The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) suggests issuing a fish consumption advisory when concentrations of MeHg in fish exceed a human health screening value of 300 ng/g. However, states have authority to develop their own systems for issuing fish consumption advisories for MeHg. Five states in the south central United States (Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Oklahoma, and Texas) issue advisories for the general human population when concentrations of MeHg exceed 700 ng/g to 1000 ng/g. The objective of the present study was to estimate the increase in fish consumption advisories that would occur if these states followed USEPA recommendations. The authors used the National Descriptive Model of Mercury in Fish to estimate the mercury concentrations in 5 size categories of largemouth bass-equivalent fish at 766 lentic and lotic sites within the 5 states. The authors found that states in this region have not issued site-specific fish consumption advisories for most of the water bodies that would have such advisories if USEPA recommendations were followed. One outcome of the present study may be to stimulate discussion between scientists and policy makers at the federal and state levels about appropriate screening values to protect the public from the health hazards of consuming MeHg-contaminated game fish. PMID:26605989

  9. Disparity between state fish consumption advisory systems for Methylmercury and US Environmental Protection Agency recommendations: a case study of the South Central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Kimberly; Drenner, Ray W.; Chumchal, Matthew M.; Donato, David I.

    2015-01-01

    Fish consumption advisories are used to inform citizens in the United States about noncommercial game fish with hazardous levels of methylmercury (MeHg). The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) suggests issuing a fish consumption advisory when concentrations of MeHg in fish exceed a human health screening value of 300 ng/g. However, states have authority to develop their own systems for issuing fish consumption advisories for MeHg. Five states in the south central United States (Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Oklahoma, and Texas) issue advisories for the general human population when concentrations of MeHg exceed 700 ng/g to 1000 ng/g. The objective of the present study was to estimate the increase in fish consumption advisories that would occur if these states followed USEPA recommendations. The authors used the National Descriptive Model of Mercury in Fish to estimate the mercury concentrations in 5 size categories of largemouth bass–equivalent fish at 766 lentic and lotic sites within the 5 states. The authors found that states in this region have not issued site-specific fish consumption advisories for most of the water bodies that would have such advisories if USEPA recommendations were followed. One outcome of the present study may be to stimulate discussion between scientists and policy makers at the federal and state levels about appropriate screening values to protect the public from the health hazards of consuming MeHg-contaminated game fish.

  10. 77 FR 48542 - United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... complaint'' to inquire into other matters that the United States did not pursue. Microsoft, 56 F.3d at 1459... the allegations in the complaint; none of the factors involve comparisons to other matters); Microsoft... likewise beyond Tunney Act review. As a general matter, the Tunney Act does not provide an opportunity...

  11. 76 FR 23839 - United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... Federal Register on December 28, 2010, see United States, et al. v. Lucasfilm Ltd., 75 FR 81651; and...) (``Collaboration Guidelines''). See also Major League Baseball v. Salvino, 542 F.3d 290, 339 (2d Cir. 2008... Baseball teams created a formal joint venture to exclusively license, and share profits for,...

  12. The Changing United States Diet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Louise; Friend, Berta

    1978-01-01

    The nature of the United States diet has changed markedly in this century. We are using more meat, poultry, fish, and dairy products; sugars and other sweeteners; fats and oils; and processed fruits and vegetables. We are using fewer grain products, potatoes, fresh fruits and vegetables, and eggs. (BB)

  13. 78 FR 58559 - United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... the proposed Final Judgment and CIS in the Federal Register on May 22, 2013, see 78 FR 30399-30660... the sale of beer in the United States and specifically in 26 local markets in violation of Section 7... venture established by Modelo and Constellation to import, market, and sell certain Modelo beers into...

  14. Mental Health, United States, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    This document presents timely statistical information on the nation's organized mental health service delivery system. Included are: (1) "Chronic Mental Disorder in the United States" (Howard H. Goldman and Ronald W. Manderscheid); (2) "Specialty Mental Health System Characteristics" (Michael J. Witkin, Joanne E. Atay, Adele S. Fell, and Ronald W.…

  15. GRADUATE EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BERELSON, BERNARD

    A BRIEF INTRODUCTORY HISTORY OF GRADUATE STUDY IS FOLLOWED BY AN ANALYSIS OF THE CURRENT STATE OF GRADUATE EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES. PURPOSES OF GRADUATE STUDY, INSTITUTIONS, STUDENTS, AND PROGRAMS ARE EXAMINED. ALSO CONSIDERED ARE TEACHER SUPPLY AND DEMAND, INSTITUTIONAL GROWTH AND DECENTRALIZATION, AND STUDENT'S PREPARATION AND BACKGROUND.…

  16. 7 CFR 1150.106 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false United States. 1150.106 Section 1150.106 Agriculture... Order Definitions § 1150.106 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous States in the continental United States....

  17. 31 CFR 592.311 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 592.311 Section 592... § 592.311 United States. The term United States, when used in the geographic sense, means the several States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States....

  18. 75 FR 62858 - United States, et al.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... Antitrust Division United States, et al. v. American Express Company, et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and... been filed with the United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York in United States..., 2010, the United States and seven States filed a Complaint alleging that certain rules, policies,...

  19. 7 CFR 1205.313 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1205.313 Section 1205.313 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.313 United States. United States means the 50 States of the United States of America....

  20. 7 CFR 1205.23 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1205.23 Section 1205.23 Agriculture... Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.23 United States. The term United States means the 50 states of the United States of America. Procedures...

  1. 7 CFR 1250.308 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1250.308 Section 1250.308 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.308 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous States of the United States of America and the District of Columbia....

  2. 7 CFR 1150.106 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States. 1150.106 Section 1150.106 Agriculture... Order Definitions § 1150.106 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous States in the continental United States....

  3. United States National seismograph network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masse, R.P.; Filson, J.R.; Murphy, A.

    1989-01-01

    The USGS National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) has planned and is developing a broadband digital seismograph network for the United States. The network will consist of approximately 150 seismograph stations distributed across the contiguous 48 states and across Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Data transmission will be via two-way satellite telemetry from the network sites to a central recording facility at the NEIC in Golden, Colorado. The design goal for the network is the on-scale recording by at least five well-distributed stations of any seismic event of magnitude 2.5 or greater in all areas of the United States except possibly part of Alaska. All event data from the network will be distributed to the scientific community on compact disc with read-only memory (CD-ROM). ?? 1989.

  4. To Return or Not to Return: Examining the Return Intentions of Mainland Chinese Students Studying at Elite Universities in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Alan Chi Keung; Xu, Li

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the return intention of mainland Chinese students studying at prestigious universities in the Unites States. The study employed both quantitative and qualitative methods. Participants were 90 students from three top-tiered universities on the East Coast of the United States. The results of this study…

  5. A longitudinal study of chiropractic use among older adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Longitudinal patterns of chiropractic use in the United States, particularly among Medicare beneficiaries, are not well documented. Using a nationally representative sample of older Medicare beneficiaries we describe the use of chiropractic over fifteen years, and classify chiropractic users by annual visit volume. We assess the characteristics that are associated with chiropractic use versus nonuse, as well as between different levels of use. Methods We analyzed data from two linked sources: the baseline (1993-1994) interview responses of 5,510 self-respondents in the Survey on Assets and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (AHEAD), and their Medicare claims from 1993 to 2007. Binomial logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with chiropractic use versus nonuse, and conditional upon use, to identify factors associated with high volume relative to lower volume use. Results There were 806 users of chiropractic in the AHEAD sample yielding a full period prevalence for 1993-2007 of 14.6%. Average annual prevalence between 1993 and 2007 was 4.8% with a range from 4.1% to 5.4%. Approximately 42% of the users consumed chiropractic services only in a single calendar year while 38% used chiropractic in three or more calendar years. Chiropractic users were more likely to be women, white, overweight, have pain, have multiple comorbid conditions, better self-rated health, access to transportation, higher physician utilization levels, live in the Midwest, and live in an area with fewer physicians per capita. Among chiropractic users, 16% had at least one year in which they exceeded Medicare's "soft cap" of 12 visits per calendar year. These over-the-cap users were more likely to have arthritis and mobility limitations, but were less likely to have a high school education. Additionally, these over-the-cap individuals accounted for 58% of total chiropractic claim volume. High volume users saw chiropractors the most among all types of providers

  6. Carol Moseley-Braun's Day to Talk about Race: A Study of Forum in the United States Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, John

    1995-01-01

    Analyzes the events of July 23, 1993, when Carol Moseley-Braun was involved in two rhetorical events in the United States Senate dealing with racial issues and the rhetorical culture of the Senate. Concludes that the reactions are as telling as the actions, revealing a United States Senate fundamentally unprepared for such a subject and such a…

  7. RESOURCES FOR SOUTH ASIAN LANGUAGE STUDIES IN THE UNITED STATES, REPORT OF A CONFERENCE CONVENED BY THE UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA FOR THE UNITED STATES OFFICE OF EDUCATION (JANUARY 15-16, 1960).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROWN, W. NORMAN

    IN 1960 AT THE UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA A CONFERENCE WAS CONVENED TO SURVEY THE RESOURCES AVAILABLE IN THE UNITED STATES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF LANGUAGE AND AREA STUDIES OF SOUTH ASIA AND TO MAKE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR A PROGRAM OF DEVELOPMENT. THE 23 PARTICIPANTS INCLUDED PROMINENT AMERICAN SCHOLARS FROM UNIVERSITIES WHERE SOUTH ASIAN LANGUAGES…

  8. 31 CFR 597.318 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 597.318 Section 597.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Definitions § 597.318 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories,...

  9. 31 CFR 560.307 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 560.307 Section 560.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, including its territories and possessions....

  10. 31 CFR 541.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 541.310 Section 541.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  11. 31 CFR 540.313 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 540.313 Section 540.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.313 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  12. 31 CFR 598.317 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 598.317 Section 598.317 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Definitions § 598.317 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  13. 31 CFR 547.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 547.310 Section 547.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Definitions § 547.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  14. 31 CFR 546.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 546.310 Section 546.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  15. 31 CFR 551.309 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 551.309 Section 551.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  16. 31 CFR 539.312 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 539.312 Section 539.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Definitions § 539.312 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  17. 31 CFR 570.311 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 570.311 Section 570.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  18. 31 CFR 549.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 549.310 Section 549.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  19. 31 CFR 538.314 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 538.314 Section 538.314 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  20. 31 CFR 542.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 542.310 Section 542.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  1. 31 CFR 588.309 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 588.309 Section 588.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... § 588.309 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  2. 31 CFR 544.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 544.310 Section 544.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 544.310 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  3. 7 CFR 63.13 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false United States. 63.13 Section 63.13 Agriculture... IMPROVEMENT CENTER General Provisions Definitions § 63.13 United States. United States means collectively the... possessions of the United States. Board of Directors...

  4. 31 CFR 548.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 548.310 Section 548.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  5. 31 CFR 596.312 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 596.312 Section 596.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Definitions § 596.312 United States. The term United States means the United States, including its...

  6. 31 CFR 543.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 543.310 Section 543.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  7. 31 CFR 595.314 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 595.314 Section 595.314 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  8. 31 CFR 537.318 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 537.318 Section 537.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  9. 31 CFR 594.313 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 594.313 Section 594.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... § 594.313 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  10. 31 CFR 543.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 543.310 Section 543.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 543.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  11. 31 CFR 538.314 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 538.314 Section 538.314 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 538.314 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  12. 31 CFR 585.316 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 585.316 Section 585.316 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 585.316 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  13. 31 CFR 587.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 587.310 Section 587...) MILOSEVIC SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 587.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and all areas under the jurisdiction or...

  14. 31 CFR 546.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 546.310 Section 546.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  15. 31 CFR 594.313 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 594.313 Section 594.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 594.313 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  16. 31 CFR 537.318 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 537.318 Section 537.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....318 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  17. 31 CFR 547.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 547.310 Section 547.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 547.310 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  18. 31 CFR 544.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 544.310 Section 544.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 544.310 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  19. 31 CFR 586.318 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 586.318 Section 586...) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 586.318 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and all areas under the jurisdiction or...

  20. 31 CFR 598.317 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 598.317 Section 598.317 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 598.317 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  1. 31 CFR 540.313 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 540.313 Section 540.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.313 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  2. 31 CFR 542.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 542.310 Section 542.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  3. 31 CFR 548.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 548.310 Section 548.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  4. 31 CFR 575.319 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 575.319 Section 575.319 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....319 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  5. 31 CFR 593.311 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 593.311 Section 593.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.311 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  6. 31 CFR 551.309 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 551.309 Section 551.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....309 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  7. 31 CFR 588.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 588.310 Section 588.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 588.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  8. 75 FR 25925 - United States Mint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ... United States Mint ACTION: Notification of Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee May 25, 2010 Public Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to United States Code, Title 31, section 5135(b)(8)(C), the United States Mint...: May 25, 2010. Time: 9 a.m. to 12 p.m. Location: 8th Floor Board Room, United States Mint, 801...

  9. 31 CFR 539.312 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 539.312 Section 539.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 539.312 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  10. 31 CFR 560.307 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 560.307 Section 560.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 560.307 United States. The term United States means the United States, including its territories...

  11. 31 CFR 541.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 541.310 Section 541.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 541.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  12. 31 CFR 545.313 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 545.313 Section 545.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 545.313 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  13. 31 CFR 595.314 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 595.314 Section 595.314 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 595.314 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  14. 7 CFR 65.255 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 65.255 Section 65.255 Agriculture..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.255 United States. United States means the 50... United States....

  15. 31 CFR 596.312 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 596.312 Section 596.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 596.312 United States. The term United States means the United States, including...

  16. 31 CFR 597.318 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 597.318 Section 597.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 597.318 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  17. Landforms of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hack, John T.

    1969-01-01

    The United States contains a great variety of landforms which offer dramatic contrasts to a crosscountry traveler. Mountains and desert areas, tropical jungles and areas of permanently frozen subsoil, deep canyons and broad plains are examples of the Nation's varied surface. The present-day landforms the features that make up the face of the earth are products of the slow, sculpturing actions of streams and geologic processes that have been at work throughout the ages since the earth's beginning.

  18. Landforms of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hack, John T.

    1988-01-01

    The United States contains a great variety of landforms which offer dramatic contrasts to a cross-country traveler. Mountains and desert areas, tropical jungles and areas of permanently frozen subsoil, and deep canyons and broad plains are examples of the Nation's varied surface. The presentday landforms the features that make up the face of the Earth are products of the slow sculpturing actions of streams and geologic processes that have been at work throughout the ages since the Earth's beginning.

  19. Sterilization in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bartz, Deborah; Greenberg, James A

    2008-01-01

    Unintended pregnancies are expensive for patients and for society in terms of medical costs, the cost of caring for more children, and the cost to personal and professional goals. Sterilization is the most common contraceptive method utilized by couples in the United States. Given technological advances over the past few decades, male and female surgical sterilization has become a safe, convenient, easy, and highly effective birth control method for the long term. This article reviews current male and female sterilization options. PMID:18701927

  20. United States Life Tables, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Robert N.

    1999-01-01

    The life tables in this report are current life tables for the United States based on age-specific death rates in 1997. Beginning with the 1997 tables, U.S. life tables have been constructed with a new methodology that is similar to that used in the decennial life tables. Life expectancy and other tables are shown for the first time for ages 85 to…

  1. Aeromagrnetic study of the midcontinent gravity high of central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Elizabeth R.; Zietz, Isidore

    1971-01-01

    A composite map of detailed aeromagnetic surveys over the midcontinent gravity high provides coverage of the 600-mi-long buried belt of mafic rocks of the Keweenawan Series from their outcrop localities in Minnesota and Wisconsin through Iowa and Nebraska. A map of the subsurface extent of the mafic rocks, based on the intricate magnetic patterns, shows that the rocks form a long, semicontinuous block, averaging 40 mi wide and consisting mainly of a sequence of layered flows. This sequence is probably fault-bounded and has been tilted up along the margins, where the linearity of the anomalies indicates steeper dips. The associated clastic rocks, indicated by a smoother magnetic pattern, occur in basins along both sides of the mafic belt and in grabens and a series of axial basins on the upper surface of the block. The well-defined outliers of flows marginal to the main block and the truncation of some of the outermost flow units along a diagonal boundary striking at an angle to them suggest that the present boundaries of the block are postdepositional structural features. The basins and the edges of the block appear to have controlled later, largely vertical movement in the overlying Paleozoic and younger sedimentary cover. Calculated models based on coincident magnetic and detailed gravity profiles along typical cross sections of the midcontinent gravity high show that the block of mafic rocks is steep-sided and as much as several miles thick. The free-air gravity anomaly, which consists of a large positive maximum flanked by minima, averages very close to zero, indicating that this major crustal feature is regionally compensated, although locally each of its components shows a large departure from equilibrium. Remanent magnetization is a primary factor in the interpretation of the magnetic data. Magnetic property studies of Keweenawan mafic rocks in the Lake Superior region show that remanent magnetization may be five times the magnetization induced by the

  2. Aeromagnetic study of the midcontinent gravity high of central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Elizabeth R.; Zietz, Isidore

    1971-01-01

    A composite map of detailed aeromagnetic surveys over the midcontinent gravity high provides coverage of the 600-mi-long buried belt of mafic rocks of the Keweenawan Series from their outcrop localities in Minnesota and Wisconsin through Iowa and Nebraska. A map of the subsurface extent of the mafic rocks, based on the intricate magnetic patterns, shows that the rocks form a long, semicontinuous block, averaging 40 mi wide and consisting mainly of a sequence of layered flows. This sequence is probably fault-bounded and has been tilted up along the margins, where the linearity of the anomalies indicates steeper dips. The associated clastic rocks, indicated by a smoother magnetic pattern, occur in basins along both sides of the mafic belt and in grabens and a series of axial basins on the upper surface of the block. The well-defined outliers of flows marginal to the main block and the truncation of some of the outermost flow units along a diagonal boundary striking at an angle to them suggest that the present boundaries of the block are postdepositional structural features. The basins and the edges of the block appear to have controlled later, largely vertical movement in the overlying Paleozoic and younger sedimentary cover. Calculated models based on coincident magnetic and detailed gravity profiles along typical cross sections of the midcontinent gravity high show that the block of mafic rocks is steep-sided and as much as several miles thick. The free-air gravity anomaly, which consists of a large positive maximum flanked by minima, averages very close to zero, indicating that this major crustal feature is regionally compensated, although locally each of its components shows a large departure from equilibrium. Remanent magnetization is a primary factor in the interpretation of the magnetic data. Magnetic property studies of Keweenawan mafic rocks in the Lake Superior region show that remanent magnetization may be five times the magnetization induced by the

  3. Development of a United States-Mexico Emissions Inventory for the Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational (BRAVO) Study.

    PubMed

    Kuhns, Hampden; Knipping, Eladio M; Vukovich, Jeffrey M

    2005-05-01

    The Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational (BRAVO) Study was commissioned to investigate the sources of haze at Big Bend National Park in southwest Texas. The modeling domain of the BRAVO Study includes most of the continental United States and Mexico. The BRAVO emissions inventory was constructed from the 1999 National Emission Inventory for the United States, modified to include finer-resolution data for Texas and 13 U.S. states in close proximity. The first regional-scale Mexican emissions inventory designed for air-quality modeling applications was developed for 10 northern Mexican states, the Tula Industrial Park in the state of Hidalgo, and the Popocatépetl volcano in the state of Puebla. Emissions data were compiled from numerous sources, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission (now Texas Commission on Environmental Quality), the Eastern Research Group, the Minerals Management Service, the Instituto Nacional de Ecología, and the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Geografía y Informática. The inventory includes emissions for CO, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia, particulate matter (PM) < 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter, and PM < 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter. Wind-blown dust and biomass burning were not included in the inventory, although high concentrations of dust and organic PM attributed to biomass burning have been observed at Big Bend National Park. The SMOKE modeling system was used to generate gridded emissions fields for use with the Regional Modeling System for Aerosols and Deposition (REMSAD) and the Community Multiscale Air Quality model modified with the Model of Aerosol Dynamics, Reaction, Ionization and Dissolution (CMAQ-MADRID). The compilation of the inventory, supporting model input data, and issues encountered during the development of the inventory are documented. A comparison of the BRAVO emissions

  4. United States National Seismographic Network

    SciTech Connect

    Buland, R.

    1993-09-01

    The concept of a United States National Seismograph Network (USNSN) dates back nearly 30 years. The idea was revived several times over the decades. but never funded. For, example, a national network was proposed and discussed at great length in the so called Bolt Report (U. S. Earthquake Observatories: Recommendations for a New National Network, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1980, 122 pp). From the beginning, a national network was viewed as augmenting and complementing the relatively dense, predominantly short-period vertical coverage of selected areas provided by the Regional Seismograph Networks (RSN`s) with a sparse, well-distributed network of three-component, observatory quality, permanent stations. The opportunity finally to begin developing a national network arose in 1986 with discussions between the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Under the agreement signed in 1987, the NRC has provided $5 M in new funding for capital equipment (over the period 1987-1992) and the USGS has provided personnel and facilities to develop. deploy, and operate the network. Because the NRC funding was earmarked for the eastern United States, new USNSN station deployments are mostly east of 105{degree}W longitude while the network in the western United States is mostly made up of cooperating stations (stations meeting USNSN design goals, but deployed and operated by other institutions which provide a logical extension to the USNSN).

  5. A Guide to the Study of the United States of America. Representative Books Reflecting the Development of American Life and Thought. Supplement 1956-1965.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Oliver H., Jr.; And Others

    This supplement to the 1960 edition of "A Guide to the Study of the United States of America" contains titles held by the Library of Congress that reflect the development of the United States and were published between 1956 and 1965. In some instances a few pre-1956 publications are entered. These include parts of series or multivolume studies…

  6. Study of Student Perceived Effectiveness of the Delivery of Distance Education Instruction at the United States Army Command and General Staff College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weston, Dawn M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify current student preferences in order to improve distance education curriculum delivery of the distance education program of the United States Army Command and General Staff College (USACGSC). In this age of rapidly changing contemporary operating environments facing the United States Army, soldiers need…

  7. Drought in Southwestern United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The southwestern United States pined for water in late March and early April 2007. This image is based on data collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite from March 22 through April 6, 2007, and it shows the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, or NDVI, for the period. In this NDVI color scale, green indicates areas of healthier-than-usual vegetation, and only small patches of green appear in this image, near the California-Nevada border and in Utah. Larger areas of below-normal vegetation are more common, especially throughout California. Pale yellow indicates areas with generally average vegetation. Gray areas appear where no data were available, likely due to persistent clouds or snow cover. According to the April 10, 2007, update from the U.S. Drought Monitor, most of the southwestern United Sates, including Utah, Nevada, California, and Arizona, experienced moderate to extreme drought. The hardest hit areas were southeastern California and southwestern Arizona. Writing for the Drought Monitor, David Miskus of the Joint Agricultural Weather Facility reported that March 2007 had been unusually dry for the southwestern United States. While California's and Utah's reservoir storage was only slightly below normal, reservoir storage was well below normal for New Mexico and Arizona. In early April, an international research team published an online paper in Science noting that droughts could become more common for the southwestern United States and northern Mexico, as these areas were already showing signs of drying. Relying on the same computer models used in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report released in early 2007, the researchers who published in Science concluded that global warming could make droughts more common, not just in the American Southwest, but also in semiarid regions of southern Europe, Mediterranean northern Africa, and the Middle East.

  8. Contingency planning at the flotilla level in the United States Coast Guard Auxiliary: flotilla 81-a case study.

    PubMed

    Schooley, Shawn Erik

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a case study of United States Coast Guard Auxiliary Flotilla 81. Flotilla 81 created its first formal, single agency contingency plan. The research question addressed is "How can a flotilla successfully develop a contingency plan?" Five emergent themes are identified. They are offered as suggested promising practices for other flotillas in need of creating a contingency plan. Findings suggest successful contingency planning is a result of effective collaboration with community partners. Network management theory is a key to an effective contingency planning process. PMID:24340457

  9. 22 CFR 120.13 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false United States. 120.13 Section 120.13 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.13 United States. United States, when used in the geographical sense, includes the several states,...

  10. 22 CFR 120.13 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false United States. 120.13 Section 120.13 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.13 United States. United States, when used in the geographical sense, includes the several states,...

  11. 22 CFR 120.13 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false United States. 120.13 Section 120.13 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.13 United States. United States, when used in the geographical sense, includes the several states,...

  12. 22 CFR 120.13 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false United States. 120.13 Section 120.13 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.13 United States. United States, when used in the geographical sense, includes the several states,...

  13. 22 CFR 120.13 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false United States. 120.13 Section 120.13 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.13 United States. United States, when used in the geographical sense, includes the several states,...

  14. Grooming and cultural socialization: a mixed method study of caregiving practices in Burma (Myanmar) and the United States.

    PubMed

    Thein-Lemelson, Seinenu M

    2015-02-01

    Grooming behaviours are thought to be a crucial aspect of parenting and integral to the sociality of non-human mammals, but there have been few empirical studies on how grooming might be relevant to parenting and socialization processes in humans. Study 1 is a quantitative cross-cultural comparison of grooming practices in two cultural settings: an urban centre in Burma (Myanmar) and an urban centre in the United States. The study uses naturalistic video data of 57 families to analyse grooming behaviours directed at children. A broad range of ages was sampled in each culture to examine the developmental trajectory of grooming behaviours. Results indicate that significant cultural differences exist between Burma and the United States, with Burmese children being groomed by their caregivers more often than U.S. children. Results also indicate that cultural differences in grooming practices begin early and remain constant across age. An unexpected finding was that Burmese families were more variable in their behaviour than U.S. families. Study 2 attempts to explain this variability by using ethnography to describe how sociodemographic changes in Burma are leading to changes in parental values and socialization practices in the schools, but how embodied primary care in the homes appear resistant to change. PMID:25530498

  15. 7 CFR 1215.20 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1215.20 United States. United States means all of the States. Popcorn Board...

  16. 7 CFR 1215.20 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1215.20 United States. United States means all of the States. Popcorn Board...

  17. 7 CFR 1215.20 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1215.20 United States. United States means all of the States. Popcorn Board...

  18. Altitude May Contribute to Regional Variation in Methamphetamine Use in the United States: A Population Database Study

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Douglas G; Kim, Namkug; Renshaw, Perry F

    2014-01-01

    Objective Methamphetamine (MA) use rates in the United States (US) have consistently demonstrated geographical variation and have been higher in the West and Midwest. This uneven pattern of use could be explained by regional differences in MA manufacturing and distribution, but may also result from differences in altitude. The hypobaric hypoxia found at high altitude alters neurotransmitter synthesis in the brain, which may contribute to MA use. The present study investigated the relationship between mean altitude and MA use rate in the 48 contiguous US states and the District of Columbia. Methods State-level estimates of past year MA use were extracted from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health report. The mean altitude of each state was calculated using the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission altitude data set. Results There was a significant positive correlation between mean state altitude and MA use rate (r=0.66, p<0.0001). Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that altitude remained a significant predictor for MA use rate (β=0.36, p=0.02), after adjusting for age, ethnicity, education, socioeconomic level, employment, MA laboratory incidents, subpopulations, and other substance use. Conclusion Altitude appears to a possible contributing factor for regional variation of MA use in the US. Further studies will be required to determine biological changes in neurotransmission resulting from chronic mild hypoxia at high altitude in MA users. PMID:25395974

  19. Relationship between altitude and lithium in groundwater in the United States of America: results of a 1992–2003 study

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Rebekah S.; Kim, Namkug; Renshaw, Carl E.; Renshaw, Perry F.; Kondo, Douglas G.

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic dosages of lithium are known to reduce suicide rates, which has led to investigations of confounding environmental risk factors for suicide such as lithium in groundwater. It has been speculated that this might play a role in the potential relationship between suicide and altitude. A recent study in Austria involving geospatial analysis of lithium in groundwater and suicide found lower levels of lithium at higher altitudes. Since there is no reason to suspect this correlation is universal given variation in geology, the current study set out to investigate the relationship between altitude and lithium in groundwater in the United States of America (USA). The study utilised data extracted from the National Water-Quality Assessment programme implemented by the United States Geological Survey that has collected 5,183 samples from 48 study areas in USA for the period of 1992 to 2003. Lithium was the trace-element of interest and 518 samples were used in the current analyses. Due to uneven lithium sampling within the country, only the states (n=15) with the highest number of lithium samples were included. Federal information processing standard codes were used to match data by county with the mean county altitude calculated using altitude data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The study was controlled for potential confounding factors known to affect levels of lithium in groundwater including aquifer, aquifer type, lithology, water level and the depths of wells. The levels of lithium in groundwater, increased with altitude (R2 = 0.226, P <0.001) during the study period. These findings differ from the Austrian study and suggest a need for further research accounting also for the impact of geographical variation. PMID:25545940

  20. Relationship between altitude and lithium in groundwater in the United States of America: results of a 1992-2003 study.

    PubMed

    Huber, Rebekah S; Kim, Namkug; Renshaw, Carl E; Renshaw, Perry F; Kondo, Douglas G

    2014-11-01

    Therapeutic dosages of lithium are known to reduce suicide rates, which has led to investigations of confounding environmental risk factors for suicide such as lithium in groundwater. It has been speculated that this might play a role in the potential relationship between suicide and altitude. A recent study in Austria involving geospatial analysis of lithium in groundwater and suicide found lower levels of lithium at higher altitudes. Since there is no reason to suspect this correlation is universal given variation in geology, the current study set out to investigate the relationship between altitude and lithium in groundwater in the United States of America (USA). The study utilised data extracted from the National Water-Quality Assessment programme implemented by the United States Geological Survey that has collected 5,183 samples from 48 study areas in USA for the period of 1992 to 2003. Lithium was the trace-element of interest and 518 samples were used in the current analyses. Due to uneven lithium sampling within the country, only the states (n=15) with the highest number of lithium samples were included. Federal information processing standard codes were used to match data by county with the mean county altitude calculated using altitude data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The study was controlled for potential confounding factors known to affect levels of lithium in groundwater including aquifer, aquifer type, lithology, water level and the depths of wells. The levels of lithium in groundwater, increased with altitude (R(2) = 0.226, P <0.001) during the study period. These findings differ from the Austrian study and suggest a need for further research accounting also for the impact of geographical variation. PMID:25545940

  1. United States Space Explorations 1958

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    United States Space Explorations 1958. The film describes preparation and launch of five satellites and two space probes during 1958. On January 31, a Jupiter vehicle launched Explorer I into space. Data from this satellite was used to identify the van Allen radiation belts. On March 17, a Vanguard I rocket launched an Earth satellite with solar batteries. Data from the mission was used to determine that the Earth is slightly pear-shaped. On March 26, Explorer III was launched to further study the van Allen belts, micrometeoroid impacts, and internal and external temperatures. Explorer IV, launched on July 26, was intended to study radiation and temperature data. A lunar probe, ABLE I, was intended to measure radiation, magnetic fields of Earth and the Moon, density of micrometeoric matter, and internal temperatures. A four-stage rocket was used in the launch. However, a turbo-pump failed and the liquid oxygen pump stopped, resulting in a failed mission. On October 10, Pioneer I was launched by an ABLE vehicle. First and second stage velocity was less than desired and the probe did not leave Earth orbit. Attempts to attain escape velocity were unsuccessful. On December, a Jupiter boost vehicle was used to launch Juno II, with Pioneer III as the payload. Escape velocity was reached and Pioneer III left Earth's atmosphere. Failed launches, such as those of Vanguard boost vehicles and several Explorer satellites, also added to scientific knowledge. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030963. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  2. Pathogens and diseases of freshwater mussels in the United States: Studies on bacterial transmission and depuration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starliper, Clifford E.

    2011-01-01

    Unionid mussels are recognized as important contributors to healthy aquatic ecosystems, as well as bioindicators of environmental perturbations. Because they are sedentary, filter feeding animals and require hosts (i.e., fishes) to transform embryonic glochidia, mussels are susceptible to direct adverse environmental parameters, and indirect parameters that restrict the timely presence of the host(s). Their numbers have declined in recent decades to a point that this fauna is regarded as one of the most imperiled in North America. The most significant threat to populations of native unionids in recent years has been the introduction and spread of zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha. Many federal and state agencies, and private interests are now engaged in mussel conservation efforts, including collecting selected imperiled species from impacted rivers and lakes and propagating them at refuges for future population augmentations. One essential consideration with mussel propagation and their intensive culture at refugia is the prevention of pathogen introductions and control of diseases. Currently, there are few reports of etiological agents causing diseases among freshwater mussels; however, because of increased observations of mussel die-offs in conjunction with transfers of live animals between natural waters and refugia, disease problems can be anticipated to emerge. This review summarizes research to develop bacterial isolation techniques, study pathogen transmission between fish and mussels, identify causes of seasonal mussel die-offs, and develop non-destructive methods for pathogen detection. These efforts were done to develop disease preventative techniques for use by resource managers to avoid potential large-scale disease problems in restoration and population augmentation efforts among imperiled populations.

  3. Trends in opioid prescriptions among children and adolescents in the United States: a nationally representative study from 1996 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Groenewald, Cornelius B; Rabbitts, Jennifer A; Gebert, J Thomas; Palermo, Tonya M

    2016-05-01

    Prescription opioid misuse is a major public health concern in the United States, yet little is known about national prescription patterns. We aimed to assess trends in opioid prescriptions made to children and adolescents, to their families, and to adults in the United States from 1996 to 2012. The sample was drawn from nationally representative data, the Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys. We used survey design methods to examine trends in prescription opioid use over time and a logistic regression analysis to examine predictors associated with opioid use. Findings indicated that from 1996 to 2012 opioid prescriptions to children and adolescents remained stable and low. In 1996, 2.68% of children received an opioid prescription, and in 2012, 2.91% received an opioid prescription. In contrast, opioid prescriptions to family members of children and adolescents and adults in general significantly increased during this period. The most common opioid prescriptions to children and adolescents in 2012 were codeine, hydrocodone, and oxycodone. Using multivariate logistic regression models, the white non-Hispanic race, older age, health insurance, and parent-reported fair to poor general health were associated with higher rates of opioid prescriptions in children and adolescents. Our main finding was that although the rates of opioid prescriptions have increased among adults in the United States, the rates have not changed among children and adolescents. Recent epidemiologic association studies have identified a strong link between increased opioid prescriptions and increased rates of opioid misuse and abuse in adults. Future studies should assess the association between adult opioid prescriptions and children or adolescent opioid misuse. PMID:26716995

  4. Development of a United States - Mexico emissions inventory for the Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational (BRAVO) Study

    SciTech Connect

    Hampden Kuhns; Eladio M. Knipping; Jeffrey M. Vukovich,

    2005-05-01

    The Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational (BRAVO) Study investigated the sources of haze at Big Bend National Park in southwest Texas. The modeling domain includes most of the continental United States and Mexico. The BRAVO emissions inventory was constructed from the 1999 National Emission Inventory for the United States, modified to include finer-resolution data for Texas and 13 U.S. states in close proximity. The inventory includes emissions for CO, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia, particulate matter (PM) {lt}10 {mu}m in aerodynamic diameter, and PM {lt}2.5 {mu}m in aerodynamic diameter. The SMOKE modeling system was used to generate gridded emissions fields for use with the Regional Modeling System for Aerosols and Deposition (REMSAD) and the Community Multiscale Air Quality model modified with the Model of Aerosol Dynamics, Reaction, Ionization and Dissolution (CMAQ-MADRID). The compilation of the inventory, supporting model input data, and issues encountered during the development of the inventory are documented. A comparison of the BRAVO emissions inventory for Mexico with other emerging Mexican emission inventories illustrates their uncertainty. 65 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. 7 CFR 1206.23 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1206.23 Section 1206.23 Agriculture... INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.23 United States. United... Rico, and the territories and possessions of the United States....

  6. STUDY OF HOME DEMONSTRATION UNITS IN A SAMPLE OF 27 COUNTIES IN NEW YORK STATE, NUMBER 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALEXANDER, FRANK D.; HARSHAW, JEAN

    AN EXPLORATORY STUDY EXAMINED CHARACTERISTICS OF 1,128 HOME DEMONSTRATION UNITS TO SUGGEST HYPOTHESES AND SCOPE FOR A MORE INTENSIVE STUDY OF A SMALL SAMPLE OF UNITS, AND TO PROVIDE GUIDANCE IN SAMPLING. DATA WERE OBTAINED FROM A SPECIALLY DESIGNED MEMBERSHIP CARD USED IN 1962. UNIT SIZE AVERAGED 23.6 MEMBERS BUT THE RANGE WAS FAIRLY GREAT. A NEED…

  7. Incentivizing Children's Fruit and Vegetable Consumption: Results of a United States Pilot Study of the "Food Dudes" Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wengreen, Heidi J.; Madden, Gregory J.; Aguilar, Sheryl S.; Smits, Rochelle R.; Jones, Brooke A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Preliminary evaluation in the United States (US) of a school-based fruit and vegetable (F/V) intervention, known as the "Food Dudes" (FD) program, developed in the United Kingdom. Methods: Over 16 days (Phase 1), elementary-school children (n = 253) watched short videos featuring heroic peers (the FD) eating F/V and received a reward…

  8. A Study of Traditional Circle Games Played in Public School Kindergartens across the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothlein, Liz; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Investigates traditional circle games played in 203 public school kindergartens in 35 states. Results indicate that music/movement and racing games were the major game categories; the most common frequency and duration was three times per week for 20 minutes; and the purposes of the games were to have fun, and to foster social, physical motor, and…

  9. Assessing potential human health hazards and benefits from subtherapeutic antibiotics in the United States: tetracyclines as a case study.

    PubMed

    Cox, Louis Anthony Tony; Popken, Douglas A

    2010-03-01

    Many scientists, activists, regulators, and politicians have expressed urgent concern that using antibiotics in food animals selects for resistant strains of bacteria that harm human health and bring nearer a "postantibiotic era" of multidrug resistant "super-bugs." Proposed political solutions, such as the Preservation of Antibiotics for Medical Treatment Act (PAMTA), would ban entire classes of subtherapeutic antibiotics (STAs) now used for disease prevention and growth promotion in food animals. The proposed bans are not driven by formal quantitative risk assessment (QRA), but by a perceived need for immediate action to prevent potential catastrophe. Similar fears led to STA phase-outs in Europe a decade ago. However, QRA and empirical data indicate that continued use of STAs in the United States has not harmed human health, and bans in Europe have not helped human health. The fears motivating PAMTA contrast with QRA estimates of vanishingly small risks. As a case study, examining specific tetracycline uses and resistance patterns suggests that there is no significant human health hazard from continued use of tetracycline in food animals. Simple hypothetical calculations suggest an unobservably small risk (between 0 and 1.75E-11 excess lifetime risk of a tetracycline-resistant infection), based on the long history of tetracycline use in the United States without resistance-related treatment failures. QRAs for other STA uses in food animals also find that human health risks are vanishingly small. Whether such QRA calculations will guide risk management policy for animal antibiotics in the United States remains to be seen. PMID:20136749

  10. Suspect until Proven Guilty a Problematization of State Dossier Systems via Two Case Studies: The United States and China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrall, Kenneth N.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation problematizes the "state dossier system" (SDS): the production and accumulation of personal information on citizen subjects exceeding the reasonable bounds of risk management. SDS--comprising interconnecting subsystems of records and identification--damage individual autonomy and self-determination, impacting not only human…

  11. A Case Study of Exploring Older Chinese Immigrants' Social Support within a Chinese Church Community in the United States.

    PubMed

    Liou, Chih-Ling; Shenk, Dena

    2016-09-01

    The number of older Chinese immigrants living in the United States is increasing steadily. They are faced with challenges to meet their needs for social support and are unlikely to turn to formal services. This case study utilizes an ecological framework to analyze social support among Chinese immigrants age 65 year and older within a Christian Chinese church community, and to explore the ways in which a Chinese church functions as the source of social support for older Chinese immigrants. Seven months of participant observation and ten face-to-face, in-depth interviews were conducted with 65+ Chinese adults who attended one Chinese church in the Southern United State and included questions concerning patterns of support and personal relationships within the church. Findings revealed that gender, living arrangements, working experiences, ability to drive, and English language skills were related to support the older Chinese immigrants sought, received, and provided. Although the Chinese church can be a viable source of supplementary support, some participants in this study felt the support they received from the church was insufficient, particularly in terms of emotional support. Therefore, suggestions are outlined that may assist Chinese churches to be more proactive in better understanding and providing services that meet the different needs and desires of older Chinese immigrants. PMID:27294347

  12. spa Typing and Multilocus Sequence Typing Show Comparable Performance in a Macroepidemiologic Study of Staphylococcus aureus in the United States.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, F Patrick; Suaya, Jose A; Ray, G Thomas; Baxter, Roger; Brown, Megan L; Mera, Robertino M; Close, Nicole M; Thomas, Elizabeth; Amrine-Madsen, Heather

    2016-01-01

    A number of molecular typing methods have been developed for characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates. The utility of these systems depends on the nature of the investigation for which they are used. We compared two commonly used methods of molecular typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) (and its clustering algorithm, Based Upon Related Sequence Type [BURST]) with the staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing (and its clustering algorithm, Based Upon Repeat Pattern [BURP]), to assess the utility of these methods for macroepidemiology and evolutionary studies of S. aureus in the United States. We typed a total of 366 clinical isolates of S. aureus by these methods and evaluated indices of diversity and concordance values. Our results show that, when combined with the BURP clustering algorithm to delineate clonal lineages, spa typing produces results that are highly comparable with those produced by MLST/BURST. Therefore, spa typing is appropriate for use in macroepidemiology and evolutionary studies and, given its lower implementation cost, this method appears to be more efficient. The findings are robust and are consistent across different settings, patient ages, and specimen sources. Our results also support a model in which the methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) population in the United States comprises two major lineages (USA300 and USA100), which each consist of closely related variants. PMID:26669861

  13. spa Typing and Multilocus Sequence Typing Show Comparable Performance in a Macroepidemiologic Study of Staphylococcus aureus in the United States

    PubMed Central

    O'Hara, F. Patrick; Suaya, Jose A.; Ray, G. Thomas; Baxter, Roger; Brown, Megan L.; Mera, Robertino M.; Close, Nicole M.; Thomas, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    A number of molecular typing methods have been developed for characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates. The utility of these systems depends on the nature of the investigation for which they are used. We compared two commonly used methods of molecular typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) (and its clustering algorithm, Based Upon Related Sequence Type [BURST]) with the staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing (and its clustering algorithm, Based Upon Repeat Pattern [BURP]), to assess the utility of these methods for macroepidemiology and evolutionary studies of S. aureus in the United States. We typed a total of 366 clinical isolates of S. aureus by these methods and evaluated indices of diversity and concordance values. Our results show that, when combined with the BURP clustering algorithm to delineate clonal lineages, spa typing produces results that are highly comparable with those produced by MLST/BURST. Therefore, spa typing is appropriate for use in macroepidemiology and evolutionary studies and, given its lower implementation cost, this method appears to be more efficient. The findings are robust and are consistent across different settings, patient ages, and specimen sources. Our results also support a model in which the methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) population in the United States comprises two major lineages (USA300 and USA100), which each consist of closely related variants. PMID:26669861

  14. The Treatment of Peace and Security Issues in Social Studies Textbooks in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Dan B.

    This examination of the treatment given to peace and security issues in American social studies textbooks begins by summarizing the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) Curriculum Guidelines and a 1983 study of high school social studies topic priorities. Following a review of past textbook studies and a brief discussion of textbook…

  15. Bullying in Europe and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, John H.; Juul, Kristen

    1993-01-01

    Examines nature and scope of group violence among children in schools on both sides of Atlantic Ocean. Reviews studies of student attitudes about victimization and offers suggestions for prevention and treatment of bullying. Focus is on studies on bullying undertaken in Europe, mostly Scandinavia, and in United States (Author/NB)

  16. Early Marriage in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uecker, Jeremy E.; Stokes, Charles E.

    2008-01-01

    Despite drastic changes in the American family, a significant minority of Americans marry early. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 14,165), this study evaluates the prevalence and antecedents of early marriage in the United States. The results indicate 25% of women and 16% of men marry before age 23, and…

  17. Occurrence and fate of pharmaceuticals in WWTPs in India and comparison with a similar study in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Sanjeeb; Huang, Ching-Hua; Mukherji, Suparna; Padhye, Lokesh P

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to study the occurrence, fate, and seasonal variations of pharmaceuticals at two urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in India and compare the results with a similar study conducted in the United States. This is the first study of its kind in comparing occurrence and fate of pharmaceuticals in wastewater of two different countries with the same methodology and analytical techniques. Twelve most relevant pharmaceuticals were selected for seasonal monitoring at two Indian WWTPs based on the comprehensive survey and through literature review. The yearly average influent concentrations of total pharmaceuticals were found to be 537 ± 5 μg/L at WWTP-1 and 353 ± 9 μg/L at WWTP-2. WWTP-2 exhibited comparatively higher removal efficiency of total pharmaceuticals (85% versus 59%, excluding monsoon season), possibly due to the cyclic activated sludge technology followed by chlorination employed at WWTP-2. Comparison with a similar study conducted in the United States revealed that concentration of most of the pharmaceuticals detected in the U.S. WWTPs were, on an average, more than 50% lower. U.S. WWTPs also exhibited 10-30% higher removal efficiencies for total pharmaceuticals. Our study results show that preliminary treatment and biological treatment alone are not adequate for complete removal of pharmaceuticals and polishing step and tertiary treatment is a necessity if higher removal of pharmaceuticals is desired in Indian WWTPs. Information obtained from this study will not only aid the local utilities but will also benefit understanding of global trends in usage of pharmaceuticals and their distribution in the environment. PMID:27341156

  18. 7 CFR 1280.127 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false United States. 1280.127 Section 1280.127 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.127 United States. United States means collectively the 50 States and the District of Columbia....

  19. 7 CFR 1215.20 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false United States. 1215.20 Section 1215.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... United States. United States means all of the States. Popcorn Board...

  20. 7 CFR 1260.108 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false United States. 1260.108 Section 1260.108 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.108 United States. United States means the 50 States and...

  1. 7 CFR 1260.108 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1260.108 Section 1260.108 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.108 United States. United States means the 50 States and...

  2. 7 CFR 1221.32 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1221.32 Section 1221.32 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.32 United States. United States or U.S. means collectively the 50 States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth...

  3. 7 CFR 1215.20 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1215.20 Section 1215.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... United States. United States means all of the States. Popcorn Board...

  4. 7 CFR 1216.30 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1216.30 Section 1216.30 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.30 United States. United States means collectively the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto...

  5. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN LONGITUDINAL STUDIES OF AGING IN THE UNITED STATES*

    PubMed Central

    WEIR, DAVID

    2015-01-01

    We review recent developments in longitudinal studies of aging, focusing on the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). Both studies are part of a trend toward biosocial surveys in which biological measurement is joined with traditional survey techniques, and a related trend toward greater harmonization across studies. Both studies have collected DNA samples and are working toward genotyping that would allow broadly based association studies. Increased attention to psychological measurement of personality and of cognitive ability using adaptive testing structures has also been shared across the studies. The HRS has expanded its economic measurement to longitudinal studies of consumption and to broader-based measurement of pension and Social Security wealth. It has added biomarkers of cardiovascular risk. The WLS has developed an integrated approach to the study of death and bereavement and an innovative use of high school yearbook photographs to capture information about health in early life of its participants. PMID:21302430

  6. Computer science teacher professional development in the United States: a review of studies published between 2004 and 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menekse, Muhsin

    2015-10-01

    While there has been a remarkable interest to make computer science a core K-12 academic subject in the United States, there is a shortage of K-12 computer science teachers to successfully implement computer sciences courses in schools. In order to enhance computer science teacher capacity, training programs have been offered through teacher professional development. In this study, the main goal was to systematically review the studies regarding computer science professional development to understand the scope, context, and effectiveness of these programs in the past decade (2004-2014). Based on 21 journal articles and conference proceedings, this study explored: (1) Type of professional development organization and source of funding, (2) professional development structure and participants, (3) goal of professional development and type of evaluation used, (4) specific computer science concepts and training tools used, (5) and their effectiveness to improve teacher practice and student learning.

  7. Hunger in the United States: A Summary of Recent Studies on Hunger and Emergency Food Demand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Ashley F.

    This is an annotated resource guide for those interested in recent hunger and food insecurity studies. Objectives, methods, and key findings of each study are summarized, and contact information for obtaining the report is given. Studies are grouped by survey location and listed chronologically by publication or release date within each geographic…

  8. Current Mexican-American and Chicano Studies Undergraduate College Programs in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaramillo, James A.

    This study conducted a library literature search of college guides, directories, and catalogs to determine the number of undergraduate level Chicano/a Studies and Mexican-American Studies programs in the U.S. The analysis found that there were 76 undergraduate programs in these fields, including 20 at two-year colleges and 56 at four-year…

  9. Mycoplasma genitalium Prevalence, Coinfection, and Macrolide Antibiotic Resistance Frequency in a Multicenter Clinical Study Cohort in the United States.

    PubMed

    Getman, Damon; Jiang, Alice; O'Donnell, Meghan; Cohen, Seth

    2016-09-01

    The prevalence rates of Mycoplasma genitalium infections and coinfections with other sexually transmitted organisms and the frequency of a macrolide antibiotic resistance phenotype were determined in urogenital specimens collected from female and male subjects enrolled in a multicenter clinical study in the United States. Specimens from 946 subjects seeking care from seven geographically diverse clinical sites were tested for M. genitalium and for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis Sequencing was used to assess macrolide antibiotic resistance among M. genitalium-positive subjects. M. genitalium prevalence rates were 16.1% for females and 17.2% for males. Significant risk factors for M. genitalium infections were black race, younger age, non-Hispanic ethnicity, and female symptomatic status. Female M. genitalium infections were significantly more prevalent than C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infections, while the M. genitalium infection rate in males was significantly higher than the N. gonorrhoeae and T. vaginalis infection rates. The macrolide-resistant phenotype was found in 50.8% of females and 42% of males. These results show a high prevalence of M. genitalium single infections, a lower prevalence of coinfections with other sexually transmitted organisms, and high rates of macrolide antibiotic resistance in a diverse sample of subjects seeking care across a wide geographic area of the United States. PMID:27307460

  10. Mycoplasma genitalium Prevalence, Coinfection, and Macrolide Antibiotic Resistance Frequency in a Multicenter Clinical Study Cohort in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Alice; O'Donnell, Meghan; Cohen, Seth

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence rates of Mycoplasma genitalium infections and coinfections with other sexually transmitted organisms and the frequency of a macrolide antibiotic resistance phenotype were determined in urogenital specimens collected from female and male subjects enrolled in a multicenter clinical study in the United States. Specimens from 946 subjects seeking care from seven geographically diverse clinical sites were tested for M. genitalium and for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis. Sequencing was used to assess macrolide antibiotic resistance among M. genitalium-positive subjects. M. genitalium prevalence rates were 16.1% for females and 17.2% for males. Significant risk factors for M. genitalium infections were black race, younger age, non-Hispanic ethnicity, and female symptomatic status. Female M. genitalium infections were significantly more prevalent than C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infections, while the M. genitalium infection rate in males was significantly higher than the N. gonorrhoeae and T. vaginalis infection rates. The macrolide-resistant phenotype was found in 50.8% of females and 42% of males. These results show a high prevalence of M. genitalium single infections, a lower prevalence of coinfections with other sexually transmitted organisms, and high rates of macrolide antibiotic resistance in a diverse sample of subjects seeking care across a wide geographic area of the United States. PMID:27307460

  11. Risk of cancer from occupational exposure to ionising radiation: retrospective cohort study of workers in France, the United Kingdom, and the United States (INWORKS)

    PubMed Central

    Cardis, Elisabeth; Daniels, Robert D; Gillies, Michael; O’Hagan, Jacqueline A; Hamra, Ghassan B; Haylock, Richard; Laurier, Dominique; Leuraud, Klervi; Moissonnier, Monika; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K; Thierry-Chef, Isabelle; Kesminiene, Ausrele

    2015-01-01

    Study question Is protracted exposure to low doses of ionising radiation associated with an increased risk of solid cancer? Methods In this cohort study, 308 297 workers in the nuclear industry from France, the United Kingdom, and the United States with detailed monitoring data for external exposure to ionising radiation were linked to death registries. Excess relative rate per Gy of radiation dose for mortality from cancer was estimated. Follow-up encompassed 8.2 million person years. Of 66 632 known deaths by the end of follow-up, 17 957 were due to solid cancers. Study answer and limitations Results suggest a linear increase in the rate of cancer with increasing radiation exposure. The average cumulative colon dose estimated among exposed workers was 20.9 mGy (median 4.1 mGy). The estimated rate of mortality from all cancers excluding leukaemia increased with cumulative dose by 48% per Gy (90% confidence interval 20% to 79%), lagged by 10 years. Similar associations were seen for mortality from all solid cancers (47% (18% to 79%)), and within each country. The estimated association over the dose range of 0-100 mGy was similar in magnitude to that obtained over the entire dose range but less precise. Smoking and occupational asbestos exposure are potential confounders; however, exclusion of deaths from lung cancer and pleural cancer did not affect the estimated association. Despite substantial efforts to characterise the performance of the radiation dosimeters used, the possibility of measurement error remains. What this study adds The study provides a direct estimate of the association between protracted low dose exposure to ionising radiation and solid cancer mortality. Although high dose rate exposures are thought to be more dangerous than low dose rate exposures, the risk per unit of radiation dose for cancer among radiation workers was similar to estimates derived from studies of Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Quantifying the cancer risks associated

  12. Federation of State Medical Boards of the United States

    MedlinePlus

    ... Boards Representing the 70 medical boards of the United States and its territories. The Federation of State ... the 70 medical and osteopathic boards of the United States and its territories. Since its founding, the ...

  13. Sweat Equity: A Study of Housing Systems by and for the People in the United States and Cuba.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Johnetta B.

    1979-01-01

    Compares housing problems and their resolution in Cuba and the United States. States that U.S. urban homesteading programs such as "sweat equity" are oriented to middle-income people and do not address needs of most Blacks. Contrasts this with Cuba whose government has made a sustained effort to improve housing. (Author/WP)

  14. Do International Medical Graduates (IMGs) "Fill the Gap" in Rural Primary Care in the United States? A National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Matthew J.; Hagopian, Amy; Fordyce, Meredith; Hart, L. Gary

    2009-01-01

    Context: The contribution that international medical graduates (IMGs) make to reducing the rural-urban maldistribution of physicians in the United States is unclear. Quantifying the extent of such "gap filling" has significant implications for planning IMG workforce needs as well as other state and federal initiatives to increase the numbers of…

  15. Tomorrow. The Report of the Task Force for the Study of Chemistry Education in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    An American Chemical Society (ACS) task force was charged to examine the state of chemistry education in the United States and to make recommendations in light of its findings. This document presents the task force's report and 39 major (and also secondary) recommendations. These recommendations, with accompanying discussions, focus on: (1)…

  16. In Search of the Heart of America: A Primary Grade Geographical Musical Play in Study of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Lois M.

    To introduce primary grade children to the five themes in geography, a play about the United States is presented as a musical. The five themes are location, place, human environment interaction, region, and movement. The play is designed to help students understand the multicultural nature of U.S. history. Eleven states are located on a map and…

  17. United States non-Hodgkin's lymphoma surveillance by occupation 1984-1989: a twenty-four state death certificate study.

    PubMed

    Figgs, L W; Dosemeci, M; Blair, A

    1995-06-01

    Death certificates from 23,890 male and female non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) cases and 119,450 noncancer controls from 24 states for the period 1984-1989 were used to generate hypotheses regarding occupational associations. Cases were frequency matched by age, race, and gender with five controls per case. Odds ratios were calculated for 231 industries and 509 occupations. Significant associations were observed for a variety of white-collar professionals (i.e., real estate agents, secretaries, bookkeepers, teachers, postal employees, business agents, engineers, chemists, and medical professionals) and blue-collar occupations (i.e., firefighters, farm managers, aircraft mechanics, electronic repairers, mining machine operators, and crane and tower operators). PMID:7645576

  18. Whiteness in the Social Studies Classroom: Students' Conceptions of Race and Ethnicity in United States History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martell, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the researcher examined student conceptions of "Whiteness" as it relates to past and present U.S. history. Using Critical Race Theory as the lens, this study employed mixed methods, analyzing teacher observations, classroom artifacts/student work, survey, and interview data from White students and students of color at an ethnically…

  19. Equine Education Programs and Related Studies as Found in Colleges and Universities in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parmenter, Carol L. W.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the nature and scope of equine education programs being offered in the colleges and universities throughout the country and the attitudes of specialists toward these programs. The paper is organized into five major categories: (1) introduction, statement of purpose, design and scope of the study, and…

  20. Studies in Achievement Testing, Hearing Impaired Students. United States: Spring 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaudet Coll., Washington, DC. Office of Demographic Studies.

    Results of three studies based on Stanford Achievement Test data collected during the National Achievement Testing Program for Hearing Impaired Students in Spring, 1971 are reported. Compared in the first study are performance patterns of hearing impaired students on the Intermediate I and Advanced batteries with patterns of hearing…

  1. United States-assisted studies on dose reconstruction in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Bouville, A.

    1995-12-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident, the US and the USSR entered into an agreement to work on the safety of civilian nuclear reactors; one aspect of that work was to study the environmental transport and health effects of radionuclides released by the accident. After the break-up of the USSR separate agreements were established between the US and Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia to continue work on dose reconstruction and epidemiologic studies of health effects from exposure to external radiation and the incorporation of radionuclides. Studies in Belarus and Ukraine related to the Chernobyl accident now emphasize epidemiologic: studies of childhood-thyroid cancer and leukemia, and eye-lens-cataract formation in liquidators. Supporting studies on dose reconstruction emphasize a variety of ecological, physical, and biological techniques. Studies being conducted in Russia currently emphasize health effects in the workers and the population around the Mayak Industrial Association. As this production complex is an analogue of the US Hanford Works, advantage is being taken of the US experience in conducting a similar, recently completed dose-reconstruction study. In all cases the primary work on dose reconstruction is being performed by scientists from the former Soviet Union. US assistance is in the form of expert consultation and participation, exchange visits, provision of supplies and equipment, and other forms of local assistance.

  2. United States History: From Community to Society. Unit Two: Spanish and French Settlement of North America. Grade Six. Project Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    Colonization of America is the theme in this second social studies unit for 6th grade students. Reasons for colonization are briefly discussed. The unit then takes up the Spanish settlement of Mexico, the way in which the Spanish took their culture with them to the new world, differences in the way in which the Aztecs and the Spanish perceived the…

  3. Studying United States Constitutional Law: A Personal Experience of a Chinese Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Fengming

    1987-01-01

    A Chinese student of American constitutional law looks at problems and prospects in the application of the American constitutional experience in China and encourages more comparative study of consitutional law. (MSE)

  4. Four Eras of Study of College Student Suicide in the United States: 1920-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Allan J.

    2006-01-01

    Studies of college student suicide can be grouped into the following 4 eras: 1920-1960, 1960-1980, 1980-1990, and 1990-2004. The suicide rate for students has declined monotonically across these 4 eras, from 13.4 to 8.0 to 7.5 and, most recently, to 6.5. The decreasing proportion of men in the student populations studied largely accounts for this…

  5. 7 CFR 1216.30 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.30 United States..., and the territories and possessions of the United States. National Peanut Board...

  6. 7 CFR 1216.30 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.30 United States..., and the territories and possessions of the United States. National Peanut Board...

  7. 7 CFR 1216.30 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.30 United States..., and the territories and possessions of the United States. National Peanut Board...

  8. 7 CFR 1216.30 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.30 United States..., and the territories and possessions of the United States. National Peanut Board...

  9. 7 CFR 1221.32 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.32 United States... Puerto Rico, and the territories and possessions of the United States. Sorghum Promotion, Research,...

  10. 7 CFR 1221.32 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.32 United States... Puerto Rico, and the territories and possessions of the United States. Sorghum Promotion, Research,...

  11. 7 CFR 1221.32 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.32 United States... Puerto Rico, and the territories and possessions of the United States. Sorghum Promotion, Research,...

  12. 7 CFR 1221.32 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.32 United States... Puerto Rico, and the territories and possessions of the United States. Sorghum Promotion, Research,...

  13. Kidney Disease Statistics for the United States

    MedlinePlus

    ... also order print versions from our online catalog. Kidney Disease Statistics for the United States Page Content On ... for Vascular Access Acknowledgments The Growing Burden of Kidney Disease Kidney disease statistics for the United States convey ...

  14. TB in Children in the United States

    MedlinePlus

    ... Statistics Related Links TB in Children in the United States TB disease in children under 15 years ... BCG vaccine is not generally used in the United States, because of the low risk of infection ...

  15. 'Heat Dome' Heats Up United States

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_160028.html 'Heat Dome' Heats Up United States Much of the country to be under ... As a massive "heat dome" stretches across the United States this week, sending temperatures and humidity levels ...

  16. Reassessing the Effects of Early Adolescent Alcohol Use on Later Antisocial Behavior: A Longitudinal Study of Students in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State, United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Heerde, Jessica A.; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Smith, Rachel; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of early adolescent alcohol use on antisocial behavior was examined at 1- and 2-year follow-up in Washington State, United States, and Victoria, Australia. Each state used the same methods to survey statewide representative samples of students ("N" = 1,858, 52% female) in 2002 (Grade 7 [G7]), 2003 (Grade 8 [G8]), and 2004…

  17. Racial Variations in the Prevalence of Refractive Errors in the United States: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    PAN, CHEN-WEI; KLEIN, BARBARA E.K.; COTCH, MARY FRANCES; SHRAGER, SANDI; KLEIN, RONALD; FOLSOM, AARON; KRONMAL, RICHARD; SHEA, STEVEN J.; BURKE, GREGORY L.; SAW, SEANG-MEI; WONG, TIEN Y.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE To describe racial variations in the prevalence of refractive errors among adult white, Chinese, Hispanic, and black subjects in the United States. DESIGN Cross-sectional data from a prospective cohort study—the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). METHODS A total of 6000 adults aged 45 to 84 years living in the United States participated in the study. Refractive error was assessed, without cycloplegia, in both eyes of all participants using an autorefractor. After excluding eyes with cataract, cataract surgery, or previous refractive surgery, the eye with the larger absolute spherical equivalent (SE) value for each participant was used to classify refractive error. Any myopia was defined as SE of −1.0 diopters (D) or less; high myopia was defined as SE of −5.0 D or less; any hyperopia was defined as SE of +1.0 D or more; clinically significant hyperopia was defined as SE of +3.0 D or more. Astigmatism was defined as a cylinder value of +1.0 D or more. RESULTS After excluding 508 participants with cataracts in both eyes, 838 participants with cataract surgery, 90 participants with laser refractive surgery, and 134 participants who refused to remove their contact lenses for the refraction measurement, 4430 adults with refractive error assessment in at least 1 eye contributed to the analysis. The prevalence of myopia among MESA participants was 25.1%, with lowest rates in Hispanic participants (14.2%), followed by black (21.5%) and white participants (31.0%), and highest rates in Chinese participants (37.2%). The overall rates of high myopia and astigmatism were 4.6% and 45.0%, respectively, with Chinese subjects also having the highest rates of high myopia (11.8%) and astigmatism (53.4%). The overall prevalence of any hyperopia was 38.2% and clinically significant hyperopia was 6.1%, with Hispanic participants having the highest rates of hyperopia (50.2%) and clinically significant hyperopia (8.8%). In multivariate analyses adjusting for age

  18. Changing patterns of "drug abuse" in the United States: connecting findings from macro- and microepidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Sloboda, Zili

    2002-01-01

    Trend analyses of the U.S. monitoring data systems (the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse and the Monitoring the Future Study) and of the country's surveillance program, the Community Epidemiology Work Group (CEWG), indicate that several new "drug abuse" patterns have emerged over the past several years. For adolescents, drug use rates are converging for females and males, the mean age at which youngsters initiate drug use has declined, and more young adolescents are reporting using drugs. Furthermore, emergent new drug use patterns are being observed by the CEWG. The use of drugs such as Rohypnol, the injecting of crack-cocaine, and the spread of methamphetamines by new traffickers challenge our existing knowledge and understanding of drug use and its prevention. The National Institute on Drug Abuse has funded several large longitudinal studies that follow selected children and adolescents into their twenties, and some into their thirties. This research has been a rich source of information on the determinants of initiating and continuing drug abuse. Yet the findings from the surveys have not been well explored by the longitudinal studies, nor have the findings from the longitudinal studies been used in the surveys to better understand the observed changing trends in drug use patterns. This paper addresses six issues that have been observed from the findings from analyses of data from the surveys or macroepidemiologic studies. Information from the sub-population or micro-epidemiologic studies are reviewed for possible hypotheses to explain each issue. Suggestions for further research and implications for prevention also are presented. PMID:12180563

  19. USGS Capabilities to Study the Impacts of Drought and Climate Change in the Southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2009-01-01

    In the Southeast, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists are researching issues through technical studies of water availability and quality, geologic processes (marine, coastal, and terrestrial), geographic complexity, and biological resources. The USGS is prepared to tackle multifaceted questions associated with global climate change and resulting weather patterns such as drought through expert scientific skill, innovative research approaches, and accurate information technology.

  20. Motivation for Academically Gifted Students in Germany and the United States: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourgeois, Steven James

    2012-01-01

    Recent trends toward globalization have engendered interest in comparative educational systems, pointing toward more fundamental change beyond the current focus upon accountability measures. This phenomenological study considered the effect of extrinsic motivators on the intrinsic motivation of academically gifted students in Germany and the…

  1. A Contrastive Study of Cultural Diversity of Learning Styles between China and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jian, Hong

    2009-01-01

    This paper makes a contrastive study of learning styles between China and the U.S. from five aspects and recognizes that the differences are due to the influence of cultural diversity such as individualism and collectivism, Confucianism, utilitarianism and pragmatism etc.

  2. A Study of Teacher Training in the United States and Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ries, Francis; Yanes Cabrera, Cristina; González Carriedo, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Governments and multilateral organizations frequently employ comparative studies, which are receiving increased attention in the contemporary process of globalization. Within the assessment of educational policies, this comparison is used to define the parameters of quality and the models of efficiency, and it allows us to see the roles that…

  3. Business Language Studies in the United States: On Nomenclature, Context, Theory, and Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Michael Scott

    2012-01-01

    Although it has existed for many decades in the national curriculum of U.S. higher education, the study of languages for business purposes has lacked a more serviceable and academically communal name--a more rigorous toponymic identity--by which to identify itself as a theory-based field of scholarship. The intention here is to propose for…

  4. DIAGNOSTIC STUDY OF MESOSCALE ATMOSPHERIC PHYSICAL AND CHEMICALPROCESSES IN SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES MOUNTAINOUS LOCATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several field studies (cf., Fehsenfeld et al., 1983; Angle and Sandhu, 1989; Peake and Fong, 1990; Wunderli and Gehrig, 1990 Aneja et al., 1991; Aneja and Li, 1992) have indicated that the diurnal behavior of surface ozone concentrations is distinctly different at high-altitude m...

  5. Group Work for Korean Expatriate Women in the United States: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suh, Suhyun; Lee, Myoung-Suk

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of exploratory research with a group of seven Korean expatriate women. The study employed a modified Reality Therapy approach over eight meetings conducted by two professionally qualified leaders who also speak Korean. Qualitative research methods were used to analyze and describe the participants' experiences.…

  6. Studies of the Great Rural Tap Roots of Urban Poverty in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, T. Lynn

    The cause and effect of rural to urban migration is analyzed in this collection of studies completed from the early 1930's to the 1970's. The analysis revealed that urban problems have been closely related to the sociocultural transition going on in rural America--that the changes in life and labor in agriculture have influenced, if not caused,…

  7. Ethnic Identity: Formation and Transmission among Hispanics and Other Minorities. SUNY Series, United States Hispanic Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, Martha E., Ed.; Knight, George P., Ed.

    This book contains 14 research papers and reviews on the development of ethnic identity in childhood and adolescence and the transmission of ethnic identity within families and across family generations. The research focuses on Hispanic-Americans, particularly Mexican-Americans; some studies include Blacks, American Indians, Asian-Americans, and…

  8. Field of Study in College and Lifetime Earnings in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, ChangHwan; Tamborini, Christopher R.; Sakamoto, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding about the relationship between education and lifetime earnings often neglects differences by field of study. Utilizing data that match respondents in the Survey of Income and Program Participation to their longitudinal earnings records based on administrative tax information, we investigate the trajectories of annual earnings…

  9. Remote sensing studies of arid rangelands in the southwestern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA ARS Jornada Experimental Range (Jornada) in southern New Mexico and the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge (Sevilleta) in Central New Mexico are Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) sites that provide unique opportunities to study changing rangeland conditions using remote sensing technique...

  10. A Qualitative Study on Knowledge Transfer among Members of the United States Intelligence Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keshavarz-Nia, Navid R.

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to examine the relationship between social interaction and tacit knowledge transfer, as a dyadic exchange of critical knowledge between a Subject Matter Expert (SME) and a Knowledge Recipient (KR). Knowledge was defined as information and know-how, not merely as organized data or a system, but an active social process that was…

  11. Regulating Cross-Border Higher Education: A Case Study of the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Jason E.; Kinser, Kevin; Knox, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In an increasing number of nations, foreign education providers are becoming part of the educational landscape. This aspect of cross-border higher education raises many questions about how such activities are regulated, particularly the role of the importing and exporting governments. Drawing on a principal-agent framework, this study uses the…

  12. Empowering Teachers? An Exploratory Study of Personnel Practices in Virtual Charter Schools in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Dennis; Maranto, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Virtual charter schools have the potential to transform teacher personnel management. However, there is currently little evidence that they are doing so. This study examined how 89 teachers at two virtual charter schools perceived school personnel practices and leadership. Survey analysis indicated that teachers perceived personnel practices as…

  13. An updated cohort mortality study of workers at a northeastern United States petroleum refinery.

    PubMed

    Collingwood, K W; Raabe, G K; Wong, O

    1996-01-01

    An update of a cohort study of 4855 employees at a Paulsboro, New Jersey refinery was conducted to further examine mortality patterns. The earlier study investigated refinery workers employed for a minimum of 1 year between 1 January 1946 and 1 January 1979. The vital status of these workers was ascertained through 1979. The update extended enrollment in the study and vital status follow-up for an additional 8 years (1980-1987). As in the previous study, mortality from all causes [standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 87; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 83-91] was significantly lower than expected compared with the general population. Total cancer mortality was also lower than expected (SMR = 96; 95% CI: 86-106). A borderline significant mortality increase in prostatic cancer was found (SMR = 144; 95% CI: 106-190). This increase was similar to the nonsignificant increase reported in the original study (SMR = 135; 95% CI: 90-196). The excess was of comparable magnitude among white males and nonwhite males, although it was not significant for the latter. Detailed analysis indicated that the prostatic cancer was not likely to be related to employment at the refinery. Mortality from lymphatic and hematopoietic cancers was similar to the expected mortality. Mortality from overall leukemia was as expected and detailed analyses by specific cell type showed no increase. An increase in mortality occurred from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among male workers (SMR = 132; 95% CI: 74-217). The increase was not statistically significant and unlikely to be associated with refinery employment. Mortality from multiple myeloma among male employees was lower than expected (SMR = 74; 95% CI: 20-190). Mortality from asbestos-related diseases (pulmonary fibrosis, lung cancer, malignant mesothelioma) was also lower than expected among male workers. No cause-specific mortality was found to be associated with duration of employment at the refinery, including several causes which have been

  14. Classical Linguistics in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poultney, James W.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the history of classical linguistic studies in the United States. Cites many of the important American classicists from the nineteenth century to the present. Also gives the history of some scholarly organizations, including the Linguistic Society of America and the American Philological Association. (LMO)

  15. 31 CFR 800.225 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... States of America, the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth... their examples, an entity organized under the laws of the United States of America, one of the States... Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF...

  16. 31 CFR 800.225 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... States of America, the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth... their examples, an entity organized under the laws of the United States of America, one of the States... Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF...

  17. 31 CFR 800.225 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... States of America, the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth... their examples, an entity organized under the laws of the United States of America, one of the States... Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF...

  18. 31 CFR 800.225 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... States of America, the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth... their examples, an entity organized under the laws of the United States of America, one of the States... Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF...

  19. Water Energy Resources of the United States with Emphasis on Low Head/Low Power Resources: Appendix C - Validation Study

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Douglas

    2004-04-01

    Analytical assessments of the water energy resources in the 20 hydrologic regions of the United States were performed using state-of-the-art digital elevation models and geographic information system tools. The principal focus of the study was on low head (less than 30 ft)/low power (less than 1 MW) resources in each region. The assessments were made by estimating the power potential of all the stream segments in a region, which averaged 2 miles in length. These calculations were performed using hydrography and hydraulic heads that were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey’s Elevation Derivatives for National Applications dataset and stream flow predictions from a regression equation or equations developed specifically for the region. Stream segments excluded from development and developed hydropower were accounted for to produce an estimate of total available power potential. The total available power potential was subdivided into high power (1 MW or more), high head (30 ft or more)/low power, and low head/low power total potentials. The low head/low power potential was further divided to obtain the fractions of this potential corresponding to the operating envelopes of three classes of hydropower technologies: conventional turbines, unconventional systems, and microhydro (less than 100 kW). Summing information for all the regions provided total power potential in various power classes for the entire United States. Distribution maps show the location and concentrations of the various classes of low power potential. No aspect of the feasibility of developing these potential resources was evaluated.

  20. The Impact of School Suspension on Student Tobacco Use: A Longitudinal Study in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State, United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Heerde, Jessica A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2012-01-01

    Context: School suspension may have unintended consequences in contributing to problem behaviors, including dropping out from school, substance use, and antisocial behavior. Tobacco use is an early-onset problem behavior, but prospective studies of the effects of suspension on tobacco use are lacking. Method: Longitudinal school-based survey of…

  1. A study on the migration of students from Taiwan to the United States: a summary report.

    PubMed

    Tsai, H C

    1989-06-01

    This study examines the general characteristics and differentials in the status trends, processes, and consequences of student migration to the US, emphasizing micro analysis. The study uses 2 methods to collect data: 1) examination of secondary statistical data and literature and 2) interviews (in 1987) of 435 family members and close friends of emigrating students. The results show the following demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the emigrating students: 1) in 1988, about 6000 Taiwanese students were in the US; 2) the sex ratio has decreased in recent years to 6 males in every 10 students; and 3) in 1986, the return migration rate was about 20%. This study examines differentials in 1) motivation to study abroad; 2) employment and housing arrangements; 3) applications for permanent residence and citizenship; 4) marriage, family, and general socioeconomic conditions; and 5) interactions with family and society of origin. Major findings show that 1) the most important motivation to study abroad is to pursue professional knowledge, techniques, and advanced degrees, thereby to earn a high income; 2) about 40% receive doctoral degrees, while the rest obtain master's degrees; 3) most students experienced a time gap between graduation and finding a formal job; 4) more than 1/2 have worked no longer than 10 years; 5) most rent a room or share an apartment or house while in school; 6) after graduation, most attempt to buy a house; 7) most live in large cities; 8) most live in California; 9) about 1/2 have received US citizenship and 1/3 are permanent residents; 10) most who stay in the US are married and are satisfied with their socioeconomic conditions; 11) at 1st, most students receive financial assistance from their parents, but after graduation, over 1/2 send money to their parents; 12) only a few are offered permanent jobs in Taiwan. Suggestions for policy making include 1) developing a good graduate study program and residential environment in Taiwan to

  2. Promoters and barriers to work: a comparative study of refugees versus immigrants in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Jamil, Hikmet; Kanno, Samer S.; Abo-Shasha, Rami; AlSaqa, Mazen M.; Fakhouri, Monty; Arnetz, Bengt B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Immigrants in general and refugees in specific are at risk for unemployment with detrimental effects on health and social well-being. Prior work has identified a series of barriers preventing employment among immigrants and refugees. However, these studies either fail to have a comparison group, or it is improper. The objective of this study is to compare unemployment determinants among culturally comparable Iraqi immigrants and refugees. Method A convenience sample of Iraqis residing in Michigan, who came to US after 2003, were surveyed covering socio-demographic aspects, prior and current job history, perceived barriers and facilitators to get a job, discrimination, and health. Results results show that refugees were twice as likely to be unemployed. Lack of language skills was a bigger barrier among refugees. The results indicate that immigrants are more successful than refugees in securing a job, even after taking their pre-migration and professional experiences into consideration. Conclusion This comparative study showed that refugees were more likely to have a difficult time in successfully finding a job. More attention is needed to help minimize the barriers that refugees face in the employment process. PMID:25745518

  3. What can we learn from the study of Mexican-origin families in the United States?

    PubMed

    Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J

    2015-06-01

    Mexican-origin families are a large and rapidly increasing subgroup of the U.S. population, but they remain underrepresented in family scholarship. This paper introduces a special section of four papers on Mexican-origin families designed to contribute to the advancement of research on how cultural, family, and gender socialization processes unfold across key developmental periods and life transitions in this cultural context. Two longitudinal studies of Mexican-origin families provided the data for these four papers: (a) The Juntos Project, an 8-year longitudinal study of mothers, fathers, and adolescent sibling pairs in 246 Mexican-origin families; and (b) The Supporting MAMI Project, a study following 204 adolescent mothers and their mother figures from the third trimester of pregnancy through their young children's 5th birthdays. In this introductory paper, we highlight four themes, including (a) differential acculturation and reciprocal socialization, (b) interdependence in families, (c) the intersection of culture and gender, and (d) methodological issues. We end with suggestions for future research. PMID:25675994

  4. Preliminary report on seismic-reflection studies of crustal structure in the western, central, and southern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roller, J.C.; Strozier, O.P.; Jackson, W.H.; Healy, J.H.

    1963-01-01

    During 1963 the U.S. Geological Survey, with the assistance of United ElectroDynamics, Inc., recorded five separate reversed seismic profiles. In addition to these profiles, the U.S. Geological Survey participated in a seismic-calibration program for the DRIBBLE experiment at Tatum Dome, Mississippi, a 20,000-pound shot near Dexter, Missouri, and in a cooperative seismic experiment in the Lake Superior region. This work is a continuation of the program started in 1961; however, the emphasis has shifted from a detailed study of the earth's crust in the western United States to a study of crustal structure in various geologic environments including the Wyoming thrust belt, Colorado Plateau, Central Lowlands, the Gulf Coastal Plain, and the southern part of the Canadian Shield. The U.S. Geological Survey has now completed reversed seismic-refraction profiles in nine different geologic provinces. These data present a promising indication that it may be possible to predict the crustal structure in unexplored areas by considering the regional geologic and physiographic environment. The following Pn velocities have been determined: 8.2 km/sec in the Wyoming thrust belt, 7.9 km/sec in the Colorado Plateau, 8.1 km/sec in the Central Lowlands, and about 8.2 km/sec in the Gulf Coastal Plain. The data from the Lake Superior region have not yet been interpreted.

  5. 7 CFR 1210.315 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1210.315 Section 1210.315 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.315 United States. United States...

  6. Korean working mothers' parenting style in Korea and in the United STates: a qualitative comparative study.

    PubMed

    Im, Hyesang; Kim, Eunjung; Sung, Kyungsuk

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the similarities and differences of cultural influences on the parenting styles of Korean working mothers who live in South Korea versus Korean American working mothers living in the U.S. Four major themes were identified: (a) expression of affection for children, (b) parental control, (c) feelings for children, and (d) feelings for themselves. The findings indicate that acculturation to the American culture affected the Korean American working mothers to grant higher self-regulation to their children and to have more positive feelings for their children and themselves. PMID:24855813

  7. Economic Assessment of Zoonotic Diseases: An Illustrative Study of Rift Valley Fever in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pendell, D L; Lusk, J L; Marsh, T L; Coble, K H; Szmania, S C

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluates the economic consequences of a Rift Valley Fever outbreak, a virus that spreads from livestock to humans, often through mosquitoes. Developing a 'one health' economic framework, economic impacts on agricultural producers and consumers, government costs of response, costs and disruptions to non-agricultural activities in the epidemiologically impacted region, and human health costs (morbidity and mortality) are estimated. We find the agricultural firms bear most of the negative economic impacts, followed by regional non-agricultural firms, human health and government. Further, consumers of agricultural products benefit from small outbreaks due to bans on agricultural exports. PMID:25052324

  8. Perspectives on animal welfare legislation and study considerations for field-oriented studies of raptors in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boal, C.W.; Wallace, M.C.; Strobel, B.

    2010-01-01

    Concern for the welfare of animals used in research and teaching has increased over the last 50 yr. Animal welfare legislation has resulted in guidelines for the use of animals in research, but the guidelines can be problematic because they focus on animals used in laboratory and agriculture research. Raptor biologists can be constrained by guidelines, restrictions, and oversight that were not intended for field research methods or wild animals in the wild or captivity. Field researchers can be further hampered by not understanding animal welfare legislation, who is subject to oversight, or that oversight is often provided by a committee consisting primarily of scientists who work with laboratory animals. Raptor researchers in particular may experience difficulty obtaining approval due to use of various species-specific trapping and handling methods. We provide a brief review of animal welfare legislation and describe the basic components and responsibilities of an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) in the United States. We identify topics in raptor research that are especially problematic to obtaining IACUC approval, and we provide insight on how to address these issues. Finally, we suggest that all raptor researchers, regardless of legal requirements, abide by the spirit of the animal welfare principles. Failure to do so may bring about further regulatory and permitting restrictions. ?? 2010 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  9. Four eras of study of college student suicide in the United States: 1920-2004.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Allan J

    2006-01-01

    Studies of college student suicide can be grouped into the following 4 eras: 1920-1960, 1960-1980, 1980-1990, and 1990-2004. The suicide rate for students has declined monotonically across these 4 eras, from 13.4 to 8.0 to 7.5 and, most recently, to 6.5. The decreasing proportion of men in the student populations studied largely accounts for this decline. Since 1960, the suicide rate for students has consistently been about half the rate of the general US population, matched for age and gender. This highly favorable relative suicide rate is the result of firearms having been effectively banned from campuses. Additional population-oriented approaches warrant implementation to further reduce student-suicide rates. Approaches focused on high-risk groups also hold promise. These findings are based upon and may be most valid for the 70% of all students who attend 4-year colleges and universities full time. PMID:16789651

  10. Predictors of academic performance for applicants to an international dental studies program in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pitigoi-Aron, Gabriela; King, Patricia A; Chambers, David W

    2011-12-01

    The number of U.S. and Canadian dental schools offering programs for dentists with degrees from other countries leading to the D.D.S. or D.M.D. degree has increased recently. This fact, along with the diversity of educational systems represented by candidates for these programs, increases the importance of identifying valid admissions predictors of success in international dental student programs. Data from 148 students accepted into the international dental studies program at the University of the Pacific from 1994 through 2004 were analyzed. Dependent variables were comprehensive cumulative GPA at the end of both the first and second years of the two-year program. The Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) and both Parts I and II of the National Board Dental Examination (NBDE) were significant positive predictors of success. Performance on laboratory tests of clinical skill in operative dentistry and in fixed prosthodontics and ratings from interviewers were not predictive of overall success in the program. Although this study confirms the predictive value of written tests such as the TOEFL and NBDE, it also contributes to the literature documenting inconsistent results regarding other types of predictors. It may be the case that characteristics of individual programs or features of the applicant pools for each may require use of admissions predictors that are unique to schools. PMID:22184596

  11. United States military service members and their tattoos: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Lande, R Gregory; Bahroo, Bhagwan A; Soumoff, Alyssa

    2013-08-01

    To explore the characteristics of military service tattoos a descriptive study was conducted at Walter Reed Army Medical Center to collect information from a convenience sample. An investigator-developed questionnaire provided the data for this study. Over the ensuing 12 month-period the researchers collected 126 questionnaires. Typical respondents were enlisted men with at least one deployment to an area of combat operations. Among the respondents, 57% acquired their tattoos before their deployment. One-quarter of the respondents reported only one tattoo, leaving the majority with multiple tattoos. Men received their first tattoo at an earlier age than women. The most common tattoo listed a person's name. Respondents did not regret their tattoos and rarely acquired the body art under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Little evidence was found to support a connection between tattoos and deployment. Few regretted their decisions and most all approached the tattoo experience free of any mind-altering substance. All this seems to suggest that military tattoos are a well-accepted means of self-expression. PMID:23929056

  12. A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF PATHOLOGIC FINDINGS IN CAPTIVE ROCK HYRAX (PROCAVIA CAPENSIS) IN THE UNITED STATES.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Tamara N; Garner, Michael M; Bonar, Christopher J

    2015-12-01

    A retrospective examination of gross and histologic reports was performed to find common lesions in young and adult captive rock hyrax ( Procavia capensis ) from multiple zoo populations. One hundred and thirty-seven reports were analyzed from specimens that were submitted to Northwest ZooPath from 1997 to 2013. Histologic findings from necropsy and biopsy reports and causes of mortality only from necropsy reports were compiled to determine the most common findings. Within the study population, 41 (30%) were male, 62 (45%) were female, and the remainder (34, 25%) were of undetermined sex. Of the 111 necropsies, 87 (78%) died naturally, and 24 (22%) were euthanatized. There were 26 (19%) biopsies with no known status of the animal. The most frequent causes of death or reason for euthanasia were bacterial septicemia (n = 29, 21%) and degenerative cardiomyopathy (n = 29, 21%). The other most prevalent lesions were hemosiderosis (n = 55, 40%), pancreatic islet and interstitial fibrosis (n = 36, 26%), pneumonia of undetermined cause (n = 26, 19%), enteritis/colitis (n = 24, 18%), and renal tubular necrosis (n = 20, 15%). In many animals of this study population (n = 115, 84%), multiple lesions affecting multiple organs were found. PMID:26667536

  13. Community organizing among the elderly poor in the United States: a case study.

    PubMed

    Minkler, M

    1992-01-01

    This case study demonstrates the role of community organizing as a vehicle for enhancing individual and community-level empowerment. Building on social support theory, Freire's "education for critical consciousness," and the principles and strategies of community organization practice, the 12-year-old Tenderloin Senior Organizing Project reflects the World Health Organization definition of health promotion as a means of helping individuals and communities to take increasing control over the factors influencing their health. Through the Project, low-income elders have successfully identified and addressed shared problems in such areas as crime and safety, undernutrition, and tenants rights. They further have developed ongoing tenants' associations and other community-based organizations that have provided continuity over time and contributed to the development of a "competent community." Problems in areas such as funding, evaluation, and volunteer burnout are discussed, as are the potentials for project replication in other settings. PMID:1601548

  14. Mercury study report to Congress. Volume 2. An inventory of anthropogenic mercury emissions in the United States. Sab review draft

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, M.H.

    1996-06-01

    The volume of the draft Mercury Study Report to Congress describes mercury emissions from anthropogenic emissions summary estimates national mercury emissions rates by source category for area and point sources including combustion, manufacturing and miscellaneous point sources. Combustion point sources that dominate anthropogenic emissions are these: medical waste incineration, municipal waste combustion, utility boilers, and commercial/industrial boilers. National emission estimates are based on data from a 1990-1993 time-frame. Within the United States, numerous industrial and manufacturing processes contribute mercury emissions to the atmosphere. Sources of uncerainty and variability in these emissions categories are described in this volume. Data needed to improve these estimates are described in this volume.

  15. Conflicts and natural disaster management: a comparative study of flood control in the Republic of Korea and the United States.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jibum

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyse the conflicts that arise among major stakeholders during the process of disaster management and to suggest policy recommendations for improving disaster management systems. It describes several important conflict cases that have occurred among major stakeholders, such as governments, private-sector entities, and non-governmental organisations, during natural disaster management. In addition, it probes the similarities and the differences between such conflicts in the Republic of Korea and the United States. The differences between them may originate from a range of factors, such as the disaster itself, cultural features, management practices, and government organisation. However, the conflicts also are very similar in some ways, as the motivations and the behaviour of stakeholders during a disaster are alike in both countries. Based on this comparison, the study presents some common and important implications for successful disaster management practices in Korea and the US, as well as in many other nations around the world. PMID:26577979

  16. Commercial support of continuing medical education in the United States: the politics of doubt, the value of studies.

    PubMed

    Mazmanian, Paul E

    2009-01-01

    The continuing medical education (CME) system of the United States is being questioned for its integrity. Leaders in medicine and in government are asking about the effectiveness of CME, the influence of commercial support, and the value of CME credit and accreditation in assuring CME courses offer valid content, free of commercial bias. Nationally accredited CME organizations received $1.2B in commercial support during 2007, much of it associated with CME in formats shown to be less effective for improving clinical behavior and patient outcomes. There are few reliable data to respond to careful criticism. In 2007, U.S. expenditures for health exceed $2.2 trillion, with physicians responsible for clinical decisions that account for a large part of the spending. Approximately $4013 was spent per physician on CME. Rigorous studies are required to describe and explain relationships of CME accreditation and credit to better education and improved patient outcomes. PMID:19530200

  17. A study of changes in foundation insulation levels in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, J.E. ); Voss, M.K. )

    1992-10-01

    For almost 10 years the US Department of Energy (DOE) has sponsored a small research effort with. the objective of working with the building industry to see that cost-effective foundation insulation levels are installed in all US buildings. One of the first discoveries in 1983--1984 was that less than 5% of the existing buildings had foundation insulation and less than 30% of new construction included foundation insulation. After producing foundation handbooks, actively working with energy code and standards groups (ASHRAE and Council of American Building Officials: Model Energy Code Committee) conducting told experiments, and developing computer models for predicting energy savings has any measurable progress been made toward the fulfillment of this DOE objective Also, in order to derive maximum energy savings impact for this ongoing research activity, market feedback of progress toward attainment of the objective is needed. Using the network of building experts available to the Building Thermal Envelope Systems and Materials program, a short mail survey was developed, administered, and results analyzed. This study concludes that foundation insulation usage on new residential buildings has increased from 1982 levels of around 25% to 1992 levels of around 50%. Government handbooks and recent changes in local enforced codes and standards are identified as major contributors to this improvement. Progress has been made but more is needed to capture the remaining 40% of the foundations that should be insulated. Several issues are reported as obstacles that need to be overcome to capture the remainder of the foundation market.

  18. A study of changes in foundation insulation levels in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, J.E.; Voss, M.K.

    1992-10-01

    For almost 10 years the US Department of Energy (DOE) has sponsored a small research effort with. the objective of working with the building industry to see that cost-effective foundation insulation levels are installed in all US buildings. One of the first discoveries in 1983--1984 was that less than 5% of the existing buildings had foundation insulation and less than 30% of new construction included foundation insulation. After producing foundation handbooks, actively working with energy code and standards groups (ASHRAE and Council of American Building Officials: Model Energy Code Committee) conducting told experiments, and developing computer models for predicting energy savings has any measurable progress been made toward the fulfillment of this DOE objective? Also, in order to derive maximum energy savings impact for this ongoing research activity, market feedback of progress toward attainment of the objective is needed. Using the network of building experts available to the Building Thermal Envelope Systems and Materials program, a short mail survey was developed, administered, and results analyzed. This study concludes that foundation insulation usage on new residential buildings has increased from 1982 levels of around 25% to 1992 levels of around 50%. Government handbooks and recent changes in local enforced codes and standards are identified as major contributors to this improvement. Progress has been made but more is needed to capture the remaining 40% of the foundations that should be insulated. Several issues are reported as obstacles that need to be overcome to capture the remainder of the foundation market.

  19. Structure, process and annual intensive care unit mortality across 69 centers: United States Critical Illness and Injury Trials Group Critical Illness Outcomes Study (USCIITG-CIOS)

    PubMed Central

    Checkley, William; Martin, Greg S; Brown, Samuel M; Chang, Steven Y; Dabbagh, Ousama; Fremont, Richard D; Girard, Timothy D; Rice, Todd W; Howell, Michael D; Johnson, Steven B; O'Brien, James; Park, Pauline K; Pastores, Stephen M; Patil, Namrata T; Pietropaoli, Anthony P; Putman, Maryann; Rotello, Leo; Siner, Jonathan; Sajid, Sahul; Murphy, David J; Sevransky, Jonathan E

    2014-01-01

    Objective Hospital-level variations in structure and process may affect clinical outcomes in intensive care units (ICUs). We sought to characterize the organizational structure, processes of care, use of protocols and standardized outcomes in a large sample of U.S. ICUs. Design We surveyed 69 ICUs about organization, size, volume, staffing, processes of care, use of protocols, and annual ICU mortality. Setting ICUs participating in the United States Critical Illness and Injury Trials Group Critical Illness Outcomes Study (USCIITG-CIOS). Measurements and Main Results We characterized structure and process variables across ICUs, investigated relationships between these variables and annual ICU mortality, and adjusted for illness severity using APACHE II. Ninety-four ICU directors were invited to participate in the study and 69 ICUs (73%) were enrolled, of which 25 (36%) were medical, 24 were surgical (35%) and 20 (29%) were of mixed type, and 64 (93%) were located in teaching hospitals with a median number of 5 trainees per ICU. Average annual ICU mortality was 10.8%, average APACHE II score was 19.3, 58% were closed units and 41% had a 24-hour in-house intensivist. In multivariable linear regression adjusted for APACHE II and multiple ICU structure and process factors, annual ICU mortality was lower in surgical ICUs than in medical ICUs (5.6% lower, 95% CI 2.4%–8.8%) or mixed ICUs (4.5% lower, 95% CI 0.4%–8.7%). We also found a lower annual ICU mortality among ICUs that had a daily plan of care review (5.8% lower, 95% CI 1.6%–10.0%) and a lower bed-to-nurse ratio (1.8% lower when the ratio decreased from 2:1 to 1.5:1; 95% CI 0.25%–3.4%). In contrast, 24-hour intensivist coverage (p=0.89) and closed ICU status (p=0.16) were not associated with a lower annual ICU mortality. Conclusions In a sample of 69 ICUs, a daily plan of care review and a lower bed-to-nurse ratio were both associated with a lower annual ICU mortality. In contrast to 24-hour intensivist

  20. Prospective study of central nervous system function in amateur boxers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Stewart, W F; Gordon, B; Selnes, O; Bandeen-Roche, K; Zeger, S; Tusa, R J; Celentano, D D; Shechter, A; Liberman, J; Hall, C

    1994-03-15

    Active amateur boxers from six US cities were studied in 1986-1990 to determine whether changes in central nervous system function over a 2-year interval (as evaluated by tests of perceptual/motor function, attention/concentration, psychomotor speed, memory, visuoconstructional ability, and mental control, measures of ataxia and brain-stem auditory evoked potentials, and electroencephalography) were associated with degree of participation in amateur boxing. A total of 484 participants were examined at baseline; 393 (81.2%) were examined 2 years later. At baseline, 22% of the participants had not yet competed in a bout; 9% had never competed in a bout by the second examination. Exposure was defined by number bouts, sparring-years, and sparring with a professional boxer. Very few statistically significant odds ratios were found between exposure and change in function. Significant tests of trend were found between the total number of bouts incurred before the baseline examination and changes in memory, visuoconstructional ability, and perceptual/motor ability. The significant trends for change in function in the latter two domains were primarily due to performance on the Block Design test, which was common to both test domains. No statistically significant associations were found between more recent bouts (after the baseline visit) and any functional domains, nor between bouts or sparring and any other outcome measures. The significant trends with past bouts, but not more recent bouts, may reflect the need for a long latency period before effects are manifest. Alternatively, given changes in safety practices, the observed association may be related to more severe exposure from bouts that occurred before 1986, when new safety measures were imposed. PMID:8172169

  1. Climate Change and the Extension of the Ozone Season in the United States: Extreme Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zeng, T.; Song, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Summer (June-September) is usually considered as the season for high ozone. Owing to the emission reduction, long-term EPA surface ozone records show a decreasing trend during the summer over the US. However, the records also reveal increasing trends of concentration and variation of ozone during the spring and the fall in many regions of the US, indicating an extension of the ozone season. Here we analyze two cases of high monthly mean extremes over the Southeast: May 2007 and October 2011.We conduct a series of model simulation using the Regional chEmical trAnsport Model (REAM). Although doing a reasonably good job in general, the regional chemical transport model tends to underestimate the ozone by ~ 10 ppbv when relative humidity is low, indicating that a mechanism linking ozone and relative humidity is not represented in the model. The correlation between ozone and relative humidity is verified using 30-year ozone and meteorological data. Previous phytological studies in a controlled environment suggest that the stress under low humidity can stimulate trees to release more biogenic isoprene and this mechanism is not yet included in current biogenic emission algorithms such as MEGAN. Inclusion of this mechanism in the REAM model improves the model performance in the extreme years. We suggest that a drier condition in the future may be a key factor for the extension of the ozone season through the feedback of relative humidity on isoprene emissions. This feedback will also affect the production of secondary organic aerosols from isoprene oxidation.

  2. Learning Achievement Packages in Social Studies - History: America a Unique Country; The Constitution; Westward Expansion of the United States; The American Indian. Calexico Intercultural Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigliano, Ed; And Others

    In this publication are 4 social studies curriculum units aimed towards meeting the learning problems of students with special language handicaps in grades 7 through 11. Topics are: (1) America--A Unique Country; (2) The Constitution; (3) Westward Expansion of the United States; and (4) The American Indian. The Constitution and American Indian…

  3. Feasibility study of porous media compressed air energy storage in South Carolina, United States of America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvis, Alexandra-Selene

    Renewable Energy Systems (RES) such as solar and wind, are expected to play a progressively significant role in electricity production as the world begins to move away from an almost total reliance on nonrenewable sources of power. In the US there is increasing investment in RES as the Department of Energy (DOE) expands its wind power network to encompass the use of offshore wind resources in places such as the South Carolina (SC) Atlantic Coastal Plain. Because of their unstable nature, RES cannot be used as reliable grid-scale power sources unless power is somehow stored during excess production and recovered at times of insufficiency. Only two technologies have been cited as capable of storing renewable energy at this scale: Pumped Hydro Storage and Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES). Both CAES power plants in existence today use solution-mined caverns as their storage spaces. This project focuses on exploring the feasibility of employing the CAES method to store excess wind energy in sand aquifers. The numerical multiphase flow code, TOUGH2, was used to build models that approximate subsurface sand formations similar to those found in SC. Although the aquifers of SC have very low dips, less than 10, the aquifers in this study were modeled as flat, or having dips of 00. Cycle efficiency is defined here as the amount of energy recovered compared to the amount of energy injected. Both 2D and 3D simulations have shown that the greatest control on cycle efficiency is the volume of air that can be recovered from the aquifer after injection. Results from 2D simulations showed that using a dual daily peak load schedule instead of a single daily peak load schedule increased cycle efficiency as do the following parameters: increased anisotropy, screening the well in the upper portions of the aquifer, reduced aquifer thickness, and an initial water displacement by the continuous injection of air for at least 60 days. Aquifer permeability of 1x10-12 m2 produced a cycle

  4. Two-Way Interpretation about Climate Change: Preliminary Results from a Study in Select Units of the United States National Park System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forist, B. E.; Knapp, D.

    2014-12-01

    Much interpretation in units of the National Park System, conducted by National Park Service (NPS) rangers and partners today is done in a didactic, lecture style. This "one-way" communication runs counter to research suggesting that long-term impacts of park interpretive experiences must be established through direct connections with the visitor. Previous research in interpretation has suggested that interpretive experiences utilizing a "two-way" dialogue approach are more successful at facilitating long-term memories than "one-way" approaches where visitors have few, if any, opportunities to ask questions, offer opinions, or share interests and experiences. Long-term memories are indicators of connections to places and resources. Global anthropogenic change poses critical threats to NPS sites, resources, and visitor experiences. As climate change plays an ever-expanding role in public, political, social, economic, and environmental discourse it stands to reason that park visitors may also be interested in engaging in this discourse. Indeed, NPS Director Jonathan Jarvis stated in the agency's Climate Change Action Plan 2012 - 2014 that, "We now know through social science conducted in parks that our visitors are looking to NPS staff for honest dialogue about this critical issue." Researchers from Indiana University will present preliminary findings from a multiple park study that assessed basic visitor knowledge and the impact of two-way interpretation related to climate change. Observations from park interpretive program addressing climate change will be presented. Basic visitor knowledge of climate change impacts in the select parks as well as immediate and long-term visitor recollections will be presented. Select units of the National Park System in this research included Cape Cod National Seashore, Cape Hatteras National Seashore, North Cascades National Park, Shenandoah National Park, and Zion National Park.

  5. United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group/Civil Engineering Squadron Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Remedial investigation and feasibility study. Bullen Point Radar Installation, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karmi, S.

    1996-03-18

    The United States Air Force (Air Force) has prepared this Remedial investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) report as part of the Installation Restoration Program (IRP) to present results of RI/FS activities at five sites at the Bullen Point radar installation. The IRP provides for investigating, quantifying, and remediating environmental contamination from past waste management activities at Air Force installations throughout the United States.

  6. Does school suspension affect subsequent youth nonviolent antisocial behavior? A longitudinal study of students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States.

    PubMed

    Hemphill, Sheryl A; Kotevski, Aneta; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Smith, Rachel; Toumbourou, John W; Catalano, Richard F

    2013-12-01

    School suspension has been not only associated with negative behaviours but is predictive of future poor outcomes. The current study investigates a) whether school suspension is a unique predictor of youth nonviolent antisocial behaviour (NVAB) relative to other established predictors, and b) whether the predictors of NVAB are similar in Australia and the United States (U.S.). The data analysed here draws on two state-wide representative samples of Grade 7 and 9 students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, U.S., resurveyed at 12-month follow-up (N = 3,677, 99% retention). School suspension did not uniquely predict NVAB in the final model. The predictors of NVAB, similar across states, included previous student NVAB; current alcohol and tobacco use; poor family management; association with antisocial friends; and low commitment to school. An implication of the findings is that U.S. evidence-based prevention programs targeting the influences investigated here could be trialled in Australia. PMID:24860192

  7. Effects of Early Adolescent Alcohol Use on Mid-Adolescent School Performance and Connection: A Longitudinal Study of Students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Heerde, Jessica A.; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This article examines the effect of early adolescent alcohol use on mid-adolescent school suspension, truancy, commitment, and academic failure in Washington State, United States, and Victoria, Australia. Also of interest was whether associations remain after statistically controlling for other factors known to predict school outcomes.…

  8. The Impact of Invisibility on the Health of Migrant Farmworkers in the Southeastern United States: A Case Study from Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Bail, Kari M.; Foster, Jennifer; Dalmida, Safiya George; Kelly, Ursula; Howett, Maeve; Ferranti, Erin P.; Wold, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Migrant farmworkers represent one of the most marginalized and underserved populations in the United States. Acculturation theory cannot be easily mapped onto the transnational experience of migrant farmworkers, who navigate multiple physical and cultural spaces yearly, and who are not recognized by the state they constitute, “the Citizen's Other” (Kerber, 2009). This paper utilizes narrative analysis of a case study to illustrate, through the relationship of the narrator to migrant farmworkers and years of participant observation by the coauthors, how isolation from family and community, as well as invisibility within institutions, affect the health and well-being of migrant farmworkers in southeastern Georgia. Invisibility of farmworkers within institutions, such as health care, the educational system, social services, domestic violence shelters, and churches contribute to illness among farmworkers. The dominant American discourse surrounding immigration policy addresses the strain immigrants put on the social systems, educational system, and the health care system. Nurses who work with farmworkers are well positioned to bring the subjective experience of farmworkers to light, especially for those engaged with socially just policies. Those who contribute to the abundant agricultural produce that feeds Americans deserve the recognition upon which social integration depends. PMID:22830007

  9. Resolving Crust and Uppermost Mantle Structure beneath the Northeastern Corner of the United States Using Receiver Function Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, H.

    2015-12-01

    Teleseismic P-wave receiver functions are calculated with the water-level deconvolution method to image structure of the crust and uppermost mantle in the northeastern United States. Waveforms of teleseismic events from 1995-2014 are analyzed for a total of about 90 broadband seismic stations, including the EarthScope Transportable Array and long-running stations. A consistent positive Ps phase, presumably converted at the Moho interface, can be clearly observed at most stations. The Ps arrival time varies within 3-5.5 s, showing an increase from the passive continental margin to the eastern North American craton. Correspondingly, the crust thickens from 27 km to 45 km landward as inferred from the forward modeling of stacked radial receiver functions. A sharp Moho offset is observed across the state border from New York to Vermont and Massachusetts, which is expected at the transition from the older Proterozoic Grenville Province to the younger accreted Appalachian terranes. Nevertheless, no such pattern is observed beneath the northern part of the study area. A clear negative Ps phase is detected within a range of 6.5-9.5 s at most long-running broadband stations, which requires a sharp velocity decreasing with depth and may be generated at the base of the lithosphere. The arrival time of the negative phase gradually increases toward northwest, indicating the deepening of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary.

  10. Financial Planning for Study in the United States. A Guide for Students from Other Countries. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, New York, NY.

    A guide for foreign students who need information on the cost of higher education in the United States is presented. Responsibilities of foreign students in meeting these costs are addressed, along with types of financial help that may be available to them from colleges and other sources, applying for financial aid, and planning the financial…

  11. Housing Arrangements among a National Sample of Adults with Chronic Schizophrenia Living in the United States: A Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Jack; Stroup, T. Scott; Rosenheck, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    There has been no recent national description of where and with whom people with chronic mental illness reside. Using data from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness, the living arrangements of 1,446 clients with schizophrenia from 57 sites throughout the United States were characterized over 1 year. At baseline, 46% of…

  12. A View from Within: A Case Study of Chinese Heritage Community Language Schools in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xueying, Ed.

    A collection of essays on Chinese heritage community language schools in the United States addresses these topics: the schools, their curricula, and organization (Theresa Hsu Chao); school administration and management (Chao, Lydia Chen, Edward Chang); academic curriculum (Pay-Fen Serena Wang); non-heritage Chinese learners: practices and…

  13. The Impact of Host-Country Schooling on Earnings. A Study of Male Immigrants in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratsberg, Bernt; Ragan, James F., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Immigrants who acquire U.S. schooling earn higher wages than other immigrants. Returns to years of non-U.S. schooling are higher for those who complete schooling in the United States. For those without U.S. schooling, returns are higher for immigrants from highly developed countries or countries where English is an official language. (Contains 34…

  14. Alcohol and Drug Prevention Curriculum Resource Guide Grades 10-12: Social Studies--United States History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Alcohol and Drug Defense Program.

    This curriculum resource guide on alcohol and drug prevention provides suggested activities for teachers of grades 10 through 12. Three integrated learning activities for United States history and healthful living are presented. The history goals are understanding that the years since 1945 have been years of great changes, and learning to organize…

  15. Fundamental Fraction Knowledge of Preservice Elementary Teachers: A Cross-National Study in the United States and Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Fenqjen; Lo, Jane-Jane; Leu, Yuh-Chyn

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the similarities as well as the differences of fundamental fraction knowledge owned by preservice elementary teachers from the United States (N = 89) and Taiwan (N = 85). To this end, we examined and compared their performance on an instrument including 15 multiple-choice test items. The items were categorized…

  16. Survey II of Public and Leadership Attitudes Toward Nuclear Power Development in the United States. Study No. 2628.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris (Louis) and Associates, Inc., New York, NY.

    This publication details a national survey done by Louis Harris and Associates, similar to one done in 1975, to assess attitudes toward nuclear power in the United States. The survey consisted of three parts. The first part was in-person, door-to-door interviews with 1,597 randomly selected households nationwide. The second part was 309…

  17. Urban Growth and Decline in the United States: A Study of Migration's Effects in Two Cities. Paper Series No. 5234.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Peter A.

    The United States is a highly urbanized nation with space in abundance, yet large portions of its national territory are emptying out. The counterpart of this pervasive population decline is a highly selective pattern of growth, conferred by a national system of migration flows that has increasingly favored a certain few metropolitan areas. This…

  18. Computer Science Teacher Professional Development in the United States: A Review of Studies Published between 2004 and 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menekse, Muhsin

    2015-01-01

    While there has been a remarkable interest to make computer science a core K-12 academic subject in the United States, there is a shortage of K-12 computer science teachers to successfully implement computer sciences courses in schools. In order to enhance computer science teacher capacity, training programs have been offered through teacher…

  19. Self-Esteem and Academic Achievement: A Comparative Study of Adolescent Students in England and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Margaret Zoller; Gerard, Jean M.

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing mixed methodology, this paper investigates the relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement for young adolescents within two Western cultural contexts: the United States and England. Quantitative and qualitative data from 86 North American and 86 British adolescents were utilized to examine the links between self-esteem and…

  20. Quebec and the United States: A Cross-Cultural Case Study of International Trade and International Business Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughrin-Sacco, Steven J.

    This paper comments on the lack of attention given to cross-cultural relationships between the United States and Quebec, Canada despite the growing trade relationship, and offers information on Quebec to use as cross-cultural examples in international business communication classes. The paper dispels myths concerning Quebec and its inhabitants,…

  1. Legal Protections and Advocacy for Contingent or "Casual" Workers in the United States: A Case Study in Day Labor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    Contingent, non-standard or "casual" work is present in large numbers in virtually every sector of the United States economy. Staffing strategies that use subcontracted or contingent work--strategies that once characterized only some low-wage workers such as garment and agriculture--have now spread to virtually every area of industry, including…

  2. A Comparative Study of Early Intervention in Zimbabwe, Poland, China, India, and the United States of America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Yanhui; Richey, Dean

    2005-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces Early Intervention (EI) issues in five countries including Zimbabwe, Poland, People's Republic of China (PRC), India, and the United States of America (USA). In the overview section the national background, including religious, socio-economic development, and political systems, its policies, laws and acts, are…

  3. International Comparisons to Assess Effects of Payment and Regulatory Changes in the United States on Anemia Practice in Patients on Hemodialysis: The Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Douglas S; Bieber, Brian A; Pisoni, Ronald L; Li, Yun; Morgenstern, Hal; Akizawa, Tadao; Jacobson, Stefan H; Locatelli, Francesco; Port, Friedrich K; Robinson, Bruce M

    2016-07-01

    For years, erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) use among patients on dialysis was much higher in the United States than in Europe or Japan. Sweeping changes to dialysis reimbursement and regulatory policies for ESA in the United States in 2011 were expected to reduce ESA use and hemoglobin levels. We used the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) data from 7129 patients in 223 in-center hemodialysis facilities (average per month) to estimate and compare time trends in ESA dose and hemoglobin levels among patients on hemodialysis in the United States, Germany, Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom, and Japan. From 2010 to 2013, substantial declines in ESA use and hemoglobin levels occurred in the United States but not in other DOPPS countries. Between August of 2010 and April of 2013, mean weekly ESA dose in the United States decreased 40.4% for black patients and 38.0% for nonblack patients; mean hemoglobin decreased from 11.5 g/dl in black patients and 11.4 g/dl in nonblack patients to 10.6 g/dl in both groups. In 2010 and 2013, adjusted weekly ESA doses per kilogram were 41% and 11% lower, respectively, in patients in Europe and 60% and 18% lower, respectively, in patients in Japan than in nonblack patients in the United States. Adjusted hemoglobin levels in 2010 and 2013 were 0.07 g/dl lower and 0.56 g/dl higher, respectively, in patients in Europe and 0.93 and 0.01 g/dl lower, respectively, in patients in Japan than in nonblack patients in the United States. In conclusion, ESA dosing reductions in the United States likely reflect efforts in response to changes in reimbursement policy and regulatory guidance. PMID:26582402

  4. 31 CFR 510.309 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false United States. 510.309 Section 510.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 510.309 United States. The term United...

  5. Dissemination of the Look AHEAD Lifestyle Intervention in the United States Air Force: Study Rationale, Design and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Krukowski, Rebecca A.; Hare, Marion E.; Talcott, Gerald W.; Johnson, Karen C.; Richey, Phyllis A.; Kocak, Mehmet; Balderas, Jennifer; Colvin, Lauren; Keller, Patrick L.; Waters, Teresa M.; Klesges, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Despite an increase in overweight and obesity similar to the civilian population, there have been few randomized controlled trials examining behavioral weight management interventions in the military settings. This paper describes the design, intervention development and analysis plan of the Fit Blue study, a randomized controlled behavioral weight loss trial taking place in the United States Air Force. This study compares two adapted versions of the efficacious Look AHEAD Intensive Lifestyle Intervention (ILI), a counselor-initiated condition and a self-paced condition. Also described are the unique steps required when conducting military-based health promotion research and adaptations made to the Look AHEAD intervention to accommodate the military environment. To our knowledge, this is the first translation of the Look AHEAD ILI in the military setting and one of the first translations of the ILI in general. If successful, this intervention could be disseminated to the entire U.S. Military as this project is designed to overcome the barriers and utilize the facilitators for weight loss that are unique to a military population. Programs validated in military populations can have a major public health impact given that with 1.4 million active duty personnel, the Department of Defense is the nation’s largest employer. However, while this intervention is designed for a military population and there are unique aspects of the military that may enhance weight loss interventions, the diversity of the study population should help inform obesity efforts in both civilian and military settings. PMID:25545025

  6. The Influence of the September 11, 2001 Attacks and Related Events Years Later on the Expectations and Experiences of Saudi Undergraduate Students Studying in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaleb, Sarah Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether or not undergraduate Saudi Arabian students currently studying in the United States still expect and experience negativity more than a decade after the events related to September 11, 2001. The study target population is all undergraduate Saudi students currently studying through the Saudi Arabian…

  7. Estimating daily air temperature across the Southeastern United States using high-resolution satellite data: A statistical modeling study.

    PubMed

    Shi, Liuhua; Liu, Pengfei; Kloog, Itai; Lee, Mihye; Kosheleva, Anna; Schwartz, Joel

    2016-04-01

    Accurate estimates of spatio-temporal resolved near-surface air temperature (Ta) are crucial for environmental epidemiological studies. However, values of Ta are conventionally obtained from weather stations, which have limited spatial coverage. Satellite surface temperature (Ts) measurements offer the possibility of local exposure estimates across large domains. The Southeastern United States has different climatic conditions, more small water bodies and wetlands, and greater humidity in contrast to other regions, which add to the challenge of modeling air temperature. In this study, we incorporated satellite Ts to estimate high resolution (1km×1km) daily Ta across the southeastern USA for 2000-2014. We calibrated Ts-Ta measurements using mixed linear models, land use, and separate slopes for each day. A high out-of-sample cross-validated R(2) of 0.952 indicated excellent model performance. When satellite Ts were unavailable, linear regression on nearby monitors and spatio-temporal smoothing was used to estimate Ta. The daily Ta estimations were compared to the NASA's Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) model. A good agreement with an R(2) of 0.969 and a mean squared prediction error (RMSPE) of 1.376°C was achieved. Our results demonstrate that Ta can be reliably predicted using this Ts-based prediction model, even in a large geographical area with topography and weather patterns varying considerably. PMID:26717080

  8. Black carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from vehicles in the United States-Mexico border region: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kerry; Wagner, David; Lighty, JoAnn; Quintero Núñez, Margarito; Vazquez, F Adrian; Collins, Kimberly; Barud-Zubillaga, Alberto

    2006-03-01

    The investigators developed a system to measure black carbon (BC) and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission factors during roadside sampling in four cities along the United States-Mexico border, Calexico/Mexicali and El Paso/Juarez. The measurement system included a photoacoustic analyzer for BC, a photoelectric aerosol sensor for particle-bound PAHs, and a carbon dioxide (CO2) analyzer. When a vehicle with measurable emissions passed the system probe, corresponding BC, PAH, and CO2 peaks were evident, and a fuel-based emission factor was estimated. A picture of each vehicle was also recorded with a digital camera. The advantage of this system, compared with other roadside methods, is the direct measurement of particulate matter components and limited interference from roadside dust. The study revealed some interesting trends: Mexican buses and all medium-duty trucks were more frequently identified as high emitters of BC and PAH than heavy-duty trucks or passenger vehicles. In addition, because of the high daily mileage of buses, they are good candidates for additional study. Mexican trucks and buses had higher average emission factors compared with U.S. trucks and buses, but the differences were not statistically significant. Few passenger vehicles had measurable BC and PAH emissions, although the highest emission factor came from an older model passenger vehicle licensed in Baja California. PMID:16573191

  9. Summary of three regional assessment studies of solar electric generation opportunities in the Southwest, Southeast, and Northeast United States

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, R.L.; Harty, H.

    1981-02-01

    Market opportunities for solar generation of electricity for utility and for residential/commercial/industrial applications in the Northeast, Southeast, and Southwest regions of the United States were evaluated in three studies (JBF 1979, Stone and Webster 1979a, 1979b) and are summarized. The evaluations were based on both economic analyses and user perception of what they would require to select or approve the use of solar electric generation for themselves or for their employers. Over 30 utilities and several industrial and commercial firms and homeowners were involved. Solar electric technologies considered included biomass, hybrid retrofit, OTEC, photovoltaic, solar thermal, and wind. The studies projected that solar electric technologies could account for several percent of the forecast generation in year 2000 in the Southeast and Southwest regions,and up to 10 to 20% in the Northeast region. No single solar electric technology or application (for utility or industrial/commercial/residential use) arrived earlier at economic breakeven than other technologies in the Southeast region, but wind generation for both utility and industrial applications predominated in the Northeast region. The Southwest region, in which only utility applications were considered, showed wind energy and retrofit hybrid (a solar adjunct to an existing fossil-fueled plant) to be the most likely early applications.

  10. Gambling and Substance Use: Co-occurrence among Adults in a Recent General Population Study in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Grace M.; Welte, John W.; Tidwell, Marie-Cecile O.; Hoffman, Joseph H.

    2014-01-01

    This study is an up-to-date examination of gambling behaviors as well as gambling problems and their relationships to substance use and abuse. Further, the co-occurrence between problem gambling and substance abuse is studied using a large-scale, representative sample of adults aged 18 years and older in the United States. This random-digit-dial national survey was carried out in 2011–2013 with completed interviews from 2,963 respondents. Of the four gambling and substance use behaviors considered, past year gambling was the most prevalent (76.9%), followed by alcohol use (67.6%), tobacco use (28.7%) and marijuana use (11.2%). Problem gambling and the three substance abuse measures were highly related. Current problem gambling (3+ DIS criteria) was predicted by being male, being black, having low socioeconomic status and by alcohol abuse/dependence, tobacco dependence, and marijuana abuse/dependence. Thus, problem gambling is linked to other problem behaviors, especially substance abuse. Consequently, effective treatment approaches should screen and intervene for both problem gambling as well as co-occurring substance abuse. PMID:25914605

  11. Potato production in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potatoes have been a staple in the American diet for almost 250 years. The United States is the world's fifth biggest producer, behind China, India, the Russian Federation, and the Ukraine. Potatoes in the United States are grown in nearly every state. Idaho produces approximately 1/3 of all potatoe...

  12. 7 CFR 1210.315 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.315 United States. United States means each of the several States and the District of Columbia. National Watermelon Promotion Board...

  13. 7 CFR 1210.315 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.315 United States. United States means each of the several States and the District of Columbia. National Watermelon Promotion Board...

  14. 7 CFR 1210.315 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.315 United States. United States means each of the several States and the District of Columbia. National Watermelon Promotion Board...

  15. 7 CFR 1210.315 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.315 United States. United States means each of the several States and the District of Columbia. National Watermelon Promotion Board...

  16. 7 CFR 1220.615 - State and United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... State and United States include the 50 States of the United States of America, the District of Columbia... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  17. Finisher hog production in the Southeastern United States: Ancillary measurements derived from the National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robarge, W. P.; Lee, S.; Walker, J. T.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of emissions of gases and fine particulate matter from swine animal feeding operations (AFOs) in the southeastern US have typically been confined to relatively short periods (days to several weeks) and have generally focused on waste lagoons. Access to swine animal housing units and other ancillary information has been limited. The National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS) provided a unique opportunity to characterize emissions from swine housing units for an extended period of time (~ 2 years), and allowed access to ancillary measurements regarding nutrient flows (feed amounts and composition), manure dynamics, animal inventories, water usage and farm management. Presented here is a summary of the observations made for a NAEMS finisher site (NC3B) selected as being representative of swine production in the southeastern US. Finisher hogs are raised in rotations (~ 140 days) with a target market weight of 123 kg/hog. Among the population during a rotation (700-800 hogs/barn) the actual growth rate varies with a series of “grade-outs” of market-weight hogs starting ~ 110 days from initial load-in. Derivation of the standing live-weight in the barns during a rotation therefore requires use of a growth model and summation over several different “populations” of hogs within a single barn. Up to 5 different feed formulations are fed during a rotation with %N content ranging from (3.4 to 2.2% N; total feed consumed 181,000 kg/barn). Across 4 complete rotations, N consumed was ~50 g N per hog/day. Of this amount, we estimate ~ 60% is excreted as fecal matter and urine. The TAN (NH3 + NH4+) content of the shallow pits is consistently higher (1880 ±390 mg TAN/L) than that found in the anaerobic lagoon (800 ±70 mg TAN/L), except immediately after recharge following pit-pull (pH of the two liquids was similar). The presence of a recalcitrant layer of sludge in the shallow pits (liquid height = 20 cm; sludge depth = 5-10 cm; TAN = 2500 mg N/L; total

  18. Clinical and Microbiological Characteristics of Fungal Keratitis in the United States, 2001–2007: A Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Keay, Lisa J.; Gower, Emily W.; Iovieno, Alfonso; Oechsler, Rafael A.; Alfonso, Eduardo C.; Matoba, Alice; Colby, Kathryn; Tuli, Sonal S.; Hammersmith, Kristin; Cavanagh, Dwight; Lee, Salena M.; Irvine, John; Stulting, R. Doyle; Mauger, Thomas F.; Schein, Oliver D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the epidemiology, clinical observations, and microbiologic characteristics of fungal keratitis at tertiary eye care centers in the United States. Design Retrospective multicenter case series. Participants Fungal keratitis cases presenting to participating tertiary eye care centers. Methods Charts were reviewed for all fungal keratitis cases confirmed by culture, histology, or confocal microscopy between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2007, at 11 tertiary clinical sites in the United States. Main Outcome Measures Frequency of potential predisposing factors and associations between these factors and fungal species. Results A total of 733 cases of fungal keratitis were identified. Most cases were confirmed by culture from corneal scraping (n = 693) or biopsies (n = 19); 16 cases were diagnosed by microscopic examination of corneal scraping alone; and 5 cases were diagnosed by confocal microscopy alone. Some 268 of 733 cases (37%) were associated with refractive contact lens wear, 180 of 733 cases (25%) were associated with ocular trauma, and 209 of 733 cases (29%) were associated with ocular surface disease. No predisposing factor was identified in 76 cases (10%). Filamentous fungi were identified in 141 of 180 ocular trauma cases (78%) and in 231 of 268 refractive contact lens-associated cases (86%). Yeast was the causative organism in 111 of 209 cases (53%) associated with ocular surface disease. Yeast accounted for few cases of fungal keratitis associated with refractive contact-lens wear (20 cases), therapeutic contact-lens wear (11 cases), or ocular trauma (21 cases). Surgical intervention was undertaken in 26% of cases and was most frequently performed for fungal keratitis associated with ocular surface disease (44%). Surgical intervention was more likely in cases associated with filamentous fungi (P = 0.03). Among contact lens wearers, delay in diagnosis of 2 or more weeks increased the likelihood of surgery (age-adjusted odds ratio = 2

  19. Self-esteem and academic achievement: a comparative study of adolescent students in England and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Margaret Zoller; Gerard, Jean M.

    2012-01-01

    Utilizing mixed methodology, this paper investigates the relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement for young adolescents within two Western cultural contexts: the United States and England. Quantitative and qualitative data from 86 North American and 86 British adolescents were utilized to examine the links between self-esteem and academic achievement from the beginning to the end of their academic year during their 11th–12th year of age. For both samples, quantitative results demonstrated that fall self-esteem was related to multiple indicators of later year academic achievement. While country differences emerge by the end of the year, math appears to have a consistent relationship with self-esteem in both country contexts. Qualitative analyses found some support for British students’ self-perceptions as more accurately reflecting their academic experience than the students from the United States. PMID:24068853

  20. 7 CFR 1206.23 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.23 United States....

  1. 7 CFR 1206.23 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.23 United States....

  2. 7 CFR 1206.23 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.23 United States....

  3. 7 CFR 1206.23 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.23 United States....

  4. 7 CFR 1205.313 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... United States of America. ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION...

  5. 7 CFR 1205.313 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... United States of America. ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION...

  6. 7 CFR 1205.313 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... United States of America. ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION...

  7. 7 CFR 1205.313 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... United States of America. ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION...

  8. Familias Fuertes: a feasibility study with Mexican immigrants living in low-income conditions in the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Orpinas, Pamela; Reidy, Mary Clare; Lacy, Mary Elizabeth; Kogan, Steven M; Londoño-McConnell, Angela; Powell, Gwynn

    2014-11-01

    Families Fuertes (FF) is a seven-session, family-centered program for supporting positive youth development of Latino children aged 10 to 14 years. The Pan American Health Organization adapted it from the Strengthening Families Program for Parents and Youth for Spanish-speaking countries. The suitability of FF for recent immigrants to the United States is, however, unknown. This feasibility study assessed the appropriateness of FF with 12 low-income Mexican immigrant families residing in Georgia. Participants, a community liaison, and program staff evaluated (a) recruitment, retention, and evaluation strategies; and (b) the acceptability and promise of the curriculum. Recruitment and retention were very high; feedback of evaluation strategies was uniformly positive. Participants perceived that the program improved family relationships and that family members changed for the better. We detail practical and cultural adaptations to enhance the potential effectiveness of the program for this population. A version adapted to address acculturation-related stressors would increase the potential public health impact. PMID:24603505

  9. Late Pleistocene C4 plant dominance and summer rainfall in the southwestern United States from isotopic study of herbivore teeth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connin, S.L.; Betancourt, J.; Quade, Jay

    1998-01-01

    Patterns of climate and C4 plant abundance in the southwestern United States during the last glaciation were evaluated from isotopic study of herbivore tooth enamel. Enamel ??13C values revealed a substantial eastward increase in C4 plant consumption for Mammuthus spp., Bison spp., Equus spp., and Camelops spp. The ??13C values were greatest in Bison spp. (-6.9 to + 1.7???) and Mammuthus spp. (-9.0 to +0.3???), and in some locales indicated C4-dominated grazing. The ??13C values of Antilocaprids were lowest among taxa (-12.5 to -7.9???) and indicated C3 feeding at all sites. On the basis of modern correlations between climate and C4 grass abundance, the enamel data imply significant summer rain in parts of southern Arizona and New Mexico throughout the last glaciation. Enamel ??18O values range from +19.0 to +31.0??? and generally increase to the east. This pattern could point to a tropical or subtropical source of summer rainfall. At a synoptic scale, the isotope data indicate that interactions of seasonal moisture, temperature, and lowered atmospheric pCO2 determined glacial-age C4 abundance patterns.

  10. Does Moralization Motivate Smokers to Quit? A Longitudinal Study of Representative Samples of Smokers in the United States and Denmark

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Moralization refers to the gradual cultural and personal process by which objects or activities move from being morally neutral to morally contemptuous. Research suggests important cross-cultural differences in how smokers react to being targets of moralization. However, research has not examined whether smokers who agree with moralized sentiments about smoking are more willing to quit or reduce their smoking. Additionally, the mediating role of perceived personal risk has not been examined. Methods: In this study, representative samples of smokers in Denmark (a smoking lenient country; N = 429) and the United States (a smoking prohibitive country; N = 431) completed surveys 6 months apart. Results: As expected, Danish smokers (compared to U.S. smokers) moralized less and estimated that their personal risk of lung cancer was smaller. Furthermore, moralization at T1 predicted an increase in perceived personal risk at T2 (for Danish smokers and marginally for U.S. smokers), a decrease in smoking behaviors (for Danish smokers only), and an increase in quitting intentions (marginally for Danish smokers only). For Danish smokers, perceived personal risk mediated the relationship between moralization and quitting intentions. Conclusions: Moralization predicted an increase in perceived personal risk, an increase in quitting intentions, and a reduction in smoking behaviors, especially for the Danish sample. Future research should examine the effects of moralization in different cultural contexts. PMID:24907242

  11. Ozone production in urban plumes transported over water: Photochemical model and case studies in the northeastern and midwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sillman, Sanford; Samson, Perry J.; Masters, Jeffrey M.

    1993-07-01

    Abnormally high concentrations of O3 have been observed in rural locations on the shore of Lake Michigan and on the Atlantic coast in Maine, at a distance of 300 km or more from major anthropogenic sources. We hypothesize that this O3 is associated with transport from major urban centers and with the suppression of vertical mixing as urban plumes are transported over water. A dynamical/photochemical model is developed that represents formation of O3 in shoreline environments and is used to simulate case studies for Lake Michigan and the northeastern United States. Results suggest that a broad region with elevated O3, NOx and volatile organic carbon (VOC) forms as the Chicago plume travels over Lake Michigan, a pattern consistent with observed O3 at surface monitoring sites. Near-total suppression of dry deposition of O3 and NOx over the lake is needed to produce high O3. Results for the east coast suggest that the observed peak O3 can only be reproduced by a model that includes suppressed vertical mixing and deposition over water, 2-day transport of a plume from New York, and superposition of the New York and Boston plumes. An investigation of the sensitivity of O3 to emissions of NOx and VOC suggests that results vary greatly between cities, even when the composition of urban emissions is similar. An index for VOC versus NOx sensitivity is shown to correlate with total reactive nitrogen (NOy) at the time of peak O3.

  12. Renewable Electricity Futures for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, Trieu; Hand, Maureen; Baldwin, Sam F.; Wiser , Ryan; Brinkman, G.; Denholm, Paul; Arent, Doug; Porro, Gian; Sandor, Debra; Hostick, Donna J.; Milligan, Michael; DeMeo, Ed; Bazilian, Morgan

    2014-04-14

    This paper highlights the key results from the Renewable Electricity (RE) Futures Study. It is a detailed consideration of renewable electricity in the United States. The paper focuses on technical issues related to the operability of the U. S. electricity grid and provides initial answers to important questions about the integration of high penetrations of renewable electricity technologies from a national perspective. The results indicate that the future U. S. electricity system that is largely powered by renewable sources is possible and the further work is warranted to investigate this clean generation pathway. The central conclusion of the analysis is that renewable electricity generation from technologies that are commercially available today, in combination with a more flexible electric system, is more than adequate to supply 80% of the total U. S. electricity generation in 2050 while meeting electricity demand on an hourly basis in every region of the United States.

  13. United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries

    SciTech Connect

    Kathren, R.

    1993-02-28

    The United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries are unique human tissue research programs studying the distribution, dose, and possible biological effects of the actinide elements in man, with the primary goal of assuring the adequacy of radiation protection standards for these radionuclides. The Registries research is based on radiochemical analysis of tissues collected at autopsy from voluntary donors who have documented occupational exposure to the actinides. To date, tissues, or in some cases radioanalytical results only, have been obtained from approximately 300 individuals; another 464 living individuals have volunteered to participate in the Registries research programs and have signed premortem informed consent and autopsy permissions. The Registries originated at the National Plutonium Registry which was started in 1968 as a then Atomic Energy Commission project under the aegis of a prime contractor at the Hanford site. In 1970, the name was changed to the United States Transuranium Registry to reflect a broader involvement with the higher actinides. In 1978, an administratively separate parallel registry, the United States Uranium Registry, was formed to carry out similar studies among uranium fuel cycle workers.

  14. Adoption of intensive care unit telemedicine in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Jeremy M.; Cicero, Brandon D.; Wallace, David J.; Iwashyna, Theodore J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Intensive care unit (ICU) telemedicine is a novel approach for providing critical care services from a distance. We sought to study the extent of use and patterns of adoption of this technology in United States ICUs. Design Retrospective study combining a systematic listing of ICU telemedicine installations with hospital characteristic data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. We examined adoption over time and compared hospital characteristics between facilities that have adopted ICU telemedicine and those that have not. Setting United States hospitals from 2003 to 2010. Measurements and main results The number of hospitals using ICU telemedicine increased from 16 (0.4% of total) to 213 (4.6% of total) between 2003 and 2010. The number of ICU beds covered by telemedicine increased from 598 (0.9% of total) to 5,799 (7.9% of total). The average annual rate of ICU bed coverage growth was 101% per year in the first four study years but slowed to 8.1% per year over the last four study years (p<0.001 for difference in linear trend). Compared to non-adopting hospitals, hospitals adopting ICU telemedicine were more likely to be large (percentage with >400 beds: 11.1% vs. 3.7%, p<0.001), teaching (percentage with resident coverage: 31.4% vs. 21.9%, p=0.003) and urban (percentage located in metropolitan statistical areas with over one million residents: 45.3% vs. 30.1%, p<0.001). Conclusions ICU telemedicine adoption was initially rapid but recently slowed. Efforts are needed to uncover the barriers to future growth, particularly regarding the optimal strategy for using this technology most effectively and efficiently. PMID:24145839

  15. Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Change in Prevalence of Obesity and Diabetes in the United States: An Ecological Study

    PubMed Central

    Zheutlin, Alexander R.; Adar, Sara D.; Park, Sung Kyun

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that increasing levels of the greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO2), may influence weight gain and thus may play a role in rising trends in obesity and diabetes. We conducted an ecological study to examine the associations between CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and changes in the prevalence of obesity and diabetes in the United States. County-level data on CO2 emissions, prevalence of obesity and diagnosed diabetes, other sociodemographic factors and neighborhood characteristics related to urbanicity, and fine particles (PM2.5) between 2004 and 2008 were obtained from the Vulcan Project, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and American Community Survey. Linear mixed effect modeling of 3019 counties for the associations between average CO2 emissions and changes in diabetes and obesity prevalence between 2004 and 2008 was performed. The average obesity and diabetes prevalence increased between 2004 and 2008 by 3.65% (SD: 1.88%) and 1.65% (SD: 1.70%), respectively. A marginally significant positive association between CO2 emission and changes in obesity prevalence was found with adjustment for sociodemographic factors, indicators of urbanicity and spatial autocorrelation (p-trend=0.06). The association became weaker and nonsignificant with further adjustment for PM2.5 (p-trend=0.17). There was a significant positive association between CO2 emission and changes in diabetes prevalence before controlling for PM2.5 (p-trend=0.05) but the association became null after controlling for PM2.5 (p-trend=0.49), suggesting PM2.5 is a critical confounder in the association between CO2 emission and changes in diabetes prevalence. This study does not support the hypothesis that CO2 emissions, a leading driver of climate change, may be linked to increasing trends in obesity and diabetes, though there was an indication of possible link between CO2 and obesity. PMID:25108606

  16. Social Studies Resource Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bemiss, Clair W.

    Based on the premise that fundamental solutions to environmental problems must include social solutions, these three resource units are designed to study the interrelation of man and nature as part of the social studies curriculum. A series of inquiry questions are posed with the intent of stimulating students to find solutions to our…

  17. 7 CFR 1250.308 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... States of the United States of America and the District of Columbia. ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION...

  18. 7 CFR 1250.308 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... States of the United States of America and the District of Columbia. ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION...

  19. 7 CFR 1205.23 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the 50 states of the United States of America. Procedures ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND...

  20. 7 CFR 1250.308 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... States of the United States of America and the District of Columbia. ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION...

  1. 7 CFR 1205.23 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the 50 states of the United States of America. Procedures ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND...

  2. 7 CFR 1205.23 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the 50 states of the United States of America. Procedures ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND...

  3. 7 CFR 1250.308 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... States of the United States of America and the District of Columbia. ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION...

  4. 7 CFR 1205.23 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the 50 states of the United States of America. Procedures ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND...

  5. Learning on Demand: Online Education in the United States, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, I. Elaine; Seaman, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    "Learning on Demand: Online Education in the United States, 2009" represents the seventh annual report on the state of online learning among higher education institutions in the United States. The study is aimed at answering some of the fundamental questions about the nature and extent of online education. Based on responses from over 2,500…

  6. Algal and Invertebrate Community Composition along Agricultural Gradients: A Comparative Study from Two Regions of the Eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calhoun, Daniel L.; Gregory, M. Brian; Weyers, Holly S.

    2008-01-01

    Benthic algal and invertebrate communities in two Coastal Plain regions of the Eastern United States?the Delmarva Peninsula (27 sites) and Georgia Upper Coastal Plain (29 sites)?were assessed to determine if aspects of agricultural land use and nutrient conditions (dissolved and whole-water nitrogen and phosphorus) could be linked to biological community compositions. Extensive effort was made to compile land-use data describing the basin and riparian conditions at multiple scales to determine if scale played a role in these relations. Large differences in nutrient condition were found between the two study areas, wherein on average, the Delmarva sites had three times the total phosphorus and total nitrogen as did the sites in the Georgia Upper Coastal Plain. A statistical approach was undertaken that included multivariate correlations between Bray-Curtis similarity matrices of the biological communities and Euclidean similarity matrices of instream nutrients and land-use categories. Invertebrate assemblage composition was most associated with land use near the sampled reach, and algal diatom assemblage composition was most associated with land use farther from the streams and into the watersheds. Link tree analyses were conducted to isolate portions of nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordinations of community compositions that could be explained by break points in abiotic datasets. Invertebrate communities were better defined by factors such as agricultural land use near streams and geographic position. Algal communities were better defined by agricultural land use at the basin scale and instream nutrient chemistry. Algal autecological indices were more correlated with gradients of nutrient condition than were typically employed invertebrate metrics and may hold more promise in indicating nutrient impairment in these regions. Nutrient conditions in the respective study areas are compared to draft nutrient criteria established by the U.S. Environmental Protection

  7. Protecting the Civil Rights of English Language Learners Today: A Study of the Recent DOJ and OCR Investigations of Selected School Districts in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyeleye, Omobola Awosika

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the circumstances and practices that led to OCR and DOJ investigations in seven selected school districts, and to determine the emerging themes from the details of the settlement agreements between the school districts and the United States. The themes developed through this study were aimed at providing a…

  8. A Pilot Study for Validating a Questionnaire on Perceptions of Barriers to Upward Mobility by Women Administrators in International Schools in Mexico and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Barbara T.

    This pilot study was conducted with a sample of 25 female administrators. Fourteen of the participants are employed in Alabama public schools, while seven work in international schools in the United States, and the remaining four are administrators in international schools in Mexico. The international schools in the study are listed in the "ISS…

  9. Correspondence Instruction in the United States; A Study of What It Is, How It Functions, and What Its Potential May Be.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Ossian; And Others

    Intended as a definitive study of correspondence study in the United States, this book covers its historical development, current practices, quality, fundamental characteristics, and present and possible roles in American education. Types of sponsors (the armed forces, the U.S. Armed Forces Institute, Federal government, private home study…

  10. Investigating the Academic Motivations and Social Experiences of Students from the People's Republic of China Pursuing Graduate Degrees in the United States of America: A Participatory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Brad Demetrius

    2010-01-01

    There is limited research addressing how graduate students from the People's Republic of China (PRC) are supported academically or socially while studying in the United States of America (U.S.). The purpose of this study was to address this gap in the literature by utilizing a participatory action research model in order to collaborate with…

  11. Violence in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Sumner, Steven A.; Mercy, James A.; Dahlberg, Linda L.; Hillis, Susan D.; Klevens, Joanne; Houry, Debra

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Interpersonal violence, which includes child abuse and neglect, youth violence, intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and elder abuse, affects millions of US residents each year. However, surveillance systems, programs, and policies to address violence often lack broad, cross-sector collaboration, and there is limited awareness of effective strategies to prevent violence. OBJECTIVES To describe the burden of interpersonal violence in the United States, explore challenges to violence prevention efforts and to identify prevention opportunities. DATA SOURCES We reviewed data from health and law enforcement surveillance systems including the National Vital Statistics System, the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Uniform Crime Reports, the US Justice Department’s National Crime Victimization Survey, the National Survey of Children’s Exposure to Violence, the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System, the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, and the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System—All Injury Program. RESULTS Homicide rates have decreased from a peak of 10.7 per 100 000 persons in 1980 to 5.1 per 100 000 in 2013. Aggravated assault rates have decreased from a peak of 442 per 100 000 in 1992 to 242 per 100 000 in 2012. Nevertheless, annually, there are more than 16 000 homicides and 1.6 million nonfatal assault injuries requiring treatment in emergency departments. More than 12 million adults experience intimate partner violence annually and more than 10 million children younger than 18 years experience some form of maltreatment from a caregiver, ranging from neglect to sexual abuse, but only a small percentage of these violent incidents are reported to law enforcement, health care clinicians, or child protective agencies. Moreover, exposure to violence increases vulnerability to a broad range of mental and physical health problems over the life course; for example

  12. Nations United: The United Nations, the United States, and the Global Campaign Against Terrorism. A Curriculum Unit & Video for Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houlihan, Christina; McLeod, Shannon

    This curriculum unit and 1-hour videotape are designed to help students understand the purpose and functions of the United Nations (UN) and explore the relationship between the United Nations and the United States. The UN's role in the global counterterrorism campaign serves as a case study for the unit. The students are asked to develop a basic…

  13. STATE SOIL GEOGRAPHIC (STATSGO) DATA BASE FOR THECOTERNIMOUS UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    USSOILS is an Arc 7.0 coverage containing hydrology-relevant information for 10,498 map units covering the entire conterminous United States. The coverage was compiled from individual State coverages contained in the October 1994 State Soil Geographic (STATSGO) Data Base produce...

  14. Student perception about working in rural United States/Canada after graduation: a study in an offshore Caribbean medical school

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, P Ravi; Dubey, Arun K; Nandy, Atanu; Herz, Burton L; Little, Brian W

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Rural residents of the United States (US) and Canada face problems in accessing healthcare. International medical graduates (IMGs) play an important role in delivering rural healthcare. IMGs from Caribbean medical schools have the highest proportion of physicians in primary care.  Xavier University School of Medicines admits students from the US, Canada and other countries to the undergraduate medical (MD) course and also offers a premedical program. The present study was conducted to obtain student perception about working in rural US/Canada after graduation.   Methods: The study was conducted among premedical and preclinical undergraduate medical (MD) students during October 2014. The questionnaire used was modified from a previous study. Semester of study, gender, nationality, place of residence and occupation of parents were noted. Information about whether students plan to work in rural US/Canada after graduation, possible reasons why doctors are reluctant to work in rural areas, how the government can encourage rural practice, possible problems respondents anticipate while working in rural areas were among the topics studied. Results: Ninety nine of the 108 students (91.7%) participated. Forty respondents were in favor of working in rural US/Canada after graduation. Respondents mentioned good housing, regular electricity, water supply, telecommunication facilities, and schools for education of children as important conditions to be fulfilled. The government should provide higher salaries to rural doctors, help with loan repayment, and provide opportunities for professional growth.  Potential problems mentioned were difficulty in being accepted by the rural community, problems in convincing patients to follow medical advice, lack of exposure to rural life among the respondents, and cultural issues. Conclusions: About 40% of respondents would consider working in rural US/Canada. Conditions required to be fulfilled have been mentioned above

  15. Medical Licensing Examinations in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melnick, Donald E.; Dillon, Gerard F.; Swanson, David B.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses examination requirements for medical licensure in the United States, focusing on the exam components related to assessment of hands-on clinical skills with patients and assessment of medical decision-making skills. Provides a brief history of medical licensing exams, describes the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE), and…

  16. 76 FR 18783 - United States et al.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... Antitrust Division United States et al. v. Dean Foods Company; Proposed Final Judgment, Stipulation and... of America, et al. v. Dean Foods Company, Civil Action No. 2:10-cv-00059 (JPS). On January 22, 2010, the United States and its co-plaintiffs filed a Complaint alleging that Dean Foods...

  17. Update: Fusarium Keratitis - United States, 2005 - 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report describes the results of a Fusarium keratitis outbreak investigation being conducted by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The epidemiological data indicate that the 2005-2006 outbreaks of corneal infections within the United States are linked to the use of on...

  18. 31 CFR 562.309 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false United States. 562.309 Section 562.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 562.309 United States. The...

  19. 31 CFR 562.309 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false United States. 562.309 Section 562.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 562.309 United States. The...

  20. Major land uses in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marschner, Francis J.; Anderson, James R.

    1967-01-01

    This is a polygon coverage of major land uses in the United States. The source of the coverage is the map of major land uses in the National Atlas, pages 158-159, which was adapted from U.S. Department of Agriculture, "Major Land Uses in the United States," by Francis J. Marschner, revised by James R. Anderson, 1967.

  1. Snapshot: Diabetes in the United States

    MedlinePlus

    A SNAPSHOT DIABETES IN THE UNITED STATES DIABETES 29.1 MILLION 29.1 million people have diabetes That's about 1 out of every 11 people 1 4 ... estimates of diabetes and its burden in the United States, 2014. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health ...

  2. 7 CFR 1280.127 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1280.127 Section 1280.127 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.127 United States....

  3. State and Local Law Enforcement Training Needs in the United States. Volume II: Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Bureau of Investigation, Quantico, VA.

    In response to a request by the United States Department of Justice, the Institutional Research and Development Unit, Training Division, of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, undertook a long-term comprehensive analysis of state and local law enforcement training needs throughout the United States. A study was developed to: (1) determine the…

  4. State and Local Law Enforcement Training Needs in the United States. Volume I: Executive Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Bureau of Investigation, Quantico, VA.

    In response to a request by the United States Department of Justice, the Institutional Research and Development Unit, Training Division, of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, undertook a long-term comprehensive analysis of state and local law enforcement training needs throughout the United States. A study was developed to: (1) determine the…

  5. 75 FR 34156 - United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... Terrace, London, W2 6LG, United Kingdom, and Alcan Corporation, 8770 West Bryn Mawr Avenue, Chicago, IL...''), Rio Tinto plc (``Rio Tinto''), and Alcan Corporation to enjoin Amcor's proposed acquisition from Rio... sales totaled approximately $44 billion. Rio Tinto acquired Alcan Corporation in 2007. 6....

  6. Latino College Completion: United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  7. Everglades Environmental Study Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Office of Environment Education.

    These environmental study units consist of four modules and a tape-slide presentation on the Everglades National Park. Although not required for completion of the modules, the slide-tape presentation provides a resource for orientation of teachers and parents to camping experience for school children in an environmental education program. The four…

  8. Leading Causes of Death in Females United States

    MedlinePlus

    ... by Age Group- United States, 2013 Asian or Pacific Islander Females by Age Group- United States, 2013 ... by Age Group- United States, 2011 Asian or Pacific Islander Females by Age Group- United States, 2011 ...

  9. 76 FR 38460 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office UNITED STATES SENTENCING COMMISSION Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts AGENCY: United States Sentencing Commission. ACTION... the Practitioners Advisory Group are expiring as of October 2011, the United States...

  10. 75 FR 54705 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office UNITED STATES SENTENCING COMMISSION Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts AGENCY: United States Sentencing Commission. ACTION... the Practitioners Advisory Group are expiring as of October 2010, the United States...

  11. 77 FR 31071 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office UNITED STATES SENTENCING COMMISSION Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts AGENCY: United States Sentencing Commission. ACTION.... ADDRESSES: Send applications to: United States Sentencing Commission, One Columbus Circle NE., Suite...

  12. 78 FR 36641 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office UNITED STATES SENTENCING COMMISSION Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts AGENCY: United States Sentencing Commission. ACTION... the Practitioners Advisory Group are expiring as of October 2013, the United States...

  13. 77 FR 31070 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office UNITED STATES SENTENCING COMMISSION Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts AGENCY: United States Sentencing Commission. ACTION... the Practitioners Advisory Group are expiring as of October 2012, the United States...

  14. Intranets and Extranets at State Libraries in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolt, Nancy M.

    This paper is an analysis of Intranets and Extranets at selected state libraries in the United States. The paper does not review World Wide Web sites designed for use by the general public; rather, it focuses on Web sites designed and delivered by the state library to a targeted audience, typically state government employees, state library…

  15. Incorporating induced seismicity in the 2014 United States National Seismic Hazard Model: results of the 2014 workshop and sensitivity studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, Mark D.; Mueller, Charles S.; Moschetti, Morgan P.; Hoover, Susan M.; Rubinstein, Justin L.; Llenos, Andrea L.; Michael, Andrew J.; Ellsworth, William L.; McGarr, Arthur F.; Holland, Austin A.; Anderson, John G.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey National Seismic Hazard Model for the conterminous United States was updated in 2014 to account for new methods, input models, and data necessary for assessing the seismic ground shaking hazard from natural (tectonic) earthquakes. The U.S. Geological Survey National Seismic Hazard Model project uses probabilistic seismic hazard analysis to quantify the rate of exceedance for earthquake ground shaking (ground motion). For the 2014 National Seismic Hazard Model assessment, the seismic hazard from potentially induced earthquakes was intentionally not considered because we had not determined how to properly treat these earthquakes for the seismic hazard analysis. The phrases “potentially induced” and “induced” are used interchangeably in this report, however it is acknowledged that this classification is based on circumstantial evidence and scientific judgment. For the 2014 National Seismic Hazard Model update, the potentially induced earthquakes were removed from the NSHM’s earthquake catalog, and the documentation states that we would consider alternative models for including induced seismicity in a future version of the National Seismic Hazard Model. As part of the process of incorporating induced seismicity into the seismic hazard model, we evaluate the sensitivity of the seismic hazard from induced seismicity to five parts of the hazard model: (1) the earthquake catalog, (2) earthquake rates, (3) earthquake locations, (4) earthquake Mmax (maximum magnitude), and (5) earthquake ground motions. We describe alternative input models for each of the five parts that represent differences in scientific opinions on induced seismicity characteristics. In this report, however, we do not weight these input models to come up with a preferred final model. Instead, we present a sensitivity study showing uniform seismic hazard maps obtained by applying the alternative input models for induced seismicity. The final model will be released after

  16. Mercury study report to Congress. Volume 2. An inventory of anthropogenic mercury emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, M.H.

    1997-12-01

    This volume describes mercury emissions from anthropogenic sources in the United States. The anthropogenic emissions summary estimates national mercury emissions rates by source category for area and point sources including combustion, manufacturing and miscellaneous point sources. Combustion point sources that dominate anthropogenic emissions are medical waste incineration, municipal waste combustion, utility boilers, and commercial/industrial boilers. National emission estimates are based on data from a 1994-1995 time-frame. Sources of uncertainty and variability in these emissions categories are described in this volume. Data needed to improve these estimates are described in this volume.

  17. Taxation of United States general aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobieralski, Joseph Bernard

    General aviation in the United States has been an important part of the economy and American life. General aviation is defined as all flying excluding military and scheduled airline operations, and is utilized in many areas of our society. The majority of aircraft operations and airports in the United States are categorized as general aviation, and general aviation contributes more than one percent to the United States gross domestic product each year. Despite the many benefits of general aviation, the lead emissions from aviation gasoline consumption are of great concern. General aviation emits over half the lead emissions in the United States or over 630 tons in 2005. The other significant negative externality attributed to general aviation usage is aircraft accidents. General aviation accidents have caused over 8000 fatalities over the period 1994-2006. A recent Federal Aviation Administration proposed increase in the aviation gasoline tax from 19.4 to 70.1 cents per gallon has renewed interest in better understanding the implications of such a tax increase as well as the possible optimal rate of taxation. Few studies have examined aviation fuel elasticities and all have failed to study general aviation fuel elasticities. Chapter one fills that gap and examines the elasticity of aviation gasoline consumption in United States general aviation. Utilizing aggregate time series and dynamic panel data, the price and income elasticities of demand are estimated. The price elasticity of demand for aviation gasoline is estimated to range from -0.093 to -0.185 in the short-run and from -0.132 to -0.303 in the long-run. These results prove to be similar in magnitude to automobile gasoline elasticities and therefore tax policies could more closely mirror those of automobile tax policies. The second chapter examines the costs associated with general aviation accidents. Given the large number of general aviation operations as well as the large number of fatalities and

  18. 7 CFR 1220.129 - State and United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.129 State and United...

  19. 7 CFR 1220.129 - State and United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.129 State and United...

  20. 7 CFR 1220.129 - State and United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.129 State and United...

  1. 7 CFR 1220.129 - State and United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.129 State and United...

  2. 7 CFR 1220.129 - State and United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.129 State and United...

  3. Volcano hazards program in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tilling, R.I.; Bailey, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Volcano monitoring and volcanic-hazards studies have received greatly increased attention in the United States in the past few years. Before 1980, the Volcanic Hazards Program was primarily focused on the active volcanoes of Kilauea and Mauna Loa, Hawaii, which have been monitored continuously since 1912 by the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. After the reawakening and catastrophic eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980, the program was substantially expanded as the government and general public became aware of the potential for eruptions and associated hazards within the conterminous United States. Integrated components of the expanded program include: volcanic-hazards assessment; volcano monitoring; fundamental research; and, in concert with federal, state, and local authorities, emergency-response planning. In 1980 the David A. Johnston Cascades Volcano Observatory was established in Vancouver, Washington, to systematically monitor the continuing activity of Mount St. Helens, and to acquire baseline data for monitoring the other, presently quiescent, but potentially dangerous Cascade volcanoes in the Pacific Northwest. Since June 1980, all of the eruptions of Mount St. Helens have been predicted successfully on the basis of seismic and geodetic monitoring. The largest volcanic eruptions, but the least probable statistically, that pose a threat to western conterminous United States are those from the large Pleistocene-Holocene volcanic systems, such as Long Valley caldera (California) and Yellowstone caldera (Wyoming), which are underlain by large magma chambers still potentially capable of producing catastrophic caldera-forming eruptions. In order to become better prepared for possible future hazards associated with such historically unpecedented events, detailed studies of these, and similar, large volcanic systems should be intensified to gain better insight into caldera-forming processes and to recognize, if possible, the precursors of caldera-forming eruptions

  4. EMAP WESTERN UNITED STATES LANDSCAPE CHARACTERIZATION NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DATA BROWSER

    EPA Science Inventory


    The United States Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) is conducting a pilot study in the western United States. This study will advance the science of ecological monitoring and demonstrate techniques for regional-scale asse...

  5. Six temperature and precipitation regimes of the contiguous United States between 1895 and 2010: a statistical inference study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Samuel S. P.; Wied, Olaf; Weithmann, Alexander; Regele, Tobias; Bailey, Barbara A.; Lawrimore, Jay H.

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes six different temporal climate regimes of the contiguous United States (CONUS) according to interdecadal variations of surface air temperature (SAT) and precipitation using the United States Historical Climatology Network (USHCN) monthly data (Tmax, Tmin, Tmean, and precipitation) from 1895 to 2010. Our analysis is based on the probability distribution, mean, standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis, Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test, and Welch's t test. The relevant statistical parameters are computed from gridded monthly SAT and precipitation data. SAT variations lead to classification of four regimes: 1895-1930 (cool), 1931-1960 (warm), 1961-1985 (cool), and 1986-2010 (warm), while precipitation variations lead to a classification of two regimes: 1895-1975 (dry) and 1976-2010 (wet). The KS test shows that any two regimes of the above six are statistically significantly different from each other due to clear shifts of the probability density functions. Extremes of SAT and precipitation identify the ten hottest, coldest, driest, and wettest years. Welch's t test is used to discern significant differences among these extremes. The spatial patterns of the six climate regimes and some years of extreme climate are analyzed. Although the recent two decades are the warmest among the other decades since 1895 and many hottest years measured by CONUS Tmin and Tmean are in these two decades, the hottest year according to the CONUS Tmax anomalies is 1934 (1.37 °C), which is very close to the second Tmax hottest year 2006 (1.35 °C).

  6. Six temperature and precipitation regimes of the contiguous United States between 1895 and 2010: a statistical inference study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Samuel S. P.; Wied, Olaf; Weithmann, Alexander; Regele, Tobias; Bailey, Barbara A.; Lawrimore, Jay H.

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes six different temporal climate regimes of the contiguous United States (CONUS) according to interdecadal variations of surface air temperature (SAT) and precipitation using the United States Historical Climatology Network (USHCN) monthly data (Tmax, Tmin, Tmean, and precipitation) from 1895 to 2010. Our analysis is based on the probability distribution, mean, standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis, Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test, and Welch's t test. The relevant statistical parameters are computed from gridded monthly SAT and precipitation data. SAT variations lead to classification of four regimes: 1895-1930 (cool), 1931-1960 (warm), 1961-1985 (cool), and 1986-2010 (warm), while precipitation variations lead to a classification of two regimes: 1895-1975 (dry) and 1976-2010 (wet). The KS test shows that any two regimes of the above six are statistically significantly different from each other due to clear shifts of the probability density functions. Extremes of SAT and precipitation identify the ten hottest, coldest, driest, and wettest years. Welch's t test is used to discern significant differences among these extremes. The spatial patterns of the six climate regimes and some years of extreme climate are analyzed. Although the recent two decades are the warmest among the other decades since 1895 and many hottest years measured by CONUS Tmin and Tmean are in these two decades, the hottest year according to the CONUS Tmax anomalies is 1934 (1.37 °C), which is very close to the second Tmax hottest year 2006 (1.35 °C).

  7. Surfing USA: How Internet Use Prior to and during Study Abroad Affects Chinese Students' Stress, Integration, and Cultural Learning While in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikal, Jude P.; Yang, Junhong; Lewis, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Campuses across the United States continue to welcome a record number of Chinese students coming in pursuit of both academic and cultural goals. Yet, high levels of acculturative stress coupled with difficulties integrating into life abroad jeopardize accomplishing these goals. In this study, we examine Chinese students' Internet use both prior to…

  8. A National Study of Spanish/English Bilingualism in Young Hispanic Children of the United States. Bilingual Education Paper Series, Vol. 4, No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Eugene E.; And Others

    Six hundred, 4-, 5-, and 6-year-old bilingual, rural, and urban children from southwestern, midwestern, eastern, and southern United States participated in a national study of Spanish/English bilingual development. Half of these children completed the English version of CIRCO (1980) sub-test 10-C, a productive language measure that requires…

  9. Australia: A Study of the Educational System of Australia and a Guide to the Academic Placement of Students in Educational Institutions of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldrich-Langen, Caroline

    The educational system of Australia is described, and placement recommendations concerning Australian students who want to study in the United States are presented. After describing preschool and primary education, secondary education in the following provinces/territories is considered: New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia,…

  10. SEASAT economic assessment. Volume 8: Ocean fishing case study. [economic benefits of SEASAT satellites to ocean fishing industries in the United States and Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The potential application of SEASAT data with regard to ocean fisheries is discussed. Tracking fish populations, indirect assistance in forecasting expected populations and assistance to fishing fleets in avoiding costs incurred due to adverse weather through improved ocean conditions forecasts were investigated. Case studies on fisheries in the United States and Canada are cited.

  11. A Study to Determine Differences in the Level of Perceived Preparedness in Teaching Algebra to Eighth Graders between Teachers in the United States and Teachers in Lebanon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khajarian, Seta

    2011-01-01

    Algebra is a branch in mathematics and taking Algebra in middle school is often a gateway to advanced courses in high school. The problem is that the United States and Lebanon had low scores in Algebra in the 2007 Trends in Mathematics and Sciences Study (TIMSS), an international assessment administered to 4th and 8th graders every 4 years. On the…

  12. Jordan: A Study of the Educational System of Jordan and a Guide to the Academic Placement of Students from Jordan in Educational Institutions of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Garland G.

    The educational system of Jordan is described, and placement recommendations concerning students who want to study in the United States are presented. After describing the setting and structure of Jordanian education, attention is directed to curricula and enrollments, undergraduate student admissions, higher education, and graduate education and…

  13. The Future of the Book. Part III. New Technologies in Book Distribution: The United States Experience. Studies on Books and Reading No. 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Sandra K.; Kranberg, Susan

    The third report from a comprehensive Unesco study, this document traces the history of the application of computer-based technology to the book distribution process in the United States and indicates functional areas currently showing the effects of using this technology. Ways in which computer use is altering book distribution management…

  14. Dose Estimation for a Study of Nuclear Workers in France, the United Kingdom and the United States of America: Methods for the International Nuclear Workers Study (INWORKS).

    PubMed

    Thierry-Chef, I; Richardson, D B; Daniels, R D; Gillies, M; Hamra, G B; Haylock, R; Kesminiene, A; Laurier, D; Leuraud, K; Moissonnier, M; O'Hagan, J; Schubauer-Berigan, M K; Cardis, E

    2015-06-01

    In the framework of the International Nuclear Workers Study conducted in France, the UK and the U.S. (INWORKS), updated and expanded methods were developed to convert recorded doses of ionizing radiation to estimates of organ doses or individual personal dose equivalent [H(p)(10)] for a total number of 308,297 workers, including 40,035 women. This approach accounts for differences in dosimeter response to predominant workplace energy and geometry of exposure and for the recently published ICRP report on dose coefficients for men and women separately. The overall mean annual individual personal dose equivalent, including zero doses, is 1.73 mSv [median = 0.42; interquartile range (IQR): 0.07, 1.59]. Associated individual organ doses were estimated. INWORKS includes workers who had potential for exposure to neutrons. Therefore, we analyzed neutron dosimetry data to identify workers potentially exposed to neutrons. We created a time-varying indicator for each worker, classifying them according to whether they had a positive recorded neutron dose and if so, whether their neutron dose ever exceeded 10% of their total external penetrating radiation dose. The number of workers flagged as being exposed to neutrons was 13% for the full cohort, with 15% of the cohort in France, 12% of the cohort in the UK and 14% in the U.S. We also used available information on in vivo and bioassay monitoring to identify workers with known depositions or suspected internal contaminations. As a result of this work, information is now available that will allow various types of sensitivity analyses. PMID:26010707

  15. Dose Estimation for a Study of Nuclear Workers in France, the United Kingdom and the United States of America: Methods for the International Nuclear Workers Study (INWORKS)

    PubMed Central

    Thierry-Chef, I.; Richardson, D. B.; Daniels, R. D.; Gillies, M.; Hamra, G. B.; Haylock, R.; Kesminiene, A.; Laurier, D.; Leuraud, K.; Moissonnier, M.; O'Hagan, J.; Schubauer-Berigan, M. K.; Cardis, E.

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of the International Nuclear Workers Study conducted in France, the UK and the U.S. (INWORKS), updated and expanded methods were developed to convert recorded doses of ionizing radiation to estimates of organ doses or individual personal dose equivalent [Hp(10)] for a total number of 308,297 workers, including 40,035 women. This approach accounts for differences in dosimeter response to predominant workplace energy and geometry of exposure and for the recently published ICRP report on dose coefficients for men and women separately. The overall mean annual individual personal dose equivalent, including zero doses, is 1.73 mSv [median = 0.42; interquartile range (IQR): 0.07, 1.59]. Associated individual organ doses were estimated. INWORKS includes workers who had potential for exposure to neutrons. Therefore, we analyzed neutron dosimetry data to identify workers potentially exposed to neutrons. We created a time-varying indicator for each worker, classifying them according to whether they had a positive recorded neutron dose and if so, whether their neutron dose ever exceeded 10% of their total external penetrating radiation dose. The number of workers flagged as being exposed to neutrons was 13% for the full cohort, with 15% of the cohort in France, 12% of the cohort in the UK and 14% in the U.S. We also used available information on in vivo and bioassay monitoring to identify workers with known depositions or suspected internal contaminations. As a result of this work, information is now available that will allow various types of sensitivity analyses. PMID:26010707

  16. A Preliminary Full Spectrum Magnetic Anomaly Database of the United States With Improved Long Wavelengths for Studying Continental Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravat, D.; Sabaka, T.; Elshayat, A.; Aref, A.; Elawadi, E.; Kucks, R.; Hill, P.; Phillips, J.; Finn, C.; Bouligand, C.; Blakely, R. J.

    2008-12-01

    Under an initiative started by Thomas G. Hildenbrand of the U. S. Geological Survey, we have improved the long-wavelength (50-2500 km) content of the regional magnetic anomaly compilation for the conterminous United States by utilizing a nearly homogeneous set of National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) magnetic surveys flown from 1975 to 1981. The surveys were flown in quadrangles of 2° of longitude by 1° of latitude with E-W flight-lines spaced 4.8 to 9.6 km, N-S tie-lines variably spaced, and a nominal terrain clearance of 122 m. Many of the surveys used base-station magnetometers to remove external field variations. NURE surveys were originally processed with IGRF core-field models, which left behind non- uniform residual trends in the data and discontinuities at survey boundaries. In this study, in place of the IGRF/DGRF, we used a spatially and temporally continuous model of the magnetic field known as the Comprehensive Model (CM), which allowed us to avoid discontinuities at survey boundaries. The CM simultaneously models the core magnetic field and long-wavelength ionospheric and magnetospheric fields, along with their induced components in the earth. Because of the availability of base-stations for removing external fields, we removed only the core-derived geomagnetic field based on CM4 (spherical harmonic degree 13) for our compilation. The NURE data have short-wavelength (less than 30 km) noise due to cultural sources, base-station offsets, and residual external field effects. It is possible to reduce and even remove these defects by identifying and editing them and by applying leveling and micro-leveling. There are also many high resolution individual surveys over the U.S. which could be incorporated into the improved NURE database; however, this could take a few years. Therefore, we have created a preliminary full spectrum magnetic anomaly database by combining short-wavelength magnetic anomalies from the North American Magnetic Anomaly Map (NAMAM

  17. A Study of Curriculum Development and Reform in Residential Schools for the Blind in the United States: Three Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holiday, Jeremiah

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to understand curriculum development in residential schools for the blind after the enactment of NCLB and was guided by the research question, "How do residential schools for the blind and visually impaired develop their curriculum to meet the unique needs of students who are blind and visually impaired?" In the…

  18. Children's Home Environments in Great Britain and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Lori Ann; Parcel, Toby L.

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes the effects of human, social, and financial capital on children's home environments in the United States and Great Britain by comparing a sample of 5- to 13-year-old children from the United States with a similar sample from Britain. In both countries, the authors find weaker home environments for boys, minority children, and…

  19. Foreign Students and Scholars and the United States Tax System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David, II.

    1994-01-01

    During the 1992-93 school year more than 425,000 foreign students were studying in the United States. In addition, hundreds of foreign nationals were in the United States as visiting research scholars, lecturers, and professors. Offers a guide to help foreign nationals comply with the tax system while affording them the least possible tax…

  20. Engineering Colleges: The United States Compared to Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klus, John P.; Jones, Judy A.

    1981-01-01

    Reports results of a study comparing 15 engineering schools in the United States and abroad, focusing on undergraduate programs for the first degree beyond secondary education. For the United States, only programs leading to the B.S. in engineering were considered. (CS)